Group Title: Haitian Studies Course Materials for HAI 3564
Title: Midterm Notes
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Title: Midterm Notes
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Language: Haitian Creole (Kréole; Kreyòl ayisyen)
Creator: Hebblethwaite, Benjamin
Publication Date: 2010
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HAT 3564, Haitian Culture and Society
Monday, August 27th

Notes from Nicholls, 19 27; Arthur 17 35

1492 Columbus
1625 "marauding bands"
1697 Rijswick (French-Spanish treaty)
1791-1804 Haitian Revolution; Invention of guerrilla warfare

Slave labor and French capital
Dependence on the metropolis no free trade
Sugar and coffee

450,000 slaves = "black" (North)
neg krey6l
neg bosal
marrons

40,000 colonists = "white" (North)
governor general = military leader
grands blancs = wanted some free trade
petits blancs... "blan mannan"

30,000 affranchis = "yellow, brown and black" (South)
Mulatto affranchis versus black affranchis
(In 1791 much of the South was owned by affranchis).

Causes and conditions: "the racial prejudice of the whites led to color prejudice on the part of the
mulattoes"

Types of colonial slavery:
"Paternalistic" / small-scale slavery in Hispanic societies
"Industrial slavery" in Saint Domingue =
The prevailing philosophy was that cruelty and torture increased productivity in the
context industrial slavery.

Development of proprietorship










Haitian Culture and Society







Classroom discussion module.


Define these concepts with your partner: [2 minutes]
Caste / class / race / color / ethnicity / culture / social group

Prapare a 1 minute description (make 4 major points)
1. Describe "slaves."
2. Describe the "whites."
3. Describe the "affranchis."
4. Describe the marronss" [mawon] and marronage.
5. Columbus' encounter with the Tainos.
6. The concept of forced conversion.
7. The buccaneers and flibustiers.
8. Describe how slavery grew in Haiti, especially between 1750-1791.
9. What was the role of poison in Saint Domingue?



















Arthur 45-68

Dessalines 1804 1806
State-run agriculture; plantation life and serfdom.
His egalitarianmis and land redistribution angered mulattoes.
Assassinated

Henri Christophe 1807 1820







The Northern Kingdom
Citadelle La Ferribre built at enormous human cost

Alexandre P6tion 1806 1819
Distributed state land for political purposes
Presided over the foundation of the Haitian peasantry
This involved the dissolution of the plantation society

Jean-Pierre Boyer 1820 1844
Unified the island or Invaded Spanish territory?

Rapid rise and fall of presidents in the 19th and 20th centuries

U.S. Occupation 1915 1935 and the death of the 19th century Haitian military tradition and the spawning
of the new military, arbiter of political control

Lescot Estim6 Magloire -
Francois Duvalier 1957 1971... Jean-Claude Duvalier 1971 1986

The Duvaliers presidential militia, the Tonton Makout, eventually exceed the military in membership,
influence and acts of violence in Haiti

+Duvalier selects the Catholic priesthood in Haiti.

The Haitian left still calls elements of the right makout and makoutis to this day

Topics for discussion:
1. Taxing the peasantry versus taxing working professionals
2. Christophe's kingdom
3. Graham Greene's impressions of Haiti (60-61)
4. Violence under Jean-Claude Duvalier
5. Blood money: selling Haitian blood and cadavers







Nichols 27 43

Og and Chavannes

Affranchis = "Freed people"
1. Anciens libres = predominantly mulatto
2. Nouveaux libres = predominantly black

Different economic and political interests (and historical experiences) undermined mulatto
and black relations

Toussaint versus Rigaud
Dessalines / Christophe versus P6tion

Leclerc arrives in 1802 with 5,000 French troops.

Vodou allowed the African past to be perpetuated and provided an instrument of solidarity
and communication

Placage versus Marriage: Examples of Peasant and Elite Practices

Haitian elites are sensitive over marriage because of inheritance: money and land
Individuals are concerned about jeopardizing family status/prestige.

Placage extramarital unions of respectable people
Requires no civil or religious formality

Place (common law wife) has complete control of farm in husband's absence. But, the
man chooses his wife, owns the land, and prepares land when he pleases...

Man and woman in Haiti are economic partners in a struggle for existence

Women outnumber men in Haiti today 6 women to 4 men...

Elites marry; peasants use plagage = an important split
5 generations of marriage in the family.
Parental consent needed for marriage.
Certificate of civil marriage required before a religious marriage.

Status of women in the Haiti of the 1940s
Women had to receive consent from husbands to buy and sell land.
Could not vote or hold public office.
It is tabou for elite women to do manual labor.
4







Husband freer in sexual life
Law specifies that adultery is a cause for divorce for men; but only for women if"he shall
bring his concubine into the common dwelling" (192)


es:
* The state allows NO DOMINANT RELIGION
* ALL CHILDREN ARE LEGITIMATE
* (in or outside of wedlock) Real fan
* Freedom of DIVORCE established


nily values


Recognizes the Catholic Church in his CONSTITUTION of
1806... but:
Article 37: "If in the course of time other religions are introduced, no person
shall be hindered, so long as he conforms to the laws, in following the cult
[religion] he [or she] has chosen."
These are ENLIGHTENED and TOLERANT LAWS... but:
He repealed Dessalines' laws protecting 'illegitimate' children and divorce on
MORAL GROUNDS

The schism:
Provides Vodou with room to grow...
70 (non-Roman) Haitian Catholic priests in 1840
Assured the independence of Haitian Catholicism till this day
Methodists and Baptists earliest Protestants
Boyer (and the entire political class) strive to bridge the gap:
Recognition by Rome = LEGITIMACY

President Soulouque the Vodouist president 1847 1859

President Geffrard overcomes the schism in 1860

In 1930, 70 years after the CONCORDAT, Haiti has 206 priests (8 Haitian),
105 Brothers and 366 Sisters for 2,652,290 Haitians...


Dessalin






P6tion:






Questions for discussion from Arthur 69 85.


1. How does the excerpt portray smugglers?
2. Describe the modem elite; how did it view Aristide?
3. What factor has changed the traditional power struggle
between landowners and the merchant capitalists? How did
this new group damage landowners?
4. What kind of relationship did the "monopolist faction" have
with the Duvalier dictatorship?
5. What did the Aristide government demand from the business
elite?
6. Describe the coup d'6tat of Septermber 29th, 1991.
7. What was a major setback for Haitian peasants in the early
1980s?

ANSWERS
3 = The assembly industrialists
7 = African swine fever







Quiz: Rural Haiti (Arthur 80-100)

1. Madan Sara is a woman who:

a. heals b. re-sells c. sells wholesale

2. A 'konbit / coumbite' is:

a. voluntary collective labor b. compelled / required collective labor c. labor union

3. Successful peasants own:

a. tiny and widely-dispersed plots. b. large and concentrated plots.

4. Haiti was stripped of this valuable tree in the 19th century:

a. Live Oak b. Teak c. Mahogany

5. A major set-back for farmers in the 1980s was

a. a drought b. African swine fever

6. The singing leader of a konbit / coumbite is the

a. lambi/lanbi b. corv6e/k6ve c. simidor/simid6

7. Women do not carry out day to day maintenance of the fields:

a. True b. False

8. Girls are forbidden from going to the market place:

a. True b. False

9. Who does not want road improvements in Haiti's coffee business?

a. Growers b. Speculators

Chose the animal that best reflects the livestock and size of land holdings of the given period:

10. 1880:
a. Goat b. Chicken c. Pig

11. 1920s:
a. Goat b. Chicken c. Pig

12. 1980s:
a. Goat b. Chicken c. Pig






Nichols, 57 66


1. Match the concepts of "military oligarchy" and "military
autocracy" with the North (Christophe) or the South (P6tion).
Explain the terms.

2. What kind of arguments did the respective (North vs. South)
regimes have?

3. Describe the balance of power in the respective governments.

4. How does Nicholls characterize the struggle between the North
and the South?

5. What are some highlights and low-points of Boyer's long rule
(1818-1843)?

6. What were the consequences of the indemnity? What would
you have done if you were in Boyer's shoes?

7. The U.S. occupied Haiti. Talk about Haiti's occupation of...
and why is Mackenzie's comment included on p. 64?




- Oligarchy is a form of government through a few wealthy/noble families (adellike
families); family rule
- Autocracy, autocraat is een "heerser die alle staatsmacht in zich verenigt"







Authoritarian, Haitian influence Aristocratic, French influence...
Nationalist Parliamentary / 'Liberals'
Noiriste
Dessalines P6tion
Christophe Boyer(1818-43)
Soulouque (1847-59) Geffrard (1859-67)
Duvalier, Papa & Baby

Nichols, 67-87. Pride and prejudice
1. Boyer presided over a peaceful 2 decades

2. The colour issue is used by mulatto and black to seek and justify power

3. Military government

4. Mid-1820s Haiti's population is 800,000 with an army of 32,000 soldiers

5. Boyer's "Rural Code" attempts to attach workers to the land and end vagrancy.

6. Vodou has always has always inspired passion, positive and negative.

7. Several Haitian leaders played Voodoo into their plea to have Vatican return.

8. Black or mulatto leader executed opponents

9. Boyer's downfall was blamed on "corruption," "nepotism," and racism.

10. The piquet leader Acaau denounced Boyer as an Black oppressor. Acaau wanted to
confiscate land and distribute it among the poor.

11. La politique de doublure.

12. La politique de doublure and the rise of Soulouque. Black ruler, open to Voodoo.

13. The paramilitary zenglen [zinglins] as the roots of the tonton makout.

14. Geffrard and the Concordat of 1860.

15. Geffrard invested in a Medical School, a Law School and a few lycdes.

16. By the late 19th century, the leaders of 1804 became politicized and symbolic on racial
grounds.






Arthur 111 131


Identification Quiz: Please identify in one, short sentence [2 pts each].
1. Define restavek?
2. What is Cite Soleil?
3. An example of a micro-enterprise?
4. Who said: "the deadly contagion called capitalism" ?
5. Where do "figurines of one's enemies" come from?
6. Why is "zinc" referenced in the reading?
7. What is fritay?
8. What is the excerpt: "beast of burden" about?
9. What does Pocahontas refer to?



(1)- (10)

Report to the class what the most striking aspects of the reading are






Arthur 130-138


Questions for group discussion:

1. Describe the life of a street child in urban Haiti.

2. What are some of the problems that beset Haitian hospitals?

3. What are key issues in family planning in Haiti? What are male and
female attitudes toward birth control?

4. How has Haiti suffered misinformation regarding AIDS? Who is
responsible and what were the consequences?

5. Describe public and private education in Haiti. What kind of schools are
there and how can they be classified?

6. What are neighborhood committees? How are they organized, how do
they function? What is their advantage?








Questions for discussion from Arthur 209 27

1. Give several examples of foreign interventions in Haiti.
2. How did Haiti inaugurate the phenomenon of "Third
World debt"?
3. What immigrant group became important in the late 19th
century? How did they pose a threat? How did they
survive?
4. Who was FRAPH?
5. What was the corvee? How did Americans obtain labor?
6. What are the lessons on U.S. occupation that Haiti
provides?
7. What are the contradictions that P6ralte points out in his
letter?
8. How did Bauxite mining impact the Miragoane region
from 1957 1993?







Nicholls 109 164


1. "Liberals" versus "Nationals" in Haitian politics.
2. Anti-clericalism 1880s 1960s.
3. German involvement in Haiti.
4. The meaning of the McDonald contract in 1910.
5. The Masonic movement in Haiti.
6. The Latin versus Anglo-Saxon debate: Banque Nationale.

U.S. Occupation 1915-1934
167 victims of President Vilbrun Guillaume
'Voici ma pipe, m'ap fumin' / 'Men pip mwen, m ap fimen'
Imperialism
Germany
Misguided altruism: 'a unique laboratory' (148)
Protection of foreign assets
Land-leasing/land expropriations (150)
U.S. war crimes (151)

Haitian reactions to occupation
Collaboration
Collaboration disillusionment
Resistance Peralte and the Cacos
Intellectual resistance: Ethnological movement / Noiriste movement of the
1930s and 1940s

Attitudes toward Voodoo
Leon Audin (1904) transformation of Voodoo
Dorsainvil Vodou et nevrose (1913)
Dr. Arthur Holly "Haitians must direct prayers to Legba and Damballah"
Jean Price Mars: Vodou is 'animism' or 'dynamism' not fetishismm'
i.e. 'spiritual power manifests itself through material forms.' (157)
Jacques Roumain







Arthur, 228-245


1. What did the U.S. want to do under the application of 'neo-
liberalism.'
2. Describe the activities of Christian mission groups in Haiti. How
would these groups feel about Vodouist or Islamic mission
organizations working in the U.S. saying: "Americans Christians
are caught in Satan's grip"?
3. What is the republic of NGOs?
4. Describe the CIA's involvement in Haiti VS. the Clinton
administration.
5. Who was Emmanuel Constant.
6. According to Haitian grassroots organizations, who really holds
the power in Haiti?
7. What were the mixed feelings Haitians held when the U.S.
returned President Aristide in 1994?
8. Describe the disarmament the U.S. military was charged with in
Haiti post-1994. How did it go?
9. How do foreign goods impact an economy? Do Haiti and the
U.S. share anything in common?








Nicholls, 165 181


'mulatrification' Elie Lescot (1941)
50,000 Haitians in D.R. Sugar cane plantations
Griots Noirisme
Noiriste centrality of Voodoo in the life of Haiti
Noiriste view of Catholicism self-imposing alien European culture
Noiriste politics Authoritarian


1. Debate: "the biology of a racial group determines its psychology; its
collective personality."
2. Explain: "Voodoo perpetuates the African past."
3. Explain this anti-liberal view: "...liberty of the press, free elections and
democracy as sordid tinsel designed to mislead the masses."
4. Describe the social class background of Haitian socialists.
5. Describe how blacks and mulattoes in Haiti viewed Mussolini's invasion of
Haile Selassie's Ethiopia.

Noirisme
African culture in religion, music, art and literature
Restructuring education; diminishing Catholicism
Sympathy for European fascism found among some noiristes
Catholic right saw fascism as alternative to communism

Socialism
Jacques Roumain's Masters of the Dew 1944

Mulatto reaction to noirisme
Agricultural self-sufficiency necessary
"Despotism of Soulouque," Delencour
Rejected Voodoo as superstition (Delencour)
Noirists substitute 'black racism for white racism' (178)






Of Men and Gods
Lecture on the reading
Presentation

Questions from OfMen and Gods

1. What formal elements of the Vodou religion were present?
2. In what ways does the film illustrate the interpenetration of Vodou and
Catholicism in Haiti?
3. Why do members of the gay community practice Vodou?
4. Where does sexual-orientation come from?
5. What do these men get from Vodou?
6. What is universal about their religious experience?

Arthur, pp. 300-315: Haitian literature

Folk literature (Price Mars, So Spoke the Uncle 1938)

"Oraliture"
Tales, legends, riddles, songs, proverbs and beliefs
Bouki ak Malis, Bouki ak Lapen
Talking animals

Literature and ideology (Carl Brouard, 1938)

"The most ignorant peasant feels which vaudou temple is more
artistic than another... he will obey a dictatorship that works for
order... people only gradually attain, step by step, liberalism...
P6tion's liberalism sank into despotism..."

Echos of the "Black legend."

The peasant novel (Jacques Roumain 1944)

Land conflict, conflict between families
Shortages of water and resources






"Then we'll call a general assembly of the Masters of the Dew, a
great big coumbite of farmers, and we'll clear out poverty and plant
a new life"

Spiralism and experimental writing (Frank6tienne's Dezafi, 1975)

One of the first high quality Haitian Creole novels: spiralism

Sentil oungan
Siltana his daughter
Zof6 second in charge
Klod6nis / Mako

The revolution of the zombies against the evil oungan Sentil
Exploiting Vodou

Violence in Haitian writing:

1. Murder and torture in Chauvet 1968
2. Killing President Duvalier in Phelps 1976
3. The culture of the Tonton Makout in Depestre 1979
4. The Tonton Makout/torturer in Danticat 1994
5. Haiti as more difficult than Somalia, Rwanda and Bosnai,
Ollivier 1995






Nichols 201-220


MARXIST (COMMUNIST) HAITI
1. Etienne Charlier, 1950s ("Mulatto marxist")

Haiti in 1950s is a semi-colonial society in which class
distinctions are associated with color (201).

2. Emmanuel C. Paul criticized him, arguing that

Economic status, not color determines class structure (202).
Accused Charlier of under-emphasizing the neg mawon and
overemphasizing the afranchi

...The Black and the Mulatto Legends are re-written every generation...
...Haitian authors have the propensity to spin the competing historical racial
legends in their interpretation of the present...

MARXISTS NOVELS
1. Jacques Stephen Alexis (in the tradition of Roumain)
Vodou as an opium... "it paralyzed men, alienated their
courage..." houngan trap people in despair and resignation
Dejan's (2006) critique of the representation of learning, how
could an illiterate student learn to read and write French in such a
short span?
"We see in, in the ideas of the people who are at the head of the
Haitian communist movement, French retains its place in
discussions about schools and education" (Dejan 2006: 79)


DUVALIER'S PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN

Magloire departs into exile in 1956
Toned down anti-clericalism and noirisme (pro-African, pro-
Vodou)
Praised the Church for its zeal in evangelization







Paid tribute to the anti-Vodou campaigns of the south
Argued for a Haiti without the distinction of color
Praised the army for liberating the country from 'a system of
slavery' instituted by Magloire
Landslide victory (209)

CULTURE & TYRANNY: Duvalier 1957-1971

1. What were Duvalier's first moves upon taking power in 1957?
2. How was Duvalier absorbed once in power? (213)
3. Was Duvalier totalitarian or fascist? (213)
4. What were some of the roles of the tonton makout? (215)
5. How healthy were worker's unions during Duvalier's reign?
6. What action did Duvalier take with regards to the University of Haiti?

1. Reduce the power of the opposition and effect an accommodation.
2. With staying alive and retaining office
3. No. Focused violence on the opposition but did not exterminate ethnic
minorities or build work-camps (death-camps) on a large scale.
4. Repress opposition and build support for Duvalier; effect changes in
the leadership of the armed forces
5. Lowest membership in Latin America.
6. He shut it down and reopened it with a new name and under his
control.







QUIZ ON ARTHUR & DASH, 1999

1. According the Arthur & Dash, Graham Greene's book The Comedians gives a fair
portait of Duval
\ierism.

a. True b. False

2. Wade Davis
a. The Serpent and the Rainbow b. The Magic Island c. Black Baghdad

3. Langston Hughs

a. The Rainy Season b. White Shadows in a Black Land c. Cannibal Cousins

4. Langston Hughs saw a Haiti controlled by blacks

a. True b. False

5. Discussion about the terms "Juida" and "Ardra" is associated with who?

a. Moreau de Saint-M6ry b. John Houston Craige c. William Seabrook

6. What is the missing word from Seabrook's sentence: "a mysterious something super-
added... the magnificently descended"

a. demons b. ancestors c. gods

7. Seabrook compares Vodou dances with
a. Cannibalistic rituals b. fashionable nightclubs of Europe c. subversive activities

8. Amy Wilentz's journalistic work that examines the rise of Aristide's Lavalas party is:

a. The Rainy Season b. Hayti or the Black Republic c. The Dry Season

9. What will Pierre Mabille who wrote The Haitian Panorama never forget?

a. farmers working the soil b. women with loads on their heads c. Vodou drums

10. For Langston Hughs, Haiti was "a sort of military dictatorship back by the guns of
what nation?
a. Germany b. France c. U.S.A. d. Dominican Republic

20







The view from abroad, Arthur 315-30

How foreigners (mis)perceive Haiti

"Haiti challenges the prevailing view that blacks were incapable of revolutionary
insurrection" (Arthur & Dash)

18th century
Moreau de Saint-M6ry (c. 1789)
Juida Wida
Ardra Rada

"Affect Vodou in public" (321)
Vodou is "a school where those easily influenced give themselves up to a
domination which a thousand circumstances renders tragic"
"Nothing is more dangerous, according to all the accounts..."

19th century
Spencer St. John, Hayti or the Black Republic (1886)

20th century
John Houston Craige, Black Baghdad (U.S. occupation)
Faustin Wirkus, Cannibal Cousins (U.S. occupation)

William Seabrook, The Magic Island (1929)
Haiti as given over to Vodou and ritual sacrifice

"Blood maddened, sex-maddened, god-maddened..."
"It seemed to me magnificent and not devoid of a certain beauty"

Collective ecstasy VS. soulless robots
Vodou dances VS. our fashionable nightclubs
"a mysterious something super-added... the gods magnificently descended" (324)

Langston Hughes, White Shadows in a Black Land (1932)

Cracker English in little cafes owned by blacks...
Black tellers, white comptroller
Larger stores owned by French, Germans and Syrians ("Assyrian Jews")
Military dictatorship backed by American guns






Recent works
Graham Greene, The Comedians (1967)
"demonic head of state and malevolent Tontons Macoutes"
Bernard Diederich, Papa Doc and the Tonton Macoutes
"Duvalier's reign of terror..."
Wade Davis, The Serpent and the Rainbow (1986)
Amy Wilentz, The Rainy Season (1994)

Nicholls 1979, pp. 221-237: Duvalier and the Catholic Church, 1957 1971

Griots: The church is an ideological instrument for a small francophone
elite and the church enables its hegemony.

Janvier: The church is a body within the state owing allegiance to a foreign
power.

Duvalier Expected the clergy to pray for him and the Haitian State (222)

Purges
Priests expelled (Mgr Robert because of his involvement in
the anti-superstition campaigns of 1941)
"Communist" educators, school teachers fired
Newspapers closed, raided
House arrest of Anglican priest who asked for mercy for
political prisoners (225)

-- Duvalier broke the foreign control of the Roman Catholic Church
-- Insisted on an indigenous hierarchy (226); Pope Paul VI agrees in 1966
-- The Church is seen as a "vassal to the Haitian state"

Big plans to combat illiteracy fails.

Hurbon 1972 + Vodou as the preservation of African identity.
+ Christians should respect Vodou as they respect the other
big religions.
+ Vodou in Haiti; Islam in Algeria = resistance to cultural
domination (Frantz Fanon 1963)







Noiriste theme and legend under Duvalier


The marron inconnu, neg mawon, 'the unknown runaway' 1968
Goman and Acaau
Dessalines
Pierrot
Soulouque
Antoine Simon
Salomon

The challenge from Price Mars (230)

You cannot reduce the social question in Haiti to the color question.
There have always been poor mulattoes and rich blacks.

The challenge from Depestre (231) exiled to Cuba in 1960

Human nature does not differ significantly between races (231)


Duvalier's propaganda mixes Catholicism, Haitian historical legend, Vodou
and military imagery (233)


LEGACIES

Rhetoric of populism, empowered peasantry.
National scale of the VSN.
Maintained good relations with the peasantry and black middle class.
Welcomed Vodou leaders into the presidential palace.
Haitianized the church.
Political violence, political prisoners, torture and murder
Failure to enact lasting educational reform and literacy.






The linguistic complexity of Haitian Creole in Haiti (Dejean 1993: 81-2)

HAITIAN CREOLE

MONOLINGUALS
South (regional HC)
Central (regional HC, Standard HC)
(n.b. many migrants to P-au-P end up knowing 2 varieties).
Northern (regional HC)

TRADITIONAL 'BILINGUALS'
1. HC basilect (varieties spoken by monolinguals)
2. HC mesolect (variety spoken by bilinguals, i.e. there is French influence)
3. French

NON-TRADITIONAL BILINGUALS FROM THE DIASPORA
HC +English
HC + Que6bcois French
HC + Dominican Spanish

FRENCH
The traditional French of Haiti (bourgeoisie and petty bourgeoisie)
French full of Creolismes (not spoken at home and used for meetings,
television, radio, etc.)
This group also speaks the HC mesolect in # 2.







HAT 3564 Benjamin Hebblethwaite
1. The church is an ideological instrument for a small francophone elite and the church enables its
hegemony.

a) Griots b) Goman c) Antoine Simon

2. Duvalier did not want the clergy to pray for him and the Haitian State.

a) True b) False

3. Duvalier ordered the house arrest of the priest who asked for mercy for political
prisoners.

a) Vodou b) Catholic c) Anglican

4. Pope Paul VI did this in 1966:

a) Stopped persecuting Vodou.
b) Let Haitians chose their Catholic leaders.
c) Excommunicated Duvalier.

5. Vodou in Haiti (1791) and Islam in Algeria (1950-60s) share:

a) Fundamentalist ideology.
b) Resistance to cultural domination.
c) The use of drums to announce war.

6. Hurbon (1972) said that Christians

a) should respect Vodou.
b) are incapable of respecting Vodou.
c) are incapable or respecting any religion.

7. "You cannot reduce the social question in Haiti to the color question. There have always been poor
mulattoes and rich blacks."

a) Price Mars b) Janvier c) Depestre

8. "Human nature does not differ significantly between races."

a) Price Mars b) Janvier c) Depestre

9. Who was Goman?

a) Marron (mawon) ruler of South.
b) Marron (mawon) ruler of North.
c) Marron (mawon) ruler of Port-au-Prince.

10. What is the most prestigious variety of Haitian Creole?
a) Northern b) Central c) Southern
25






Caribbean: 5 million destitute and fleeing...


Doesn't this put Haiti and Haitians on the forefront of finding solutions with
major global import?!

What can be done?
R & D on renewables and efficiency. Energy paradigm shift.
SOLAR already widely used in Haiti. Solar revolution needed.
WIND (turbines)
Donor nations need to step up.
$9 billion can eliminate deaths from famine and reduce hunger.
RE-THINK THE ARMS RACE. Arms form twice the expenditure
as health and education in many nations facing environmental
catastrophes.
Spend on soil conservation and tree-planting
Promote projects with multiplier effects:
Example: treeplanting is good for what?
fuelwood and timber
protects soil and watersheds
provides crop and windbreaks and carbon sinks for
greenhouse
Information is needed to combat ignorance ...






Courage defemme
1. Describe the existence of the woman in the film.
2. How many children depend on her?
3. Do the children do their fair share?
4. Is she married?
5. What are her living conditions?
6. What is the solution?




Questions for discussion from Arthur, 198-208

1. What exodus does the reading refer to?
2. What are the conditions of the exodus?
3. Describe some of the travails of Edwidge Danticat.
4. How do Haitians in Miami shine and equal or surpass their
peers?
5. How do people without papers survive in Miami?
6. Who is Abner Louima? What did he reveal about life in
NYC?
7. How did Wyclef impact Haitian youth in the 1990s?







27 Days after the earthquake:


890 million. Amount of international debt that Haiti owes creditors. Finance
ministers from developing countries announced they will forgive $290 million.
Source: Wall Street Journal

644 million. Donations for Haiti to private organizations have exceeded
$644 million. Over $200 million has gone to the Red Cross, who had 15
people working on health projects in Haiti before the earthquake. About $40
million has gone to Partners in Health, which had 5,000 people working on
health in Haiti before the quake. Source: New York Times.

1 million. People still homeless or needing shelter in Haiti. Source: MSNBC.

1 million. People who have been given food by the UN World Food Program
in Port au Prince another million in Port au Prince still need help. Source:
UN World Food Program.

300,000. People injured in the earthquake, reported by Haitian Prime Minister
Jean-Max Bellerive. Source: CNN.

212,000. People reported killed by earthquake by Haitian Prime Minister Jean-
Max Bellerive. Source: CNN.

63,000. There are 63,000 pregnant women among the people displaced by the
earthquake. 7,000 women will deliver their children each month. Source: UN
Populations Fund.

17,000. Number of United States troops stationed on or off coast in Haiti,
down from a high of 22,000. AFP.

9,000. United Nations troops in Haiti. Miami Herald.

7,000. Number of tents distributed by United Nations. Miami Herald.
President Preval of Haiti has asked for 200,000 tents. Reuters.

4,000. Number of amputations performed in Haiti since the earthquake. AFP.








900. Number of latrines that have been dug for the people displaced from their
homes. Another 950,000 people still need sanitation. Source: New York
Times.

75. An hourly wage of 75 cents per hour is paid by the United Nations
Development Program to people in Haiti who have been hired to help in the
clean up. The UNDP is paying 30,000 people to help clean up Haiti, 180
Haitian Gourdes ($4.47) for six hours of work. The program hopes to hire
100,000 people. Source: United Nations News Briefing.

1.25. The U.S. is pledged to spend as much as $379 million in Haitian relief.
This is about $1.25 for each person in the United States. Canadian Press.

1. For every one dollar of U.S. aid to Haiti, 42 cents is for disaster assistance,
33 cents is for the U.S. military, 9 cents is for food, 9 cents is to transport the
food, 5 cents to pay Haitians to help with recovery effort, 1 cent is for the
Haitian government and 12 a cent is for the government of the Dominican
Republic. Source: Associated Press.






Reading Quiz (208-227):


21. He contracted a huge debt for Haiti:
(a) Petion (b) Boyer
22. He launched a military campaign against the U.S. occupation
(a) Antoine Gomier (b) Duvalier (c) Charlemagne P6ralte
23. Used 'food for work' [i.e. 'work for food'] in Haiti
(a) Protestant missionaries (b) Catholic missionaries
24. Hired killers funded by the CIA in the early 1990s:
(a) FRAPH (b) Lavalas (c) HPARF
25. The U.S. intervened to rid Haiti of General C6dras in:
(a) 1990 (b) 1994 (c) 1998
26. 'Invaded' Haiti at the end of 19t century:
(a) Germans (b) Jamaicans (c) Arabs
27. Forced labor used by U.S. marines during the occupation:
(a) Corvee/kove (b) Coumbite/konbit (c) servitude
28. According to Normil Sylvain, the U.S. brought freedom to Haiti.
(a) True (b) False
29. Baby Doc's wife drew a monthly salary of...
(a) $10,000 (b) $100,000 (c) $1,000,000
30. God's justice is an
(a) 'taptap' taxi bus (b) oxcart (c) a mercedes benz
31. A bit of God, a bit of the
(a) Pumpkin pie (b) the Holy Spirit (c) the spirits
32. God gives but He (or She) doesn't
(a) distribute (b) take (c) care
33. God's pencil has no
(a) Lead (b) grip (c) eraser








Questions for discussion from Arthur 209 227

1. Give several examples of foreign interventions in Haiti.
2. How did Haiti inaugurate the phenomenon of "Third
World debt"?
3. Describe some of the cruel reasons foreign powers
extracted money from Haiti.
4. What immigrant group became important in the late 19th
century? How did they pose a threat? How did they
survive?
5. Who was FRAPH?
6. What was the corvee? How did Americans obtain labor?
7. What are the lessons on U.S. occupation that Haiti
provides? Did the U.S. legally occupy Haiti? Does the U.S.
legally occupy Iraq & Afganistan?
8. What are the contradictions that Peralte points out in his
letter?
9. How did Bauxite mining impact the Miragoane region
from 1957 1993?











Nicholls 109 164


1. "Liberals" versus "Nationals" in Haitian politics.
2. Anti-clericalism 1880s 1960s.
3. German involvement in Haiti.
4. The meaning of the McDonald contract in 1910.
5. The Masonic movement in Haiti.
6. The Latin versus Anglo-Saxon debate: Banque Nationale.

U.S. Occupation 1915-1934
167 victims of President Vilbrun Guillaume
'Voici ma pipe, m'ap fumin' / 'Men pip mwen, m ap fimen'
Imperialism
Germany
Misguided altruism: 'a unique laboratory' (148)
Protection of foreign assets
Land-leasing/land expropriations (150)
U.S. war crimes (151)

Haitian reactions to occupation
Collaboration
Collaboration disillusionment
Resistance Peralte and the Cacos
Intellectual resistance: Ethnological movement / Noiriste movement of the
1930s and 1940s

Attitudes toward Voodoo
Leon Audin (1904) transformation of Voodoo
Dorsainvil Vodou et nevrose (1913)
Dr. Arthur Holly "Haitians must direct prayers to Legba and Damballah"
Jean Price Mars: Vodou is 'animism' or 'dynamism' not fetishismm'
i.e. 'spiritual power manifests itself through material forms.' (157)
Jacques Roumain










Arthur, 228-245
Emmanuel Constant
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dPI 1QIbylDM

Part I
1. What did the U.S. want to do in Haiti under its 'neo-liberal' plan.
What do Haitian industrialists offer?
2. Describe the activities of Christian mission groups in Haiti. How
would these groups feel about Vodouist or Islamic mission
organizations working in the U.S. saying: "Americans Christians
are caught in Satan's grip"?
3. According to Thomson, what is unethical and immoral about U.S.
Christian missionary work in Haiti?
4. What is the republic of NGOs? How have NGOs been criticized
after the earthquake?
5. Describe the CIA's involvement in Haiti VS. the Clinton
administration. Why would the CIA want to destabilize Haiti?
6. Who was Emmanuel Constant? What do we learn about U.S. ties
to FRAPH (Front pour l'Avancement et le Progres Ha'tien)

Part II
7. According to Haitian grassroots organizations, who really holds
the power in Haiti?
8. What were the mixed feelings Haitians held when the U.S.
returned President Aristide in 1994? (p. 240)
9. What is "Business as usual" about? What did the elite expect
from Aristide in 1994-5?
10. Describe the disarmament the U.S. military was charged
with in Haiti post-1994. How did it go?






11. How do foreign culture & goods impact an economy? Do
Haiti and the U.S. share anything in common? What is the impact
of U.S. culture (TV, movies, music) in Haiti?






I. Turnbull, VIRTUES AND VICES: Interpret & Explain
1. Lie to save a man but not to put him in jail.
2. Behind the back is in Guinea.
3. Doing well knows not the past.
4. Without tolerance there are no thieves.
5. Speak the truth, but leave right away.
6. The stupid man is the horse of the evil spirit.
7. It's good that's rare.
8. The goat's skin isn't enough to cover a drum; Bouki is asking for
a piece to roast.
9. This man is dead; he just has not begun to stink.
10. When you eat the tiger's cub, you don't sleep well.





II. Social Comparisons in Haiti, 233-253
Social status: Wealth, education
Language: Haitian Creole (100%) versus French (5%)
Race: Black (95%) versus Mulatto (3-5%)

1. A big name kills the puppy. (233)
2. Speaking French doesn't mean intelligence. (234)
3. From your collar I see your regiment. (235)
4. Boils don't respect the rich man's behind. (236)
5. Even if it carries a relic, the donkey is a still a donkey. (236)
6. Haiti owes France. (237)
7. Speaking French doesn't send to the market. (242)
8. People don't trust each other since Guinea. (242)
9. The captain of the zombie is a man, too. (243)






III. Finish the problem: be creative!
1. It's when you have that......
2. Prison is made....
3. The baby chick doesn't ask
for feathers....
4. What the poor say has no ...
value...
5. The Vodou priest never heals the...
6. Tiger piss is....
7. When you discover a bone ...
on the highway,...
8. When the cat is full, ...











Nicholls, 165 181


* 'mulatrification'
* 50,000 Haitians in D.R.
* Griots
* Noiriste
* Noiriste view of Catholicism
* Noiriste politics


Elie Lescot (1941)
Sugar cane plantations
Noirisme
centrality of Voodoo in the life of Haiti
self-imposing alien European culture
Authoritarian


1. Debate: "the biology of a racial group determines its psychology; its
collective personality."
2. Explain: "Voodoo perpetuates the African past."






3. Explain this anti-liberal view: "...liberty of the press, free elections and
democracy as sordid tinsel designed to mislead the masses."
4. Describe the social class background of Haitian socialists.
5. Describe how blacks and mulattoes in Haiti viewed Mussolini's invasion of
Haile Selassie's Ethiopia.

Noirisme
African culture in religion, music, art and literature
Restructuring education; diminishing Catholicism
Sympathy for European fascism found among some noiristes
Catholic right saw fascism as alternative to communism

Socialism
Jacques Roumain's Masters of the Dew 1944

Mulatto reaction to noirisme
Agricultural self-sufficiency necessary
"Despotism of Soulouque," Delencour
Rejected Voodoo as superstition (Delencour)
Noirists substitute 'black racism for white racism' (178)











Of Men and Gods
Lecture on the reading
Presentation







Questions from Of Men and Gods

1.What formal elements of the Vodou religion were
present?
2.In what ways does the film illustrate the
interpenetration of Vodou and Catholicism in Haiti?
3.Why do members of the gay community practice
Vodou?
4. Where does sexual-orientation come from?
5. What do these men get from Vodou?
6. What is universal about their religious experience?






Arthur 255-276, [here]


1. Why was Vodou a "common social and cultural system"?
2. Explain: "inspirational qualities of Vodou in the war against the white,
Christian slave-owners."
3. Why did Vodou trouble Toussaint Louverture and Jean-Jacques
Dessalines?
4. How is Vodou tradition maintained over generations?
5. Explain Vodouist views of Bondye (God) and Iwa (spirits).
6. What is an oungan, a manbo and a bok6?
7. Are the Iwa perfect? What is anthropomorphism?
8. What are some of the ways in which the Iwa communicate to humans?

9. Explain the concepts wanga and zonbi.
10.What do foreigners and non-Vodouists in Haiti tend to say about Vodou?
Why?
11 .What religion is stereotyped and vilified in U.S. society today? Why?
12.What was the role of the Vodou secret societies like Chanpwel?
13. Describe the intersection of Vodou and politics in the late 20th century.
14. How has Vodou influenced Christianity in Haiti?
15. Has Vodou ever been codified in writing?
16. Describe the attributes of Azaka, Agwe, Simbi, Gede, Gran Bwa, Ogou,
Danbala, Ezili Danto, Legba...
17. What is a chwal 'horse' in Vodou.
18. What is the audiences role during spirit possession?
19. How have some Haitians criticized Vodou?








Quiz on Arthur (Vodou) & James (The Mass of Slaves Begin)
1. Toussaint Louverture and Jean-Jacques Dessalines were troubled by Vodou
(a) True (b) False
2. How is Vodou tradition maintained over generations?
(a) Written tradition (b) Oral tradition (c) Combination of both
3. Oungan
(a) Woman (b) Man (c) Spirit
4. Manbo
(a) Woman (b) Man (c) Spirit
5. Are the Iwa perfect?
(a) Yes (b) No
6. A Vodou secret society:
(a) Lougawou (b) Chanpwil (b) Zonbi
7. Someone possessed by a Vodou Iwa:
(a) a goat (b) a cat (c) a horse

8. Toussaint Louverture:
(a) had concubines (b) had one wife (c) unmarried
9. Toussaint Louverture
(a) literate in French (b) illiterate in French
10. Toussaint Louverture killed his white master in 1791.
(a) True (b) False






James, The Masses Begin.


1. What type of actions by the French provoked great anger among mulattoes?
2. What kind of a relationship did whites try to cultivate with mulattoes? Did it
succeed?
3. How was Haiti divided in the early 1790s?
4. For what reason did the French want to contain the insurrectionists in the
North?
5. What did the French want from the insurrectionist slaves? How did the
French misunderstand them?
6. What do we know about Toussaint Louverture's language skills?
7. What kind of temperament did T.L. have? Give an example.
8. Describe the role of Vodou wanga among some of the soldiers of T.L.'s
army.
9. What was and still is the name of S.D. and Haiti's official government
newspaper?


Arthur 277-288
1. What is rara? What associations does it have?
2. How does Katherine Dunham analyze dancing in Haiti? Where
do dances take place in Haiti? What are the different varieties of
dance?
3. Who was Manno Sanon? What was Duvalier's link to the Haitian
team? What happened to Manno after the big event?
4. You have just arrived at a cock-fight (gage), what do you see?
5. What is borlette? How does it work? What kind of people get
involved in it in Haiti and the U.S.?
6. What are some of the forms of Haitian oral tradition? What is the
purpose of oral tradition? What forms of oral tradition are alive
with your family and friends?

Manno Sanon:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8c61 tsbtN4g&feature=related
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eNBI_7GOBxs







289-299 Literature & language

1. Who was Boisrond Tonnerre?
2. What is the poem Choucoune about?
3. What is nationalism and why are some Haitians
nationalistic?
4.What was indigenisme?
5.What is noirisme? What does it focus upon?
6. What was the political triumph of
n gritude/n oirisme?
7.What is racial mystification?
8. What is spiralism? Who is its greatest proponent?


James: The Rise of Toussaint

1. How many men did Toussaint lead? How did he gain more men?
2. Did Toussaint always fight for the French?
3. What other nations descended on S.Domingue?
4. Where were most of Toussaint's soldiers born?
5. Describe the material/financial conditions of Toussaint's soldiers.
6. How did Toussaint relate with his soldiers?
43






7. Who was Laveaux?
8. Why were 1,000 French women, men and children slaughtered in
PauP around 1795? Who was behind it?
9. What killed off English soldiers?


James: Toussaint seizes power

1. How does the election of Obama resemble and differ from the
Haitian Revolution?
2. Who was Rigaud and why was he an obstacle for Toussaint?
3. Based on Rigaud's own writings, was he racist?
4. Who was Petion and on whose side was he? What will he
become?
5. How did Toussaint divide up revenues on plantations?
6. What was the fate of the 350 mulatto officers in Rigaud's
defeated army? Why? What were the consequences?
7. The island of Hispaniola is compared to what other island in
terms of its size?


% for workers; 12 for state 1% for the owners






Arthur, pp. 300-315: Haitian literature


Folk literature (Price Mars, So Spoke the Uncle 1938)

"Oraliture"
Tales, legends, riddles, songs, proverbs and beliefs
Bouki and Ti Malis
Talking animals who represent human traits
Magical orange trees
Flying lougawou, madmen, monsters, ghouls, devils (dyab),
Bondye (God)

Literature and ideology (Carl Brouard, 1938)

"The most ignorant peasant feels which vaudou temple is more
artistic than another... he will obey a dictatorship that works for
order... people only gradually attain, step by step, liberalism...
P6tion's liberalism sank into despotism..."

Echos of the "Black legend."

The peasant novel (Jacques Roumain 1944)

Land conflict, conflict between families
Shortages of water and resources
Collectivism, socialism & egalitarianism as the solution

"Then we'll call a general assembly of the Masters of the Dew, a
great big coumbite of farmers, and we'll clear out poverty and plant
a new life"

Spiralism and experimental writing (Frank6tienne's Dezafi, 1975)

One of the first high quality Haitian Creole novels: spiralism
Dezafi
Sentil oungan
Siltina his daughter






Zof6 second in charge
Klod6nis / Mako

The revolution of the zombies against the evil oungan Sentil
Exploiting Vodou for a profit ("Exoticism")
Jeneral Lenglensou

Violence in Haitian writing:

1. Murder and torture in Chauvet 1968
2. Killing President Duvalier in Phelps 1976
3. The culture of the Tonton Makout in Depestre 1979
4. The Tonton Makout/torturer in Danticat 1994
5. Haiti as more difficult than Somalia, Rwanda and Bosnai,
Ollivier 1995


MARXIST (COMMUNIST) HAITI

1. Etienne Charlier, 1950s ("Mulatto marxist")

Haiti in 1950s is a semi-colonial society in which class
distinctions are associated with color (201).

2. Emmanuel C. Paul criticized him, arguing that

Economic status, not color determines class structure (202).
Accused Charlier of under-emphasizing the neg mawon and
overemphasizing the afranchi

...The Black and the Mulatto Legends are re-written every generation...
...Haitian authors have the propensity to spin the competing historical racial
legends in their interpretation of the present...






MARXISTS NOVELS & THEIR CRITIQUES
1. Jacques St6phen Alexis (in the tradition of Roumain)
Vodou as an opium... "it paralyzed men, alienated their
courage..." houngan trap people in despair and resignation
Dejan's (2006) critique of the representation of learning, how
could an illiterate student learn to read and write French in such a
short span?
"We see in, in the ideas of the people who are at the head of the
Haitian communist movement, French retains its place in
discussions about schools and education" (Dejan 2006: 79)






James: The bourgeoisie prepares to restore slavery (part 1)


1. How did Napoleon Bonaparte view black people?
2. Why did NB want to return to Saint-Domingue?
3. Those in France who supported the abolishment of slavery came from
what social class? Where did they live?
4. What did the French expect from Toussaint's forces upon their arrival in
S.D.?
5. Describe the expedition that sailed from France.
6. Who was Moise? How did TL react to him? How did the Moise incident
impact TL rule?
7. The revolutionaries associated with Moise wanted to do what?
8. Moise's supporters accused TL of certain favoritisms... what were they?
9. How did TL conduct the S.-D. after the Moise incident?




James (part 2)
10. How did TL deal with the whites who rejoiced about the arrival of
Leclerc?
11. TL saw his power as an end in itself or a means to an end? (281)
12. In the Russian Marxist model, who were the 'Bolsheviks' and who
were the 'Tsarists' in TL time?
13. Would the whites of Saint-Domingue fight with TL against the
French army?
14. What was TL's big mistake in the eyes of the black majority? (284-
5)
15. How was TL's army divided in allegiance?
16. What should TL have done (bottom of 285-6).
17. Explain: "Where imperialists do not find disorder they create it
deliberately... They want an excuse for going in.'
18. How did TL bewilder the masses? Who should revolutionaries
serve? (286-7)
19. What distinguished TL from Dessalines? Who really needed
reassurances?
20. According to James, why was Dessalines so prescient?








James, The War ofIndependence, part 1


Vocabulary = define, use and explain the use of the word in the reading
(generally)


Tergiversations
Vacillation
Obscure
Hamartia
Grandeur


Reactionary policy
Feinting (not fainting)
feudalism
symptomatic


Who were they?
Prometheus / Hamlet / Lear / Phedre / Ahab







Answer and explain with a classmate
1. "That calm confidence in its capacity to deceive is a mark of the mature
ruling class." (294)
2. What were Christophe's different reactions when Leclerc's army
appeared?
3. What did the French capture in "Port-R6publicain"?
4. What was the main resource/weapon of the revolutionaries?
5. What was Dessalines' strategy?




















DUVALIER'S PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN


Magloire departs into exile in 1956.
Toned down anti-clericalism and noirisme (pro-African, pro-
Vodou).
Praised the Church for its zeal in evangelization.
Paid tribute to the anti-Vodou campaigns of the south.
Argued for a Haiti without the distinction of color.
Praised the army for liberating the country from 'a system of
slavery' instituted by Magloire.
Landslide victory (209).







CULTURE & TYRANNY: Duvalier 1957-1971

1. What were Duvalier's first moves upon taking power in 1957?
2. How was Duvalier absorbed once in power? (213)
3. Was Duvalier totalitarian or fascist? (213)
4. What were some of the roles of the tonton makout? (215)
5. How healthy were worker's unions during Duvalier's reign?
6. What action did Duvalier take with regards to the University of Haiti?
50








1. Reduce the power of the opposition and effect an accommodation.
2. With staying alive and retaining office
3. No. Focused violence on the opposition but did not exterminate ethnic
minorities or build work-camps (death-camps) on a large scale.
4. Repress opposition and build support for Duvalier; effect changes in
the leadership of the armed forces
5. Lowest membership in Latin America.
6. He shut it down and reopened it with a new name and under his
control.







QUIZ ON ARTHUR & DASH, 1999


1. According the Arthur & Dash, Graham Greene's book The Comedians gives a fair
portait of Duvalierism.
a. True b. False
2. Wade Davis
a. The Serpent and the Rainbow b. The Magic Island c. Black Baghdad
3. Langston Hughes
a. The Rainy Season b. White Shadows in a Black Land c. Cannibal Cousins
4. Langston Hughs saw a Haiti controlled by blacks
a. True b. False
5. Discussion about the terms "Juida" and "Ardra" is associated with who?
a. Moreau de Saint-M6ry b. John Houston Craige c. William Seabrook
6. What is the missing word from Seabrook's sentence: "a mysterious something super-
added... the magnificently descended"
a. demons b. ancestors c. gods
7. Seabrook compares Vodou dances with
a. Cannibalistic rituals b. fashionable nightclubs of Europe c. subversive activities
8. Amy Wilentz's journalistic work that examines the rise of Aristide's Lavalas party is:
a. The Rainy Season b. Hayti or the Black Republic c. The Dry Season
9. What will Pierre Mabille who wrote The Haitian Panorama never forget?
a. big tractors b. women with loads on their heads c. Vodou drums
10. For Langston Hughes, Haiti was a sort of military dictatorship backed by the guns of
what nation?
a. Germany b. France c. U.S.A.






Haiti in pictures:


http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://gbgm-
umc.org/missionvolunteers/haiti/catholic.ipg&imgrefurl=http://gbgm-
umc.org/missionvolunteers/haiti/seehaiti.htm&h=454&w=426&sz=42&tbnid=05BiGp
1JOxH OM:&tbnh=128&tbnw=120&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dchurches%2Bin%2BH
aiti&usg= K aH4XKCS5ZTeKlol7AwGAnNAH8=&ei=6L2sS-
2XBsqQtgfmpM29Dw&sa=X&oi=image result&resnum=10&ct=image&ved=OCBO
Q9QEwCO

The view from abroad, 315 -330.

Discuss these questions with your partner.

1. How were books lik Graham Greene's The Comedians damaging
to Haiti? How did it promote "The Myth of Haitian barbarism"?
Discuss the relativity of "barbarism," e.g. Haitian dictator versus
the U.S. war machine in Vietnam... Irak... etc.
2. Who is Wade Davis? What images of Haiti did his writing
perpetuate?
3. What does Saint-Mery (who wrote in the early 1800s) say about
"Juida" [Wida] and "Ardra" [Arada/Alada]? Although this
Frenchman is very negative, what do we learn about Vodou from
this very early description?
4. Seabrook compares Vodou to which non-Haitian cultures and
practices?
5. What aspect of Haiti does Langston Hughes' passage capture?
How is his text different from Seabrook, Davis, Saint-Mery?
6. What does Zora Neale Hurston complain about in her passage?
7. How does Pierre Mabille capture the realities of the farmer in
Haiti? What stands out in the reading.
8. Under what conditions did King Henri Christophe commit
suicide in 1820.







The view from abroad, Arthur 315-30

"Haiti challenges the prevailing view that blacks were incapable of revolutionary
insurrection" (Arthur & Dash)

How foreigners (mis)perceive Haiti

18th century
Moreau de Saint-M6ry (c. 1789) one of the earliest examinations of Vodou
Juida Wida
Ardra Rada

"Affect Vodou in public" (321)
Vodou is "a school where those easily influenced give themselves up to a
domination which a thousand circumstances renders tragic"
"Nothing is more dangerous, according to all the accounts..."

19th century
Crippling indemnity (1825)

Spencer St. John, Hayti or the Black Republic (1886)

20th century
John Houston Craige, Black Baghdad (U.S. occupation)
Faustin Wirkus, Cannibal Cousins (U.S. occupation)

William Seabrook, The Magic Island (1929)
Haiti as given over to Vodou and ritual sacrifice

"Blood maddened, sex-maddened, god-maddened..."
"It seemed to me magnificent and not devoid of a certain beauty"

Collective ecstasy VS. soulless robots
Vodou dances VS. our fashionable nightclubs
"a mysterious something super-added... the gods magnificently descended" (324)

Langston Hughes, White Shadows in a Black Land (1932)

Cracker English in little cafes owned by blacks...
Black bank tellers, white comptroller
Larger stores owned by French, Germans and Syrians ("Assyrian Jews")
Military dictatorship backed by American guns
54









Recent works
Graham Greene, The Comedians (1967)
"demonic head of state and malevolent Tontons Macoutes"
Bernard Diederich, Papa Doc and the Tonton Macoutes
"Duvalier's reign of terror..."

Wade Davis, The Serpent and the Rainbow (1986)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oOPRk4qG53 s
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z-jj OVMaI24

Amy Wilentz, The Rainy Season (1994)







Duvalier and the Catholic Church, 1957 1971


Griots "The church is an ideological instrument for a small
Y 4 francophone elite and the church enables its hegemony."

Janvier: The church is a body within the state owing allegiance to a foreign
power.

Duvalier expected the clergy to pray for him and the Haitian State (222)

Purges
Priests expelled (Mgr Robert because of his involvement in
the anti-superstition campaigns of 1941)
"Communist" educators, school teachers fired
Newspapers closed, raided
House arrest of Anglican priest who asked for mercy for
political prisoners (225)

-- Duvalier broke the foreign control of the Roman Catholic Church
-- Insisted on an indigenous hierarchy (226); Pope Paul VI agrees in 1966
-- The Church is seen as a "vassal to the Haitian state"

Nationalist (Black) vs. Liberal (Mulatto) [Haiti is also 'bipartisan']

Noiriste theme and legend under Duvalier. Noiriste heroes:

The marron inconnu, neg mawon, 'the unknown runaway' 1968
Goman and Acaau
Dessalines
Pierrot
Soulouque
Antoine Simon
Salomon

The challenge from Price Mars (230)






"You cannot reduce the social question in Haiti to the color question.
There have always been poor mulattoes and rich blacks."

The challenge from Depestre (231) exiled to Cuba in 1960

"Human nature does not differ significantly between races" (231)


Duvalier's propaganda mixes Catholicism, Haitian historical legend, Vodou
and military imagery (233)


LEGACIES


Rhetoric of populism, empowered peasantry.
National scale of the VSN.
Maintained good relations with the peasantry and black middle
class.
Welcomed Vodou leaders into the presidential palace.
Haitianized the church.
Political violence, political prisoners, torture and murder
Failure to enact lasting educational reform and literacy.


Hurbon 1972


+ Vodou as the preservation of African identity.
+ Christians should respect Vodou as they respect the other
big religions.
+ Vodou in Haiti; Islam in Algeria = resistance to cultural
domination (Frantz Fanon 1963)






The linguistic complexity of Haitian Creole in Haiti (Dejean 1993: 81-2)

HAITIAN CREOLE

MONOLINGUALS = SPEAK THE 'BASILECT'
South (regional variety of HC)
Central (regional of HC = Standard HC used in Bib la; urban HC)
(n.b. many migrants to P-au-P end up knowing 2 varieties).
Northern (regional variety of HC)

TRADITIONAL 'BILINGUALS' = SPEAK THE MESOLECT
1. HC mesolect (variety spoken by bilinguals, i.e. there is French influence
and there are unique HC mesolectal features)
2. French

NON-TRADITIONAL BILINGUALS FROM THE DIASPORA
HC +English
HC + Que6bcois French
HC + Dominican Spanish

FRENCH
The traditional French of Haiti (bourgeoisie and petty bourgeoisie)
French full of Creolismes (not spoken at home and used for meetings,
television, radio, ceremonies, solemn occasions, etc.)
This group also speaks the HC mesolect in # 2.







SAMPLE OF RURAL VARIANTS (left) vs. URBAN VARIANTS (right)


1. anvan (*) /avan
2. asizonnen /asizone
3. bije/oblije
4. chimen /chemen
5. chimiz /chemiz
6.ch6dye/chodyb
7. chonje /sonje
8. chwal chevall


9. denmen /demen


10. denpi /depi


11. dibout /debou
12. dirbkte /direkte
13. d6kt /dokte
14. douvanjou/Avanjou
15. fenmel /femel
16. frnwb(*) /fnwa
17. fiy61 /fiybl
18. fouye dife /fwaye
dife
19.
gouvelman/gouvenman
20. had /rad


21. hadi /radi
22. hadiyss /radiyes
23. hale /rale
24. ganyen /genyen
25. hou /wou (zouti)
26. jouk ki 1 /jis ki 1l
27. kouman /k6man
28. koumanse
/k6manse /konmanse
29. Lanmb(*) /lame


30. Larivye /rivye


31.16 /1
32. 16t jou /lotrejou
33. panyen /panye
34. penmt /pbm&t
35. pweson /pwason
36.pwezonnen/pwazonnen
37. sanmdi /samdi
38. senmenn /sembn


39. swate /swete


40. swedizan /swadizan


1. before. 2. to season (meat, etc.). 3. to be obliged. 4. road, way. 5. shirt. 6. pan. 7. to remember, to recall.
8. horse. 9. tomorrow. 10. since. 11. up (standing up). 12.director. 13. doctor. 14. dawn, early in the
morning. 15. female (animal) 16. darkness. 17. godchild. 18. fire place. 19. govern ment. 20. cloth. 21.
disrespectful 22. disrespect 23. to pull 24. have 25.--- 26. until when 27. how 28. to begin, to start. 29. sea.
30. river. 31. when. 32. the other day. 33. basket. 34. to allow. 35. fish. 36.to poison. 37. Saturday. 38.
week. 39. to wish. 40. so-called.


Material from E.W.VWdrine, http://www.potomitan.info/vedrine/haitian_studies.php










HAT 3564 Benjamin Hebblethwaite
1. The church is an ideological instrument for a small francophone elite and the church enables its
hegemony.

a) Griots b) Goman c) Antoine Simon

2. Duvalier did not want the clergy to pray for him and the Haitian State.

a) True b) False

3. Duvalier ordered the house arrest of the priest who asked for mercy for political
prisoners.

a) Vodou b) Catholic c) Anglican

4. Pope Paul VI did this in 1966:

a) Stopped persecuting Vodou.
b) Let Haitians chose their Catholic leaders.
c) Excommunicated Duvalier.

5. Vodou in Haiti (1791) and Islam in Algeria (1950-60s) share:

a) Fundamentalist ideology.
b) Resistance to cultural domination.
c) The use of drums to announce war.

6. Hurbon (1972) said that Christians

a) should respect Vodou.
b) are incapable of respecting Vodou.
c) are incapable or respecting any religion.

7. "You cannot reduce the social question in Haiti to the color question. There have always been poor
mulattoes and rich blacks."

a) Price Mars b) Janvier c) Depestre

8. "Human nature does not differ significantly between races."

a) Price Mars b) Janvier c) Depestre

9. Who was Goman?

a) Marron (mawon) ruler of South.
b) Marron (mawon) ruler of North.
c) Marron (mawon) ruler of Port-au-Prince.








10. What is the most prestigious variety of Haitian Creole?
a) Northern b) Central c) Southern




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