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Title: The Grasses of British Honduras and the Peten, Gautemala
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Title: The Grasses of British Honduras and the Peten, Gautemala
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Publication Date: April 24, 1936
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General Note: Botany of the Maya Area : miscellaneous papers 9
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    The grasses of British Honduras and the Peten, Guatemala
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Full Text
BOTANY OF THE MAYA AREA
MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS IX

THE GRASSES OF BRITISH
HONDURAS AND THE PETEN,
GAUTEMALA

By
Jason R. Swallen




BOTANY OF THE MAYA AREA: MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS

IX

THE GRASSES OF BRITISH HONDURAS
AND THE PETEN, GUATEMALA

BY JAsoN R. SWALEN

With four plates

[Issued April 24, 19361





THE GRASSES OF BRITISH HONDURAS
AND THE PETEN, GUATEMALA

INTRODUCTION
The first important collection of plants from British Honduras was made
by M. E. Peck in 1905-07, in the Belize and Toledo Districts. Until very
recently there have been no other collectors in the region. In 1928 and 1929,
however, C. L. Lundell made extensive collections at Honey Camp, Orange
Walk District; and H. P. Smart in the Belize, Stann Creek and Toledo
Districts, in British Honduras. On recent Maya expeditions under
the auspices of the Carnegie Institution of Washington and the University
of Michigan, H. H. Bartlett in 1931 and C. L. Lundell in 1932 and 1933
obtained many specimens in the Belize and El Cayo Districts of British
Honduras, and the Pet6n, Guatemala. For the past several years W. A.
Schipp has collected in southern British Honduras, especially in the Stann
Creek District. Additional collections were made by Sampson, Aguilar,
Gentle, and others.
Only two papers have been published dealing with the grasses of this
area. The first is "On the Gramines collected by Professor Morton E. Peck
in British Honduras, 1905-1907" by F. Tracy Hubbard.1 The second is
"The Grasses of Central America" by A. S. Hitchcock.2
Numerous additions to the grass flora of our region have been found in
the collections mentioned above since the latter work was published. Only
four of these are new species: Axonopus ciliatifolius,s A. rhizomatosus,3
Panicum bartlettii,4 and Oryza alta herein described.
Among the grasses, as in some other groups, there are species, such as
Oryza alta and Pennisetum nervosum, which occur in British Honduras and,
so far as known, in no other part of Central America. However, they are
again found in northern South America and Brazil. It is probable that they
also grow in the intervening countries but have not yet been discovered.
The pine ridges of British Honduras closely resemble the pine forests of
the Southeastern Coastal Plain of the United States. The same pine, Pinus
caribea, is found in both localities. It is not surprising therefore to find
that there are also grasses which are common to both regions. Several
species of the Dichanthelium group of Panicum, so characteristic of the
pine woods of the Southeastern States, also occur on the pine ridges of
British Honduras.
'Proc. Amer. Acad. 49: 495. 1913.
'Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 24: 662. 1930.
'Jason R. Swallen, New Grasses from the United States, Mexico, and Central America,
Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci. 23: 458. 1933.
* 'Jason R. Swallen, The Grasses of the Yucatan Peninsula, Carnegie Inst. Wash. Pub.
No. 436, 334, 1934.





BOTANY OF THE MAYA AREA


The grass flora is somewhat larger, and more varied than that of the
northern part of the Yucatan Peninsula. For the most part the species
are those which are rather wide-spread through tropical and subtropical
America. Mesosetum filifolium Hubb. and Axonopus ciliatifolius are appar-
ently endemic in British Honduras. Ichnanthus lanceolatus is known only
from the Yucatan Peninsula. A few others are confined to our region and
the adjacent countries.
The economic grasses are those usually grown in the tropics, including
maize (Zea mays L.), sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.), sorghum
(Sorghum vulgare Pers.), Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.), and
Para grass (Panicum purpurascens Raddi). Lemon grass (Cymbopogon
citratus (DC.) Stapf) is commonly planted.
Common names are included for the economic species and for any others
that have acquired a significant local or native name. Carrizo is a term
usually applied to any coarse woody grass, such as Olyra latifolia and
species of Lasiacis.
Fifty-eight genera and one hundred and sixty-one species are included.
Through the courtesy of the directors, the specimens in the Gray Her-
barium, and the herbaria of the New York Botanical Garden, the Field
Museum, and the University of Michigan have been examined in the prepa-
ration of the manuscript.

KEY TO GENERA

SCulms hard, woody.
-Culms tall, erect, usually in large clumps.
Plants spineless; palea wingless on the keels..... .. ... ...-. L.ambnsa
Plants spiny at the nodes; palea winged on the keels.---.... 2. Guadua
-Culms widely spreading or clambering, not in large clumps.
Flowering branches numerous, in dense fascicles; spikelcts
racemorse, subcylindrical, with 3 fertile florets .......... 3. Arthrostylidium
Flowering branches not in dense fascicles; spikelets panicu-
late, subspherical, with 1 fertile floret.... _..........-.. 35. Lasiacis (Panicem)
'Culms herbaceous.
-Spikelets in groups of 3 or 4, the groups racemose on a. common
axis, the first glumes indurate, forming a pitcher-shaped in-
volucre ............. -.......- - -.. .....-.----- 10. Anthephora
-Spikelets not in groups with a pitcher-shaped involucre.
'ISpikelets with 2 or more perfect florets, if only one-flowered
the spikelets sessile on one side of a continuous rachis.
(See also Zea and Tripsacum with unisexual spikelets.)
\Spikelets sessile or short pedicellate on one side of a con-
tinuous rachis (Chloridem).
Spikelets with one fertile floret.
Spikes racemose.
1 Culms coarse, tufted, erect; panicles spikelike; ra-
chilla not prolonged ......--- ....... -------------.... -- 15. Spartina
Culms slender, erect or spreading; panicles open, the
spikes spreading; rachilla prolonged.
Spikes elongate, slender; spikelets comparatively
distant __..... ... --.------.........----------.---.- 16. Gymnopogon
,Spikes short; spikelets crowded -... -... 18. Bouteloua





THE GRASSES OF BRITISH HONDURAS AND THE PETLN, GUATEMALA 145

Spikes digitate.
Rudimentary florets obsolete; rachilla prolonged as
a naked bristle -......._. ....- -...._...... ... -14. Cynodon
Rudimentary florets 1 or more, club-shaped........ 17. Chloris
Spikelets 2 to several-flowered.
Spikes racemose.
Spikes elongate with numerous spikelets... - .11. Leptochloa
Spikes very short, composed of a single 2-flowered
spikelet and a rudimentary one reduced to
awns ........ --.-.---.. -.. .c..... -19. Pentarrhaphis
Spikes digitate.
Rachis prolonged beyond the spikelets ....... ------ ____13. Dactyloctenium
Rachis not prolonged....__. .........- ..-......_.12. Eleusine
Spikelets in open or contracted panicles. (Festucea)
Culms coarse, reedlike; rachilla hairy...........-. __-- 7. Phragmites
Culms usually slender, not reedlike; rachilla glabrous.
Lemmas firm, several-nerved .-...-.....___--...... 6. Distichlis
Lemmas membranaceous, 3-nerved .......-- 5. Eragrostis
Spikelets with one fertile floret and often one or more sterile
or staminate florets below it. Spikelets sometimes uni-
sexual. (Spikelets with two fertile florets in Isachne and
Ischomum.)
Spikelets unisexual.
Fruit milky white, indurate.
Panicles large, terminal, the pistillate spikelets on the
upper branches and toward the ends of the lower
ones, the staminate spikelets arranged on the lower
part of the lower branches ........... ......... 46. Olyra
Panicles small, axillary, composed of a single terminal
pistillate spikelet and several staminate spikelets
below it. Terminal panicles, if any, wholly stami-
nate .....__ .. ............... _----47. Lithachne
Fruit not milky white.
Staminate and pistillate spikelets in the same inflores-
cence.
Spikelets distant, in pairs, appressed along the main
panicle branches, the pistillate sessile, large, the
staminate long-pedicellate, inconspicuous.____ 22. Pharns
Spikelets approximate, the staminate in pairs on one
side of the upper part of a continuous rachis, the
pistillate solitary on opposite sides of the lower
part of the same rachis __..... .. ....-57. Tripsacum
Staminate and pistillate spikelets in separate inflor-
escences -- 58-.---- 58. Zea
Spikelets perfect
Imperfect florets none below the fertile one.
Spikelets articulate below the glumes, flattened later-
ally; glumes usually small or wanting (Oryzes).
Glumes small; lemmas awned (usually awnless in
0. sativa).____- _____...._._____20. Oryza
Glumes wanting; spikelets awnless........ ............___ 21. Leersia
Spikelets articulate above the well-developed glumes,
not strongly laterally compressed. (Agrostidee)
Lemmas 3-awned; callus sharp-pointed __ _______ 9. Aristida
Lemmas awnless; callus blunt.____._.._.____ 8. Sporobolns
Imperfect florets one (four in Streptochaeta), composed
of a lemma, a reduced or fully developed pales and
sometimes a staminate flower.
Lemma with a long much contorted awn..- 4. Streptochmta





BOTANY OF THE MAYA AREA


Lemma without a contorted awn.
Glumes membranaceous; fertile lemma indurate.
(Panicere.)
Spikelets subtended by bristles or enclosed in spiny
burs.
Spikelets subtended by bristles.
Bristles persistent .. _-43. Setaria
Bristles deciduous, falling with the spikelet 44. Pennisetum
Spikelets enclosed in spiny burs ...-. 45. Cenchrus
Spikelets neither subtended by bristles nor enclosed
in burs.
Spikelets arranged on one side of spikelike
racemes.
Margins of fertile lemma thin, not inrolled.
Spikelets densely covered with long, tawny
silky hairs .... 25. Trichachne
Spikelets glabrous or pubescent but not long
silky ...-...- ...-. 26. Digitaria
Margins of fertile lemma inrolled, indurate.
Rachilla joint and first glume adnate, forming
a swollen ring-like callus.- 30. Eriochloa
Rachilla j6int and first glume neither adnate
nor swollen.
Racemes solitary (see also Paspalum).
Spikelets sunken in the thick corky rachis -27. Stenotaphrnm
Spikelets not sunken in the rachis.
Rachis rather broadly winged, partially
enflding the glabrous spikelets;
spfkelets paired, but those of a
pair rather distant, appearing as if
solitary in a single row ___ 28. Thrasya
Rachis wingless; spikelets hispid, soli-
tary, placed with the back of the
fertile lemma turned away from
the rachis ..____..-.29. Mesosetum
Racemes 2 to many.
Spikelets awned or awn pointed.
Spikelets hispid .._ _._ _._..-41. Echinochloa
Spikelets glabrous or pilose, not hispid-40. Oplismenus
Spikelets awnless.
Fertile lemma with small wings at the
base, these sometimes reduced to
scars 34. Ichnanthus
Fertile lemma wingless.
Back of the fertile lemma turned
away from the rachis_ 31. Axonopns
Back of the fertile lemma turned
toward the rachis.
First glume present 33. Panicum
First glume usually wanting (pres-
ent sometimes in P. langei,
occasionally in other species)-32. Paspalum
Spikelets paniculate. (See also Echinochloa.)
Spikelets villous with appressed or spreading
hairs.
First glume obsolete; spikelets awnlesa-- 24. Leptocoryphium
First glume minute; second glume and sterile
lemma short awned- ._._ ._42. Tricholana
Spikelets glabrous or pubescent.
Fertile lemma with small wings at the base,
these sometimes reduced to scars ..... _34. Ichnanthus





THE GRASSES OF BRITISH HONDURAS AND THE PETEN, GUATEMALA 147

Fertile lemma wingless.
Spikelets with two fertile florets ......... 39. Isachne
Spikelets with one fertile floret.
Second glume inflated, saccate at the
base; spikelets unsymmetrical.......-36. Sacciolepis
Second glume not inflated; spikelets sym-
metrical.
First and second glumes equal, similar-38. Homolepis
First glume rarely more than half as
long as second, not similar to it.
Panicles dense, spikelike; spikelets
acuminate -... ....-..- 37. Hymenachne
Panicles open; spikelets obtuse to
subacute.
Spikelets with a tuft of woolly
hairs on the tips; plants
woody, clambering........ ..--. 35. Lasiacis
Spikelets without woolly hairs;
plants herbaceous ... 33. Panicum
Glumes indurate or at least firmer than the lemmas.
Spikelets solitary, arranged in panicles, lemmas as
firm as the glumes ...... .__. .... 23. Arundinella
Spikelets paired, arranged in racemes, these solitary,
paired, or numerous in a paniculate inflor-
escence: lemma hyaline.
Racemes in a paniculate inflorescence.
Panicle silky; spikelets awnless.
Rachis continuous; spikelets unequally pe-
dicellate ---.....-- ..-........-- .-....... 48. Imperata
Rachis breaking up at maturity; lower spike-
let sessile, the upper pedicellate .......... 49. Saccharum
Panicles not silky; spikelets awned -_--..--..- 53. Sorghum
Racemes solitary or paired, sometimes aggregate
in a large compound inflorescence.
Culms simple with a single terminal erect
raceme (sometimes more); awns plumose,
3 to 5 em. long ........ -.... ..- ___54. Trachypogon
Culms branching, at least above; awns, if pres-
ent, not plumose, usually less than 15 mm.
long.
Spikelets all perfect, alike ....................... 55. Ischaemum
Spikelets unlike, the lower sessile, perfect,
the upper pedicellate, usually reduced.
First glume of sessile spikelct enlarged,
globular; spikelets awnless; plants
annual --.......... ......... .. . ...... ...56. Hackelochloa
First glume of sessile spikelet neither en-
larged nor globular; spikelets awned;
plants annual or perennial.
First glume sharply 2-keeled, at least
toward the summit.
Spikelets of lower pairs unlike, fertile
and sterile_. .._. .......... 50. Andropogon
Spikelets of the lowermost pairs alike,
staminate or neuter ...... .. .51. Cymbopogon
First glume rounded on the back, the
margins involute ............. -...----- 52. Hyparrhenia






BOTANY OF THE MAYA AREA


1. BAMBUSA Retz. [as Bambos]
1. Bambusa vulgaris Schrad.; Wendl. Coll. PI. 2: 26. pl. 47. 1808.
The common cultivated bamboo of Asia is occasionally found in clearings.
British Honduras. Belize District: Sibun River, Gentle 1513.
Guatemala. Pet6n: La Libertad, Lundell 2647.

2. GUADUA Kunth
Several sterile specimens of a bamboo, which because of the long spines
at the nodes probably belong to this genus, were collected in British Hon-
duras.
BRITIsH HONDURAS. Belize District: Belize River, Lundell 1954, 3870,
3871, 3873, 3875. Sibun River, Gentle 1514.

3. ARTHROSTYLIDIUM Rupr.
1. Arthrostylidium pittieriHack. Ostcrr. Bot. Zeitschr. 53: 75. 1904. Carrizo, Tzenet,
Fisga.
Culms clambering, smooth, 3 to 6 mm. in diameter, the slender fertile
branches in dense fascicles, as much as 40 cm. long; blades lanceolate, 7 to
12 cm. long, 7 to 15 mm. wide, glabrous, or pubescent beneath toward the
base; racemes 5 to 10 cm. long, often 1-sided, the rachis glabrous; spikelets
appressed, 12 to 20 mm. long with one sterile floret and usually three fertile
ones; fertile lemma 1 cm. long, short awned. Wooded hillsides, Campeche,
Guatemala and Costa Rica.
GUATEMALA. Pet6n: Uaxactun, Bartlett 12154. Hiltun, Lundell 3591.
La Libertad, Aguilar 11, 304.

4. STREPTOCHJETA Schrad.
1. Streptochata sodiroana Hack. Osterr. Bot. Zeitschr. 40: 113. 1890.
Perennial; culms erect, about 1 m. tall; blades flat, tessellate, rather
thick, elliptic, acuminate pointed, 15 to 24 cm. long, 5 to 7 cm. wide, gla-
brous; spike dense, many flowered, about 30 cm. long; spikelets 1-flowered,
articulated below the glumes, the short thick pedicels densely papillose
hispid; empty bractlets 4, shorter than the spikelet; lemma indurate,
gradually narrowed into an awn about 10 cm. long, much twisted and con-
torted toward the end, becoming tangled and holding the mature spikelet
suspended from the axis. Wet forests, British Honduras to Panama. Also
in Ecuador.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Toledo District: Temash River, Schipp S 961.

5. ERAGROSTIS Host
Panicles usually contracted, the branches ascending or appressed,
floriferous to the base or nearly so.
Palea ciliate on the keels; panicles narrow, spikelike, interrupted
below- 1. E. ciliaris
Palea scabrous on the keels; panicles never spikelike.
Lemmas acuminate.
Plants annual_...- ..3. E. maypurensis
Plants perenniaL_....._.. -..... .... __. .._4. E. acutiflora
Lemmas acute.
Plants annual, stoloniferous, widely spreading; panicles small,
subcapitate -...--_- .._.. ..___._2. E. hypnoides






THE GRASSES OF BRITISH HONDURAS AND THE PETEN, GUATEMALA 149

Plants perennial, erect; panicles large, the branches somewhat
spreading ...___ 5. E. domingensis
Panicles open, the very slender widely spreading branches naked
below _.. 6. E. lliottii

1. Eragrostis ciliaris (L.) R. Br. in Tuckey, Narr. Exp. Congo App. 478. 1818.
Annual; culms slender, tufted, usually decumbent at the base, mostly
10 to 30 cm. tall; blades 5 to 8 cm. long, 1 to 3 mm. wide, attenuate-pointed;
panicles dense, spikelike, interrupted at the base, 3 to 8 cm. long; spikelets
2 to 3 mm. long, 6 to 10 flowered. Waste places, usually in sandy ground,
in tropical regions of both hemispheres.
BarnsH HONDURAS. Corozal District: San Antonio, Lundell 4954.
Orange Walk District: Honey Camp, Lundell 360, 597. Stann Creek Dis-
trict: Stann Creek, Schipp 888.
GUATEMAxL. Peten: La Libertad, Lundell 2641; Aguilar 346. Lake
Pet6n, Lundell 3855.
2. Eragrostis hypnoides (Lam.) BS.P. Prel. Cat. N. Y. 69. 1888.
Annual, stoloniferous, forming dense mats; culms 5 to 10 cm. tall, blades
1 to 2 cm. long, stiffly spreading, flat or becoming loosely involute; panicles
dense, subeapitate, 1 to 2 cm. long, nearly as broad; spikelets several to
many flowered, pale, 5 to 12 mm. long; lemmas 1.5 to 2 mm. long, acute.
Lake shores, stream banks, ditches, and wet places, United States to Brazil.
BRmTISH HONDURAS. Belize District: Gracie Rock, Gentle 1592. Sibun
River, Peck 413.
GUATEMALA. Pet6n: La Libertad, Lundell 2522.
3. Eragrostis maypurensis (H.B.K.) Steud. Syn. Pl. Glum. 1: 276. 1854.
Annual; culms erect from a decumbent base, 20 to 40 cm. tall; blades
mostly basal, narrow, erect, involute pointed, hairy or subglabrous; panicles
8 to 12 cm. long, the short stiff branches appressed to widely ascending,
pilose in the axils; spikelets short-pedicellate, 6 to 10 mm. long, spreading,
pale, tinged with purple. Pine ridges, open ground, and waste places,
Mexico to Brazil and Bolivia.
BRTISH HONDURAS. Belize District: Belize, Bartlett 11257. Sibun River,
Smart 72. Maskall Pine Ridge, Gentle 1093. El Cayo District: Mountain
Pine Ridge, Bartlett 11647. Stann Creek District: All Pines, Schipp 788.
4. Eragrostis acutiflora (H.BK.) Nees, Agrost. Bras. 501. 1829.
Perennial; culms tufted, erect, 15 to 60 cm. tall; blades 5 to 20 cm. long,
2 to 4 mm. wide, acuminate, firm, sparingly pilose; panicles mostly 8 to
15 cm. long (rarely 30 cm.), the branches stiffly ascending, the axils pilose;
spikelets crowded, short-pedicellate, appressed, 4 to 5 mm. long; lemmas
acute or somewhat acuminate, about 2 mm. long. Open fields, ditches, and
pine ridges, usually in wet places, British Honduras to Brazil and Bolivia.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Belize District: Bakers Pine Ridge, Lundell 3816.
Manatee Lagoon, Peck 281, 281a. Gracie Rock, Gentle 1615. Stann Creek
District: All Pines, Schipp 788.
GUATEMALA. Petin: La Libertad, Lundell 3605.
5. Eragrostis domingensis (Pers.) Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 1: 278. 1854. HAT Gasss.
Perennial; culms erect in rather large, loose clumps, 1 to 2 m. tall;
blades flat to loosely involute, elongate, attenuate to a fine point, 2 to 5 mm.




BOTANY OF THE MAYA AREA


wide at the base; panicles 20 to 45 cm. long, the branches ascending, densely
flowered to the base or nearly so; spikelets 5 to 8 mm. long, appressed, the
glumes acute, 1.5 mm. long. Coastal marshes, Yucatan, British Honduras,
the West Indies, and Columbia. Very common in cleared mangrove swamps
at Belize.
BRITISH HoNDURAs. Belize District: Belize, Lundell 1880, 4722. Gracie
Rock, Gentle 1614. Manatee Lagoon, Peck 69b. Stann Creek District:
Middlesex, Smart 38, Schipp 206. Stann Creek, Schipp 894.

6. Eragrostis elliottii S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 25: 140. 1890.
Perennial; culms csespitose, erect, 45 to 60 cm. tall; panicles more than
half the length of the culms; panicle branches widely spreading, naked
below, few-flowered; spikelets 5 mm. long, on stiff, capillary, spreading
pedicels; glumes purple-tinged, the florets pale. Pinelands, wet woods, and
wet grassy savannas, southern United States to British Honduras and the
West Indies.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Belize District: Bakers Pine Ridge, Lundell 3786.
Manatee Lagoon, Peck 222a. El Cayo District: Little Cocquericot, Lundell
3880. Stann Creek District: New Town, Schipp 907.

6. DISTICHLIS Raf.
1. Distichlis spieata (L.) Greene, Bull. Calif. Acad. 2: 415. 1887.
Perennial; culms stiffly erect from scaly rhizomes; blades firm, distichous,
becoming involute, stiffly spreading; panicles dense, the branches appressed;
spikelets 8 to 9 flowered, distinctly flattened and keeled. Seashores and
salt marshes near the coast, British Columbia, United States, Mexico, Cuba,
British Honduras and western South America.
BRImsH HONDURAs. Belize District: Gracie Rock, Gentle 1623.

7. PHRAGMITES Trin.
1. Phragmites commnnis Trin. Fund. Agrost. 134. 1820. RsD.
Perennial, stoloniferous, usually growing in colonies; culms tall, coarse,
'Feed-like; blades firm, flat, attenuate-pointed, 1 to 2.5 cm. wide, the
margins very scabrous; panicles as much as 50 cm. long, drooping; spikelets
about 1.5 cm. long, the rachilla long-hairy; lemmas thin, acuminate, gla-
brous. Swamps and wet places throughout the temperate and subtropical
regions.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Belize District: Northern River, Gentle 1027. Be-
lize River, Lundell 3781. Stann Creek District: Stann Creek, Schipp 511.
GUATEMALA. Pet4n: Lake Peten, Lundell 3120. Lake Zotz, Lundell
3311.
8. SPOROBOLUS R. Br.
Creeping rhizomes numerous; panicles spikelike ...--... ___ ..-..........- 1. S. littoralis
Creeping rhizomes wanting; panicles open.
Spikelets 3 to 4 mm. long; lower sheaths densely ciliate.... __ 2. cubensis
Spikelets 1.4 to 18 mm. long; sheaths not ciliate.
Panicle branches long and drooping, naked below; blades flat ......-3. S. bnckleyi
Panicle branches short, narrowly ascending, floriferous to the base;
blades involute ..__-__......-- __ .. 4. S. indicus






THE GRASSES OF BRITISH HONDURAS AND THE PETEN, GUATEMALA 151

1. Sporobolus littoralis (Lam.) Kunth, R6v. Gram. 1: 68. 1829.
Perennial; culms erect from widely creeping rhizomes, 50 to 70 cm. tall;
blades distichous, flat at the base, involute pointed, usually not more than
10 cm. long; panicles spikelike, usually 6 to 10 cm. long, 0.5 to 1 cm. thick;
spikelets 2.5 to 3 mm. long, the glumes acute, subequal, as long as the
florets. Salt marshes and sandy seacoasts, southern Florida to Brazil.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Belize District: Manatee Lagoon, Peck 120. Stann
Creek District: South Water Cay, Sampson 27.

2. Sporobolue cnbensis Hitchc. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 237. 1909.
Perennial; culms densely tufted, erect, 30 to 60 cm. tall; lower sheaths
crowded, dark brown, the margins densely felty-ciliate; blades flat or folded,
mostly 10 to 20 cm. long, 2 to 4 mm. wide, tapering toward the base, nar-
rower than the mouth of the sheath; panicles open, the short spreading
branches whorled; spikelets 3 to 4 mm. long, the first glume half as long.
Savannas, rocky slopes and pine ridges, British Honduras and the West
Indies to Venezuela.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Belize District: Gracie Rock Pine Ridge, Gentle
1549. El Cayo District: Mountain Pine Ridge, Bartlett 11745. Toledo
District: Ycacos Lagoon, Peck 694.

3. Sporobolus buckleyi Vasey, Bull. Torrey Club 10: 128. 1883.
Perennial, culms erect, 40 to 130 cm. tall; sheaths compressed, keeled,
densely hairy on the collar; blades flat, 15 to 45 cm. long, 5 to 10 mm.
wide, glabrous, the margins scabrous; panicles diffuse, as much as 50 cm.
long, the slender drooping branches naked below; spikelets 1.4 mm. long.
Moist woods, southern Texas, eastern Mexico and British Honduras.
BRITISH HONDURAs. Corozal District: Corozal, Lundell 4796. Orange
Walk District: Honey Camp, Lundell 359.

4. Sporobolus indicus (L.) R. Br. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 170. 1810.
Perennial; culms in tough dense clumps about 1 m. tall; blades flexuous,
attenuate to a very fine point; panicles narrow, 15 to 30 cm. long, the
slender branches ascending; spikelets 1.8 mm. long, subsecund on the lower
side of the branches. Open ground and waste places, Mexico and the West
Indies to Colombia and Brazil.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Belize District: Belize, Lundell 3780. Gracie Rock,
Gentle 1624.
9. ARISTIDA L.
Plants annual; culms not more than 25 cm. tall ._- 2. A. capillacea
Plants perennial; culms mostly 0.5 to 1 m. tall.
Panicles dense, contracted; awns loosely spiral .____ .-3. A recurvata
Panicles open, at least toward the base; awns straight or arcuate.
Panicle branches floriferous to the base; lateral awns well
developed -...--..........--... .-- ..-... ... ...... 4. A. orizabensis
Panicle branches naked below; lateral awns minute ....1. A. ternipes

1. Aristida ternipes Cav. Icon. Pl. 5: 46. 1799.
Perennial; culms tufted, erect, 50 to 100 cm. tall; blades flat, elongate,
involute toward the tip, tapering into a fine point; panicles large, drooping,
1/3 to 1/2 the length of the culm, the branches naked below; spikelets ap-




BOTANY OF THE MAYA AREA


pressed toward the ends of the rather stout scabrous branches; glumes 8 to
10 mm. long; lemma scabrous on the keel, the central awn subterete,
straight or arcuate, 10 to 15 mm. long, the lateral awns usually less than
1 mm. long. Rocky hills and open usually dry places, Arizona and Cuba
to Colombia.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Belize District: Manatee Lagoon, Peck 72.

2. Aristida capillacea Lam. Tabl. Encycl. 1: 156. 1791.
Annual; culms delicate, erect, freely branching at the base, 5 to 25 cm.
tall; blades conduplicate, 1 to 5 cm. long, about 0.8 mm. wide, with scabrous
margins; panicles usually tinged with purple, 2 to 8 cm. long, the capillary
branches spreading, more or less flexuous, naked below, not more than
2 cm. long; glumes subequal, acuminate, 2.5 to 3 mm. long; lemma 2 mm.
long, tapering into a slender, twisted column 1.5 to 2 mm. long; awns 5 mm.
long, divergent. Open ground, Mexico to Brazil and Bolivia.
BRITISH HONDURAS. El Cayo District: Mountain Pine Ridge, Bartlett
11678.

3. Aristida recurvata H.B.K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1: 123. 1815.
Perennial; culms tufted, erect, 0.5 to 1 m. tall, glabrous; blades firm, flat,
involute pointed, with thickened margins, 15 to 25 cm. long, 1.5 to 2.5 mm.
wide, becoming curled and flexuous with age; panicles 10 to 30 cm. long,
narrow, dense, erect, the short branches approximate, densely flowered,
appressed; glumes equal, about 1 cm. long, acuminate, awn pointed; lemma
4 mm. long, the twisted column 2 to 3 mm. long; awns about 1 cm. long,
loosely spiral, becoming implicate. Prairies and dry hillsides, British Hon-
duras to Brazil.
BRrrisH HONDmAAs. El Cayo District: Mountain Pine Ridge, Bartlett
11778, 11606.

4. Aristida orizabensis Fourn. Mex. P1. Gram. 78. 1886.
Aristida pscudospadicea F. T. Hubb. Proc. Amer. Acad. 49: 500. 1913.
Perennial; culms slender, 0.5 to more than 1 m. tall, glabrous; blades
more or less flexuous, flat or folded toward the base, becoming involute-
pointed; panicles 15 to 30 cm. long, the branches distant, the upper ap-
pressed, the lower often spreading, usually less than 8 cm. long; spikelets
appressed to the branches; glumes 8 to 10 mm. long, awn-pointed, the
second a little longer than the first; lemmas 8 to 12 mm. long, the slender
twisted beak 3 mm. long; awns 1 to 2.5 cm. long, about equally divergent,
the central a little longer than the lateral ones. Savannas, thickets, and
rocky hills, Mexico to Panama.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Belize District: Manatee Lagoon. Peck 31. El Cayo
District: El Cayo, Bartlett 11518. Mountain Pine Ridge, Bartlett 11697,
11860. Stann Creek District: Middlesex, Schipp 892.

10. ANTHEPHORA Schreb.
1. Anthephora hermaphrodita (L.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 2: 759. 1891.
Annual; culms erect or decumbent at the base, branching, rooting at the
lower nodes, 15 to 50 cm. tall; blades flat, 5 to 20 cm. long, 4 to 7 mm. wide;
spikes erect, 5 to 10 cm. long; spikelets in groups of 4, the first glumes 5
to 7 mm. long, acute, indurate, forming a sessile, erect false involucre which





THE GRASSES OF BRITISH HONDURAS AND THE PETEN, GUATEMALA 153

encloses the rest of the spikelets. Open sandy ground and waste places,
tropical America.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Corozal District: Corozal, Gentle 139. Stann Creek
District: New Town, Schipp 898.

11. LEPTOCHLOA Beauv.
Plants annual.
Sheaths sparsely pilose; spikelets 1 to 2 mm. long; racemes slender 1. L. filiformis
Sheaths glabrous or scabrous; spikelets 5 to 7 mm. long; racemes rela-
tively thick ..,. ....... -. .... 2. L. uninervia
Plants perennial .._.. .....- ....... ...- ..... ..-.... 3. L. virgata

1. Iptochloa filiformis (Lam.) Bea-v. Ess. Agrost. 71. 166. 1812.
Annual; culms slender to rather coarse, as much as 1 m. tall; sheaths
sparsely papillose-pilose with weak spreading hairs; blades flat, lax, thin, 5
to 15 cm. long, 3 to 5 mm. wide; inflorescence nearly half the length of the
culm with several to numerous lax, spreading racemes; spikelets minute,
the g!umes sometimes nearly as long as the spikelet. Fields and waste
places, southern United States and the West Indies to Argentina.
GUATEMALA. Pet6n: La Libertad, Aguilar 203, 411.

2. Leptochloa uninervia (Presl) Hitchc. & Chase, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 18: 383. 1917.
Annual; culms erect, mostly 30 to 50 cm. tall, sparingly branching,
glabrous; blades often elongate, attenuate, not more than 3 mm. wide;
panicles 10 to 15 cm. long, the racemes stiff, ascending, rather densely
flowered to the base; spikelets 5 to 7 mm. long, lead-colored; lemmas obtuse,
apiculate, the lateral nerves more or less excurrent. Swamps, ditches, and
wet places, southern United States to British Honduras; Peru to Argentina.
BRITISH HoNDURvs. Belize District: Belize, Smart 46.

3. Leptochloa virgata (L.) Beaur. Ess. Agrost. 166. 1812.
Perennial; culms tufted, rather slender, 30 cm. to more than 1 m. tall;
blades flat, acuminate, 10 to 20 cm. long, 4 to 12 mm. wide. the margins
scabrous; sheaths glabrous; racemes numerous, somewhat aggregate, slender,
ascending to drooping, tinged with purple, mostly 6 to 10 cm. long; spikelets
2.5 to 3 mm. long, the lemmas blunt, awnless, or rarely an occasional floret
awned. Open ground, pine ridges, along stream and ditches, and in brushy
places. Florida, Mexico, and the West Indies to Argentina.
BmRTISH HONDURAs. Corozal District: Sartaneja, Sampson 46. Orange
Walk District: Tower Hill Estate, Karling 1. Belize District: Sibun River,
Smart 70. Gracie Rock, Gentle 1570. Manatee Lagoon. Peck 296. El
Cayo District: El Cayo, Bartlett 11490. Stann Creek District: Middlesex,
Smart 37; Schipp 886. Toledo District: Colombia. Smart 45, 49.
GUATEMALA. Peten: Uaxactun, Bartlett 12760.

12. ELEUSINE Gaertn.
1. Eleusine indica (L.) Gacrtn. Fruct. & Sem. 1: 8. 1788.
Annual; culms in small tough spreading clumps, somewhat decumbent at
the base, 15 to 70 cm. tall, distinctly compressed; spikes 2 to several, 5
to 10 cm. long, digitate, usually with another a short distance below; spike-
lets few to several flowered, crowded, awnless. Warm regions of both
hemispheres.




BOTANY OF THE MAYA AREA


BRTISH HONDuRAS. Corozal District: Santa Rita, Lundell 4846. Corozal,
Lundell 4732. Belize District: Belize, Lundell 1943. Gracie Rock, Gentle
1632, 1644, 1645. Manatee Lagoon, Peck 43.
GUATEMALA. Peten: El Paso, Lundell 1602; Lake Peten, Lundell 3856;
La Libertad, Aguilar 65.

13. DACTYLOCTENIUM Willd.
1. Dactyloctenium aigyptium (L.) Richt. PI. Eur. 1: 68. 1890.
Annual; culms branching, radiate spreading, rooting at the nodes, the
ascending ends mostly 20 to 40 cm. long; spikes 2 to 5, 1 to 3 cm. long, thick,
digitate, the rachis produced beyond the spikelets in a stiff point; spikelets
pectinate, crowded, the first glume with an awn about 1 mm. long; lemmas
acuminate or awn pointed. Fields and waste places in tropical regions.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Corozal District: San Andres, Lundell 4907; without
locality, Gentle 277, 278.
GUATEMALA. Peten: La Libertad, Aguilar 191, 205.

14. CYNODON Rich.
1. Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. Syn. P1. 1: 85. 1805.
Perennial, stoloniferous, widely creeping; culms wiry, compressed, 10 to
40 cm. tall; spikes 4 to 5, digitate, slender, arcuate, 3 to 5 cm. long; spike-
lets 1 flowered, 2 mm. long. A common weed in open ground throughout
warmer regions.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Corozal District: San Antonio, Lundell 4899. Belize
District: Gracie Rock, Gentle 1622, 1625.
GUATEMALA. Peten: La Libertad, Aguilar 66.

15. SPARTINA Schreb.
1. Spartina spartinm (Trin.) Merr. U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur. PI. Ind. Bull. 9: 11. 1902.
Perennial; culms usually in large, dense, hard clumps, as much as 1.5 m.
tall, more or less glaucous; blades firm, involute, elongate, sharp pointed,
glabrous; panicles spikelike, erect or somewhat curved. 25 to 40 cm. long;
spikelets awnless. Rocky seashores and marshy places near the coast,
southern United States, Mexico, British Honduras and Costa Rica. Com-
mon in cleared mangrove swamps at Belize.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Belize: Belize, Lundell 4718. Manatee Lagoon,
Peck 130.
16. GYMNOPOGON Beauv.
1. Gymnopogon spicatus (Spreng.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 3': 354. 1898.
Perennial; culms slender, erect or somewhat decumbent at the base,
branching, mostly 40 to 70 cm. tall; blades flat, firm, stiffly spreading,
4 to 6 cm. long, 4 to 8 mm. wide; panicles 15 to 25 cm. long, with few
to several slender ascending or finally spreading spikes, commonly 15 to
20 cm. long, spikelet bearing to the base, the spikelets on the lower half
few, distant, rudimentary; spikelets 2-flowered, appressed to the rachis
4 to 5 mm. long; glumes acuminate pointed, scarcely awned; lemmas 3
mm. long, slender, with awns 8 to 12 mm. long. Pine flats and savannas,
British Honduras and Guatemala; Venezuela and Brazil to Argentina.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Stann Creek District: All Pines, Schipp 787.





THE GRASSES OF BRITISH HONDURAS AND THE PETEN, GUATEMALA 155

17. CHLORIS Swartz
Lemmas awnless, dark brown__ ...............--... ._ --_..................I.. C. petraea
Lemmas awned, pale or light brown ...-....-----...- ___-_--_-.. ......- ....--.2. C. ciliata

1. Chloris petraa Swartz, Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 25. 1788.
Perennial; culms distinctly flattened, glaucous, sparingly branched,
sometimes stoloniferous, 0.5 to nearly 1 m. tall; blades flat or conduplicate,
5 to 15 cm. long, 3 to 5 mm. wide, glabrous; spikes 3 to 7, suberect, 6 to
10 cm. long; first glume notched, short awned. Open sandy land near the
sea, southern United States and the West Indies to Panama.
BnITISH HONDURAS. Stann Creek District: South Water Cay, Sampson 26.

2. Chloris ciliata Swartz, Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 25. 1788.
Perennial; culms densely tufted, erect, 40 to 60 cm. tall; blades flat,
attenuate, involute pointed, the margins scabrous; spikes 3 to 5, ascending,
flexuous, 4 to 7 cm. long; spikelets about 2.5 mm. long, the glumes entire,
acute, the rudimentary floret inflated, saccate; lemma light brown, the
margins conspicuously silky ciliate; awn 1 mm. long. Wet open ground,
Texas and the West Indies to British Honduras. Also in Colombia.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Corozal District: Corozal, Sampson 38. Belize
District: Gracie Rock, Gentle 1643.

18. BOUTELOUA Lag.
1. Bouteloua triaena (Spreng.) Scribn. Proc. Acad. Phila. 307. 1891.
Perennial; culms very slender, branching, widely spreading; spikes
numerous, usually second on the elongated axis, composed of a single spike-
let, the rachis sometimes produced beyond the spikelet; spikelets 1-flowered
with a 3-awned rudiment, the awns about 1 cm. long; first glume about
half as long as the second. Open ground and roadsides, southern Mexico
and Guatemala.
GUATEMALA. Pet6n: Tayasal, Lake Pet6n, Lundell 3860.

19. PENTARRHAPHIS H.B.K.
1. Pentarrhaphis scabra H.B-K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1: 178. pl. 60. 1816.
Perennial; culms slender, densely tufted, erect, sometimes geniculate
below, 10 to 30 cm. tall; basal blades flat or involute, 3 to 5 cm. long,
not more than 1 mm. wide, more or less flexuous, those of the culms about
1 cm. long; spikes mostly 8 to 12 in terminal and axillary racemes,
the spikes 6 to 8 mm. long including the awns, composed of one
2-flowered spikelet and a group of 5 bristles below it, two of these being
the bifid continuation of the rachis, two a rudimentary spikelet, and one
the first glume of the perfect spikelet. Rocky ground, Mexico to Colombia.
GUATEMALA. Pet6n: Sabana Zis, in shallow soil on outcropping limestone,
Lundell 3196.

20. ORYZA L.
Plants annual; spikelets usually awnless or nearly so ..-. ....._----_ 1. 0. sativa
Plants perennial; spikelets awned.
Spikelets 9 mm. long; awns 2 to 3 cm. long; glumes acuminate -.. ... 2. 0. alta
Spikelets 5 mm. long; awns 1 to 2 cm. long; glumes acute_-... .. 3. 0. latifolia




BOTANY OF THE MAYA AREA


I. Oryza sativa L. Sp. PI. 333. 1753. Aroz, RICE
Annual; culms erect, about 1 m. tall; blades mostly 20 to 40 cm. long,
1.5 cm. wide, flat, scabrous; panicles dense, becoming topheavy; spikelets
7 to 10 mm. long, hispid, usually awnless. Cultivated, sometimes persistent
in old fields. Warmer regions of the world.
GUATEMALA. Pet6n: La Libertad, Lundell 3601.

2. Orya alta Swallen sp. nov.
Oryza latifolia var. grandispiculis Cher:alier. Rev. Bot. Appl. 12: 1027. 1932 (in
part). Two specimens are cited. Dahlgren and Seila 60 collected at Boa Vista,
Par-. Brazil, and Morong 949 collected near the Pilcomayo River, Paraguay.
The first better fits the description.
Perennis; culmi erecti, 3-4 m. alti. glabri; vaginam internodiis breviores,
auriculate, marginibus hispido-ciliats; laminae plane, acuminatae, 25-80 cm.
long, 20 to 28 mm. late, scaberula, marginibus scabris; ligula mem-
brancea, hispido-ciliata, 5 mm. long; panicula 30-40 cm. long, languida,
ramis ad 15 cm. longis basi nudis; spicula 8-9 mm. longer, appressae;
glumae acuminate, lunate, 4 mm. longer; lemma carina et marginibus
hispidis; arista scabra 2-3 cm. long.
Perennial; culms erect or leaning, 3 to more than 4 m. tall, glabrous;
sheaths shorter than the internodes, auriculate, glabrous, the margins usually
hispid-ciliate; ligule membranaceous, lacerate to hispid ciliate, 5 mm. long;
blades flat, acuminate, 25 to 80 cm. long, 20 to 28 mm. wide, scaberulous,
the margins scabrous-serrulate; panicles open, drooping, 30 to 40 cm. long,
the branches rather distant, densely pilose in the axils, naked on the lower
half, the lower whorled, as much as 15 cm. long; spikelets 8 to 9 mm. long,
appressed on the short branchlets, the lateral short-pedicellate, the terminal
long-pedicellate; glumes lunate, narrow, acuminate, 1-nerved, about half as
long as the spikelet; lemma minutely pitted, hispid on the keels and margins,
unsymmetrically narrowed at the summit to a short scabrous beak, terminat-
ing in a scabrous or somewhat appressed-hispid awn 2 to 3 cm. long;
palea slightly longer than the lemma, similar in texture, terminating in a
hispid beak about 1 mm. long.
Type in the U. S. Nat. Herb. Nos. 1614041 and 1614042, collected in
water, margin of the Amazon at Obidos, Para, Brazil, July 19-20, 1934, by
Jason R. Swallen (No. 5116).
Swamps, margins of rivers and lakes, British Honduras, Brazil, and
Paraguay.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Stann Creek District: Stann Creek, Schipp 889.
BRAZIL. Para: Obidos, Swallen 5116. Boa Vista, Tapajos River, Swallen
3186; Dahlgren and SeUa 60. Para, Myers 2646.
PARAGUAY. Lake Ypacaray: Hassler 12602, 12602a.

3. Oryza latifolia Desv. Journ. de Bot. Dcsv. 1: 77. 1813.
Perennial; culms rather coarse, erect, mostly 1 to 2 m. tall, glabrous;
blades mostly 30 to 50 cm. long, 1 to 3.5 cm. wide, rather thin, scabrous;
panicles about 30 cm. long; spikelets 5 mm. long, appressed, hispidulous,
the awns 1 to 2 cm. long or sometimes wanting. Ditches, marshes, and along
rivers, British Honduras and the West Indies to Brazil.
BRITISH HoNDunAs. Toledo District: Columbia River, Sampson 15.





THE GRASSES OF BRITISH HONDURAS AND THE PETEN, GUATEMALA 157

21. LEERSIA Swartz
Panicles open, the long branches naked below; spikelets 2 mm. long- ..1. L. grandiflora
Panicles narrow, contracted, the short branches spikelet bearing nearly
to the base; spikelets 3 mm. long -___---. ...--....- .........--- 2. L. hexandra

1. Leersia grandiflora (Doell) Prodoehl, Bot. Archiv Mez 1: 219. 1922.
Perennial; culms rather slender, erect, 1 to 2 m. tall; blades flat, 15 to
30 cm. long, 1 to 1.5 cm. wide (rarely as much as 2 cm.), scabrous, some-
times sparsely appressed hispid; panicles large and open, the slender droop-
ing branches as much as 15 cm. long, spikelet-bearing toward the ends;
spikelets 2 mm. long, sparsely hispid-scabrous. Shady banks and borders
of streams, Mexico to Brazil.
BRITISH HONDURAS. El Cayo District: El Cayo, Bartlett 11450.

2. Leersia hexandra Swarts, Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 21. 1788.
Perennial; culms slender, erect from a decumbent, creeping base, rooting
at the lower nodes, 0.5 to more than 1 m. tall; blades flat, 10 to 20 cm. long,
about 4 to 8 mm. wide, scabrous; panicles 8 to 12 cm. long, often tinged
with purple, the branches narrowly ascending, spikelet-bearing to the base
or nearly so; spikelets 3 mm. long; hispid. Swamps, wet ditches, and
margins of rivers and lakes, southern United States and the West Indies
to Argentina.
BRITISH HONDURAs. Stann Creek District: Middlesex, Schipp 912.
GUATEMALA. Pet6n: La Libertad, Aguilar 168. Lake Pethn, Dampf 11.

22. PHARUS L.
Culms erect; fruit pubescent only at the summit...-.. --............--.1. P. latifolius
Culms decumbent at the base, rooting at the lower nodes; fruit pu-
bescent all over_..-. ......- -- .... ..-......-- .._. _....... 2. P. parvifolius

1. Pharus latifolius L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 2: 1269. 1759. JAx PLANT.
Perennial; culms erect, glabrous, 40 to 80 cm. tall; blades lanceolate,
acuminate, narrowed to a petiolate base, 10 to 30 cm. long, 3.5 to 7 cm.
wide, strongly reticulate veined; panicle 10 to 30 cm. long, the main axis
terminating in a stout bristle 1 to 6 cm. long; branches usually 2 or 3,
compound, stiffly spreading, disarticulating at maturity; pistillate spikelets
about 1.5 cm. long, appressed, the fruit pubescent only toward the summit.
Wet forests, British Honduras and the West Indies to Brazil.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Belize District: Prospecto-Maskall road, Gentle 890.

2. Pharus parvifolius Nash, Bull. Torrey Club 35: 301. 1908.
Perennial; culms decumbent at the base, rooting at the lower nodes,
about 1 m. long; blades lanceolate, mostly 15 to 20 cm. long, 1.5 to 3 cm.
wide; panicle 15 to 25 cm. long, similar to that of P. latifolius; pistillate
spikelets 11 mm. long, the fruit plump, pubescent all over. Wet forests,
Mexico and the West Indies to Brazil.
GUATEMALA. Pet6n: Yaxha-Remate road, Lundell 2014.

23. ARUNDINELLA Raddi
Sheaths hispid; blades 1 to 2 cm. wide... ...._ .. __........ 1. A. deppeana
Sheaths glabrous; blades 2 to 4 mm. wide_...... ..-..__---.........2. A. berteroniana




BOTANY OF THE MAYA AREA


1. Arundinella deppeana Nees in Steud. Syn. P1. Glum. 1: 115. 1854.
Perennial; culms erect, 1 to 2.5 m. tall, the nodes appressed hispid;
sheaths ascending hispid, especially toward the summit; blades flat, attenu-
ate to a fine point, 25 to 50 cm. long, 1 to 2 cm. wide, glabrous, scabrous,
or papillose-pilose, especially toward the base; panicles dense, 30 to 50 cm.
long, about 10 cm. wide, the numerous branches ascending; spikelets 4 to
5 mm. long, short-pedicellate, overlapping, appressed; awns 1 cm. long,
loosely twisted below, arcuate. Savannas, brushy slopes, and open banks,
Mexico and the West Indies to Brazil.
BrrTISH HONDrRAS. Belize District: Manatee Lagoon, Peck 359. El
Cayo District: El Cayo, Bartlett 12094. Mountain Pine Ridge, Bartlett
11583. Stann Creek District: All Pines, Schipp 791. Toledo District: Moho
River, Peck 735.

2. Arundinella berteroniana (Schult.) Hitchc. & Chase, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 18: 290.
1917.
Perennial; culms tufted, rather slender, mostly 0.5 to I m. "tall; sheaths
glabrous or sparsely appressed hispid, the margins often ciliate; blades flat
or often folded or involute, 10 to 25 cm. long, 2 to 4 mm. wide, glabrous or
nearly so; panicles similar to those of A. deppeana but less dense and fewer
flowered; spikelets 3 to 4 mm. long, the awns about 1 cm. long, loosely
twisted below, arcuate. River banks, Mexico and the West Indies to Brazil.
BEITISH HONDURAS. Belize District: Gracie Rock, Gentle 1617. El Cayo
District: Belize River, Bartlett 13138; El Cayo, Bartlett 11451.

24. LEPTOCORYPHIUM Necs
1. Leptocoryphium lanatum (H.B.K.) Nees, Agrost. Bras. 84. 1829. Arrozillo, Pelillo.
Perennial; culms slender, densely tufted, 0.5 to 1 m. tall; leaves some-
what crowded toward the base, the blades elongate, folded or involute,
scabrous; panicles 6 to 15 cm. long, loose, the branches ascending; spikelets
about 4 mm. long, densely pilose with pale, silky, appressed or spreading
hairs. Open grassy plains, hillsides, and pine ridges, Mexico and the West
Indies to Argentina. One of the dominant grasses of the savannas of
central Pet6n.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Belize District: Belize River, Lundell 3872; Smart
34. Gracie Rock, Gentle 1650. Manatee Lagoon, Peck 137. Stann Creek
District: All Pines, Schipp 793. Without locality, Dunlop in 1920.
GUATEMALA. Pet6n: La Libertad, Lundell 2287, 2288, 2393, 3670. Sa-
bana Zotz, Lundell 3597.

25. TRICHACHNE Nees
1. Trichachne insularis (L.) Nees, Agrost. Bras. 86. 1829.
Perennial; culms erect or somewhat decumbent at the base, usually more
than 1 m. tall; panicles dense, plume-like, silky, tawny, with narrowly
ascending racemes. Open ground and waste places, Texas to Florida,
Mexico and the West Indies to Argentina.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Belize District: Northern River, Sampson 29.
GUATEMALA. Pet6n: Uaxactun, Bartlett 12688.






THE GRASSES OF BRITISH HONDURAS AND THE PETEN. GUATEMALA 159

26. DIGITARIA Heist.
Rachis with scattered long spreading hairs; first glume obsolete or
nearly so -...-- ......-- ...... 1. D. horizontalis
Rachis without long hairs; first glume well developed 2. D. sanguinalis

1. Digitaria horizontalis Willd. Enum. Pl. 92. 1809.
Annual; culms slender, branching, decumbent at the base and rooting at
the lower nodes; leaves pilose; racemes subdigitate, few to several, slender,
the rachis with a few long, spreading, delicate hairs, these sometimes nearly
wanting; spikelets about 2 mm. long, the first glume obsolete. Waste places
throughout tropical regions.
BRIISH HONDURAS. Belize District: Honey Camp, Lundell 361, 598.
Manatee Lagoon, Peck 44. Gracie Rock, Gentle 1620, 1628. Stann Creek
District: Mullin's River, Smart 69. New Town, Schipp 899.
GUATEMALA. Pet6n: El Paso, Lundell 1468.

2. Digiaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. Fl. Carn. ed. 2. 1: 52. 1772.
Resembling D. horizontalis; racemes digitate, fewer, and stouter, the
rachis without hairs; spikelets about 3 mm. long, the first glume minute but
well developed. Open ground and waste places throughout the tropics and
warmer temperate regions.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Belize District: Belize, Lundell 1879.
GUATEMALA. Pet6n: El Paso, Lundell 1534.

27. STENOTAPHRUM Trin.
1. Stenotaphrum secundatum (Wall.) Kuntze, Rev. Geu. P1. 2: 794. 1891.
Perennial, stoloniferous, widely creeping; culms compressed; sheaths
keeled; blades short, flat, obtuse; racemes flat, terminal and axillary, 5 to
15 cm. long; spikelets in pairs, the lower sessile, the upper pedicellate, 4 to
6 mm. long; first glume small; second glume and sterile lemma equal, the
sterile lemma usually with a palea or staminate flower. Southern United
States and the West Indies to Argentina.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Corozal District: Pachacan Road, Lundell 4993.
Stann Creek District: Stann Creek, Schipp 501.

28. THRASYA H.B.K.
1. Thrasya campylostachya (Hack.) Chase, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 24: 115. 1911.
Perennial; culms slender, flattened, straggling, often more than 1 m. long,
glabrous or pubescent below the more or less bearded nodes; blades flat,
6 to 20 cm. long, 4 to 10 mm. wide, glabrous to softly pubescent, the margins
sometimes hispid; racemes solitary, terminal and axillary on slender long
exserted peduncles; racemes arcuate, 4 to 8 cm. long, the rachis winged;
spikelets paired, placed back to back, 2.5 to 3 mm. long, glabrous; first glume
minute. Savannas, grassy hills and pine woods, Guatemala to Bolivia.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Belize District: Manatee Lagoon, Peck 70. El Cayo
District: Mountain Pine Ridge. Bartlett 11584, 11825, 11861, 11928.





BOTANY OF THE MAYA AREA


29. MESOSETUM Steud.
1. Mesosetum filifolium F. T. Hubb. Proc. Amer. Acad. 49: 494. 1913.
Pcniculus angustifolius Swallen, Amer. Jour. Bot. 19: 581, fig. 1. 1932.
Mesosetum angustifolium Swallen, Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci. 23: 460. 1933.
Perennial; culms densely tufted, slender, erect, 25 to 45 cm. tall, the nodes
pubescent; blades firm, involute, 5 to 9 cm. long, the uppermost much
reduced, those of the innovations elongate; racemes solitary, 2 to 6 cm.
long, the rachis more or less flexuous; spikelets solitary, rather distant,
5 mm. long; first glume 4.5 mm. long, tuberculate-ciliate on the lower half;
second glume and sterile lemma equal, acute, tuberculate-ciliate in the
upper half. Pine ridges, British Honduras.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Belize District: Gracie Rock, Gentle 1653. Manatee
Lagoon, Peck 136. El Cayo District: Mountain Pine Ridge, Bartlett 11748.
Great Southern Pine Ridge, Sampson 83. Stann Creek District: All Pines,
Schipp 792.
30. ERIOCHLOA H.B.K.
1. Eriochloa punctata (L.) Desv.; Hamilt. Prodr. PI. Ind. Occ. 5. 1825.
Perennial; culms ascending from a decumbent base, about 1 m. long,
the nodes and the main axis of the panicle pubescent; blades flat, the
margins scabrous; panicles mostly 10 to 15 cm. long, the branches narrowly
ascending or appressed, the lower 3 to 5 cm. long; spikelets acuminate,
4 to 5 mm. long, appressed pilose; fruit 2 mm. long with a hispidulous awn
1 mm. long. Swamps and wet places, southern United States to Argentina.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Belize District: Belize, Smart 76.

31. AXONOPUS Beauv.
Rachis conspicuously hispid with stiffly spreading golden yellow hairs.1. A. arena
Rachis not hispid.
Plants stoloniferous; blades thin, usually more than 6 mm. wide. 2. A. compresses
Plants cespitose; blades firm, less than 5 mm. long.
Culms erect, from short scaly rhizomes.
Spikelets 2.5 to 3 mm. long; fruit pale --.........- .... 3. A. rhizomatosus
Spikelets 2 to 2.3 mm. long; fruit dark brown ...... .....4. A. ciliatifolius
Culms without rhizomes.
Racemes not more than 8 cm. long; spikelets 2 mm. long 5. A. purpusii
Racemes 10 to 15 cm. long; spikelcts 3 mm. long -------- 6. A. poiophyllus

1. Axonopus aurens Beauv. Ess. Agrost. 12. 1812.
Perennial; culms compressed, slender, branching, 0.5 to more than 1 m.
tall; blades flat, firm, mostly 6 to 10 cm. long, 4 to 8 mm. wide; inflorescence
usually long exserted, with few to several slender, subdigitate, ascending
racemes; rachis stiffly hispid below the spikelets and on the margins with
spreading golden yellow hairs; spikelets solitary, 1.3 mm. long, subobtuse,
glabrous or nearly so. Dry savannas and open grassy hills, Puerto Rico
and Central America to Brazil and Bolivia.
BRITISH HONDURAS. El Cayo District: Mountain Pine Ridge, Bartlett
11885.
2. Axonopus compresses (Swartz) Beauv. Ess. Agrost. 12. 1812.
Stoloniferous perennial; culms compressed, erect or ascending, 15 to 40
cm. long, the nodes pubescent; blades thin, flat, 5 to 15 cm. long, 6 to 8 mm.
wide, more or less papillose-ciliate toward the base; racemes 2 to 5, usually






THE GRASSES OF BRITISH HONDURAS AND THE PETEN, GUATEMALA 161

about 5 cm. long, ascending; spikelets 2 to 3 mm. long, acute, glabrous or
somewhat appressed pubescent near the margins. Open fields, waste ground,
and shady places, southern United States to Argentina.
BRmTISH HONDURAS. Belize District: Gracie Rock, Gentle 1598. Toledo
District: Temash River, Schipp 1370.
GUATEMALA. Pet6n: Monte Polol, Lundell 3762.

3. Axonopus rhizomatosus Swallen, Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci. 23: 458. 1933.
Perennial with short scaly rhizomes; culms cmspitose, 45 to 85 cm. tall,
with nodes pubescent; blades flat, as much as 25 cm. long, 1 to 4 mm. wide,
the uppermost reduced, smooth or scaberulous, pilose toward the base;
racemes 2 to 4, subdigitate, narrowly ascending, 5 to 13 cm. long; spikelets
2.5 to 3 mm. long, densely pilose near the margins; fruit pale or lead-
colored. Open pine woods, Guatemala, Honduras, and British Honduras.
BRrrisH HONDUBAS. Belize District: Manatee Lagoon, Peck 464. With-
out locality, Dunlop in 1920.
4. Axonopus eiliatifolius Swallen. Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci. 23: 458. 1933.
Perennial, with short scaly rhizomes; culms densely tufted, erect, 50 to
70 cm. tall; blades flat, 7 to 16 cm. long, 1 to 2 mm. wide, pilose on both
surfaces, the margins papillose-ciliate toward the base; racemes 2 to 5,
ascending or appressed, 3 to 11.5 cm. long; spikelets 2 to 2.3 mm. long,
glabrous or sparsely pubescent; fruit dark brown, smooth and shining.
Known only from the type collection.
BRITSH HONDURAS. El Cayo District: Mountain Pine Ridge, Bartlett
11746.

5. Axonopus pnrpusii (Mcz) Chase, Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci. 17: 144. 1927.
Perennial; culms very slender, densely tufted, erect, 15 to 40 cm. tall;
leaves crowded toward the base, only one about the midculm, this with
elongated sheath and reduced blade; blades flat, conduplicate at the base,
mostly 5 to 10 mm. long, 1 to 2 mm. wide, sparsely pilose, the margins
scabrous; inflorescence terminal and axillary with 2 to 4 ascending racemes
as much as 8 cm. long; spikelets 2 mm. long, stiffly pilose at the tip and
near the margins. Wet savannas and open woods, Mexico to Argentina.
GUATEMALA. Pet6n: La Libertad, Lundell 2302, 3639, 3678. Sabana
Zotz, Lundell 3594.
6. Axonopus poiophyllus Chasc, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 24: 133. 1911.
Perennial, culms densely tufted, erect, as much as 80 cm. tall, the nodes
appressed hispid; blades flat, conduplicate at the base, firm, erect or some-
what spreading, 10 to 20 cm. long, 2 to 5 mm. wide, glabrous; racemes 2
to 6, erect or ascending, 10 to 15 cm. long; spikelets acute, rather distant,
3 mm. long, finely pubescent. Grassy hills, Guatemala, Honduras and
British Honduras.
BRITISH HONDURAS. El Cayo District: Mountain Pine Ridge, Bartlett
11760.
32. PASPALUM L.
Rachis winged, about 2 mm. wide .. ........_... .....-......-.. 1. P. pectinatnm
Rachis wingless or only narrowly winged, not more than 1 mm. wide.
Racemes 2, conjugate (occasionally a third below).
Spikelets elliptic, acute. Plants stoloniferous- ....- 2. P. vaginatum





BOTANY OF THE MAYA AREA


Spikelets ovate to subhemispheric.
Spikelets long-silky on the margins. Plants stoloniferous.......12. P. conjugatum
Spikelets not silky.
Plants annual ; spikelets 13 mm. long .._.. __.. _10. P. multicaule
Plants perennial; spikelets more than 2 mm. long.
Spikelets orbicular with transverse bands of brown. 4. P. serpentinum
Spikelets ovate, not banded .... -. ............... .. 3. P. notatum
Racemes 1 to many, not conjugate.
First glume present in at least one of a pair of spikelets.
Spikelets 1.7 mm. long; culms decumbent spreading.._...__ 5. P. decumbens
Spikelets 22 to 2.7 mm. long; culms erect.
Spikelets glabrous ..... .......... .. .......------ 6. P. peckii
Spikelets pubescent -..- ....--.. ..........._ - --.. .. 7. P. langei
First glume wanting.
Fruit dark brown.
Plants annual; culms usually geniculate spreading _. 17. P. convexnm
Plants perennial; culms erect.
Culms 1 to 2 meters tall; blades firm, serrulate, 1 to 2
cm. wide.
Spikelets obovate, obtuse- .-. ... ... --... .... ---........... 13. P. virgatum
Spikelets elliptic, acute.....-......._..-- .... -..._ --..... 14. P. conspersam
Culms 0.5 to 1 meter tall; blades rather thin, not serrulate,
3 to 10 mm. wide....... ........._.._ ......... 18. P. plicatulmn
Fruit pale (dark at maturity in P. orbiculatum).
Racemes several to many; culms more than 1 m. tall.
Spikelets 15 mm. long, pubescent ..-_.._..__-- ..-.... 8. P. paniculatnm
Spikelets 2 to 2.4 mm. long, glabrous .....----.----------. ... 15. P. millegrana
Spikelets 4 to 4.5 mm. long, the margins glabrous to silky_16. P. fasciculamm
Racemes 2 to 7; culms slender, not more than 70 cm. tall.
Second glume wanting ..-_....._........ ....... 19. P. pulchellum
Second glume well developed.
Spikelets 1.2 mm. long with raised margins; plants
stoloniferous -_.......___ __ ...-.. --11. P. orbiculatum
Spikelets 1.5 to 1.8 mm. long; plants tufted....__._._-. 9. P. caespitosum

1. Paspalnm pectinatum Noes in Trin. Gram. Icon. 1: pl. 117. 1828.
Perennial; culms erect, densely tufted, as much as 1 m. tall; sheaths
glabrous or some of them pilose toward the summit; blades linear, elongate,
2 to 4 mm. wide, narrowed at the base, densely villous, giving the entire
plant a grayish appearance; racemes usually 2, approximate, 4 to 8 cm.
long, densely villous at the base; rachis winged, about 2 mm. wide; spikelets
broad, acute, 4.5 to 7 mm. long; second glume membranaceous, flat, the
margins winged; sterile lemma conspicuously papillose-ciliate. Open rocky
hillsides and savannas, British Honduras to Brazil.
BRITISH HoNDRmmS. El Cayo District, Bartlett 11743. Toledo District:
Ycacos Lagoon, Peck 680.

2. Paspalum vaginatum Swartz, Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 21. 1788.
Perennial; stoloniferous and with strong rhizomes; culms erect or ascend-
ing as much as 60 cm. tall; sheaths keeled, overlapping, with a dense tuft
of hairs atTe mouth; blades distichous, becoming involute, about 10 cm.
long; racemes usually 2, conjugate, erect or ascending; spikelets 3 to 4 mm.
long, acute. Seacoasts, tropics and subtropics of both hemispheres.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Corozal District: Corozal, Gentle 804. Belize Dis-
trict: Gracie Rock, Gentle 1621.






THE GRASSES OF BRITISH HONDURAS AND THE PETEN, GUATEMALA 163

3. Paspalum notatum Fliigge, Monogr. Pasp. 106. 1810.
Culms erect from short stout rhizomes, 15 to 50 cm. tall; leaves crowded
toward the base; racemes as much as 12 cm. long; spikelets solitary, 2.5
to 3.5 mm. long, smooth and shining. Open ground, Mexico and the West
Indies to Argentina.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Belize District: Belize, Lundell 1878. Gracie Rock,
Gentle 1642.

4. Paspalum serpentinum Hochst.; Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 1: 22. 1854.
Perennial; culms tufted, erect, 55 to 65 cm. tall; sheaths pilose, the lower-
most densely appressed villous; blades erect, flat, becoming involute, 10
to 20 cm. long, 1 to 3 mm. wide, papillose-pilose, the upper ones greatly
reduced; racemes 2 (rarely 1) approximate, 4 to 6 cm. long, narrowly
ascending; spikelets 2.5 mm. long, subcircular, variously spotted or lined
with reddish brown. Wet sandy savannas, British Honduras and Trinidad
to Brazil.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Belize District: Bakers Pine Ridge, Lundell 3879.

5. Paspalum decumbens Swartz, Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 22. 1788.
Perennial; culms freely branching, spreading or creeping, rooting at the
lower nodes, 10 to 60 cm. long; blades flat, pubescent on both surfaces,
mostly 4 to 8 cm. long, 5 to 8 mm. wide (rarely wider); peduncles slender,
1 to several from the uppermost sheath; racemes solitary, somewhat arcuate,
1 to 3.5 cm. long; spikelets paired, 1.7 mm. long, obovate, obscurely pointed,
glabrous; first glume well developed, truncate; second glume shorter than
the spikelet exposing the fruit. Thickets, moist banks and open ground,
British Honduras and the West Indies to Brazil and Bolivia.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Belize District: Manatee Lagoon, Peck 110. Toledo
District: Temash River, Schipp 1367, 1378.

6. Paspalum peckii F. T. Hubb. Proc. Amer. Acad. 49: 495. 1913.
Perennial; culms tufted, erect, about 75 cm. tall, the nodes sparsely
pubescent; sheaths keeled, overlapping, glabrous except the pilose margins;
blades long-acuminate, 14 to 30 cm. long, 5 to 8 mm. wide, sparsely puberu-
lent on both surfaces; racemes 2 or 3, falcate, 6 to 13 cm. long, the rachis
about 2 mm. wide; spikelets paired, 2.7 mm. long; first glume of the primary
spikelet obsolete or nearly so, that of the secondary as much as half the
length of the spikelet. Pine ridges, British Honduras.
BaITISH HONDURAS. Belize District: Manatee Lagoon, Peck 71 (type).

7. Paspalum langei (Fourn.) Nash, N. Amer. Fl. 17: 179. 1912. GRAMA.
Perennial; culms slender, tufted, 30 to 60 cm. or frequently as much as
1 m. tall, compressed; blades flat, 10 to 40 cm. long, 6 to 15 mm. wide,
glabrous or pubescent, sparsely ciliate; racemes 2 to 5 (sometimes more),
slender, spreading, rather distant, the rachis with a few long hairs at the
base; spikelets in pairs, 2.2 to 2.6 mm. long, pubescent, glandular-spotted,
the first glume usually well developed. Moist woods, Texas, Florida and
the West Indies, to Venezuela.
BRTISH HONDURAS. El Cayo District: El Cayo, Bartlett 11488.
GUATEMALA. Petin: La Libertad, Lundell 3608, 3640, 3857. El Paso,
Lundell 1552.




BOTANY OF THE MAYA AREA


8. Paspalum paniculatum L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 2: 855. 1759.
Perennial; culms usually coarse in tough clumps, mostly about 1 m. tall;
blades 1 to 2 cm. wide, rounded at the base, glabrous, scabrous or sparsely
hispid; panicles pyramidal; racemes several to many, crowded, arcuate-
ascending or spreading; spikelets crowded, in pairs, 1.5 mm. long, pubescent.
Open ground, often a weed in cultivated places, Mexico and the West Indies
to Argentina; also in West Africa, Society Islands and Australia.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Belize District: Manatee River, Smart 65. Manatee
Lagoon, Peck 970. Stann Creek District: Middlesex, Smart 26. Toledo
District: Toledo, Peck 542.

9. Paspalum caspitosum Fliigge, Monogr. Pasp. 161. 1810.
Perennial; culms in dense erect or spreading clumps, mostly 30 to 60 cm.
tall, the leaves usually crowded toward the base; blades flat or loosely rolled,
ciliate toward the base; racemes 3 to 6, remote, stiffly ascending or spreading,
more or less arcuate; spikelets in pairs, 1.5 to 1.8 mm. long, sparsely ap-
pressed pubescent. Shady places in limestone soil and in sandy pinelands,
southern Florida, Yucatan, Central America and the West Indies.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Orange Walk District: Honey Camp, Lundell 568.
Belize District: Gracie Rock, Gentle 1597. Toledo District: Toledo, Peck
769.
GUATEMALA. Pet6n: La Libertad, Lundell 3858.

10. Paspalum multicaule Poir. in Lam. Encycl. Suppl. 4: 309. 1816.
Annual; culms densely tufted, freely branching, ascending or spreading,
10 to 45 cm. long; blades flat, 2 to 15 cm. long, 1.5 to 3 mm. wide, papillose-
pilose, the midnerve and margins prominent; racemes 2, conjugate, divergent,
mostly 2 to 4 cm. long; spikelets solitary, hemispheric, 1.3 mm. long, more
or less beaded with subglobular hairs. Moist savannas and open ground,
Mexico and Trinidad to Brazil and Bolivia.
BRITISH HONDURAS. El Cayo District: Mountain Pine Ridge, Bartlett
11779,11859.

11. Paspalum orbiculatum Poir. in Lam. Encycl. 5: 32. 1804.
Stoloniferous perennial; culms slender, creeping, rooting at the nodes,
the ascending branches 10 to 25 cm. long; blades flat, 1 to 6 cm. long, 1.5
to 7 mm. wide, glabrous or minutely pubescent; racemes 2 to 7, approximate,
ascending to spreading, mostly 1 to 2 cm. (rarely as much as 3 cm.) long,
the rachis winged, 0.5 mm. wide; spikelets ovoid, minutely pointed, 1 to
1.2 mm. long, glabrous or rarely pubescent, the margins somewhat raised.
Moist sandy banks, open ground and along streams and ditches, southern
Mexico and the West Indies to Paraguay.
BRrriSH HONDURAS. Belize District: Freetown, Smart 74, 75. Gracio
Rock, Gentle 1591. El Cayo District: El Cayo, Bartlett 11491. Toledo
District: Toledo, Peck 541.
GUATEMALA. Pet6n: La Libertad, Lundell 2527, 2585.

12. Paspalum conjugatum Blrgius, Act. Holy. Phys. Math. 7: 129, pi. 8. 1762.
Stoloniferous perennial; culms rather slender, flattened, glabrous, the
flowering branches usually 20 to 50 cm. long; blades thin, flat, mostly 8
to 12 cm. long, 5 to 15 mm. wide, the margins scabrous or short ciliate;






THE GRASSES OF BRITISH HONDURAS AND THE PETEN, GUATEMALA 165

racemes 2, conjugate, widely spreading, as much as 15 cm. long; spikelets
solitary, 1.4 to 1.8 mm. long, ovate, minutely pointed, the margins silky-
ciliate. Common weed, roadsides, waste ground along rivers and ditches
and in cultivated fields, Florida to Texas, Mexico and the West Indies to
Argentina.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Corozal District: Corozal, Lundell 4940. Stann
Creek District: Big Creek, Schipp 895. Toledo District: Temash River,
Schipp 1369. Punta Gorda, Smart 52.
GUATEMALA. Petin: La Libertad, Aguilar 141.

12a. Paspalum conjugarnm var. pubescens Doell in Mart. Fl. Bras. 2': 55. 1877.
Differing from the species in having papillose-pubescent blades, usually
longer racemes, and larger more ciliate spikelets as much as 2.2 mm long.
Waste ground, Mexico and the West Indies to Brazil.
BarTISH HONDURAS. Corozal District: Corozal, Lundell 4940. Belize
District: Gracie Rock, Gentle 1603.

13. Paspalum virgatum L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 2: 855. 1759.
Perennial; culms very coarse, in large dense clumps, simple, 1 to 2 m.
tall; lower sheaths purple, spongy, reticulate; blades firm, flat, 30 to 75 cm.
long, mostly 1 to 2 cm. wide, the margins serrulate; racemes usually 10 to
16, ascending to drooping, the lowermost usually 10 to 15 cm. long; spikelets
inhpairs, crowded, obovate, abruptly pointed, 2.5 to 3 mm. long, pubescent,
especially at the summit; fruit chestnut brown. papillose striate. Open
swampy ground, southern Texas and the West Indies to Brazil.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Corozal District: Corozal, Lundell 4957. Belize
District: Belize, Lundell 1910. Northern River, Gentle 891. Stann Creek
DistriFt: Big Creek, Schipp 883.

14. Paspalnm conspersum Schrad.; Schult. Mant. 2: 174. 1817.
Perennial; culms erect in dense clumps, resembling P. virgatum; panicles
erect, 15 to 25 cm. long, of 6 to 16 ascending to spreading or drooping
racemes, 7 to 15 cm. long; margin of rachis scaberulous but with no long
hairs; spikelets 2.7 to 3 mm. long, deep purple to rusty brown, usually softly
pubescent; fruit chestnut-brown, papillose striate. Open, moist ground and
along streams, Mexico to Argentina.
BRITISH HoTDmRAS. Belize District: Manatee Lagoon, Peck 69a. This
specimen is exceptional in having glabrous spikelets.

15. Paspalum millegrana Schrad. in Schult. Mant. 2: 175. 1824.
Perennial; culms erect or ascending in large tough clumps, 1 to 2 m. tall,
glabrous; lower leaves crowded toward the base; blades firm, flat. folded
at the base, loosely rolled in drying, mostly 30 to 75 cm. long, 7 to 15 mm.
wide. pubescent or glabrous above, scabrous beneath, the margins sharply
serrulate; racemes several to many, approximate or somewhat distant,
ascending or spreading, mostly 8 to 12 cm. long; spikelets in pairs, obovate,
2 to 2.4 mm. long, glabrous. Moist open ground, swamps and along ditches,
British Honduras and the West Indies to southern Brazil.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Belize District: Belize, Lundell 3782. Manatee
Lagoon, Peck 69.




BOTANY OF THE MAYA AREA


16. Paspalum fasciculamm Willd.; Fliigge, Monogr. Pasp. 69. 1810.
Stoloniferous perennial; culms branching, widely creeping, 2 to several
meters long, compressed, glabrous; nodes glabrous to densely appressed-
hairy; sheaths loose, about as long as the internodes; blades flat, elongate,
1.5 to 3 cm. wide, the margins scabrous; panicle flabellate, the numerous
racemes 10 to 15 cm. long, crowded on a short axis; spikelets elliptic, pointed,
4 to 4.5 mm. long, glabrous to silky on the margins. River banks, swamps,
and low ground, southern Mexico to Argentina.
BRITISH HoNDUR~s. Toledo District: Temash River, Schipp 1379.

17. Paspalnm convexum Humb. & Bonpl. in Fliigge, Monogr. Pasp. 175. 1810.
Annual; culms leafy, densely tufted, erect to geniculate spreading, 15 to
30 cm. tall; blades flat, rather lax, densely hairy, 8 to 15 cm. long, 4 to
10 mm. wide; racemes 2 or 3, 2 to 4 cm. long, erect or ascending; spikelets
crowded, brown, obovate, usually 2.5 mm. long, pubescent. Open ground,
cultivated fields and waste places, Mexico to Brazil.
GUATEMALA. Pet6n: La Libertad, Aguilar 317.

18.-Paspalum plicatulum Michx. Fl. Bor. Amer. 1: 45. 1803. Zacate Remolillo.
Perennial; culms in small tufts, erect or ascending, mostly 0.5 to 1 m. tall;
sheaths keeled; blades flat or folded, firm, as much as 50 cm. long, 3 to
10 mm. wide (usually 5 to 8 mm.), glabrous or papillose pilose, especially
along the margins; racemes few to several, usually arcuate spreading, the
rachis with a conspicuous tuft of hairs at the base; spikelets in pairs, 2.5 to
2.8 mm. long, glabrous or appressed pubescent, the sterile lemma cross-
wrinkled near the margin; fruit dark brown, smooth and shining. Moist
open ground or wood borders in clay or sandy soil, southern United States
and the West Indies to Argentina.
BamrrSH HozmmD.AS. Belize District: Gracie Rock, Gentle 1678.
GUATEMALA. Petin: La Libertad, Aguilar 45; Lundell 2305, 3561.

19. Paspalnm pulchellum Kunth, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. 2: 68. 1815.
Perennial; culms in small dense clumps, very slender, erect, 25 to 70 cm.
tall; lower sheaths crowded, overlapping, the upper ones much shorter than
the elongate internodes; blades flat, becoming involute, attenuate, as much
as 20 cm. long, 1 to 2 mm. wide, pilose, the uppermost much reduced;
racemes 2 to 4, 2 to 9 cm. long, erect or ascending, the rachis with a dense
tuft of hairs at the base; spikelets 1.7 to 2 mm. long, solitary, the glumes
wanting, the sterile lemma usually purple tinged. Sandy savannas and pine-
lands, British Honduras, Guatemala and the West Indies to Brazil.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Belize District: Manatee Pine Ridge, Gentle 90.
Manatee Lagoon, Peck 86. Baker's Pine Ridge, Lundell 3794.
GUATEMALA. Peten: Sabana Zotz, Lundell 3583.

33. PANICUM L.
Spikeleta 2.5 to 3.5 mm. long.
Plants annual; spikelets brown, prominently reticulate-veined. 1. P. fascieulatnu
Plants perennial; spikelets green or purple tinged, not
reticulate-veined.
Fruit transversely rugose.
Culms erect, densely tufted; spikelets paniculate .... 5. P. maximum







THE GRASSES OF BRITISH HONDURAS AND THE PETEN, GUATEMALA 167

S Culms widely spreading at base, geniculate, elongate;
spikelets arranged on one side of spikelike racemes- .. 3. P. purpnrascens
Fruit smooth.
Creeping rhizomes present.---..- 7. P. altmm
Creeping rhizomes wanting.
Spikelets glabrous (see also P. tuerckheimii).
First glume broadly triangular, not more than one-
fourth as long as the spikelet.__.... ... ..... 4. P. aquaticum
First glume acute, two-thirds as long as the spikelet 6. P. ichnanthoides
Spikelets pubescent, sparsely hispid, or sparsely pilose.
Spikelets acuminate, sparsely pilose 33. P. tuerckheimii
Spikelets acute.
Spikelets pubescent; first glume two-fifths as long
as the spikelet; usually obtuse, glabrous; plants
slender ..... 23. P. fusiforme
Spikelets sparsely hispid; first glume acute, three-
fourths as long as the spikelet; plants coarse,
robust ._. 32. P. rudgei
Spikelets not more than 2 mm. long.
Spikelets short-pedicellate, arranged on one side of spikelike
racemes.
Blades lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate; culms creeping,
rooting at the nodes.
Fruit transversely rugose ._ _.. 2. P. reptans
Fruit smooth.
Sterile lemma with 2 prominent crateriform glands... 14. P. pulchellum
Sterile lemma not glandular .. .15. P. frondescens
Blades linear.
Rachis of racemes pilose; branchlets very short or wanting.
Panicles more than 25 cm. long .10. P. milleflorum
Panicles not more than 15 cm. long _. .. 9. P. pilosum
Rachis of racemes not pilose; short branchlets usually
numerous.
Nodes glabrous.
Blades narrowed at the base-.- -- .11. P. laxum
Blades cordate at the base.-__...-.._. -12. P. boliviense
Nodes pubescent .- 13. P. polygonatum
Spikelets paniculate.
Panicles small, contracted, few flowered, on slender leafless
branches from the upper nodes ......._ 8. P. stenodoides
Panicles open, often large, many flowered, terminal on the
main culm or leafy branches.
First glume half as long as the spikelet or longer.
Spikelets not more than 1.5 mm. long.
Spikelets glabrous; blades 2 to 6 mm. long, glaucous.
Culms erect; blades 3 to 6 cm. long, glabrous 21. P. cyaneecens
Culms decumbent, spreading; blades 1.5 to 2.5 cm.
long, often pilose__.. .. 20. P. parvifolium
Spikelets papillose-hirsute; blades thin, 8 to 15 mm.
wide 34. P. hirtum
Spikelets IS to 2 mm. long ..-- ... 19. P. bartlettii
First glume much less than half as long as the spikelet.
Culms widely spreading, freely branching.
Culms viscid below the nodes; spikelets 2 mm. long.31. P. viscidellum
Culms not viscid below the nodes; spikelets not more
than 1.5 mm. long.
Spikelets glabrous.
Panicles 10 cm. long; fruit sparsely silky..... ...... 16. P. schiffneri
Panicles 20 to 30 cm. long; fruit glabrous. .- 18. P. trichanthtim





BOTANY OF THE MAYA AREA


Spikelets pubescent ..._. ...-... _.__.. ___ _.... ...... 17. P. trichoides
Culms tufted, sometimes decumbent at the base, but not
widely spreading.
Ligule prominent, 3 to 4 mm. long.
Sheaths glabrous or appressed pubescent.
Spikelets 12 mm. long -_ .24. P. longiligulatum
Spikelets not more than 1 mm. long-._...._25. P. wrightianum
Sheaths conspicuously pilose.
Culms viscid below the nodes... .....31. P. viscidellum
Culms not viscid-----... .......------..... ...--26. P. olivacenm
Ligule less than 1 mm. long, sometimes nearly
obsolete.
Spikelets glabrous or nearly so.
Blades cordate, 5 to 15 mm. wide .. ____ 27. P. sphrerocarpon
Blades not cordate, usually less than 5 mm. wide.
Spikelets 2 mm. long, strongly nerved, unsym-
metrically pyriform ---.. ---..-... ..-.._--_-- -30. P. lancearium
Spikelets 1.1 mm. long, not strongly nerved ... 29. P. chamselonche
Spikelets pubescent.
Blades papillose-ciliate; plants 10 to 20 cm. tall
in soft dense tufts .......-._.. ..... .. 22. P. strigosnm
Blades not papillose-ciliate ._ ..-- ..__ 28. P. albomarginatum

1. Panicum fasciculatum Swartz, Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 22. 1788.
Culms slender, branching, erect or decumbent at the base, 15 cm. to as
much as 1 m. long; blades 5 to 15 cm. long, 0.5 to 1.5 cm. wide, glabrous
or scaberulous; panicles 5 to 15 cm. long, the branches narrowly ascending
to spreading; spikelets 2.5 to 3 mm. long, dark brown, often tinged with
purple, glabrous, the second glume and sterile lemma reticulate-veined.
Moist cultivated ground and waste places, Florida, Texas and the West
Indies to Ecuador and Brazil.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Corozal District: San Andres, Lundell 4729, 4956.
Santa Rita, Lundell 4848. Belize District: Manatee Lagoon, Peck 317.
Gracie Rock, Gentle 1582. El Cayo District: Roaring Creek, Lundell 315.
Stann Creek District: Middlesex, Schipp 374.
GUATEMALA. Pet6n: Lake Pet6n, Lundell 3859.

2. Panicum reptans L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 2: 870. 1759.
Annual; culms decumbent spreading, freely branching, the ascending
branches 10 to 30 cm. tall; blades flat, cordate, acuminate, 1.5 to 6 cm.
long, 4 to 12 mm. wide, the undulate white margins ciliate toward the
base; panicles 2 to 6 cm. long, the branches stiffly ascending or spreading,
2 to 3 mm. long; spikelets 2 mm. long, the first glume short, rounded or
truncate. Open ground and cultivated fields, tropical regions of both
hemispheres.
GUATEMALA. Pet6n: El Paso, Lundell 1535.

3. Panicum purpurascens Raddi, Agrost. Bras. 47. 1823.
Panicum barbinode Trin. M6m. Acad. St. Pktersb. VI. Sci. Nat. 1: 256. 1834.
Culms coarse, as much as 6 m. long, decumbent at the base and rooting
at the lower nodes, geniculate, the nodes densely villous; sheaths papillose-
pilose; panicles 10 to 20 cm. long with several solitary or fascicled spreading
racemes; spikelets 3 mm. long, pointed, usually tinged with purple. Moist





THE GRASSES OF BRITISH HONDURAS AyND TIE PETEN, GUATEMALA 169

waste places and cultivated ground, Florida, Texas and the West Indies
to Brazil and Peru. Frequently grown for forage.
BRITISH HONDU{n S. Orange Walk District: Honey Camp, Lundell 594.

4. Panicum aquaticum Poir. in Lam. Encycl. Suppl. 4: 281. 1816.
Perennial; culms decumbent, rooting at the lower nodes, glabrous, the
ascending ends mostly 20 to 40 cm. tall; blades flat, acute, usually stiffly
spreading, 5 to 12 cm. long, 5 to 10 mm. wide; panicles about 10 cm. long,
rarely larger, the branches rather stiffly ascending; spikelets appressed,
3 mm. long; first glume subacute, broad and clasping, about 1 mm. long.
Margins of streams and ponds and in wet places, southern Mexico and Cuba
to Paraguay.
BRITISH HoNDURns. Belize District: Gracie Rock, Gentle 1635.

5. Paniunm maximum Jacq. Coll. Bot. 1: 76. 17S6.
Culms erect in large clumps, 1 to 2.5 m. tall; blades flat, sometimes
nearly 1 m. long, 1 to 3 cm. wide, glabrous or somewhat hirsute toward
the base, the margins scabrous-serrate; panicles usually about 30 cm. long,
the branches naked below, the lower whorled; spikelets 3 to 3.5 mm. long,
glabrous, the first glume acute, one-third as long as the spikelet; fruit
transversely rugose. Cultivated for forage, sometimes escaped. Florida,
Mexico, and the West Indies to Bolivia and Brazil. Introduced from Africa.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Corozal District: San Antonio, Lundell 4949; Gentle
119. Belize District: Manatee Lagoon, Peck 195.

6. Panicum ichnanthoider Foarn. Mex. P1. 2: 30. 1886.
Perennial; culms in large clumps, 1.5 to 2 m. tall, erect or decumbent
at the base, smooth and hard; sheaths shorter than the internodes, pubescent
on the margins; blades flat, elongate, 8 to 15 mm. wide, villous on the upper
surface near the base; panicle 20 to 40 cm. long, the long slender branches
ascending; spikelets 3.5 to 4.2 mm. long. Open rocky hillsides, southern
Mexico, British Honduras and Nicaragua.
BRITISH HoND RAS. Belize District: Manatee Lagoon, Peck 73.

7. Panicum altum Hitchc. & Chase, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 17: 488, f. 57. 1915.
Perennial; culms stout, reedlike, tangled, decumbent and straggling at
the base, 2 to 4 m. tall, glaucous, sometimes with erect sterile branches
at the swollen nodes; blades flat, 30 to 45 cm. long, 8 to 15 mm. wide, the
margins scabrous; panicles narrowly o'void, 20 to 30 cm. long, the slender
scabrous branches fascicled, ascending to spreading, some naked at the
base; spikelets short-pedicellate, 3.2 to 4 mm. long, turgid; glumes and
sterile lemma strongly nerved, gaping, the first glume two thirds the length
of the spikelet. Marshes near the seacoast, British Honduras to Trinidad.
BRITISH HoNnURAs. Orange Walk District: Honey Camp, Meyer 110.
Belize District: Manatee Lagoon, Peck 123.

8 Panicum stenodoides F. T. Hubb. Proc. Amcr. Acad. 49: 497. 1913.
Perennial; culms densely tufted, slender, erect. 20 to 40 cm. tall, with
slender, leafless panicle-bearing branches from the upper nodes; sheaths
papillose-pilose, the lowermost bladeless, becoming fibrous; blades erect,
involute toward the tip, 3 to 8 cm. long, 1 to 2 mm. wide, papillose-pilose




BOTANY OF THE MAYA AREA


or sometimes glabrous; panicles short-exserted, about 1 cm. long, narrow,
bearing 3 to 7 appressed spikelets; spikelets 2 to 2.1 mm. long, attenuate
at the base; first glume half as long as the spikelet. Moist open grassland,
British Honduras, Costa Rica, Panama, Trinidad, and Brazil.
BITrrSH HOND-rAS. Toledo District: Ycacos Lagoon, Peck 681.

9. Panicum pilosnm Swartz, Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 22. 1788.
Culms erect, or decumbent at the base and rooting at the lower nodes,
branching, 25 to 60 cm. or sometimes as much as 1 m. long; nodes densely
bearded; blades lanceolate 5 to 15 cm. long, 6 to 10 mm. wide; panicles erect,
8 to 15 cm. long, the branches simple, 1 to 4 cm. long, usually stiffly and
abruptly spreading, papillose-hispid, the hairs sometimes sparse; spikelets
1.3 to 1.5 mm. long, crowded. Open woods, Mexico and the West Indies to
Brazil.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Corozal District: San Andres, Lundell 4854; Gentle
66. Orange Walk District: Tower Hill Estate, Karling 15. Honey Camp,
Lundell 541. El Cayo District: San Antonio, Bartlett 13044. Mountain
Pine Ridge, Bartlett 11624. Belize District: Manatee River, Smart 67.
Manatee Lagoon, Peck 28. Gracie Rock, Gentle 1596. Prospecto, Gentle
888. Stann Creek District: Stann Creek, Smart 29. Toledo District: Punta
Gorda, Smart 51, 53. Temash River, Schipp 1371.
GUATEMALA. Pet6n: La Libertad, Lundell 3854; Aguilar 8.

10. Panicum milleflorum Hitche. & Chase, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 17: 494, f. 70. 1915.
Resembling P. pilosum but larger; sheaths sparsely papillose-pilose;
blades lanceolate-acuminate, 15 to 35 cm. long, 12 to 20 mm. wide, the
margins scabrous; panicles 25 to 45 cm. long, the lower branches in rather
distant fascicles, ascending. with numerous short branchlets, the upper ones
spreading, simple; spikelets 1.3 mm. long. Swampy places, British Hon-
duras to Brazil.
BRITISH Ho-DURnS. Belize District: Manatee River, Smart 62.

11. Panicum laxum Swartz, Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 23. 1788.
Culms erect or straggling, the nodes glabrous; blades as much as 25 cm.
long, mostly 5 to 10 mm. wide, rounded but not cordate at the base; panicles
5 to 20 cm. long, rarely longer, the branches ascending to spreading, usually
densely flowered, scabrous, with branchlets at the base as much as 1 cm.
long; spikelets 1 to 1.5 mm. long, pointed. River banks, ditches, and moist
places, Mexico and the West Indies to Paraguay.
BRITISH HONDURAS: Belize District: Manatee Lagoon, Peck 60. El Cayo
District: El Cayo, Bartlett 11489. Stann Creek District: New Town, Schipp
905.
GUATEMALA. Pet6n: La Libertad, Lundell 2526, Aguilar 45/2.

12. Panicam boliviense Hack. Report. Sp. Nov. Fedde 11: 19. 1912.
Resembling large plants of P. lazum; blades cordate at the base, acumi-
nate pointed, 8 to 15 cm. long, 7 to 20 mm. wide; panicles 10 to 20 cm. long,
loosely flowered, the branchlets spreading, usually second on the lower
side of the ascending branches; spikelets 1.5 mm. long, glabrous, rather
blunt. River banks, ditches and open woods, southern Mexico and Cuba to
Paraguay.





THE GRASSES OF BRITISH HONDURAS AND THE PET1N, GUATEMALA 171

BRITISH HONDURAS. Toledo District: Tcmash River, Schipp 1372.
GUATEMALA. Petkn: El Paso, Lundell 1474. The specimens of this
collection are more slender with narrower blades than typical P. boliviense.
Usually the blades are 1.5 to 2 cm. wide, while these are 7 to 12 mm. wide.
13. Panicum polygonatum Schrad. in Schult. Mant. 2: 256. 1824.
Perennial; culms slender, widely creeping, the nodes pubescent; blades
rather thin, cordate, lanceolate, mostly 5 to 8 cm. long, 5 to 10 mm. wide,
the margins scabrous; panicles open, loosely flowered, the branchlets ap-
pressed or spreading, usually second along the lower side of the branches.
River banks and moist places along roads and in open woods, Mexico to
Paraguay.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Toledo District: San Pedro, Smart 44.
14. Panicum pulchellum Raddi, Agrost. Bras. 42. 1823.
Perennial; plants rather delicate, widely creeping, rooting at the pubescent
nodes, the slender fertile branches ascending or erect; sheaths much shorter
than the internodes, more or less pilose, the margins ciliate; blades obovate,
asymmetrical, 1.5 to 5 cm. long, 8 to 18 mm. wide (commonly 2 to 4 cm.
long and 1 to 1.5 cm. wide), pilose to nearly glabrous; panicles 3 to 10 cm.
long, the branches usually 1 to 1.5 cm. long, distant, stiffly spreading, spikelet-
bearing from the base; spikelets 2 mm. long, pilose, the back of the sterile
lemma with two crateriform glands. Shady banks, moist thickets, and
woods, southern Mexico and Windward Islands to Brazil.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Belize District: Gracie Rock, Gentle 1539. Manatee
Lagoon, Peck 279. El Cayo District: El Cayo, Bartlett 11443. Stann
Creek District: Big Creek, Schipp 180, 884.
GUATEMALA. Pet6n: La Libertad, Lundell 2120, 2545; Aguilar 185.

15. Panicum frondescens Meyer, Prim. Fl. Esseq. 56. 1818.
Perennial; culms slender, widely creeping, rooting at the nodes, freely
branching, the branches erect or ascending, mostly 15 to 30 cm. tall; blades
lanceolate, acuminate, 5 to 11 cm. long, mostly 10 to 12 mm. wide (rarely
more than 15 mm.); panicles 4 to 11 cm. long, the numerous crowded
racemes densely flowered, becoming spreading, 10 to 25 mm. long; spikelets
2.7 mm. long. Shady river banks, swamps, and moist places, Mexico to
Brazil.
Bmnsn HONDURAS. Toledo District: Temash River, Schipp 1377.

16. Panicum schiffneri Hack. Ergeb. Bot. Exped. Akad. Wiss. Sidbras. 11. 1906.
Perennial; culms 2 to 3 m. long, straggling or clambering, freely branching,
rooting at the nodes, pilose below the nodes or nearly glabrous; blades 5 to
15 cm. long, 1 to 2.5 cm. wide, sparsely pilose, the margins scabrous; pani-
cles pyramidal, about 10 cm. long, the branches ascending to spreading, the
lower ones naked below; spikelets 1.5 mm. long, densely clustered on the
short branchlets; fruit sparsely silky. Wet shady banks, southern Mexico
and the West Indies to Brazil.
GUAT.EMALA. Peten: Uaxactun, Bartlett 12209.
17. Panicnm trichoides Swartz. Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 24. 1788.
Annual; culms slender, freely branching, widely creeping; blades thin,
ovate-lanceolate, 4 to 7 cm. long, 8 to 15 mdi. wide, ciliate at the base;




BOTANY OF THE MAYA AREA


panicles open, 8 to 15 cm. long, the ascending to spreading branches with
capillary, few-flowered, spreading branchlets; spikelets 1.5 mm. long, pu-
bescent, the fruit exposed at the summit. Woods and open ground, especially
along trails, Mexico and the West Indies to Peru and Brazil.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Belize District: Belize River, Lundell 3864. Mana-
tee River, Smart 66. Manatee Lagoon, Peck 314. Gracie Rock, Gentle
1571. El Cayo District: El Cayo, Bartlett 11447. Toledo District: Toledo,
Peck 637.
18. Panicum trichanthnm Nees, Agrost. Bras. 210. 1829. Sooc.
Perennial; culms erect or decumbent, sometimes clambering over brush,
branching; blades lanceolate, 8 to 12 cm. long, 1 to 2.5 cm. wide, subcordate
at the base; panicles diffuse, 20 to 30 cm. long, nearly as broad, the branches
widely and rather stiffly spreading at maturity; spikelets long-pedicellate,
glabrous, 1.2 to 1.4 mm. long, the first glume one fifth as long. River banks,
lake shores, moist thickets and swampy places, Mexico and the West Indies
to Paraguay.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Belize District: Big Falls, Manatee River, Smart
68. Toledo District: Columbia Branch, Rio Grande, Smart 42.
GUATEMALA. Pet4n: El Paso, Lundell 1538. Lake Zotz, Lundell 3307.
Monte Santa Teresa, Lundell 2760.

19. Panicum bartlettii Swallen, Carnegie Inst. Wash. Pub. No. 436: 346. 1934.
Closely resembling Panicum trichanthum; spikelets 1.8 to 2 mm. long,
pointed; first glume obtuse or subacute, half as long as the spikelet. Woods
and river bluffs, Mexico (Vera Cruz and Campeche), British Honduras and
Guatemala.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Belize District: Maskall, Gentle 1070. Gracie Rock,
Gentle 1601. Manatee Lagoon, Peck 775. El Cayo District: El Cayo,
Bartlett 11452, 11983, 12016. Little Cocquericot, Lundell 3868, 3876.
Toledo District: Toledo, Peck 775.
GUATEMALA. Petin: Uaxactun, Bartlett 12245. La Libertad, Aguilar 378.

20. Panicum parvifolium Lam. Tabl. Encycl. 1: 173. 1791.
Perennial; culms very slender, freely branching, decumbent at the base
and rooting at the lower nodes; sheaths much shorter than the internodes,
pilose with stiffly ascending or spreading hairs; blades glaucous, mostly
1.5 to 2.5 cm. long, 2 to 4 mm. wide, often pilose; panicles 2 to 4 cm. long,
nearly as broad, the branches spreading, rather few-flowered; spikelets long-
pedicellate, 1.5 mm. long, the first glume broad, subacute, two-thirds as long
as the spikelet. Ravines, river banks, margins of ponds and wet open places,
Costa Rica, British Honduras and the West Indies to Paraguay.
BRITISH HONDURAS. El Cayo District: Mountain Pine Ridge, Bartlett
11612.

21. Panicum cyanescens Nees; Trin. Gram. Pan. 202. 1826.
Perennial; culms erect, densely tufted, 30 to 50 cm. tall; blades 3 to 6 cm.
long, 2 to 6 mm. wide, glaucous, ascending or appressed, smooth or sca-
berulous; panicles usually 4 to 5 cm. long, as much as 6 cm. wide; spikelets
1.5 mm. long, subglobose; first glume, rounded or subacute, two thirds as
long as the spikelet. Moist sandy ground, swamps and wet savannas,
British Honduras, Cuba, and Trinidad to Brazil.





THE GRASSES OF BRITISH HONDURAS AND THE PETEN, GUATEMALA 173

BRITISH HONDURAS. Belize District: Baker's Pine Ridge, Lundell 3783.
Belize, Bartlett 11232. Manatee Lagoon, Peck 271.

22. Panicum strigosum Muhl. in Ell. Bot. S. C. & Ga. 1: 126. 1816.
Perennial; culms in dense, soft, spreading tufts, mostly 10 to 20 cm. tall;
sheaths glabrous, the margins ciliate; blades thin, bright green, 2 to 5 cm.
long, 3 to 6 mm. wide, conspicuously papillose-ciliate on the margins, other-
wise nearly glabrous; panicles 2 to 5 cm. long, the axis pilose, the branches
stiffly ascending or spreading; spikelets 1.3 to 1.5 mm. long; first glume
rounded, 0.5 mm. long. Sandy woods and moist open ground, southeastern
United States, Mexico, and the West Indies to Colombia.
BRITISH HONDURAS. El Cayo District: Mountain Pine Ridge, Bartlett
11592, 11635.

23. Panicum fusiforme Hitche. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 222. 1909.
Perennial; culms tufted, erect, 30 to 50 cm. tall; blades linear, flat, 6 to
15 cm. long, 2 to 4 mm. wide, narrowly ascending, glabrous or nearly so;
panicle branches ascending; spikelets 3 to 3.5 mm. long, fusiform, pubescent;
first glume somewhat remote, 1.5 mm. long, acute. Autumnal phase becom-
ing branched and somewhat top-heavy with slender involute blades. Pine
woods and open ground, southeastern United States, British Honduras, Cuba,
and Jamaica.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Belize District: Manatee Lagoon. Peck 453a. El
Cayo District: Mountain Pine Ridge, Bartlett 11590, 11780.

24. Panicum longilignlatum Nash. Bull. Torrey Club 26: 574. 1899.
Perennial; culms 30 to 70 cm. tall, slender or rather stout, erect or ascend-
ing; ligule 3 mm. long; blades 4 to 8 cm. long, 4 to 8 mm. wide, glabrous
above, minutely pubescent beneath; panicles 3 to 8 cm. long, the branches
rather densely flowered, ascending; spikelets 1.2 mm. long, pubescent.
Autumnal phase spreading.or reclining with reduced panicles and small,
more or less involute blades. Pineland and swamps, southeastern United
States, Hispaniola and British Honduras.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Belize District: Sibun River, Bartlett 11397. Stann
Creek District: Stann Creek Valley, Kinloch 191.

25. Panicum wrightianum Scribn. U. S. Dept. Agr. Div. Agrost. Bull. 11: 44, f. 4. 1898.
Perennial; culms densely tufted, slender, spreading, becoming decumbent,
about 20 cm. tall or sometimes taller; ligule 2 to 3 mm. long; blades flat,
2 to 4 cm. long, 2 to 4 mm. wide, minutely pubescent below, short-pilose to
nearly glabrous above, the margins scabrous; panicles 2 to 3 cm. long (or
as much as 6 cm.), the branches ascending; spikelets long-pedicellate, 1 mm.
long, pubescent. Autumnal phase bushy branched with scarcely reduced
blades and panicles. Moist sandy or mucky soil, southeastern United States,
Cuba, and British Honduras.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Belize District: Belize, Bartlett 11256.

26. Panicum olivaceum Hitchc. & Chase, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 15: 225, f. 234. 1910.
Perennial; culms erect or decumbent at the base, papillose-pilose, the
nodes bearded; blades olive green, mostly 4 to 6 cm. long, 5 to 8 mm. wide,
softly pubescent, the margins ciliate; ligule 3 to 5 mm. long; panicles usually




BOTANY OF THE MAYA AREA


4 to 5 cm. long, the branches spreading, the axils densely pubescent or
pilose; spikelets 2 nim. long, pubescent; autumnal phase freely branching,
decumbent-spreading, the blades and panicles reduced. Fields, dry open
ground, and open woods, Mexico to Colombia.
BIrrTSH HONDURAS. El Cayo District: Mountain Pine Ridge, Bartlett
11621.

27. Panicum spharocarpon Ell. Bot. S. C. & Ga. 1: 125. 1816.
Perennial; culms densely tufted, erect or somewhat spreading, 15 to as
much as 50 cm. tall; ligule obsolete or nearly so; blades cordate, light green,
4 to 10 cm. long (rarely longer), 5 to 15 mm. wide, the white cartilaginous
margins papillose-ciliate toward the base; panicles mostly 5 to 10 cm. long,
loosely flowered, the axis, branches, and pedicels viscid; spikelets sub-
spherical, 1.7 mm. long, pubescent. Autumnal phase sparingly branched,
spreading, the blades and panicles not greatly reduced. Sandy or gravelly
banks, roadsides, and open woods, eastern United States, Cuba, and Mexico
to Venezuela.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Belize District: Manatee Lagoon, Peck 61. El Cayo
District: Mountain Pine Ridge, Bartlett 11714a.

28. Panicum albomarginatnm Nash. Bull. Torrey Club 24: 40. 1897.
Perennial; culms slender, erect, wiry, mostly 30 to 40 cm. tall; blades
4 to 6 cm. (rarely 8 cm.) long, 4 to 6 mm. wide, glabrous or nearly so, the
conspicuous white cartilaginous margins scabrous; ligule less than 1 mm.
long; panicles usually about 4 cm. long; spikelets 1.5 mm. long, pubescent.
Autumnal phase bushy branched with reduced blades and panicles. Sandy
woos, southeastern United States, British Honduras, Guatemala, and Cuba.
BRITISH HONDURAS. El Cayo District: Mountain Pine Ridge, Bartlett
11591, 11602, 11613, 11632, 11782.

29. Panicum chamelonche Trin. Gram. Pan. 242. 1826.
Perennial; culms densely tufted, erect or ascending, 15 to 20 or 30 cm.
tall, glabrous; ligule very short; blades 3 to 5 cm. long, 2 to 3 mm. wide,
often involute pointed; panicles usually about 3 cm. long, the axis and
stiffly widely spreading branches flexuous; spikelets 1.1 mm. long, long
pedicellate. Autumnal phase freely branching, forming dense cushions,
the blades becoming involute. Open sandy land, southeastern United States,
Cuba and British Honduras.
BRITISH HoNDURAS. Belize District: Belize, Bartlett 11236. Gracie
Rock Pine Ridge, Gentle 1556.

30. Panicum lancearium Trin. Gram. Pan. 223. 1826.
Perennial; culms densely tufted, erect, purplish, minutely puberulent;
blades mostly 4 to 6 cm. long, 4 to 5 mm. wide, the white cartilaginous mar-
gins scabrous; panicles 3 to 6 cm. long; spikelets asymmetrically pyriform,
pubescent or glabrous; first glume obtuse, clasping, smooth and shining.
Autumnal phase freely branching from the upper nodes, the branches, pani-
cles and blades crowded, much reduced. Sandy pine woods, southeastern
United States, British Honduras, Cuba, and Dominican Republic.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Belize District: Belize, Bartlett 11225. Sibun River,
Peck 425.





THE GRASSES OF BRITISH HONDURAS AND THE PET9N, GUATEMALA 175

31. Panicum viscidelum Scrihn. U. S. Dept. Agr. Div. Agrost. Circ. 19: 2. 1900.
Perennial; culms rather stout, erect to decumbent spreading, densely
pilose, with a glabrous often viscid ring below, the nodes bearded; sheaths
pilose to nearly glabrous; blades subcordate, 4 to 7 cm. long, 5 to 15 mm.
wide, acute, minutely pubescent or sometimes nearly glabrous, the white
cartilaginous margins shortly papillose-ciliate; panicles mostly 8 to 10 cm.
long, the branches ascending, implicate, usually densely flowered, especially
toward the base; spikelets 2 mm. long, pointed, pubescent. Pine woods,
rocky or gravelly banks and open ground, Mexico and Cuba to Colombia.
BRITISH HONDURAS. El Cayo District: Mountain Pine Ridge, Bartlett
11759, 11831.

32. Panicum rudgei Roem. & Schult. Syst. Veg. 2: 444. 1817.
Perennial; culms stout, erect, more or less zigzag, 30 cm. to more than
1 m. tall, papillose-hispid; sheaths overlapping or a little shorter than the
internodes, densely papillose-hispid with spreading hairs; blades 15 to 35 cm.
long, 5 to 8 mm. wide, acuminate, hirsute on both surfaces; panicles terminal
and axillary from the upper sheaths, dense, implicate; spikelets 3 to 3.5 mm.
long, more or less hispid. Savannas and open ground, British Honduras
and Jamaica to Brazil.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Toledo District: Monkey River, Peck 588.

33. Panienm tuerckheimii Hack. Allg. Bot. Zeitschr. 12: 60. 1906.
Perennial; culms erect, as much as 1 m. tall, the nodes appressed hispid;
sheaths as long as or longer than the internodes; blades 10 to 30 cm. long,
1.5 to 2.5 cm. wide, narrowed toward the base, the margins sparsely ciliate
at the base; panicles 15 to 30 cm. long, the branches rather distant, ascend-
ing, the lower ones as much as 15 cm. long; spikelets 3 mm. long, acumi-
nate, glabrous or sparsely pilose, usually in pairs, the first subsessile, the
second with a pedicel 2 to 3 mm. long. River banks, British Honduras and
Guatemala.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Toledo District: Columbia Village, Rio Grande,
S.nart 41.

34. Panicnm hirtum Lam. Encycl. 4: 741. 1798.
Annual; culms appressed-pilose, becoming decumbent spreading, rooting
at the nodes, the branches erect or ascending, 15 to 30 cm. long; sheaths
much shorter than the internodes, pilose; blades thin, cordate, 2 to 6 cm.
long, 8 to 15 mm. wide, sparsely pilose, the margins scabrous, papillose-
ciliate toward the base; panicles 5 to 7 cm. long, pyramidal, the branches
spreading; spikelets 1.2 to 1.4 mm. long, obliquely placed on the pedicels,
papillose-hirsute, the hairs spreading. Moist shady places, British Hon-
duras; Trinidad to Ecuador and Brazil.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Belize District: Maskall, Gentle 979. El Cayo Dis-
trict: Duck Run, Bartlett 11533.

34. ICHNANTHUS Beauv.
Appendages of the lemma well developed.
Culms coarse, trailing, more than 3 m. long; blades attenuate
pointed, 15 to 35 cm. long .---...--... ----.__ 1.. I. mexicanus
Culms relatively slepder, less than 1 m. long; blades acute, 5 to
15 cm long .... ....... ........ ...... _.. ._.. ..... 2. I. standleyi




BOTANY OF THE MAYA AREA


Appendages of the lemma reduced to scars.
Culms cmespitose, erect; blades often petiolate .--...--...--... 3. I. lanceolatus
Culms widely spreading; blades more or less clasping at the base.
Peduncles not long esserted; blades 5 to 10 cm. long____.. 4. I. pallens
Peduncles slender, long esserted; blades 1 to 5 cm. long ..... 5. I. tenuis

1. Ichnanthus mexicanus Fourn. Mex. PI. 2: 34. 1886.
Perennial; culms rather coarse, trailing, more than 3 m. long, glabrous;
sheaths overlapping or a little shorter than the internodes, densely ciliate
on the margins, densely villous especially toward the summit, sometimes
villous only on the collar; blades flat, more or less cordate at the base,
attenuate pointed, 15 to 35 cm. long, 18 to 30 mm. wide (the uppermost
reduced), appressed hispid on the upper surface, pubescent or glabrous on
the lower; panicles 12 to 30 cm. long, densely flowered, the branches in small
fascicles, stiffly ascending, becoming more or less spreading at maturity,
spikelet-bearing from the base, as much as 10 cm. long; spikelets 4 to
4.5 mm. long, short-pedicellate, appressed, solitary or in small clusters;
first glume acute, half to two thirds as long as the spikelets, villous on the
margins and at the apex or sometimes only scabrous; second glume and
sterile lemma equal, scabrous; fruit 3 mm. long, chestnut brown at maturity,
the appendages ovate-oblong, 0.5 mm. long. Moist ground along creeks,
Mexico (Oaxaca) and British Honduras.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Without locality, Kinloch 72.

2. Ichnanthus standleyi Hitchc. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 24: 662. 1930.
Perennial; culms erect or decumbent spreading, freely branching, rooting
at the nodes, the ascending fertile branches 60 to 75 cm. long, compressed,
papillose, appressed-pilose, or nearly glabrous on the lower part; sheaths
shorter than the internodes, glabrous or sparsely pilose, the margins densely
short-ciliate; ligule densely ciliate, 0.5 mm. long; blades ovate-lanceolate
to broadly lanceolate, 5 to 15 cm. long, 1.5 to 3 cm. wide (rarely smaller),
pilose, scabrous, or nearly glabrous, with thick white scabrous margins, the
petiolate base 2 to 4 mm. long; panicles 5 to 15 cm. long, with 3 to 5 stiffly
ascending or spreading racemes, the lowermost 4 to 5 cm. long, the upper-
most less than 1 cm. long, the main axis terminating with a single spikelet;
rachis of racemes rather thick, triangular, scabrous or pubescent; spikelets
6 to 7 mm. long, more or less crowded; first glume equaling or exceeding
the spikelet, acuminate, 3-nerved, the keel scabrous to papillose-hispid, the
margins papillose-ciliate with weak or coarse spreading hairs; second glume
and sterile lemma equal, 5-nerved, the glume sparsely papillose-pilose to
papillose-hispid on the keel and margins, the sterile lemma subglabrous;
fnrit 3 mm. long, white, with appendages 0.5 mm. long.
BRITIsH HONDURAS. El Cayo District: Mountain Pine Ridge, Bartlett
11628, 11685.

3. Ichnanthus lanceolatus Scribn. & Smith, U. S. Dept. Agr. Div. Agrost. Bull. 4: 36.
1897.
Perennial; culms erect or decumbent at the base, 30 to 90 cm. tall; blades
ovate to lanceolate, as much as 11 cm. long and 3 cm. wide, frequently
petiolate; panicle 5 to 15 cm. long, the branches stiffly ascending; spikelets
4 to 4.3 mm. long; first glume acute, clasping, half as long as the spikelet;
second glume and sterile lemma strongly nerved, exceeding the fruit.
Forests and open brushy places, Yucatan Peninsula.





THE GRASSES OF BRITISH HONDURAS AND THE PETEN, GUATEMALA 177

BRITISH HoNDURAS. Corozal District: Corozal, Lundell 4833; Gentle 87.
Orange Walk District: Honey Camp, Lundell 566. Belize District: Pros-
pecto, Gentle 938. El Cayo District: El Cayo, Bartlett 11498.

4. Ichnanthus pallens (Swartz) Munro; Benth. Fl. Hongk. 414. 1861.
Perennial or appearing annual; culms slender, freely branching, widely
spreading, rooting at the nodes; blades lanceolate, 5 to 10 cm. long, 1 to
2 cm. wide, somewhat unsymmetrical, rounded at the base, glabrous or
nearly so; panicles numerous, terminal and axillary, 5 to 10 cm. long, the
branches narrowly ascending; spikelets 3 to 3.5 mm. long, appressed, gla-
brous, the glumes and sterile lemma acuminate; appendages of the fertile
lemma reduced to scars. Forests, thickets, and shady banks, southern
Mexico and the West Indies to Argentina.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Belize District: Manatee Lagoon, Peck 172, 312.
Sibun River, Smart 73. Gracie Rock, Gentle 1584. Stann Creek District:
All Pines, Schipp 784. Toledo District: Rio Grande, Smart 50. Temash
River, Smart 56; Schipp 1375.
GUATEMALA. Peten: Uaxactun, Bartlett 12330. Monte Santa Teresa,
Lundell 2754.

5. Ichnanthus tennis (Presl) Hitchc. & Chase, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 18: 334. 1917.
Annual; culms freely branching, very slender, weak, widely spreading,
rooting at the nodes, the ascending fertile shoots 10 to 20 cm. long; blades
1 to 5 cm. long, 4 to 10 mm. wide, lanceolate, thin, more or less undulate,
pubescent; panicles terminal and axillary the peduncles very slender, usually
long-exserted, the branches rather stiff, widely to narrowly ascending;
spikelets 3 mm. long, acuminate, sparsely pilose, at least on the margins;
first glume attenuate-pointed. Moist shady places, British Honduras and
Trinidad to Colombia.
BRITISH HONDIUAS. El Cayo District: Mountain Pine Ridge, Bartlett
11625, 11626. Belize District: Gracie Rock, Gentle 1599. Stann Creek
District: Sittee River, Schipp 775.

35. LASIACIS (Griseb.) Hitchc.
Culms simple or sparirg!l branched, erect; blades cordate. ................. L. procerrima
Culms much branched, prostrate or clambering; blades not cordate.
Ligule prominent, 2 to 3 mm. long ...............__._. ...._ 2. L. oaxacensis
Ligule inconspicuous, less than 1 mm. long.
Culms prostrate, rooting at the lower nodes ...-_... ...........-...-...- 3. L. grisebachii
Culms clambering, the base erect, not rooting at the lower nodes.
Blades glabrous on both surfaces.
Blades mostly less than 1 cm. wide; panicles 5 to 8 cm. long..-4. L. divaricata
Blades 25 to 4 cm. wide; panicles 15 to 25 cm. Iong .._ ... 5. L. sloanei
Blades pubescent on both surfaces or the upper nearly glabrous.
Culms densely papillose-pilose__... ......... ..... ...... 6. L. papillosa
Culms glabrous or nearly so.
Blades asymmetrical, ovate-lanceolate; panicles compactly flow-
ered, the branches appressed........... .................... 7. L. ruscifolia
Blades symmetrical, lanceolate; panicles loosely flowered, the
branches stiffly spreading_ .......... -___ -_... ...........__8. L. sorghoidea




BOTANY O1 THE MAYA AREA


1. Lasiacis procerrima (Hack.) Hitchc. Proc. Biol. Soc. WashiLgton 24: 145. 1911.
Water bamboo.
Culms erect, simple or sparingly branched, 1.5 to 2 m. tall; sheaths
shorter than the internodes, the margins ciliate; blades mostly 15 to 30 em.
long, 2 to 4 cm. wide, acuminate, cordate at the base, pubescent; panicles
open, 30 to 60 cm. long, the widely spreading branches as much as 40 cm.
long, bearing toward the ends a few short-pedicellate spikelets 3 to 4 mm.
long. Jungle borders, ravines and dry open ground, Mexico to Venezuela.
In British Honduras this grass is used by the Caribs for making brooms.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Belize District: Manatee Lagoon, Peck 107. Gracie
Rock, Gentle 1743. El Cayo District: Mountain Pine Ridge, Bartlett 11623.
Stann Creek District: All Pines, Schipp 785. Carib Reserve, Smart 39.

2. Lasiacis oaxacensis (Steud.) Hitche. Proe. Biol. Soc. Washington 24: 45. 1911.
Plants without strong central canes, the culms slender, branching, creep-
ing or clambering over low brush, as much as 5 m. long; blades narrowly
lanceolate, 10 to 20 cm. long, 1 to 1.5 cm. wide, scabrous on both surfaces;
panicles open, loosely flowered, 10 to 25 cm. long, the branches stiffly ascend-
ing, usually naked below; spikelets 4 mm. long. Thickets, southern Mexico
to Ecuador; also in Jamaica and Hispaniola.
BmTISH HONDURAs. El Cayo District: Little Cocquericot, Lundell 3877.
Toledo District: Columbia Village, Smart 47. Monkey River, Peck 593.
Temash River, Schipp 1368.

3. Lasiacis grisebachii (Nash) Hitchc. Bot. Gas. 51: 302. 1911.
Culms simple or much branched, prostrate, rooting at the lower nodes, the
branches ascending; blades narrowly lanceolate 6 to 12 cm. long, 5 to 10
mm. wide, glabrous or with a few scattered hairs; panicles 4 to 8 cm. long,
the branches few-flowered, stiffly ascending; spikelets 4 mm. long. Rich
woods and thickets, eastern Mexico, British Honduras, Honduras, Guatemala
and Cuba.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Orange Walk District: Honey Camp, Lundell 10, 559,
559a. Belize District: Prospecto, Gentle 866. Manatee Lagoon, Peck 197.
El Cayo District: Between El Cayo and Benque Viejo, Bartlett 11505.
Roaring Creek Lundell 437.
GUATEMALA. Petin: Uaxactun, Bartlett 12190.

4. Lasiacis divaricata (L.) Hitchc. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 15: 16. 1910. Canizo,
Tzenetcho.
Culms clambering, as much as 4 m. long, smooth, freely branching, the
branches often zigzag; blades lanceolate, 5 to 12 cm. long, 5 to 15 mm.
wide, glabrous; panicles pyramidal, mostly 5 to 8 cm. long (rarely as much
as 12 cm.) the few-flowered branches 1 to 3 cm. long, spreading or re-
flexed; spikelets 4 mm. long. Thickets and edges of woods, southern Florida,
Mexico and the West Indies, south to Argentina.
BRITISH- HONDURAS. Corozal District: Corozal, Gentle 103. Port Sal,
Lundell 4904, 4905 (in part). Orange Walk District?: Hillbank Camp,
Pelly 35. Belize District: Manatee Lagoon, Peck 93. El Cayo District:
Roaring Creek, Lundell 437. Stann Creek District: Middlesex, Schipp 332.
GUATEMALA. Pet6n: La Libertad, Lundell 2249, 3548, 4882; Aguilar 19.
El Paso, Lundell 1587. Monte Santa Teresa, Lundell 2734.





THE GRASSES OF BRITISH HONDURAS AND THE PETEN, GUATEMALA 179

5. Lasiacis sloanei (Griseb.) Hitchc. Bot. Gaz. 51: 302. 1911.
Culms widely spreading or clambering with long flowering branches;
blades 8 to 15 cm. long, 1.5 to 3.5 mm. wide, ovate-lanceolate, bright green,
often very glossy; panicles pyramidal, 15 to 25 cm. long, the branches few,
stiffly ascending or spreading, the lower ones often 10 to 12 cm. long;
spikelets 4 to 5 mm. long, second, short-pedicellate, the pedicels appressed.
Dense brush and low woods, Mexico and the West Indies to Colombia.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Orange Walk District: Honey Camp, Lundell 555.
GUATEMALA. Peten: Uaxactun, Bartlett 12129.

6. Lasiacis papillosa Swallen, Carnegie Inst. Wash. Pub. No. 436: 349. 1934.
Culms erect or clambering over brush, 1 to 2 m. long, densely papillose-
pilose with appressed hairs; blades ovate-lanceolate, 2 to 7 cm. long, mostly
10 to 15 mm. wide, conspicuously distichous, those of the young shoots
lanceolate, often much reduced; flowering branches strongly zigzag with
short internodes; panicles 5 to 12 cm. long, the few distant branches stiffly
spreading or reflexed, the lower 3 to 5 cm. long; spikelets 4.5 mm. long.
Brushy borders, southeastern Mexico and British Honduras.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Corozal District: Corozal, Gentle 560. Orange
Walk District: Honey Camp, Lundell 91, 550. Belize District: Maskall,
Gentle 1218.

7. Lasiacis ruscifolia (H.B.K.) Hitchc. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 24: 145. 1911.
Culms stout, usually freely branching; blades firm, asymmetrical, ovate-
lanceolate, mostly 5 to 10 cm. long, 1.5 to 4 cm. wide, clasping at the base,
softly pubescent, especially on the lower surface; panicles compactly flow-
ered, 4 to 10 cm. long (rarely longer); spikelets short-pedicellate, 3.5 to
4 mm. long. Brushy woods, Mexico and the West Indies to Paraguay.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Corozal District: Port Sal, Lundell 4906; Gentle
104, 130. El Cayo District: El Cayo. Bartlett 11522.
GUATEMALA. Peten: Lake Pet6n, Lundell 3861. Yaxha-Remate road,
Lundell 3862.

8. Lasiacis sorghoidea (Desv.) IIitchc. & Chase, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 18: 16. 1917.
Culms coarse, erect or clambering, usually freely branching, glabrous or
rarely somewhat pubescent; blades lanceolate, mostly 10 to 15 cm. long,
1.5 to 3 cm. wide (smaller on the branchlets), softly pubescent below,
pubescent and more or less scabrous above, or rarely nearly glabrous; pri-
mary panicles 15 to 30 cm. long, the branches single or in twos, stiffly ascend-
ing or spreading; spikzelets 4 mm. long, rather short pedicellate, usually
appressed to the branches. Brushy borders, Mexico and the West Indies to
Argentina.
BRITISH HONDURAS. El Cayo District: El Cayo, Bartlett .11960, 12954.

36. SACCIOLEPIS Nash
1. Sacciolepis myuros (Lam.) Chase, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 21: 7. 1908.
Annual; culms erect, mostly 0.5 to more than 1 m. tall; blades flat, elongate,
usually not more than 3 mm. wide; panicles dense, spikelike, 10 to 20 cm.
long, 5 mm. thick; spikelets 2 mm. long, short-pedicellate, obscurely pointed,
the second glume and sterile lemma equal, strongly nerved, sparsely pilose




BOTANY OF THE MAYA AREA


at the tip; first glume rounded, about 1 mm. long. Marshes and wet
savannas, Mexico, Cuba, and Trinidad to Brazil and Bolivia.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Belize District: Belize, Bartlett 11253. Maskall Pine
Ridge, Gentle 1043. Toledo District: Ycacos Lagoon, Peck 901.
37. HYMENACHNE Beauv.
1. Hymenachne amplexicanlis (Rudge) Nees, Agrost. Bras. 276. 1S29.
Perennial; culms coarse, succulent, sparingly branched, often geniculate
and rooting at the lower nodes; blades flat, cordate, 10 to 30 cm. long,
1 to 2.5 cm. wide, the margins scabrous; panicle dense and spikelike, 15 to
30 cm. long, 1 to 2 cm. thick, interrupted below; spikelets acuminate, 3 to
4 mm. long, the first glume 1.5 mm. long, acute, the second glume and
sterile lemma more or less pilose toward the tip. Margins of rivers and
swamps, tropics of both hemispheres.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Belize District: Little Cocquericot, Lundell 3869.
El Cayo District: El Cayo, Bartlett 11456. Stann Creek District: Middle-
sex, Schipp 890.
38. HOMOLEPIS Chase
1. Homolepis aturensis (H.B.K.) Chase, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 24: 146. 1911.
Perennial; culms widely straggling, rooting at the lower nodes, glabrous;
sheaths keeled, usually overlapping, the margins ciliate; blades flat, acumi-
nate, cordate, 8 to 15 cm. long, 8 to 15 mm. wide, glabrous or sparsely
pilose, the margins often ciliate at the base; panicles 5 to 10 cm. long,
the few-flowered branches narrowly ascending or appressed; spikelets 6 to
7 mm. long, acuminate, glabrous, the first and second glume equal, cover-
ing the sterile and fertile lemmas. Woods, thickets and moist open ground,
Mexico to Brazil and Bolivia.
BmRisn HONDxUAS. Belize District: Manatee Lagoon, Peck 45. Gracie
Rock, Gentle 1588, 1629. El Cayo District: Little Cocquericot, Lundell
3878. Stann Creek District: Middlesex, Smart 30. Stann Creek, Schipp
896. Toledo District: Temash River, Smart 54; Schipp 1373.
39. ISACHNE R. Br.
1. Isachne polygonoides (Lam.) Doell in Mart. Fl. Bras. 2?: 273. 1877.
Annual; culms long creeping, branching, rooting at the nodes, the flower-
ing shoots 20 to 30 cm. tall; sheaths 1 to 1.4 cm. long, much shorter than the
internodes, spreading-hispid; blades cordate, spreading, 3 to 5 cm. long,
1 to 1.5 cm. wide, very scabious; panicles about 5 cm. long, included at the
base; spikelets about 1.8 mm. long, glabrous; lower floret staminate, gla-
brous, resembling the glume in texture; upper floret, fertile, indurate, white,
pubescent. Swamps and wet savannas, British Honduras and the West
Indies to Brazil.
BmRITIS HONDURAS. Stann Creek District: All Pines, Schipp 777.
40. OPLISMENUS Beauv.
Plants annual; spikelets densely appressed-pilose ._..__........_... 1. 0. bnrmanni
Plants perennial; spikelets glabrous, or only sparsely short-pilose ... 2. 0. hirtellus

1. Oplismenus burmanni (Retz.) Beauv. Ess. Agrost. 54. 1812.
Annual; culms slender, creeping, rooting at the nodes, mostly 30 to 50 cm.
long; sheaths much shorter than the internodes, spreading-pilose; blades





THE GRASSES OF BRITISH HONDURAS AND THE PETEN, GUATEMALA 181

thin, rounded at the base, pilose on both surfaces, mostly 2 to 6 cm. long,
8 to 14 mm. wide; racemes 3 to 5, approximate, ascending, the rachis densely
hispid-ciliate; spikelets 3 to 4 mm. long, appressed-pilose; awns slender,
1 to 1.5 cm. long, antrorsely scabrous. Open or shady places, Mexico and
the Dominican Republic to Brazil. Introduced from the Old World.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Stann Creek District: All Pines, Schipp 783.

2. Oplismenus hirtellns (L.) Beauv. Ess. Agrost. 54, 168. 1812.
Perennial; culms widely creeping, branching, rooting at the nodes, the
ascending fertile shoots usually 30 to 50 cm. long; blades lanceolate or
ovate-lanceolate, 3 to 10 cm. long, 1 to 2 cm. wide, glabrous; panicles 5
to 10 cm. long, with few to several ascending or spreading racemes, 1 to
2 cm. long; spikelets about 3 mm. long, the awns smooth, the awn of the
first glume 5 to 10 mm. long. Woods and shady banks, Mexico and the West
Indies to Argentina.
BRITISu HONDURAS. Belize District: Maskall Pine Ridge, Gentle 1059.
Gracie Rock, Gentle 1573. Manatee Lagoon, Peck 349. El Cayo District:
El Cayo, Bartlett 11460. Roaring Creek, Lundell 381.
GUATEMALA. Pet6n: Uaxactun, Bartlett 12281. La Libertad, Lundell
2357. El Paso, Lundell 1594. Monte Santa Teresa, Lundell 2706.

41. ECHINOCHLOA Beauv.
1. Echinochloa polystachya (H.B.K.) Hitche. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 22: 135. 1920.
Perennial; culms coarse, decumbent at the base and rooting at the lower
nodes; nodes appressed-hispid; ligule densely hairy, as much as 4 mm. long;
blades flat, 30 to 40 cm. long, 1.5 to 2.5 cm. wide, the margins scabrous;
panicles about 20 cm. long, dense, the rather short branches ascending;
spikelets 5 mm. long, the sterile floret staminate, the awn 2 to 10 mm.
long. Swamps and ditches near the coast, Mexico and the West Indies to
Argentina.
BRITISH HONDURAS. El Cayo District: Little Cocquericot, Lundell 3866.

42. TRICHOLJENA Schrad.
1. Tricholzna rose Nees, "Cat Sem. Hort. Vratisl. a. 1836;" Fl. Afr. Austr. 17. 1841.
Ilhsion de Seda; NATAL GRAss.
Perennial; culms slender, 0.5 to 1 m. tall, more or less decumbent at the
base; sheaths sparsely papillose-hirsute; blades flat, 5 to 15 cm. long, 3
to 5 mm. wide; panicles rosy purple, 10 to 15 cm. long, the slender branches
narrowly ascending to almost spreading; spikelets appearing somewhat
clustered, 5 to 7 mm. long, including the hairs, on rather short, flexuous
pedicels. Open ground, Florida and the West Indies to Colombia and
Brazil. Introduced from Africa.
GUATEMALA. Pet6n: La Libertad, Aguilar 50.

43. SETARIA Beauv.
Bristles below each spikelet 5 or more ...--..-......-......-..-......-..---...-... 2. S. geniculata
Bristles below each spikelet rarely more than one.
Blades 2 to 3.5 cm. wide, narrowed toward both ends; plants perennial.
Panicles dense, spikelike; bristles below all the spikelets ........... 5. S. vulpiseta
Panicles open, the branches long, spreading; bristles below only a
part of the spikelets ............. 1. S. panicnlifera




BOTANY OF THE MAYA AREA


Blades not more than 1 cm. wide, not narrowed toward the base;
plants annual.
Bristles retrorsely scabrous, becoming implicate ... 3. S. tenacissima
Bristles antrorsely scabrous, not implicate- ._.... ..._... _4. S. yucatana

1. Selaria paniculifera (Steud.) Fourn.; Hfemal. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 3: 505. 1885.
Maicillo, Zacate Gamalote.
Perennial; culms robust, 1.5 to 4 m. tall; sheaths papillose-hispid, espe-
cially on the margins and collar; blades flat, plicate, narrowed toward both
ends, scabrous, 0.5 to 1 m. long, mostly 3 to 5 cm. wide; panicles usually
loose and open, 40 to 70 cm. long, the branches compound, as much as
25 cm. long; spikelets comparatively few, 3 mm. long, pointed, glabrous
or obscurely pubescent, the subtending bristles about 15 mm. long. Wet
forests, thickets, and swamps, Mexico and the West Indies to Colombia.
BRITISH HONDURAS. El Cayo District: El Cayo, Bartlett 11944, 11964,
12952. Toledo District: Moho River, Peck 565.
GUATEMALA. Pet6n: La Libertad, Aguilar 153.

2. Setaria geniculata (Lam.) Beauv. Ess. Agrost. 51: 178. 1812. Cola de Gato, Fox TAIL.
Perennial; culms erect or spreading from short knotty rhizomes, 20 cm.
to more than 1 m. tall; blades flat, mostly 5 to 15 cm. long, 4 to 6 mm.
wide; panicles dense, spikelike, usually about 5 cm. long, yellow to reddish
brown; bristles more than 5, 5 to 10 mm. long, scabrous; spikelets 2 to
2.5 mm. long, the fruit conspicuously transversely rugose. Open ground,
cultivated and waste places, United States and the West Indies to Argentina.
Also in the Old World.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Corozal District: San Andres, Lundell 4808. Orange
Walk District: Honey Camp, Lundell 643. Belize District: Manatee Pine
Ridge, Gentle 95. Gracie Rock, Gentle 1605. Stann Creek District: Middle-
sex, Smart 28. Toledo District: Toledo, Peck 491.
GUATEMALA. Pet6n: La Libertad, Aguilar 70.

3. Setaria tenacissima Schrad.; Schult. Mant. 2: 279. 1824.
Annual; culms erect or clambering, 1 to 2 m. tall; blades flat, scabrous
and pubescent, 10 to 15 cm. long, 4 to 6 mm. wide (rarely as much as
1 cm.); panicles 5 to 10 cm. long, somewhat flexuous, the axis pubescent
and sparsely villous; bristles becoming implicate, retrorsely scabrous above,
antrorsely scabrous below, 5 to 10 mm. long; spikelets 1.5 mm. long, purple,
the fertile lemma finely rugose. Brushy hillsides, Central America and the
West Indies to Brazil.
BRITISH HONDURAS. El Cayo District: Mountain Pine Ridge, Bartlett
11585.
4. Setaria yucatana Herrm. Beitr. Biol. Pflanz. 10: 51. 1910.
Annual; culms erect or ascending, sometimes rooting at the lower nodes,
branching, 1 to 1.5 m. tall; sheaths papillose-pilose or only papillose, the
margins ciliate; blades softly pubescent, the margins scabrous, 10 to 25 cm.
long, 5 to 10 mm. wide; panicles oblong, tapering above, 10 to 30 cm. long,
the branches spreading, densely flowered to the base, the lowermost 1 to
3 cm. long; spikelets 1.8 mm. long, the fertile lemma minutely rugose.
Open ground, roadsides and cultivated fields. Known only on the Yucatan
Peninsula.





'AE GRASSES OF BRITISH HONDURAS AND THE PETESN GUATEMALA 183

BRITISH HONDURAS. Corozal District: San Andres, Lundell 4853. Santa
Rita, Lundell 4939.

5. Stearia vulpisela (Lam.) Roem. & Schult. Syst. Veg. 2: 495. 1817.
Perennial; culms coarse, tufted, as much as 2 m. tall; blades often 50 cm.
long, 2 to 3.5 cm. wide, narrowed to both ends, the margins scabrous; pani-
cles 15 to 30 cm. long, the axis densely villous; spikelets 2.5 mm. long, the
fertile lemma coarsely rugose. Open or brushy places, southern Mexico
and the West Indies to Peru and Argentina.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Corozal District: Without locality, Gentle 507. El
Cayo District: El Cayo, Bartlett 12953. Stann Creek District: Stann Creek,
Schipp 373.
44. PENNISETUM L.
1. Pennisetum nervosum (Nees) Trin. Mem. Acad. St. P6tersb. VI. Sci. Nat. 1: 177. 1834.
Perennial; culms usually in clumps, decumbent at the base, 2 to 3 m.
tall; blades elongate, scabrous, 8 to 15 mm. wide; panicles dense, flexuous
at maturity, 12 to 20 cm. long, 12 to 15 mm. thick; spikelets solitary, sessile,
6 to 7 mm. long; bristles slender, scabrous, unequal, 12 to 15 mm. long.
Open or brushy ground, British Honduras; Ecuador and Brazil to Argentina.
BRITISH HONDURAS. El Cayo District: Little Cocquericot, Lundell 3867.

45. CENCHRUS L.
Burs not more than 4 mm. wide, densely crowded in a long spike; first
glume obsolete ... .__... __. ....._....... ...__.._.....- ......._... .... 1. C. brownii
Burs 5 to 7 mm. wide, not crowded; first glume present-.......- .....-....... 2. C. echinatus

1. Cenchras brownii Roem. & Schult. Syst. Veg. 2: 258. 1817. Based on C. inflexus
R. Br., not Poir. 1804.
Cenchrus viridis Spreng. Syst. Veg. 1: 301. 1825.
Annual; culms decumbent at the base and rooting at the lower nodes, 0.5
to 1 m. tall; sheaths compressed keeled; blades flat, thin, 10 to 30 cm.
long, mostly 6 to 8 mm. wide; spikes 4 to 10 cm. long, dense; burs sub-
globose, 4 mm. wide, pubescent, the lobes interlocking, usually bearing 3
spikelets. Open ground and waste places, Florida, Mexico, and the West
Indies to Bolivia and Brazil.
GUATEMALA. Petdn: El Paso, Lundell 1541.

2. Cenchrus echinatus L. Sp. P1. 1050. 1753. Bun-Bnn.
Annual; culms decumbent spreading, usually 30 to 50 cm., sometimes
as much as 1 m. long, compressed, glabrous; blades flat, more or less pilose;
spikes 3 to 10 cm. long; burs scarcely crowded, pubescent, the lobes com-
paratively slender, not interlocking; spikelets 2 to 4 in each bur. Open
ground and waste places, southern United States and the West Indies to
Argentina.
BRITISH HONDURAs. Corozal District: Corozal, Lundell 4733. San
Andres, Gentle 5. Without locality, Gentle 280. Belize District: Belize,
Gentle 52. Stann Creek District: Middlesex, Schipp 893.

46. OLYRA L.
Fertile lemma silky villous at the base and on the margins ... ... 1. 0. yucatana
Fertile lemma glabrous ............ .---.. ......_.. .. .......... ....... 2. 0. latifolia




BOTANY OF THE MAYA AREA


1. Olyra yncatana Chase, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 21: 178. 1908. Carrizo.
Perennial; culms in small clumps, simple, erect, about 1 m. tall; blades
unsymmetrical, 10 to 16 cm. long, 2 to 5 cm. wide; short-petiolate, the
petioles hispid; panicles narrow, terminal and axillary, 5 to 10 cm. long;
staminate spikelets 6 mm. long, purple; pistillate spikelets 15 to 25 mm.
long; fruit 7 mm. long. Rich woods, Yucatan to British Honduras and
Guatemala.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Corozal District: San Antonio, Lundell 4759. Orange
Walk District: Tower Hill Estate, Karling 56. El Cayo District: El Cayo,
Bartlett 11475. Roaring Creek, Lundell 331.
GUATEMALA. Pet6n: El Paso, Lundell 1574. La Libertad, Lundell 3375,
3497. Hiltun, Lundell 3586. Uaxactun, Bartlett 12167; Monte Santa
Teresa, Lundell 2682, 2768.

2. Olyra latifolia L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 2: 1261. 1759. Zit, Carrizo.
Perennial; culms somewhat woody, usually erect, freely branching, as
much as 5 m. long; blades asymmetrical, lanceolate-oblong, as much as
20 cm. long and 5 mm. wide; panicles ovoid, 10 to 15 cm. long, the branches
stiffly ascending or spreading; fruit 5 to 6 mm. long, glabrous. Rich woods,
Mexico and the West Indies to Bolivia and Brazil.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Orange Walk District: Tower Hill Estate, Karling
38. Belize District: Manatee Lagoon, Peck 109. Maskall, Gentle 1020.
Gracie Rock, Gentle 1639. El Cayo District: Little Cocquericot, Lundell
3874. Roaring Creek, Lundell 331. El Cayo, Bartlett 11566. Duck Run,
Bartlett 11538. Mountain Pine Ridge, Bartlett 11850. Stann Creek Dis-
trict: Stann Creek Valley, Kinloch 177, 179. Cockscomb Mountains, Schipp
531. Toledo District: Toledo, Peck 533. Without locality, Peck 609.
GUATEMALA. Pet6n: La Libertad, Lundell 3610; Aguilar 47.

47. LITHACHNE Beauv.
1. Lithachne pauciflora (Swartz) Beauv. in Poir. Dict. Sci. Nat. 27: 60. 1823.
Perennial; culms tufted, slender, woody, 30 to 50 cm. tall, more or less
geniculate below at the enlarged grooved nodes; lower sheaths bladeless;
blades flat, asymmetrical, acuminate, 5 to 8 cm. long, 1.5 to 2.5 cm. wide,
the margins scabrous; panicles terminal and axillary, the terminal wholly
staminate, the axillary composed of a single terminal pistillate spikelet,
and 1 to several staminate spikelets below it; second glume and sterile lemma
of the pistillate spikelet equal, attenuate, about 1 cm. long; fruit 4 to 5 mm.
long, triangular, white and shining. Moist rich woods, Mexico and the
West Indies to Argentina.
BRITISH HONDURAS. El Cayo District: El Cayo, Bartlett 11492. Toledo
District: Toledo, Peck 507.
GUATEMALA. Pet6n: La Libertad, Lundell 2328, 3863.

48. IMPERATA Cyrillo
1. Imperata contract (H.B.K.) Fitchc. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 4: 146. 1893.
Perennial; culms erect from strong rhizomes, 1 to 1.5 m. tall; blades elon-
gate, about 1 cm. wide, acuminate, narrowed toward the base to little more
than the midrib, ciliate and pilose on the upper surface at the base, the
margins scabrous; panicles silky, as much as 40 cm. long, the short branches





THE GRASSES OF BRITISH HONDURAS AND THE PETEN, GUATEMALA 185

somewhat spreading. Meadows and open grassland, Mexico and the West
Indies to Brazil and Chile.
GUATEMALA. Pet6n: Kantetul, Lundell 3167.

49. SACCHARUM L.
1. Saccharuin officinarum L. Sp. PI. 54. 1753. SucGARANE.
Perennial; culms stout, tall, short-jointed, with broad blades and large
feathery panicles. Cultivated throughout tropical regions.

50. ANDROPOGON L.
Racemes solitary on each peduncle.
Annual; culms widely spreading .....-..--_. ..__- .._._1. A. brevifolius
Perennial; culms csespitose, erect
Spikelets awned; racemes 2 to 8 cm. long.
Racemes few, straight, not conspicuously villous .. .. 2. A. semiberbis
Racemes numerous, flexuous, villous, crowded in a dense
plumelike inflorescence .....-.. ....... ..... ................ .....3. A. condensatus
Spikelets awnless; racemes about 1 cm. long ....-.. 4. A. virgatus
Racemes 2 to 5 on each peduncle.
Racemes numerous, aggregate (except in A. virginicus) in a dense
plumelike inflorescence.
Spikelets awned.
Racemes much shorter than the spathes; inflorescence open....5. A. virginicus
Racemes usually exceeding the spathes; inflorescence dense.. 6. A. glomeratus
Spikelets awnless _-. ..... ................ ...- .. .. ......- 7. A. bicornis
Racemes few, not aggregate.
Ligule 2 mm. long; tips of the blades acute. ...._ ...... 8. A. leueostachyus
Ligule less than 1 mm. long; tips of the blades boat-shaped 9. A. selloanus

1. Andropogon brevifolius Swartz, Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 26. 1788.
Annual; culms slender, compressed, freely branching, widely creeping,
6 cm. to more than 1 m. long; blades flat, abruptly pointed, 1 to 5 cm. long,
1 to 4 mm. wide; racemes solitary, 1 to 2 cm. long; spikelets 3 mm. long,
scabrous, the awns about 1 cm. long, geniculate, tightly twisted below the
bend. Brushy slopes, banks and open ground, tropical regions of both
hemispheres.
BRITISH HONDURAS. El Cayo District: Mountain Pine Ridge, Bartlett
11826.

2. Andropogon semiberbis (Nees) Kunth, Rev. Gram. 1: Suppl. XXXIX. 1830.
Perennial; culms tufted, erect 0.5 to 1.5 m. tall; blades flat, acute, 10 to
20 cm. long, 2 to 5 mm. wide; racemes solitary, few, erect, 4 to 8 cm. long;
rachis and sterile pedicel ciliate toward the summit; sessile spikelet 5 to
6 mm. long, the first glume glabrous; awn 1 cm. long, geniculate, twisted
below. Dry or rocky hills and plains, Florida, eastern Mexico and the West
Indies to Argentina.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Belize District: Manatee Lagoon, Peck 282. El
Cayo District: Mountain Pine Ridge, Bartlett 11695.

3. Andropogon condensatus HB1.K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1: 188. 1816.
Perennial; culms densely tufted, erect, 1 to 1.5 m. tall; blades rather firm,
15 to 25 cm. long, 3 to 10 mm. (usually about 5 mm.) wide; inflorescence
15 to 40 cm. long, the branches aggregate, appressed to somewhat spreading;




BOTANY OF THE MAYA AREA


racemes becoming conspicuously flexuous or tortuous, 2 to 3 cm. long, usually
partly enclosed in the short, narrow spathes; spikelets about 3.5 mm. long,
the awns delicate, geniculate, 1 cm. long. Open ground, Mexico and the
West Indies to Argentina.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Belize District: Manatee Lagoon, Peck 59. El Cayo
District: Duck Run, Bartlett 11528.
GUATEMALA. Peten: Kantetul, Lundell 3169. La Libertad, Lundell 2374.

4. Andropogon rirgatua Desv.; Hamilt. Prodr. P1. Ind. Occ. 9. 1825.
Perennial; culms tufted, relatively slender, 1 to 2 m. tall; sheaths much
shorter than the internodes; blades flat or loosely rolled, rather firm, 10
to 20 cm. long, 2 to 4 mm. wide, more or less villous on the upper surface
at the base; inflorescence narrow, dense, not silky, the branchlets numerous,
crowded; racemes solitary, few-flowered, partly enclosed in the short, com-
paratively broad spathes, 1 cm. long; spikelets 3 to 4 mm. long, awnless.
Open wet prairies, British Honduras and the West Indies to Brazil.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Belize District: Manatee Lagoon, Peck 54. Belize,
Bartlett 11237. El Cayo District: Mountain Pine Ridge, Bartlett 11611,
11781.
5. Andropogon virginicus L. Sp. Pl. 1046. 1753.
Perennial; culms densely tufted, 1 to 1.5 m. tall; lower leaves crowded in
a conspicuous basal cluster, the sheaths flattened, keeled, the blades elongate,
2 to 4 mm. wide; upper sheaths much shorter than the internodes; in-
florescence nearly half the length of the culm; racemes usually paired,
slender, flexuous, more or less included in the broad, rather conspicuous
spathes; rachis and pedicels villous; sessile spikelet 3 to 4 mm. long, the
awn straight, delicate, 1 to 1.5 cm. long. Open ground, southern United
States to Panama and the West Indies.
BRITISH HONDUAIS. Belize District: Manatee Lagoon, Peck 150.

6. Andropogon glomeratus (Walt.) B.S.P. Prel. Cat. N. Y. 67. 1888.
Perennial; culms in dense clumps, erect, 0.5 to 1.5 m. tall; lower sheaths
broad, keeled, much overlapping, usually pilose at least on the margins;
blades firm, flat or folded, linear, 3 to 5 mm. wide; inflorescence dense, plume-
like; racemes in pairs, slender, flexuous, 1.5 to 3 cm. long, villous; spikelets
3 to 4 mm. long, the awns delicate, straight, about 15 mm. long. Open often
wet ground, southern United States and the West Indies to northern South
America.
BRiTIsH HONDURAS. Corozal District: Corozal, Gentle 107, 134. Corozal-
Orange Walk road, Lundell 4902. Orange Walk District: Honey Camp,
Lundell 428. Tower Hill Estate, Karling 55.
GUATEMALA. Peten: La Libertad, Lundell 2482, 3482.

7. Andropogon bicornis L. Sp. PI. 1046. 1753. Zacaton.
Perennial, usually coarse; culms tufted, erect, 1 to 2 m. tall; blades firm,
elongate, 2 to 5 mm. wide, the margins serrate; inflorescence large, com-
pound, the numerous branches crowded, forming a white or tawny plume;
racemes paired, 2 to 3 cm. long, slender, flexuous, on long, slender peduncles,
the spathes inconspicuous; spikelets about 2.5 mm. long, awnless. Open
hillsides, swamps, and grassy places, southern Mexico and the West Indies
to Argentina.





THE GRASSES OF BRITISH HONDURAS AND THE PETEN, GUATEMALA 187

BRITISH HONDURAS. Stann Creek District: Middlesex, Smart 25. All
Pines, Schipp 654.
GUATEMALA. Pet6n: Lake Zotz, Lundell 3316. La Libertad, Aguilar 268.
8. Andropogon lencostachyus IHB.K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1: 187. 1816.
Perennial; culms slender, densely tufted, erect, 25 to 70 cm. tall; lower
sheaths crowded, flattened, keeled; blades usually flat, I to 3 mm. wide
(mostly 2 mm.), acute; racemes densely villous, usually paired, (some-
times 3), the pairs scattered, the slender peduncles long-exserted, the spathes
small, inconspicuous; spikelets 3 mm. long, awnless, obscured by the long
silky hairs. Open usually dry fields, hillsides, and pine ridges, southern
Mexico and the West Indies to Argentina.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Belize District: Belize River, Smart 36. Manatee
Lagoon, Peck 116.
GUATEMALA. Pet6n: La Libertad, Lundell 2396.
9. Andropogon selloanus (Hack.) Hack. Bull. Herb. Boiss. II. 4: 266. 1904.
Resembling A. leucostachyus; blades rather short, 3 to 5 mm. wide; the
tips boat-shaped; ligule short; racemes 3 to 5, rather more densely villous,
tawny. Dry wooded hills and open banks, British Honduras and the West
Indies to Paraguay.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Belize District: Baker's Pine Ridge, Lundell 3788.
GuATEMALA. Pet6n: Sabana Zotz, Lundell 3596.
51. CYMBOPOGON Spreng.
1. Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. Kew Bull. Misc. Inf. 1906: 322. 1906. Te de
Limon, LEMON GRASS.
Perennial; culms in dense clumps with numerous leafy sterile shoots;
blades elongate, 5 to 15 mm. wide, scabrous on the margins. Not known to
flower in America. Introduced from the Old World, and commonly planted
for its strong lemon scent.
GUATEMALA. Pet6n: La Libertad, Aguilar 42.

52. HYPARRHENIA Anderss.
1. Hyparrhenia rufa (Nees) Stapf in Prain, Fl. Trop. Afr. 9: 304. 1918.
Perennial; culms erect, usually in small clumps, 1 to 2.5 m. tall; blades
flat, linear, mostly 2 to 5 mm. wide; racemes paired, 2 to 3 cm. long, nu-
merous, the peduncles slender. flexuous, long-exserted; rachis joints and the
pedicel of the sterile spikelet pilose on the margins with rufous hairs;
spikelets 4 mm. long, the glumes more or less pilose; pedicellate spikelet
awnless, the sessile with a twice geniculate awn about 15 mm. long. Moist
open ground in tropical regions, Guatemala to Brazil and Venezuela. Intro-
duced from Africa.
GUATEMALA. Pet&n: La Libertad, Aguilar 240.
53. SORGHUM Moench
1. Sorghum,.vulgare Pers. Syn. P1. 1: 101. 1805. Maicillo; SoRaGHM.
Annual; culms coarse, with broad, flat, smooth blades, and dense heavy
panicles. Warm regions of both hemispheres. Sometimes cultivated for
forage and the seeds for human food. Commonly used "para hacer dulces
y atolillos." Warm regions of both hemispheres.
GUATEMALA. Pet6n: La Libertad, Aguilar 35, 90.





BOTANY OF THE MAYA AREA


54. TRACHYPOGON Nees
Spikelets rather distant, the conspicuous white callus hairs contrasting
with the usually dark purple glumes; awns short-hispid; ligule
mostly 3 to 10 mm. long ..-. ...... .. .... ........ -....... T. montufari
Spikelets crowded, pale, the callus hairs inconspicuous; awns dis-
tinctly plumose; ligule not more than 1.5 mm. long _-.......... 2. T. angustifolius

1. Trachypogon montufari (H.BIC.) Nees, Agrost. Bras. 342. 1829.
Perennial; clums tufted, erect, 30 cm. to more than 1 m. tall; nodes ap-
pressed-hispid; blades flat or subinvolute, attenuate-pointed, 8 to 30 cm.
long, not more than 5 mm. wide (usually less); racemes solitary (rarely
paired), 8 to 15 cm. long; spikelets about 1 cm. long; glumes pubescent,
dark purple; awns 3 to 5 cm. long, twice geniculate, appressed-hispid, the
hairs short. Dry rocky hills and waste places, Mexico to Ecuador.
BRITISH HONDURAS. El Cayo District: Mountain Pine Ridge, Bartlett
11785.

2. Trachypogon angustifolius (H.B.K.) Nees; Hack. DC. Monog. Phan. VI: 326. 1889.
Pajon.
Perennial; culms slender, erect, 40 to 80 cm. tall; sheaths glabrous or the
lower ones sparsely pilose; blades 5 to 20 cm. long (usually about 10 cm.),
1 to 3 mm. wide; ligule not more than 1.5 mm. long; racemes solitary (or
rarely paired), 8 to 12 cm. long; fertile spikelets 8 mm. long; glumes pale,
pubescent below, glabrous or nearly so above; awns 3 to 4.5 cm. long,
plumose to the second bend, sometimes throughout. Sandy prairies and
rocky hills, Mexico to Colombia; also in Bolivia and Uruguay.
One of the dominant grasses of open well-drained grasslands of central
Petdn.
BRITISH HONDURAS. El Cayo District: Mountain Pine Ridge, Bartlett
11746. 11747. Belize District: Manatee Lagoon, Peck 139. Gracie Rock,
Gentle 1646.
GUATEMALA. Petin: La Libertad, Lundell 2306, 2392, 2467. Sabana
Zotz, Lundell 3595.

55. ISCHIEMUM L.
1. Ischaemmum latifolium (Spreng.) Kunth, R6v. Gram. 1: 168. 1829.
Annual; culms freely branching, decumbent, widely spreading, or sub-
erect, rooting at the lower nodes, as much as 3 m. long; blades 10 to 20 cm.
long, 1 toe3 cm. wide, acuminate, narrowed toward the base, the margins
scabrous; racemes 4 to 8 cm. long, few to several, aggregate on the short
axis. Brushy slopes, pine woods, and open banks, Mexico and the West
Indies to Ecuador and Brazil.
BaITISH HoNDURas. Belize District: Sibun River, Bartlett 11398, Gentle
1442. Manatee Lagoon, Peck 254; Smart 61. El Cayo District: Mountain
Pine Ridge, Bartlett 11843. Stann Creek District: New Town, Schipp 897.

56. HACKELOCHLOA Kuntze
1. Hackelochloa granularis (L.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 2: 776. 1891.
Annual; culms slender, freely branching; sheaths conspicuously hispid;
blades flat, mostly 5 to 10 cm. long, 5 to 10 mm. wide; racemes solitary,
numerous, short, single from each bract; rachis joint and sterile pedicel






THE GRASSES OF BRITISH HONDURAS AND THE PETEN, GUATEMALA 189

grown together; spikelets awnless, the sessile one brown, globose with an
alveolate first glume, the pedicellate staminate, green, the first glume lancco-
late, scabrous. A common weed in open grassy places in tropical regions.
BRITISH HONDURAS. Toledo District: Toledo, Peck 653.

57. TRIPSACUM L.
Blades I to 2 cm. wide.. .......1. T. dactyloides
Blades 3 to 6 cm. wide ........2. T. latifolium

1. Tripsacum dactyloides (L.) L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 2: 1261. 1759.
Differing from T. latifolium chiefly in having narrower blades, 1 to 2 cm.
wide. Open ground, eastern United States and the West Indies to Para-
guay and Bolivia.
GUATEMALA. Pet6n: La Libertad, top of limestone hill, Lundell 2836
(specimen without inflorescence).

2. Tripsacum latifolium Hitchc. Bot. Gaz. 41: 294. 1906.
Perennial; culms coarse, 2 to 4 m. tall; blades flat, long-acuminate, nar-
rowed below into a long petiole-like base, 70 cm. to more than 1 m. long.
2.5 to 6 cm. wide, the margins serrate; inflorescence moncecious, composed
of one or more spikelike racemes, the pistillate spikelets below, embedded in
the articulate rachis, the staminate ones above. Rocky slopes, Mexico and
Central America.
BRITISH HONDURAS. El Cayo District: Mountain Pine Ridge, Bartlett
11888. Toledo District: Yeacos Lagoon, Peck 703.

58. ZEA L.
1. Zea mays L. Sp. PI. 971. 1753. xiim; M.uz.
Annual; culms coarse, tall, with broad, flat, recurved blades; staminate
inflorescence terminal, composed of numerous, drooping, one-sided, spikelike
racemes; pistillate inflorescence axillary, the spikelets arranged in rows
around a thickened, woody axis, the whole enclosed in numerous leaf-like
bracts.
Commonly cultivated in warm and temperate regions.




CARNEGIa INST. WASICNGTOXN I'P 461 (IX)-Swallen


Ory:a aHla Swallen. Basal part of type specimen, Swallen 5116, collected
at Obidos, Para, Brazil.


PLATE 1


h




C.UtNEaI INST. WASHIN('TON PUB. 461 (LX)-Swallen


/


Oryza alia Swallen. Upper part of type specimen, Swallen 5116, collected
at Obidos, Para, Brazil.


PLATE 2




CARNEGIE INST. WVASHINGTON PUB. 461 (LX)-Swallon


4]
















/









Ichnanthus me.icanus Fourn. Kinlock 72, collected in British Honduras. This species
was described from fragmentary material collected in Oaxaca, Mexico (Liebmann 457).
The habit was unknown, but this specimen shows that the plant is a long trailing grass.


PLATE 3





CARBNa I INST. WASIIINTON PLB. 461 (IX)-Swallen


S Iclhnanthus standleyi Hitchc. Bartlett 11685, collected on Mountain Pine Ridge, El Cayo
District. British Honduras. This species was originally described from depauperate plants
collected in Honduras by Paul C. Standley (No. 56207). This specimen shows the true
character of the species.


PLATE 4




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