HAT 3564, Haitian Culture and Society
The Taino period
1625 "marauding bands"
1697 Rijswick (French-Spanish treaty)
1783-1789 Production doubles due to massive slave imports... the colony
marches towards its doom
1791-1804 Haitian Revolution; conventional & unconventional war
Slave labor and French capital
L 'exclusif= Dependence on the metropolis no free trade
Sugar and coffee
500,000 slaves = "black" (North) [2/3 born in Africa in 1791!!!]
n6g krey6l esklav kay (domestic)
n6g bosal esklav espesyalize (skilled)
n6g mawon esklav jaden (field)
40,000 colonists ="white" (North)
governor general = military leader
grands blancs = wanted some free trade
petits blancs and "blan mannan"
30,000 affranchis ="yellow, brown and black" (South) = RED
Mulatto affranchis versus black affranchis
(In 1791 much of the South and its slaves was owned by
Causes and conditions: "the racial prejudice of the whites led to color
prejudice on the part of the mulattoes"
Types of colonial slavery:
A) "Paternalistic" / small-scale slavery in Hispanic societies
B) "Industrial slavery" in Saint Domingue (Haiti's former name) =
The prevailing philosophy was that cruelty and torture increased
productivity in the context industrial slavery.
Haitian Culture and Society
Take turns with a partner reviewing these questions:
1. Describe "slaves."
2. Describe the "whites."
3. Describe the "affranchis."
4. Describe the "maroons" [mawon] and marronage.
5. Columbus' encounter with the Tainos.
6. The concept of forced conversion and Roman Catholic
complicity in slavery.
7. The use of torture by the French.
8. The buccaneers andflibustiers.
9. Describe how slavery grew in Haiti, especially between 1750-
10. What was the role of poison in Saint Domingue?
11. How did the notion of "propriertorship" develop among the
12. Who was the commandeur?
13. What were some of the characteristics of white society?
14. What was petit marronage?
From Castaldo 2006:38-39; Miller 2008:28:
Code Noir, 1685
1. "... [we] enjoin all of our officers to chase from our said islands all the
Jews who have established their residence, to whom, as to the declared
enemies of the Christian name [du non chretien], we command to
leave from them within three months of the publication of the present,
at risk of having bodies and wealth confiscated."
2. "All the slaves who will be on our islands will be baptized and
instructed in the Roman Catholic and Apostolic religion. [...]"
3. "We ban all public exercise of any religion except the Roman Catholic
and Apostolic religion. We wish that the infractors be punished as
rebels and disobediant to our commandments [...]." [My translations].
Please give to M6decins Sans Fronti6res (http://www.msf.orq/)
for Haitian relief.
Dessalines 1804 1806
War hero turned ruthless dictator
Hated all whites of French descent and he rounded them up for execution
State-run agriculture; plantation life and serfdom.
His egalitarianism and land redistribution angered mulattoes.
Assassinated, in part, because he threatened to redistribute late seized by
Henri Christophe 1807 1820
The Northern Kingdom
Black dominated government and elite
Citadelle La Ferriere built with forced labor and huge death rate
Alexandre Petion 1806 1819
President of the South
Rejected forced labor on plantations
Mulatto dominated government and elite
Distributed state land for political purposes (10,000 recipients)
Presided over the foundation of the Haitian peasantry = LAND
This involved the dissolution of the plantation society
Jean-Pierre Boyer 1820 1844
Unified the island or Invaded Spanish territory?
Agreed to "repay" France in payment for Haiti's independence. France
demanded exorbitant payments.
Rapid rise and fall of presidents in the 19th and 20th centuries
U.S. Occupation 1915 1935
Death of the 19th century Haitian military tradition
The spawning of the new military, arbiter of political control
Lescot Estim6 Magloire -
Frangois Duvalier 1957 1971... Jean-Claude Duvalier 1971 1986
The Duvaliers presidential militia, the Tonton Makout, eventually exceed the
military in membership, influence and acts of violence in Haiti
The Haitian left still calls elements of the right makout and makoutis to
Topics for discussion:
1. Discuss how the urban elite has made its money over the centuries.
2. How can one explain/understand Haiti's persistent race problems?
Reaction: "Yes what can be more absurd than such [anti-black racism
from mulattos] pretention and prejudice, when, but two generations
removed, their mothers were African slaves" St. John, 1884.
3. Discuss Christophe's kingdom and his accomplishments. At what costs?
4. Graham Greene's impressions of Haiti (60-61).
5. Violence under Francois (Papa Doc) / Jean-Claude (Baby Doc) Duvalier.
6. How did Duvalier "tame the Vatican"?
7. What are key events in the history of the Haitian army and the "Garde"?
8. Blood money: selling Haitian blood and cadavers.
9. How is political power established and removed in Haitian history?
Nichols 27 43
Og and Chavannes
Affranchis = "Freed people"
1. Anciens libres = predominantly mulatto
2. Nouveaux libres = predominantly black
Different economic and political interests (and historical experiences) undermined mulatto
and black relations
Toussaint versus Rigaud
Dessalines / Christophe versus P6tion
Leclerc arrives in 1802 with 5,000 French troops.
Vodou allowed the African past to be perpetuated and provided an instrument of solidarity
Placage versus Marriage: Examples of Peasant and Elite Practices
Haitian elites are sensitive over marriage because of inheritance: money and land
Individuals are concerned about jeopardizing family status/prestige.
Placage extramarital unions of respectable people
Requires no civil or religious formality
Place (common law wife) has complete control of farm in husband's absence. But, the
man chooses his wife, owns the land, and prepares land when he pleases...
Man and woman in Haiti are economic partners in a struggle for existence
Women outnumber men in Haiti today 6 women to 4 men...
Elites marry; peasants use plagage = an important split
5 generations of marriage in the family.
Parental consent needed for marriage.
Certificate of civil marriage required before a religious marriage.
Status of women in the Haiti of the 1940s
Women had to receive consent from husbands to buy and sell land.
Could not vote or hold public office.
It is tabou for elite women to do manual labor.
Husband freer in sexual life
Law specifies that adultery is a cause for divorce for men; but only for women if"he shall
bring his concubine into the common dwelling" (192)
Religion in the early history of Haiti:
The state allows NO DOMINANT RELIGION
ALL CHILDREN ARE LEGITIMATE (in or outside of wedlock)
Real family values
Freedom of DIVORCE established
Recognizes the Catholic Church in his CONSTITUTION of
Article 37: "If in the course of time other religions are introduced, no person
shall be hindered, so long as he conforms to the laws, in following the cult
[religion] he [or she] has chosen."
These are ENLIGHTENED and TOLERANT LAWS... but:
He repealed Dessalines' laws protecting 'illegitimate' children and divorce on
Provides Vodou with room to grow...
70 (non-Roman) Haitian Catholic priests in 1840
Pe savann occupation takes off
Assured the independence of Haitian Catholicism till this day
Methodists and Baptists earliest Protestants
Boyer (and the entire political class) strive to heal the Haiti-Rome conflict:
Recognition by Rome meant LEGITIMACY
President Soulouque the Vodouist president 1847 1859
President Geffrard overcomes the schism in 1860
In 1930, 70 years after the CONCORDAT, Haiti has 206 priests (8 Haitian),
105 Brothers and 366 Sisters for 2,652,290 Haitians...
Authoritarian, Haitian influence
'Nationalist s' (but still + French
-Duvalier, Papa & Baby
Aristocratic, French influence...
Parliamentary / 'Liberals'
-Pr6val (1996-2001; 2006 present)
Questions for sharing from Arthur 69 85.
1. How does the excerpt portray smugglers?
2. Describe the modem elite; how did it view Aristide?
3. What factor has changed the traditional power struggle
between landowners and the merchant capitalists? How did
this new group damage landowners?
4. What is an oligarchy?
5. What kind of relationship did the "monopolist faction" have
with the Duvalier dictatorship?
6. What did the Aristide government demand from the business
7. Describe the coup d'6tat of Septermber 29th, 1991.
8. What was a major setback for Haitian peasants in the early
Questions from 80-100 [Quiz on Friday]
1. How would you describe Haitian agriculture? [smallholdings]
2. What percentage depend on it? [70%]
3. How does the book describe Haiti's climates? [microclimates]
4. What is a madan sara/revendeuse, what is her importance?
5. Describe a successful peasant's typical land holdings. Why is this
significant? [dispersed/promotes plasay]
6. What is a great threat to Haiti? [deforestation, desertification]
7. What was a major setback for Haitian peasants in the early
8. What is a k6ve 'corvee' / konbit 'combite' and who is the sanba
9. Describe women's work in Haiti. How do they augment the
10. What is plentiful [labor] and scarce [capital] in Haiti's labor
11. What conflict exists in Haiti's coffee trade? What are
speculators? What was the Duvalier link to coffee?
12. Why is land invasion so common in Haiti?
13. What is the story of the pig > goat > cow > chicken and
human beings in Haiti? (Anglade)
Quiz Arthur, p. 69-85
1. 'Lakou' (= the courtyard) is a 'social organization' (a) True (b) False (80)
2. Men do all the selling of surplus crops in rural Haiti. (a) True (b) False (81)
3. A de facto owner paid for the land he or she farmed. (a) True (b) False (82)
4. Individual land-holdings have decreased over time in Haiti. (a) True (b) False (83)
5. This illness afflicted which animal in Haiti in the early 1980s?
(a) Chickens (b) Swine (c) Cows
6. What does "the Haitian oligarchy" refer to? (a) politicians (b) families
7. There was a slaughter after the coup d 'tat of which leader? (a) Duvalier (b) Aristide
NEW READING FOR MONDAY! Karen Richman is coming!
Prepare 2 questions for her based on the reading.
Questions for group discussion
1. What are the roots of the Haitian people?
2. Why was and is Haiti independent but divided?
3. What is the new interior and why is it new? What should
everybody know about Haitian topography/geography and how
it relates to Haiti's evolution as a nation?
4. Why is Haiti struggling with deforestation?
5. What are some problems between the D.R. and Haiti?
6. What exciting technological changes are bringing Haiti closer
to the rest of the world?
7. Describe the slave trade according to James.
8. What was the only exposure to literacy that the slaves
Quiz: Rural Haiti (Arthur 80-100)
1. Madan Sara is a:
a. woman who sells b. man who sells c. type of soldier
2. A 'konbit / coumbite' is:
a. voluntary collective labor b. compelled / required collective labor c. labor union
3. Successful peasants own:
a. tiny and widely-dispersed plots. b. large and concentrated plots. c) plantain trees
4. Haiti was stripped of this valuable tree in the 19th century:
a. Live Oak b. Teak c. Mahogany
5. A major set-back for farmers in the 1980s was
a. a drought b. yellow fever c. U.S. occupation d. African swine fever
6. The singing leader of a konbit / coumbite is the
a. lambi/lanbi b. corv6e/k6ve c. simidor/simid6
7. In Marbial, Haiti (1957), women did not carry out day to day maintenance of the fields:
a. True b. False
8. Girls are forbidden from going to the market place:
a. True b. False
9. Who does not want road improvements in Haiti's coffee business?
a. Growers b. Speculators
Chose the animal that best reflects the livestock and size of land holdings of the given period:
a. Goat b. Chicken c. Pig
a. Goat b. Chicken c. Pig
a. Goat b. Chicken c. Pig
13. 'Behind mountains there are
a. still b. mountains c. pastor d. 'witchdoctor'/Vodou priest
14. 'The is dancing; he's looking in his bag'
a. still b. mountains c. pastor d. 'witchdoctor'/Vodou priest
15. Money never goes to the house to return'
a. still b. mountains c. pastor d. 'witchdoctor'/Vodou priest
16. 'Staying is the body's medicine.'
a. still b. mountains c. pastor d. 'witchdoctor'/Vodou priest
17. 'Better to be a in paradise than a chief in hell.'
a. still b. mountains c. pastor d. 'witchdoctor'/Vodou priest
18. What kind of farming did French & Spanish colonists employ in Hispaniola?
a. polyculture b. monoculture c. hunter/gatherer
19. Percentage of Haiti covered by forest in 1986:
a. 100% b. 23% c. 7% d. 1.5%
20. This is the economic activity of the last resort:
a. pig-raising b. forestry c. charcoal d. re-selling
Nichols, 57 66
1. Match the concepts of "military oligarchy" and "military
autocracy" with the North (Christophe) or the South (P6tion).
Explain the terms.
2. What kind of arguments did the respective (North vs. South)
3. Describe the balance of power in the respective governments.
4. How does Nicholls characterize the struggle between the North
and the South?
5. What are some highlights and low-points of Boyer's long rule
6. What were the consequences of the indemnity? What would
you have done if you were in Boyer's shoes?
7. The U.S. occupied Haiti. Talk about Haiti's occupation of...
and why is Mackenzie's comment included on p. 64?
- Oligarchy is a form of government through a few wealthy/noble families (adellike
families); family rule
- Autocracy, autocraat is een "heerser die alle staatsmacht in zich verenigt"
Nichols, 67-87. Pride and prejudice
1. Boyer presided over a peaceful 2 decades
2. The color issue is used by mulatto and black to seek and justify power
3. Military government
4. Mid-1820s Haiti's population is 800,000 with an army of 32,000 soldiers
5. Boyer's "Rural Code" attempts to attach workers to the land and end vagrancy.
6. Vodou has always has always inspired passion, positive and negative.
7. Several Haitian leaders played Voodoo into their plea to have Vatican return.
8. Black or mulatto leader executed opponents
9. Boyer's downfall was blamed on "corruption," "nepotism," and racism.
10. The piquet leader Acaau denounced Boyer as an Black oppressor. Acaau wanted to
confiscate land and distribute it among the poor.
11. La politique de doublure.
12. La politique de doublure and the rise of Soulouque. Black ruler, open to Voodoo.
13. The paramilitary zenglen [zinglins] as the roots of the tonton makout.
14. Geffrard and the Concordat of 1860.
15. Geffrard invested in a Medical School, a Law School and a few lycees.
16. By the late 19th century, the leaders of 1804 became politicized and symbolic on racial
James "The Property", pt. 2
la. Describe the transatlantic "Middle Passage" for the West African slaves.
Ib. What did slaves do on Sundays and holidays?
2. What kind of things occur today that come from slavery?
3. Why were women typically sterile upon arrival in Saint-Domingue?
4. What kind of absolute refusal did the slaves use?
5. What was the place of Vodou in the colony?
6. Who were the 'privileged' slaves?
7. What do we learn about Christophe & Toussaint in this reading?
8. How much did the maroons grown between 1721 & 1750?
9. Who was the Abbey Raynal?
Arthur 111 131 ~ Poverty
Prior to the earthquake!
-Lowest school enrollment Using a minority language among a
-138/1,000 complete secondary ed. majority! Ex.: German in the U.S.
-High illiteracy (approx. 50%)
-Population growth + medical science (longevity + overcrowding)
-Rural exodus... Jan 12th 2010... Port-au-Prince exodus
-Deforestation > drought > hunger > foreign dependency
- Potable water shortages [But see "Water for Life"
-'Bidonvil yo,' e.g. Cite Soleil where 8 people per room live & have sleeping
-The rural exodus: more and more food gets imported, more and more Haitians
survive on remittances
Questions for discussion on "Poverty and Urban Life":
1. What is a restavek? Why does this issue upset so many Haitians and
2. What are micro versus macro-enterprises?
3. What is the unemployment rate in Haiti?
4. How was Haiti negatively stereotyped in the early 1980s?
5. What might we conclude about Aristide's political outlook?
6. What are some sanitation problems that trouble poor Haitians? Do wealthy
Haitians have to deal with the same problems?
7. What is the link between Mickey Mouse and Port-au-Prince?
8. What is a bouretye?
9. What are some problems in Haiti's health care?
10. Why does P.J. O'Rourke call the French "mysterious savages"?
11. What do we learn about Erzulie (Ezili)... and dominoes from Wilentz?
12. What problems are common for workers on the job in Haiti and other
13. What types of 'work' do the most desperate children resort to in Haiti?
Identification Quiz: Please identify in one, short sentence [2 pts each].
1. Define restavek?
(a) paid child servant (b) unpaid child servant
2. What is Cit6 Soleil?
(a) a wealthy neighborhood (b) a poor neighborhood
3. An example of a micro-enterprise?
(a) selling shoes at a store (b) selling food on the road
4. Who said: "the deadly contagion called capitalism" ?
(a) Duvalier (b) Aristide
5. Where do "figurines of one's enemies" come from?
(a) Congo (b) France (c) Haiti
6. What is "fritay" food?
(a) fried food (b) salads
7. What is the excerpt: "beast of burden" about?
(a) bayakou (b) bouretye
8. Arthur documented the abuses in Haiti of which company?
(a) Walt Disney (b) Enron (c) Coke
9. In the 1950s Haiti was (Haiti in Focus)
(a) Premier tourist location (b) Totally unknown to the world
10. "Madan Sara"=
(a) Saleswoman (b) A woman who farms
Haiti in Focus, Chapter 4 questions for discussion:
1. Why is agriculture in decline in Haiti?
2. Name some traditional exports.
3. What is the problem with importing foods? What import problem does
the U.S. have?
4. Give a brief history of tourism in Haiti... why is it a blessing and a curse?
5. How does the urban economy differ from the rural one?
6. Define "formal" versus "informal" economy.
7. What is structural adjustment?
8. What does agrarian reform entail?
Report to the class what the most striking aspects of the reading are
Questions for group discussion:
1. Describe the life of a street child in urban Haiti.
2. What are some of the problems that beset Haitian hospitals?
3. What are key issues in family planning in Haiti? What are male and
female attitudes toward birth control? What are some of the struggles that
women confront in Haiti?
4. How has Haiti suffered misinformation regarding AIDS? Who is
responsible and what were the consequences?
5. Describe public and private education in Haiti. What kind of schools are
there and how can they be classified?
6. What are neighborhood committees? How are they organized, how do
they function? What is their advantage?
C.L.R. James, The Owners, pt. 1.
1. Describe the climate of the colony.
2. Describe the life span of the planter; what were his dreams and
3. Who were the French women of the colony?
4. Describe the sex-life of the "owner."
What traces of his sex-life remain in Haiti today?
5. What kind of town was Cap-Francois vs. Port-au-Prince?
6. What were the reading preferences of the owners?
7. Describe some of the abuses of the Church mentioned by James.
8. Recount James' description of the French hair stylist in Saint-Domingue.
C.L.R. James, "The Owners," pt. 2: YOU ARE THE TEACHERS!
1. Why did French colonists despise the French administration in S.D.?
2. How did the French colonists ignore the 1685 Code Noir with respect to
their mulatto children?
3. What were some of the racial classifications of S.Domingue? How does it
resemble racial mentalities in the US (especially among white Americans?)
4. What differences between France versus Saint-Domingue existed for a
5. How did mulattos build their wealth and compete with whites?
6. What happened in 1758? What period does James compare it with?
7. Who was Chapuzet?
C.L.R. James, "The Owners," pt. 3
1. Describe the colony's agriculture? Was it strong?
2. What brought about the Revolution in France & Haiti.
3. Define the notion of "protectionism" as the French government practiced
it. Why did that upset the owners?
4. Describe how French slavery was the "basis of the economy of the
5. How did the French bourgeois stand in contrast with the French
government, the French royalty/nobility, and the French worker?
6. What kind of products did Saint-Domingue import from France?
7. How did French planters in S.D. have different interests from French
business owners in France?
C.L.R. James, "The Owners," pt. 4
1. What happened between 1783-1789 in Saint-Domingue?
2. How many slaves did the colony absorb in 1786, 1787 & 1788?
3. What percentage of the 500,000 slaves were born in Africa? Why
does it matter?
4. Is economic stability a guarantee of social stability in a society?
5. Was the 1685 "Code Noir" respected in S.-D.?
6. What upset the maritime bourgeoisie about royalty in France?
(2) 27,000... 40,000
(6) its absolute power
Arthur, 139 149. Questions for discussion
1. What are examples of grassroots organization in Haiti?
2. How do the Haitian masses see the state?
3. Who were the piquets and the cacos?
4. What happened to Daniel Fignol6 and his supporters? Is the event unique
in Haitian political history? Why was he seen as a spoiler? Why was he
5. What is the Ti Legliz in Haiti?
6. How was Jean-Claudes rule (1971-1986) different from his Francois
7. What kind of positions did Aristide take?
8. Describe some of the effects of the military coup in 1991.
Arthur 149 175
1. Describe the communist movement. Who tried to snuff it out? Why?
What was the international context?
2. What does peasant resistance typically struggle over?
3. Give an example of a grassroots group in Haiti.
4. Describe the rise and fall of Radio Soleil.
5. What is the place of Gonaives in the events of 1985-6.
6. What was the goal of Peasant Movement of Milot?
7. Why were Christians like Aristide attracted to socialism?
8. Was the dechoukaj successful? What is 1986-1990 know as?
9. Discussion on popular movements like "Tet Kole" (see 162-165)
10. Who tried to block the rise of Aristide in 1991? How long did
Refugees and the Diaspora, Arthur 176-198
Refugees from the Haitian war of independence, 1791-
-- Louisiana Creole [Dictionary]
The Haitian-Cuban Diaspora, 1915-1929
The Dominican Republic
-- The Haitian Occupation of the 19th century, Boyer
-- The migration of Haitians to the D.R. in the 20th
-- Trujillo, 1937
-- The vyewo's zafra on the batey
Bahamas, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Saint Martin, French
Cheap labor is welcome in good times, deported in the bad
The United States and Canada
-- The northeast (1960 1980)
-- Florida (1980 present)
-- The boatpeople
Why? Political, economic, and human-created
And now... the EARTHQUAKE: the expansion of Haitian
internal and external immigration
Questions from the homework for communicative pair work:
1. Describe how Haitians got to Cuba during the expansion
of that country's sugar economy. Why did Haitians
disappear from the Cuban workforce in the 1930s?
2. Why did Trujillo and the Dominican frontier population
engage in the massacre of Haitian civilians in the D.R.?
3. What are some of the major struggles faced by Haitians in
the D.R.? Is a child of Haitian decent born in the D.R.
recognized as a Dominican?
4. What do the words kongo and vyewo refer to?
5. What kinds of abuse and corruption are reported on the
Dominican bat@y? What is the "incentive" pay? (191)
6. Why are Guadeloupians comfortable with abandoning
7. What is the "wet food, dry foot policy"?
8. What kind of reception do Haitians receive in the U.S.?
The New Refugees Environmental Exodus
22 million refugees
Refugee disaster is here and climate change will make it worse (1)
Vast majority of earth's next billion will live in impovrishment (1)
Deforestation > Fuel-shortage
Desertification threatens 1/3 of earth's land surface
Water deficits and droughts
Salinisation and water logging
Developing countries with 80% of the world's population have just 21% of
global GDP (2)
Dr. Bert Bolin
"most of the damage due to climate change is going to be associated with
extreme events, not by the smooth global increase of temperature that we
call global warming"
16 fold increase in urban dwellers from 1950 2025
"Vast numbers in the margin of existence"
Yesteryear's news in Haiti...
Signs of climate change:
Sea level rise
CYCLONES, STORM SURGES
changes in agricultural production: cotton, citrus, etc. move north...
loss of biodiversity
extension of the range of disease carrying pests
Caribbean: 5 million destitute and fleeing...
Doesn't this put Haiti and Haitians on the forefront of finding solutions with
major global import?!
What can be done?
R & D on renewables and effeciency. Energy paradigm shift.
SOLAR already widely used in Haiti. Solar revolution needed.
Donor nations need to step up.
$9 billion can eliminate deaths from famine and reduce hunger.
RE-THINK THE ARMS RACE. Arms form twice the expenditure
as health and education in many nations facing environmental
Spend on soil conservation and tree-planting
Promote projects with multiplier effects:
Example: treeplanting is good for what?
fuelwood and timber
protects soil and watersheds
provides crop and windbreaks and carbon sinks for
Information is needed to combat ignorance ...
1. Describe the existence of the woman in the film.
2. How many children depend on her?
3. Do the children do their fair share?
4. Is she married?
5. What are her living conditions?
6. What is the solution?
Questions for discussion from Arthur, 198-208
1. What exodus does the reading refer to?
2. What are the conditions of the exodus?
3. Describe some of the travails of Edwidge Danticat.
4. How do Haitians in Miami shine and equal or surpass their
5. How do people without papers survive in Miami?
6. Who is Abner Louima? What did he reveal about life in
7. How did Wyclef impact Haitian youth in the 1990s?
27 Days after the earthquake:
890 million. Amount of international debt that Haiti owes creditors. Finance
ministers from developing countries announced they will forgive $290 million.
Source: Wall Street Journal
644 million. Donations for Haiti to private organizations have exceeded
$644 million. Over $200 million has gone to the Red Cross, who had 15
people working on health projects in Haiti before the earthquake. About $40
million has gone to Partners in Health, which had 5,000 people working on
health in Haiti before the quake. Source: New York Times.
1 million. People still homeless or needing shelter in Haiti. Source: MSNBC.
1 million. People who have been given food by the UN World Food Program
in Port au Prince another million in Port au Prince still need help. Source:
UN World Food Program.
300,000. People injured in the earthquake, reported by Haitian Prime Minister
Jean-Max Bellerive. Source: CNN.
212,000. People reported killed by earthquake by Haitian Prime Minister Jean-
Max Bellerive. Source: CNN.
63,000. There are 63,000 pregnant women among the people displaced by the
earthquake. 7,000 women will deliver their children each month. Source: UN
17,000. Number of United States troops stationed on or off coast in Haiti,
down from a high of 22,000. AFP.
9,000. United Nations troops in Haiti. Miami Herald.
7,000. Number of tents distributed by United Nations. Miami Herald.
President Preval of Haiti has asked for 200,000 tents. Reuters.
4,000. Number of amputations performed in Haiti since the earthquake. AFP.
900. Number of latrines that have been dug for the people displaced from their
homes. Another 950,000 people still need sanitation. Source: New York
75. An hourly wage of 75 cents per hour is paid by the United Nations
Development Program to people in Haiti who have been hired to help in the
clean up. The UNDP is paying 30,000 people to help clean up Haiti, 180
Haitian Gourdes ($4.47) for six hours of work. The program hopes to hire
100,000 people. Source: United Nations News Briefing.
1.25. The U.S. is pledged to spend as much as $379 million in Haitian relief.
This is about $1.25 for each person in the United States. Canadian Press.
1. For every one dollar of U.S. aid to Haiti, 42 cents is for disaster assistance,
33 cents is for the U.S. military, 9 cents is for food, 9 cents is to transport the
food, 5 cents to pay Haitians to help with recovery effort, 1 cent is for the
Haitian government and 12 a cent is for the government of the Dominican
Republic. Source: Associated Press.
Reading Quiz (208-227):
21. He contracted a huge debt for Haiti:
(a) Petion (b) Boyer
22. He launched a military campaign against the U.S. occupation
(a) Antoine Gomier (b) Duvalier (c) Charlemagne P6ralte
23. Used 'food for work' [i.e. 'work for food'] in Haiti
(a) Protestant missionaries (b) Catholic missionaries
24. Hired killers funded by the CIA in the early 1990s:
(a) FRAPH (b) Lavalas (c) HPARF
25. The U.S. intervened to rid Haiti of General C6dras in:
(a) 1990 (b) 1994 (c) 1998
26. 'Invaded' Haiti at the end of 19t century:
(a) Germans (b) Jamaicans (c) Arabs
27. Forced labor used by U.S. marines during the occupation:
(a) Corvee/kove (b) Coumbite/konbit (c) servitude
28. According to Normil Sylvain, the U.S. brought freedom to Haiti.
(a) True (b) False
29. Baby Doc's wife drew a monthly salary of...
(a) $10,000 (b) $100,000 (c) $1,000,000
30. God's justice is an
(a) 'taptap' taxi bus (b) oxcart (c) a mercedes benz
31. A bit of God, a bit of the
(a) Pumpkin pie (b) the Holy Spirit (c) the spirits
32. God gives but He (or She) doesn't
(a) distribute (b) take (c) care
33. God's pencil has no
(a) Lead (b) grip (c) eraser
Questions for discussion from Arthur 209 227
1. Give several examples of foreign interventions in Haiti.
2. How did Haiti inaugurate the phenomenon of "Third
3. Describe some of the cruel reasons foreign powers
extracted money from Haiti.
4. What immigrant group became important in the late 19th
century? How did they pose a threat? How did they
5. Who was FRAPH?
6. What was the corvee? How did Americans obtain labor?
7. What are the lessons on U.S. occupation that Haiti
provides? Did the U.S. legally occupy Haiti? Does the U.S.
legally occupy Iraq & Afganistan?
8. What are the contradictions that Peralte points out in his
9. How did Bauxite mining impact the Miragoane region
from 1957 1993?
Nicholls 109 164
1. "Liberals" versus "Nationals" in Haitian politics.
2. Anti-clericalism 1880s 1960s.
3. German involvement in Haiti.
4. The meaning of the McDonald contract in 1910.
5. The Masonic movement in Haiti.
6. The Latin versus Anglo-Saxon debate: Banque Nationale.
U.S. Occupation 1915-1934
167 victims of President Vilbrun Guillaume
'Voici ma pipe, m'ap fumin' / 'Men pip mwen, m ap fimen'
Misguided altruism: 'a unique laboratory' (148)
Protection of foreign assets
Land-leasing/land expropriations (150)
U.S. war crimes (151)
Haitian reactions to occupation
Resistance Peralte and the Cacos
Intellectual resistance: Ethnological movement / Noiriste movement of the
1930s and 1940s
Attitudes toward Voodoo
Leon Audin (1904) transformation of Voodoo
Dorsainvil Vodou et nevrose (1913)
Dr. Arthur Holly "Haitians must direct prayers to Legba and Damballah"
Jean Price Mars: Vodou is 'animism' or 'dynamism' not 'fetishism'
i.e. 'spiritual power manifests itself through material forms.' (157)
1. What did the U.S. want to do in Haiti under its 'neo-liberal' plan.
What do Haitian industrialists offer?
2. Describe the activities of Christian mission groups in Haiti. How
would these groups feel about Vodouist or Islamic mission
organizations working in the U.S. saying: "Americans Christians
are caught in Satan's grip"?
3. According to Thomson, what is unethical and immoral about U.S.
Christian missionary work in Haiti?
4. What is the republic of NGOs? How have NGOs been criticized
after the earthquake?
5. Describe the CIA's involvement in Haiti VS. the Clinton
administration. Why would the CIA want to destabilize Haiti?
6. Who was Emmanuel Constant? What do we learn about U.S. ties
to FRAPH (Front pour l'Avancement et le Progres Ha'tien)
7. According to Haitian grassroots organizations, who really holds
the power in Haiti?
8. What were the mixed feelings Haitians held when the U.S.
returned President Aristide in 1994? (p. 240)
9. What is "Business as usual" about? What did the elite expect
from Aristide in 1994-5?
10. Describe the disarmament the U.S. military was charged
with in Haiti post-1994. How did it go?
11. How do foreign culture & goods impact an economy? Do
Haiti and the U.S. share anything in common? What is the impact
of U.S. culture (TV, movies, music) in Haiti?
I. Turnbull, VIRTUES AND VICES: Interpret & Explain
1. Lie to save a man but not to put him in jail.
2. Behind the back is in Guinea.
3. Doing well knows not the past.
4. Without tolerance there are no thieves.
5. Speak the truth, but leave right away.
6. The stupid man is the horse of the evil spirit.
7. It's good that's rare.
8. The goat's skin isn't enough to cover a drum; Bouki is asking for
a piece to roast.
9. This man is dead; he just has not begun to stink.
10. When you eat the tiger's cub, you don't sleep well.
II. Social Comparisons in Haiti, 233-253
Social status: Wealth, education
Language: Haitian Creole (100%) versus French (5%)
Race: Black (95%) versus Mulatto (3-5%)
1. A big name kills the puppy. (233)
2. Speaking French doesn't mean intelligence. (234)
3. From your collar I see your regiment. (235)
4. Boils don't respect the rich man's behind. (236)
5. Even if it carries a relic, the donkey is a still a donkey. (236)
6. Haiti owes France. (237)
7. Speaking French doesn't send to the market. (242)
8. People don't trust each other since Guinea. (242)
9. The captain of the zombie is a man, too. (243)
III. Finish the problem: be creative!
1. It's when you have that......
2. Prison is made....
3. The baby chick doesn't ask
4. What the poor say has no ...
5. The Vodou priest never heals the...
6. Tiger piss is....
7. When you discover a bone ...
on the highway,...
8. When the cat is full, ...
Nicholls, 165 181
* 50,000 Haitians in D.R.
* Noiriste view of Catholicism
* Noiriste politics
Elie Lescot (1941)
Sugar cane plantations
centrality of Voodoo in the life of Haiti
self-imposing alien European culture
1. Debate: "the biology of a racial group determines its psychology; its
2. Explain: "Voodoo perpetuates the African past."
3. Explain this anti-liberal view: "...liberty of the press, free elections and
democracy as sordid tinsel designed to mislead the masses."
4. Describe the social class background of Haitian socialists.
5. Describe how blacks and mulattoes in Haiti viewed Mussolini's invasion of
Haile Selassie's Ethiopia.
African culture in religion, music, art and literature
Restructuring education; diminishing Catholicism
Sympathy for European fascism found among some noiristes
Catholic right saw fascism as alternative to communism
Jacques Roumain's Masters of the Dew 1944
Mulatto reaction to noirisme
Agricultural self-sufficiency necessary
"Despotism of Soulouque," Delencour
Rejected Voodoo as superstition (Delencour)
Noirists substitute 'black racism for white racism' (178)
Of Men and Gods
Lecture on the reading
Questions from Of Men and Gods
1.What formal elements of the Vodou religion were
2.In what ways does the film illustrate the
interpenetration of Vodou and Catholicism in Haiti?
3.Why do members of the gay community practice
4. Where does sexual-orientation come from?
5. What do these men get from Vodou?
6. What is universal about their religious experience?
Arthur 255-276, [here]
1. Why was Vodou a "common social and cultural system"?
2. Explain: "inspirational qualities of Vodou in the war against the white,
3. Why did Vodou trouble Toussaint Louverture and Jean-Jacques
4. How is Vodou tradition maintained over generations?
5. Explain Vodouist views of Bondye (God) and Iwa (spirits).
6. What is an oungan, a manbo and a bok6?
7. Are the Iwa perfect? What is anthropomorphism?
8. What are some of the ways in which the Iwa communicate to humans?
9. Explain the concepts wanga and zonbi.
10.What do foreigners and non-Vodouists in Haiti tend to say about Vodou?
11 .What religion is stereotyped and vilified in U.S. society today? Why?
12.What was the role of the Vodou secret societies like Chanpwel?
13. Describe the intersection of Vodou and politics in the late 20th century.
14. How has Vodou influenced Christianity in Haiti?
15. Has Vodou ever been codified in writing?
16. Describe the attributes of Azaka, Agwe, Simbi, Gede, Gran Bwa, Ogou,
Danbala, Ezili Danto, Legba...
17. What is a chwal 'horse' in Vodou.
18. What is the audiences role during spirit possession?
19. How have some Haitians criticized Vodou?
Quiz on Arthur (Vodou) & James (The Mass of Slaves Begin)
1. Toussaint Louverture and Jean-Jacques Dessalines were troubled by Vodou
(a) True (b) False
2. How is Vodou tradition maintained over generations?
(a) Written tradition (b) Oral tradition (c) Combination of both
(a) Woman (b) Man (c) Spirit
(a) Woman (b) Man (c) Spirit
5. Are the Iwa perfect?
(a) Yes (b) No
6. A Vodou secret society:
(a) Lougawou (b) Chanpwil (b) Zonbi
7. Someone possessed by a Vodou Iwa:
(a) a goat (b) a cat (c) a horse
8. Toussaint Louverture:
(a) had concubines (b) had one wife (c) unmarried
9. Toussaint Louverture
(a) literate in French (b) illiterate in French
10. Toussaint Louverture killed his white master in 1791.
(a) True (b) False
James, The Masses Begin.
1. What type of actions by the French provoked great anger among mulattoes?
2. What kind of a relationship did whites try to cultivate with mulattoes? Did it
3. How was Haiti divided in the early 1790s?
4. For what reason did the French want to contain the insurrectionists in the
5. What did the French want from the insurrectionist slaves? How did the
French misunderstand them?
6. What do we know about Toussaint Louverture's language skills?
7. What kind of temperament did T.L. have? Give an example.
8. Describe the role of Vodou wanga among some of the soldiers of T.L.'s
9. What was and still is the name of S.D. and Haiti's official government
1. What is rara? What associations does it have?
2. How does Katherine Dunham analyze dancing in Haiti? Where
do dances take place in Haiti? What are the different varieties of
3. Who was Manno Sanon? What was Duvalier's link to the Haitian
team? What happened to Manno after the big event?
4. You have just arrived at a cock-fight (gage), what do you see?
5. What is borlette? How does it work? What kind of people get
involved in it in Haiti and the U.S.?
6. What are some of the forms of Haitian oral tradition? What is the
purpose of oral tradition? What forms of oral tradition are alive
with your family and friends?
289-299 Literature & language
1. Who was Boisrond Tonnerre?
2. What is the poem Choucoune about?
3. What is nationalism and why are some Haitians
4.What was indigenisme?
5.What is noirisme? What does it focus upon?
6. What was the political triumph of
n gritude/n oirisme?
7.What is racial mystification?
8. What is spiralism? Who is its greatest proponent?
James: The Rise of Toussaint
1. How many men did Toussaint lead? How did he gain more men?
2. Did Toussaint always fight for the French?
3. What other nations descended on S.Domingue?
4. Where were most of Toussaint's soldiers born?
5. Describe the material/financial conditions of Toussaint's soldiers.
6. How did Toussaint relate with his soldiers?
7. Who was Laveaux?
8. Why were 1,000 French women, men and children slaughtered in
PauP around 1795? Who was behind it?
9. What killed off English soldiers?
James: Toussaint seizes power
1. How does the election of Obama resemble and differ from the
2. Who was Rigaud and why was he an obstacle for Toussaint?
3. Based on Rigaud's own writings, was he racist?
4. Who was Petion and on whose side was he? What will he
5. How did Toussaint divide up revenues on plantations?
6. What was the fate of the 350 mulatto officers in Rigaud's
defeated army? Why? What were the consequences?
7. The island of Hispaniola is compared to what other island in
terms of its size?
% for workers; 12 for state 1% for the owners
Arthur, pp. 300-315: Haitian literature
Folk literature (Price Mars, So Spoke the Uncle 1938)
Tales, legends, riddles, songs, proverbs and beliefs
Bouki and Ti Malis
Talking animals who represent human traits
Magical orange trees
Flying lougawou, madmen, monsters, ghouls, devils (dyab),
Literature and ideology (Carl Brouard, 1938)
"The most ignorant peasant feels which vaudou temple is more
artistic than another... he will obey a dictatorship that works for
order... people only gradually attain, step by step, liberalism...
P6tion's liberalism sank into despotism..."
Echos of the "Black legend."
The peasant novel (Jacques Roumain 1944)
Land conflict, conflict between families
Shortages of water and resources
Collectivism, socialism & egalitarianism as the solution
"Then we'll call a general assembly of the Masters of the Dew, a
great big coumbite of farmers, and we'll clear out poverty and plant
a new life"
Spiralism and experimental writing (Frank6tienne's Dezafi, 1975)
One of the first high quality Haitian Creole novels: spiralism
Siltina his daughter
Zof6 second in charge
Klod6nis / Mako
The revolution of the zombies against the evil oungan Sentil
Exploiting Vodou for a profit ("Exoticism")
Violence in Haitian writing:
1. Murder and torture in Chauvet 1968
2. Killing President Duvalier in Phelps 1976
3. The culture of the Tonton Makout in Depestre 1979
4. The Tonton Makout/torturer in Danticat 1994
5. Haiti as more difficult than Somalia, Rwanda and Bosnai,
MARXIST (COMMUNIST) HAITI
1. Etienne Charlier, 1950s ("Mulatto marxist")
Haiti in 1950s is a semi-colonial society in which class
distinctions are associated with color (201).
2. Emmanuel C. Paul criticized him, arguing that
Economic status, not color determines class structure (202).
Accused Charlier of under-emphasizing the neg mawon and
overemphasizing the afranchi
...The Black and the Mulatto Legends are re-written every generation...
...Haitian authors have the propensity to spin the competing historical racial
legends in their interpretation of the present...
MARXISTS NOVELS & THEIR CRITIQUES
1. Jacques St6phen Alexis (in the tradition of Roumain)
Vodou as an opium... "it paralyzed men, alienated their
courage..." houngan trap people in despair and resignation
Dejan's (2006) critique of the representation of learning, how
could an illiterate student learn to read and write French in such a
"We see in, in the ideas of the people who are at the head of the
Haitian communist movement, French retains its place in
discussions about schools and education" (Dejan 2006: 79)
James: The bourgeoisie prepares to restore slavery (part 1)
1. How did Napoleon Bonaparte view black people?
2. Why did NB want to return to Saint-Domingue?
3. Those in France who supported the abolishment of slavery came from
what social class? Where did they live?
4. What did the French expect from Toussaint's forces upon their arrival in
5. Describe the expedition that sailed from France.
6. Who was Moise? How did TL react to him? How did the Moise incident
impact TL rule?
7. The revolutionaries associated with Moise wanted to do what?
8. Moise's supporters accused TL of certain favoritisms... what were they?
9. How did TL conduct the S.-D. after the Moise incident?
James (part 2)
10. How did TL deal with the whites who rejoiced about the arrival of
11. TL saw his power as an end in itself or a means to an end? (281)
12. In the Russian Marxist model, who were the 'Bolsheviks' and who
were the 'Tsarists' in TL time?
13. Would the whites of Saint-Domingue fight with TL against the
14. What was TL's big mistake in the eyes of the black majority? (284-
15. How was TL's army divided in allegiance?
16. What should TL have done (bottom of 285-6).
17. Explain: "Where imperialists do not find disorder they create it
deliberately... They want an excuse for going in.'
18. How did TL bewilder the masses? Who should revolutionaries
19. What distinguished TL from Dessalines? Who really needed
20. According to James, why was Dessalines so prescient?
James, The War ofIndependence, part 1
Vocabulary = define, use and explain the use of the word in the reading
Feinting (not fainting)
Who were they?
Prometheus / Hamlet / Lear / Phedre / Ahab
Answer and explain with a classmate
1. "That calm confidence in its capacity to deceive is a mark of the mature
ruling class." (294)
2. What were Christophe's different reactions when Leclerc's army
3. What did the French capture in "Port-R6publicain"?
4. What was the main resource/weapon of the revolutionaries?
5. What was Dessalines' strategy?
DUVALIER'S PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN
Magloire departs into exile in 1956.
Toned down anti-clericalism and noirisme (pro-African, pro-
Praised the Church for its zeal in evangelization.
Paid tribute to the anti-Vodou campaigns of the south.
Argued for a Haiti without the distinction of color.
Praised the army for liberating the country from 'a system of
slavery' instituted by Magloire.
Landslide victory (209).
CULTURE & TYRANNY: Duvalier 1957-1971
1. What were Duvalier's first moves upon taking power in 1957?
2. How was Duvalier absorbed once in power? (213)
3. Was Duvalier totalitarian or fascist? (213)
4. What were some of the roles of the tonton makout? (215)
5. How healthy were worker's unions during Duvalier's reign?
6. What action did Duvalier take with regards to the University of Haiti?
1. Reduce the power of the opposition and effect an accommodation.
2. With staying alive and retaining office
3. No. Focused violence on the opposition but did not exterminate ethnic
minorities or build work-camps (death-camps) on a large scale.
4. Repress opposition and build support for Duvalier; effect changes in
the leadership of the armed forces
5. Lowest membership in Latin America.
6. He shut it down and reopened it with a new name and under his
QUIZ ON ARTHUR & DASH, 1999
1. According the Arthur & Dash, Graham Greene's book The Comedians gives a fair
portait of Duvalierism.
a. True b. False
2. Wade Davis
a. The Serpent and the Rainbow b. The Magic Island c. Black Baghdad
3. Langston Hughes
a. The Rainy Season b. White Shadows in a Black Land c. Cannibal Cousins
4. Langston Hughs saw a Haiti controlled by blacks
a. True b. False
5. Discussion about the terms "Juida" and "Ardra" is associated with who?
a. Moreau de Saint-M6ry b. John Houston Craige c. William Seabrook
6. What is the missing word from Seabrook's sentence: "a mysterious something super-
added... the magnificently descended"
a. demons b. ancestors c. gods
7. Seabrook compares Vodou dances with
a. Cannibalistic rituals b. fashionable nightclubs of Europe c. subversive activities
8. Amy Wilentz's journalistic work that examines the rise of Aristide's Lavalas party is:
a. The Rainy Season b. Hayti or the Black Republic c. The Dry Season
9. What will Pierre Mabille who wrote The Haitian Panorama never forget?
a. big tractors b. women with loads on their heads c. Vodou drums
10. For Langston Hughes, Haiti was a sort of military dictatorship backed by the guns of
a. Germany b. France c. U.S.A.
Haiti in pictures:
aiti&usg= K aH4XKCS5ZTeKlol7AwGAnNAH8=&ei=6L2sS-
The view from abroad, 315 -330.
Discuss these questions with your partner.
1. How were books lik Graham Greene's The Comedians damaging
to Haiti? How did it promote "The Myth of Haitian barbarism"?
Discuss the relativity of "barbarism," e.g. Haitian dictator versus
the U.S. war machine in Vietnam... Irak... etc.
2. Who is Wade Davis? What images of Haiti did his writing
3. What does Saint-Mery (who wrote in the early 1800s) say about
"Juida" [Wida] and "Ardra" [Arada/Alada]? Although this
Frenchman is very negative, what do we learn about Vodou from
this very early description?
4. Seabrook compares Vodou to which non-Haitian cultures and
5. What aspect of Haiti does Langston Hughes' passage capture?
How is his text different from Seabrook, Davis, Saint-Mery?
6. What does Zora Neale Hurston complain about in her passage?
7. How does Pierre Mabille capture the realities of the farmer in
Haiti? What stands out in the reading.
8. Under what conditions did King Henri Christophe commit
suicide in 1820.
The view from abroad, Arthur 315-30
"Haiti challenges the prevailing view that blacks were incapable of revolutionary
insurrection" (Arthur & Dash)
How foreigners (mis)perceive Haiti
Moreau de Saint-M6ry (c. 1789) one of the earliest examinations of Vodou
"Affect Vodou in public" (321)
Vodou is "a school where those easily influenced give themselves up to a
domination which a thousand circumstances renders tragic"
"Nothing is more dangerous, according to all the accounts..."
Crippling indemnity (1825)
Spencer St. John, Hayti or the Black Republic (1886)
John Houston Craige, Black Baghdad (U.S. occupation)
Faustin Wirkus, Cannibal Cousins (U.S. occupation)
William Seabrook, The Magic Island (1929)
Haiti as given over to Vodou and ritual sacrifice
"Blood maddened, sex-maddened, god-maddened..."
"It seemed to me magnificent and not devoid of a certain beauty"
Collective ecstasy VS. soulless robots
Vodou dances VS. our fashionable nightclubs
"a mysterious something super-added... the gods magnificently descended" (324)
Langston Hughes, White Shadows in a Black Land (1932)
Cracker English in little cafes owned by blacks...
Black bank tellers, white comptroller
Larger stores owned by French, Germans and Syrians ("Assyrian Jews")
Military dictatorship backed by American guns
Graham Greene, The Comedians (1967)
"demonic head of state and malevolent Tontons Macoutes"
Bernard Diederich, Papa Doc and the Tonton Macoutes
"Duvalier's reign of terror..."
Wade Davis, The Serpent and the Rainbow (1986)
Amy Wilentz, The Rainy Season (1994)
Duvalier and the Catholic Church, 1957 1971
Griots "The church is an ideological instrument for a small
movement francophone elite and the church enables its hegemony."
Janvier: The church is a body within the state owing allegiance to a foreign
Duvalier expected the clergy to pray for him and the Haitian State (222)
Priests expelled (Mgr Robert because of his involvement in
the anti-superstition campaigns of 1941)
"Communist" educators, school teachers fired
Newspapers closed, raided
House arrest of Anglican priest who asked for mercy for
political prisoners (225)
-- Duvalier broke the foreign control of the Roman Catholic Church
-- Insisted on an indigenous hierarchy (226); Pope Paul VI agrees in 1966
-- The Church is seen as a "vassal to the Haitian state"
Nationalist (Black) vs. Liberal (Mulatto) [Haiti is also 'bipartisan']
Noiriste theme and legend under Duvalier. Noiriste heroes:
The marron inconnu, neg mawon, 'the unknown runaway' 1968
Goman and Acaau
The challenge from Price Mars (230)
"You cannot reduce the social question in Haiti to the color question.
There have always been poor mulattoes and rich blacks."
The challenge from Depestre (231) exiled to Cuba in 1960
"Human nature does not differ significantly between races" (231)
Duvalier's propaganda mixes Catholicism, Haitian historical legend, Vodou
and military imagery (233)
Rhetoric of populism, empowered peasantry.
National scale of the VSN.
Maintained good relations with the peasantry and black middle
Welcomed Vodou leaders into the presidential palace.
Haitianized the church.
Political violence, political prisoners, torture and murder
Failure to enact lasting educational reform and literacy.
+ Vodou as the preservation of African identity.
+ Christians should respect Vodou as they respect the other
+ Vodou in Haiti; Islam in Algeria = resistance to cultural
domination (Frantz Fanon 1963)
The linguistic complexity of Haitian Creole in Haiti (Dejean 1993: 81-2)
MONOLINGUALS = SPEAK THE 'BASILECT'
South (regional variety of HC)
Central (regional of HC = Standard HC used in Bib la; urban HC)
(n.b. many migrants to P-au-P end up knowing 2 varieties).
Northern (regional variety of HC)
TRADITIONAL 'BILINGUALS' = SPEAK THE MESOLECT
1. HC mesolect (variety spoken by bilinguals, i.e. there is French influence
and there are unique HC mesolectal features)
NON-TRADITIONAL BILINGUALS FROM THE DIASPORA
HC + Que6bcois French
HC + Dominican Spanish
The traditional French of Haiti (bourgeoisie and petty bourgeoisie)
French full of Creolismes (not spoken at home and used for meetings,
television, radio, ceremonies, solemn occasions, etc.)
This group also speaks the HC mesolect in # 2.
SAMPLE OF RURAL VARIANTS (left) vs. URBAN VARIANTS (right)
1. anvan (*) /avan
2. asizonnen /asizone
4. chimen /chemen
5. chimiz /chemiz
7. chonje /sonje
8. chwal /cheval
9. denmen /demen
10. denpi /depi
11. dibout /debou
12. dirbkte /direkte
13. d6kt /dokte
15. fenmel /femel
16. frnwb(*) /fnwa
17. fiy61 /fiybl
18. fouye dife /fwaye
20. had /rad
21. hadi /radi
22. hadiyss /radiyes
23. hale /rale
24. ganyen /genyen
25. hou /wou (zouti)
26. jouk ki 1 /jis ki 1l
27. kouman /k6man
29. Lanmb(*) /lame
30. Larivye /rivye
32. 16t jou /lotrejou
33. panyen /panye
34. penmt /pbm&t
35. pweson /pwason
37. sanmdi /samdi
38. senmenn /sembn
39. swate /swete
40. swedizan /swadizan
1. before. 2. to season (meat, etc.). 3. to be obliged. 4. road, way. 5. shirt. 6. pan. 7. to remember, to recall.
8. horse. 9. tomorrow. 10. since. 11. up (standing up). 12.director. 13. doctor. 14. dawn, early in the
morning. 15. female (animal) 16. darkness. 17. godchild. 18. fire place. 19. govern ment. 20. cloth. 21.
disrespectful 22. disrespect 23. to pull 24. have 25.--- 26. until when 27. how 28. to begin, to start. 29. sea.
30. river. 31. when. 32. the other day. 33. basket. 34. to allow. 35. fish. 36.to poison. 37. Saturday. 38.
week. 39. to wish. 40. so-called.
Material from E.W.VWdrine, http://www.potomitan.info/vedrine/haitian_studies.php
HAT 3564 Benjamin Hebblethwaite
1. The church is an ideological instrument for a small francophone elite and the church enables its
a) Griots b) Goman c) Antoine Simon
2. Duvalier did not want the clergy to pray for him and the Haitian State.
a) True b) False
3. Duvalier ordered the house arrest of the priest who asked for mercy for political
a) Vodou b) Catholic c) Anglican
4. Pope Paul VI did this in 1966:
a) Stopped persecuting Vodou.
b) Let Haitians chose their Catholic leaders.
c) Excommunicated Duvalier.
5. Vodou in Haiti (1791) and Islam in Algeria (1950-60s) share:
a) Fundamentalist ideology.
b) Resistance to cultural domination.
c) The use of drums to announce war.
6. Hurbon (1972) said that Christians
a) should respect Vodou.
b) are incapable of respecting Vodou.
c) are incapable or respecting any religion.
7. "You cannot reduce the social question in Haiti to the color question. There have always been poor
mulattoes and rich blacks."
a) Price Mars b) Janvier c) Depestre
8. "Human nature does not differ significantly between races."
a) Price Mars b) Janvier c) Depestre
9. Who was Goman?
a) Marron (mawon) ruler of South.
b) Marron (mawon) ruler of North.
c) Marron (mawon) ruler of Port-au-Prince.
10. What is the most prestigious variety of Haitian Creole?
a) Northern b) Central c) Southern