• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Dedication
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Abstract
 Introduction
 Review of related literature
 Research methodology
 Presentation and discussion of...
 Summary, conclusions, and...
 Appendices
 Reference note
 References
 Biographical sketch






Title: Current and recommended guidelines for community colleges
CITATION PDF VIEWER THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00099079/00001
 Material Information
Title: Current and recommended guidelines for community colleges in determining the allocation of their resources to meet the educational needs of older persons
Physical Description: ix, 128 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Cashon, James R., 1947-
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1982
Copyright Date: 1982
 Subjects
Subject: Aged -- Education -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Community colleges -- Administration -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Educational Administration and Supervision thesis Ph. D   ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Educational Administration and Supervision -- UF   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Thesis: Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1982.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 123-126.
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: Vita.
Statement of Responsibility: by James R. Cashon.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00099079
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000352325
oclc - 09652864
notis - ABZ0291

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:

PDF ( 5 MBs ) ( PDF )


Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
    Dedication
        Page ii
    Acknowledgement
        Page iii
    Table of Contents
        Page iv
        Page v
    List of Tables
        Page vi
        Page vii
    Abstract
        Page viii
        Page ix
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Review of related literature
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Research methodology
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Presentation and discussion of results
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    Summary, conclusions, and recommendations
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
    Appendices
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
    Reference note
        Page 122
    References
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
    Biographical sketch
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
Full Text














CURREZ' AND RECOMMENDED GUIDELINES FOR COMMUNITY COLLEGES
IN DETERMINING THE ALLOCATION OF THEIR RESOURCES TO
MEET THE EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF OLDER PERSONS













BY

JAMES R. CASHON


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMiENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1982
















To my parents who gave me an appreciation for the value of an

education, and the opportunity to pursue one. To my daughter Tracy

whom I love very much.

















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


I would like to express my appreciation for the assistance of my

chairman, Dr. Phillip A. Clark, and the other members of my committee,

Dr. Kearn Alexander, Dr. Harold Riker, and Dr. Carter Osterbind. A

special note of thanks is given to Dr. Dwain Small, a close friend and

colleague who provided his expertise. Finally, I offer my sincere

gratitude to my wife Rachel who gave the support necessary to complete

my study.

















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . iii

LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . vi

ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii

CHAPTER

I. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . ... . .. 1

Background of the Study . . . . . . . 1
The Problem . . . . . . . .. . . 3
Delimitations and Limitations . . . . . . 4
Significance of the Study . . . . . . . 4
Definition of Major Terms . . . . . . . 8
Research Methodology . . . . . . . . 9
Organization of the Research Report . . . .. 11

II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE . . . . . ... 13

Introduction . . . . . . . .. .. 13
The Nature of the Market . . . . . . ... 13
The Community College Response . . . . ... 23
Recommended Guidelines for Program Development . . 27
Chapter Summary . . . . . . . ... 40

III. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY . . . . . . . ... 42

The Recommended Guidelines . . . . . . .. 42
Survey Questionnaire . . . . . . . ... 43
Survey Investigation . . . . . . . ... 44
Follow-up Interviews . . . . . . . ... 45
Summary . . . . . . . ... . . 49

IV. PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS . . . ... 51

Introduction .................. .. 51
Presentation and Discussion of Survey Results . .. 52
Comments and Reactions of Community College
Practitioners . . . . . . . ... 65
Chapter Summary . . . . . . . ... 84










CHAPTER Page

V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS ...... 86

Introduction . . . . . . . . ... . 86
Research Methodology . . . . . . . ... 86
Findings . . . . . . . . ... . . 87
Conclusions . . .. .. .. .. .. . . 96
Recommendations for Future Study . . . . .. 101

APPENDICES

A. SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE . . . . . . . ... 104

B. COMMUNITY COLLEGES SURVEYED AND THEIR PRESIDENTS . .. 113

C. COVER LETTER . . . . . . . . . . . 115

D. INTERVIEW GUIDE . . . . . . . .... ... 116

REFERENCE NOTE . . . . . . . . ... ..... 122

LIST OF REFERENCES . . . . . . . . ... . . 123

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . . . . . . . .. . . 127
















LIST OF TABLES


Page

1. Summary of Institutional Responses to Guidelines in
General Category, Establish Institutional Commitment
to Serving the Educational Needs of Older Persons . 53

2. Summary of Institutional Responses to Guidelines in
General Category, Provide Adequate Support Staff for
Programming Efforts . . . . . . . . ... 54

3. Summary of Institutional Responses to Guidelines in
General Category, Assure Reliable Input from Older
People in the Community . . . . . . .... 56

4. Summary of Institutional Responses to Guidelines in
General Category, Collect Data Concerning Older
People in the Community . . . . . . . ... 56

5. Summary of Institutional Responses to Guidelines in
General Category, Develop a Plan . . . . . ... 58

6. Summary of Institutional Responses to Guidelines in
General Category, Analyze Resources . . . . .. 59

7. Summary of Institutional Responses to Guidelines in
General Category, Modify College Policies/Procedures
to Better Serve Older Persons . . . . . .... 60

8. Summary of Institutional Responses to Guidelines in
General Category, Develop Effective Recruitment/
Advertising Strategies. . . . . . . . .. 61

9. Summary of Institutional Responses to Guidelines in
General Category, Provde Easy Access to Programs ... . 62

10. Summary of Institutional Responses to Guidelines in
General Category, Use Effective Instructional
Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

11. Summary of Institutional Responses to Guidelines in
General Category, Assure On-going Communications
and Evaluation of Programs. . . . . . . . 64









Page


12. Summary of Guidelines Receiving Less Than 75% Support
by Responding Institutions . . . . . . ... 71

13. Summary of Guidelines Supported by 75% or More of the
Responding Institutions but Practiced by Less Than 75% 74
















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


CURRENT AND RECOMMENDED GUIDELINES FOR COMMUNITY COLLEGES
IN DETERMINING THE ALLOCATION OF THEIR RESOURCES TO
MEET THE EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF OLDER PERSONS

By

James R. Cashon

December 1982

Chairman: Phillip A. Clark
Major Department: Educational Administration and Supervision

The purpose of this investigation was to identify recommended

guidelines for developing educational programs for older people and to

determine the extent to which Florida's community colleges support and

practice these guidelines. Several studies concerning the development

of educational programs for older people at colleges and universities

were reviewed to construct a comprehensive list of recommended guide-

lines. These guidelines were included in a survey questionnaire sent

to individuals responsible for programming for older people at

Florida's 28 public community colleges. These individuals were asked

to indicate if each guideline was important and, if it was practiced at

their institution. Follow-up interviews were conducted at five of the

surveyed institutions to gain insight concerning specific results

obtained in the survey investigation.

The 24 institutions responding to the survey questionnaire indi-

cated substantial support for 52 of the 54 recommended guidelines. The


viii










guidelines relative to providing transportation and promoting financial

aid did not receive substantial support. Forty of the 54 guidelines

were included in the program development process by at least 75% of the

respondents. The least practiced guidelines were promote financial

aid, establish/justify new fiscal priorities that will result in a

reallocation of resources to support programs for the aging, provide or

coordinate transportation to locations difficult to reach, provide

inservice training for faculty and staff involved in programming, to

establish a planning/advisory committee composed primarily of repre-

sentative older people in the community, explore new sources for

funding, and eliminate on-campus barriers.

Generally, there was consistency between institutional support and

institutional practice of the recommended guidelines. However, there

were 12 guidelines where substantial support was indicated in belief,

but not in practice. The most significant of these were promote the

use of older people in the community as volunteers or paid staff, pro-

vide inservice training for faculty and staff involved in programming,

determine needs, decide level of involvement, explore new sources for

funding, review supportive alternatives that do not require new funds,

and establish/justify new fiscal priorities that will result in a

reallocation of existing resources to support programs for the aging.
















CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION


Background of the Study

Declining birthrates and increased longevity due to medical

advances have made our nation's older population the fastest growing

segment of our population. As of 1980, projections indicated that

there would be approximately 34.2 million people 60 years old and over

residing in the United States. By the year 2000, it is expected that

this group will number 41 million (U.S. Bureau of Census, Series P-23,

1976). With enrollments of traditional age students on the decline,

institutions of higher education are becoming increasingly interested

in tapping the expanding market of older people.

The demands of a "learning society" make it a necessity to address

the educational needs of our older population. Learning is now an

essential component of living for those who want to be participants in

the changing world about them. Older people face not only the demands

of this external change, but also the more subtle internal demands of

changing life situations brought about by increasing age. Educational

programs to meet the unique needs of older people must, of necessity,

be significantly different from those programs typically associated

with the credential-oriented system of formal education (U.S. White

House Conference on Aging, 1972).









Carlson and Paine (1974) make the following point about a

"learning society."

A "learning society" is not one that simply allows participation
and personal development of all age groups; instead, it strongly
encourages participation. In the instance of older adults,
especially, this encouragement is of great importance as many do
not realize and cannot articulate their specific problems and
needs and are unaware of how education can be of help in solving
their problems and satisfying their needs. (p. 3)

Community colleges, because of their mission and flexibility, are

in an excellent position to take a leadership role in developing educa-

tional programs for older people. Indeed, recent surveys (Scanlon,

1978) of higher educational institutions reveal that community and

junior colleges are in the forefront in this area.

The challenge confronting community colleges is twofold:

1. To recognize the emergence of a healthy, active, capable
generation of elders who presently face many years of
inactivity and leisure; and

2. To develop an alliance with elders to explore and develop a
range of options and life-styles for this period of life.
(Glickman, Hersey, & Goldenberg, 1975, p. 3)

Programs to address the educational needs of older people have

been slow in developing and often times, planning for these programs

has been biased by the negative stereotypes held by educators about

older people. As the implications of demographic trends become clear

to those in the community and junior college network, it is obvious

that there will be a more rapid proliferation of educational programs

for older people. The use of meaningful guidelines for developing

programs to meet the educational needs of an older population is

essential if planning is to keep pace with the changing demands of this

segment of our population.










The Problem

Statement of the Problem

Florida ranks number one among the states in its proportion of

elderly persons age 65 and over at 18.1%. From 1970 to 1979, Florida's

older population, in this same category, increased approximately 62.7%.

The overall national increase for this age group was 23% (Soldo, 1980).

A recent survey by the Florida Department of Education, Division

of Community Colleges (1979) reveals an already extensive involvement

by Florida's community colleges with educational programs for older

persons. Senior citizens have been identified in 1979 and 1980 as the

target population with the greatest need for services provided by

Community Instructional Services (CIS), a non-credit instructional

process to address priority problems in Florida's communities (Florida

Department of Education, 1980). With the growing numbers of older

people migrating to Florida, the challenge to the community colleges to

serve this population will become even greater. This same challenge is

being presented to numerous other community colleges throughout the

nation.

The purpose of this study was to identify current and recommended

guidelines for community colleges in determining the allocation of

their resources to meet the educational needs of older persons. The

following subproblems were also addressed:

1. The identification of recommended guidelines for developing

educational programs for older people

2. The determination of the extent to which Florida's public

community and junior colleges support and practice the recommended

guidelines for developing educational programs for older people









3. The examination and analysis of current community college

practices statewide in light of the recommended guidelines identified.


Delimitations and Limitations

This study was confined to data gathered from a questionnaire

survey of Florida's 28 public community and junior colleges and from

follow-up interviews conducted at five of these community colleges with

individuals responsible for educational programming for older persons.

Also included was information obtained from a literature review

primarily from 1965 to the present.


Significance of the Study

A challenge set forth in the document, Older Americans and Commu-

nity Colleges: A Guide for Program Implementation (Korim, 1974),

emphasizes the need for those in community colleges to establish aging

as a priority: "The demand that older Americans be recognized as a

vital force in our society serves as a challenge for community colleges

to utilize their resources to address the needs of older people"

(p. 18). Community colleges, as community-oriented institutions, must

continuously reevaluate their role as community institutions and expand

their efforts into new areas of service. Older persons, a previously

unserved population, must now become the focus of attention for the

community college (Korim, 1974).

While involvement of institutions of higher education in pro-

gramming for older persons is low, nevertheless, national surveys

supported by the Academy for Educational Development (Never Too Old to

Learn, 1974; Scanlon, 1978) and the American Association of Community

and Junior Colleges (Korim, 1974) demonstrate that community colleges









have taken a leadership role in addressing this area. While it is dif-

ficult to obtain timely figures about the extent of involvement of

colleges and universities in educational programming for older people,

it is estimated to be less than 1000 or approximately one-third of the

total number of higher educational institutions in the country

(Scanlon, 1978).

In the last decade, however, educational programming for older

persons has steadily grown. Timmermann (1979) in reviewing the litera-

ture concerning educational programming for older persons suggests the

main reason for the growth of interest in this area. "In essence,

. the greatest influence upon the growth of interest in educational

programming for older persons was the almost sudden awareness of a

large and potentially powerful older population" (p. 49).

Federal recognition of the educational needs of older people has

been a factor in the increased interest of educators in developing

educational programming for older persons. The 1971 White House Con-

ference on Aging (1972) signaled the beginning of this recognition. In

the preamble to the Section Recommendations on Education, education was

declared "a basic right for all persons of all age groups" (p. 1).

Furthermore, the recent 1981 White House Conference on Aging has served

to draw still more attention to the educational needs of the older

segment of our population.

There is also considerable optimism arong educators that partici-

pation of older people in educational programming will increase. It

is established that those adults who have a higher level of educational

attainment participate more in adult and continuing education programs

(Johnstone & Rivera, 1965; Okes, 1977; Riley & Foner, 1968). While









older people now have a lower level of formal education than any other

age group, it is expected that the average level of educational attain-

ment of this group is increasing. In 1970, approximately 28% of the

population 65 and over had completed four years of high school. By

1975, the percentage of high school completion was 35%. Finally, in

1980, the percentage increased still further, reaching approximately

41% (U.S. Bureau of the Census, Series P-20, 1981). As older people

become more educated, it seems likely that their potential as a market

for educational programming will increase.

Results from a project supported by the National Institute of

Education (NIE) suggest several factors in the development of educa-

tional programs for older people (Glickman et al., 1975). In this

survey of over 150 community colleges across the country, it was

revealed that existing programs for older people were usually

originated at the initiative of an interested administrator, i.e., a

dean of continuing education or director of community services. A

second major factor contributing to program development was the nature

of the older population in the community. If that segment of the

population was well-organized or constituted a high percentage of the

population, programs were developed based upon demand or apparent need.

Other factors less numerously mentioned included the availability of

state or federal funds to support programs, the decline of younger

student enrollments, requests from outside source agencies, or finally

the awareness of existing programs for older people at other colleges

(Glickman et al., 1975).

As community colleges continue to expand their involvement in the

development of educational programs for elder persons, it is evident









that specific guidelines or considerations for program development are

essential. A scan of recent literature reveals a number of studies

that have resulted in recommended guidelines for educational program

development for older persons (Academy for Educational Development,

1974; Carlson & Paine, 1974; Glickman, et al., 1975; Korim, 1974).

However, the extent to which educators have followed guidelines is

not clear. Carlson (1972) in a doctoral dissertation involving a

survey of the community colleges in California concluded that the area

of greatest concern for the colleges was in program development. The

colleges, for the most part, had responded to the immediate needs of

older people without adequately relating these needs to the total goals

of the program. The end results were programs that met temporary needs

in a rather haphazard fashion (Carlson, 1972).

Glickman et al. (1975) found that a widespread demand for prac-

tical guidelines and information on program development for older

people existed among community college administrators. A substantial

majority of administrators indicated that the greatest obstacle to

program development was their "lack of knowledge of the educational

needs and desires of elders as well as of techniques for planning,

implementing, and funding programs" (Glickman et al., 1975, p. 3).

Furthermore, administrators were very interested in knowing what other

community colleges were doing in regard to programming, and more

specifically, what techniques of program development were successful.

The use of inadequate procedures on the part of community and

junior college administrators interested in developing educational

programs for older persons could result in irrelevant and sporadic

program efforts, low participation by older people, and consequently,









failure. The significance of this study was to identify guidelines

recommended by the literature and to document the status of current

practices of public community and junior colleges in Florida in the

development of their educational programs for older persons. An exami-

nation of these findings in light of the guidelines suggested by the

literature could be helpful in identifying additional guidelines for

consideration, problem areas, and finally, possible gaps between recom-

mended guidelines and actual practices in program development. With

its high proportion of older people and extensive network of community

and junior colleges, Florida can serve as an excellent data source for

this study.


Definition of Major Terms

The following definitions of terms are not absolute. They are

intended to be descriptions of the writer's usage in this particular

study.

Educational needs of older persons. Good (1973) defined an educa-

tional need as "specific knowledge, skill, or attitude which is lacking

but which may be obtained and satisfied through learning experiences"

(p. 383).

Guidelines. Considerations or steps to be followed when

developing educational programs.

Older persons. Older persons, in this study, is used inter-

changeably with other terms such as elderly, older adults, and senior

citizens. Statistical information reported in this study generally

refers to the 65 and over age category unless otherwise noted.










Programs. An educational program for older persons, in this

study, refers to learning experiences either academic or nonacademic

offered by institutions of higher education for those members of that

population.


Research Methodology

Overview of Study Design

This study was descriptive-analytical in nature and was organized

into three major phases. The first phase consisted of a literature

review pertaining to older persons, programming for them at community

colleges, and guidelines recommended for program development for older

persons. The second phase of the study investigated current practices

at Florida's community colleges in the development of programs for

older people in relation to the recommended guidelines. The final

phase involved an examination and analysis of current practices at

Florida's community colleges in light of the guidelines that were

recommended for determining the allocation of their resources to meet

the educational needs of an older population.


Review of Related Literature

Literature was reviewed from 1965 to the present to provide a

background relative to older adults and educational programming in the

community colleges. An ERIC search using "older adults" and "community

or two-year colleges" as key descriptors was conducted to identify

literature relative to the problem under study. A manual search of

Dissertation Abstracts was made to reveal related studies. Key studies

were examined to provide further direction for research.









Investigation of Current Practices

This phase involved two investigations. One investigation

involved a questionnaire survey of administrative personnel who have

responsibility for educational programs for older people at Florida's

28 public community and junior colleges, i.e., deans or directors of

continuing education/community services. The purpose of this survey

was to determine current statewide practices in the area of program

development for older people. Specifically, guidelines followed in

developing programs were examined.

Upon review of the results of the survey questionnaire, an inter-

view guide was developed addressing select items on the questionnaire

that merited further investigation and clarification. Follow-up

interviews were scheduled at five community colleges that had completed

the original survey questionnaire. The purpose of these follow-up

interviews was to ascertain from those professionals who were involved

with programming for older people their analysis of the results of

certain items on the survey questionnaire. The interview sessions were

tape-recorded to ensure that the responses of the interviewees would be

accurately noted. The selection of the five community colleges was

based upon the recommendations of individuals who, by the nature of

their positions and expertise, had an awareness of community college

programming for older people in the state of Florida. These individuals

were asked to suggest those community colleges that they felt had well-

established programs for older people. The positions of the individuals

consulted included Project Director for the Florida Council on Aging;

Coordinator of Adult-Continuing Education and Community Services,

Florida Department of Education, Division of Community Colleges;










Supervisor, Post-Secondary Education and Policy Units, Office of the

Commission of Education, Florida Department of Education; Education

Consultant in Adult and Community Education, Florida Department of

Education; and Director, Institute of Government, State of Florida

Administrator of Title I, Higher Education Act.


Instrumentation

The survey questionnaire was constructed from the recommended

guidelines synthesized from the literature review. The survey was

brief and easy to complete in order to promote a high rate of return.

The interview guide was developed to gather more in-depth information

concerning the aggregate responses of the surveyed individuals to

certain items on the questionnaire. Interview questions were primarily

open-ended in nature and designed to gain possible explanations for the

specific results that were obtained. The goal was to tap the insight

and analysis of the persons being interviewed.


Organization of the Research Report

This study will consist of five chapters.

Chapter I presented an introduction, statement of the problem,

delimitations and limitations, significance of the study, definition of

major terms, and a brief description of the study design and

procedures.

Chapter II provides a review of the literature concerning older

people and the community colleges' response to them, and recommended

guidelines for program development.






12


Chapter III presents the methodology used in the investigation.

Chapter IV reports and discusses the results of the survey

investigation and the follow-up interviews.

Chapter V presents the summary and conclusions of the research

study.

















CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


Introduction

The segment of our population categorized as "older persons" is

extremely diverse, spanning at least 30 years. Nevertheless, some

general information about older persons is appropriate to establish a

profile of this group so the reader can understand the nature of this

growing market of individuals. The first section of this chapter is

designed to establish the nature of this growing market to which our

educational institutions must respond.

Secondly, the community colleges' response to older people is

examined to provide insight into some specific educational programs

that have been developed to meet the educational needs of this group.

The third section reviews relevant studies of educational programs

for older persons in our educational institutions and the resultant

guidelines recommended by these studies. Finally, a chapter summary

is provided.


The Nature of the Market

Demographics

In 1900, the population 60 and over numbered 4.9 million. The

size of this group more than doubled by 1930 reaching 10.5 million and

then tripled to 31.6 million in 1975. By the year 2000, the number of









older persons 60 and over will reach approximately 41 million, an

eightfold increase since the beginning of the 20th century. Currently,

between 15.2% and 15.6% of the total population is over 60 (U.S. Bureau

of the Census, Series P-23, 1976).

As the proportion of older persons in the total population has

been rising, the older population, itself, has been aging. For

example, the proportion of persons aged 65 to 69 of the entire group

over 65 is decreasing while the proportion of those 75 and over is

increasing (U.S. Bureau of the Census, Series P-23, 1976). In the next

two decades, as the total number of persons 65 and over increases by

28%, it is expected that the number of those over 75 will rise by

almost 53%. An even more dramatic increase will occur in the 85 and

over age category at 64%. Approximately 75% (five million) of the pro-

jected increase in the size of the older population will be in the 75

and over age group (Soldo, 1980). By the year 2000, this age group

could comprise as much as 44% of the total elderly population (U.S.

Bureau of the Census, Series P-23, 1976).

Approximately 5,000 Americans reach the age of 65 each day while

at the same time 3,400 persons 65 and over die. While the net increase

in the total population over 65 is 1,600 persons per day, it is the

5,000 newcomers that bring dramatically different life experiences to

the older population (Brotman, 1981).

Neugarten (1974) talks about the rise of the young-old, the age

group 55 to 75, and their impact on changing some traditional stereo-

types held about older people. Previous stereotypes of older people as

sick, poor, isolated and feeble have gradually given way to the reality

presented by the young-old. Individuals in this age group are









relatively healthy, more affluent, better educated, politically active,

and relatively free from the responsibilities of work and family. It

is this group that has tremendous potential as change agents for

creating an age-irrelevant society by improving relations between all

age groups (Neugarten, 1974).


Personal Income

The personal income of older people is about half that of their

younger counterparts. As older people retire, they generally

experience approximately a one-half to two-thirds cut in their personal

income. Consequently, many older people fall into a low income

category (Brotman, 1981).

As of 1978, 3.2 million or 14.3% of the elderly population had

incomes below the poverty level (Soldo, 1980). A higher percentage of

older, nonmarried individuals (21% versus 8%) fell into the poverty

category than their married counterparts. Poverty rates for older

women were higher than older men at 17% versus 10%. Thirty-four per-

cent of the black elderly were below the poverty level as compared to

12% of older whites. Nearly two-fifths of older black females had

incomes that fell below the poverty level (Soldo, 1980).

If one considers those older persons in the "near poor" category,

below 125% of the poverty level, a more realistic picture is painted.

Using this as a category, nearly 25% of the older population or 5.4

million would be considered poor (Soldo, 1980).

Not all older people are poor, however. Approximately 18% of the

households with a head 65 and over had incomes exceeding $20,000

(Soldo, 1980). Furthermore, a different profile may be established









when-looking at those older persons migrating to the Sunbelt. For

example, Sunbelt migrants, as compared to nonmigrants living in the

same areas, had a significantly higher socioeconomic status. They

tended to have higher income from sources other than jobs, business,

and welfare than nonmigrant residents. Florida and California

attracted more than one-third of these Sunbelt migrants (Longino &

Biggar, 1981).


Health

Older people, for the most part, rate themselves as healthy. Over

two-thirds of the older persons polled in a recent survey reported

their health as good or excellent compared to others in their age

group (Brotman, 1981). Another 22% rate their health as fair. Nine

percent report their health as poor. If the estimated 5% of institu-

tionalized elderly is added to the poor health category, a total of

approximately 14% consider themselves in poor health (Brotman, 1981).

While older persons generally feel healthier, nevertheless, they

have more health problems than their younger counterparts. Chronic

health conditions are more prevalent among older persons than younger.

A higher proportion are hospitalized during a year, and once in the

hospital, older persons spend approximately four days longer than

younger patients. Older persons also visit their physicians more fre-

quently than those under the age of 65. Finally, older people are more

than twice as likely to wear glasses, and 13 times as likely to have

hearing aids (U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 1977a).

While older persons generally feel good about their health, it is

obvious that health care is a major concern for them.








Learning Ability

There have been numerous studies conducted on the learning

abilities of older adults (Cattell, 1963; Jones & Conrad, 1933; Lorge,

1955; Miles & Miles, 1932; Thorndike, 1928; Wechsler, 1955). From a

historical perspective there is a rather direct relationship between

the evolving pattern of research efforts and their subsequent results

to the prevailing beliefs held about older people and their ability to

participate in various learning activities.

Early research on adult learning indicated a rise in adult

learning ability peaking in the early twenties with a gradual decline

thereafter. For the most part these studies did not continue past the

age of 60 and were cross-sectional in nature (Jones & Conrad, 1933;

Miles & Miles, 1932; Thorndike, 1928; Wechsler, 1955).

Lorge (1955), however, cast doubt on these studies emphasizing

that they were actually measuring a decline in speed of response rather

than learning ability. Another study (Cattell, 1963) focused on the

distinction between crystallized intelligence, based upon experience,

and fluid intelligence, based upon biological forces. It was found

that fluid intelligence peaks in the late twenties and then declines

but crystallized intelligence continues to increase throughout the life

cycle.

More recent research has further dispelled the negative beliefs

held about older people and their learning ability. Peterson (1976)

in summarizing many of these recent studies concluded that even though

there is evidence of decline in speed of response and some specific

types of learning with increased age, for the most part, older people

can learn material quickly and can modify their opinions and behaviors









if they are motivated to learn and the instructional setting is

appropriate.


Educational Attainment

Older persons have a markedly lower level of education than their

younger counterparts. As of 1978, only one-third of the population 65

and over achieved a high school education as compared to 50% of those

under 65. Approximately 10% of the elderly could be classified as

"functionally illiterate" with less than five years of schooling

(Soldo, 1980).

The educational status of older people becomes even more signifi-

cant if probable differences between the quality and relevance of their

education as compared to the education received by younger people is

considered. Less qualified teachers, now outdated subject matter, and

inadequate instructional facilities all contributed to a poorer quality

of education than that received by more recently educated people

(McClusky, 1972).

The educational status of older people, however, is improving.

The median level of educational attainment of older persons has

increased by more than a year since 1970 (Brotman, 1981). As of 1979,

the median level of education achieved by people 65 and over was 10

years. Florida, by comparison, had a significantly better educated

older population with a median level of educational attainment at 12

years (U.S. Bureau of the Census, Series P-20, 1980). As the more

educated cohorts reach the age of 65 and the less educated in the

oldest cohorts die, the median level of educational attainment will

increase even further (Brotman, 1981).









Participation in Education

The participation of older persons in educational activities has

been conspicuously low (Johnstone & Rivera, 1965; Riley & Foner, 1968).

However, studies sponsored by the National Center for Education

Statistics (U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 1977b)

demonstrate a steady increase in the participation rates of older

people in adult education. The percentage of all older persons 55 and

over participating in adult education increased from 2.9% in 1969 to

4% in 1975. The 1975 percentage constitutes approximately 1.6 million

persons or 9.5% of the total population of participants 17 and over.

Although participation by older adults has been increasing, as a

group they are still significantly underrepresented in adult educa-

tional activities when compared to the younger age groups (Johnstone &

Rivera, 1965; Okes, 1977; Riley & Foner, 1968). For example, Johnstone

& Rivera (1965) found that 79% of the participants they surveyed were

under the age of 50. The results of their study and subsequent studies

also demonstrated a strong relationship between level of educational

attainment and participation in adult education (Okes, 1977; Riley &

Foner, 1968; U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1977a).

Individuals with higher educational levels are more likely to engage in

additional learning experiences. Age is also a factor that influences

participation rates. Rates of educational participation decline in the

older age categories. This decline occurs even for those older persons

with a high level of education. Consequently, older adults are the

least likely to participate in continuing educational activities

(Johnstone & Rivera, 1965; Okes, 1977; Riley & Foner, 1968; U.S.

Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 1977a).









Nevertheless, educators are optimistic that older people will be

increasingly involved in educational activities. As stated earlier,

future cohorts reaching the age of 65 will be better educated and con-

sequently, more inclined to pursue continuing educational activities

(Brotman, 1981). Birren and Woodruff (1973) further support the

optimism of educators citing six reasons for the increased involvement

of older persons in educational activities. These include the changing

age structure of our society, the increasing educational level of

future aging cohorts, the rapidity of social change, changing career

patterns, the expanding role of women, and changing attitudes toward

education.

Additionally, factors associated with educational institutions are

influencing the participation rates of older people. For instance,

their willingness to try nontraditional approaches, their recruitment

of alternative clientele to offset declining enrollments, and their

sincere desire to relate more closely to the needs of their clientele

have had a positive impact on increasing the interest and participation

of the potential market of older persons (Peterson, 1976).


Educational Needs

Education has a significant role to play in helping older persons

adjust to their changing personal circumstances, enjoy their increasing

leisure time, and cope better with the rapidly changing society in

which they live. Frank (1955) describes the process of education for

later maturity as one which helps older people to recognize their pre-

conceptions and assumptions, analyze them critically, and finally, to










replace or change them in light of more current knowledge, insights,

and understanding.

McClusky (1972) describes four categories of needs that older

people have that can be addressed by education. They include coping

needs, expressive needs, contributive needs, and influence needs.

Coping needs refer to those minimum requirements that must be met so

that adjustment can be made socially, physically, and psychologically.

To meet these needs, educational resources can be used to address such

areas as basic education, health, economic self-sufficiency, legal

decisions, housing, family relationships, and leisure time. Expressive

needs refer to the desire to participate in activities merely for their

own sake. Interest in these activities is intrinsically motivated.

Educational programs aimed at encouraging individual expression of

talents and interests can help meet these needs. Older people also

have a need to be of service and to contribute to others and the com-

munity. Educational efforts designed to provide older people with the

opportunity to give their time, wisdom, expertise and assistance will

help satisfy these contributive needs. Finally, older people have the

need to be able to have an impact on their own personal circumstances

as well as the circumstances in the world about them. These are called

influence needs. Education can address these needs through programs

that teach and encourage older people to become social change agents

(McClusky, 1972).

Havighurst (1976) describes two basic aspects of education,

instrumental and expressive, that are essential for lifelong learning.

Instrumental education involves education for a goal that is outside

the educational act which has the potential to change the learner's









situation. Expressive education involves obtaining satisfaction within

the learning situation itself. Certain adult developmental tasks

require instrumental education while other tasks are better served

through expressive forms of education (Havighurst, 1976).

A study by Hiemstra (1972) suggests that educators should give

special attention to courses and activities involving instrumental

education. This study, involving a survey of the educational needs of

86 retired persons, revealed that older people have particular needs

that can be met only through instrumental forms of education. Londoner

(1971) described these needs as survival needs. It is the instrumental

forms of education, not the expressive, that give older people the

competencies necessary to survive in their later years. Educators

need to become more aware of the importance of providing instrumental

education to older persons so that they can acquire the skills and

competencies necessary to address financial matters, health concerns,

continued work opportunities, family relationships, and personal needs

(Londoner, 1971).


Summary

Older people are a diverse segment of the population that is

growing rapidly in numbers and also getting older as a group. They

have less income than their younger counterparts with a rather high

proportion falling in the near poverty category. However, some older

people, such as those who have migrated to the Sunbelt, are economi-

cally comfortable. As a group, older adults feel good about their

health but spend more money on health related problems than those who

are younger. Older persons are capable learners with specific needs









that can be addressed through continuing education. Currently, they

are less educated than the rest of the population and consequently

less inclined to participate in adult educational activities. Never-

theless, educators are optimistic about the increasing potential of

this market because of projected increases in their level of

educational attainment.


The Community College Response

Institutions of higher education have been somewhat slow in

responding to meet the educational needs of older people. Of these

institutions, however, the community and junior colleges stand out as

leaders in recognizing and responding to the older segment of our

population. Generally, community colleges as community-centered

institutions have gradually expanded their focus of attention to

address the special needs of older people (Korim, 1974; Academy for

Educational Development, 1974; Scanlon, 1978).


Involvement

Korim (1974), in reviewing programs offered by community colleges

for older persons, identified seven basic groupings of services

offered.

1. basic needs-oriented personal service

2. counseling and guidance services

3. informational or information-referral function

4. education and training opportunities

5. retirement planning and education services

6. recreational, social, and cultural activities

7. facilitative activities (pp. 58, 59)









Community colleges have varied in the extent of their responsiveness

from providing a single service to offering a comprehensive program

addressing almost all of the above areas.

An early survey of 1,137 community and junior colleges and tech-

nical institutes conducted by The American Association of Community and.

Junior Colleges (1974) revealed that a number of these institutions

were involved in serving older adults. With 85% responding, it was

found that two community colleges had state-supported multipurpose

senior citizens centers, 103 colleges provided a wide variety of

services for older persons, and another 322 offered at least a limited

number of programs aimed at the older population.

Dib (1978) conducted a study of the special needs of older adults

as related to 55 community colleges in Southern California. Through a

review of the catalogs of these institutions, it was found that 19

offered special programs to meet the needs of older adults. Most of

the programs offered were academic in nature.

Another California survey by Charles (1979) of 106 community

colleges revealed a similar involvement. Of the 83 colleges responding

43% were offering classes or programs for older people.

Demko (1978) surveyed 29 Michigan community colleges in regard to

their services provided for older adults. Of these, 20 had course

offerings designed specifically for older people. Twenty-six had

special admission, tuition or registration policies aimed at older

persons.

In Texas, 16 community colleges participated in The Community

College Program for Elderly Texans (Rappole, 1976), funded through

state-allocated federal funds and local contributions. The majority









of the programs offered by the participating institutions involved

activities that could be classified as recreational, social, or

cultural.

Finally, a recent survey conducted by the Division of Community

Colleges of the Florida Department of Education (1979) revealed a

rather extensive involvement in programming for older persons. It was

found that 23 of the 28 Florida community colleges offer special

classes for older adults. One college reported that 90 classes per

term were offered specifically for older people. Twenty-two colleges

provided some kind of fee waiver for their older clientele. Examples

of courses offered by Florida's Community Colleges include Wills,

Trusts, and Estates; Planning for Later Years; Problems of Aging in Our

Society; Seniors Use of Food; Sex After Fifty; Psychology; Personal

Finance; Music Appreciation; Career Renewal; and Consumer Economics

(Florida Department of Education, 1979).


Some Examples of Programs

A variety of educational experiences have been offered to older

persons by community colleges. Following are brief summaries of

several programs that have been provided.

North Hennepin Community College (Sugnet, 1976), in Minneapolis,

developed a Seniors on Campus program in 1970. The initiation and

continued development of this program have been due largely to an

active involvement of senior citizens through a strong Senior Advisory

Committee. Since 1970 over 3,411 older people have enrolled in this

campus-based program.









Edison Community College (Damroth, 1979) in Fort Myers, Florida,

created a "Talent Bank" of successful retired or semi-retired indi-

viduals that were available to share their talents, wisdom, and ideas

with community college students and thus enrich their college experi-

ence. Individuals in the "Talent Bank" have been used in the classroom

as guest lecturers, in career counseling, as part of a student lecture

series, for community speaking engagements, and, as consultants to the

college's administration.

Longview Community College (Birr, 1976) in Lee's Summit, Missouri,

established an extension campus at John Knox Village, a retirement com-

munity with over 2,000 residents. Many of the residents and profes-

sional staff of John Knox Village were recruited to teach the variety

of courses offered. Transportation was provided by the Village to

older adults who reside outside the retirement community.

A seminar program entitled, "Tuesday Mornings at the Plaza"

(Cohen & Frank, 1977), was developed by the Community College of

Baltimore. This program consisted of seven different discussion

sessions. These sessions were offered on seven Tuesdays in a theatre

located in a shopping center that was a gathering area for large

numbers of older persons. The seminars, led by outstanding authorities

on the topics, were planned both as social and intellectual functions.

The number of participants in the seminars grew from 40 to 50 older

adults in the beginning to approximately 200 participants in the last

seminar. Since this program, numerous other seminar series have

developed throughout the Baltimore area.

Valencia Community College in Orlando, Florida, through its Insti-

tute of Lifetime Learning (Note 1), developed the TEL-ED Program for









senior citizens in the area. This program, co-sponsored by Orange and

Osceola Counties Public Schools, offers a series of concise, three to

four minute audio tapes on special topics to older people in a two-

county area through toll-free TEL-ED numbers. The audio cassette tapes

are produced in dialog format and answer specific questions in subject

areas such as, information and resources, health and well-being, money-

consumerism-energy, special interests and travel, and government-laws-

taxes. Senior citizens serve on a volunteer TEL-ED tape review panel

which critiques pilot tapes, screens suggestions, determines tape

topics, secures resource people and approves the final master tapes.


Summary

Community colleges have been responding to the needs of older

people. Admittedly, this response has been slow and somewhat limited.

However, there has been a steady increase in the number of community

colleges recognizing and serving the needs of older persons. Hope-

fully, future years will demonstrate an even greater commitment by

these institutions to serve this growing segment of our population.


Recommended Guidelines for
Program Development

In reviewing the literature regarding community college pro-

gramming for older people several major studies were identified that

offered recommended guidelines for program development. Following is a

brief description of these studies. They serve as the primary sources

for the general review of recommended guidelines that will be discussed

in the next several pages.









The Academy for Educational Development conducted two national

surveys of institutions of higher education (Never Too Old to Learn,

1974; Scanlon, 1978). The first survey involved a questionnaire mailed

to more than 400 institutions of higher education with follow-up visits

to 33 of the 296 responding institutions. The second survey was an

effort to update and expand the information of the earlier study. In

this survey, over 800 questionnaires were sent to colleges and univer-

sities throughout the country with approximately a 35% response rate.

Another extensive project, supported by the American Association

of Community and Junior Colleges (1974), surveyed over 1,100 community

and junior colleges across the country. The resultant document, Older

Americans and Community Colleges: A Guide for Program Implementation

(Korim, 1974), provided a comprehensive set of guidelines for use by

educational practitioners.

The National Institute of Education (Glickman et al., 1975) sup-

ported a project involving a telephone survey of 150 community college

administrators associated with programming for older people. Infor-

mation from this survey and an extensive literature review was used to

develop a program planning guide entitled, Community Colleges Respond

to Elders: A Sourcebook for Program Development.

Finally, a detailed book of guidelines was produced as a result of

a demonstration project carried out under the auspices of Bakersfield

College in Bakersfield, California, from July, 1973, to October, 1974

(Carlson & Paine, 1974). This project was designed to test approaches

and methods for providing direct educational opportunities to the

aging. Its purpose was to create methods, procedures, and programs to

better serve the educational needs of older persons, with the primary










objective of developing and testing a model for educational agencies to

follow.

These studies have been carefully examined so that a general

summary of recommended guidelines for developing programs for older

people could be constructed. The guidelines established from these

studies reflect practices and procedures found to be successful by many

program practitioners. The following review is not intended to be

exhaustive in detail but rather to provide a general framework of con-

siderations that have been helpful in establishing successful

educational programs for older people.


Institutional Commitment

Before attempting to initiate effective programs to meet the needs

of older persons, it is essential to examine the internal character-

istics of the institution. Korim (1974) identified some questions that

should be answered:

Is an expanded role in aging consistent with the philosophy of the
college?

Has the governing board of the college expressed interest in the
needs of the elderly?

Is the college currently preparing manpower to work with the
elderly?

What experience has the college had in working with the aging?

Are there service components that the college may expand or
undertake without new resources?

Who on the staff and faculty has expressed interest or has had
experience in working with the aging?

Is it possible for the college to reallocate resources to serve
the needs of the elderly? (p. 91)









Commitment by the college administration to serving the educa-

tional needs of older people is essential for program success. It may

be necessary to convince key college administrators, faculty, and the

governing board that the college's responsibility involves establishing

programs to serve the needs of an older population. Areas to investi-

gate that could be used to enlist support for institutional commitment

could include

1. other colleges that are doing programming for elders;

2. facts and figures about elders and education;

3. potential loss of younger students due to aging of general
population (the "baby boom" bulge is moving upward);

4. humanitarian commitment;

5. professionals serving elders in the community; and

6. elders themselves (Glickman et al., 1975, p. 15)

Once institutional commitment is established, the college can

begin to mobilize its resources toward the process of program develop-

ment and implementation. The first action the college may want to take

could be to appoint a full-time staff member to serve as director or

coordinator of programming for older persons. This visible demon-

stration of institutional commitment would provide a person who would

bring leadership and continuity to program development and

implementation.


Assessing the Needs of an Older Clientele

The beginning point in the development of educational programs for

older people is an accurate assessment of their needs, particularly as

applied to the local area. A good background of statistical and local

information regarding the needs and characteristics of older people can









provide a sound basis for determining appropriate programs. A study to

identify specific information about the older population in the

community could address such items as

-numbers by age

--numbers by sex

--numbers by ethnic group

--percentage of total population

--numbers by character of residence
a. residing with family
b. residing in isolation
c. residing in institution (by type of institution)

--numbers physically disabled

--numbers by income group

--numbers employed and unemployed

--areas of high and low density

--magnitude of needs (retirement information, nutrition, social
services, cultural enrichment, transportation, basic education,
day care, etc.)

--nature of manpower needed by community agencies working with the
elderly (Korim, 1974, p. 92)

Much of this statistical information could be obtained through an

examination of census reports, discussions with local committees or

commissions on aging, reports by local Area Agencies on Aging,

assistance by State Offices on Aging representatives, and contacts with

other sources involved with programs or research connected with aging.

Data concerning the specific educational needs of older persons in

the community may be obtained through informal methods such as dis-

cussions with groups of older people or key individuals in the

community and/or through a more formalized survey instrument. Once

data concerning the nature of the local population of older persons are









obtained, the institution must examine its resources and determine its

level of involvement in programming to address the needs of this group.

This should be a conscious, deliberate decision. An analysis of the

identified needs in light of existing services available to meet each

need category can point out critical gaps in the range of services

offered. By identifying local agencies, groups or associations that

are providing services to older people, the institution can better plan

a program emphasis that would compliment and enhance the overall com-

prehensiveness of community programs and services for older people.


Establishing a Local Board

Early in the process of program development, it is of key impor-

tance to establish a planning board composed primarily of older persons

in the community. This board, often called an advisory committee, can

serve as a reliable source of community input about the local needs of

the older population.

The advisory council is perhaps the most effective vehicle for
receiving input from interested public agencies and private groups
in the community maintaining linkages with key decision-makers,
and influencing the formation of community priorities. (Korim,
1974, p. 101)

Members of the board should reflect adequate representation from

significant segments of older people in the community. Some criteria

to consider in choosing members include

--representation of different income levels

--equitable distribution of men and women

--representation of different age levels from 55 years on

--representation of working and retired elders

--representation for different geographical sections of the
community









--representation of different types of living arrangements

--representation of institutionalized elders

--representation of different educational backgrounds

--representation of different minority and ethnic groups
(Glickman et al., 1975, p. 16).

A board of approximately 8 to 15 members could insure adequate repre-

sentation while still being manageable as a working unit.

Administration must be willing to listen to the advisory group and

work with them on an equal basis in all phases of program development.

Some functions of the advisory group could involve addressing personnel

training needs, direct services, staffing, resource development, com-

munity relations, needs-assessment, promotion of programs, and

recruitment of faculty.


Determining Resources

Analyzing the availability of resources is another critical compo-

nent of the program development process.

A major challenge in developing a program surfaces in making the
most of available resources and seeking out new ones. Most
college administrators face both a limited budget and either a
part-time staff or no staff at all. (Glickman et al., 1975,
p. 31)

Existing resources within the college should be identified. Local,

state, and federal agencies need to be examined as potential resources.

Public funds and private foundation monies may be available. Local

public facilities could be used to provide space for programs.

Additionally, local companies and businesses could be encouraged to

provide support.

Another major resource available to support program efforts are

older people themselves. Serving as volunteers, or on a paid basis,









they can perform a wide range of functions necessary for program

success. Involvement of older people as resources in program develop-

ment and implementation could also be viewed as a goal in itself.

Examples of how older persons might serve as resources include

--researching basic demographic and factual background on the
community's elders

--assisting in community needs assessment, including distribution
of needs assessment instrument and analysis of results

--recruiting students through talks to elderly groups, direct
mailing to elders, and staffing information booths in senior
centers or other areas where elders congregate

--originating publicity and communications by writing press
releases and flyers for local newspapers and/or TV and radio
stations; arranging appearances on local radio and TV community
service programs

--serving as instructors and teachers

--approaching community groups and local industry for donations
of materials, space, and/or funds

--approaching government agencies and private foundations, along
with administrators, for funds

--collecting information on and developing liaisons with pertinent
community groups and organizations

--developing car pools and working out transportation schedules

--assisting in writing proposals for program funds to appropriate
agencies (Glickman et al., 1975, p. 32)

The existing services of associations and private organizations

could become resources providing information and support. Trade

unions, professional associations, public interest groups, foundations

specializing in aging organizations, other colleges or universities and

volunteer agencies all may have interests in certain aspects of aging.

Efforts to establish linkages with these groups could result in a










pooling of resources and the establishment of a wide network of program

support.

When determining the resources available to provide program sup-

port for older people, the community college should not overlook what

can be done within its existing operational framework without new

resources. Measures can be taken to accommodate older people without

increasing demands on funds. With creative examination of existing

practices, procedures, curriculum, and faculty and staff development

programs within the institution, modifications could be made that would

result in better services for older people. Furthermore, a college

could establish new fiscal priorities through a reallocation of

existing resources to address the educational needs of older people.

A related factor in a community college's search for resources

will be its level of involvement in programming. A decision by the

institution concerning this point, early in the process, will provide

direction concerning the amount of resources required.


Selection of Program Areas

Institutional involvement in programs and services for older

people will depend upon the needs of its clientele, level of insti-

tutional commitment and the availability of resources. Glickman et al.

(1975) identified five general categories in which community college

programming for older people can be grouped. These include enrich-

ment, retirement planning, second careers, advocacy, and services.

Well-rounded programs might include the first four categories, with

direct social services (category five) being offered only in special

circumstances. With limited budgets and resources colleges could









choose to focus their efforts on one or two areas or to develop a pro-

gram with limited aspects of each area. Some program areas may already

be addressed by other community agencies. Identification of these

efforts can help avoid program duplication.

Careful planning is necessary when choosing program content.

Because of the diversity of the older population, it is likely that a

wide selection of educational experiences would attract more partici-

pants. Constant experimentation and evaluation is necessary to keep

pace with the learning needs of an older clientele. Program develop-

ment will require open and continuous communication between college

staff and program participants.


Insuring Program Effectiveness: Strategies

While the literature cautions against making generalizations about

older people, there are certain characteristics shared by numbers of

older persons that program planners need to consider to assure maximum

program effectiveness. Some of these include

--limited mobility either from personal, physical limitations or
lack of transportation

--fear and/or apprehension about "returning to school" and
competing with younger people

--knowledge and wisdom gained through years of experience

--lack of awareness of the community college as a potential
resource (Glickman et al., 1975, p. 29)

These characteristics will have definite implications for planning such

things as recruitment techniques, teaching style, location of programs,

facilities used, and types of supportive services. In order to achieve

successful programs, educators will have to be sensitive to the unique









characteristics of older people when developing program strategies.

Below is an account of some strategies that have been successful.


Recruitment. It will be necessary to "sell" the college as a

resource that can meet the needs of older people. Older people may

have a narrow perception of education and may not be familiar with the

purpose of the community college. An intensive campaign to re-educate

older people in the community about the benefits that can be provided

by a community college will be necessary.

In addition to using typical methods of advertising special pro-

grams for older people, efforts can be made to employ techniques that

may be more successful for an older clientele. The use of newsletters

or bulletins of local clubs to which older people belong, personal

mail-outs directly to older people, direct contact with prospective

participants in their homes, places of employment or gathering areas

are a few examples. Reducing the perceived threat of participating in

college programs and demonstrating the usefulness of the college as a

resource are important goals to consider when recruiting older persons.


Program location. When determining the location of various pro-

grams for older adults, certain considerations are important. Programs

located in facilities convenient to places where older people live or

frequent have a better chance for success. Off-campus facilities such

as churches, senior citizen centers and centrally located public

buildings are examples of locations that would be familiar to an older

clientele. Accessibility is also an important factor. Facilities

located near public transportation lines would be more accessible to

older people with transportation problems. Scheduling activities on









first floor levels will also remove barriers for those with physical

limitations. Choosing locations that require a minimum of effort to

reach is important to program success. On-campus programs are a

possibility if care is given to possible problem areas such as trans-

portation, fear of campus environment, and the accessibility of campus

facilities to those individuals with physical limitations.


Instructional considerations. Methods for presenting learning

experiences to an older clientele may differ somewhat from conventional

techniques. Recognition of the depth of experiences older adults bring

to a learning situation will promote instructional techniques that will

encourage the combined use of knowledge and resources available from

both the teacher and the older students. The seminar or workshop

format is one successful method that is recommended to achieve an open

exchange of ideas. Classes and instructors need to be flexible to

allow for irregular or short-term attendance. Classes reflecting an

open entrance/exit philosophy might better serve the needs of an older

population. Daytime classes seem to be successful, with afternoon

times having first priority and morning times, second.

Faculty selected to teach various courses must be sensitive to the

unique needs of older people and be in agreement with the previously

mentioned instructional philosophy. Retired professionals can be an

excellent source for faculty members. Younger faculty are not excluded

but it is essential that they be able to relate to the older learner.

Inservice training (i.e., learning about aging) is one way to assure

faculty effectiveness.









Supportive services/procedures. As much as possible the college

should try to eliminate administrative policies which create barriers

to potential older participants. Registration procedures/forms could

be simplified. Tuition costs could be reduced or eliminated. Access

to college events could be free or at a reduced rate. Special

on-campus parking could be provided.

Depending on the level of institutional commitment and the

availability of resources, numerous supplementary services could be

provided. One study (Academy for Educational Development, 1974) found

that the services most often provided to older students included

academic counseling, information and referral, and cultural activities.

Other less frequent services were job placement and health. Another

service might involve providing solutions to the transportation problem

many older people face. Making bus transportation available or

coordinating a system of shared rides are examples of how some colleges

have reduced this barrier to participation.


Evaluation

A key component to any program development process is evaluation.

Program planners should incorporate an evaluation plan into all aspects

of the program development process to provide continuous feed-back as

to its effectiveness. The nature of the curriculum, desirability of

location sites, scheduling of class times and faculty effectiveness are

but a few of the areas that need constant evaluation to insure

continued program success.









Summary

It should be mentioned that these guidelines, synthesized from the

previously mentioned sources, apply mostly to program efforts necessary

to meet the educational needs of a special group of older people. It

is recognized that a number of older people familiar to the educational

setting may fit easily into traditional educational activities already

available. The above-mentioned guidelines are geared to the develop-

ment of programs for those who may not be as comfortable with the

college experience. It is this special group, not prone to educational

participation, that requires special attention.

The experience of institutions of higher education surveyed by the

Academy for Educational Development (Scanlon, 1978) indicated five

basic requirements for program success. These serve as a concise

summary of what has been discussed.

1. A firm commitment on the part of the faculty, administration,
and trustees that the program is not only worth undertaking
but also that it merits a priority that will enable it to
function as an integral part of the institutional mission,
and not merely as a perfunctory gesture to the elderly.

2. The enthusiastic support and participation of key people in
the community who know the needs, problems, and aspirations
of older people from first-hand experience.

3. Careful academic and financial planning.

4. The development or a two-way communication system that will
facilitate the flow of ideas, information, and advice from the
college to the people it hopes to serve, and from this
constituency back to the college.

5. A lot of hard work. (Scanlon, 1978, p. 35)


Chapter Summary

The related literature reviewed in this chapter is intended to

make the following general points:









1. The older segment of our population is a large, diverse, and

growing group which has certain characteristics, needs, and interests

that must be considered by educators.

2. Community colleges are, in numerous instances, responding to

meet the educational need of older people. However, this group will

demand greater attention in the future.

3. Several studies have been conducted in regard to existing

practices used by institutions of higher education that have developed

educational programs for older persons. These studies have resulted in

a number of suggested guidelines that can be considered by other

educational institutions when developing programs to meet the

educational needs of older people.

Chapter III presents the methodology for conducting this investi-

gation. Specifically, the procedures used for the identification of

recommended guidelines for developing educational programs for older

persons, the development of the survey instrument, the survey

investigation and the follow-up interviews are discussed.
















CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


This study was descriptive-analytical in nature. The purpose of

this investigation was to identify both current and recommended guide-

lines for community colleges in determining the allocation of their

resources to meet the educational needs of older persons. This chapter

presents the methodology used for the (a) identification of recommended

guidelines for developing programs to meet the educational needs of

older persons; (b) development of the survey questionnaire; (c) survey

investigation; and (d) follow-up interviews.


The Recommended Guidelines

In order to establish a background relative to older adults and

the development of educational problems for them in the community

colleges, literature was reviewed from 1965 to the present. An ERIC

search was conducted using "older adults" and "community or two-year

colleges" as key descripters. Furthermore, related studies were

identified through a manual search of Dissertation Abstracts. As a

result of this literature review several major studies were identified

that offered guidelines for the development of educational programs for

older persons. Based upon an intensive analysis of these studies, a

list of recommended guidelines for program development was compiled.

These guidelines were then examined for duplication, and finally,









synthesized into one comprehensive list of 54 recommended guidelines

for developing educational programs for older adults.


Survey Questionnaire

The format of the survey questionnaire (see Appendix A) involved

two parts. Part I was designed to determine institutional involvement

in programming for older persons. The following three questions were

asked:

1. Does your institution provide classes or programs specifically

for older persons?

2. Has your institution offered, but discontinued recently such

classes or programs for older persons?

3. Does your institution have any classes or programs for older

people in the planning stages?

If a "yes" was indicated to any of these questions, Part II was to

be completed.

The recommended guidelines that were identified in the literature

review were used as the basis for developing Part II of the survey

questionnaire (See Appendix A). These guidelines were reviewed and

then grouped under the following general guideline statements:

1. establish institutional commitment to serving the educational

needs of older persons

2. provide adequate support staff for programming efforts

3. assure reliable input from older people in the community

4. collect data concerning older people in the community

5. develop a plan

6. analyze resources









7. modify college policies/procedures to better serve older

persons

8. develop effective recruitment/advertising strategies

9. provide easy access to programs

10. use effective instructional strategies

11. assure on-going communication and evaluation of programs

For each specific guideline statement a yes/no response was

available so that the individual completing the survey questionnaire

could indicate (a) if the specific guideline was viewed as important,

and (b) if this guideline was part of the program development process

at that individual's institution (see Appendix A). Part II of the

survey questionnaire served two purposes: (a) to determine the extent

of institutional agreement with the recommended guidelines; and

(b) the extent to which these guidelines were being followed by that

institution in the development of its educational programs for older

persons. It was assumed that the individual completing the survey

questionnaire represented the institution's viewpoints. Space for

additional comments or guidelines was also provided (see Appendix A).


Survey Investigation

The target population for this investigation included the 28

public community colleges in Florida. The mailing address of the

president of each community college was obtained from the Office of the

President at Valencia Community College (see Appendix B). A cover

letter (see Appendix C) was developed to accompany each survey ques-

tionnaire. The cover letter was sent to each of the 28 community

college presidents. It provided a brief background concerning older









people in Florida, an explanation of the purpose of the investigation,

and finally, a specific request that the attached survey questionnaire

be delivered to the person at that institution best suited to provide

information relative to educational programming efforts specifically

for older people. It was felt that a higher completion rate would be

achieved if the survey questionnaires were routed from the presidents'

offices. The cover letter was on Valencia Community College letterhead

and signed by the writer, the President of Valencia Community College,

and the Director, Center for Community Education, University of

Florida (see Appendix C).

The cover letter and the attached survey questionnaires were

mailed to each of the community college presidents on October 5, 1981.

A request was made to return the completed questionnaire no later than

October 26, 1981. A self-addressed stamped envelope was included to

promote quick returns. Persons completing the questionnaires were

asked to indicate their name, title, and the institution where they

were employed.


Follow-up Interviews

Interview Guide

An interview guide (see Appendix D) was constructed containing

both close-ended and open-ended questions. The guide was organized

into four sections. The first section was introductory in nature

involving the name and background of the interviewer, and a description

of the investigation (see Appendix D). The second section was designed

to establish the credibility of the interviewee and to demonstrate the









institution's involvement in programming for older persons (see

Appendix D). The following questions were asked:

1. What is your official position at the college?

2. Does your position include the responsibility for programming

for older persons? If yes, explain.

3. Have you had a personal involvement in programming for older

persons?

4. Do you feel you have knowledge in this area?

5. What was the major impetus behind the initiation of your pro-

grams for older persons? (i.e., grants, special interest of an

administrator, demand by older people)

6. How long has your institution been involved in programming

for older people?

7. Could you describe some of the programs you have available?

The purpose of the third section of the interview guide was to

check if the individuals' responses to certain items on the survey

questionnaire were consistent with their responses to those same items

during a personal interview situation. Ten guidelines from the survey

questionnaire were selected to be included in the interview. Numbers

were given to each of the guidelines on the survey questionnaire and a

table of random numbers was used to select the guidelines to be

included in the interview guide. The responses of the individuals to

these items during the interviews were then compared to their responses

to those same items on the survey questionnaire that they had completed

earlier in the investigation (see Appendix D).

The fourth section of the interview guide was organized into two

parts. Each part was designed to explore the interviewees' thoughts









about the aggregate responses of those surveyed to specific items on

the questionnaire. The first part in this section followed up on those

guidelines that received a rating of "important" by less than 75% of

the institutions responding. Interviewees were given both the actual

number and percentage of institutions that rated each guideline in

this category as "important" and were then asked why they thought each

guideline received the rating it did (see Appendix D). The purpose of

this part was to ascertain possible explanations as to why a specific

guideline that was recommended by the literature was not viewed as

"important" by 75% or more of the institutions.

The second part in section four explored the interviewees' thoughts

concerning those guidelines that were identified as being important by

75% or more of the institutions but were actually practiced by less

than 75% when developing programs for older persons. After each guide-

line in this category was read to the interviewees, they were asked to

give their thoughts about possible reasons or factors that might

explain why these guidelines were followed by less than 75% of the

institutions responding (see Appendix D). The purpose of this portion

of the interview was to utilize the expertise of the practitioners

being interviewed to gain insight into current practices of the

institutions when developing programs for older persons that were not

in line with the guidelines recommended by the literature.


Population Interviewed

The follow-up interviews were scheduled at five of the community

colleges with the same individuals who had completed the original

survey questionnaire. The selection of the five community colleges was









based upon the recommendations of individuals who had an awareness of

community college programs for older people throughout the state of

Florida. The positions of the individuals contacted included

1. Project Director for the Florida Council on Aging

2. Coordinator of Adult-Continuing Education and Community

Services, Florida Department of Education, Division of Community

Colleges

3. Supervisor, Post-Secondary Education and Policy Units, Office

of the Commission of Education, Florida Department of Education

4. Education Consultant in Adult and Community Education,

Florida Department of Education

5. Director, Institute of Government, State of Florida Adminis-

trator of Title I, Higher Education Act

Each individual was contacted by phone and asked to identify at

least five community colleges that they felt had well-established

educational programs for older people. An attempt was made to schedule

the follow-up interviews with individuals at the five most frequently

suggested community colleges. Because of a difficulty in scheduling

one of the community colleges, the next most frequently suggested

college was substituted. The community colleges selected and the

positions of the individuals interviewed were

1. Daytona Beach Community College--Coordinator, Continuing

Education and Community Services

2. Florida Junior College--Director, Continuing Education

3. Santa Fe Community College--Dean for Community and Evening

Programs









4. Seminole Community College--Director, Adult and Continuing

Education

5. Valencia Community College--Director, Community Instructional

Services/Institute Lifetime Learning


Follow-uo Interviews

Several practice interviews using the interview guide were con-

ducted until the investigator felt comfortable with the interview

format. A time constraint of one hour was kept in mind when developing

the interview guide and care was given to keep within this time

parameter during the practice sessions. It was felt that by limiting

the interview sessions to one hour, possible inconveniences to the

interviewees could be reduced.

Each person to be interviewed was contacted and requested to allow

one hour of uninterrupted time for the interview session. Each indi-

vidual was told that the purpose of the interview session was to gain

their insight into certain results that had been obtained from the

survey questionnaire. The interview sessions were tape-recorded to

ensure that the responses of the interviewees would be accurately

noted.


Summary

Several major studies concerning the development of educational

programs for older persons at colleges and universities were identified

and reviewed. From a careful analysis of these studies a comprehensive

list of recommended guidelines for developing programs for older people

was compiled. These guidelines were included in a survey questionnaire

that was completed by individuals who had responsibility for









programming for older people at Florida's 28 public community and

junior colleges. Individuals completing the survey questionnaire were

asked to indicate if they felt the recommended guidelines were impor-

tant, and also, if these guidelines were part of the program develop-

ment process at their institution.

Five follow-up interviews were scheduled with individuals who had

previously completed the survey questionnaire. These individuals were

selected because their institution had been recommended by persons

knowledgeable about educational programming for older people in

Florida's community colleges. The purpose of the follow-up interviews

was to gain the insight of the practitioners concerning specific

results of the survey questionnaire that merited further investigation.

In the following chapter, the results of the research investi-

gation are presented and discussed. The extent to which Florida's

community and junior colleges support the recommended guidelines set

forth in the survey questionnaire and the current practices of these

institutions in the development of their educational programs are

reviewed. Also, the comments obtained from the community college

practitioners interviewed during the follow-up phase of the research

investigation are reported. Specifically, their reactions to certain

results obtained from the survey investigation are provided to shed

additional light on possible factors that may have influenced the

responses of those surveyed to select guidelines on the questionnaire.
















CHAPTER IV
PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS


Introduction

The results presented in this chapter will address the following

general purposes: (a) to describe the extent of support of the recom-

mended guidelines for developing educational programs for older persons

by Florida's public community and junior colleges; (b) to describe

current practices of Florida's public community and junior colleges in

the development of educational programs for older persons relative to

the recommended guidelines; and (c) to report the comments and

reactions of several community college practitioners to the findings of

certain select items on the survey questionnaire.

The descriptive results obtained from the survey are based upon

the responses of the 24 institutions completing the entire question-

naire. Three of the 28 colleges surveyed did not respond and one

college completed only Part I of the questionnaire indicating no

involvement with programming for older people. The report of the

comments and reactions of the community college practitioners is based

upon follow-up interviews with these individuals at five recommended

institutions.

The chapter is organized into the following general categories:

(a) presentation and discussion of survey results; (b) report of

comments and reactions of community college practitioners; and

(c) summary.









Presentation and Discussion of Survey Results

Part II of the survey questionnaire was completed by 24 of the

colleges. This section contained 54 recommended guidelines organized

into 11 general categories (see Appendix A). Respondents were asked

to indicate if they believed a guideline was important and,secondly,

if that guideline was part of the program development process at their

respective institutions. Consequently, the responses to Part II of the

survey questionnaire reflect institutional support of the recommended

guidelines and actual institutional practices relative to these guide-

lines in the development of their programs for older people. Following

is a presentation and discussion of the results obtained from Part II

of the survey questionnaire.

Table 1 presents the responses of the institutions to each of the

guidelines in the first general category. Four of the six guidelines

in this category received the support of 100% of the responding insti-

tutions. Enlisting the support of the governing board (1.2), the

president (1.4), and key college administrators (1.5), not only had

support in belief but had strong support in practice. Although identi-

fying supportive faculty and other staff (1.6) was believed to be

important by all of the institutions, only 79% indicated a willingness

to follow these guidelines. While this still reflects substantial sup-

port, in practice, it could indicate that institutions place a higher

priority on obtaining the support of the governing board, president,

and key administrators rather than other staff members who may have

less influence. The remaining guidelines in this category dealt with

developing a philosophical base within the institution consistent with

serving older persons (1.1) and developing a written policy statement









(1.3). Each received strong support (96% and 88% respectively). How-

ever, institutions were far more likely to deal at the philosophical

level in practice (88%), than to commit themselves to a written policy

statement (67%).


Table 1

Summary of Institutional Responses to Guidelines in General
Category, Establish Institutional Commitment to Serving
the Educational Needs of Older Persons

Percent of Percent of
Guideline Respondents Respondents
Supporting Practicing

1.1 Develop philosophical base within the 96 88
institution that is consistent with (23) (21)
serving an older population
1.2 Assure that the governing board recog- 100 88
nizes and supports the responsibility (24 (21)
to serve older persons
1.3 Develop a written policy statement 88 67
regarding the institution's involve- (21) (16)
ment with older persons
1.4 Enlist the support of the president 100 92
(24) (22)
1.5 Enlist the support of key college 100 92
administrators (24) (22)
1.6 Identify faculty and other staff who 100 79
are supportive (24) (19)



Table 2 summarizes the institutional responses to guidelines

included in the general category dealing with providing support staff

for educational programming efforts. Institutions supported identi-

fying and employing interested faculty sensitive to the needs of older

persons (2.3),the most strongly in this category both in belief (100%)

and practice (88%). While 88% thought it was important to provide

inservice training for faculty and staff (2.4), this guideline did not









have strong support in practice (58%). One explanation for this dis-

crepancy between belief and practice could relate to the strong support

they indicated for hiring faculty sensitive to the needs of older

persons. If institutions are careful in the selection of their

faculty, there may not be a perceived need to provide further inservice

training. All but one of the institutions surveyed (96%) indicated

agreement with the use of older people as volunteers or paid staff

(2.2) but did not demonstrate nearly as strong support in actual prac-

tice (71%). Practitioners involved with programming for older people

may not be willing to invest the time necessary to identify and train

older volunteers even though they recognize the important contri-

butions they can make to their programs.


Table 2

Summary of Institutional Responses to Guidelines in General
Category, Provide Adequate Support Staff
for Programming Efforts

Percent of Percent of
Guideline Respondents Respondents
Supporting Practicing

2.1 Appoint a director or coordinator of 83 71
programming for older persons (20) (17)
2.2 Promote the use of older people in the 96 71
community as volunteers or paid staff (23) (17)
2.3 Identify and employ interested faculty 100 88
who are sensitive to the needs of (24) (21)
older persons
2.4 Provide inservice training for faculty 88 58
and staff involved in programming (21) (14)



Appointing a director or coordinator of programming for older

persons (2.1) received support from 83% of the responding institutions

but was the lowest in the category. In actual practice, 71% indicated









they followed this guideline in the development of their programs.

Some institutions may not have the financial resources necessary to

hire a full-time director responsible only for programming for older

persons. This task may fall under an administrator who has additional

areas of responsibility. It also seems likely that the size of an

institution's programs for older people would impact its staffing

patterns.

Table 3 shows the responses of the institutions to each of the

guidelines in the third general category of the survey. While insti-

tutions generally support (75%) the concept of establishing a planning/

advisory committee composed of older persons (3.1), they are not nearly

so willing to do this as part of their program development process.

Establishing and maintaining communication links with key individuals

from the older population (3.2) received strong support both in belief

(100%) and practice (92%). Although the surveyed institutions agreed

in principle with advisory committees (75%), they were more inclined to

follow the less formal means of obtaining input and direction from

older persons indicated in guideline 3.2.

Table 4 gives a summary of the institutional responses to the

guidelines in the general category of collecting data concerning older

people in the community. All of the surveyed institutions agreed with

the importance of identifying existing services/programs for older

people (4.3), determining gaps between these services, and the needs of

older people (4.4) and establishing links with agencies that could pro-

vide expertise and information about older people (4.5). All but one

of the responding institutions (96%) indicated agreement with deter-

mining needs (4.2). The largest gap between belief and practice,









Table 3

Summary of Institutional Responses to Guidelines in General
Category, Assure Reliable Input from Older People
in the Community

Percent of Percent of
Guideline Respondents Respondents
Supporting Practicing

3.1 Establish a planning/advisory com- 75 58
mittee composed primarily of represen- (18) (14)
tative older people in the community
3.2 Establish and maintain communication 100 92
links with key individuals from (24) (22)
various setments of the older
population







Table 4

Summary of Institutional Responses to Guidelines in General
Category, Collect Data Concerning Older People
in the Community

Percent of Percent of
Guideline Respondents Respondents
Supporting Practicing

4.1 Establish a demographic profile (i.e., 83 79
numbers by age, sex, ethnic group, (20) (19)
residence, income, employment status)
4.2 Determine needs (i.e., transportation, 96 71
basic education, enrichment, second (23) (17)
career, retirement education, social
services, nutrition)
4.3 Identify existing services/programs 100 79
provided for older people in the (24) (19)
community
4.4 Determine gaps between current 100 88
services/programs and the needs of (24) (21)
older persons in the community
4.5 Establish communication links with 100 88
agencies that have expertise and (24) (21)
information about older people









however, occurred with this guideline. Institutions do not seem to be

as inclined to spend their time and resources conducting needs assess-

ments as they are to work with the existing services/programs and other

agencies dealing with older people. Perhaps a sufficient feel for the

needs of older people is obtained through these existing networks

making an independent needs assessment less warranted. The least

amount of support (83%) of the guidelines in this category was given to

establishing a demographic profile (4.1). There was very little dis-

crepancy between institutional support of this guideline (83%) and

institutional practice (79%).

As can be seen in Table 5, institutions are quite supportive of

those guidelines related to the planning process. All of the guide-

lines in this category received the support of 92% or more of the

institutions responding. Although institutional practices relative to

these guidelines were somewhat less strong, they were fairly sub-

stantial for all of the guidelines except the one dealing with deciding

the level of involvement (5.1). Only 67% (16) of the institutions

indicated they made a conscious effort to decide their level of

involvement in programming for older persons during the planning

stages. In an ideal situation with no funding limitations, insti-

tutions might indicate a stronger commitment to following this guide-

line. However, with existing funding restrictions, it seems more

likely that the level of institutional involvement with programs for

older persons will not be determined in the initial planning phase but

rather evolve from the year-to-year funding practices of both the state

and the institution.









Table 5

Summary of Institutional Response to Guidelines in General
Category, Develop a Plan

Percent of Percent of
Guideline Respondents Respondents
Supporting Practicing

5.1 Decide what level of involvement 92 67
(22) (16)
5.2 Select curriculum/programs that 96 79
address identified needs and interests (23) (19)
of older persons in the community
5.3 Determine staff requirements 96 79
(23) (19)
5.4 Determine program cost 96 83
(23) (20)
5.5 Identify necessary physical require- 92 83
ments (i.e., facilities, equipment, (22) (20)
location)
5.6 Develop strategies for implementation 92 79
(22) (19)



Institutions demonstrated strong agreement with the importance of

most of the guidelines set forth in Table 6. Although 20 (83%) of the

institutions supported the establishment or justification of new fiscal

priorities (6.7), it received the lowest support of the guidelines in

this category. In practice, only 38% of the institutions surveyed

indicated they actually tried to reallocate existing resources to

support their aging programs. Seeking new funding support seems to

take considerable precedence over the reallocation of existing

resources. Additionally, institutions are much more likely to focus

their attention to known resources available through state funding

(96%), established institutional support (96%), grants (75%), the com-

munity (83 %) and cooperative linkages with other agencies (88%). They

are not as comfortable with the role of exploring new sources for









funding (58%), reviewing supportive alternatives that require no addi-

tional funds (67%) or changing established budgetary practices by

reallocating existing institutional resources (38%).


Table 6

Summary of Institutional Responses to Guidelines in General
Category, Analyze Resources

Percent of Percent of
Guideline Respondents Respondents
Supporting Practicing

6.1 Determine existing state support 100 96
(i.e., CIS funds) (24) (23)
6.2 Examine existing institutional support 100 96
(i.e., courses, facilities, interested (24) (23)
staff/faculty, funding)
6.3 Determine feasibility of grant support 92 75
(i.e., local, state, federal) (22) (18)
6.4 Identify existing resources within the 100 83
community and determine their (24) (20)
potential for serving older persons
6.5 Explore new sources for funding (i.e., 88 58
industry, local business, private (21) (14)
foundations)
6.6 Review supportive alternatives that do 96 67
not require new funds (i.e., emphasize (23) (16)
concept of aging in existing courses,
student projects in aging area, aging
emphasis in staff development)
6.7 Establish/justify new fiscal prior- 83 38
ities that will result in a reallo- (20) (9)
cation of existing resources to
support aging programs
6.8 Develop cooperative linkages with 96 88
other agencies, associations, groups, (23) (21)
institutions serving older persons



Table 7 summarizes the responses of the institutions to the guide-

lines related to modifying college policies/procedures to better serve

older persons. Individuals completing the survey questionnaire









indicated they felt it was important to provide reduced or free tuition

to older persons (92%) and, in fact, practiced this guideline (88%).

However, they did not generally support the notion of actively pro-

moting financial aids. This guideline received, by comparison, very

little support both in belief (46%) and practice (33%). Simplifying

admission/registration procedures was viewed as important by 83% of the

institutions with 71% indicating this was done at their institution.


Table 7

Summary of Institutional Responses to Guidelines in General
Category, Modify College Policies/Procedures
to Better Serve Older Persons

Percent of Percent of
Guideline Respondents Respondents
Supporting Practicing

7.1 Provide reduced or free tuition 92 88
(22) (21)
7.2 Promote financial aid 46 33
(11) (8)
7.3 Simplify admission/registration 83 71
procedures (20) (17)



The surveyed institutions clearly support the recruitment/

advertising strategies delineated in Table 8. Each of the guidelines

in this category was supported by 92% or more of the responding insti-

tutions. Institutional practice of the guidelines was consistent with

the support indicated for the guidelines dealing with identifying

target populations (8.1) and using traditional advertising media (8.3).

Institutions were not quite so strongly inclined to promote the

relevance of institutional mission to older persons (75%) or use

specific advertising techniques geared toward older persons (79%).









Table 8

Summary of Institutional Responses to Guidelines in General
Category, Develop Effective Recruitment/
Advertising Strategies


Percent of Percent of
Guideline Rennondents Respondents


Supporting


Practicing


8.1 Identify target populations 96 88
(23) (21)
8.2 Promote relevance of institutional 96 75
mission to older persons (23) (18)
8.3 Use traditional advertising media 92 92
(i.e., television, radio, newspapers, (22) (22)
brochures)
8.4 Employ advertising techniques appro- 92 79
private for older persons (i.e., news- (22) (19)
letters, or bulletins of local clubs
to which older people belong, direct
mail-outs, personal contacts in homes,
gathering places)



As Table 9 demonstrates, respondents indicated strong support and

sensitivity to the needs of older people in regard to the accessibility

and comfort of the facilities used for program offerings. All of the

institutions indicated support for using convenient locations (9.1),

scheduling program activities on first floors (9.2), providing a com-

fortable class environment (9.3) and using facilities accessible to

persons with physical limitations (9.5). Institutional practices rela-

tive to these guidelines were also in line with their beliefs. Insti-

tutions were not as concerned with eliminating on-campus barriers to

older people. Seventy-five percent indicated support for this guide-

line and only 54% said they included it in their program development

process. The strong support in belief and practice given to choosing

more accessible off-campus locations for program offerings may, in









effect, reduce the need to address possible on-campus barriers to older

people. This same point has merit relative to the issue of providing

or coordinating transportation to locations difficult to reach (9.6).

Respondents did not indicate strong support for this guideline either

in belief (67%) or practice (33%). If care is given to selecting con-

venient locations that are not difficult to reach, the importance of

following these guidelines may become a moot issue. If the respondents

are choosing locations near existing transportation lines as indicated

(9.1), they are, in effect, solving the problem of transportation.


Table 9

Summary of Institutional Responses to Guidelines in General
Category, Provide Easy Access to Programs

Percent of Percent of
Guideline Respondents Respondents
Supporting Practicing

9.1 Use convenient locations (i.e., near 100 92
residents, shopping areas, transpor- (24) (22)
station lines)
9.2 Schedule program activities primarily 100 96
on first floors (24) (23)
9.3 Provide comfortable class environment 100 96
(24) (23)
9.4 Eliminate on-campus barriers (i.e., 75 54
provide special parking) (18) (13)
9.5 Use facilities accessible to persons 100 96
with physical limitations (24) (23)
9.6 Provide or coordinate transportation 67 33
to locations difficult to reach (16) (3)



Table 10 presents the responses of the institutions to the guide-

lines dealing with using effective instructional strategies. Responses

to the guidelines in this area demonstrate considerable institutional

agreement with their importance with no less than 88% showing support









for each guideline. While the percentage of respondents actually

following each of the guidelines in Table 10 is somewhat lower, there

is still substantial support demonstrated. Institutions were the least

inclined to provide instructional formats that allowed older students

to enter or exit a course at will (75%). The perceived problems asso-

ciated with administering an open entrance/exit program may have more

influence upon an institution's willingness to provide this type of

course format more so than a disagreement with the philosophy behind it.


Table 10

Summary of Institutional Responses to Guidelines in General
Category, Use Effective Instructional Strategies


Guideline


10.1 Use teaching techniques that recog-
nize the depth of experiences that
older persons bring to a learning
situation (i.e., small group
discussion, seminar workshop)
10.2 Use instructional media that recog-
nizes possible physical limitations
of older persons (i.e., adequate
lighting, multiple media, larger
print)

10.3 Determine most convenient times to
offer classes/programs
10.4 Provide instructional format that
reflects open entrance/exit
philosophy
10.5 Employ faculty who are sensitive to
the needs of older persons


Percent of
Respondents
Supporting

96
(23)




96
(23)




92
(22)
88
(21)

38
(21)


Percent of
Respondents
Practicing

83
(20)




83
(20)




33
(20)
75
(18)


79
(19)


As Table 11 indicates, there was strong support given to the

guidelines associated with obtaining feedback from program participants

and assuring an on-going evaluation process. While institutional









practices relative to these guidelines are generally consistent with

their indicated beliefs, there were two guidelines with gaps between

institutional belief and practice. All of the respondents indicated

support for assuring open continuous communication between program

planners and program participants (11.1) but in practice, 83% actually

followed this guideline. Determining the cost effectiveness of

programs/classes (11.3) received support from 96% of the institutions

with 79% indicating this was part of their program development process.

With the strong concern demonstrated for using convenient locations for

course offerings (Table 9), and evaluating these locations, it is

likely that courses/programs offered by an institution are available in

a variety of locations throughout its community. Although the respon-

dents may view assuring open, continuous communication between program

planners and program participants positively, some may have difficulty

purely from a logistical standpoint maintaining this contact.


Table 11

Summary of Institutional Responses to Guidelines in General Category,
Assure On-Going Communications and Evaluation of Programs

Percent of Percent of
Guideline Respondents Respondents


Supporting


Practicing


11.1 Assure open, continuous communication 100 83
between program planners and program (24) (20)
participants
11.2 Evaluate curriculum/program emphasis 96 92
(23) (22)
11.3 Determine cost effectiveness of 96 79
programs/classes (23) (19)
11.4 Evaluate program logistics (i.e., 96 92
scheduling, facilities, locations) (23) (22)
11.5 Evaluate faculty effectiveness 96 88
(23) (21)









Although strong support was indicated for determining the cost

effectiveness of various programs or classes offered, the gap between

support and actual practice might partially be explained by exploring

the management information systems that are available to an insti-

tution. It may be that some of the responding institutions lacked the

technical support system necessary to provide on-going data relative to

program or course cost effectiveness.


Comments and Reactions of Community College Practitioners

Background Information

Five community colleges were selected for the follow-up interview

phase of the investigation. Individuals who had completed the initial

survey questionnaire at each institution were chosen for the follow-up

interviews. Following are brief summaries of the background infor-

mation obtained during the first part of each interview session.


Daytona Beach Community College (Daytona). The Coordinator, Com-

munity Instructional Services and Recreational and Leisure Time Courses,

was interviewed at Daytona Beach Community College. She has direct

responsibility for planning and offering courses and programs for older

people. Enrollment of older persons in these programs has exceeded

7,000 per year. The interviewee indicated that she felt she had per-

sonal knowledge of programming for older persons, having worked in this

area part time and full time for approximately six years.

It was stated that Daytona Beach Community College, as a compre-

hensive college, has recognized the need and responsibility to provide

programs for older persons since its inception approximately 20 years

ago. Numerous courses for older adults have been offered within the









general areas of arts, crafts, dance, food/nutrition, general edu-

cation, health and exercise, hobbies, music, parenting, personal and

economic affairs, practical skills development, recreation, self-

improvement, and sewing.


Florida Junior College (Jacksonville). The follow-up interview at

Florida Junior College was conducted with the Director, Continuing

Education. This individual had the responsibility for all senior adult

programs at that institution. She has personal involvement and

knowledge in the area of programming for older persons as a facilitator

of numerous seminars offered for this population and through her close

association with the National Council on Aging.

The interviewee indicated that the initial impetus behind the

institution's involvement with programming for older persons included

the special interest of an administrator, deliberate changes in the

direction and function of Florida Junior College's Downtown Campus, the

recognition of the increased concentration of older people in the area,

and finally, the desire to tap this new market.

Florida Junior College through its Downtown Campus has been

actively involved with programming for older persons for approximately

seven or eight years. Some courses that have been offered during this

time include Afro-American History, Assertiveness Training, Bible

History, Career Planning, Clothing Construction, Community Orchestra

for the Aging, Creative Activities in the Nursing Home, Stress Manage-

ment, Understanding Your Aging Parent, Pre-retirement Planning and many

others.









Santa Fe Community College (Gainesville). The follow-up interview

at Santa Fe Community College was conducted with the Dean of Community

and Evening Programs. This individual has been involved with the area

of programming for older persons for seven years. He has served as a

resource in the selection of teachers for older adult courses and has

taught numerous courses in the local nursing homes.

The institution became involved, initially, with programming for

older adults through grant monies. This support was continued because

of the institution's interest in strengthening its outreach efforts to

the surrounding community. Santa Fe Community College has formed a

strong alliance with the Older Americans Council located in Gaines-

ville. Together they have offered over 80 different courses for older

persons in the last year.


Seminole Community College (Sanford). The Director of Adult and

Continuing Education was interviewed at Seminole Community College.

This position included the indirect responsibility of providing pro-

grams for older persons through the supervision of Community Instruc-

tional Services (CIS) funds and the non-credit leisure time programs

offered through adult education. The interviewee indicated that he had

personal involvement and knowledge in the area of programming for older

people. He has worked personally with older adults through off-campus

recreational programs, as a volunteer coordinator for older adult pro-

grams offered in the local community residences for older persons, and

in a close supervisory capacity relative to the administration of CIS

funds.









The institution became involved with programming for older persons

in the early 1970s through the interest of several administrators who

encouraged the college to pursue grant monies to support the develop-

ment of programs. A locally organized Federation of Senior Citizens

was formed to obtain federal grants in the area of programming for

older persons. Since that time, programs for older persons have been

operated primarily through CIS support.

Seminole Community College now provides a wide variety of leisure

time activities for older adults in such areas as arts and crafts,

tennis, dog obedience, music, slim 'n trim, antiques, photography,

astrology, parapsychology, and yoga.


Valencia Community College (Orlando). The interview at Valencia

Community College was conducted with the Program Director for Community

Instructional Services (CIS). Some of this person's responsibilities

as Director include the scheduling of non-credit courses, programs, and

activities for older persons. She has taught and developed courses for

older adults and has worked in this field for approximately seven

years.

Valencia Community College originally became involved with pro-

gramming for older persons through a Title I, Higher Education grant

establishing an Institute of Lifetime Learning. This institute was

founded in cooperation with the National Retired Teachers' Association/

American Association of Retired Persons in 1975. More recently, CIS

monies have been used to fund courses or programs for older persons.

Course offerings at Valencia have addressed such topics as art,

music, theatre, literature, creative writing, health and physical









fitness, community interests and concerns, local government, personal

development, and others.


Summary. All of the institutions recommended have had con-

siderable involvement with programming for older persons. Individuals

interviewed at these institutions were experienced practitioners.

Factors associated with the initial institutional involvement in the

area of programming for older persons included the special interests of

administrators, the availability of grants, the community college com-

mitment and recognition of its responsibility in this area, and the

availability of Community Instructional Services funds established by

the Florida legislature. All of the institutions selected for the

follow-up interviews have demonstrated great involvement with pro-

gramming for older persons by offering a wide variety of courses and

programs.


Consistency of Response

Ten guidelines from the survey questionnaire were randomly

selected to be included in the interview sessions. Interviewees were

asked to indicate if each guideline was considered to be important, and

if each was part of the program development process at their insti-

tution. This same response had previously been requested of them when

they completed the survey questionnaire. The purpose of this part of

the interview was to provide a quick check to see if the written

responses of the individuals to certain items on the survey question-

naire were consistent with their response to those same items during a

personal interview situation. This would give the writer a feel for









the consistency of data obtained from respondents through a survey

questionnaire with data obtained through a personal interview.

In only three instances was there a difference between a written

response to a survey item and the verbal response obtained during the

interview. For one item, the interviewee's verbal response to a guide-

line was positive as compared with the written negative response indi-

cated on the survey questionnaire. However, the negative response on

the survey questionnaire was qualified with a comment that, in effect,

indicated positive support of the guideline. In another instance, the

interviewee had not given a written response to an item on the survey

questionnaire. Therefore, it could not be determined if a written

response was consistent with a verbal one. Finally, there was only one

situation where complete inconsistency between the verbal and written

response of an individual was indicated.


Guidelines Receiving Less Than 75% Support

Upon review of the results obtained from the survey questionnaire,

the writer chose to explore further those guidelines that received

support from less than 75% of the responding institutions. Table 12

shows the guidelines that fit this criterion. The community college

practitioners interviewed were first told the percentage of support

that each guideline in this category received and then asked to give

their thoughts as to why each guideline received its rating. Following

are the comments and reactions of the practitioners relative to each

guideline.









Table 12

Summary of Guidelines Receiving Less Than
75% Support by Responding Institutions


Percent of Percent of
Guideline Respondents Respondents
Supporting Practicing

7.2 Promote financial aid 46 33
(11) (8)
9.6 Provide or coordinate transportation 67 33
to locations difficult to reach (16) (8)



Provide or coordinate transportation to locations difficult to

reach.

1. Institutions usually do not have funds to provide

transportation.

2. The mission of the community college is to reach out to its

community. If this is done, then programs and courses are accessible

to older people and transportation is not necessary.

3. It is not the responsibility of the college to provide

transportation.

4. There may not be sufficient demand by older people in the

community to merit the expenditure of resources in this area.

5. Transportation is a problem to many different groups.

Colleges could not afford to provide this service to everyone.

6. Colleges have established linkages with other agencies that

have resources to deal with transportation problems.

It is clear from the comments and reactions of the practitioners

that they do not generally perceive transportation to be a major issue

relative to Florida's community and junior colleges. If, indeed,









colleges are outreach oriented, taking care in choosing accessible

locations, then their older clientele should have few transportation

problems. Furthermore, even if transportation does become an issue in

some situations, the college cannot assume this responsibility but must

look to other public agencies to help solve this problem.


Promote financial aid.

1. There are many seniors that can afford to pay for courses and

they feel good about it.

2. Unless the college, state, or federal government can make a

long-term commitment to providing financial aid to older people, then

it is better to explore other ways to allow older people to attend

courses or programs.

3. The Florida legislators have fluctuated on the kind of support

to be provided for older people. Society has not seen fit to offer

financial aid to its seniors on anything other than a hit-or-miss basis

as reflected by Florida legislators over the past four years.

4. Typical financial aids packages are available to older people.

Colleges just do not promote this.

5. Many courses are available to older students free of charge or

at a reduced tuition. Financial aid is not necessary.

6. Although fees are waived for many courses for older persons,

colleges do not "promote" this as financial aid because some older

people may have a negative view of this aid as a form of welfare.

7. Colleges see financial aid to be for those individuals taking

a series of coordinated learning activities leading to a degree or









certificate. They do not generally perceive older people as pursuing

these kinds of activities.

The low support given to promoting financial aid (46%) may have

indicated that the respondents had a rather narrow view of what was

meant by financial aid. Most of the respondents (88%) indicated they

were providing free or reduced tuition. However, their lack of support

for "promoting financial aid" could reflect the bias that traditional

financial aid programs are more for the traditional age students.

Financial aids may be promoted in the area high schools but not in

residential areas or locations with a high concentration of older

people. While older people may generally pursue non-credit or self-

improvement kinds of learning activities, some may have an interest in

pursuing degree or certificate programs leading to second careers. For

them traditional financial aid programs could be appropriate.


Guidelines Supported by 75% of More of the Responding Institutions But
Practiced by Less Than 75%

There were 12 guidelines where general support (75%+) was indi-

cated in belief but not in practice (less than 75%). These guidelines

are summarized in Table 13. In the last part of the interview session,

these guidelines were addressed. Interviewees were asked to give their

thoughts about possible reasons or factors that might explain why these

guidelines were followed by less than 75% of the responding insti-

tutions. A presentation and discussion of their comments relative to

each guideline follow.











Table 13

Summary of Guidelines Supported by 75% or More of the Responding
Institutions but Practiced by Less Than 75%

Percent of Percent of
Guideline Respondents Respondents
Supporting Practicing

1.3 Develop a written policy statement 88 67
regarding the institution's involve- (21) (16)
ment with older persons
2.1 Appoint a director or coordinator of 83 71
programming for older persons (20) (17)
2.2 Promote the use of older people in the 96 71
community as volunteers or paid staff (23) (17)
2.4 Provide inservice training for faculty 88 58
and staff involved in programming (21) (14)
3.1 Establish a planning/advisory com- 75 58
mittee composed primarily of represen- (18) (14)
tative older people in the community
4.2 Determine needs (i.e., transportation, 96 71
basic education, enrichment, second (24) (17)
career, retirement education, social
services, nutrition)
5.1 Decide level of involvement 92 67
(22) (16)
6.1 Explore new sources for funding (i.e., 83 58
industry, local businesses, private (20) (14)
foundations)
6.6 Review supportive alternatives that do 96 67
not require new funds (i.e., emphasize (23) (16)
concept of aging in existing courses,
student projects in aging area, aging
emphasis in staff development
6.7 Establish/justify new fiscal prior- 83 38
ities that will result in a reallocation (20) (9)
of existing resources to support aging
programs
7.3 Simplify admission/registration 83 71
procedures (20) (17)
9.4 Eliminate on-campus barriers 75 54
(18) (13)









Develop a written policy statement regarding the institution's

involvement with older persons.

1. It may have been unclear as to what was meant by a policy

statement.

2. Mission statements of colleges address all groups. If you

single out older people then you have to do this for all groups.

3. An informal understanding of policy may be easier to have

rather than a formal written one.

4. Institutions do not want to commit themselves in a written

policy statement. Funding changes so often.

5. There is not enough population of older people to warrant a

single policy statement for them.

While institutions may support the concept of a written policy

statement (88%) there is a reluctance on their part to do this for

special groups. College mission statements provide a broad, general

framework for operation without committing institutions to specifics.

Institutions would appear to operate on more of an informal basis when

it comes to specific actions relating to programming for older persons.

This allows them more flexibility to expand, change, or reduce their

programming efforts depending on current budget commitments.


Appoint a director or coordinator of programming for older

persons.

1. Budget limitations. The amount of money available would

dictate whether this could be done.

2. The percentage of older people in the community might decide

whether this could be done.









3. If seniors are not vocal in their demands, the institution

will not pursue this.

Comments relative to this guideline were limited to money and

demand. Institutions with smaller, less vocal populations of older

people are probably offering limited programs for them. With small

budgets, appointing a director may not be feasible or even justifiable.


Promote the use of older people in the community as volunteers or

paid staff.

1. Colleges may not see this as their role.

2. Some colleges may not believe that the amount of time neces-

sary to do this is time well spent.

3. The size of the program might affect this. Their degree of

involvement in programming might determine this.

4. There are other agencies handling this.

5. They may not have the time and expertise to do this.

Most of the comments of the interviewees focused around the

volunteer aspect of the guidelines. Institutions highly support this

concept (96%) but seem significantly less willing to spend their time

and resources developing a volunteer program. They may be very likely,

however, to accept older volunteers from other agencies administering

these programs.


Provide inservice training for faculty and staff involved in

programming.

1. The individuals completing the questionnaire may have per-

ceived this as a formal, structured program. Most of this could be

done informally through printed materials, handbooks, etc.









2. Colleges may not have the funds to support this. Most of the

faculty would be part time. They would probably need to be paid to

attend formal training sessions.

3. Very few institutions deal with part-time faculty as a whole.

Part-time faculty are a constantly changing group.

4. The prescreening of those who will teach already establishes

an individual with expertise and sensitivity with older people. There-

fore, this is not necessary.

The low support (58%) in practice given to this guideline seems

to arise from the unique nature of the faculty used for this area.

They are usually part time and usually accustomed to an older clientele.

Institutions may be more inclined to deal with this group informally

through training manuals rather than face the problems associated with

formally structured training sessions. Also, if institutions are con-

centrating their efforts on employing interested faculty who are

sensitive to the needs of older persons (guideline 2.3) as they have

indicated -(88%), inservice training may not be as necessary.


Establish a planning/advisory committee composed primarily of

representative older people in the community.

1. This takes a lot of work and staff support. There is no

guarantee that the effort put into this will result in a productive

group.

2. The college may prohibit the forming of an advisory group.

3. They may be unsure as to how to develop and structure an

advisory group.










4. They may kid themselves into thinking this is being done

informally.

5. When you have this, you spend a lot of time with a lot of

trivia.

6. Once you give this group some power, they try to run the whole

show without the proper knowledge.

7. Input is obtained on an informal basis.

8. There is a lack of awareness that this is necessary. If there

is a large population of older people, then it is more necessary.

9. Older people are too diverse of a population. It would be

very difficult to get adequate representation. It is not like a career

advisory board.

10. Courses are determined by demand or success. An advisory

group is not necessary.

11. When you have an advisory group, then there is an "implied"

responsibility to meet their needs and respond. A lot of institutions

do not want to create this situation.

According to the interviewees, institutions do not really want to

spend their time and resources on establishing an advisory group unless

it is absolutely necessary. Indeed, this concept was viewed as impor-

tant only by a marginal percentage (75%). There seems to be a feeling

of losing control over the decision-making process if you commit your-

self to the advisory board concept. Respondents seem much more

inclined to obtain input through informal channels that would be less

restrictive on their actions. Also, if institutions were more com-

mitted to carefully mapping out their program content, as they do with

their degree programs, an advisory group may seem more useful. As long









as institutions are in a reactive posture rather than a planning one,

advisory groups will play a less important role.


Determine needs.

1. Institutions list seniors as one of the top populations served

by CIS funds. How are they doing this without a needs assessment?

2. This may not be done in the formal sense but can be done

informally with on-going needs determined by demand.

3. Some colleges may not be aware of the true meaning of a needs

survey.

4. Demand fluctuates so often. You would have to do a needs

assessment too often.

5. You have to stay on top of what is being asked for at that

time. Colleges have to remain flexible to current demand.

6. Conducting a needs assessment is a tricky and time-consuming

process.

7. Development of an instrument to do this would be very

difficult.

8. Institutions are too busy responding to requests rather than

doing needs assessments.

Institutions strongly support the guideline of determining needs

(96%) but may not perceive themselves as having the luxury of allo-

cating their resources for a formalized process of determining needs.

Institutions usually are struggling to keep up with the diverse demands

for off-campus programs. Carefully developing a planned program for

older people based upon an extensive needs assessment may be nice, but

not possible.









Decide level of involvement.

1. The uncertainty of CIS funds probably impacts this. It is

difficult to decide the level of involvement without a known commitment

of funds.

2. Involvement fluctuates relative to the level of known funding.

Involvement is based upon the degree of certainty of money available.

3. You cannot decide this ahead of time because of financial

uncertainty and restrictions. Involvement is on a "shotgun" approach.

4. Usually the person responsible must respond to various groups,

supervisors, etc. These restraints and demands in other areas limit

the level of involvement.

5. Institutions, per se, do not make conscious decisions about

what they are doing.

Comments relative to this guideline focused primarily on funding

situations and how this restricts planning a level of involvement. In

an ideal situation an institution could establish a rationale or justi-

fication for a certain level of involvement in programming for older

persons based upon such things as need, demand, and the percentage of

older people in its community and then expect funding based on the

merit of the case it has made. Funding limitations and practices,

however, do not reflect an ideal situation. Consequently, institutions

must first determine what funds will be available and then plan their

programs accordingly.


Explore new sources for funding.

1. Most educators who come from an institutional base feel

uncomfortable about getting into fund-raising.









2. Educators are given money by the institution and then they

spend it. They do not raise funds.

3. All fund-raising may have to be done by one area of the

college (i.e., foundation).

4. It takes a lot of time and staff to do this. There is

uncertainty that the time and work invested will pay off.

The practitioners interviewed felt that the whole area of

exploring new sources for funding is an area in which many respondents

to the survey may lack both confidence and expertise. They generally

have not had to be involved with these kinds of fund-raising activities

in the past. Their uncertainty or unwillingness to become involved in

this area is further fueled by a lack of confidence that it will

pay off.


Review supportive alternatives that do not require new funds.

1. This would take a totally different delivery system. It takes

a lot of work to do this.

2. This may not be seen as part of CIS activities.

3. They may not view developing a cadre of volunteers for a

program with no financial base as a viable use of time.

4. Turfism. Other areas do not want to do this. They are not

willing to do this unless there is financial reward.

5. There may be a lack of expertise on how to do this.

6. They may not perceive a need to do this.

7. This may not be seen as important enough. Other areas are not

interested in seniors. College is for young people.

8. If no funding at all, then they might do this.









For the most part, the programs for older people at the community

and junior colleges in Florida began with some initial funding com-

mitment. Practitioners associated with these programs have had to

concentrate their efforts on using committed funds to provide the

greatest amount of programs or services for their older clientele as

possible. They have not perceived the review of supportive alterna-

tives that require no new funds as a productive use of their time.

Furthermore, the kinds of alternatives that might be available to them

probably involve other areas over which they have no control. Conse-

quently they may be more inclined to pursue activities that fall under

their direction and responsibility.


Establish/justify new fiscal priorities that will result in a

reallocation of existing resources to support aging programs.

1. The limitations of a state funding system do not encourage

this. The funding system is a major interference in the reallocation

of resources.

2. Standard practice is to find some amount of money to start

something and then find a way of inculcating it as an important aspect

of an institution's scope.

3. If there is a high percentage of seniors in the population, an

institution may be more inclined to do this.

4. Institutions have not been forced to do this. If something

happens to CIS funds then they may be faced with this.

5. The institution's budget development process does not support

this approach.









6. This would take extensive promotional efforts within the

institution to establish this.

7. They could not justify this on the basis of FTE. If FTE is

not a major criterion, then this is a possibility.

Although the responding institutions indicated general support

(83%) for establishing new fiscal priorities resulting in a reallo-

cation of existing resources, in reality, the existing budgetary prac-

tices of Florida's community and junior colleges do not support this

approach. Budgets generally are built with an "add on" philosophy. If

new programs seem justifiable, then additional funding is sought. Based

upon the comments of the interviewees,it does not seem likely that

institutions will reexamine their existing budgetary practices to

establish new fiscal priorities unless some major circumstance forces

them to do so.


Simplify admission/registration procedures.

1. They may not have control over the admissions/registration

process.

2. Fear of changing procedures that have worked in the past.

3. Persons in charge of these areas do not want special forms for

special groups. They want to keep forms consistent.

4. Inertia. Lack of willingness. The philosophy of the

registrar affects this.

The interviewees felt that the primary factor affecting the prac-

tice of this guideline by some of the responding institutions was the

personality of the person in charge of the registration/admission area.

If there was a resistance by this person to changing established









procedures, those who might want to simplify procedures for older

people would have little control over implementing such changes.


Eliminate on-campus barriers.

1. Institutions generally have not had to address this because

most courses are offered off campus.

2. It is easier to offer courses off campus than to address all

the problems (i.e., scheduling) associated with on-campus programs.

Having courses on campus involves a different program concept.

3. Institutions do not really communicate that they want seniors

on campus.

4. There is not a pressing need by seniors to come on campus.

They are threatened by this.

5. Population patterns would affect this.

6. Most renovations for handicapped have taken care of this.

Institutions have not perceived the need to address this issue.

They have worked hard (92%) at choosing convenient off-campus locations

for their programs for older people and, consequently, have not given as

much attention to on-campus barriers. Since it is likely that the

majority of the older participants in the community attend these off-

campus learning activities, it has not seemed necessary to deal with

on-campus problems. However, there may still be a number of older

people attending the more traditional on-campus courses who need the

institution's attention.


Chapter Summary

There were 24 institutions completing the entire survey question-

naire. All but two of the 54 recommended guidelines were rated as









important by 75% or more of the responding institutions. In actual

practice, 40 of the 54 guidelines were followed by 75% or more of the

institutions in the development of their programs for older people.

These results were presented and discussed.

Two guidelines were believed to be important by less than 75% of

the responding institutions (see Table 12). Twelve guidelines received

support (75% or more), in belief, but not in actual practice (less than

75%). The comments and reactions of five interviewed practitioners

relative to these findings were reported and discussed.

The results presented in this chapter indicate a substantial

support (75% or more) by the responding institutions of the recommended

guidelines both in belief (50 guidelines) and in actual practice (40

guidelines). In the final chapter, the entire research investigation

is summarized and conclusions are provided.
















CHAPTER V
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS


Introduction

The older population in Florida is a large, diverse, and growing

group which has certain educational needs that must be considered by

educators. Community colleges, because of their mission, are in an

excellent position to develop and offer educational programs to address

these needs. The purpose of this study was to identify current and

recommended guidelines for community colleges in determining their

allocation of resources to meet the educational needs of older persons.

Three specific subproblems were also addressed. These were

1. the identification of recommended guidelines for developing

educational programs for older people

2. the determination of the extent to which Florida's public com-

munity and junior colleges support and practice the recommended guide-

lines for developing educational programs for older people

3. the examination and analysis of current community college

practices statewide in light of the recommended guidelines.


Research Methodology

As a result of a literature review primarily from 1965 to the

present, several major studies were identified that offered guidelines

for the development of educational programs for older persons. Through

a careful analysis of these studies, a comprehensive list of 54









recommended guidelines was constructed. These guidelines were utilized

as the basis for developing a survey instrument that was sent to indi-

viduals having responsibility for educational programming for older

persons at Florida's 28 public community and junior colleges. The

primary purpose of the survey was to determine the extent to which

institutions supported and practiced the recommended guidelines for

developing educational programs for older persons.

After reviewing the results of the survey questionnaire, follow-up

interviews were scheduled at five of the responding institutions with

individuals who had completed the original survey. The purpose of the

follow-up interviews was to gain the insight of practitioners con-

cerning specific results of the survey questionnaire. Both the survey

results and the comments of the community college practitioners were

examined and discussed.


Findings

The results of the survey investigation are based upon the

responses of 24 public community and junior colleges. Twenty-five of

the 28 institutions surveyed returned the questionnaire. However, one

institution indicated no involvement in educational programming for

older persons. Following is a summary of the major findings of the

investigation. The three areas addressed include (a) community and

junior college support for the recommended guidelines, (b) current

practices of community and junior colleges, and (c) consistency of

current practices with expressed support.










Community and Junior College Support for the Recommended Guidelines

The respondents indicated substantial support for 52 of the 54

recommended guidelines. Seventeen guidelines were supported by all of

the responding institutions.

1. Assure that the governing board recognizes and supports the

responsibility to serve older persons

2. Enlist the support of the president

3. Enlist the support of key college administrators

4. Identify faculty and other staff who are supportive

5. Identify and employ interested faculty who are sensitive to

the needs of older persons

6. Establish and maintain communication links with key indi-

viduals from various segments of the older population

7. Identify existing services/programs provided for older people

in the community

8. Determine gaps between current services/programs and the needs

of older persons in the community

9. Establish communication links with agencies that have

expertise and information about older people

10. Determine existing state support

11. Examine existing institutional support

12. Identify existing resources within the community and determine

their potential for serving older persons

13. Use convenient locations

14. Schedule program activities primarily on first floors

15. Provide comfortable class environment









16. Use facilities accessible to persons with physical limitations

17. Assure open, continuous communication between program planners

and program participants

Also included in the 52 supported guidelines were several that

received support from all but one of the 24 respondents.

1. Develop a philosophical base within the institution that is

consistent with serving an older population

2. Promote the use of older people in the community as volunteers

or paid staff

3. Determine needs

4. Select curriculum/programs that address identified needs and

interests of older persons in the community

5. Determine staff requirements

6. Review supportive alternatives that do not require new funds

7. Develop cooperative linkages with other agencies, asso-

ciations, groups, institutions serving older persons

8. Identify target populations

9. Promote relevance of institutional mission to older persons

10. Use teaching techniques that recognize the depth of experi-

ences that older people bring to a learning situation

11. Use instructional media that recognize possible physical

limitations of older persons

12. Evaluate curriculum/program emphasis

13. Determine cost effectiveness of programs/classes

14. Evaluate program logistics

15. Evaluate faculty effectiveness










The remainder of the 52 guidelines receiving substantial support

were rated as important by at least 75% (18) of the community colleges.

1. Develop a written policy statement regarding the institution's

involvement with older persons

2. Appoint a director or coordinator of programming for clder

persons

3. Provide inservice training for faculty and staff involved in

programming

4. Establish a planning/advisory committee composed primarily of

representative older people in the community

5. Establish a demographic profile

6. Decide level of involvement

7. Determine program cost

8. Identify necessary physical requirements

9. Develop strategies for implementation

10. Determine feasibility of grant support

11. Explore new sources for funding

12. Establish/justify new fiscal priorities that will result in a

reallocation of existing resources to support aging programs

13. Provide reduced or free tuition

14. Simplify admission/registration procedures

15. Use traditional advertising media

16. Employ advertising techniques appropriate for older persons

17. Eliminate on-campus barriers

18. Determine most convenient times to offer classes/programs










19. Provide instructional format that reflects open entrance/exit

philosophy

20. Employ faculty who are sensitive to the needs of older persons

Finally, the colleges did not indicate strong support for the

guidelines relative to providing transportation and promoting financial

aid. Less than 75% of the institutions felt these guidelines were

important.


Current Practices of Community and Junior Colleges

While institutional practice of the recommended guidelines was not

quite so strong as the indicated support, it nevertheless was sub-

stantial. Forty of the 54 guidelines were included in the program

development process by 75% or more of the responding institutions.

While there were no guidelines followed by all of the institutions,

there were several that were practiced by 22 of the 24 respondents.

1. Enlist the support of the president

2. Enlist the support of key college administrators

3. Establish and maintain communication links with key indi-

viduals from various segments of the older population

4. Determine existing state support

5. Examine existing institutional support

6. Use traditional advertising media

7. Use convenient locations

8. Schedule activities primarily on first floors

9. Provide comfortable class environment

10. Use facilities accessible to persons with physical limitations




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs