NUMBER 11 APRIL 1989
NUMBER 11 APRIL 1989
IN THIS ISSUE: DUGONGS THE FIRST MARINE MAMMALS REPORTED
TO HAVE A LEK MATING SYSTEM (p. 1)
ANOTHER CAPTIVE MANATEE BIRTH IN MIAMI (p. 4)
New Discoveries at Shark Bay. A two-year field study of dugong biology, based aboard a
10-meter sailing catamaran, is producing interesting observations. Areas of emphasis are
dugong foraging and reproductive strategies, and the dugong-seagrass interaction in the
locality where dugong herds concentrate during the summer months. The latter study is being
carried out in collaboration with botanists from the University of Western Australia.
In the behavioral area, the study has revealed that dugongs may forage deliberately on
macroinvertebrates (an account is currently in press in National Geographic Research) and that
at Shark Bay, at least, dugongs make use of a lek mating system. Exceptionally favorable
conditions have enabled us to conduct long-term observations of known individuals
patrolling and defending (through displays and combat) mutually exclusive territories. We
have been able to assess the relative quality of territories on the basis of long-term occupancy and
frequency of interactions, and we have been able to record one 7-hour sequence of herding and
mating. We hope to extend and amplify these observations during the 1989 breeding season. -
Moreton Bay: Dugong Mating. Mating behavior was observed on several occasions
between October 27 and November 15, 1988 (spring). The general pattern is very similar to
what has been described for manatees, but is more intense and more violent.
Commencing about a month before the mating, dugongs started producing rather
spectacular explosive splashes. These were mostly isolated incidents involving only a couple
of dugongs. The frequency of splashes reached a peak when the mating behavior commenced,
suggesting that they may serve a display function.
The mating behavior tends to consist of three phases: following, fighting, and mounting.
During the "following" phase, up to 20 dugongs (presumably male) may pursue the female,
who attempts to outpace and outmaneuver her suitors, often turning sharply and thrashing. The
"following" precedes a bout of violent fighting, presumably as the attendant males compete for
mounting rights. The fighting lasted for 4-5 minutes in two groups and 15 minutes in a third.
NUMBER 11 APRIL 1989
During this time the water was turned to froth as up to 16 dugongs thrashed in a tight cluster,
generating explosive splashes, tail thrashes, and body lunges. The fighting then ceased abruptly
and as many as four males mounted the female dugong at once. Defying the laws of physics, the
males used their little flippers (much smaller and less maneuverable than those of manatees) to
cling to the female's expansive flanks. One male rolled upside-down and embraced the female
belly-to-belly also. The males twisted their tails under the female's in an attempt to engage her
genital slit. The dugongs remained in this configuration for over a minute before separating,
possibly due to my disturbance.
All this activity took place within the boundaries of the greater dugong herd, in an area that
was extensively used by the dugongs for the months preceding and following the matings. This
area is in the center of the principal area of dugong habitat in Moreton Bay, and has a more
diverse topography than most other areas, but it is otherwise unexceptional. Tony Preen
Moreton Bay: Satellite Tagging Update. As reported in Sirenews No. 10, six PTTs and
one VHF transmitter were deployed on dugongs in Moreton Bay in June 1988. Due to the
premature corrosion of the built-in corrodible link, most of the transmitters fell off
within the first six weeks. We have subsequently improved the corrodible link and field tests
suggest that the new link should last at least six months. However, we still have a problem in
keeping the PTTs attached to the dugongs, as outlined below. Fortunately, the PTTs keep on
transmitting after they come off and can be recovered and used again.
In October 1988 we caught and tagged five dugongs (four with PTTs, one with VHF) using
tethers with the new corrodible link. The PTTs stayed on for 23, 58, 61, and 89 days,
respectively. The VHF transmitter came off after about 80 days. Four of the five transmitters
had been attacked by sharks (as evidenced by the gashes and puncture marks, complete with
broken tips of sharks' teeth, on the transmitter housings). Three of the PTTs broke from the
tether at the built-in weak link, presumably as a result of the shark attacks. In the fourth PTT,
the stainless steel carabiner which attaches the transmitter to the tether apparently failed. An
unknown component of the peduncle harness gave way on the VHF transmitter.
We have subsequently strengthened the weak link from a static breaking strain of about
150 kg to 190 kg. In January 1989 we redeployed three of the PTTs on a juvenile male, a
juvenile female, and an adult female dugong. All three PTTs came off at between 51 and 69
days due to failure of the peduncle harness.
The PTT data, together with the data from regular (2-3 week intervals) aerial surveys,
suggest that the dugongs occupy very small home ranges of only a few square kilometers for
any given month or two months. Over a longer period it seems that the dugongs intensively
exploit a series of such small areas, so over the course of one year I expect their home range to
be quite large. However, the home range of the immature dugong tracked near Townsville for
16 months was only 7 sq. km.
Unlike the dugongs in the rest of Queensland and in most other areas where surveys have
been conducted, the dugongs in Moreton Bay most frequently occur in large herds of 50 to
NUMBER 11 APRIL 1989
350 animals. Why they should aggregate like this in Moreton Bay, but not elsewhere, is not
clear. It may be related to a possible patchiness of resources in Moreton Bay (which is the
southern limit of the dugong's range), although we have no evidence to support this suggestion.
The Moreton Bay dugongs show a distinct preference for areas of sparse to moderate
seagrass cover (usually dominated by Halophila ovalis and H. spinulosa) and an avoidance of
areas of dense seagrass (mostly Zostera capricorni). Tony Preen
Are Power Boats Bad For Dugongs? I have recently finished a four-year study aimed at
establishing an ecologically sound basis for dugong management in the Great Barrier Reef
Marine Park. Coincident with my finishing the dugong surveys, maps became available on
the location and size of the seagrass beds within the Park, allowing me to explore the
relationship between dugong numbers and area of seagrass at 24 sites where the area of seagrass
was greater than 10 sq. km. Overall, the number of dugongs in an area is highly correlated
with the area of seagrass (rank correlation = 0.85). However, there are some interesting
anomalies to this overall pattern. I was particularly interested in the areas which had an
unusually low density of dugongs per area of seagrass. The only common feature of these areas
is that they have high boat traffic. There is little evidence that significant numbers of
dugongs collide with power boats, but Aboriginal hunters always claim that such boats scare
dugongs away from an area. The high number of dugongs in Moreton Bay near the major city of
Brisbane has always been used to counter this claim, but the dugongs of Moreton Bay actually
occur in areas of low boat traffic. It was also interesting to find that seagrass beds in the
southern, more heavily used parts of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park tend to have a lower
density of dugongs than beds of comparable size in the more remote northern regions, even
though it is in these remoter regions that Aboriginal hunting occurs. So far the evidence that
boat traffic per se degrades the value of an area as dugong habitat is purely correlative, but
I have suggested that some of the dugong areas in the remoter parts of the Park should be
set aside as "wilderness areas" to protect dugongs from the noise pollution caused by power
boats. Helene Marsh
Public Education Package Available. A public education package on dugongs has been
developed for the peoples of Torres Strait by Dana Ober and Brydget Hudson for the
Australian Fisheries Service. The kit includes a poster, video and a teacher's guide. Copies
can be obtained by writing to Peter Channells, Australian Fisheries Service, Post Office
Thursday Island, 4875 Australia.
New Captive Birth in Miami. Juliet, a Florida manatee long resident at the Miami
Seaquarium, has produced her sixth calf, according to a report in the Bradenton [Florida] Herald
for April 12, 1989. The new calf, a female named Aurora that weighed about 50 pounds, was
NUMBER 11 APRIL 1989
born shortly before midnight on March 13. The birth was videotaped by Dr. Dale Woodyard of
the University of Windsor, Ontario.
Juliet and her mate Romeo have been captives in Miami since 1957. Their first offspring,
named Lorelei, was born in 1975 and now lives at Walt Disney's Epcot Center in Orlando; she
has had at least one calf of her own. Two later calves of Romeo and Juliet, named Alexandra
and Brutus, were accidentally drowned by getting stuck in a tank drain. Of their two other
calves, Hurricane is now at Homosassa Springs Park, and only Buffett, who is less than two years
old, remains at Miami with his parents.
New Report on Manatee Habitat. As part of its continuing efforts to assist the West Indian
manatee recovery program in the southeastern United States, the U.S. Marine Mammal
Commission has prepared a detailed report entitled "Habitat Protection Needs for West Indian
Manatees on the East Coast of Florida and Georgia." Completed in December 1988, the 107-
page report assesses information on the status of the East Coast manatee population and
recommends actions to improve protection of the species and its habitat in that area. The report
concludes that manatees on the east coast of Florida and Georgia constitute a discrete
population numbering perhaps 700 to 900 animals. Based on carcass salvage data and assuming
the above population estimate, recent annual mortality rates of between 8% and 10% are
indicated for the East Coast population. In 1987, 27 animals were killed on the East Coast as a
result of collisions with boats, representing perhaps 3% to 4% of the population, and this threat
appears to be increasing. Collisions with boats and destruction of essential habitat are
identified as the principal threats to the population.
In its report, the Commission recommends actions to: quadruple the size of the system of
boat speed regulatory zones on the east coast of Florida; limit development in essential
manatee habitats; acquire additional manatee habitat as additions to Federal and State
refuges and reserves; monitor foreseeable changes in warm-water discharges at power plants
and other industries used by manatees as winter refuges; investigate restoration of a manatee
travel corridor at the Kennedy Space Center; and assess opportunities to enhance manatee
habitat. The report has been provided to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Florida
Department of Natural Resources, and other Federal and State agencies to solicit their help
in implementing recommended actions.
A limited number of copies are available at no cost on a first-come, first-served basis by
writing to Mrs. Eileen Shoemaker at the Marine Mammal Commission, 1625 1 Street, N.W.,
Room 307, Washington, D.C. 20006. David W. Laist
Call to Save the Endangered "Sea Pig". The district forest officer of Ramanathapuram in
southern India, Mr. Balakathiresan, has held several public meetings to protest against the
illegal killing of dugongs in the Palk Bay Gulf of Mannar region in southern India. Pamphlets
NUMBER 11 APRIL 1989
in the Tamil language which explain the legal situation concerning dugongs have been
circulated in the coastal villages. Speedy action is also being taken to declare the Gulf of
Mannar Marine National Park. Helene Marsh
Notes on Dugongs of East-Central Madagascar. While looking for marine mammals in the
coastal waters of Madagascar in September, 1987, I came across a small population of
dugongs at the southern reefs of Ile Sainte-Marie. Information about the group is sparse, but
what we could find is mentioned here.
The Malagasy name for the dugong is lambondano (also lamboaran), which means "wild
pig of the coral."
Evidently, the group winters in the inner reaches of Antongil Bay and and migrates to Ile-
Sainte-Marie in September, staving until about February. A small fishery in Maroantsetra and
around Nosy Mangabe hunts dugongs. They are also killed incidentally in nets. The
fishermen have done serious damage to the dugong population in recent years.
We learned of one fady (taboo) regarding dugongs. In the northern area, it is a fady for
women to stay around the catch if a dugong is accidentally caught in a net.
At Ile Sainte-Marie, dugongs allow snorkeling tourists to swim with them. However, the
population is also hunted by the local fishermen. One dugong was killed the day before we
arrived. The fishermen do not understand why some people want to protect dugongs.
Eric Perez, a conservation-minded divemaster at Centre Nautique near the Sonambo
"Hotel," is concerned about the future of the dugongs. He has asked me to send him all the
conservation information on dugongs that I could find. I extend the invitation to Sirenews
readers. His address is: Eric Perez, Centre Nautique, B.P. 8, (515) Ile Sainte-Marie, Madagascar.
A professor at Lycee Malagache has photographed the dugongs and may be a good source for
additional information. His address is: Michel Surcek, B.P. 239, Anstirabe, Madagascar.
From Eric's recollections, the group once numbered over 40 individuals and lived among the
coral reefs of Ile aux Nattes, a small island at the southern end of Ile Sainte-Marie. Reports
occurred sporadically along the western coast of Ile Sainte-Marie and extended as far north as
Ambodifotatra. Dugongs may have appeared in the extensive barrier reef on the eastern coast
of the island. However, the reef is exposed to the Indian Ocean and subject to serious annual
storms. Hammerhead sharks in the area keep eastern reef diving excursions to a minimum.
In recent years the arrival of the dugongs at Ile Sainte-Marie has occurred later in the
season, and no more than six individuals are seen at a time. Eric and others living on Ile
Sainte-Marie are quite concerned about the future of the dugongs there and want to initiate a
conservation effort. I am corresponding with the Minister of Forests and Waters about the
dugongs and other matters relating to marine mammals. He has been very receptive to
suggestions and help. (Humpback whales use the Ile Sainte-Marie area as a preferred calving
area. One idea is to create a marine mammal sanctuary at Ile Sainte-Marie.)
NUMBER 11 APRIL 1989
Madagascar is a very poor country and the conservation of marine mammals has no priority
at this time. A small amount of money from the outside could support a Malagasy student to
monitor the situation and promote conservation. I have established a dedicated fund
through the non-profit Oceanic Society (acting as the fiscal agent of the fund) for the dugongs
of Madagascar. Contributions will be used to produce educational materials and equip/support a
local biologist. (Over US$3000 worth of materials has already been sent to Madagascar in
support of cetacean research and education.)
I will be returning to Madagascar in September, 1989. I can hand-deliver any information
and resources sent to me, or Sirenews readers can correspond directly with the people in
Madagascar. I am interested in learning about any results from those who correspond directly.
- Pieter A. Folkens (Oceanic Society E-225, Fort Mason Center, San Francisco, Calif. 94123-
Public Education in Veracruz. Jose Alberto Martinez Gracia reports that he and Antonio
Maruri, Director of the manatee project at the Universidad Veracruzana in Xalapa, have
been promoting manatee conservation in the villages of Veracruz. Despite legal protection,
manatees are still being killed in areas such as the Papaloapan River. The government has
assisted by airing radio spots and printing manatee-protection posters. Maruri and Martinez
have also been searching for new areas of manatee occurrence along their part of the Mexican
Sale of Dugong Meat. On March 2, 1989, an open letter was addressed to Philippine
national and local government officials by Dante Par Pasia, Executive Director of the Philippine
Aquatic and Marinelife Conservationists' Association Inc. (PAMALIFE). The letter dealt in part
with dugong conservation, and stated:
"The country's manatee or Dugong dugon is openly sold as fresh meat in Puerto Princesa
City [Palawan]. Tapa is also available. Some carinderias offer it as pulutan [canapes] which
goes well with cold beer, rhum or gin."
After citing the endangered status of sirenians in general, he continued: "I now therefore
raise the ... question, should we allow the killing and eating of the dugong? May we all now
address this question? PAMALIFE is willing to cooperate with government on this problem."
Sirenian Bibliography Update. Computerization of the sirenian bibliography has been
progressing satisfactorily during the past year, though not quite as quickly as hoped. As of mid-
NUMBER 11 APRIL 1989
April 1989, all of the author entries through the letter R have been transferred to the computer;
the remainder should be done by sometime this summer. Efforts are being made to obtain
funding from the Smithsonian Institution for computerization of the index and publication of the
entire work through the Smithsonian Press, possibly within as little as two years. DPD
The National Marine Educators Association has asked me to create an educational poster
commemorating their 1989 conference to be held in Miami. I would like to illustrate all
extant species of sirenians, plus those extinct species for which there is adequate information.
Anyone with useful information and photographs on the external morphology of these
animals is encouraged to send the information to me at the address below. Even bibliographies
would be helpful.
I feel I have adequate information on Hydrodamalis and Dusisiren, but my files need
photographs of the four living species. Any help here would be most appreciated.
NMEA is not paying me for the illustration, so I have no money to compensate contributors
for their efforts. However, I will send everyone who helps out a signed copy of the finished
poster plus a copy of last year's popular NMEA poster, Creatures of the Deep. Pieter A.
Folkens (Oceanic Society E-225, Fort Mason Center, San Francisco, Calif. 94123-1394 USA;
telephone (415) 775-6497; FAX (415) 474-3395)
DUGONG RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES IN THE INDIAN OCEAN
Project proposals are sought for a series of research voyages to be undertaken in the
western Indian Ocean, on board the sailing research vessel Gaia Quest 2, run by the Gaia Quest
Trust in association with the British Conservation Foundation. Gaia Quest 2 will be operating
in the coastal waters of East Africa, the Seychelles and Madagascar primarily, although other
areas within the Western Indian Ocean are also to be visited. The boat will follow a biannual
route, spending several months in each country.
Participants will be expected to make a financial contribution towards boat costs, but it
is hoped to keep this to a minimum, and it may be possible to give some assistance in
Those interested should contact Richard Speir, through The Conservation Foundation,
Lowther Lodge, 1 Kensington Gore, London SW7 2AR, England; telephone 01 235 1743; Fax 01
NUMBER 11 APRIL 1989
MARINE SCIENCES WORKSHOP IN CUBA
The Second Congress on Marine Sciences will take place at the International Conference
Center, Havana, Cuba, on June 18-21, 1990. The Congress will be preceded by an International
Workshop on Lobster Ecology and Fisheries, June 12-16. The first such congress was held in
The scientific program of the Congress will comprise plenary sessions, lectures, round tables,
pre-congress courses, papers, and posters. The working languages will be Spanish and English.
The abstract deadline for contributed papers is March 1, 1990. For further details and
registration forms, write to the Organizing Committee, 2nd Congress on Marine Sciences,
Institute of Oceanology, Academy of Sciences of Cuba, Ira. No. 18406 e/184 y 186, Playa,
Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba. Telex: 511290. Phone: 21-0342 and 21-0306. Cable: OCEAN.
There are no plans for sessions devoted specifically to marine mammals; however, it is
anticipated that some Cuban biologists working on sirenians and other marine mammals will
make presentations. Participants and accompanying persons will also enjoy a cultural, social,
and tourist program during their stay in Cuba.
SIRENIANS ON STAMPS
Edgardo D. Gomez, a marine biologist and stamp collector, has compiled a surprising list of
some four dozen postage stamp issues to date that have featured sirenians about twice as many
as your editor was aware of. We have not been able to verify all of these in available catalogs;
Dr. Gomez and I request our readers to supply any missing entries and make any necessary
corrections. I will eventually include an updated list as an appendix in my forthcoming
sirenian bibliography. Dr. Gomez would be glad to communicate with others interested in
marine life topicals, and possibly exchange stamps. He would also appreciate receiving
sirenian literature, especially on dugongs. His address: Dr. Edgardo D. Gomez,
Director, Marine Science Institute, College of Science, University of the Philippines, U.P.P.
0. Box 1, Diliman, Quezon City 1101, Philippines.
I would also encourage readers in countries NOT on the following list to urge their
governments to issue stamps featuring sirenians. It is one more way to raise public
consciousness of sirenians and their endangered status. Remember, tens of millions of people
will see, use, and collect those stamps especially children.
COUNTRY YEAR OF ISSUE CATALOG NUMBER DENOMINATION
NUMBER 11 APRIL 1989
Guyana 1977 253 8 c
1978 267 8c
Jamaica 1982 525 60 c
Mexico 1988 -- 300 p
Netherlands 1988 B639 65+35 c
Panama 1984 670 3 c (B/0.03)
Cameroon 1962 366 8 fr
371 30 fr
Ghana 1977 624 60p
625d-ss 80 p
Ivory Coast 1964 218 5 fr
Niger 1962 107 50 c
108 10 fr
Togo 1977 C320 200 fr
NUMBER 11 APRIL 1989
Afars and Issas 1973
Kenya 1977 93 5 sh
93a-ss 5 sh
Mozambique 1986 -- 1 mt
Palau 1984 22 2 d
1986 103? 14 c
Papua New Guinea 1980 525 7 t
Ryukyus 1966 142 3 c
Sri Lanka 1983 659 2r
Tanzania 1977 86 5 sh
86a-ss 5 sh
Uganda 1977 180 5 sh
(ss = souvenir sheet)
We know of no issues so far depicting Hydrodamalis or other extinct sirenians or
desmostylians. There are at least two coins that depict manatees: a silver 100-colones piece
issued by Costa Rica in 1974 (KM 201, 201a in Krause and Mishler's Standard Catalog of
World Coins), and a bronze 1-cent piece issued by Guyana, 1976-80 (KM 37). DPD
The reproductive anatomy of the female manatee Trichechus manatus latirostris (Linnaeus
1758) based on gross and histologic observations (Miriam Marmontel). Information on
reproductive anatomy was obtained from 65 specimens (39 mature, 26 immature) of female
manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris). The female reproductive tract is composed of
ovaries, oviducts, uterus, vagina and external genitalia. The internal organs have the same basic
structure: an inner mucosal lining, a wall of smooth muscle and an outer layer of loose
connective tissue. The mucosal and muscular components vary according to their location
and functional requirements. The whole tract undergoes cyclical changes under the influence
of ovarian hormones released during the ovarian cycle.
The external genitalia lie in close proximity to the anus and are lined by stratified
NUMBER 11 APRIL 1989
squamous epithelium with a thick keratinized layer. The clitoris is a conspicuous structure,
composed of a corpus cavernosum containing an elaborate network of nerves and vessels. The
urogenital canal is long in the young. The mucosa of the vestibule is thrown into shallow
longitudinal folds and shows a marked line of transition to the dark pigmented ectoderm. The
urethral aperture is usually a median slit, the margins of which are slightly everted. The
vaginal orifice is also a median cleft, larger than the urethral. In nulliparous animals the hymen
may be perforated by two openings separated by a median fleshy band. As development
proceeds, obstruction is reduced, and in mature females there is a single central opening.
The internal organs are supported by a broad ligament including a mesovarium for the
ovary, mesosalpinx for the oviduct and a mesometrium for the uterus. The folds of the vagina
are usually longitudinal but at times may become transversal. Folds tend to disappear in older
specimens or those that have borne a calf. Differing from the mammalian pattern, the
vaginal epithelium is tall, columnar, and mucus-secreting. The uterus is bicornuate with one
cervix. The small uterine body is divided by a septum, and two long uterine horns taper
cranially into a coiled Fallopian tube. Ovaries are relatively smooth in the young but become
more irregular in surface as follicles start maturing and corpora lutea and corpora albicantia
concentrate in the stroma.
The manatee is a polyovular species, and large numbers of accessory corpora lutea are
formed by luteinization of unruptured follicles during pregnancy. Corpora count is not reliable
to assess the number of previous pregnancies due to the variable number of corpora
albicantia associated with pregnancy. Macroscopic similarity between corpora albicantia
and corpora atretica impose an extra difficulty. The classification of mature females was based
on the gross aspect and size of the uterus, presence of placental scars in the horns and state of
development of the uterine glands, presence of corpora lutea and occurrence of lactation. Based
on these criteria sexual maturity is assumed to occur at approximately 270 cm. Given the slow
maturation of the young, the uniparity and long calving interval, reproductive potential is
considered low. [Abstract of a master's thesis in Biology and Living Resources submitted to
the University of Miami, Florida, in December 1988 and supervised by Daniel K. Odell.]
The following abstracts are of papers presented at the annual meeting of the Society for
Neuroscience, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Nov. 13-18, 1988.
NUMBER 11 APRIL 1989
Anderson, G.R.V. 1985. Perceptions of plenty: approaches to the management of migratory
and non-migratory species subject to traditional subsistence hunting. In: F. Gray & L.
Zann (eds.), Traditional knowledge of the marine environment in northern Australia.
Proceedings of a workshop held in Townsville, Australia, 29 and 30 July 1985. Great
Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority & Commonwealth Dept. of Primary Industry,
Workshop Series No. 8: 176-188.
Baldwin, C. 1985. Management of dugong: an endangered marine food species of traditional
significance. In: F. Gray & L. Zann (eds.) [cited in Anderson, 1985, above]: 134-148.
Baugh, T.M., J.A. Valade, and B.J. Zoodsma. 1989. Manatee use of Spartina alterniflora in
Cumberland Sound. Mar. Mamm. Sci. 5(1): 88-90.
NUMBER 11 APRIL 1989
Beeler, I.E., and T.J. O'Shea. 1988. Distribution and mortality of the West Indian manatee
(Trichechus manatus) in the southeastern United States: a compilation and review of
recent information. National Technical Information Service document no. PB 88-207980/AS:
2 vols., 613 pp.
Bradley, J.J. 1985. The concurrence of knowledge and tradition in the hunting of dugongs
and sea turtles in the Sir Edward Pellew Islands. In: F. Gray & L. Zann (eds.) [cited in
Anderson, 1985, above: 99.
Colmenero R., L. del C. 1988? El manati del Caribe: una especie amenazada en Quintana
Roo. Privately published? 24 pp.
Davis, S. 1985. Aboriginal tenure of the sea in northern Arnhem Land. In: F. Gray & L. Zann
(eds.) [cited in Anderson, 1985, above: 68.
Dickey, B. 1988. For manatees, KSC is paradise found. Spaceport News (John F. Kennedy
Space Center) 27(7): 4-5.
Domning, D.P. 1988. Fossil Sirenia of the West Atlantic and Caribbean region. I.
Metaxytherium floridanum Hay, 1922. Jour. Vertebrate Paleontology 8(4): 395-426.
Fischer, M.S. 1988. Zur Anatomie des Geho"rorganes der Seekuh (Trichechus manatus
L.), (Mammalia: Sirenia). Zs. Sa"ugetierk. 53: 365-379.
Fitzgerald, C. 1988. On the trail of the West African manatee. Topic (U.S. Information
Agency) No. 178: 58-61.
Kris, E. 1987. Hunt for dugong. Priority Country Area Program, G. K. Bolton, Cairns,
Australia: 25 pp.
Marsh, H. 1985. The dugong problem. In: F. Gray & L. Zann (eds.) [cited in Anderson, 1985,
Marsh, H. 1989. Mass stranding of dugongs by a tropical cyclone in northern Australia. Mar.
Mamm. Sci. 5(1): 78-84.
Marsh, H. 1989. Biological basis for managing dugongs in the Great Barrier Reef Marine
Park. Final report in 5 volumes to the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, P.O. Box
1379. Townsville 4810. Australia.
NUMBER 11 APRIL 1989
Phillips, R.C., and E.G. Men-ez. 1988. Seagrasses. Smithsonian Contribs. Mar. Scis. 34: 1-
Prince, R.I.T. 1985. Traditional knowledge of the marine environment, fisheries, and
conservation of marine wildlife Western Australian perspective. In: F. Gray & L. Zann
(eds.) [cited in Anderson, 1985, above]: 116-120.
Qiu Y.-x. 1988. [Some morphological data on the newborn manatee.] Chinese Jour. Zool. 23
(4): 37-38, 40. [In Chinese.]
Rayner, S. 1987. Dugongs. Oxford University Press, Melbourne: 30 pp.
Saito, T., J.A. Barron, and M. Sakamoto. 1988. An early Late Oligocene age indicated
by diatoms for a primitive desmostylian mammal Behemotops from eastern Hokkaido,
Japan. Proc. Japan Acad., Ser. B, 64(9): 269-273.
Smith, A.J. 1985. The usage of marine resources by the people of the Hopevale Aboriginal
community on the east coast of Cape York Peninsula: preliminary results. In: F. Gray & L.
Zann (eds.) [cited in Anderson, 1985, above]: 54-67.
Smith, A.J. 1989. An ethnobiological study of the usage of marine resources by two
Aboriginal communities on the east coast of Cape York Peninsula, Australia. Unpublished
Ph.D. thesis, James Cook University of North Queensland, Townsville 4811, Australia:
Upton, S.J., D.K. Odell, G.D. Bossart, and M.T. Walsh. 1989. Description of the oocysts
of two new species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the Florida
manatee, Trichechus manatus (Sirenia: Trichechidae). Jour. Protozool. 36(1): 87-90.
U.S. Marine Mammal Commission. 1988. Habitat protection needs for West Indian
manatees on the east coast of Florida and Georgia. 107 pp. [See news item in this issue.]
CHANGES OF ADDRESS
Dr. David Blair, Zoology Dept., James Cook University, Townsville, Qld. 4811,
AUSTRALIA (telephone (077) 81 4111; TELEX AA 47009; FAX 6177 796371)
Dr. J. H. Bruggemann, KARPATA Ecological Centre, P.O. Box 368, Bonaire,
NUMBER 11 APRIL 1989
Luz del Carmen Colmenero R., Apdo. Postal 663, Cancun, Quintana Roo, MEXICO
Terry Corcoran, Gulf Coast Research Laboratory, P.O. Box 7000, Ocean Springs, Miss.
Dr. Sidney Holt, International League for the Protection of Cetaceans, PODERE IL
FALCO, Loc. Acquaioli, 06062 Citta della Pieve (PG), ITALY
Stephen Leatherwood, Hubbs Marine Research Center, 1700 South Shores Road, San
Diego, Calif. 92109 USA
Mary Anne Leslie, 120 W. Queens St., Edenton, N.C. 27932-1838 USA
Dr. Daniel K. Odell, Sea World Research, 7007 Sea World Drive, Orlando, Fla. 32821 USA
James A. Powell, Jr., Biological Coordinator, Korup Forest Research Project, P.O. Box
303, Buea, CAMEROON
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