Title: Sirenews
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00099157/00010
 Material Information
Title: Sirenews newsletter of the IUCNSSC Sirenia Specialist Group
Alternate Title: Siren news
Physical Description: v. : ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources -- Sirenia Specialist Group
International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources -- Sirenia Specialist Group
Publisher: IUCN/SSC Sirenia Specialist Group
Place of Publication: Washington D.C
Washington D.C
Publication Date: October 1988
Frequency: two no. a year[apr. 1984-]
Subject: Sirenia -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Marine mammals -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Additional Physical Form: Also issued via the World Wide Web.
Dates or Sequential Designation: No. 1 (Apr. 1984)-
Issuing Body: Supported 1984-Apr. 1992 by the Species Survival Commission of IUCN, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission; Oct. 1992 by the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission & U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Apr. 1993-Oct. 1994 by the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission; <Oct. 1995>- by the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission and Sea World, Inc.
General Note: Title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: No. 48 (Oct. 2007).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00099157
Volume ID: VID00010
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 35841617
lccn - 2009208704
issn - 1017-3439


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We are pleased to announce that the subscription policy outlined in the last issue will not,
for the time being at least, have to be implemented. The U.S. Marine Mammal Commission
has generously offered to support publication of the next three issues of this newsletter. The
Sirenia Specialist Group expresses its appreciation to the Commission and its Executive
Director, John Twiss, for this timely assistance. We also thank the IUCN Species Survival
Commission for its steady support over the last five years, which made possible the creation of
Sirenews as well as several other Specialist Group newsletters. Both organizations have done
and continue to do a great deal on behalf of the world's all-too-numerous endangered species.
However, we emphasize to our readers that the announced policy regarding our mailing
list will be implemented. If you
wish to continue receiving Sirenews, say so in a postcard or letter addressed to D. Domning
at the address on the previous page, prior to APRIL 1, 1989. Those individuals who do not
respond by that date will be dropped from the list. NOTE: Libraries currently receiving
Sirenews will continue to do so automatically and need not reply.
Several readers were so eager to come to our aid that they sent payments in response to the
notice in the last newsletter even some from outside the U.S. who would not have been
required to pay at all. We sincerely appreciate their support, and herewith return their checks
with our thanks. DPD


In hopes of rendering your communications with us and each other more efficient, we
hereby announce that Sirenews can be reached via telephone facsimile transmission. We are also
willing to publish your own FAX numbers if you wish to send them to Sirenews, for the
benefit of those who may wish to send documents to you by this means. Those FAX numbers


and addresses available at press time are as follows:

Sirenews Dr. Helene Marsh
c/o Dr. Daryl Domning Zoology Department
Dept. of Anatomy James Cook University
Howard University Townsville, Qld., Australia
Washington, D.C. (in Australia) (077) 79 6371
202-636-5960 (international calls) 61 77 79 6371


The IUCN held its triennial General Assembly in Costa Rica in February of this year. As
stated in the IUCN statutes, all appointments to the IUCN network including the Species
Survival Commission are automatically dissolved at the time of each General Assembly. The
Chairman of the Species Survival Commission wrote to me in June inviting me to continue as
Chairman of the Sirenia Specialist Group, and to advise him of any suggested changes to the
membership of this group. Dr. Rod Salm advised me that he did not wish to continue being a
member of the group as he now has no professional contact with sirenians there are none in
Oman. Thanks, Rod, for your interest in and support of the Sirenia Specialist Group.
I have advised Dr. Lucas of Dr. Salm's resignation, and given him the names of other
people who have been suggested as group members. The members of the reconvened group
will be formally contacted by Gren Lucas in due course.
The Sirenia Specialist Group is an extremely scattered group, the members of which keep
in contact mainly through this newsletter. It is, therefore, important that as many of you as
possible provide copy for every issue.
Quite a good number of sirenian researchers managed to meet at the last International
Theriological Congress in Edmonton in 1985 on the occasion of the first Sirenia Workshop. The
next ITC is in Rome in August 1989, and once again this conference will be used as the
occasion for a meeting of as many IUCN Specialist Group Chairmen as possible. If a
significant number of Sirenia Group members are planning to attend, we could also use it for a
meeting of our Group.
I am wondering, however, if this is the most appropriate venue for such a meeting. It may
be better to plan to meet at the Eighth Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals
in Asilomar, California in December 1989. What do you think? I would like to hear from as many
of you as possible about this. Would it be timely to have another Sirenia workshop either
immediately before or after this meeting? We need to make a decision soon as members will
need to generate travel funds. Helene Marsh



Luis S. Varona

La Habana, Cuba


Satellite Tagging Update. Six PTTs and one VHF transmitter were deployed on dugongs in
Moreton Bay near Brisbane in June. We had extraordinary luck with the weather and hoop-
netted and tagged seven dugongs in three days. The animals comprised three cows with
attendant calves, an adult-sized female without a calf, an adult male, an immature male, and an
immature female.
Unfortunately, we had yet more problems with the transmitters staying on. We had
replaced a nylon fitting in the tailstock belt with stainless steel, which altered the properties of the
corrodible link so that it corroded much more rapidly than previously. Four of the PTTs came off
after only one month; the best stayed on for only 10 weeks. We have now tested yet another
arrangement and plan to catch more animals in early October to redeploy the transmitters.
We did, however, gain some important information on dugong movements and habitat usage
at this southern limit of the range in eastern Australia. In winter at this latitude, dugongs make
the 20-km journey from their feeding grounds out into the warm eastern Australian current
several times each week to escape temperatures of as low as 16.5 degrees C.
This information is particularly relevant to the boundaries of a proposed marine park in this
area and to the future of a proposed oil pipeline. We also obtained detailed information on the
dugongs' use of their feeding grounds; they tended to favor areas of amazingly sparse
seagrasses of delicate species such as Halophila. Helene Marsh and Tony Preen

Are Dugongs Rare and Endangered in Australia? As we have not confirmed whether any
dugong population is increasing, decreasing, or stable, I do not know the answer to the
second half of this question. However, the dugong population estimates obtained using
standardized techniques certainly indicate that there are substantially more dugongs in
Australian waters than previously supposed. This is very encouraging, as I consider all these
estimates to be conservative because of the conservative correction factor used to compensate
for the number of dugongs which are not visible due to water turbidity.
We are now in a position to integrate the results of several surveys. Peter Bayliss estimates
that there are 13,800 dugongs along the northern coast of the Northern Territory, and 16,800


along the western coast of the Gulf of Carpentaria. I estimate that there are about 12,500
dugongs in Torres Strait and a further 12,000 in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. We
have recently surveyed the remainder of the east coast of Queensland south of the GBRMP. The
data are not yet analyzed, but the survey indicated that Hervey Bay is the best dugong area in
Queensland south of Cape York. Still to be surveyed are the Queensland coast of the Gulf of
Carpentaria, and the coast of Western Australia including Shark Bay. Helene Marsh

_Dugongs by Royal Appointment. During their visit to the Great Barrier Reef Wonderland
Aquarium in Townsville on October 4th, the Duke and Duchess of York were presented with a
stuffed toy dugong for their baby daughter. "She'll love it", said the Duchess. Helene Marsh


Manatee Killing in Lake Tefe'. The upper Brazilian Amazon has experienced this year one
of the driest years in at least three decades. The lowest water level, which occurred between 15
and 30 September, reached at least 1-2 meters below the average low water level. This variation
in water level (amounting to some 14 meters over the course of the year) has exposed much of
the aquatic fauna of the upper Amazon. Great numbers of the endangered fish Arapaima
gigas, as well as many other fish species, were killed in the shallow varzea (floodplain) lakes
in the area. The turtles (Podocnemis unifilis and P. sextuberculata) were trapped by the mud,
making them an easy prey for fishermen. Caimans were also exposed to fishermen, but were
not hunted because the abundance of fish in other areas of Amazonia at this season made their
price low and unprofitable (in Brazilian Amazonia caimans are only hunted for their meat, not
for their skins as in other areas of South America).
The most problematic situation, however, was that of the manatees (Trichechus inunguis),
whose populations are known to be very low in Amazonia. With the abnormal decrease in the
water level of Lake Tefe', the manatee population in this lake probably had to move to larger
water bodies such as the Amazon, perhaps in search of food, and had to pass through a very
narrow and shallow channel in front of the city of Tefe', where fishermen waited for their prey.
During the three days we were in Tefe' (23-25 September), at least eight manatees were
killed in this way. The only IBDF [Brazilian Institute for Forestry Development, the agency
responsible for manatee protection] agent in Tefe' couldn't do much, and police have been
requested from the Manaus office to enforce the law against killing manatees. As of now,
however [20 October], the water level has started to rise again. Jose' Ma'rcio Ayres (Museu
Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Bele'm, Brazil)

[EDITOR'S COMMENT: The manatee mortality described above has also presumably taken
place in other Amazonian lakes, judging by reports of similar events in past dry years. It is
quite possible that this season's slaughter might have amounted to several hundred manatees.
In this connection, Buddy Powell suggests the idea of seeking a source of emergency


funds to hire extra game wardens and defray other expenses of rescuing sirenians in similar
situations in the future. Obviously a rapid response on very short notice would be
required, and the logistical and administrative difficulties would be formidable. (In the case
of the Amazon, for example, teams of several men each, with nets and boats, would need to be
stationed at each of several major lakes for a period of several weeks or months.) But perhaps
this is something the Sirenia Specialist Group should consider. Please share your thoughts and
reactions with us.]


Marine Mammal Foundation Formed. Students and professionals in Guayaquil
interested in marine mammal science and conservation have established the Fundacion
Ecuatoriana para el Estudio de Mamiferos Marinos. The goals of the new organization are
to promote scientific study and conservation of whales, dolphins, and manatees and to help
develop awareness of marine mammal issues in Ecuador through educational activities. The
foundation's president, Ms. Mariuxi Prieto, can be contacted at FEMM, Casilla 6637,
Guayaquil, Ecuador. (From Newsletter of the Cetacean Specialist Group, No. 4, Aug. 1988.)


Mortality Update. The most significant threat to Florida's manatee population continues to
be an apparent increase in mortality. Despite a decade of educational programs, public
awareness campaigns, and law enforcement efforts, manatee mortality, particularly human-
caused mortality, appears to be on the rise. In 1987, there were 117 verified manatee deaths in
the southeastern United States, 48 of which were known to be human-related. Cause of death
was not determinable in 23 cases. Collisions with boats and barges continues to be the
greatest known cause; 39 manatees died from collisions in 1987, the highest yearly total
ever. In 1988, there have been 114 verified deaths through September; 38 of these were killed
by boats or barges.
Another mortality factor in Florida is crushing or drowning in flood gates or canal locks.
Mortality from this source had decreased in recent years as a result of changes made in the
operation of the flood gates. However, the operational changes apparently were not sufficient
in one case. A single flood gate in south Florida has been responsible for the deaths of seven
manatees since November 1987. Further operational modifications have been made at this gate
in hopes of alleviating the problem.
While the vast majority of human-related manatee deaths in Florida are accidental,
occasional poaching still occurs. An adult manatee was shot and butchered near Everglades
National Park in 1987, and the skinned hide of a subadult was found in the Little Manatee River
in September 1988.
Not all increases in mortality can be directly attributed to man. Perinatal mortality, which


comprises the deaths of all manatees less than 150 cm long that were not obviously killed by
human factors, also has been increasing. Through September there have been 28 of these
cases, approaching the record of 30 perinatal deaths in 1987. The cause of increases in this
category is unclear, but is being studied. R. Kipp Frohlich (Florida Dept. of Natural

New Document Available. A new report by John E. Reynolds, III and Casey J. Gluckman
entitled "Protection of West Indian Manatees (Trichechus manatus) in Florida" is now
available from the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission. The Commission contracted for the
report and provided terms of reference for the study to help chart the future direction of
manatee recovery efforts in Florida. Among other things, the report reviews progress since
1980 in developing the cooperative Federal-state-private manatee recovery program, assesses the
status of the program and the most critical issues, and recommends future research and
management priorities. The report was intended, in part, to help the Fish and Wildlife Service
with its current efforts to update the 1980 Recovery Plan for West Indian manatees (see next
The report underscores two critical, interrelated issues: protecting essential manatee
habitat and reducing collisions between manatees and boats. Specific recommendations are
made regarding: 1) future research needs; 2) steps to acquire and protect essential habitat; 3)
improving the extent to which decisions on permits for marinas and other developments in
manatee habitat consider manatee protection; 4) strengthening enforcement of manatee
protection laws; 5) continuing and expanding public education and awareness programs;
and 6) providing overall direction to cooperative federal/state/private manatee recovery
activities. The report is well organized and thorough, and provides perhaps the best overview
available of the manatee recovery program in Florida. The authors offer thoughtful advice on
what must be done to protect the species in that area. A limited number of copies are
available at no cost on a first come, first served basis, by writing to the Marine Mammal
Commission at 1625 I Street, N.W., Room 307, Washington, D.C. 20006 USA. David Laist

Revised Recovery Plan Nearing Completion. The current draft of the newly revised West
Indian (Florida) Manatee Recovery Plan will be released for public/technical/agency review on
or about November 1. When completed, it will constitute the official plan of action to be taken
by U.S. governmental and private entities in order to bring about the recovery of the species
from endangered status. This revision is the product of several months' work by a recently
reconstituted Recovery Team, which comprises 15 members under the chairmanship of
Glenn Carowan (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service). After comments are received from the
approximately 200 persons and agencies involved in this round of review, the plan will be
finalized and copies made available to the general public sometime next spring.
The original West Indian Manatee Recovery Plan was completed in 1980, and was
supplemented in 1982 by a more detailed Comprehensive Work Plan. A separate Recovery


Plan for the population of Antillean manatees in Puerto Rico was drawn up in 1986. The
present effort is designed to supersede the badly outdated 1980 and 1982 plans for the Florida
The revised Recovery Plan probably sets a new record for the number of governmental and
private agencies and organizations that cooperated in its creation. These include the U.S. Fish
and Wildlife Service; the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers; the Florida Departments of
Community Affairs, Environmental Regulation, and Natural Resources; the Georgia
Department of Natural Resources; the Florida Power and Light Company; the Marine
Industries Association; Sea World Enterprises, Inc.; the Sierra Club; and the Save the Manatee
Club. All these have played important parts in manatee conservation and in the current revision
of the plan; most recently, the heads of these agencies met with the Recovery Team in Orlando
on August 24. This broad involvement of diverse entities and interests has, indeed,
characterized the manatee recovery effort in Florida for many years and has accounted for
much of the success it has achieved.
The Recovery Team is very pleased with the current draft and feels that the final product
will be well received by all concerned. Glenn Carowan and DPD

Save The Manatee Club. We are buying a boat to be used by the Florida Department of
Natural Resources and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for the manatee tracking program. We
raised the money for a boat and trailer by asking our members to send us their green stamps.
We are hoping to collect these stamps and eventually buy a second boat. We are also trying to
raise over $25,000 for the Chassahowitzka National Wildlife Refuge for their manatee protection
and conservation efforts.
In the future, research proposals submitted to the Club for amounts over $10,000 must be
received no later than January 15 of each year if they are to be considered for the following
fiscal year. Proposals can be submitted throughout the year; however, funds may already have
been allocated. Judith Delaney Vallee

New Biologist Joins Manatee Program. Bruce B. Ackerman started work in September
at the Florida Marine Research Institute, Florida Department of Natural Resources, St.
Bruce recently completed his Ph.D. at the University of Idaho, where his dissertation
involved research on improving helicopter survey censuses for mule deer through the use of
observability correction factors and stratified sampling techniques. Before that, he
received his M.S. at Utah State University, where he studied mountain lion ecology and
energetic. He also has done research on habitat use by deer, elk, and moose in Idaho and
Montana, and ecology and food habits of wild boar in Tennessee.
Bruce will be doing research to improve manatee aerial surveys and population estimates.
Promising activities include coordinating a statewide winter aerial survey (the first since
1976), improving statistical aspects of aerial surveys in general, and developing better


correction factors for observability bias in aerial surveys. The goal is to improve manatee
population estimates and develop population models, and thus help in conservation of the
species. Florida Dept. of Natural Resources


Recommendations on Dugong Management. At the Symposium on Tropical Marine
Living Resources held at Cochin, India in January, a number of recommendations for marine
mammal management were accepted for further action. These were proposed in a paper by R.
S. Lal Mohan entitled "Research needs for the better management of dolphin and dugong
resources of India". The recommended actions that would affect dugongs included
augmentation of studies of marine mammals, stricter enforcement of protective legislation, and
establishment of a national marine mammal data center. (From Newsletter of the Cetacean
Specialist Group, No. 4, Aug. 1988.)


Dynamiting and Dredging in Quintana Roo. As a follow-up to our article in the last issue,
Luz Colmenero reports that the joint American-Mexican gravel mining project planned by
Vulcan Materials of Alabama has in fact begun. She states that "the quarrying will be carried
out on the coast itself', and that 2000 hectares of tropical dry forest will be cleared. A deep-
water port will also be dredged to ship the gravel to the U.S. These activities could have
significant impacts on manatee habitat.


West Indian Manatee Distribution and Status. Panama has more coastline bordering the
Caribbean than any other Central American country. Until last year, however, systematic
manatee distribution and status surveys including replicate overflights had not been conducted
along this part of the Central American coast. In 1987 the Fundacion de Parques Nacionales
y Medio Ambiente (Fundacion Pa.Na.M.A.) undertook such work with training and technical
advice provided by the Sirenia Project in Gainesville. The Fundacion is a unique consortium
of Panamanian environmental groups acting together to achieve common goals. To our
knowledge formal reports on the project are not yet available; the purpose of this account is
to acquaint readers of Sirenews with the study. The work in Panama was carried out by Luis
Mou Sue and David Chen Houlston under the direction of Camilo Grandi M. and Carol Lively
of the Fundacion Pa.Na.M.A.; we helped out with the planning and with some of the
extensive surveys.
Approximately 25 overflights of various areas were conducted on 2-4 days each month
beginning in May 1987. Special attention was given to replicating flights over rivers and


coastal waters of Bocas del Toro Province, with extensive surveys of nearly the entire
Caribbean coast and some of the Panama Canal made by a joint Fundacion Pa.Na.M.A.-
Sirenia Project team in October. Interview surveys and boat and ground reconnaissance trips
were also conducted. Small numbers of manatees were consistently observed in certain
rivers and lagoons of Bocas del Toro Province. Total numbers seen were low (averaging 1-2
per flight hour, including time over highly turbid water) but the proportion of calves (about 14%)
was consistent with or greater than that seen in other parts of the range of T. manatus, and
indicates the existence of a reproducing population in Bocas del Toro. No aerial sightings
were made elsewhere in coastal Panama, and interviews suggest that only occasional
wanderers may occur along the Caribbean coast outside of Bocas del Toro. Sighting reports
suggest the continued existence of an inestimable but small number of manatees in the
Panama Canal and Gatun Lake, but no evidence of manatees having ultimately reached the
Pacific was discovered (see Montgomery et al., 1982, Mammalia 46(2): 257-258, and Sirenews
No. 2, 1984).
Areas in Bocas del Toro where sightings were repeatedly made on replicate surveys were
centered around large rivers and associated lagoons where very little human settlement exists.
In Panama manatees seem to rely heavily on true grasses and freshwater macrophytes for
food. Sightings in marine habitats were rare. Occasional illegal hunting may still occur, but
did not seem to be widespread. Importantly, regulations intended for management of fisheries
prohibit gill-netting in these rivers, and the incidental take of manatees in nets commonly
noted in other countries was not reported. This may be a key to the persistence of the small
surviving population of manatees in Bocas del Toro Province. Habitat utilized there is
mostly undeveloped, but large increases in settlement are likely soon. Conservation plans
limiting development and hunting along lower reaches of rivers in Bocas del Toro, and
continued enforcement of net regulations, might allow this population to provide the nucleus
for future recolonization of other suitable habitat in Panama and adjacent countries. Tom
O'Shea and Bob Bonde


The following abstract is of a paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for
Neuroscience, New Orleans, Louisiana, Nov. 16-21, 1987.


The following abstract is of a paper presented at the III. Reunion de Trabajo de
Especialistas en Mamiferos Acuaticos de America del Sur, Montevideo, Uruguay, 25-30 July,
1988. It is here translated from the Portuguese.

Food Preferences of the Amazonian Manatee (Trichechus inunguis) in Captivity (I.G.
Colares). The manatee feeds on aquatic and semiaquatic plants. We studied the food
preferences of captive Amazonian manatees. Four males and three females, marked on their
heads with different colors, were used. They were offered 11 species of aquatic macrophytes, in
equal quantities (3 kg wet weight each), placed in individual containers. They were fed in the
morning and observed for 60 minutes each day for 16 days. The percentages of time (in minutes)
spent feeding on each species were: Paspalum repens, 28.56%; Phaseolus pilosus, 12.18%;
Echinochloa polystachya, 11.39%; Oryza grandiglumis, 9.93%; Pistia stratiotes, 9.17%;
Salvinia auriculata, 8.10%; Neptunia oleracea, 3.32%; Ludwigia helminthorriza, 3.32%;
Eichhornia crassipes, 3.07%; Utricularia foliosa, 1.45%; Scirpus cubensis, 0.54%. We observed
a marked preference for P. repens. Analyzed by sex, males preferred P. repens and females did
not show a clear preference. E. crassipes, cited by many authors as an occasional food of the
manatee in its natural environment, was not significantly preferred by captive animals.


Anonymous. 1988. Dugongs. Reef Note (Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority,
Townsville): 1-4.


Assis, M.F.L., R.C. Best, R.M.S. Barros, and Y. Yonenaga-Yassuda. 1988. Cytogenetic
study of Trichechus inunguis (Amazonian manatee). Rev. Brasil. Gen. 11(1): 41-50.

Beck, C., and D.J. Forrester. 1988. Helminths of the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus
latirostris, with a discussion and summary of the parasites of sirenians. Jour.
Parasitology 74(4): 628-637.

Dailey, M.D., W. Vogelbein, and D.J. Forrester. 1988. Moniligerum blairi, new genus new
species and Nudacotyle undicola, new species (Trematoda: Digenea) from the West Indian
manatee, Trichechus manatus L. Syst. Parasitol. 11(2): 159-163.

Doig, F., and S. Dyson. 1988. Satellite tracking: a new direction for research. Austral. Nat.
Hist. 22(10): 436-441.

Estes, J.A., and P.D. Steinberg. 1988. Predation, herbivory, and kelp evolution. Paleobiology
14(1): 19-36.

Flannery, T. 1988. Stuffed & pickled: treasures from the historic Australian Museum
mammal collection. Austral. Nat. Hist. 22(10): 458-462. [Calls attention to a partial
skeleton of Steller's sea cow which the Australian Museum obtained by exchange from
Sweden in the last century.]

Hilmy, A.M., N.A. El-Domiaty, and M. Said. 1979. Measurements of some physiological
parameters in the herbivorous dugong and the carnivorous common dolphin of the Red Sea.
Bull. Inst. Oceanogr. Fish. Cairo 6: 197-203.

Janis, C.M., and M. Fortelius. 1988. On the means whereby mammals achieve increased
functional durability of their dentitions, with special reference to limiting factors. Biol. Rev.
63: 197-230.

Johnson, J.I., W. Welker, and R.L. Reep. 1987. The motor nuclei of the cranial nerves in
manatees, Trichechus manatus. [Abstr.] Anat. Rec. 218: 68A.

Kuroki, S., C.D. Schteingart, L.R. Hagley, B.I. Cohen, E.H. Mosbach, S.S. Rossi, A.F.
Hofmann, N. Matoba, M. Une, T. Hoshita, and D.K. Odell. 1988. Bile salts of the West
Indian manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris: novel bile alcohol sulfates and absence of
bile acids. Jour. Lipid Research 29: 509-522.

Lan~r. 198. he ammaianherivor stmach co~artive anaomy funtio an

Lanaer- P. 1988. The mammalian herbivore stomach: COMDarative

anatomv- function and


evolution. Stuttgart & New York, Gustav Fischer: xvii + 557. [Price US$175.00! The
Sirenia are treated mainly on pp. 210-245, largely on the basis of original studies of T.

McClenaghan, L.R., Jr., and T.J. O'Shea. 1988. Genetic
manatee (Trichechus manatus). J. Mamm. 69(3): 481-488.

variability in the Florida

McKenna, M.C. 1987. Molecular and morphological analysis of high- level mammalian
interrelationships. In: C. Patterson (ed.), Molecules and morphology in evolution:
conflict or compromise? Cambridge Univ. Press: 55-93.

Marsh, H. 1988. An ecological basis for dugong conservation in Australia. In: M.L.
Augee (ed.), Marine mammals of Australasia: field biology and captive management.
Sydney, Royal Zool. Soc. of New South Wales: 9-21.

Moncharmont Zei, M., and U. Moncharmont. 1987. II Metaxytherium
1822 (Sirenia, Mammalia) delle arenarie tortoniane (Miocene sup.)
Ricardi (Catanzaro, Italia). Mem. Sci. Geol. (Univ. Padova) 39: 285-

medium (Desmarest)
di S. Domenica di

O'Shea, T.J. 1988. The past, present, and future of manatees in the southeastern United
States: realities, misunderstand ings, and enigmas. In: R.R. Odom, K.A. Riddleberger,
and J.C. Ozier (eds.), Proc. Third Southeastern Nongame and Endangered Wildlife
Symposium. Georgia Dept. Natural Resources: 184-204.

Provancha, J.A., and M.J. Provancha. 1988. Long-term trends in abundance and distribution
of manatees (Trichechus manatus) in the northern Banana River, Brevard County, Florida.
Mar. Mamm. Sci. 4(4): 323-338.

Qiu Y.-x. 1985. [On management of the manatee.] Chinese Wildlife

Qiu Y.-x. 1988. [The growth of a calf of the manatee (Trichechus
Zool. 23(2): 36-37. [In Chinese.]

Rathbun, G.B., R.L. Brownell, Jr., K. Ralls, and J. Engbring. 19
waters around Palau. Mar. Mamm. Sci. 4(3): 265-270.

1985(5): 35-36. [In

manatus).] Chinese Jour.

)88. Status of dugongs in

Reynolds, J.E., III, and C.J. Gluckman. 1988. Protection of West Indian manatees
(Trichechus manatus) in Florida. Contract report to the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission:
xii + 85. [See news item in this issue under Florida.]


Thenius, E., G.B. Rathbun, F. Kurt, and B. Grzimek. 1987. Seeku"he. In: Grzimeks
Enzyklopa"die: Sa"ugetiere. Munich, Kindler Verlag: 522-535.

Whitten, A.J., M. Mustafa, and G.S. Henderson. 1987. The ecology of Sulawesi. Yogyakarta
(Indonesia), Gadjah Mada University Press: xxi + 777. [Dugongs mentioned principally on pp.
207- 210.]


Glenn A. Carowan, Jr., Manatee Coordinator, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Jacksonville
Field Station, 3100 University Blvd. South, Suite 120, Jacksonville, Fla. 32216 USA

Jose A. Ottenwalder, Director, Dept. of Zoology, Research & Conservation, Parque
Zoologico Nacional, Apartado Postal 2449, Santo Domingo, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

Earl Possardt, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Jacksonville Field Station, 3100 University
Blvd. South, Suite 120, Jacksonville, Fla. 32216 USA

Tony Preen, CSIRO Marine Laboratory, Cleveland, 4163, AUSTRALIA

Judith Delaney Vallee, Save the Manatee Club, 500 N. Maitland
Maitland, Fla. 32751 USA

Ave., Suite #210,


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