Title: Sirenews
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00099157/00005
 Material Information
Title: Sirenews newsletter of the IUCNSSC Sirenia Specialist Group
Alternate Title: Siren news
Physical Description: v. : ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources -- Sirenia Specialist Group
International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources -- Sirenia Specialist Group
Publisher: IUCN/SSC Sirenia Specialist Group
Place of Publication: Washington D.C
Washington D.C
Publication Date: April 1986
Frequency: two no. a year[apr. 1984-]
Subject: Sirenia -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Marine mammals -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Additional Physical Form: Also issued via the World Wide Web.
Dates or Sequential Designation: No. 1 (Apr. 1984)-
Issuing Body: Supported 1984-Apr. 1992 by the Species Survival Commission of IUCN, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission; Oct. 1992 by the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission & U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Apr. 1993-Oct. 1994 by the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission; <Oct. 1995>- by the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission and Sea World, Inc.
General Note: Title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: No. 48 (Oct. 2007).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00099157
Volume ID: VID00005
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 35841617
lccn - 2009208704
issn - 1017-3439


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Si renews

Newsletter of the JTULCY/SSC

Sfrenia Syecialist group



One of the decisions made at the Edmonton conference was to
reorganize the Sirenia Specialist Group in order to streamline
its functioning. On the one hand, it was considered desirable to
include a diversity of individuals active in sirenian-related
affairs; but on the other hand it was recognized that for any
committee to function efficiently it must remain relatively
small. As a compromise, two categories of membership were
provisionally set up: a small group of executive members and a
larger group of corresponding members. A current membership list

Commission de la sauvegarde des esp6cs-Species Survival Commission
Sirenews is edited by Daryl P. Domning, Dept. of
Anatomy, Howard University, Washington, D.C.
20059 USA. It is supported by the Species Survival
Commission of IUCN, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife
Service, and the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission.

Dr. Helene Marsh, Zoology Department, James Cook University, Post
Office JCU, Townsville, Queensland 4811, Australia
Dr. Thomas J. O'Shea, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 412 N.E.
16th Ave., Gainesville, Florida 32601 USA (aQutyg
Dr. Daryl P. Domning, Department of Anatomy, Howard University,
Washington, D.C. 20059 USA ([ewcette EdjitSE)

Mr. Robin C. Best, c/o Prof. Peter Jewel1, Physiology Laboratory,
Craik Marshall Building, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EG,
England (Iwmediatc sa&t ChaigRjCago)

Mr. Eduardo Rafael Asanza Cruz, Dept. Biologiar Universidad
Catolica del Ecuador, Casilla 2184, Quito, Ecuador

CQorre6podinW g 5C9WSC
Dr. Paul K. Anderson, Biology Department, University of Calgary,
Calgary T2N 1N4, Alberta, Canada

Dr. W. J. Freeland, Conservation Commission, Darwin, N.T. 5790,

Dr. Toshio Kasuya, Far Seas Fisheries Research Institute, Orido,
Shimizu-shi, Shizuoka-ken, 424 Japan

Ms. Beryl Kendall, United Nations Environment Program, P.O. Box
30552, Nairobi, Kenya

Ambassador Dr. Edgardo Mondolfi, P.O. Box 34477, Nairobi, Kenya

Dr. Daniel K. Odell, RSMAS, University of Miami, 4600
Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, Florida 33149 USA

Mr. Manuel Vasquez Phillips, Sanchezascona 317, Col del Valla,
Mexico 03100 D.F.

Dr. R.I.T. Prince, Western Australian Wildlife Research Centre,
P.O. Box 51, Wanneroo, Perth, Australia

Mr. Tony Preen, MEPA, P.O. Box 1358, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Mr. James A. Powell, Institute for Marine Studies, University of
Washington, Seattle, Wash. 98195 USA

Dr. Galen B. Rathbun, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, P.O. Box
70, San Simeon, Calif. 93452 USA

Mr. Pat M. Rose, Florida Department of Natural Resources, Bureau
of Marine Research, 100 Eighth Ave, S.E., St. Petersburg,
Fla. 33701-5095 USA

Dr. Rodney V. Salm, Leader, Coastal Zone Management Project,
Dept. of Tourism, Ministry of Commerce & Industry, P.O. Box
550, Muscat, Oman

Dr. Donald B. Siniff, Department of Ecology and Behavioral
Biology, 108 Zoology Bldg., University of Minnesota,
Minneapolis, Minn. 55455 USA

Dr. Tas'an, Gelanggang, Samudra, Jaya Ancol, Jalan Lodan Timur,
Jakarta, Indonesia



te;qte trigt Dugon Workabop. The Torres Strait Treaty
requires that Australia and Papua New Guinea use their best
endeavors to identify and protect species of indigenous fauna and
flora that are or may become threatened with extinction.
Evidence based on research conducted by Helene Marsh from
James Cook University of North Queensland indicates that dugong
numbers in Torres Strait have declined, and unless management
initiatives are developed and implemented, dugongs may become
rare or extinct in this area.
Australian fisheries management bodies agreed that a
workshop to discuss dugong management with Islander communities
should be conducted in the area of Australian jurisdiction in the
Torres Strait Protected Zone.
The Torres Strait Dugong Workshop was conducted from 1 to 5
March 1986 in the communities of Kubin, Badu, St. Paula, Mabulag,
Saibal and Boigu in the Western and Top Western regions of Torres
Mr. Joey Nona (chairman of Badu) convened the workshop and
wrote to the chairmen of the above islands seeking their
cooperation. Helene Marsh was invited to participate in the
workshop and discuss the findings of her research with the
members of the various communities. Dr. Marsh travelled to the
communities with Australian Fisheries Officers Geoff Williams
and Peter Channells, and an Islander interpreter, Mr. Ephraim
Bani. Mr. Joey Nona attended the Badu and Kubin meetings.
An excellent response was received at all communities
visited, with a total of over 100 hunters and other interested
community members attending the series of meetings. Dr. Marsh
gave an introduction to each meeting, giving a detailed account
of her 10 years' research into the life history and population
status of Australian dugongs. Lively discussions ensued in which
the hunters related their knowledge of dugongs and their
perceptions of the current dugong problem. Mr. E. Bani, who is
fluent in all Island dialects, was instrumental in the success of
these discussions, as many of the Islanders, especially the

older, more experienced hunters, are reticent to communicate in
English, but converse freely in their own language.
The meetings agreed that there is a dugong population
problem in Torres Strait. They further agreed that the causes of
this problem were:
1) Overhunting.
2) Low birth rate (Dr. Marsh explained how it takes a
population of at least 100 dugongs to sustain an annual
catch of 5 dugongs).
3) A devastation of the Torres Strait seagrass beds in the
mid-1970s. This was manifested by large numbers of "sick"
dugongs. Dr. Marsh told the meeting that this sickness
was consistent with symptoms resulting from
starvation/malnutrition. Dr. Marsh also reported that
extremely low pregnancy rates were observed in dugongs
caught at this time.
4) The increased use of aluminum dinghies and outboard
motors both to hunt dugongs and for use in the lobster
fishery in the last decade. This has frightened dugongs
away from traditional hunting grounds.
Several approaches to the problem were suggested by the
communities, including:
a) Capture of male dugongs only.
b) Banning the capture of pregnant female dugongs.
c) Establishment of an area where dugong hunting is not
permitted, so that dugong numbers can increase.
The former two approaches were considered inappropriate by
all communities because the younger hunters are unable to
distinguish a male from a female dugong or a pregnant female
dugong from a non-pregnant female. (A pregnant dugong is normally
the preferred catch.)
The establishment of a protected area was unanimously agreed
upon by all communities visited. The boundaries of this proposed
area will first be delineated by each community and then reduced
to a single map which will be circulated to all chairmen for
approval. When agreement is reached in all communities, a
recommendation along these lines will be submitted to the Torres
Strait Fishing Industry and Islanders' Consultative Committee on
Thursday Island in April of this year.
In the course of discussions, Islanders expressed a view
that more research into dugong populations and their distribution
in Torres Strait is highly desirable. Islanders also expressed a
wish to have some involvement in any future aerial surveys) if
possible. Dr. Marsh commented that this approach had been
successfully used at the Lockhart River community during recent
surveys. Helene Marsh


aotCC 5QweDeotS QD tbe SgoubutCt Coast gf Erjoidg. The
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Florida Department of Natural
Resources, in cooperation with the Florida Power and Light
Company (FPL), are conducting a 2-year study of manatee movements
and habitat use on Florida's southwest coast. The information
obtained is helping to identify areas important to manatees in

the nonwinter seasons.
Sixteen manatees were captured and radiotagged at the warm-
water effluent of the FPL's electrical generating plant near Fort
Myers on 7 January 1985 [see aia oaws No. 3]. The radio tag
includes a floating transmitter package that overcomes the
problem of saltwater attenuation of radio signals.
Between 7 January and 20 February 1985, 90% of all daily
locations of individual manatees were in the Upper Caloosahatchee
River or the Orange River in the general vicinity of the power
plant. From 21 February through 31 March, manatees dispersed out
of the Caloosahatchee River, and close to 50% of all daily
locations were in Matlacha Pass. During late spring and summer,
over 60% of the daily locations were in Charlotte Harbor,
including both the Peace and Myakka Rivers. With the exception of
one, all documented manatee movements from the Caloosahatchee
River were to the north through Matlacha Pass. The exception was
an adult female and her calf that first moved north, but then
left the Charlotte Harbor/Myakka River area in June and moved
down the coast. By mid-July they reached Chokoloskee Bay in the
Everglades, where they stayed until at least mid-September. Other
areas that were used by several tagged manatees are Tarpon Bay on
Sanibel Island and Tampa Bay, including the Little Manatee and
Manatee Rivers.
On 6, 7, and 28 January 1986, 16 manatees were equipped with
radiotag assemblies, again at the FPL plant near Fort Myers. In
addition, 3 manatees received satellite transmitters. In contrast
to the 1985 dispersal, after which radiotagged manatees did not
return to the Caloosahatchee River, 1986 manatee movements have
included many returns to both the Orange and Caloosahatchee
Rivers, and a few individuals have not yet left the
Caloosahatchee River. Matlacha Pass and Charlotte Harbor are
again important areas for migrating manatees. So far, only one
manatee, a satellite transmitter-tagged adult female, has moved
south of the Caloosahatchee River, to Marco Island. Lynn W.
Lefebvre (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service)


UggUSg StaUSg. As a follow-up to the U.S. Fish and
Wildlife Service's 1977 and 1978 surveys [see Si4CDCWa No. 3],
the Service again conducted a series of aerial surveys around
Palau in August 1983. Two total-count censuses of the entire
archipelago were completed, with 11 dugongs sighted on the first
survey and 37 on the second. These data compare favorably with
the maximum sighted (34) in 1978 (Brownell ft al., 1981, The
status of dugongs at Palau, an isolated island group. Pp. 19-42
10 H. Marsh, ed., Thu Quggog, James Cook Univ., Townsville,
Australia). Based on interviews with local residents, poaching is
still a problem, however, and it is not clear whether the small
population of dugongs in Palau can withstand the losses. We doubt
it* Galen Rathbun, Robert L. Brownell, Jr., and Kathy Ralls


Ouggog 8e10eisbmwent ElQtget. The Saudi Arabian

Meteorology and Environmental Protection Administration's (MEPA)
Dugong Replenishment Project has now been in operation for six
months, during which time a quantitative aerial survey of the
Arabian Gulf waters of Saudi Arabia and Bahrain has been
completed. Using a dedicated helicopter (Bell 206), all waters
out to the 25 m depth contour (approximately 25 nautical miles
from the coast) have been surveyed at an altitude of 500 feet,
for a coverage intensity of approximately 10%. While very few
dugongs were found in Saudi waters during this winter survey, a
large herd of 300 to 500 dugongs was discovered east of Bahrain.
This discovery establishes the Gulf as a significant region
for dugongs. Happily, it is now apparent that the deaths of at
least 38 dugongs coincident with the disastrous 1983 Nowruz oil
spill did not reduce the Gulf's dugong population to below a
viable level, as feared at the time [see SiceDoWS Nos. 1 and 4].
This herd was only 5 nm from Qatari waters and 20 nm from
Saudi waters, and so these dugongs are likely to be multi-
national in their range. Fortunately the Gulf states are aware of
the importance of the dugong and are keen on a cooperative
approach to issues such as conservation. Consequently MEPA has
been greatly assisted by the Bahrain Environmental Protection
Committee and discussions are currently taking place with the
Governments of Qatar and the United Arab Emirates to facilitate
the extension of the survey into these areas.
Contingent upon the outcome of radio and satellite tracking
trials to be conducted by Helene Marsh and Galen Rathbun on
captive dugongs in Jakarta, an attempt may be made to track some
of the Bahraini dugongs to determine the extent of their
movements. Resultant data would help determine the likelihood of
natural repopulation of Saudi waters and identify possible
actions that may be taken to protect this population. Tony
Preen (Field Team Leader, Dugong Replenishment Project)


lso0tcg SuWrey. A major survey of manatees in Venezuela is
now being carried out by Dr. John G. Robinson (University of
Florida), Dr. Thomas J. O'Shea (U.S. Fish and WIldlife Service),
Mr. Martin Correa-Viana (Servicio Nacional de Fauna Silvestre,
Venezuela), and Mr. Mark Ludlow (University of Florida), and
funded through the Florida Foundation. From 10-25 January 1986,
Correa-Viana was trained in manatee biology, conservation, and
research techniques in Florida. During February and March, the
team members interviewed knowledgeable persons, including
professionals and commercial fishermen, in the following areas:
along the Caribbean coast from Punta Cardon at the entrance of
the Golfo de Venezuela in Falcon State to Carupano in Sucre
State; the mangrove forests bordering the Golfo de Paria in
Monagas State; the Orinoco River delta in the Delta Amacuro
Territory; and the middle Orinoco as far upstream as Caicara, and
the Lake Maracaibo region. The objectives of the interviews were
to determine manatee distribution, threats to remaining
populations, traditional importance of manatees to indigenous
people, and general biological information about the species.
Subsequent to these status interviews, aerial surveys will be

conducted (during late March and early April) over selected
regions. The aircraft will also be used to interview at outposts
with airstrips in roadless areas of the Orinoco drainage system.
Following completion of the remaining fieldwork by Ludlow and
Correa-Viana, a detailed report will be prepared.
Manatees are absent from the Caribbean coast of Venezuela.
Nearly all fishermen in this area were completely unfamiliar with
manatees, many having never heard the word in their lives. The
absence seems to be due to habitat unsuitability, not
overexploitation. We specifically sought interviews with old
fishermen to determine if manatees formerly occurred along this
coast and had been subsequently extirpated, but this was found
not to be true. Men in their eighties who had worked as
fishermen and lived on the coast their entire lives also had no
knowledge of manatees. Although there are areas with sheltered
lagoons and year-round freshwater streams, most of the coastline
is rocky and mountainous with high-energy beaches. The north
coast of Venezuela may constitute an ecological barrier between
manatee populations along the Atlantic coast of South America and
the Caribbean coast of Central America from Lake Maracaibo
Manatees seem to be relatively abundant along the Golfo de
Paria in Monagas State, throughout the Orinoco delta, the middle
Orinoco, and its tributaries. All persons interviewed throughout
these regions were familiar with the species and many relatively
recent sightings were reported. The Orinoco system appears to
constitute one of the largest continuous habitats occupied by
West Indian manatees from Florida to Guyana, and may harbor a
substantial population. Much of this system is characterized by
silt-laden waters with poor conditions for aerial observation;
even the crudest attempts at estimation of total numbers will be
difficult to achieve, although some exceptional regions and
techniques may prove useful as trend indicators using aerial
survey methods. Specifically, the Rio Morichal Largo and the Rio
Caura have relatively good visibility during the dry season, and
should be considered as areas for long-term trend surveys. Timing
of surveys along margins of mangrove forests at high tide should
also maximize the probability of sightings in silty waters
because at these times manatees will be near the surface at the
banks feeding. In addition to the manatees in the Orinoco-Golfo
de Paria system, a second population occurs in Lake Maracaibo,
but is thought to be less dense and probably in decline in
The outlook for this species in the Golfo de Paria and
Orinoco system is encouraging. Hunting of manatees has been
prohibited since 1978 and the laws are working. We interviewed
several former manatee hunters and found it to be a dying art.
All were older men, and all noted that young men were not
learning the skills required because of the law and a lack of
interest. Knowledge of the law protecting manatees was universal
among all people interviewed in the Orinoco system, and meat and
fish vendors expressed an unwillingness to sell manatee meat for
fear of prosecution. Thus without an appreciable market or
skilled hunters, and with a widespread acceptance of the
protection laws, hunting does not seem to constitute a serious

threat. However, manatee hunting by indigenous people still
occurs in remote regions and efforts should continue to
discourage these practices. We found that manatees were of
comparatively little traditional or economic importance to the
Warauno Indians of the Orinoco delta, beyond a few interesting
legends and beliefs, and stricter enforcement of the law among
these people should not present hardships to them. In some
regions manatees may rely completely on browsing mangrove forests
at high tide for food. Exploitation of the forests for lumber is
occurring, but in Monagas State cutting is carefully controlled
and managed under a well-planned program that mitigates otherwise
potentially dangerous effects on the manatee population of the
region. Such a plan should also be adopted for the Delta Amacuro
Territory. Tom O'Shea

kift "digSog iaLu". For years, some students of evolution
(not to mention creationists) have been harping on the supposed
lack of intermediate forms in the fossil record. Whatever may be
the case in other, less distinguished groups, the Sirenia and
their relatives have long provided good examples of gradual
evolution, going back at least to Abel's turn-of-the-century
studies of the reduction of the sirenian pelvis. The recurrent
pattern seems to be that when you find a fossil of this group
intermediate in age between two other known species, other things
being equal, as often as not it turns out to be intermediate in
morphology as well which is not what devotees of "punctuated
equilibrium' would have us expect.
In a study now in press (SihtbsgDuco CQotEibutgiou tg
EAlfgg giggy), Daryl Domning, Clayton Ray, and Malcolm McKenna
describe a new genus and two new species of desmostylians from
Oligocene rocks of Oregon .and Washington State. These are the
most primitive known desmostylians, and are in many respects
morphologically intermediate between desmostylians and
proboscideans. Together with certain fossil mammals
(anthracobunids) previously known from southern Asia, they
convincingly document the close relationship between these two
orders, which may both be descended from cDgbheneJll, an animal
from the Late Paleocene of China. Sirenians appear to be the
sister group of proboscideans + desmostylians, and these three
orders, which make up the Tethytheria of McKenna (1975), probably
do constitute a strictly monophyletic group, as suggested by
several lines of biochemical and other evidence.
Also in press (TasgagcCtigS cnd Et~gce~tdng gf tbh
eclaJQ1oulggca91 aGGiity Q Jf sjg ) is the description by S.
Takahashi, D. Domning, and T. Saito of a new species of Pugaigitg
from the Late Miocene of Yamagata Prefecture, Japan.
Corresponding to "QVu1LUn Species D" of Domning (1978), it is a
dramatic "missing link" between QugisigD odgaj and
2ydLOQagsMU GUcStgr the direct ancestor of Steller's sea cow
(54 gjgg&). Although it still possessed functional teeth, the new
species had a profoundly modified, clawlike flipper with greatly
reduced phalanges. This is the first tangible evidence in support
of Steller's sometimes-doubted statement that a. gigag lacked

phalanges entirely. (The Japanese, incidentally, fully appreciate
the importance of this discovery; a life-sized replica of "The
Great Yamagata Sea Cow" was unveiled with appropriate fanfare on
Christmas Day, 1985, in the town where it was discovered.)
Domning is just beginning (with Elwyn Simons of Duke
University and Baher El-Khashab of the Cairo Geological Museum)
the study of a new fossil skull from the Fayum district of Egypt.
It is thought to be Oligocene in age, and appears to be
morphologically as well as chronologically intermediate between
SgsCScO from the Eocene of the Fayum and UaligJtcAue from the
Oligocene of Europe and elsewhere. Thus it may finally plug the
gap between these two well-known fossil dugongids.
UBtlitbeCiU in turn, seems to have given rise to the common
Miocene and Pliocene genus saatbeiUB. The European record of
this evolutionary sequence seems clear and straightforward,
proceeding through two successive species of UaiUtbiuAU and four
of ctcEayhSeAwU to end in extinction in the cooling Late
Pliocene Mediterranean. This is supported by a cladistic analysis
of the European representatives of these genera, done by D.
Domning and H. Thomas and soon to be published in a volume on the
Sahabi fauna of Libya by Alan R. Liss, Inc., New York. Other
Uetxautheduw had meanwhile spread to the New World, where some
of them gave rise to u@IsicoSD and ultimately Ux waolia, as
mentioned above. So at least the common and best-known fossil
dugongid taxa seem to fit together well in a coherent
evolutionary picture extending from the Eocene almost up to the
present. It's among all those rare and poorly-known ones that the
real work remains to be done DPD

The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature has
officially sanctioned the scientific names presently in use for
Steller's sea cow and the Amazonian manatee, thereby protecting
these names against the possible resurrection of unused senior
In response to a petition by D. Domning, ICZN Opinion 1320,
published in the ul11etin Qg Zg~1gggjs1 VweuODafu c 42(2): 175-
176, June 1985, placed the names Uyd~E~audali Retzius, 1794,
g1gag Zimmermann, 1780 (as in Uydrogdomwlc gigas), and lQuagujS
Natterer in Pelzeln, 1883 (as in T2ticbseu6 1oua9uis) on the
Official Lists of Names in Zoology. The names 1gfati Steller,
1774 (a senior objective synonym of UEydCdawaMs) and CeUoggij
Natterer in Diesing, 1839 (a senior objective synonym of T.
iOUDSUas) were formally suppressed under the Commission's plenary
powers and placed on the Official Indexes of Rejected and Invalid
Names in Zoology.
The names of the taxa in question are correctly cited as
dgadasaw.i Retzius, 1794
CxdtcanUs i SgJgaB (Zimmermann, 1780)
TEchbechua iuaouigg (Natterer in Pelzeln, 1883)


In a paper recently accepted for publication in daEing
daWia science, D. Domning and L. Hayek report the results of a
statistical analysis of Interspecific and intraspecific variation
in manatee skulls [see SigScDne No. 3]. Their analysis supports
the taxonomic distinction of Florida manatees (TiJgbchbuas acoatU
lJaigatgs ) from other West Indian manatees, which are all
assigned to T^ WMaftu waotUsg. They also propose the vernacular
name "Antillean manatee" for T,, waoatu WaQatas, which presently
lacks a generally accepted common name. Alleged subspecific
distinctions within T4 eg@iali a, however, have no
demonstrated basis. A cladistic analysis of the three manatee
species suggests that T. aDaCtUs and T. SQgsaeoSC, which are
phenetically the most similar, may also share a more recent
common ancestor than either does with T. ioUDgUic.


The BBC is looking for newsworthy scientific developments,
discoveries, or stories to form subjects for its television
documentaries. "Nature", the BBC Natural History Unit's topical
magazine series, consists of 30-minute programs each containing a
selection of items ranging from 2 to 20 minutes. If you have any
sirenian- or other nature-related items that you think may be
suitable, or can anticipate any significant news about to break,
please contact (as far in advance as possible) Jan Ratcliffe,
Researcher, "Nature', BBC Natural History Unit, Broadcasting
House, Whiteladies Road, Bristol BS8 2LR, England (telephone 0272
732211, ext. 2424 & 2423; Telex 265781 BSA).


The following two abstracts were accidentally omitted from
the last issue. These papers were presented at the Fourth
International Theriological Congress, Edmonton, Canada, Aug. 13-
20, 1985, but were not part of the Sirenian Workshop.

MANATEE. Traute Kleinschmidt*. Morris Goodman**, and Gerhard Braunitzer*,
*f ax-Planck-Institute fur Blochemie. Abteilung Proteinchemie. Martinarted beL
Munchen. West-Germany. **Dept. of Anatomy, Wayne State University, School of
Medicine, Detroit, Michigan 44201, USA.
As direct copies of the genetic material, the protein sequences are suiEed for
the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships, especially In cases where
aorphoiogical methods do not provide unequivocal results, as in the case of
Paernuaulata. The primary structures of the hemoglobins of the Rock Hyrax
(Procavia habessinica, Myraeoldea) and the Indian and African Elephant (Elegpas
maximus and Loxodonta africana, Probosidea) have been determined earlier. After
the recent elucidation of the primary structure of the globin -< and 0 -chains
from Manatee (Trichechus inungius, Sirenta) it is now possible to compare the
three orders classed among the Paenungulata. identical amino acid residues in
the Paenungulata hemoglobin, which are not observed in other species, suggest a
relationship between elephants, Hyraxes and sea cows, The PaaenunKulata
hemoglobin sequences are also compared with the known sequences of Ungulata

J. Shoshani, Department of Biological Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit.
Michigan 48202 USA.

The marphological part of this study Includes results Erom parsimony analyses of
172 non-dentai ost ological characters in 21j etxLnt and extinct species (205
imanic and d non-omaLalas). The miutcular prt itncLudes uanwelShted pair group
nechod results trum 1,310 Lmmunodifrusian (IMl)N) copartisns conducted with
chicken antisera jn 101 aAailaln aptlic.s and MXIanM persisLny analyses of amino
acid sequences of a and l hemuglioblhi as well as sequences of other proaeirw. pub-
lished Irepresenting most manznllan orders). Jn all phylogenetic reconstrucrions,
the class Hommalia is depicted as a monophyletio ca un. Within Eutheria: (1)
?roboacldea, Strenia, leismoStylid, MouertherL[okea, and Hyraculdea are closer to
each other than to other masials; (2) in [the IMDFN 4nd lens a crystallin results,
Tubultdencaca (TUB) Is part of Paenungulart (PAEN), vhl2e in the morpholcglcal
analyses TUB is a sisCer-group to Ungula d (UNG Arttodactyla and Perissodac-
tyLa); (3) in alL studied, Cetacea sL depicted closer to condylirth derivative
UNG and/or PAEN; (4) RodenLid and Lagomurpha all lnittle re uncertati In the mv-
lecular studies while in the osteoLogical, they are closely related (the Wllres
hypothesis), with MacroscelLde. being a siater-group to Glires. Discussion will
concentrate on the degree of Longruence Intwoen the molecular and morphologtcat
result. and IhuW cheese resulLt Jre 4. pared Co hypotheses of other workers. Sup-
purced, in part, by NSF grant BsR83-l073b.

The following abstracts are of papers and posters presented
at the Sixth Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine
Mammals, Vancouver, British Columbia, Nov. 22-26, 1985.

1a oDnI nsiurar oD iar1nac7 OF THE IST IN rmi

stlsme, tf 11tAo amd .ivup Rees. rces, 5MN
tiwiviere i f mi Mn.
4*00 g*ie ce* Cam Mwami, FL 33149
Sironiu o are cMlsdered eOlogcally unique la tcat they
we the snly truly aquatic mammaian berbsvre. Although
the easter of the digestiLv tree of the West Indian Masatee
(T2c1Me e g ha bsh wehil described, little work
haw t6"s dm rasrdw the ditetive processes of thip
eecteu. ainNg the V ia erts o 1j42/83 ad 1983/64. the
d4J eC (tem BMMIet teecaso wm sampled sequentially
Steq the lsagth e the raut. All Ge les were aaMlyzed for
dy mater caeatt, ormic either, er*de protein, cruds fti,
aide dtergma fiber, Liguni, -nd celluloes. Apparent
die1lsbilitis were calulated uinq the Ulism-ratio
filed. The velumoM lar e ltestie isto responsible for
amgeareble Water reobeerptlea, as well as being the major
Ito of organic matter, crude protein. ctude fat, and
cellaoee digeptiaa. Bsed a these results, the m-natin
ppease to uw a postigetric ilulmaee iormaatioe system
siter to te9rreetral herbiwmve such as the horse. Unlike
t he toee. hoe rthe ma e alse diests the majority of
the estlble mpmemnt4 at the itea i* the hiendut as well.
Ornmlt digeMtbibitty cofeicmlts for organic matter (71.12).
arede protein (1L.02), mad crne fat (77.31) are coplrable
os the of ade tis barblveie. MNoeMtss bve on* of the
bLghebt digatlbility ceoafictants for cellulose (79.62) of
my om Immltean hrbtvers. This h gh efficiency of
eilamiee d4igmtla n mwat liukly des to en xtrTmly lowm
ate of passe. Other sagas constwars, the dugong
ffit WS md the getm sea turtle (tOtlonta mdas) also
hmwe high ciluoae dtgetibt ey coofficleate suggesetin
that dietary etmpoeltioe my lseo be responsible for the
bl& otffllty of cetUmlae 4llmaCtee found in the mactes.

Packard. Jam M.. and Orj.f F. WMaterqVist
University of Florida, Gainesvitle, Florida
Protection of an endangered species requires careful
planilm g on a site-specific ba s when threats to Its
survival vary throughout Its rang. The research described
In this ppe form the basis for a research/mObagomt plan
developed to protect mmatees along th nortoimst coast of
Florlda. Via se of a M voraftn of the overlaying pping
techniques practiced In urban and regional planning, the
iportance and vulnerability of various cmponets of mantee
habitat were assessed. Habitat characteristics were mapped
aid evalated In Juxtaposition with relevant characteristics
of hma us of the are, to identify areas of potential
aMatme/hma conflicts In need of reconciliation. Area
ranked as ast i ortant matee habitat within this region
include Crystal By and River. Ho sassl River. and the
Swssum river estuary. Exfitiag overlap of hMan activities
with iqortant mantee habitat is mst critical near the
wurba comauMatles of Crystal River and, to a lesser degree.

cOWmaaiNsos6 wITh FnID or Psuious YaUs
Beynolds, John 1. and J. s0" Wilcox
Biology Departtmc. Eclrd College. St. Pecersburg, FL and
Environmental Affairs Florida Power sad Light Company. Juno
Beah, FL
Water serial surveys have been conducted in a consistent
memmer for eight cenecutive years to assess mandate
(Tr bisghus gsaat ) abundance and distribution around five
flo e "war plans her0 a snil pradictsbly seek refuge
from sold weather. Dutri 10 one-day survey in iater 1984-
Li, 3104 mas sees were observed, with a maxium count of 636
selese for a single survey. The 194-195 survey produced
the highest coiss en record for 3 plact: Riviera (231
am mees a 22 Ja -ry). Part iveroides (234 animals o 27
Jeasmry). an Ft. Myers (338 a mates on 19 January). The
Canaveral Plant produced loMer courts than in masy previous
years. Calves represented 10.3! of all meatee sighted ear
powr plants is 1M4-LiSt a percentage coMarable to those
calcuUted tor'reatry in previous years. Manatee abundance
il 1984-LM was corroated with sbleat air and water
temperatures at mobs Sound nd the Rivtier and Port Everglades
Flints. se eitltfcsat correlacions of abundance and
terateie wmre and for the Lauderdele or Canaveral Plants.
The high counts for 944-l985 surveys in general and (ot Port
Everiades. Rlviera at Ft. Myer Pleats specifically provide
v ldeScs tat supports a need to revise upward the popuLacton
setiate or astes inA Florida. The recent high counts may
have beoo induced by amy or all of the following fVctorst
L) very wer pDember weather followed by extremely colt
Jamu ry weather 2) aesmoal redistribution of SUilNla long
the -att coast of loridal and 3) occurrence of eurvery during
coaditlias that stimleaed Senetses to bask at the surface.
where thair visibility -was ehanced.

uatson, Alastair G.. and Kt Bo;ds
Shlners Hospital for Crippledt aildr, Orthopmedic Resoerd
Laboratory. KDC-64. 12901 X. 30t Stremt, Tamp. Florida
33612, sad U. S. Fish and Witldlife Service. Dear Widlife
Reeardt Cantcr, 412 N. 1. 26th Avieu, aisfeille, Florida

Uctrodactyly is defiled ma the coagenital absence of oe
or amr phalanes fro me or sre dil ts. Three case of
actrodactyly of the flier in matses were detected ftetr
exadnation of 730 carcasses (1974 though 1954) and eac is
described, including me case of bilaterally symstrical cleft
hand. Defects of the Apical Ictodermal Ridge (AI) in the
developing eiryonic haid plate have been showm eperimtally
to produce *ilar congenital octrodeotylous miafimatims 1n
chickens and mice. Variations In the site, atst. sad timl
of AER defects produce orphological veriltioe of *ctro-
dactyly. We suggest that as AMR defect Will ateO t for may
of the morphlogical expressicns of ectrodactyly faod to
netees, amn, and other mmals.

Uoodyard, H. lPte. Mishlek1 om aid JOse. White
tilversity of VWadmor, Wtadegr, O trsio Univetty of Guelph,
Guelsh, Otario ad MIHM Sesqeuati, Mait. Florida
Only recently ham may research been done on Informatli
procesegin in captCi Wat tbdiam memteme ead thus far only
the twelts of research a their viasut laformat to proc es i
h.I been reported Indtcattarg they em make use of
dJiffer ces in brlghaste, siss, shape, calmer, notism, lsft-
right orientation sad horisoetmllvertical orie at el ant4 hat
the anee. can demistrte tr empaitlional lteain reversst
discrliminatioe, learning ate, tchtog to impL ad long
trm atmry over a dratiom of 17 moaths. While anatmical
research and owakd potsiials auesated a capacity to use
saditory inforsatio n cthk othar the antecd6al observations
provides behavwnaral evidi ce of the ue of auditory tifoma-
teon. At Huis Sosqusriru a 3 kU stgnal e brotdcastc atco
the pool in which a maste we retarded for stlecting one
target tf the Signal as broadcast into the water Mad wea
rewarded for solect a either target if t signal re
broelroat. Whn thie esatele slved thle probl to criteria
lit IJqurmn l) sIhe *deajJ i rJned ajt iJnt ronJis f rom trl
ortiginl signal. The soet& ma Mccnestul over the full
rage of the equlipmat (200 H-12b5). Net the matee Ma
rewarded for preastag e target wht frequency A (5001) wom
broadcast and far prenaing another target whom frequency 3
(fkH) was brodeset inac the water. A double blind procedure
ie uoed in which the espremter 4d sat know what frequency
as broadcast or, whon aoopriate to the problem, whether an
eudItCery epWl mW a n broedeest. The r"eal. ert inter-
prted as iemstratitn that maste (1) can ss see of
auditbry ofor tloa and (2) the range of frmquacite they
cam use covers at loat 200M-132k sad (3) that the mats.
can tlarn to mae discriftsatifs oa the baste of auditory
cOe thaet differ iA pitch, further tweench will be conducted
to determine uhu other eharacteri tat of auditory Informatim
ca be used by smatee and at w at level of caplaity can
this aIefarmtla be preAsseWd.


Bengtson, J.L., and S.M. Fitzgerald. 1985. Potential role of
vocalizations in West Indian manatees. J. Mammalogy 66(4):

Domning, D. 1985. Habitat protection: the only hope. Sage tch
a4Oat-a ClUb gOaG (Fla. Dept. Natural Resources/Fla. Audubon
Soc.), Dec. 1985: 2.

Hanneberg, P. 1984. Seychelles: refuge for a threatened nature.
Fauna Flora (Stockholm] 79(6): 261-272. [In Swedish; English

Kenchington, R. 1985. Dugong hunting in the Great Barrier Reef
Marine Park. IUCN Bull. 16(7-9): 89-90.

iochman, H.I., G.B. Rathbun, and J.A. Powell. 1985. Temporal and
spatial distribution of manatees in Kings Bay, Crystal
River, Florida. J. Wildl. Manage. 49(4): 921-924.

Lowenstein, J.M. 1985. Molecular approaches to the identification
of species. Amer. Scientist 73(6): 541-547.

Melville, R.V. 1985. Opinion 1320: li QodamajLig Retzius, 1794 and
a0t4Us JoUDUggis Natterer in Pelzeln, 1883 (Mammalia,
Sirenia): conserved. Bull. Zool. Nomencl. 42(2): 175-176.
[See news item above.]

Muizon, C. de, and D. Domning. 1985. The first records of fossil
sirenians in the southeastern Pacific Ocean. Bull. Mus.
Natl. Hist. Nat. (Paris) (4)7, Sect, C, no. 3: 189-213.
[tetnagytbed uw gQyetetsD and an unidentified dugongid from
Miocene and Pliocene deposits, respectively, of Peru.]

O'Shea, T.J. 1986. Mast foraging by West Indian manatees
(Ti.jchgbecbU mnafi). J. Mammalogy 67(1): 183-185.
O'Shea, T.J., G.B. Rathbun, E.D. Asper, and S.W. Searles. 1985.
Tolerance of West Indian manatees to capture and handling.
Biol. Conserv. 33: 335-349.

Packard, J.M. 1985. Development of manatee aerial survey
techniques. Florida Coop. Fish & Wildlife Research Unit,
Gainesville: Tech. Report No. 8-7, Manatee Population
Research Report No. 7: vi + 68. [This and earlier reports in
this series available from Coop. Fish & Wildlife Research
Unit, 117 Newins-Ziegler Hall, Univ. of Florida,
Gainesville, Fla. 32611 USA.]

Pirlot, P., and T. Kamiya. 1985. Qualitative and quantitative
brain morphology in the sirenian PUgQDg us900og isI Erxl.
Z. Zool. Syst. Evol.-Forsch. 23(2): 147-155.

Qiu, You-xiang. 1985. On management of the manatee (TLrbiCbhua
wgoatUg). Chinese Wildlife 1985(5).
Ralph, C.L., S. Young, R. Gettinger, and T.J. O'Shea. 1985. Does
the manatee have a pineal body? Acta Zoologica (Stockholm)
66(1): 55-60. (Apparently not.]

Ray, C.E., and D.P. Domning. 1986. Manatees and genocide. Marine
Mammal Science 2(1): 77-78.

Reynolds, J.E., III, and J.R. Wilcox. 1985. Abundance of West
Indian manatees (Trigbebhu wgantus) around selected Florida
power plants following winter cold fronts, 1982-1983. Bull.
Mar. Sci. 36(3): 413-422.

Shinohara, S., M. Kimura, and H. Furusawa. 1985. Steller's sea-
cow (UyL9gd4magi gigaa) from the Nopporo Hills in the
Ishikari Lowland, Hokkaido, Japan. In: M. Goto, M.
Takahashi, M. Kimura, and H. Horikawa (eds.), Evolution and
Adaptation of Marine Vertebrates. Association for Geological
Collaboration in Japan, Monograph 30: 97-117. [In Japanese;
English summary.]

Shoshani, J., J.M. Lowenstein, D.A. Walz, and M. Goodman. 1986.
Proboscidean origins of mastodon and woolly mammoth
demonstrated immunologically. Paleobiology 11(4): 429-437.
[Immunological similarities between T;,chjchubg ntus and

Sleeper, B. 1986. A far cry from a sea nymph. Audubon 88(2): 86-
99. March 1986.

Unterbrink, M. 1984. Manatees: gentle giants in peril. St.
Petersburg (Fla.), Great Outdoors Publs.: 1-47. [Softbound,

Watson, A.G., and R.K. Bonde. 1986. Congenital malformations of
the flipper in three West Indian manatees, TrjgcbtgbU
IQOtu, and a proposed mechanism for development of
ectrodactyly and cleft hand in mammals. Clinical
Orthopaedics 202: 294-301,


Mr. Robin C. Best, c/o Prof. Peter Jewell, Physiology Laboratory,
Craik Marshall Building, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EG,

Ambassador Dr. Edgardo Mondolfi, P.O. Box 34477, Nairobi, Kenya

Mr. Pat M. Rose, Florida Department of Natural Resources, Bureau
of Marine 'Research, 100 Eighth Ave. S.E., St. Petersburg,
Fla. 33701-5095 USA


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