RELATIONSHIPS AMONG WORK BEHAVIOR TYPE,
PERSONALITY FUNCTION, JOB SATISFACTION,
AND EFFECTIVENESS RATINGS OF VOCATIONAL
Martha Anne Glenn
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
Martha Anne Glenn
To Tami Anne and Richard Clark
Completion of this work represents the efforts of many
individuals. I am grateful to all who made the path a
little easier and the burden a little lighter. Deep
acknowledgment and heartfelt thanks are extended to the
members of my supervisory committee, Drs. Phillip A. Clark,
John M. Nickens, and Arthur J. Lewis. Dr. Clark was instru-
mental in my obtaining a Mott Fellowship and my entering
this doctoral program. He served as chairman of my commit-
tee and for his efforts on my behalf I am grateful.
Dr. Nickens' unrelentless support and expert guidance made
this study possible. His constant empathy and encouragement
made me believe I could do it. Dr. Lewis showed genuine
interest in my many projects and elicited the thinker in
me. He is a true mentor.
Dr. Jay S. Mendell, Professor, Florida Atlantic
University, supervised my internship and contributed a
great deal of effort toward my professional development.
To him who showed me the meaning of the word "Visionary,"
I owe much appreciation. Dr. Margaret P. Korb believed
in me, cultivated my potential, and, over the years, has
served as mentor, colleague and friend.
Cynthia B. Heine first encouraged me to enter this doc-
toral program and has been a steadfast friend throughout.
James R. Hasselback gave help and support without which
this task would have been most difficult. Barbara Beynon
patiently and cheerfully edited the manuscript. Her
expertise was invaluable. Anne Taylor-Covell's calm,
reassuring manner and professional expertise saw me through
the final hours of preparation of the manuscript.
I am especially indebted to the memory of my mother
whose truisms and celebration of every morning were
present throughout this project. Finally, I express my
deepest gratitude to my children, Tami and Ricky, to whom
this work is lovingly dedicated.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ......................................... iv
ABSTRACT... ........................................... viii
Organization of the Chapter .........................1
Background and Rationale ............................1
Statement of the Problem ............................7
Delimitations and Limitations .......................7
Justification for the Study .........................8
Definition of Terms ................................11
Organization of Subsequent Chapters ................14
II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE ......................15
Organization of the Chapter ........................15
Work Behavior Type..................................16
Jung's Typology and the Myers-Briggs
Type Indicator ...................................51
III DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY.............................90
Organization of the Chapter ........................90
Summary of Design and Methodology.................101
IV RESULTS AND ANALYSIS OF DATA......................102
Organization of the Chapter.......................102
Relationships Between Work Behavior Type
and Personality Function ........................102
Work Behavior Type and Overall Job
Satisfaction ................................... 113
Factor Analysis of Work Behavior Type
on Selected Areas of Job Satisfaction...........115
Correlations Between Work Behavior Type, Person-
ality Functions and Effectiveness Ratings....... 121
Summary of Results and Analysis.................... 126
V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS ............128
Organization of the Chapter .......................128
Problem and Procedures ............................ 128
APPENDICES ............................................. 139
A Job Satisfaction Questionnaire ...............139
B Role Effectiveness Questionnaire .............141
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .....................................152
Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of
the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
RELATIONSHIPS AMONG WORK BEHAVIOR TYPE, PERSONALITY
FUNCTION, JOB SATISFACTION, AND EFFECTIVENESS
RATINGS OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION ADMINISTRATORS
Martha Anne Glenn
Chairman: Dr. Phillip A. Clark
Major Department: Educational Administration and Supervision
The problem of this study was to determine relation-
ships among work behavior type, personality function, job
satisfaction, and effectiveness of vocational education
administrators. As a result of this study, the following
specific questions were answered
1. Within each work behavior type, do participants
score higher on one personality function than
2. Do participants' work behavior types relate to
their overall job satisfaction?
3. Do scores in job satisfaction areas relate to
work behavior type?
4. Do participants' work behavior types relate to
their effectiveness ratings?
The Marcus Paul Placement Profile (MPPP) was used to
discern work behavior type and the Myers-Briggs Type In-
dicator (MBTI) was employed to determine personality func-
tion. Degree of job satisfaction or dissatisfaction was
measured by the Job Satisfaction Questionnaire, and effec-
tiveness measures were obtained from supervisors' ratings
on the Role Effectiveness Questionnaire. The MPPP, the
MBTI, and the Job Satisfaction Questionnaire were adminis-
tered to 43 vocational education administrators. The Role
Effectiveness Questionnaire was completed by each partici-
Data were analyzed by the Statistical Package for the
Social Sciences using Pearson correlations, crosstabulations,
and factor analysis.
Results of this study showed that some work behavior
types were significantly related to some personality func-
tions. Also, significant relationships were found between
work behavior type and areas of job satisfaction. Addi-
tionally, specific areas of job effectiveness were found
to be significantly related to work behavior type. These
findings were consistent with expectations based on a
synthesis of related literature. Neither overall job sat-
isfaction nor overall effectiveness was found to be sig-
nificantly related to either work behavior type or person-
Implications for the findings of this study for per-
sonnel management include the use of work behavior type
in job matching, development and training, and team building.
Further research is needed to determine the effect under-
standing one's own and others' work behavior type may
have on job satisfaction, effectiveness, and job turnover.
Organization of the Chapter
Chapter I presents an introduction to the study which
begins with background and rationale. This general back-
ground information is followed by a statement of the problem,
delimitations and limitations, justification for the study,
assumptions, and definition of terms. A statement of the
organization of subsequent chapters concludes Chapter I.
Background and Rationale
Educational institutions, governmental agencies, and
private industry spend millions of dollars each year hiring
personnel. This costly process of matching the right per-
son with the right job is difficult and often unsuccessful.
A recent study of more than 350,000 individuals reports
that four out of five people are in the wrong job.
Greenberg (1979), states that "80 per cent of the people
now employed are doing jobs either totally wrong for them,
or at best, clearly not the most appropriate to permit
their maximum contribution" (p.56).
Being in the wrong job can produce employee frustration,
discontent, uncertain loyalty, and poor motivation, all of
which typically lead to counter-productive behavior such as
sloppiness, tardiness, absenteeism, poor service to clients,
and eventually, job turnover (Bruno, 1979; Greenberg, 1979;
Hackman, Lawler & Porter, 1977; Haldane, 1974; Schmidt &
Hunter, 1979; Silver & Berke, 1981).
All of this spells decreased productivity, efficiency,
and effectiveness and increased cost to the organization.
The cost of hiring the wrong person is increasing (Bruno,
1979). If a person placed in a job for which he or she is
ill-suited leaves the organization within the first year, a
drain is placed on the recruiting/training budget, and-
there is much loss of time and productivity. A seldom
explored facet of this problem is the toll it takes on both
administrator and employee, for in a very real sense, each
has experienced failure
At the time of selection, there is an implied
assumption on the part of the manager and employee
that it will work out. When it doesn't, both feel
like failures and that pain lingers to shadow
future recruiting experiences for both. (Merrill
& Stimpson, 1979, p.14)
The well-qualified person who is not hired experiences an
obvious loss. Not so obvious is the monetary loss to the
organization in terms of recruiting, training, and
Many organizations have turnover rates of 40 per cent
with 50 to 60 per cent not uncommon (Silver & Berke, 1981).
This represents a more costly operation in which effective
planning becomes almost impossible. Merrill and Stimpson
(1979) reported that at least 60 per cent of newly hired
personnel do not meet standards first set by the organiza-
tion, and almost 44 per cent of those who survive the first
year of employment leave during the second year.
This enormous drain on both organizational and human
resources is a people problem and, as such, is complex,
involving legal, moral, social, and psychological consid-
erations. In the broadest sense, the issue is optimal
utilization of human resources. Not only hiring practices,
or the initial matching of the right person with the right
job are involved, but also building effective teams,
assigning work, conducting training, and grooming entry-
level persons for promotions. Individual career planning,
organizational planning, individual employee evaluations,
transfer, termination, and retirement decisions are affected
as well. This human aspect is indeed important. In fact,
Silver and Berke (1981) state that, "overlooking the people
problem is the leading cause of failure in business" (p.10).
In her book, Career Management for the Individual and
the Organization, Mariann Jelinik (1979) states, "Most
employers claim that their human resources are their most
important asset. Yet the typical organization's behavior
does not lend credence to the claim" (p.287). She lists
the following as examples:
Employees may be used ineffectively in the sense
that their existing skills, knowledge, and aptitudes
are poorly matched with the requirements of their
jobs--the round peg in the square hole.
The abilities and intellectual and psychological
potential of employees also are often underutilized
in terms of what they are expected to do in their
jobs--lack of self actualization.
Although most work is carried out by groups, very
little is done to develop work groups that are
effective--the whole is not greater than the sum
of its parts (p.287).
Jelinik states further that this is due to ineffective human
resource development systems that do not match the capa-
bilities of employees with the growth and production
requirements of the organization.
Even the most sophisticated organizations--those
exhibiting excellence in technological development,
marketing, and finance--are relative novices when
it comes to the proper development and utilization
of human beings.(Jelinik, 1979, p.287)
The problem of human resource development begins when
a job applicant enters the recruitment process and continues
throughout employment. It is a process, a continuing
series of decisional steps, not a single event (Dunnette &
Borman, 1979). As such, organizations must recognize the
importance of spending more effort and utilizing the best
tools available at the selection stage (Schmidt & Hunter,
1979; Silver & Berke, 1981).
Traditional methods of identifying the skills, talents,
and predispositions of men and women are outmoded and do
not meet current needs (Haldane, 1974). To date, the
greatest criteria for job placement continue to be education
and prior experience, both of which have proven to have
little correlation to job success (Greenberg, 1979;
Haldane, 1974; Silver & Berke, 1981). More subjective
measures, such as interviewing and checking employment
and personal references, are in themselves not adequate
either (Silver & Berke, 1981).
What is needed is a more holistic approach: subjective
and objective measures which consider the employee as a
multi-faceted person and include personality dimensions
and preferences, and work behavior traits. Fortunately,
today we have the capacity to measure behavioral components
of jobs and job performance dimensions. We now know more
about basic structures and taxonomies of human characteris-
tics (Dunnette & Borman, 1979).
Use of the above-mentioned subjective components of
job placement have been documented in the literature.
Much has also been written about more objective measures
such as aptitude testing. The use of personality tests
and interest inventories in job placement has also been
researched. However, research about the use of information
regarding work behavior traits in employment selection, job
placement, or other personnel decisions is lacking. Re-
search of the literature revealed no citations of work done
in this area in the field of education or educational
Dunnette and Borman (1979) point out the limited work
that has been done in the area of matching personal attri-
butes with specific job characteristics, and call for
further research in this area. McCormick (1976) and Cleff
(1971) report significant relationships among job turnover,
productivity, supervisory ratings and scores on a profile
of an individual's job experience, preference scores, and
job profile scores. The emphasis here, however, is more
on matching job traits and traits of the employee's pre-
vious experience than the employee's personality traits,
natural preferred mode of working, or work behavior traits.
Different personality types excel in different areas
of the work situation (Holland, 1959). Because of certain
predispositions, some people, for example, work best under
close supervision while others are more productive and
better satisfied when they have a greater degree of autonomy
Some people are happy to give much attention to small
details and organization while others prefer to work with
an idea or the whole picture and leave the details to
someone else. If a supervisor does not recognize these
traits, he or she may assign a "detail" job to an "idea"
person, who soon becomes dissatisfied and frustrated and
quits, creating a personal and organizational deficit.
Further research is needed to learn the relationship
of individual personality and work behavior traits to job
success. The assumption is that if an employee is satis-
fied in his or her job and the supervisor rates his or her
job performance as effective, a good job match exists. If,
as a result of research, one knows the personality and work
behavior traits of successful incumbents in a particular
job, this information can be used for more effective utili-
zation of future personnel.
Successful job matching will naturally increase worker
satisfaction and productivity and will gratify more fully
the needs of both organizations and individuals. "We look
forward to the next few years as a time when personnel
selection practices can take rapid strides to assure im-
proved matches between persons and jobs for the good of
everyone" (Dunnette & Borman, 1979, p.482). One purpose of
this study was to provide information which would lead to
improved matches between persons and jobs, especially in
the field of educational administration.
Statement of the Problem
The problem of this study was to determine the rela-
tionships among work behavior type, personality function,
job satisfaction, and effectiveness of vocational education
administrators in the state of Florida.
Specifically, the study sought to answer the following
1. Within each work behavior type, will
participants be more likely to score higher
on one personality function than another?
2. Do participants' work behavior types relate
to their overall job satisfaction?
3. Do scores in job satisfaction areas relate
to work behavior type?
4. Do participants' work behavior types relate
to their effectiveness ratings?
Delimitations and Limitations
In answering the preceding questions, the following
delimitations were observed:
1. This study was limited to vocational education
administrators, and included all incumbents in
the five offices of the Vocational Division
in the state of Florida.
2. Additional data were sought from vocational
education administrators who had left their
positions within the past two years.
3. Information about work behavior type and
preference was limited to that identified by
the Marcus Paul Placement Profile.
4. Information about personality functions,
preferences and traits was limited to that
identified by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.
5. Measures regarding job satisfaction and
dissatisfaction were limited to those indicated
in the Job Satisfaction Questionnaire.
6. Measures of effectiveness were limited to those
indicated in the Role Effectiveness Questionnaire.
In addition,the following limitations were inherent in
1. Since this study was limited to vocational
education administrators in the state of
Florida, it is not possible to generalize
these findings to other occupational types.
2. The Job Satisfaction Questionnaire was
prepared specifically for vocational education
administrators and is not appropriate for use
with other populations.
3. Measures of effectiveness were limited to those
indicated by the administrators' supraordinate
and did not consider effectiveness that might
be perceived by clients or co-workers.
Justification for the Study
The literature is replete with evidence of inability
to match the right person with the right job, yet there is
a conspicuous void in the literature relating work behavior
type and personality type to worker effectiveness or job
satisfaction. This poor job matching represents a misuse
of human resources and has been a far more significant
cause of dissatisfaction and poor performance among admini-
strators than the much vaunted squeeze on pay of the last
decade (Fogarty & Reid, 1980). A glance at the advertise-
ments for educational administrators in The Chronicle of
Higher Education reveals an abundance of top and mid-level
administrative openings and very few entry-level openings,
which may signify in part, a high degree of job dissatis-
faction and an ill-fit between administrator and job
(Thomas, 1977). Clearly, more research is needed in this
area, particularly in the field of educational administra-
tion which has a high rate of turnover.
Since it was not feasible to study administrators
across-the-board, a specific population of educational
administrators who exhibit both diverse administrative
backgrounds and a high rate of turnover seemed appropriate
for this study. Vocational education administrators are
such a group, having typically come from other administra-
tive posts in education or industry (Trapnell, 1977).
Significant also is a particularly high rate of turnover
among vocational education administrators in the state of
Florida: approximately 33 per cent within the past two
years and 100 per cent within the past five years. This
rate of turnover leaves crucial gaps in services; entire
programs suffer while new administrators are being recruited
and oriented to their new positions. If more data were
available about vocational education administrators' work
behavior and personality types, personnel practices of
recruiting, hiring, training and placement could be
Since vocational education administrators represent
broad geographical areas as well as diverse administrative
roles, it is believed that the findings of this study
could be utilized for more effective personnel decision-
making regarding administrators in general.
In short, more research regarding the relationships
among work behavior type, personality function, job
satisfaction, andworker effectiveness would add to the
body of knowledge of personnel decision-making and human
resource management in educational administration.
Increasing this knowledge has implications for both
organization and individual. For the organization, there
is potential for greater utilization of human resources in
general. Specifically, potential exists for more effective
team building, better job assignment, training and promotion
decisions,plus decreased turnover and increased commitment
which come from more satisfied workers. For the individual,
a job well suited to his or her personality and work beha-
vior preferences has obvious potential for much satisfaction
and increased quality of life in general.
Information derived from this study can assist in
solving the problem of matching the right person with the
right job and thereby help increase job satisfaction and
worker effectiveness. These findings would be a valuable
contribution to the literature as well as a practical aid
for employers in making personnel decisions.
For the purpose of this study, the following assump-
tions are presented:
1. The Marcus Paul Placement Profile is a valid
and reliable instrument for measuring work
2. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is a valid
and reliable instrument for measuring
personality preference, function, and type.
3. The Job Satisfaction Questionnaire is a
valid and reliable measure of worker
4. The Role Effectiveness Questionnaire is a
valid and reliable measure of worker
5. Supervisors are the most appropriate and
valid source for measures of worker
Definition of Terms
Vocational Education Program Administrator. One who
is employed by the Department of Education and assigned to
one of five regional offices within the Division of
Vocational Education of the state of Florida. His or her
primary role is to provide consulting services and technical
assistance in a specific vocational program area to local
education agencies within the geographic region.
Vocational program area. An organized program of
instruction, offered at the middle school, junior high
school, high school, post-secondary and adult levels, in
one of six instructional subject areas: agri-business and
natural resources, home economics, business, health and
public service, industrial, marketing and distributive, and
industrial arts education.
Vocational Education Supervisor. One who is employed
by the Department of Education and assigned to administer
the activities of one of the five regional offices of the
Division of Vocational Education.
Effectiveness. The extent to which an employee meets
the role expectations of the supervisor. These expectations
encompass the supervisor's degree of satisfaction with over-
all job performance as well as degree of satisfaction with
the quality of work in specific areas of the job. For the
purpose of this study, effectiveness is defined as the
supervisor's rating on the Role Effectiveness Questionnaire.
Marcus Paul Placement Profile Terms
Marcus Paul Placement Profile (MPPP). An instrument
designed to measure work behavior type.
Energizer type. A work behavior type which describes
an individual who is interested in getting results, is
typically assertive, direct, impatient with detail, but
quite creative in the work situation.
Inducer type. A work behavior type which indicates an
individual who is people-oriented, sensitive, and optimistic
and who places more emphasis on interpersonal relations and
getting things accomplished within the group than on the
Concentrator type. A work behavior type which
describes an individual who is a loyal, steadyworker who
tends to be patient, systematic, and effective.
Producer type. A work behavior type which indicates
an individual who strives for quality, follows guidelines
carefully, and supports his or her work and decisions with
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Terms
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). An instrument
designed to measure Jungian psychological types.
Personality type. An indication of differences in
personality that result from the way individuals perceive
their world and make judgments about their perceptions.
Personality preference. One of four dichotomous
dimensions within a personality type. MBTI personality
1. Extraversion-Introversion. Refers to one's
orientation toward the world: either the
outer world of people and things or the inner
world of thoughts and ideas.
2. Judging-Perceiving. Refers to one's approach
to the outer world: either planned and
orderly or flexible and spontaneous.
3. Sensing-Intuition. Refers to the way in which
individuals become aware of their world:
either through realistic, practical evidence or
relying more on imagination and hunches.
4. Thinking-Feeling. Refers to the way in which
an individual attaches value to an experience:
either using logic and facts, or personal values.
Personality attitude. The Jungian and MBTI personality
preference of either Extravert or Introvert.
Personality function. The Jungian andMBTI personality
preferences of either Sensing or Intuition, Thinking or
Feeling, Judgment or Perception.
Organization of Subsequent Chapters
A review of the literature is presented in Chapter II.
Included are major areas of research and related literature
relevant to work behavior type, the use of Jungian concepts
and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator in personnel practices,
and general theories of job satisfaction and employee
The design and methodology of the study appear in
Chapter III. The research design, data source, data
collection, instrumentation, and data treatment are
Chapter IV presents the results and analysis of the
data. The data specific to each question addressed in the
study are summarized, followed by a presentation of the
relationships among the Marcus Paul Placement Profile, the
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, the Job Satisfaction Question-
naire and the Role Effectiveness Questionnaire.
Chapter V includes the summary of all data presented,
conclusions drawn, and recommendations made.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Organization of the Chapter
The thrust of this study was to ascertain the rela-
tionships among work behavior type, personality function,
job satisfaction, and worker effectiveness. In order to
understand these relationships, it is helpful to have some
insight into the theoretical background and relevant
research in each area.
It was apparent from examining the literature that
this topic is just now becoming significant in the fields
of administration and personnel management. The constructs
which form the basis of this study are well documented,
but research is nonexistent in the areas of work behavior
type and effective matching of persons and jobs to increase
job satisfaction and worker effectiveness (Dunnette &
Borman, 1979; Neff, 1969). Therefore, review of the litera-
ture primarily consists of the research and theories which
have led to interest in work behavior type.
The first section discusses several areas of literature
related to work behavior type. The second section presents
an overview of Jung's Typology and includes research re-
lated to the Meyers-Briggs Type Indicator as used in
personnel management. The third section consists of an
overall view of job satisfaction and emphasizes its rela-
tionship to effectiveness. The final section discusses
effectiveness as it relates to worker satisfaction and work
Work Behavior Type
Very little research has been done on work behavior type
itself. However, research has been completed in areas tan-
gential to the understanding and application of work
behavior type. An overview of the historical antecedents
of work behavior type is presented, as well as a view of
the field of industrial psychology and selected theories of
vocational choice. The importance of trait and type theory
and the development of a current model of work behavior
type are also covered.
One of the earliest writings calling attention to work
and work behavior is found in the Old Testament in which
Adam and Eve are banished from the Garden of Eden, to earn
their living by the sweat of their brows. Ancient Greece
shows its concern for matching individual abilities to types
of training and jobs in written records. The Greeks used
elaborate tests of physical skill for boys and kept records
on the results so as to monitor and guide these youths into
manhood. Socrates developed many tests to measure his
students' learning in order to judge their readiness for
further training and or work (Dunnette, 1977). Plato
recognized that individuals possessed different abilities
and sought to assign persons according to their skills so
that they could fulfill their potential and make a maximum
contribution to society. Hull (1928) cites Plato as saying:
No two persons are born exactly alike, but each
differs from the other in natural endowments, one
being suited for one occupation and another for
another. From these considerations, it follows
that all things will be produced in superior quantity
and quality, and with greater ease when each man works
at a single occupation in accordance with his
natural gifts (p.245).
This concern for matching skills, abilities and predis-
positions to appropriate occupations did not keep pace with
the growth of civilizations. Work has not been given as
prominent a place in literature as its counterparts love
and play, despite the fact that work occupies a major portion
of one's life.
Serious study of work behavior is a very recent
phenomenon (Neff, 1969) and has grown out of subspecialties
of sociology and psychology. Sociologists are more con-
cerned with the social structures and institutions within
which people work than with the individual worker or work
behavior (Nosow & Form, 1962). Psychologists who deal with
work behavior tend to fall into one of two categories:
either industry or education.
The major discipline dealing with the individual's
behavior in the work setting is industrial psychology.
This branch of behavior science emphasizes the importance
of individual differences (Landy & Trumbo, 1976). Some
researchers (Naylor, Pritchard, & Ilgen, 1980) feel that
"work behavior is not idiosyncratic" and that any theories
related to general behavior are applicable to an individual
in any context, including the work setting (p.42). Others
(Bass & Barrett, 1974; Landy & Trumbo, 1976) presume that
the work environment is, indeed, different from other
environments. Bass and Barrett (1974) state that "we can
obtain hunches and theories from general psychology appli-
cable to the performance of men at work, but these need to
be tested at the work place" (p.4).
Since this young discipline began, these beliefs and
theories have grown and changed, as has its primary thrust.
Frederick Taylor (1911) conducted the first critical inves-
tigations of work behavior. These time-and-motion studies
were done in the interest of efficient factory management
and were the forerunners of our modern field of industrial
engineering. This field has been concerned with the devel-
opment of elaborate theories and programs which deal with
human work behavior and machines (Gagne, 1962).
World War I necessitated placing thousands of men in
jobs quickly; with this need came the advent of testing. In
the decades that followed, testing has become increasingly
sophisticated and widely utilized.
The 1920's saw the emergence of concern for individual
differences in aptitude and proficiency. Management began
to consider this individuality in the design of machinery
and work stations as well as in work routines.
Later studies (Mayo, 1933; Roethlisberger and Dickson,
1939) began to shed light on the human side of work behavior
and showed that "the working human being is an extremely
complex entity, who not only varies in physical and mental
capacity but also in feelings, emotions, attitudes, beliefs,
aspirations, and ideals" (Neff, 1969, p.21).
Maslow's theory of self-actualization had tremendous
impact on modern concepts of work behavior and motivation
(Bass & Barrett, 1974). This theory postulated that human
needs could be arranged in a hierarchy which ranged from the
lowest level of physiological needs to the highest level of
self-actualization needs. He believed that the lower-level
needs were the primary motivators of workers and that when
these were satisfied, the next level of need became
Herzberg's theory of motivation and job satisfaction
also impacted industrial psychology. This theory is dis-
cussed more fully in the section of this chapter which
specifically addresses job satisfaction. Both Maslow's and
Herzberg's theories have since been seriously questioned
(Miner, 1980), but the fact remains that their theories
shaped much of the thinking in fields of business, industry,
psychology, and education, and had definite impact on the
understanding of work behavior and policies relating to it.
Much has been written regarding individual worker
behavior as it relates to organizations. Organizational
behavior concerns itself primarily with global work behavior
and its integration into the whole organization. This field
focuses on the similarities of human behavior within an
organization while industrial psychology focuses on the
differences in individual behavior, the unique needs and
behaviors of workers. Although these fields intersect,
organizational behavior research is not included here due
to its organizational rather than individual orientation.
Current concerns of persons involved with work behavior
are accurate selection practices which include matching the
right person with the right job and improving training
procedures. Other concerns are employee participation in
decision-making and overall improvement of the quality of
work life (Bass & Barrett, 1974; Dunnette & Borman, 1979;
Ouchi, 1980; Owens, 1981).
While industrial psychologists have been examining
individual work behavior, educational psychologists have had
a somewhat different focus.
Educational psychologists have been concerned with
career planning, occupational preference, and vocational
counseling. Their research deals not so much with the
psychology of work behavior as with the psychology of
occupational choice. A brief summary of the early work of
Super, Ginzberg, and Holland is appropriate since much
current vocational guidance and personnel practice is based
on these theories.
Donald Super. Using longitudinal studies, Super and
his associates at Teachers College, Columbia University,
ascertained the crucial factors and stages in vocational
development (Super, 1953, 1957, 1960; Super & Overstreet,
1960; Super, Starishevsky, Matlin & Jordaan, 1963). Their
chief supposition was that the major determining factor in
a career pattern is self-concept. While this theory has
been criticized as being too restrictive and simplistic
(Neff, 1969), Super has shown the importance of longitudinal
research in studying vocational selection and work behavior.
Eli Ginzberg. Ginzberg's background was economics and
his interest was in a theory which would help solve some of
the problems in industry related to the availability,
development and conservation of human resources. In his
books Occupational Choice (with Ginsburg, Axelrad & Herma,
1951) and The Development of Human Resources (1966),
Ginzberg et al. explain the three components of his theory.
First, he states that occupational choice is not a single
event, but is a developmental process which takes place over
a period of eight to ten years. "Each step in the process
has a meaningful relation to those which precede and follow
it" (Ginzberg, 1966, p.47). Ginzberg postulates that the
process of vocational choice is largely irreversible.
That is, experiences of the past cannot be relived nor
reversed, for they represent investments in time, money,
education, and self. "Of course, the individual can shift
even after he has tentatively committed himself to a particular
choice. But the entire process of decision-making cannot
be repeated and later decisions are limited by previous
decisions" (Ginzberg, 1966, p.47). The third component of
Ginzberg's theory is that the process of occupational choice
ends in a compromise among interests, capacities, values,
and opportunities. "Throughout the years of his development,
the individual has been trying to learn enough about
[himself or herself]... and about the opportunities and
limitations in the real world, to make an occupational
choice that will yield maximum satisfaction" (Ginzberg,
Any given occupational choice, then, is a function of
intrinsic factors such as abilities, interests, values,
and capacities; and extrinsic factors such as environmental
opportunities, demands, and constraints. Ginzberg added
this second dimension, augmenting Super's theory. Holland
further augments these two theories with his theory concern-
ing the role personality plays in vocational development.
John Holland. Holland's theory is drawn from need
theory, role theory, self theory, social learning theory,
psychoanalytic theory, and sociology (Carkhuff, Alexik &
Anderson, 1967). Holland (1959, 1966) considers hereditary
and environmental factors as primary bases for the develop-
ment of a hierarchy or pattern, a preferred mode for
dealing with the world. This preferred mode tends to propel
one toward one of six orientations or occupational groups
1. The Motoric Orientation. Persons with this
orientation enjoy activities requiring physical
strength, aggressive action, motor co-ordination,
and skill . they wish to play masculine
roles, dealing with concrete, well-defined prob-
lems as opposed to abstract, intangible ones . .
they prefer to act out rather than think through.
2. The Intellectual Orientation. Persons of this
orientation appear to be task-oriented .
[preferring to] think through rather than act out
problems. . They need to organize and under-
stand the world. They enjoy ambiguous work tasks
and interactive activities and possess somewhat
unconventional values and attitudes.
3. The Supportive Orientation. Persons of this ori-
entation prefer teaching or therapeutic roles. .
They possess verbal and interpersonal skills .
are responsible, socially oriented and accepting
of feminine impulses and roles. . They prefer
to deal with problems through feeling and inter-
personal manipulations of others.
4. The Conforming Orientation. Persons of this class
prefer structured verbal and numerical activities
and subordinate roles. They achieve their goals
through conformity. In this fashion, they obtain
satisfaction and avoid conflict and anxiety
aroused by ambiguous situations or problems
involving interpersonal relationships and physical
5. The Persuasive Orientation. Persons of this class
prefer to use their verbal skills in situations
which provide opportunities for dominating,
selling, or leading others. They conceive of
themselves as strong masculine leaders. They
avoid well-defined work situations. They are
concerned with power and status.
6. The Esthetic Orientation. Persons of this
orientation prefer indirect relationships with
others. They [are] artistic . need individual
expression, are more feminine, and have less ego
From these major life styles or behavioral orientations,
one can make predictions concerning the success of indi-
vidual career decisions (Osipaw, Ashby & Wall, 1966)
because, states Holland (1959), "persons with particular
personality patterns achieve in some environments and not
in others" (p.38).
In summary then, self concept plays an important role
in the development of personality and therefore in one's
predisposition toward a particular work behavior. One
might extrapolate from Ginzberg's theory that not only is
choosing a career path a compromise and a process, so too
is matching the right person with the right job. It is
dynamic, not a one-time match (Dunnette &Borman, 1979).
It stands to reason, also, that the more information one
has about one's own personality and work behavior, the more
one can find appropriate opportunities to utilize talents
and develop potential.
Trait and Type Theory
In examining work behavior type, one must also explore
the historical antecedents found in typology and trait
theory. In doing so, it should be remembered that for as
long as there has been language, human beings have attempted
to describe and categorize their fellowmen. For
example, in ancient Athens, Theophrastus described 30
typical characteristics in vivid and precise language
(Geier, 1979), and Hippocrates employed the types Sanguine,
Choleric, Melancholic, and Phlegmatic in describing his
patients (Cattell, 1946).
One would think, then, with so much time spent in this
area, that describing behavior would be an exact science by
now, but "until a hundred years ago, little advance had
been made on the methods of classical times" (Cattell, 1950,
p.135). Throughout history, people have been described by
the same logical language used to describe things. Cattell
(1950) further states that "we have used either qualities
or categories, which, in describing organisms, we call
respectively, traits and types" (p.135).
For decades "trait" theorists and "type" theorists
have been divided in their view of the best method of
categorizing behavior. For example, Geier (1980) states
that "the type approach is too limited; individuals cannot
be fitted into categories.. In contrast,the trait approach
provides a greater latitude for describing individual
differences" (p.3). One is reminded by Cattell (1950) that
"descriptions by types and by traits do not constitute two
distinct methods, but rather extremes of the same statis-
tical procedure" (p.135).
Traits and types serve different purposes, however.
Types are used when broad categorizations of behavior are
desired. Traits, on the other hand, are more specific and
not as broadly applicable. Our common language indicates
that an individual "has a trait but fits a type" indicating
that types do not exist in nature or people but rather in
the eye of the observer (Allport, 1961, p.349). Allport
(1961) further states that "Traits reside in the person;
types in some outside point of view" (p.349). Thus, trait
and type are indispensable concepts in psychology, each
having its own place and function (Allport, 1961; Cattell,
1946; Murphy, 1947).
Types indicate that certain individuals resemble other
individuals in some respect. Murphy (1947) defines type
central form about which variations center...In a
given group, persons having a majority of the
characteristics which are common or peculiar to the
group are said to be typical of that group. Type
is thus a matter of averages. It is that which
marks off or characterizes a group of persons.
Typology, specifically that of Jung, will be discussed more
fully in a later section of this chapter.
Traits have been studied, measured, categorized, and
defined by numerous psychological theorists. May (1932)
states that "traits are only convenient names given to types
or qualities of behavior which have elements in common.
They are not psychological entities but rather categories
for the classification of habits" (p.133). Allport (1937),
who spent a number of years studying and classifying traits,
states that "traits underlie what is 'characteristic' in
conduct" (p.334), and furthermore, "a common trait is a
category for classifying functionally equivalent forms of
behavior in a general population of people" (p. 349).
Murphy (1947) defines trait as "anything by means of which
one person may be distinguished from another" (p.999).
It will be shown in the following section how one
psychologist developed a system of types based on four
primary emotions. These types, which began as clusters of
traits, later led to the formulation of a model for
categorizing work behavior.
Evolution of Work Behavior Types
The study of work behavior traits and types as known
today, began with the work of William Moulton Marston,
psychologist, professor, and scientist. Marston was very
much involved in the controversy of his day regarding the
question of whether or not emotions, meanings, intentions,
and other elements of consciousness had any physiological
correlates, especially in the brain. He published prolifi-
cally and often criticized his colleagues. "Psychologists
seem to have failed to find motor consciousness, all these
years, simply because they did not know what they were
looking for, and consequently did not recognize motation
[feeling as motor consciousness] as such when it was re-
peatedly thrust upon their attention" (Marston, 1928,
p.63). However, having committed himself to this stand,
he writes, "I have entered the gates of motor consciousness
long guarded by psychology's sacred taboo. Once one has
entered this forbidden territory, however, one finds the
building materials for affective and emotional theories
ready-cut and prepared for immediate use" (p.77).
Marston built his first theories on the work of his
German predecessor, Wundt, who dared to depart from the
then current notion that there were only two emotions:
pleasantness and unpleasantness. Wundt, in his Grundzuge
der Physiologischen Psychologie of 1896, proposed that
there were six primary emotions: pleasantness and un-
pleasantness, excitement and depression, tension and
relaxation (Marston, 1928). Marston thought that Wundt was
on the verge of accuracy, but that his theory needed more
scientific research. He spent many years thereafter,
building on these original ideas, and through research
began perfecting his own theories.
In his book, Emotions of Normal People (1928),
Marston laid the foundation for greater understanding of
human behavior in personal as well as work situations.
The development of the work behavior instrument used in
this study owes its theoretical inception to his early
research and writing. The description of Marston's contri-
butions will be divided into four areas. First, the
explanation of primary emotions will be presented, followed
by a description of each emotion. Next, Marston's two
axis model is explained, and finally the actual clustered
traits are listed.
Primary emotions. The first tenet of Marston's (1928)
theory relates to what he calls primary emotions. He
explained in great detail the physiological and psychologi-
cal interactions which encompass emotions, and defined
a primary emotion as
an emotion which contains the maximal amount of
alliance, antagonism, superiority of strength of
the motor self in respect to the motor stimulus.
His idea was that a primary emotion may be designated
according to an individual's reaction in a favorable envi-
ronment (alliance) or unfavorable environment (antagonism)
and according to his or her actions being active (superior
strength) or passive (inferior strength). He emphasized
the organism's need for balance between active and passive
in its interaction with the environment. He also recognized
that the intensity of an emotion or subsequent reaction to
a stimulus, depends to a large degree on the individual's
Piaget's concepts of adaption which encompass assimi-
lation (the active component) and accommodation (the passive
component) are consistent with Marston's model. Flavell
(1963) explains that assimilation involves structuring or
restructuring one's environment, or "bending a reality
event to the templet of one's ongoing structure" (p.48).
Accommodation, on the other hand, implies one's learning
to desire what the environment has to offer, or "adapting
to the variegated requirements or demands which the world
of objects imposes upon one" (Flavell, 1963, p. 48).
Marston and Piaget both realized that these aspects are not
totally separable in the living organism but do give a
basis from which to view behavior.
Marston (1928), then, named the four primary emotions:
Dominance, Compliance, Submission and Inducement. He took
great care in selecting these terms, being certain that
each word accurately describe the "objective relationship
between motor self and motor stimulus" and that each word
"must suggest the experience in question" (p.107).
Geier (1967, 1979, 1980), who added much to the under-
standing and practical utilization of Marston's work,
Marston's model of four primary emotions is to be
viewed as more than a typology system. Instead, it
is a dynamic, in that it recognizes that human
beings respond as situations require them to respond;
that whatever their biological diversities, they will,
if capable of learning, take on the attributes the
situations call for. This then, is a situational
theory held in high esteem by current psychological
researchers. (1979, p.9)
Thus, this situational theory contained not only the four
emotions, but also a dynamic model for understanding beha-
vioral responses which considered both active and passive
orientations to the environment.
In an earlier research report, Marston (1927) explained
his four primary emotions in the light of his own physio-
logical research and correlated this closely with Watson's
(1925) findings as reported in Behaviorism. By the follow-
ing year when his first book Emotions of Normal People was
published, Marston (1928) had added much to his model in
terms of describing behaviors associated with the emotions.
Presented here is a brief summary of his physiological
explanation of each emotion, followed by a behavioral
description. He begins by describing the most basic
Dominance. Marston (1927) defines Dominance as a
"central release of additional motor energy directed toward
dominating obstacles to a reaction already in progress
(p.349). Further, the dominance emotion consists of "an
increase of the self to overcome an opponent, . .a feeling
of an outrush of energy to remove opposition" (Marston,
1928, p.140). Geier (1979) updated and clarified some of
Marston's terminology and defines Dominance as "active
positive movement in an antagonistic environment" (p.2).
Dominance, states Marston (1928) "seems to comprise
the most fundamental and primitive type of emotional inte-
gration found in animals or human beings" (p.119). The
emotion Dominance is not only responsible for man's survival
as a species, but is also the primary life-propelling emo-
tion of infants for the first three years of life (Marston,
1927; Watson, 1925). Dominance has given impetus to much
art, music, and literature throughout history. One piece
which succinctly describes Dominance is Henley's "Invictus":
Out of the night that covers me,
Black as the Pit from pole to pole,
I thank whatever gods may be
For my unconquerable soul.
In the fell clutch of circumstance
I have not winced nor cried aloud.
Under the bludgeonings of chance
My head is bloody, but unbowed.
It matters not how strait the gait,
How charged with punishments the scroll,
I am the master of my fate;
I am the captain of my soul. (1979, p.245)
Compliance. Marston (1927) states that Compliance
ranks with Dominance as a basic emotional response.
"Compliance means control (but not inhibition) of tonic
motor discharge reinforcement by a phasic reflex" (p.350).
Compliance can also mean taking an interest in the stimuli.
It "is not to be confused with inaction, or inhibition"
(p.351). Later, Marston (1928) defines Compliance as a
decrease of the motor self to let an opponent move
the organism as if by will; either passively, by
making the self give up some dominant activity, or
actively, by compelling the organism to move in
some anti-dominant way...[It is a] feeling of
acceptance of an object or force as inevitably just
what it is, followed by self-yielding sufficient to
bring about harmonious readjustment of self to
Geier (1979) states that compliance is a cautious tentative
response designated to reduce antagonistic factors in an
unfavorable environment" (p.2).
Compliance may arise from fear, from being startled,
from sudden change or simply from voluntary surrender. It
results from the recognition (or belief) that forces or
stimuli outside oneself are immanently stronger. Compliance
may also result from an enduring or repeated environmental
stimulus which is intense. That same stimuli, if experi-
enced only once may be ineffectual, whereas repeated over
a period of time, it brings compliance (Marston, 1928).
For example, many people can take a one-time punishment,
even though it may be extremely harsh, but a prolonged
punishment of a much lesser degree brings compliance more
quickly. Terrorists, interrogators, some employers, and
even parents have practiced this for centuries.
Compliance, or giving over oneself, surrendering, is
often but not always unpleasant; it can be considered part
of "being in the flow" of the universe. One must surrender
self to be at one with God or nature, to feel empathy for
a friend, or at times to be an effective member of a team.
As the Chinese believe, it is part of the Tao, the flow.
Dominance and Compliance. Dominance and Compliance
form one axis. There are times when these emotions occur
in varying degrees in different individuals. Regardless of
their order or intensity, the organism strives to maintain
a balance between the two (Marston, 1928). It will be
shown in a later section how this translates into specific
behaviors and behavior types.
Marston (1927) concurs with Watson (1925) that the
emotions Submission and Inducement (Watson's love mechan-
isms), are more difficult to study than Dominance and
Compliance. However, Marston expands Watson's ideas and
broadens the scope of the behavioral categories to encom-
pass more than love mechanisms, thereby making these primary
emotions applicable to an entire spectrum of behaviors.
The primary emotion, Submission,will be considered first.
Submission. Marston (1927) defines Submission as a
"voluntary yielding to whatever stimuli may be imposed .
It does not seem to overwhelm, or dominate the subject
organism by force, but rather brings about a spontaneous
lessening of the subject's resistance to it until the
subject has become less strong than the stimulus" (pp.356-
357). Submission can also be thought of as willingness,
or the introspective meaning of mutual warmth of feeling
between the person submitting and the person submitted to
(Marston, 1928). Geier (1979) defines submission as "passive
aggressiveness in a favorable environment" (p.2).
While compliance is often unpleasant, or at least not
optimally desirable, submission is usually pleasant. It
emanates from the natural law wherein the "weaker attractive
force progressively weakens itself by facilitating the
compulsion exercised upon itself by the stronger attractive
force. .The lesser ally submits to the greater by decreasing
itself to make the alliance closer" (Marston, 1928, p.222).
A simple distinction might be that one complies with an
order but submits to a request.
Watson (1925) terms submission the "love response" and
states that it is a natural, unlearned emotional reaction.
For lovers, submission is a willingness to give of oneself
completely and without question for the sake of the other.
In more general behavior, submission takes the form of con-
sideration, service to others, selflessness, accommodation,
Inducement. The final primary emotion explained by
Marston (1927) is Inducement. It is the "active solicitation
of attention and stimulation [from the other]..... [It is]
calculated to reinforce submission reactions in order to
induce further submission from another individual" (p.539).
He further states that "Inducement may be defined as central
release of additional motor energy directed toward drawing
forth, or inducing submission responses from another indi-
Marston's 1928 definition states that
Inducement consists of an increase of the self, and
making of the self more completely allied with the
stimulus person, for the purpose of establishing
control over that person's behavior. . .The definite
characteristic of inducement is a feeling that is
utterly necessary to win the voluntary submission of
another person to do what the subject says. This
feeling [is] increasingly pleasant in proportion as
the other person submits. (p.273)
Geier (1979) defines Inducement as "active positive movement
in a favorable environment" (p.2).
Inducement behavior can be seen in those who gain
voluntary submission of others. It most often involves
persuasion, personal charm, friendliness, and frequently
seduction or subtle manipulation. One of the greatest
examples of inducement in our culture is advertising, in
which industry and business use every emotional appeal to
convince observers that it is in their best interest to buy
the product on display. Every positive relationship contains
some inducement behavior, for there must be inducement and
submission for alliance to occur.
Submission and Inducement. It has been shown that
Dominance and Compliance form one axis. Similarly,
Submission and Inducement form the other axis of Marston's
model. They are at opposite ends of a continuum, being
separated by intensity of response, either active or passive;
and orientation of the individual, either outward or inward.
While dominance is antagonistic toward its subject and
demands compliance, inducement is allied with its subject
and requests submission. Inducement and submission are
like the law of gravity. "When two physical objects exer-
cise attractive or gravitational force upon one another,
the smaller body is drawn toward the larger. During this
movement, the stronger allied body controls and directs the
attractive force of the smaller object" (Marston, 1928,
p.270). These two forces remain in alliance throughout
the interaction. Thus, we have the traditional male-female
relationship. Although current ideas about the male role of
inducement and the female role of submission are changing,
the principles of inducement and submission remain the same.
The key word is alliance. Much in the literature since the
humanistic movement calls for replacing the dominance-
compliance relationship with the inducement-submission
relationship in the work situation. Again, the key is
alliance of purpose.
The Two-Axis Model. Marston's theory of the four pri-
mary emotions is expressed as a two axis model which aids
in the understanding of behavior. Marston's model appears
as Figure 1 and illustrates that the emotions Dominance and
Compliance form one axis, and Inducement and Submission
Figure 1 Marston's Two Axis Model
form the other. This is to imply that each pair of emotions
exists on a continuum, being separated by degree of activity
or passivity and outward or inward orientation.
The axes are divided horizontally to designate other
similarities. The upper dimensions Dominance and Induce-
ment comprise the active component (what Piaget might term
assimilation), and lower dimensions Submission and Com-
pliance make up the passive component (Piaget's accommoda-
tion). Outward and inward orientation is viewed in the
same manner. It will be shown later that Marston's active
and outward orientation dimensions relate to Jung's Extra-
vert and Intuitive functions and the passive and inward
dimensions relate to his Introvert and Sensing functions.
Geier (1979) added to Marston's model the idea that
persons whose traits cluster predominately around the
Dominance or the Inducement dimensions have a process ori-
entation while those whose traits cluster predominately
around the Submission or Compliance dimensions are more
product-oriented. Process-oriented persons "want to shape
the environment according to their particular view. These
are individuals who continually test and push the limits"
(Geier, 1979, p.3). By contrast, Product-oriented indivi-
duals "focus on the how and the why" (Geier, 1979, p.3).
The circle in the center of Figure 1 indicates that
the dimensions are not all-inclusive labels but rather that
they designate tendencies. Individuals exhibit some of all
the types of behaviors but their behavior traits will tend
to cluster around one dimension more than others.
Clustered Traits. Marston later clustered traits for
each of the four emotions, which are listed in Figure 2.
This list helps transform Marston's physiological data and
theories into a useful model for understanding normal
behavior. As did Marston, Cattell (1946) sought to charac-
terize a person by providing a short list of main common
traits and then constructing a psychograph or profile of
the individual. Although Marston did not statistically
confirm his trait clusters as did Cattell, later researchers
(Allport & Odbert, 1936; Geier, 1967, 1979, 1980) used fac-
tor analysis as suggested by Cattell in substantiating trait
clusters. Geier (1980) states, "I have found that many of
Marston's suggested adjectives for each of his four emotions
have correlated together at least R = .60" (p.14).
It is interesting to note that many psychologists of
the past few decades have attempted to explain personality
in terms of clustered traits. For the sake of comparison,
the literature was examined to discover other models which
might either support or refute Marston's model. Most the-
ories or models contain numerous clusters and many are
pathologically-oriented, while Marston's model uses four
simple categories with cluster traits to support each
dimension. Marston's model has an explicit non-pathological
orientation, which is most appropriate for this study.
force of character
"getting down to
being a realist
"swimming with the
"a good child"
"being an easy mark"
"making an impression"
"selling an idea"
"winning a person's
"winning a person's
Figure 2 Marston's Behavioral Description of the Four Primary Emotions
Further, most trait psychologists (Allport, 1937; Allport
& Odbert, 1936; Cattell, 1946; Duffy, 1949; Eysenck, 1947)
begin with long lists of traits and later try to cluster
them into categories. Marston begins with physiological
responses and universal law and later adds traits as a
natural product of his findings.
Figure 2 shows Marston's behavioral descriptions, or
traits, which describe the four primary emotions. The order
of presentation has been alphabetized to facilitate cross-
referencing with the Geier list (Figure 3 ) and the
Marcus Paul Placement Profile list (Figure 4 ).
Geier (1980) believed that Marston's list of traits
was particularly valuable because it provided a theoretical
basis for predicting behavior. He thought that
the answer for formulating a theory lay in Marston's
construct of the primary emotions--tied to the motor
self. The primary emotions of the motor self--
dominance, inducement, submission, and compliance--
defined how the motor self responded to either an
antagonistic or a favorable environment. Standing
for clusters of traits, these words are the major
parameters for predicting the predominant way the
individual perceives the world and will tend to
act. Marston also allowed for a dynamic view of the
individual who responded to various situations with
different behavior. The primary emotions provide a
language and a theoretical frame-work for determining
the individual differences in people. (p.26)
Geier (1967) began researching Marston's constructs in
a trait approach to leadership. The study consisted of 16
leaderless groups and proposed to answer questions regarding
the method of collecting data by way of focused interviews
and diaries, and gives information about participants' use
of trait terminology in describing the style of group
members. Results indicated that diaries and focused
interviews were effective methods of recording group par-
ticipants' perceptions of their own behavior traits and
the behavior traits of others. A high degree of agreement
existed among the subjects in their perceptions of member
behavior. It was concluded that participants can accurately
describe their experience within a given situation. It was
also found that subjects utilized trait terminology to
describe the behavior and leadership style of others. The
finding which later guided the format of an instrument to
discern work behavior type dealt with descriptions of traits
which were not only most like a subject, but also least like
the subject. Geier discovered that participants reported
the traits of others in terms of what they were most, while
their terminology for describing themselves was in terms of
behavior they exhibited least.
Building on Marston's theory and cluster traits, and
utilizing the list of traits by Alport and Odbert (1936),
Geier developed his own list of traits. It included words
which were more in keeping with today's language. Geier
(1980) states that
one must consider semantic change, or change of
meaning. Then, too some words acquire negative
connotations over time, or with much repetition
have lost their original vividness and become worn
and faded (p.12)
Figure 3 presents Geier's updated list of cluster traits.
Figure 3 Geier's Revised List of Traits Which Correspond
to the Four Primary Emotions
force of character
life of the party
* Marston's (1928)original terms
Note that Geier has listed most of the traits as adjectives,
making them more grammatically compatible and easier with
which to work.
Geier's list of clustered traits has been used in fur-
ther research. In an effort to develop dental teams,
Meskin (1974) conducted a study of 300 dentists in which
each dentist was asked to rate his or her behavior in a
series of forced-choice groupings of Geier's clustered
traits. The dentists were later observed in their work
setting. The study served to correlate actual behavior with
the specific categories. Dentists who rated themselves as
high in Dominance or Influencing reflected these character-
istics in their practice. For example, Dominance and Influ-
encing types dislike details and, as might be expected,
these dentists tended to hire more auxiliary personnel to
do the detail work than did the other types. Being out-
going and process-oriented, they were more accepting of the
team approach to dentistry. Given the Dominance type
energy and drive to achieve, it is not surprising to discover
that the high Dominance dentists worked more hours than did
other types. By contrast, high Steadiness and high Compli-
ance types preferred to do more of the work themselves and
to work alone. They hired fewer auxiliary personnel and
were reluctant to utilize the team approach to dentistry.
Marcus Paul Placement Profile
In the late 1970's the Marcus Paul Placement Profile
(MPPP) was developed using Marston's model and the research
of Geier. The intention was to produce an instrument which
would discern work behavior type for the purpose of matching
individuals and jobs. The instrument was designed to be
utilized as a tool in the educational setting for student
personnel and placement as well as in the business setting
for recruiting, job placement, work assignment, team build-
ing, and training (Bauch, 1981).
In keeping with the work of Argyris (1964), Blake and
Mouton (1964), McGregor (1960), and others who have brought
humanistic principles into the work place, the aim was to
design an instrument which would increase understanding of
work behavior, both for employer and employee. Bauch (1981)
believed that work behavior traits and types were not judg-
ments of work behaviors but were terms to be employed to
increase understanding of work behaviors. Accordingly, he
felt that any terminology used should be positive or neutral,
and that the terms in the profile should reflect work
behaviors. Therefore, some of Marston and Geier's terminol-
ogy was modified for application in the work setting. Words
with negative connotations were replaced by terms which were
more positive or neutral. For example, the titles of
Marston's original categories were Dominance, Inducement,
Submission, and Compliance. Geier changed these to
Dominance, Influence, Steadiness, and Compliance. In the
MPPP, the work behavior types appear as Energizer, Inducer,
Concentrator, and Producer.
The term "Energizer" seems to fit the set of behaviors
which cluster on the Dominance dimension, and has the added
benefit of a positive connotation. It is also more descrip-
tive of this type as found in the work setting. The term
"Inducer" is both positive and accurate in its description
of the work behaviors found in this dimension. In naming
the third type, Marston's Submission type and Geier's
Steadiness type became the MPPP Concentrator type. The term
"Concentrator" appears more positive than the term "Sub-
mission" and is a more inclusive description of this
particular work behavior type than "Steadiness", although
steadiness is one quality of this dimension. The term
"Producer" replaced Marston and Geier's label "Compliance".
As with the other changes, Producer is both more positive
and more descriptive of this particular type. These labels
were also changed from adjectives to nouns to denote a
dimension or type, rather than a trait (Bauch, 1981).
Figure 4 lists the MPPP work behavior traits under each
type heading. A comparison of the MPPP list with Geier's
list (Figure 3) and Marston's list (Figure 2) reveals the
semantic changes which have evolved from Marston's descrip-
tions of the primary emotions. The trait names from the
MPPP list are employed in the MPPP in the form of 24 sets
of forced choice items. In each set, respondents indicate
the term which is most descriptive of his or her work
behavior and the term which is least descriptive of his
or her work behavior. This format was derived from Geier's
seeks new ideas
* Marston's (1928) original terms
Figure 4 Marcus Paul Placement Profile List of Traits
(1967) research which indicated that individuals frequently
describe themselves in terms of behaviors or traits which
are least like their own.
Upon completion of the instrument, the responses are
entered into a computer which is pre-programmed for the
MPPP, and the individual's work behavior profile is genera-
ted instantly. The profile includes identification of one
of the four work behavior types and a narrative describing
the individual's strengths and tendencies in the work
Work Behavior Type and Vocational Development
It is interesting to note the relationships between
work behavior types and the theories of vocational develop-
ment. Super's (1953) self-concept theory of vocational
choice is tied to a predisposition to not only the type of
work one finds satisfying, but the particular behaviors
which one brings to the work environment. There also
appear to be similarities between Holland's six Orienta-
tion groups and the MPPP work behavior types. When Holland
(1966) describes the Persusasive Orientation, he might well
be describing the Energizer work behavior type. Both are
comfortable dominating others, are concerned with power and
status, and think of themselves as strong leaders. His
description of the Supportive Orientation applies to the
Inducer work behavior type as well, in that they both
prefer roles which require verbal and interpersonal skills,
and both are people-oriented. Holland's Conforming
Orientation and the MPPP Producer type are quite similar.
Both prefer structured activities and subordinate roles,
and both try to avoid ambiguity and conflict. The descrip-
tion of the Intellectual Orientation fits the Concentrator
work behavior type, but this parallel is not as strong as
the others. Both the Intellectual and the Concentrator are
task oriented and have a need to categorize and understand
the world. However, the Concentrator is not comfortable
with ambiguous work tasks as is the Intellectual.
Further research would be required to ascertain whether
or not correlations between Holland's orientations and the
MPPP work behavior types are statistically significant.
Combining the research which led to the formulation of work
behavior type and to Holland's theories of vocational choice
could lead to a list of viable occupations in which specific
work behavior types would find a comfortable environment and
an opportunity for optimal utilization of their skills.
Such an environment would increase motivation and effective-
ness as well as enhance feelings of satisfaction and self-
It is also conceivable that both Holland's orientations
and the MPPP work behavior types would correlate positively
with Jung's personality types and the Myers-Briggs person-
ality functions. The next section presents an overview of
Jung's typology and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator as they
relate to personnel selection and placement.
Summary. It is interesting to note the many divergent
fields which have led to the development of an instrument
to measure work behavior type. The fields of sociology,
psychology, education, business and industry, and technology
have all contributed. Since the turn of the century when
instruments were being developed to differentiate individual
aptitudes, and studies were being conducted to increase
worker efficiency and productivity, the beginnings of
interest in job placement and work behavior became evident.
As concern for the worker as an individual grew, many new
theories and practices, whose basis was more humanitarian,
The focus has gone from studies of the unskilled assem-
bly line worker, to semi-skilled laborers, to professional
engineers and accountants. Now, the focus is increasingly
on the organization as an integrated whole. The current
movement is toward maximum participation of employees in
making decisions and setting objectives which effect them.
There is increased concern for appropriate matching of job
and employee. Abovs all, there is a need to understand
work behavior types so that each employee can be placed in
the most appropriate job, effective teams can be formed,
training can be more meaningful, and workers can utilize
more of their potential.
Jung's Typology and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
This section presents an overview of Jung's Typology
and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and includes reports
of related research in the areas of job satisfaction and
The instrument used in this study to measure person-
ality function is the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI).
It is based on the work of Carl Jung (1971) who stated that
types are simplified descriptions of the average behavior
of individuals belonging to particular groups. Jung (1923)
wanted to devise a method of classifying personalities, a
typology whose type designations were equal and in which
one type was not valued any higher than another.
His type theory contains two attitude dimensions and
four basic function dimensions. The attitudes are extra-
version and introversion, which Jung (1971) explains in
terms of libido, or psychic energy. This is the energy
which performs the work of the personality. A person is
considered an introvert type whose libido is turned
toward the inner world of ideas. Such an individual bases
decisions on his or her internal, subjective world. By
contrast, one whose actions are determined by the objective
world is considered an extravert.
Jung (1971) continues by explaining the four functions,
which are thinking, feeling, sensation, and intuition.
Thinking is the process of combining ideas in order to arrive
at a concept or a solution to a problem. Feeling is an
evaluation function and is based on the degree to which a
thought gives rise to feelings of pleasantness or unpleas-
antness. Sensation is sense perception of conscious
experiences through the use of the sounds, smells, sights,
taste, or touch. Intuition is instinctively knowing
something. It does not require external stimuli. When
external sensory stimuli are involved in perception, one is
using sensing, but if perceptions cannot be traced to con-
scious sensory experience, one is using intuition. Jung
(1971) differentiates the two in stating that sensation is
perception which occurs by way of the unconscious. Sen-
sation and intuition are functions which deal with facts.
Thinking and feeling are functions of judgment.
As individuals develop, they begin to favor some
functions. Because those functions become more comfortable
for the individuals, they also become more pronounced and
the counterpart functions recede. Each individual has both
a primary function and an auxiliary function (Jung, 1971).
According to Jung (1971), this function shapes the type.
If the primary function is on the sensation/intuition
dimension, then the auxiliary function will be on the
thinking/feeling dimension, and vice versa. For example,
if one's primary function is intuition, then the auxiliary
function would be either thinking or feeling. If the
primary function is thinking, then the auxiliary function
would be either sensation or intuition. Figure 5 depicts
the dimensions and their combinations.
When the attitude dimension of introvert/extravert is
added to the two function dimensions, thinking/feeling and
sensation/intuition, the eight basic personality types
emerge (Jung, 1971).
Figure 5 Jung's Perception-Judging Combinations
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
Extending Jung's theory of typology, Isabel Briggs
Myers and Katherine Briggs developed the Myers-Briggs Type
Indicator (MBTI), the instrument used in this study to
measure personality function. In formulating the MBTI they
added another function dimension. Myers (1962) called this
function perception/judgment. This is used in determining
the dominant function of the personality type. Perception
is described by Myers (1962) as the process whereby one
becomes aware of his or her environment, and judgment is
the process of coming to conclusions about what is being
perceived. If an individual is of the perceiving mode,
then his or her most preferred or dominant function is
either sensing or intution. If one is of the judging mode,
then the dominant function is either thinking or feeling.
Myers (1962) explains that the sensing/intuition index
is independent of the thinking/feeling index. Thus, either
type of perception can combine with either type of judgment,
producing one of four possible outcomes:
Sensing plus Thinking
Sensing plus Feeling
Intuition plus Feeling
Intuition plus Thinking
Each of these combinations produces different kinds of
personality which vary in interests, needs, values, and
habits. For example, individuals who prefer the Sensing
and Thinking functions will focus their attention on facts,
handling these on an impersonal basis. Thus, they tend
to become practical and matter-of-fact and develop tech-
nical skills. These poeple tend to prefer vocations which
deal with facts and objects such as the applied sciences,
business,or production (Myers, 1976). Figure 6 lists some
characteristics of the various combinations of personality
Use of the MBTI
Much research has been reported using the MBTI in
counseling and education and especially in the allied health
professions. However, the use of the MBTI in personnel
placement or other aspects of business has not been well
documented, as evidenced by a void in the literature.
Several studies have shown significant correlations
between MBTI type and career choice. Myers and Davis
(1964) conducted a 12-year follow-up study of 4,274
physicians and concluded that type was associated with
vocational choice. They explain that the reason seems to
people like to use their preferred kind of perception
and their preferred kind of judgment, and tend to
choose occupations that give them that choice.
(Myers & Davis, 1964, p.9)
Other findings have since corroborated those of Myers and
Davis (Bowling, 1973; Brown, 1973; Fellers, 1974; Hill,
1974; McCaulley & Tonesk, 1974; Otis & Weiss, 1973).
Williams (1975) studied 306 medical technologists
using the MBTI and the Job Descriptive Index (JDI) to
discern the relationship between personality type and
job satisfaction. The JDI, on which the job satisfaction
Thus they tend
and find scope
with facts and
(Myers, 1976, p. 3)
Figure 6 Effects of the Combination of Perception and Judgment
instrument for this study is based, is explained more
thoroughly later in this chapter. The JDI is comprised
of five areas of job satisfaction: work, pay, promotion,
supervision, and co-workers. Results of this study indi-
cate that those with the Extravert preference were less
satisfied with promotion policies than those with the
Introvert preference. Also, those who exhibited a Feeling
preference were more satisfied with their co-workers and
with pay than those with a Thinking preference.
As evidenced by a lack of literature, the use of the
MBTI in business in the United States has not been well
documented. The Center for Applications of Psychological
Type (CAPT) reports that many businesses are currently
using the MBTI but research is lacking (McCauley, 1982).
In workshops for managers, W. F. Pilder (1981), an
organizational consultant, uses the MBTI in assessing
managerial style, and in relating adult development to
organizational development. He states that "the majority
of the workforce in this country has need for meaningful
work" (p.l). He emphasizes the fact that it is up to the
manager to begin to relate the day to day demands of
business to the personal needs of the worker. In order to
do this, he or she must have a deeper understanding of
his or her own development. Pilder reports that the MBTI
is a powerful tool for fostering understanding of self and
others within the organization. "The perspective provided
by the MBTI is much more effective than any number of
techniques preferred as solutions to current management
He points out that the current fascination with
Japanese management techniques indicates that management
is beginning to realize that the American workforce has
lost its spirit. "The art of Japanese management," he
is the ability to inspire loyalty, intimacy and
trust in their workforce. We must do the same.
Yet to do so requires that we now go deeper in
our thinking about developing people and
He views the MBTI as the most practical way for management
to restore spirit to the workplace (Pilder, 1981).
The Japanese have been using the MBTI for a number
of years. Oshwa (1975) reports that translation of the
MBTI began in 1964.
We examined the reliability of each index and
conducted validity studies. We began to use the
MBTI formally in 1968. . .[Since that time] about
366,000 persons took the MBTI in Japan. (p.l)
He reports studies relating the MBTI to specific jobs
and occupations. For example, in a study of 56 top-level
managers of large companies, 64 per cent were Extraverts,
57 per cent were Sensing, 68 per cent were Thinking, and
66 per cent were Judging. In another study of 366 mid-
level managers, 63 per cent were extraverts, 72 per cent
were Sensing, 67 per cent were Thinking and 64 per cent
were Judging. The two studies reveal that both top and
mid-level managers in Japan tend to be Extraverted
Sensing types who use Thinking and Judging functions.
In a study relating job success to type, Oshawa (1975)
compared the performance of 40 factory supervisors of a
large manufacturing company. Results showed that those who
were rated very high as supervisors were predominately
Thinking and Judging types.
Believing that personality traits are factors in
individual job satisfaction, Oshawa (1975) conducted
several studies to ascertain the relationship of personality
function to job satisfaction. Of 240 foreman in a food
production company, Extraverts who prefer the Judging
function rated themselves as most satisfied with their
jobs. Other studies of sales managers showed that the
more satisfied the manager, the more likely he or she is to
be Extraverted (Oshawa, 1975).
The MBTI has been shown to be an appropriate instrument
for use in the work setting. Its usefulness is only
beginning to be discovered in America where there is a
movement in management circles toward more integration of
personal needs and development with goals and policies of
the organization. More information is needed. Researching
the relationship of individual job satisfaction and effec-
tiveness to personality traits using the MBTI, is a step in
that direction. Job satisfaction, as it relates to these
factors, is explored further in the next section.
This section of the review of literature describes
how job satisfaction relates to work behavior type,
personality function, and worker effectiveness. It begins
with a definition and overview, followed by a brief history
and report of current theories. Discussions of satisfaction
measurement and job satisfaction as it relates to worker
There is no universal definition for job satisfaction.
Most researchers use their own operational definition
(Gruneberg, 1979). Wanous and Lawler (1972) list nine
different definitions, each based on a different theoretical
orientation to job satisfaction, and each yielding different
measures. In general, job satisfaction refers to the indi-
vidual's emotional reaction to a particular job. Locke
(1976) states that job satisfaction is a pleasurable,
positive state of emotions which results from the appraisal
of one's job or job experience. Davis' (1977) definition
is particularly relevant to this study because he relates
degree of job satisfaction to the fit between employee and
job. He states that
job satisfaction is the favorableness or unfavor-
ableness with which employees view their work.
It results when there is a fit between job
characteristics and the wants of employees. It
expresses the amount of congruence between one's
expectation of the job and the rewards that the
job provides. (p.74)
It should be noted that the term job satisfaction is
not synonymous with morale. Job satisfaction is an indi-
vidual state of mind, whereas morale is the feeling of
commitment to and oneness with a group (Blum, 1956).
Motivation is another term to consider. Byers and Rue
(1979) point out that, while the terms job satisfaction and
motivation are often used interchangeably, they are not
synonymous. Satisfaction reflects an employee's attitude
toward the job while motivation refers to a drive to
perform. The factors determining satisfaction are dif-
ferent from those which determine motivation. The two are
closely linked, however.
Motivation results in added effort that in turn
leads to increased performance...The result of
high satisfaction is increased commitment to the
organization, which may or may not result in better
performance. This increased commitment normally
will lessen the number of personnel-related problems,
such as strikes, excessive absenteeism, tardiness,
and turnover. (Byars & Rue, 1979, p.227)
Job satisfaction has been the subject of an enormous
amount of literature in the past two decades (Naylor,
Pritchard & Ilgen, 1980) and is probably one of the most
researched topics in psychology (Gruneberg, 1979). Lock
(1976) reported that over three thousand articles, dis-
sertations, or books have been published dealing with
measuring job satisfaction, examining factors which affect
it, and relating it to behavior. Despite all this research,
Lawler (1977) contends that little is known about the
determinants and consequences of satisfaction compared to
what is known about motivation. He states that "no well-
developed theories of satisfaction have appeared and little
theoretically-based research has been done on satisfaction"
(p.39). He further states that the research has not
examined causal relationships and it has been largely
anti-theoretical. "Our understanding of job satisfaction,"
Lawler continues, "has not substantially increased during
the last 30 years" (p.40).
Despite this criticism,the study of job satisfaction
has merit. Davis (1977) points out the benefits of con-
ducting such research within an organization.
It gives management an indication of the general
levels of satisfaction in a company. . The survey
is a powerful diagnostic instrument for looking
at employee problems.
Another benefit is the valuable communication
brought on by a job satisfaction survey. Communi-
cation flows in all directions as people plan
the survey, take it, and discuss the results.
One benefit is improved attitudes. . The survey is
a safety valve, an emotional release. .a tangible
expression of management's interest in employee
Surveys [help] to determine certain training needs.
Surveys. .benefit unions [in determining] what the
employees want. (p.29)
Thus, statistical significance of the research notwith-
standing, studying job satisfaction can be beneficial to
both individual and organization. As evidenced by the
volume of research, interest in job satisfaction and in
the broader term "quality of life" continues to grow as
individuals seek more meaning from their jobs.
Interest in job satisfaction and quality of work life
is not new. Weir (1976) points out that since the Indus-
trial Revolution, when craftsmanship was replaced by
machine-tending, people have been concerned about fragmented
work and tasks which had no meaning.
The initial study of job satisfaction by psychologists
was not humanitarian but was in the interest of increasing
production. Following the Taylor (1911) studies, the
Hawthorne studies (Rothlisberger & Dickson, 1939) investi-
gated the role of illumination, rest, hours of work, payment
systems, and temperature control. They concluded that the
increase in productivity of 30 per cent over a two year
period was due mainly to human factors. Although later
speculated to be invalid (Alderfer, 1969; Beer, 1968;
Gruneberg, 1979; and Hall & Nougaim, 1968), these studies
are of considerable historical importance because they
opened the door to a new era which has since been termed
the Human Relations Movement. Initially, this movement
held that positive human relationships in organizations
led to job satisfaction and that job satisfaction led to
One of the first actual studies of job satisfaction
was in the field of education. Hoppock (1935) queried
500 teachers about different aspects of their jobs and
then analyzed the 100 most satisfied and the 100 least
satisfied responses. From this he formulated his theory
which suggested that satisfaction and dissatisfaction
comprised a continuum.
Campbell, Dunnette, Lawler, and Weik (1970) divided
the present-day theories into two categories: content
theories and process theories. The content theorists
were interested in determining what motivates people to
work. They were concerned with
identifying the needs/drives that people have and
how needs/drives are prioritized. They were
concerned with the types of incentives or goals
that people strive to attain in order to be
satisfied and perform well. (Luthans, 1981, p.177)
Maslow's (1943) Needs Hierarchy Theory and its development
by Herzberg into the Two-Factor (Motivator-Hygiene) Theory
will be summarized under this heading.
The process theorists were concerned with identifying
variables such as expectations, needs, and values, and
ascertaining how they relate to each other and to job
characteristics in order to produce job satisfaction.
Vroom's Expectancy Theory, the Porter-Lawler Model, and
Adams' Equity Theory are presented under the process theory
Content theories. Maslow's (1943) Needs Hierarchy
has gained wide attention. His theory posits that all
human needs can be arranged in an ascending hierarchy of
five levels. These levels represent basic psychological
needs, safety and security needs, social (affection)
needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization needs.
Maslow (1970) states that the driving force that causes
people to join an organization, stay in it, and work
toward its goal, is this hierarchy of needs. If one's
basic or lower level needs are not met, they take prece-
dence over higher level needs. Also, as soon as a
particular set of needs are met, they no longer serve to
motivate an individual. The next level needs become the
motivators. "Employees are enthusiastically motivated
by what they are seeking, more than by what they already
have" (Davis, 1977, p.47).
Herzberg, Mausner, and Snyderman (1959) further
developed Maslow's theory for application in the work
setting. Using the critical incident technique, Herzberg
et al. conducted a motivational study of 300 professional
accountants and engineers. The subjects reported good
feelings and bad feelings related to work. The findings
led Herzberg to formulate his Two-Factor Theory which
states that motivation does not exist on a continuum as
Hoppock had postulated but that there are two continue:
job satisfiers, which he called motivators, and job
dissatisfiers, which he labeled hygiene factors.
Herzberg's theory has been both very popular and
highly criticized (Bockman, 1971; Ewen, 1964; Gardner,
1977; King, 1970; Lock, 1976; Vroom, 1964). In fact,
Aebi (1973) discovered over 150 studies designed to test
Herzberg's theory. In Work and Motivation, Vroom (1964)
stated that any number of conclusions could have been
reached from Herzberg's findings. Ewen, Smith, Hulin,
and Lock (1966) were critical of the Two-Factor Theory
because it tended to ignore measures of overall satisfac-
However strong the controversy, one cannot deny that
Herzberg's theory not only increased the awareness of
management of the need to examine job satisfaction, but
also emphasized the importance of analyzing specific
characteristics of the work itself when examining job
satisfaction (Gruneberg, 1979).
Process theories. Robins (1976) states that Vroom's
Expectancy Theory of Motivation is the most recent, the
most widely known and validly substantiated approach to
motivation and satisfaction. Vroom's (1964) theory evolved
from his search for an alternative to the content models.
He based his work on that of psychologists Lewin (1938) and
Tolman (1959) who formulated the concept of valence. Vroom
adapted this theory for use in organizations. Expectancy
Theory is based on three assumptions:
People do not just respond to events after they
occur; they anticipate (or expect) that things
will occur and that certain behaviors in response
to those events will probably produce predictable
Humans usually confront possible alternative
behaviors (and their probable consequences) in
Through experience, individuals learn to anticipate
the likely consequences of alternative ways of
dealing with events and, through this learning,
modify their responses. (Owens, 1981, p.127)
Expectancy Theory, then, states that individuals are highly
proactive, not merely reactive, and that one's
desire to produce at any given time depends on his
particular goals and his perception of relative
worth of performance as a path to the attainment
of these goals. (Robins, 1976, p.313)
In contrast to the Human Relations models which support
the assumption that satisfied workers will be more pro-
ductive, Expectancy theory posits that productivity is a
means to satisfaction.
Vroom's theory considers individual differences in job
satisfaction and motivation. He does not feel it necessary
to enumerate these differences, nor does he offer specific
suggestions as to how individuals within an organization
can best be motivated, as did Maslow and Herzberg. His
model does not contribute techniques,but it is a valuable
aid in understanding organizational behavior (Luthans, 1981).
The implications of Vroom's model are explored by Hunt
and Hill (1969). They explain that
Instead of assuming that satisfaction of a specific
need is likely to influence organizational objec-
tives in a certain way, we can find out how important
to the employees are the various second-level outcomes
(worker goals), the instrumentality of various
first-level outcomes (organizational objectives) for
their attainment, and the expectancies that are held
with respect to the employee's ability to influence
the first-level outcomes. (p.105)
Porter and Lawler produced a later model which is more
complete and more complex than Vroom's, and is more appli-
cations-oriented (Luthans, 1981; Owens, 1981). Porter and
Lawler (1968) challenge managers and administrators to go
beyond the traditional "satisfaction" attitude and measure
variables such as the values of possible reward of high
efforts, employee perceptions of reward and role percep-
tions. Also, organizations
should concentrate on determining how closely levels
of satisfaction are related to levels of perfor-
mance, ... to examine reward practices to determine
if they are working as planned...[and] monitor
employee attitudes on a continuing basis. (p.183)
Equity theory refers to a group of theories which
evolved from the independent work of several theorists.
It has been termed "cognitive dissonance" theory by
Festinger (1957) and by Heider (1958), "exchange" theory
by Homans (1961),and "equity" theory by Adams (1965).
Pritchard (1969) states that Adams' version of Equity
Theory is the most explicit and the most extensive.
Adams' (1965) theory argues that a major factor in
determining motivation or job satisfaction is the degree
of equity or inequity that an employee perceives in a job
situation when compared to other employees in a similar
situation. Adams uses the term Inputs to refer to any-
thing of value that an individual gives to the work, such
as skills, personal traits, or experience. He uses
Outputs to refer to anything of value that an individual
receives from the work, such as salary, promotions, or
praise. This ratio is compared with the ratio of others.
If the employee perceives the values as equal, satisfaction
exists. If values are perceived as being inequal, tension
and resentment result.
In an overview of job satisfaction, how one measures
satisfaction within the organization is important to consider.
Measuring Job Satisfaction
Job satisfaction has typically been measured by one of
three types of surveys: either objective, descriptive,
or projective. Objective surveys are usually in the form
of questions with pre-determined responses. Descriptive
surveys are more subjective, giving the respondent an
opportunity to give unstructured feedback. Often the
format is open-ended questions. Projective surveys are
instruments devised and administered by psychiatrists or
psychologists for studying mental health, and are rarely
used in the work setting (Davis, 1977).
Often a combination of objective and descriptive
surveys are used in the form of a structured instrument
in conjunction with an interview. Herzberg (1966) popu-
larized a form of descriptive survey, the critical incident
technique, in which workers were asked to think of a time
when they felt exceptionally good or exceptionally bad
about their job. This technique has been both widely used
and highly criticized (Gardner, 1977; King, 1970).
There are very few standardized measures of job
satisfaction. Most investigators adapt other instruments
or devise new ones to meet the demands of their special
population. Gruneberg (1979) states that a current review
of the literature suggests that there is no optimal way to
measure job satisfaction.
The best measure depends on what variable overall
satisfaction is related to. Clearly, then, when
considering research on job satisfaction, it is
important to bear in mind just how complex is
the interpretation of research findings, given the
multiplicity of ways in which it can be conceived
and measured. (Gruneberg, 1979, p.3)
Despite the controversy concerning the measurement of
job satisfaction, one measure is foremost throughout the
literature. It is the Job Descriptive Index (JDI), on
which the measures of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction
for this study are based. The JDI was designed by
Patricia Cain Smith (Smith, Kendall & Hulin, 1969) after
researching over 35,000 employees. "The product of this
research," states Vroom (1964), "is without doubt the most
carefully constructed measure of job satisfaction in
existence today" (p.100). Gruneberg (1979) hails the JDI
as "the most carefully developed instrument for measuring
job satisfaction" (p.3).
Elaborating on their rationale for the instrument
design, Smith, Kendall, and Hulin (1969) explain that
if one takes into account the different terms used
by different investigators to describe the same or
similar facts, ... and the fact that many of the
inventories which have been factored were originally
designed with a specific population in mind, then
it appears to us that factor analytic studies which
have been performed on the various job satisfaction
inventories have yielded a very consistent pattern
of factors. The factors which seem to emerge most
consistently are a general factor, a pay and material-
rewards factor, a factor dealing with the work
itself, a supervision factor, and a factor related
to the other workers on the job. (p.30)
The JDI, then, consists of five subscales, chosen by
factor analyses of many possible dimensions of job satis-
faction. The sub-scales involve the areas of
Satisfaction with work,
Satisfaction with pay,
Satisfaction with opportunities for promotion,
Satisfaction with supervision, and
Satisfaction with co-workers.
Bass and Barrett (1974) state that "the areas tapped by
the JDI have been shown to be quite reliable" (p.82).
Gruneberg (1979) weighs the pros and cons of standard-
ized versus researcher-constructed instruments. While the
use of a standardized scale is valuable in comparing
different studies, it has the drawback of not considering
individual situations. Clearly, the researcher must be
guided by objectives set for the study.
Job Satisfaction and Worker Effectiveness
The literature is replete with findings relating job
satisfaction to productivity (Gruneberg, 1979; Katzell &
Yankelovich, 1975). However, almost nothing exists linking
satisfaction to effectiveness. While some conclusions may
be drawn regarding effectiveness from the research on
productivity, it must be remembered that the two terms are
not synonomous (Porter & Lawler, 1968). Productivity
refers to worker output and can usually be measured objec-
tively. Effectiveness, on the other hand, is a broader,
more subjective term and involves fulfillment of supervisory
criteria and expectations.
Effectiveness relates more to what Lofquist and Dawis
(1969) refer to as satisfactoriness. This is a broad term
which encompasses productivity, but its major thrust is
not necessarily measurable worker output. It is concerned
with an appropriate match or fit between individual and
job/work environment (Davis, 1977). This fit is referred
to as correspondence and is described as
a harmonious relationship between individual and
environment, suitability of the individual to the
environment and of the environment for the
individual.... In this relationship the individual
brings his requirements of the environment; the
environment likewise has its requirements of the
individual. In order to survive in an environment
the individual must achieve some degree of
correspondence. (Lofquist & Dawis, 1969, p.45)
Correspondence, then, is the degree of fit between indivi-
dual and organization. The greater the correspondence, the
more the individual fulfills the requirements of the
organization and the organization fulfills the requirements
of the individual. It is assumed that each individual
seeks to achieve and maintain correspondence within his or
her work environment (Lofquist & Dawis, 1969).
Extensive research in the area of work adjustment led
to a theory of satisfaction and satisfactoriness (Carlson,
Dawis, England & Lofquist, 1963; Dawis, England & Lofquist,
1964; Dawis, Lofquist & Weiss, 1968; Dawis, Weiss, Lofquist
& Betz, 1967). Basic tenets of this theory assume that
The stability of the correspondence between the
individual and the work environment is manifest
as tenure in the job. [Tenure here refers to
length of time accrued in one position rather
than to permanence of position.]
Tenure is a function of correspondence between
the individual and his work environment.
Satisfactoriness and satisfaction indicate
the correspondence between the individual and
his work environment.
Satisfactoriness is an external indicator of
Satisfaction is an internal indicator of
The levels of satisfactoriness and satisfaction
observed for a group of individuals with
substantial tenure in a specific work environment
establish the limits of satisfactoriness and
satisfaction from which tenure can be predicted
for other individuals.
The work personalities of individuals who fall
within the limits of satisfactoriness and satis-
faction for which substantial tenure can be
predicted may be inferred to be correspondent with
the specific work environment.
Work personality-work environment correspondence
can be used to predict satisfactoriness and
Work personality-work environment correspondence
can be used to predict tenure. (Lofquist & Dawis,
Correspondence, then, between individual and work
environment is reflected in his or her job satisfaction and
satisfactoriness, or effectiveness. The individual measures
his or her satisfaction by how closely the organization
meets his or her needs and expectations. The organization,
on the other hand, measures the employee's satisfactoriness
by how well the individual meets the needs and expectations
of a particular job within the organization. If individual
and organization meet the minimum requirements and expec-
tations each has for the other, tenure accrues (Lofquist &
Lofquist and Dawis (1969) discuss the role of the
work personality to tenure and the importance of knowl-
edge of one's work personality and knowledge of the work
environment before being placed in a job. The work
personality is comprised of abilities, needs, and person-
ality characteristics. Likewise, the work environment
can be described in terms of abilities required for
satisfactory performance, and working conditions offered.
Such description makes it possible to evaluate
the correspondence of work personalities and
work environments. ... .Knowledge of the combined
levels of satisfactoriness and satisfaction makes
it possible to predict job tenure. (Lofquist &
Dawis, 1969, p.121)
In examining job satisfaction and worker effectiveness
in the light of the Lofquist-Dawis model, it can be seen
that satisfaction and effectiveness are related. This is
a dynamic relationship and a balance must be maintained
between the two in order to perpetuate tenure.
This idea is supported by Porter and Steers (1973)
who report that satisfied workers tend to be less prone
to turnover. They examined fifteen major studies published
between 1955 and 1972 and found a positive'relationship
between job satisfaction and turnover in all but one.
Thus the correspondence between the employee and job
is a large determining factor in satisfaction and satis-
factoriness which in turn, is the major determining factor
This section presents an overview of the literature
relating to worker effectiveness. It distinguishes
between effectiveness, performance, and productivity and
presents a brief overview of performance appraisal and its
functions. This is followed by a further explanation of
effectiveness as satisfactoriness and presents relevant
research in this area. A brief summary concludes this
For this study, effectiveness has been defined as the
extent to which an employee meets the role expectations of
the supervisor. These expectations encompass the super-
visor's degree of satisfaction with overall job performance
as well as degree of satisfaction with the quality of work
in specific areas of the job (Gruneberg, 1979).
It was noted in the section on Job Satisfaction and
Effectiveness that the term effectiveness is not synonymous
with productivity. Productivity refers to an objective
measure (units) of worker output per worker-machine hour
(Byars & Rue, 1979). Neither is effectiveness synonymous
with performance. However, productivity is, in some cases,
a part of performance and performance is one part of ef-
fectiveness. Performance, as it applies to effectiveness,
will be examined next.
Porter and Lawler (1968) have defined job performance
as "the net effect of a person's effort as modified by
his abilities and traits and by his role perceptions"
(p.28). That is, the effect of one's mental and physical
energy, plus the personal characteristics one brings to
the job, is tempered by his or her beliefs about what is
expected in the work situation. The outcome of energy,
personality, and perceived expectation equals performance.
Vroom (1964) adds motivation to this definition. He
states, "a worker's level of performance on his job is
dependent both on his ability and on his motivation"
(p.198). This definition is supported by Mace (1935) and
by Viteles (1953) who distinguish between the capacity to
work and the ability to work. Others (Gagne & Fleishman,
1959; Ginzberg, 1966; Maier, 1955) concur with this
definition of performance, as does Baldwin (1958) who
states that, "In order to achieve a high level of perform-
ance a person must have both the ability and the motivation
to perform effectively" (p.197).
Porter and Lawler (1968) emphasize the importance of
role perceptions in performance, for it is the role
perception which gives direction to the job performance.
Perception is the kind of activity one believes is
expected as part of the job. If an employee's "perceptions
of his role correspond to those of his superiors, . then
he will be applying his effort where it will count most
for successful performance as defined by the organization"
(Porter & Lawler, 1968, p.24). If an employee is to
attain a minimum level of acceptability then, he or she
should possess not only adequate abilities for the job,
but also motivation and an accurate role perception (Byars
& Rue, 1979).
Evaluating worker performance is not new. Davis
(1977) reports that formal performance appraisal dates
back to 1800, and states that
performance appraisal will always exist and always
has. In any group a person's performance will be
judged in some way by others. Employees and
managers recognize differences among their peers,
and they expect their own differences likewise to
be recognized. (p.466)
Many reasons for evaluating performance exist.
Greenlaw and Biggs (1979) express one of the most basic
reasons with their statement that
humans represent open systems and must receive
feedback from their environment concerning the
appropriateness of their behavior if they are
to correct errors, improve their performance,
and continue to survive and grow. (p.181)
From the individual's standpoint, appraisals give valuable
feedback as well as criteria for future rewards. McGregor
(1972) outlines reasons for performance appraisals from
the organizational viewpoint. They are
To provide systematic judgments to back up salary
increases, promotions, transfers, and sometimes
demotions or terminations.
To provide a means of telling a subordinate how
he or she is doing, suggesting needed changes
in behavior, attitudes, skill, or job knowledge
and letting the employee know where he or she
stands with the boss.
To provide a basis for coaching and counseling of
the individual by the supervisor. (p.133)
Byars and Rue (1979) also point out that value of perform-
ance appraisal in goal setting, manpower and organizational
planning, and determining development and training needs.
The literature appears unanimous in its view that
performance appraisal is a useful tool for both employee
and administrator. However, one can discern little agree-
ment on the most effective evaluation procedure (Bass &
Barrett, 1974; Hackman, Lawler & Porter, 1977). Many
authors do agree that the most appropriate person to conduct
the evaluation is the employee's immediate supervisor
(Greenlaw & Biggs, 1979). Bass and Barrett (1974) state
that "by far the most frequently used summary criteria are
supervisor's ratings" (p.209), because
it is assumed that the supervisor has the greatest
opportunity to observe the subordinate's behavior.
It is also assumed that he or she is able to
interpret and analyze the subordinate's performance
in the light of organizational objectives. (p.209)
When the immediate supervisor evaluates subordinates'
performance, he or she can use several types of measures.
Examples of these techniques are ranking, forced-choice,
weighted checklist, the graphic rating scale, the Behavior-
ally Anchored Rating Scales,and Management by Objective.
These will be cited briefly.
Using the simple ranking technique, the supervisor
ranks a group of subordinates from highest to lowest,
based on overall performance rather than on several
different dimensions (Cummings & Schuab, 1973). This
approach is optimal when there are few employees to
evaluate (Greenlaw & Biggs, 1979). A second type of
ranking technique which evaluates overall performance is
the forced distribution method whereby the evaluator is
forced to assign employees to predetermined categories.
This method was used in the present study. Supervisors
were asked to rank one half of their subordinates as more
effective and the other half as less effective.
Forced-choice ranking (Bass & Barrett, 1974) and the
weighted checklist (Greenlaw & Biggs, 1979) both ask
superiors to divide a given list of statements according
to those which do or do not apply to the employee being
evaluated. Another method of evaluation, the graphic
rating scale, was also employed in this study. It is one
of the most widely used of all performance rating tech-
niques (Byars & Rue, 1979; Greenlaw & Biggs, 1979). As
used in this study, supervisors were given a list of five
job characteristics and asked to rate their subordinates
as most effective or less effective in each area.
Other rating scales which can be used as feedback
to employees for improving performance focus on specific
behavior. One such technique is called Behaviorally
Anchored Rating Scales (BARS). Management by Objective
(MBO) is another technique which provides the most
mutually interactive feedback and which has become quite
popular in recent years (Greenlaw & Biggs, 1979).
Performance appraisal, then, has been in existence
for a long time. In most organizations, the data
generated from regular appraisals not only provide vital
feedback to the employee, but are also a source of informa-
tion for human resource development and planning. The most
effective method of evaluation depends on the organization,
the evaluator, and the purpose for which the data are to be
used (Byars & Rue, 1979).
As previously stated, employee performance and its
evaluation are only a part of a larger concept, effectiveness.
Effectiveness as Satisfactoriness
In the section dealing with job satisfaction and ef-
fectiveness, it was pointed out that effectiveness equates
very closely to the Lofquist and Dawis (1969) model of sa-
tisfaction and satisfactoriness. As noted, satisfaction
occurs when there is an adequate match, or correspondence,
between employee and job/work environment, and when the em-
ployee's expectations of the work situation are met. Satis-
factoriness is satisfaction's counterpart. When the employee
meets the expectations of the supervisor and the organization,
a degree of correspondence and satisfactoriness results.
Satisfaction and satisfactoriness are explored further
here as a model for effectiveness.
Research of satisfactoriness and satisfaction began in
the early 1960's with the Work Adjustment Project at the
University of Minnesota. In 1969 Lufquist and Dawis published
the results of this research which supports a theory of work
adjustment. The basic tenets of this theory were presented
earlier and are briefly reviewed here. Lofquist and Dawis
(1969) state that their theory is based on the concept of
correspondence, or the fit between individual and work.
Another basic assumption is that individuals seek to
achieve and to maintain at least a minimal level of
correspondence in their work environment. Since indivi-
duals and environments are constantly changing, corres-
pondence is a dynamic and continuing process. Satisfaction
is the individual's measure of correspondence and satis-
factoriness is the organization's measure of the individual's
As in the case of effectiveness, measures of
satisfactoriness are obtained from sources other than the
individual employee, usually from the immediate supervisor.
In determining the level of satisfactoriness, the supervi-
sor considers employee skills, abilities, and work personal-
ity and the application of these to the fulfillment of role
expectations within the job. In a study of 787 employees
in five different occupations, Carlson, Dawis, England, and
Lofquist (1963) found that the level of satisfactoriness
could be predicted from a combination of knowledge of the
individual's abilities and the abilities required by the
work environment. This lends support for their proposition
that satisfactoriness is a function of the correspondence
between the individual's abilities and the ability re-
quirements of the work environment.
Carlson et al. (1963) also correlated abilities and
satisfactoriness in a study of 352 subjects in various
occupations. The groups were divided into high, middle,
and low satisfaction sub-groups for males and females.
They found that the prediction of satisfactoriness from
ability test scores was more accurate for groups of
employees with high satisfaction scores than for individuals
with low satisfaction scores. The male sub-group with high
satisfaction scores had correlations of .63 for producti-
vity and .69 for supervisor evaluation, while the female
sub-group with high satisfaction scores had correlations
of .26 for productivity and .27 for supervisor evaluation.
Even though correlation scores for both male and female
were statistically significant at the .05 level, it appears
that satisfactoriness can be predicted more readily from
ability test scores of men than of women.
Satisfactoriness, or effectiveness, then, is a dynamic
process of correspondence between individual and work
environment. It considers the abilities, needs, and work
personality of the individual and the interface of these
with the requirements of the job and the work environment.
The employee's supervisor usually measures satisfactoriness.
The evaluator determines the most effective method of
measurement in light of objectives for the measure and the
individual being evaluated.
The research of Lofquist and Dawis (1969) has shown
that if an individual's level of abilities are given along
with work requirements, satisfactoriness can be predicted.
Likewise, knowledge of satisfaction and satisfactoriness
can be used to predict tenure.
Schneider, Hall, and Nygren (1972) state that the time
to study satisfaction and satisfactoriness is during the
hiring process. Traditionally, organizational psychologists
have focused on worker satisfaction after the individual
has entered the organization, while personnel psychologists
have focused on the factors that bring workers and organi-
zations together in order to predict productivity, turnover,
and other factors. Porter (1966) points out that there has
been little attempt to integrate these approaches. Addi-
tionally, both groups have largely failed to consider the
impact of the larger environment on the organization and
the satisfactoriness he or she can offer the organization.
This final section integrates the major points from
the literature related to work behavior type, personality
function, job satisfaction, and effectiveness.
The major focus of this study was matching the right
person with the right job. The introductory chapter
presented the background establishing the need for more
information about research from divergent fields which
have laid the foundations for the study of work behavior
type and its application to personnel decisions and
This previous work has shown that human beings are
complex individuals who bring their own set of behaviors,
skills, needs, and expectations into the work environment.
Also complex is the organization,which has its own
characteristics, needs, goals, and expectations. The
organization and the individual exist within a larger
environment which has its own set of rules and expectations.
Each of these factors affect the individual's work behavior,
level of satisfaction, and effectiveness within the organi-
zation. Figure 8 is adapted from ideas and illustrations
presented by Schneider (1976) related to staffing organi-
zations, and from Kast and Rosenzweig (1974) related to
organizational systems. It is not a theoretical represen-
tation but rather a means of presenting a synthesis of
theories and ideas which aid in the understanding of
elements involved in the on-going process of matching persons
and jobs. Presented are representative factors in each of
four areas which comprise the individual/work/larger environ-
ment complexity. The areas are the individual, the job
and its environment, the organization, and the larger
environment. The factors in each area merit consideration,
on some level, in all staffing decisions (Schneider, 1976).
These factors, according to Kast and Rosenzweig (1974) are
what hold social structures together. They emphasize that
"social systems are anchored in attitudes, perceptions,
beliefs, motivations, habits, and expectations of human
beings" (p.113). With this in mind, each sphere is
The center circle represents the individual and
includes personal facets which led the individual to the
particular job. Viewed in the light of theories presented
Figure 8 A Framework for Matching Persons and Jobs
in this chapter, these factors include self-concept and
self esteem as outlined by Super (1953); needs, desires,
and aspirations as presented by Maslow (1943) and Herzberg
et al. (1959); and personality as defined by Holland (1959),
Jung (1923), and Myers (1976). Additional factors are
skills, abilities, and interests shaped by education,
experience, and choice, emphasized by Ginzberg (1951),
and motivation as posited by Vroom (1964). All of these
factors play a part in the individual's work behavior type
(Bauch, 1981) derived from Marston (1928) and Geier (1979).
These factors which the individual brings to the job help
to determine the level of satisfactoriness which will be
offered to the job/work environment (Lofquist & Davis, 1969).
The next circle represents the job itself and includes
the immediate work environment. Conceptually, it is com-
prised of specific job tasks and responsibilities. Also
included here are supervisory styles and expectations and
general work atmosphere. Co-workers, with their own set
of norms and expectations, are part of this sphere. The
physical space within which the work takes place, as well
as norms regarding time, are important parts of this sphere,
also. These factors comprise the level of satisfaction
offered the individual by the job/work environment (Gruneberg,
1979; Lofquist & Dawis, 1969; Schneider, 1976).
The job exists within the next larger sphere, the
organization, which brings expectations, goals, procedures,
and general philosophy regarding the utilization of human
resources. Method and schedule of pay and other rewards,
evaluation system, training, and fringe benefits also
appear in this sphere. These factors, as well as those
from the job itself contribute to the overall satisfaction
of the employee (Schneider, 1976).
The outermost sphere is the larger environment. This
environment, within which the individual and the organi-
zation must exist, has yet another set of rules, expecta-
tions, and values (Kast & Rozenweig, 1974), and
encompasses society-at-large with its institutions, social
and economic conditions, governmental regulations, and
other cooperating and/or competing organizations. This
sphere multiplies the complexity of factors which affect
not only individual personality and work behavior but job
satisfaction and satisfactoriness as well.
In evaluating the correspondence between employee and
job, all of the above factors play a part. The total
contributions the individual brings to the job lead to his
or her satisfactoriness or effectiveness. All that the
job and the organization contribute to the individual
constitutes his or her satisfaction. When there is a
balance between satisfaction and satisfactoriness a good
match exists. This is more likely to occur when individuals
have a maximum amount of information regarding their own
personality and work behavior type, and all that the center
sphere encompasses, as well as a maximum amount of infor-
mation regarding job/work environment and its demands and
expectations. Likewise, the organization must have a
maximum amount of information regarding the specific job/
work environment and then attempt to match person and job
by considering all these factors as a whole.
This review of the literature outlined the theories
and research which led to the study of work behavior type.
Also covered were Jung's typology and its application to
personality function, theories of job satisfaction, and
effectiveness. This chapter concludes with a synthesis of
the literature illustrating how the individual's work
behavior type, personality function, job satisfaction, and
effectiveness are all related to his or her job, organi-
zation, and larger environment. The following chapter
outlines specifically how work behavior type, personality
function, job satisfaction, and effectiveness were explored
in this study.
DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
Organization of the Chapter
The design and methodology of the study are described
in this chapter. It contains an explanation of procedures
which includes data source, data collection, instrumenta-
tion, and data treatment.
The problem of this study was to explore the relation-
ships among work behavior type, personality function, job
satisfaction, and effectiveness of vocational education
administrators. Specifically, the study sought answers
to the following questions:
1. Within each work behavior type, did
participants score higher on one personality
function than another?
2. Did participants' work behavior types relate
to overall job satisfaction?
3. Did scores in job satisfaction areas relate
to work behavior type?
4. Did participants' work behavior types relate
to their effectiveness ratings?
The sample for this study consisted of all incumbent
regional vocational education program administrators of the
Vocational Division of the Florida Department of Education.
In the state of Florida, the Vocational Division has
established five geographical areas, each having a regional
office with seven program administrators who provide con-
sulting services and technical assistance to clients in
their vocational program area. These areas include
occupational programs in agri-business and natural resour-
ces, business, health and public services, home economics,
industrial arts education, industrial, and marketing and
distributive. These specialists wield considerable influ-
ence upon the structure, content,and quality of the nearly
7,000 occupational education programs offered in Florida's
67 school districts and 28 community colleges. More
specifically, each individual is responsible for the
development and implementation of strategies to provide
technical assistance and consultative service to school
districts, community colleges, universities, and other
educational and public agencies in the operation and im-
provement of vocational education programs, services and
activities within each Division of Vocational Education
geographical region. This position also is responsible
for assisting in the development of standards and guidelines
to assure quality of statewide programs.
Within the five regional offices, one position was
vacant, leaving 34 incumbents. All regional program
administrators who left their positions within the past
two years (12) were also identified for inclusion in the
administration of the survey instruments.