Title: Comparison of attachment behaviors in Down's Syndrome and normal infants /
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Title: Comparison of attachment behaviors in Down's Syndrome and normal infants /
Physical Description: xi, 136 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Tate, Judith Carine, 1942-
Publication Date: 1979
Copyright Date: 1979
 Subjects
Subject: Down syndrome   ( lcsh )
Mother and child   ( lcsh )
Infant psychology   ( lcsh )
Foundations of Education thesis Ph. D   ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Foundations of Education -- UF   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Thesis: Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 127-135.
Statement of Responsibility: by Judith Carine Tate.
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: Vita.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098846
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000096860
oclc - 06473349
notis - AAL2294

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COMPARISON OF ATTACHMENT BEHAVIORS IN
DOWN'S SYNDROME AND NORMAL INFANTS







By

JUDITH CARINE TATE


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF THE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF1 DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1979








































To David















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I could not have begun or completed this work without

the generosity of many people. The late Dr. Ira J. Gordon

supported my interests in the infant and family. My committee

has been generous with its time and energy.

The staff members of the agencies who welcomed my pro-

ject and recruited families and assisted in the observations,

especially Marily Wessels, Freda Stimell, and Sara Rogers,

provided not only material but moral support. Marian Tate,

Irene Swatling, and Nancy McNeil, who coded the observations,

were generous and gracious, in spite of the many inconven-

iences of time and travel. I thank the mothers and the

babies who volunteered their time.

Chris and Davey Tate have postponed baking dozens of

cookies in favor of this project. David, my husband, has

given me time and every measure of support throughout my

graduate work and has my gratitude and love.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . . .. . . . . ... iii

LIST OF' TABLES . .. . .. . . . . vi

LIST OF FIGURES . . ... . . . . ... viii

ABSTRACT . . . . .. ... . . . . ix

Chapter

1. INTRODUCTION . . . ... . . . 1

Statement of the Problem . . ... . ... 3
Purpose of the Study . . ......... 4
Definition ol Terms . . .. . . . 5
Juslt ification for the Study . . . . 7

II. REVIEW OF RELATED RESEARCHI. . . 11

Preconditions tor Development of Attachment . 11
Attachment Behaviors Relevant to the
Unfamiliar Adult Situation . .. . . . 15
Affective Development of Infants With DS . . 24
Developmental Examinations and Attachment . 31
Visual Preference and Visual Discrimination
Ability of Infants With DS . ... . . 34
Relationships Between Attachment and
Infants With DS ... . . .... 37
Summary . . . . . . . . . . 38

III. METHODOLOGY . ................ 42

Design . . . . .......... 42
Subjects .. . ....... .. . . .. . 44
Procedures . .............. . 48
Instrumenta ion ..... .. ...... 51
Data Analysis . . .. ... . ..... . 53

IV. RESULTS ... .... . ..... . 56









Chapter Page

V. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS . . . 83

Overview ... .. ....... .. . 83
Discussion ... . ... . .. 85
Summary . . . . .. .... 94
Impl ications .. . .. . .. .... . . 9G
Limitations . . . . . . . . . 98
Suggestions for Future Research and Practice 100
Conclusions ................. .. 100

APPENDIX A: SOCIO-ECONOhIC STATUS, SEX, AND
AGE OF SUBJECTS . . . . . ... 103

APPENDIX B: PREGNANCY, LABOR, AND DELIVERY
EXPERIENCES OF MOTHERS . . . .. 104

APPENDIX C: AGE OF SUBJECTS AND DEVELOPMENTAL
QUOTIENT . . .. ... . ... 10G

APPENDIX D: AGENCIES THROUGH WHICH SUBJECTS WERE
RECRUITED . . . .. .. . . . 107

APPENDIX E: INFORMED CONSENT . ... . ...... 108

APPENDIX F: INFORMATION FORM .. . . . ... 111

APPENDIX G: CODING FORM . . .......... .. 112

APPENDIX II: COEFFICIENTS OF RELIABILITY, 6 and
12 MONTHS GORDON et a]. (1973)
STUDY FROM VIDEO TAPES--7 CHILDREN,
3 CHILDREN (r = .62, p < .05) . ... .123

REFERENCES . ...... . .... ... .. 127

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ... . .. ..... . .. 136



















V















LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

1. Mean Birth Weight and Standard Deviations
by Age and Diagnosis .. . . . ..... 45

2. Mean Ages and Gesell Developmental Quotients
of Subjects ... . ......... 46

3. Mean Ages of Parents and Mean Number of
Years Married ... .. . .. . 47

4. Subject's Ordinal Position . . .. . .. 47

5. Cell Means and Standard Deviations for Looking,
Positive Affect, Negal ive Affect, Postural
Approach, and Postural Avoidance by Diagnos-
tic Status, Age, and Elicitor (Mother = M
and Unfamiliar Adult = UA) . . . . . 57

6. Summary Table for Analysis of Variance Split-
Plot. for Repeated Measures for Looking .. .. 58

7. Summary Table for Analysis of Variance Split-
Plot for Repeated Measures for Positive
Affect . . ..... . .... .60

8. Summary Table for Simple Main Effects for
Positive Affect: Diagnostic Status x
Elicitor and Elicitor x Age . . . .. 61

9. Summary Table for Analysis of Variance Split-
Plot for Repeated Measures for Negative
Affect . . . . . . . . . 65

10. Summary Table for Simple Main Effects for
Negative Affect: Diagnostic Status
x Elicitor . . . . . . . . . 66

11. Summary Table for Analysis of Variance Split-
Plot for Repeated Measure for Postural
Approach . . ..... .. 69

12. Summary Table for Simple Main Effects for
Postural Approach: Elicitor x Age . .. 70











13. Summary Table for Analysis of Variance Spl it-
Plot for Repeated Measures for Postural
Avoidance ... . .... . 73

14. ANOVA Summary Table for Acceptance of Toy at
at G-Montlis from Unfamiliar Adult and
Mother. .... ... . . . . . . 74

15. Cell Means and Standard Deviations for
Acceptance and Exploration of Toy by 6-
Month-Old DS and Normal Infants by
Unfamiliar Adult and Mother . .. .... 75

16. ANOVA Summary Table for Exploration of Toy
at 6 Months When Presented by Unfcamiliar
Adult and MlotherLl . . . . . .. . 77

17. Cell Means, Standard Deviations, and t-
Statistics for Acceptance of Toy from
Mother, from Unfamiliar Adult, Response
to Departure of Mother at 12 Months .. 78

18. Pearson Product-Moment Correlations Between
DQ and ALttchment. Behaviors at Age
12 Months ... .. . .... . 80


Table


Page
















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure Page

1. Positive Affect: El ic itor x Diagnostic
Status.. . . . .. . . . . .. . 62

2. Positive Affect: Elicitor x Age .... . .64

3. Negative Affect: Elicitor x Diagnostic
Status . . . ........ . . . 67

4. Postural Approach: Elicitor x Age . .... .. 71


viii









Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Hequi irements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


COMPARISON OF ATTACHMENT BEHAVIORS IN
DOWN'S SYNIDOME. AND NORMAL INFANTS

By

Judith Carine Tate

August, 1979

Chairman: Patricia Ash on
Major Department: Foundations of Education

Down's Syndrome (DS) and normal infants were compared

at 6 and 12 months on expressions of attachment behavior in

the unfamiliar adult situation. Eight normal and eight DS

infants were seen within one week of their sixth-month birth-

day. Nine normal and nine DS infants were seen within two

weeks of their twelfth-month birthday. The infants were

matched for social class, age, and sex. Behavior was ob-

served in the 16-episode unfamiliar adult situation, wherein

an adult female approaches and plays with the infant in the

presence ol the mother and with the infant alone. Subse-

quently, the mother approaches and plays with her infant in

the same way. The Gesell Developmental Examination was ad-

ministered to each of the infants.

The first hypothesis was at age 6 months there are no

differences in the expression of attachment behavior between

DS and normal infants, but differences exist between the DS

and normal infants on attachment measures at 12 months. The









second hypothesis was developmental quotient (DQ) is asso-

ciated with selected attachment behaviors.

The five principal dependent measures: looking, posi-

tive and negative affect, postural approach, and postural

avoidance were analyzed in a two-way factorial analysis of

variance split-plol. design for repeated measures. The inde-

pendent variables were diagnostic status and age; the re-

peated measures were elicitors: unfamiliar adult and mother.

Comparisons of the normal and DS infants at 6 months on

acceptance of a toy from unfamiliar adult and mother and

exploration of a toy presented by unfamiliar adult and mother

were made by means or analysis of variance design for re-

peated measures. For the 12-month-olds acceptance of a toy

from mother ana unfamiliar adult, and response on the de-

parture of the mother were analyzed with t-tests. Pearson

product-moment correlations were computed between DQ and

selected attachment behaviors at age 12 months.

There were no three-way interactions found for the five

principal attachment measures. There were no differences

between the normal and PS infants at age G months in response

to the unfamiliar adult or mother in the unfamiliar adult

situation. Two-way interactions were found for diagnostic

status and elicitor, and age and elicitor for positive affect;

diagnostic status and elicitor for negative affect; age and

elicitor for postural approach. Main effects found were:

diagnostic status for postural adjustment, and age and

elicitor for postural avoidance. Analyses of the acceptance









and exploration of a toy presented by both the mother and the

unfamiliar adult to the 6-month-old groups indicated no dif-

ferences between the groups. No differences were found be-

tween 12-month-old groups on promptness in accepting a toy

from the mother or the unfamiliar adult. Twelve-month-old

normal infants responded with distress to mother's departure

from the observation room; DS infants were not distressed.

Twelve-month-old DS and normal infants responded simi-

larly to measures of looking, approach, and avoidance. DS

infants differed from normals: at both ages they smiled

more at mother, were not distressed in the unfamiliar adult

situation, and displayed more postural approach. Twelve-

month-old infants displayed more postural approach toward

mothers than did 6-month-olds. DQ was associated with

negative affect directed toward the unfamiliar adult and

mother.















CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

Attachment is the study of the relationship between the

infant and its caregiver. Attachment and attachment be-

haviors have been the focus of intense empirical study

during the last decade (Ainsworth, 1963, 1964, 1969, 1973;

Cohen, 1974; Ricciuti, 1974; Schaffer & Emerson, 1964;

Sroufe & Waters, 1977). A number of authors agree that the

primary task of the infant-mother dyad during the first year

of life is the formation of affective ties or attachments

(Ambrose, 1969; Schaffer, 1909; Sroufe Sc Waters, 1977;

Yarrow, 1967). The outcomes for infants deprived of con-

sistent care from a primary caregiver are pathological

(Bowlby, 1969, 1973; IIeinicke & Westheimer, 1966; Robertson

& Robertson, 1971; Schaffer, 1971).

There is evidence to indicate that the active partici-

pation of both infant and mother is important in the develop-

ment. of attachment (Ainsworth, 1964; Bell, 1970; Brazelton,

Koslowski, & Main, 1974; Stern, 1974). Fraiberg's excellent

work (1974, 1975a, 1975b) has pointed out that mothers of blind

infants have special difficulties in developing this critical

affective relationship. Her work suggests that mothers of

infants born with Down's Syndrome (DS) may also have diffi-

culties in the development of attachment because of their









infants' handicaps. There is very little information on the

development of attachment between infants with DS and their

mothers. There is also very little information on ability

of the infant with DS to display attachment behaviors.

This lack of information is surprising as persons with DS

are numerically the largest clinical group of persons with

severe mental retardation (Tizard, 1966).

Only one study deals directly with attachment in chil-

dren with DS. Serafica and Cicchetti (1976) compared the

attachment behaviors of 12 normal and 12 DS children in the

Ainsworth and Wittig (1969) "strange situation." They found

no significant differences between groups on approach or

smiling behavior, and they concluded that at age 33 months,

the DS children had formed attachments to their mothers.

However, DS children did not cry or vocalize when left alone,

as the normal children did, suggesting that they did not

use these behaviors to regain proximity to their mothers in

the same way as did normal children.

Other studies have investigated related aspects of

affective development in DS children. Emde, Katz, and Thorpe

(1978) found that the social smile developed about three

weeks later in DS infants than in normal infants and that it

was not as engaging as in normal infants. Cicchetti and

Sroufe (1976, 1978) studied response to stimuli designed to

produce laughter. They found that infants with DS responded

to the stimulus items in the same order as did normal in-

fants but with less intensity and at an older age. The









same authors (1978) also observed responses of infants with

DS to looming and the visual cliff. They found that DS

infants were less fearful than normal infants and slower

to arouse to cry. When they cried, however, they were not

easily quieted during the testing situation.

In a survey of maternal responses to the care of in-

fants with DS, ago ]5 months, Carr (1975) inquired about

crying and temper tantrums. Mothers' responses indicated

that infants cried less than the normal comparison group

and that their cries were significantly related to physical

rather than psychological distress.

In summary, the single study of attachment behaviors

in infants with DS at 33 months of age indicates that the

children are attached to their mothers. However, the chil-

dren do not signal distress to their mothers as normal

children do. The DS infants are not as effectively intense

as normal infants.

Statement of the Problem

Research has demonstrated the importance of attachment

to mother or caregiver in the development of normal infants.

Zigler (1973) has criticized the lack of a sound and exten-

sive body of empirical work in the social development of

persons with mental retardation. This lack of information,

he contended, is the primary factor in the misunderstanding

and stereotyping of persons with mental retardation.

Cicchetti and Sroufe (1976, 1978) urged that attention be

paid to the emotional growth of infants and children with DS.









Serafica and Cicchetti (1976) have studied the attachment

behavior of 33-month-old children and concluded that attach-

ment to the mother was present, although differences in the

expression of at tachment behaviors wore observed.

There is no information on the development of attach-

ment in infants with DS during their first year of life. An

observational study of DS infants and normal infants of

similar ages in a situation designed to elicit attachment

behaviors would provide an understanding of the development

of attachment behavior in DS inlants.

Purpose of the Study

This investigation was designed to compare the attach-

ment behavior expressed by normal infants and DS infants at

ages 6 and 12 months. The specific attachment behaviors

compared were looking, affect (positive and negative), and

postural adjustment (positive and negative). In addition,

acceptance of a toy, exploration of a toy, and response to

mother's leaving were studied.

The questions asked were these:

1. Are there differences between the DS and normal

infants at ages 6 and 12 months when they are engaged by an

unfamiliar adult female as opposed to their own mothers?

2. Is there a relationship between DQ and selected

attachment behaviors measured at age 12 months?









Definition of Terms

The terms which require more extensive definition are

Down's Syndrome, attachment, and caregiver.

Down's Syndrome

Down's Syndrome( (DS), sometimes referred Lo as mongo-

lism or trisoniy-21, is a chromosomal anomaly which occurs,

on the average, once in every 500 to 600 births (Reed, 1975).

The affected individual has 47 chromosomes instead of the

normal 46 (Warkany, 1975). Most often there is an extra

21st chromosome. Less frequently, there is a translocation

of part of the 21st chromosome to another autosome. In these

instances the infant has the normal complement of 46 chromo-

somes but is nonetheless affected with DS (Donnell, Alfi,

Rublee, & Koch, 1975). Translocation, which occurs in an

estimated 2, to 3% (Lili enfeld, 1969) of the cases, is

important to diagnose because either parent may be a carrier

of the translocation, and future pregnancies may be at risk

for another infant with DS (Donnell et al., 1975; Kirman,

1970).

The incidence of DS varies with maternal age from less

than one in 2,000 births for women under age 20 to one in

40 births for women over 45 years old. For a large number of

infants, diagnosis of DS is made during the neonatal period

or during the first year of life. Levinson, Freedman, and

Stamps (1955), using a sample of 50 children with DS, found

that 78% had been diagnosed during the infant's first year

of life.









Suspicion of DS is aroused by characteristic physical

signs. Smith (1975) listed the occurrence of 50 physical

stigmata which were drawn from three clinical studies (iall,

196,1; Levinson et a ., 1955; Oster, 1953). The frequency

of observation of any one of the physical signs within one

study occurred between 4%' and 98'c. In the newborn the most

characteristic signs are: oblique palpebral fissures,

dysplastic ears, abundant skin, flat facial profile, dys-

plastic middle phalanx on the fifth finger, hyperextensibility

or hyperflexibility of joints, muscular hypotonia, dysplastic

pelvis, and lack of Moro reflex (Hall, 1964). Definite

diagnosis of DS is always made by cytogenetic study (Donnell

et al., 1975; Kirman, 1970). The diagnosis of DS usually

includes mental retardation.

Attachment

Attachment is defined by Ainsworth (1973) as .. an

affectional tie that one person forms with another specific

person, binding them together in space and enduring over

time" (p. 1). Ainsworth (1969) said that attachment be-

haviors fall into three categories: orienting, signaling,

and executing. Orienting behaviors (looking and listening)

track the mother; signaling behaviors (smiling, cooing,

crying) alert the mother; and executing behaviors

(following, clinging, scrambling, or climbing onto mother)

maintain physical closeness to the mother. These are con-

sidered to be attachment behaviors when their goal is prox-

imity of the mother. The behaviors themselves are not









exclusively in the service of attachment. They are acti-

vated in service of attachment when the infant is in a situa-

tion which threatens his/her "set goal," which is proximity

to the mother (Bowlby, 1969).

The behaviors indicative of attachment have been mea-

sured using the "strange situation" developed by Ainsworth

and Wittig (1969) and adapted by users such as Gordon, Beller,

Lally, Yarrow, Moreno, Rand, and Fraiberg (1973); Skarin

(1977); Waters, Matas, and Sroufe (1975). The purpose of

the strange situation is to activate the attachment system

of the infant by placing the infant in a situation of mild

stress (the presence of an adult female stranger) and then

increasing the stress (the mother leaves the infant with the

stranger, the stranger leaves the infant alone in the room),

and observing the infant's behaviors during these episodes

and upon the reunion with mother.

Caregiver

Caregiver is used to refer to the person who has the

primary responsibility for the day-to-day needs of the infant.

For all of the infants in this study, the mother was the

primary caregiver. Thus, mother and caregiver will be used

interchangeably.

Justification for the Study

Scope of Attachment in
Infant Behavior

As noted earlier, many authors argue that the most

important aspect of the infant's development during the

first year of life is the formation of the bond or attachment









to the caregiver (Bowlby, 1969; Schaffer, 1969; Sroufe &

Waters, 1977; Yarrow, 1969). This aspect of development has

been studied in normal infants. There is no literature on

the development of attachment in DS infants, although DS

occurs once in every 500 to 600 births (Reed, 1975).

Ainsworth and her colleagues (Ainsworth, 1963; Ainsworth,

Bell, & Stayton, 1971, 1972) have traced the development of

attachments over the first year of life and have demonstrated

a relationship between attachment and exploratory behavior.

Ainsworth demonstrated that an infant who is securely attached

to mother uses the mother as a base from which to explore the

world. Those infants insecurely attached are less able to

leave the mother and explore. Ainsworth concluded that

attachment not only affects the infant's social development,

but indirectly, cognitive development, by facilitating or

restricting the infant's willingness to explore the environ-

ment. Information about attachment in infants with DS may

provide an understanding of their developing social abilities

and their cognitive abilities as these are related to attach-

ment.

Implications for Educators and
Program Developers

Because of the probability of severe mental retardation,

DS infants are clearly a high risk group in need of special

services. One response to this need has been the develop-

ment of programs for infants with DS (Hayden & Dmitriev,

1975; Hynders & Horrobin, 1975; Zausmer, 1975). Although

these programs recognize the importance of the caregiver's









involvement and provide opportunities for the caregiver's

participation in the program, the intervention tends to

focus on the role of the adult as teacher. Information

about the experience and rhythms of attachment behavior in

the infant with DS would allow program planners and edu-

cators to develop interventions directed toward nurturing

attachments. Fraiberg (1974, 1975a, 1975h), in her work with

blind infants, provided remarkable examples of the value of

such information in facilitating the interaction of mothers

and their blind infants. Her results suggest that there is

much to be learned about af activee development from the

systematic observation of a group of handicapped infants

and that this information may then be used by educators and

program planners in both their own interactions with the

infants and in their interventions with the parents.

In addition, there have been recommendations that the

public school system be made responsible for the education

of identifiably handicapped infants from birth (Hobbs, 1975).

This study is a beginning in the important task of gathering

empirical data in the social-emotional development of in-

fants with DS.

Implications for Social
Workers and Therapists

The birth of a defective infant has been described as

a "crisis" in the family (Farber, 1968). As such, it often

requires the intervention of a social worker or therapist.

Information regarding the development of attachment in an

infant with DS would provide the professionals who work





10


with parents [oll owing the birth a guide for expectations

for development of attachment behaviors in infants with DS.

Implications for Caregivers

The current program of state services to families with

mentally retarded infants recommends that infants he cared

for at home--t heir own or a fost r home (Hobbs, 1975; LaFave,

Woodhouse & Grunberg. 1974). Services are then provided

to the families. Information about the social development

of the infant, particularly about the infant's response to

the caregiver, would help the caregiver to be more sensitive

to the infant's cues and to understand the process of attach-

ment as it is experienced by the infant and the caregiver.















CHAPTER II

1'EVT1EW OF RELATED) RI hSEARCH

The purpose of the present study is to observe and

compare the expressions of attachment behaviors in normal

infants and infants with DS at ages ( and 12 months. The

literature to be reviewed is first, that relating to the

development of attachment behavior in normal infants and

second, that relating to the development of infants with DS.

Precond itions for Development of Attachment

Attachment is defined as "an affective tie that one

person forms to another specific person, binding them to-

gether in space and enduring over t ime. At tachment is dis-

criminating and specific" (Ainsworlth, 1973, p. 1). Attach-

ment develops over time by means of caregiver-infant inter-

actions (Ainswortlh, 1973; Blehar, Lieberman, & Ainsworth,

1977; Bowlby, 1969). Assuming that the infant receives

appropriate caregiving, theory suggests that two precon-

ditions are necessary for attachment to develop: the infant

must have learned to discriminate his mother from others,

and the infant must have begun to develop an understanding

of the separate existence of the other; that is, the infant

must have begun to develop object permanence (Ainsworth,

1973; Bell, 1970; Schaffer & Emerson, 1964).









Discrimination of Mother
from Stranger

The discrimination of mother's face from that of a

stranger's and the onset of wary responses toward the stranger

may appear ns early as the third month of life, although a

mean age of five months has been reported (Bronson, 1972;

Tennes & Lempl, 1964). Differential recognition of mother

is included on the Gesell Developmental Examination at age

24 weeks (5.5 months) (Gesell & Amatruda, 1947). Ainsworth

(1963) reported maternal discrimination in all of her Ganda

infants by age 6 months.

Person/Object Permanence
and Attachmient

There is no empirical evidence that object or person

permanence is a necessary precondition for attachment.

Gouin-Decarie (1965) studied the relationship between the

development of object permanence and the Freudian concept

of object relations, which is analogous to attachment. She

concluded that a "loose-parallel" existed between the develop-

ment of the two phenomena. Piaget (1972) restated his belief

that the two aspects of development are interrelated. Ile

suggested that Gouin-Decarie's results were not decisive

because the Freudian and Piagetian theories were concept-

ualized differently. His own theory of the development of

the object is one in which each stage is integrated into

the next, whereas Freud's stages are characterized by a

dominant feature (for example, orality) which is succeeded

by the next stage or dominant feature. Because of this









difference in conceptualization, Piaget (1972) asserted

that measurement will not yield comparable data.

Bell (1969, 1970) explored the relationship between the

development of object and person permanency and attachment,

based on the idea that both processes are established in

the mother-infant int('raction itn the first year of' li fe.

Bell (1970) described person permanency as beginning when

the infant can conceive of people existing apart from himself/

herself, even when t-hey are not present. Bell studied 33

infants longitudinally between their eighth and elevenli

months on scales of object and person permanence. At 49

weeks of age, she observed the infants in the strange situ-

ation. Bell found a strong positive relationship between

the development of person permanence and the adaptive

quality of attachment demonstrated in the strange situation.

Those infants advanced in person permanence, during the

strange situation, demonstrated effective adaptation, de-

fined as being able to use the mother as a secure base for

comfort and security in times of stress and to explore toys

offered in the strange situation. In contrast, infants

advanced in object permanence or equal in their developments

of object and person permanence, demonstrated maladaptive

behavior during the strange situation.

Bell suggested that the correspondence between person

permanence and effective adaptation during the strange

situation was due to the sensitive caregiving by the mother

as described in the Ainsworth studies (Ainsworth & Bell,









1970; Ainsworth, Bell, & Stayton, 1971). In these studies,

mothers who responded to their infants' needs promptly and

effectively during the first 12 months of life had infants

who at age one year were able to derive comfort and se-

curity from their mothers in a stressful situation and

freely explore a circumscribed environment.

Neither Bell (19G9, 1970) nor Gouin-Decarie (1965)

demonstrated that person or object permanence must precede

attachment. Outside of the clinical literature (for example,

Burlingham & Freud, 1944), there have been very few reports

of infants who do not form attachments. Provence and

Lipton (1962) studied 75 infants institutionalized from age

5 weeks, who at ago 12 months did not show differential

attachment behavior. In her study of the Ganda infants,

Ainsworth (1963) reported delay of attachment in four of the 27

infants studied. For two infants the study ended when they

were 37 weeks of age and no differential behavior was

exhibited toward the mother who was the caregiver. The other

infants were ages 11 and 12 months when the study ended.

Ainsworth attributed the lack of differential response in

each of the four infants to insensitive mothering. Nothing is

known about the development of object or person permanence

in these non-attached infants.

In summary, two preconditions are suggested as necessary

for the development of attachment. The first, the ability

to distinguish mother from others by responding differ-

entially, is acquired by six months. The second, the









beginning of object permanence prior to the development of

attachment, has not been demonstrated. What has been demon-

strated is the relate ionship between the advanced develop-

ment of person permanence and adaptive attachment behaviors.

Attachment Behaviors Relevant to the
U[iil a i I i a r Ad l I I S i I tu I i on

Behavior's are cal led "at taichmen t behaviors" when t hey

serve to gain proximity to the mother, for example, crying,

crawling, looking, and reaching. The unfamiliar adult situ-

ation provides a context for eliciting some of these be-

haviors. The behaviors ure in response to an intrusive

stranger, to separation from mother, to the return of mother

after a brief separation, and to a toy.

Response to an Inlrusive Stranger

Developmental course

Response to the stranger has been studied as "fear of

the stranger" (Benjamin, 1963) and more recently as "wari-

ness" (Lewis & Rosenblum, 1974). Fear of the stranger is

defined as an anxious response by the infant to an unfamiliar

person, because the person belongs to a class of novel

things or because the person does things differently

(Benjamin, 1963). The indication of fear of the stranger is

protest or withdrawal (Bowlby, 19G9). Wariness is a broader

term which encompasses behaviors such as sobering, pouting,

whimpering, turning away, and withdrawal (Waters, Matas,

Sroufe, 1975).









The amount of' wariness displayed by t.he infant increases

from its onset throughout the first year (Bronson, 1972;

Campos, Einde, Gaensbauer, & Henderson, 1975; Gordon et al.,

1973; Scarr & Salapat ek, 1970; Skarin, 1977; Waters, et al.

1975). The onset of stranger anxiety has been observed at

a mean age of 5 month hs (Bronson, 1972, 'tennes & Lemp1, 1964).

At age 6 months, the typical response to the approaching

stranger is a neutLral expression (Gordon et al., 1973;

Skarin, 1977). By 11 months, the t typical response is a wary

brow (Skarin, 1977), but. a cry face or frank fear occurs with

greater frequency by the end of the first year (Bronson,

1972; Gordon et al., 1973). In addition to behavioral

manifestations ol wariness, heart rate appears to be a

sensitive measure of response to stranger. Heart rate

covaries closely with facial behavior (Campos et al., 1975)

and negative affect (Waters et al., 1975).

The developmental course of smiling at the stranger

changes from more to less from lie middle of the first year

to the end of the first. year (Gordon et al., 1973; Waters,

1975). The change is less than that seen in distress re-

actions. For example, Waters et a]. (1975) reported that

44% of 5-month-old subjects versus 37% of 10-month-old

subjects smiled at. he approaching stranger, indicating

that smiling and distress reactions may not be simply

opposite reactions, particularly as age increases.

Effect of situation. Research has indicated that Ihe

context in which an infant inet.s a stranger influences Ihe









infant's reaction to the stranger. Infants between ages 8

and 12 months who had a period of familiarization with the

stranger did not exhibit fear but instead made friendly

overtures to the str:nuger (Klein & DLurfee, 197G; Rheingold

& Eckerman, 1973; Skarin, 1977; Sroufe, Waters, & Matias,

1974). Strangers who approached year-old infants with a

toy received a positive response from the infant (Bretherton

& Ainsworth, 197.1; Klein & DIurfee, 1976). Factors such as

the presence of the mother (Campos et a]., 1975; Ricciuti,

1974; Skarin, 1977) and home versus lab as the place of

observation (Skarin, 1977; Sroufe et al., 1974) decreased

infant distress in thlie presence of a stranger. Infants

seated on mother's lap were more accepting of a stranger

than were infants seated on the floor (Bronson, 1972) or

in an infant-table (Morgan &S Ricciuti, 1969). Sex and age

of stranger affected infant reaction, with females greeted

more positively than males (Greenberg, Hillman, & Grice,

1973; Lewis & Brooks, 1974; Skarin, 1977), and child strangers

preferred to adults (Lewis & Brooks, 1974).

Effect of social experience. Several investigators

have found that the infant's response to the unfamiliar

adult is influenced by previous experience with adults.

Collard (1968) noted that first borns or infants with siblings

more than six years older were less sociable at age 6 months

than second or later infants raised with siblings. She

concluded that fear of the stranger will be more intense

in infants receiving social stimulation from few rather









than many people. Schaffer and Emerson (1964) found that

children who had a number of caregivers in addition to a

primary caregiver tended to form attachments to more people

than children receiving care from a few people. Bronson

(1972) studied the social experience of infants ages 3 to

9 months by assessing the number of adults living in the

home and the number of encounters per week that the infant

had with strangers. Ile found no relation between those two

factors and reaction to the stranger. IIe concluded that

exposure, per se, may be insufficient to account for the

infant's response. Bronson, in a 1978 review of his 1972

data, argued that in the last quarter of the first year,

wariness may he based in part on the accrued experience of

the social situation. The infant has learned to react with

wariness to certain aspects of the social situation.

Effects of developmental quotient. Scarr and Salapatek

(1970) assessed the fear of the stranger in relation to

level of developmental quotients (DQ) and found no associa-

tion between the two when age variance was removed. There

was a tendency (rt statistically significant) for less well

developed infants to be more fearful.

Summary. Wariness of the unfamiliar person may be ob-

served by 5 months. This wariness is expressed with greater

frequency at 12 months than at 6 months. During this time

the amount of smiling at an approaching stranger decreases.

However, the typical response to the stranger at 6 months

is a neutral expression and by 12 months, a wary brow.









Context, including the availability of the mother, place

of the observation and characteristics of the stranger

affect the infant's response to the stranger. Finally, by

the end of the first year, response to the stranger has been

conditioned by experience.

Response to Brief Separation
from Mother

Response to separation from the mother is often called

separation protest or separation anxiety (Bowlby, 1969).

Tennes and Loempl (1964) charted the developmental course of

separation anxiety. Although it could be observed as early

as 7 months, the mean age of emergence was 8 months, and the

peak of intensity was reached between 11 and 18 months.

Schaffor and Emerson (1964) observed that the first instance

of separation protest occurred between 6 and 9 months in

76% of their subjects.

Schaffer and Emerson (1964) used separation protest as

the criterion demonstrating that attachment had been formed.

However, Yarrow (1967) observed that not every separation

from mother caused separation protest: the frequent brief

separations which occurred at home during daily routines

did not cause separation distress. Separation protest may

be alleviated by the presence of a familiar person

(Ricciuti, 1974).

In the strange situation, Ainsworth and Bell (1970)

reported that crying among their year-old subjects was

minimal when the stranger entered, increased when the mother

left, decreased when the mother returned and increased









sharply when she left again. Ainsworth proposed that it was

the absence of the mother rather than the presence of the

stranger which caused the distress in the strange situation.

She reasoned that the mother acted as a "secure base" for

the infant. Consequently, the absence of the mother

heightened attachment behavior.

Littenberg, Tulkin, and Kagan (1971) proposed that

cognitive ability was a primary factor in separation dis-

tress. In a home study of 24 infants age 11 months, protest

occurred when the mother left the room by way of an unfa-

miliar rather than a faimliliar door. The authors concluded

that the discrepant event caused by the mother's exiting

through an unfamiliar door produced distress because it could

not be readily assimilated by the infant.

In sumilnary, separation protest occurs at about 8 months

and is manifested by crying when mother leaves the infant.

It increases in intensity until about 18 months. Separation

distress may not occur during daily routines in the home,

and distress may be lessened by the presence of a familiar

person.

Response to Reunion With Mother

Reunion with mother after a brief separation resulted

in an increase of proximity promoting and contact maintaining

behaviors among the majority of children (Ainsworth et al.,

1971; Coates, Anderson, & IIartup, 1972). Ainsworth (1973)

asserted that this only occurs after attachment has been

formed. Ainsworth et al. (1971) suggested that the responses


i









to reunion with Ihe mother involved four systems of behavior:

proximity seeking, contact mainLaining, proximity avoiding,

and contact resisting. The discrete behaviors which make

up these systems include approaching, reaching, clinging,

greeting, calling, crying, directed looking, and pushing

away. Using the profiles of behaviors exliracted 'rom the

reunion episodes of the strange situation, Ainsworth et al.

(1971) divided the infants into three distinct groups:

Group A babies (20% of the subjects) showed less proximity

seeking and less contact maintaining behaviors; Group B

babies (GG66 of the subjects), considered Ihe normative group,

were strongest in proximity seeking and contact mainintaining;

Group C babies (14-'; of the subjects) were distinguished by

more contact resisting behaviors.

Data from the Gordon et al. (1973) study, comparing the

behaviors of 6-and 12-month-old infants in the reunion epi-

sode of the unfamiliar adult situation, suggested that dis-

tinguishing factors are the increased amounts of negative

affect and decreased amounts of positive affect shown by the

older infants.

In sum, the reunion with mother after a brief separation

has not been widely studied, except by Ainsworth and her

colleagues. The normative response in the year old infant

is physical closeness to the mother. All hough proximity

avoiding and contact avoiding behaviors have been seen, they

are considered to be atypical. There has been little develop-

ment.al charting of this response; one study suggests an









increase of negative and decrease of positive response

with age.

Response to a Toy

Infants' responses to objects change over time. Piaget

(1952) noted that infants in stage [II of' sensorimotor

development (ages 4 to S months) respond to a new object

by repeating certain actions upon it. The infant approaches

the new object with a repertoire of behavior. It is as

though the object exists in order that this repertoire be

exercised. The object may be shaken, mouthed, transferred

from hand to hand and banged up and down. By contrast, the

stage IV infant (ages 8 to 12 months) examines objects

S as though such objects presented a problem to his

mind, as though he were trying to 'understand'" (p. 259).

The result is that the infant looks at the object for a

longer period of time than the younger infant does before

acting and relates his/her exploration to the object. In

stage V (ages 12 to 18 months) the infant's interest has

shifted completely to the object. The infant is able to

distinguish act from object and attempts to explore the

object by adapting his actions to it. Thus, from ages 4

to 18 months, Piaget sees a progressive shift in the infant's

relation to the object, from the extension of his/her own

actions to a thing in itself. Data from the Gordon et al.

(1973) descriptive study, demonstrated this progressive

movement. Under both the conditions of unfamiliar adult

and mother as presenter of the toy, the younger infants









accepted the toy more often and explored it more vigorously

than the older subjects. Similarly, Schaffer, Greenwood,

and Parry (1972) observed that the subjects older than S

months were slower to reach for objects than subjects

younger than eight months, and their first contacts with

the object, were brief. When provided familiarization through

repeated trials, the older subjects were quicker to reach

for the object and explore it than were younger subjects.

Infants under 8 months responded with the same enthusiasm

on all trials reaching out as soon as the object was pre-

sented. Schaffer (1974) suggested that this behavior

exemplified the disjunctive effect in systems development
at the younger age: an ". ability to register infor-

mation in terms of a I'amiliarity-unfamiliarity dimension is

not yet accompanied by selective approach-avoidance behavior

as expressed by the infant's manipulative responses" (p. 14).

After 8 months, there is a coordination of systems, and

the infant is able to contain its approach responses: the

baby may now respond or not.

Another critical factor which affects the infant's

exploration of a toy is the presence of the mother. Her

presence promotes exploration by the infant, and her absence

inhibits exploration (Ainsworth & Bell, 1970; Bowlby, 1969;

Cox & Campbell, 1968; Klein & Durfee, 1976; Gordon et al.,

1973).

In sum, the relationship of the infant to a toy changes

over the first year as a result of certain cognitive and









motor developments. The 6-month-old reacts impulsively and

actively to the presentation of a toy. The year-old infant

looks longer at the toy before exploring it. The amount of

exploration by the infant may be affected by the presence or

absence of the mother.

Affective Development of Infants With DS

Several studies focused on the affective development of

infants and young children with DS. Emde et al. (1978)

described tihe social smile of the 3 -rnonth-old DS infant as

being "less engaging" than the smile of the normal infant.

The DS baby smiled with less intensity, made less eye con-

tact, and was less active than the comparable normal infant.

Cicchetti and Sroufe (1976) did n short-term longitudinal

study on the development of smiling and laughing in DS in-

fants. Serafica and Cicchetti (1976) studied attachment be-

havior in 33-month-old children with DS. Carr (1975) studied

infants with DS from one month to four years, observing

developmental changes at selected ages and gathering infor-

mation on infant development from maternal report.

Cicchetti and Sroul' (1976) studied 14 infants with DS

between ages 4 and 18 months to assess their response to

stimuli designed to produce laughter. Their hypothesis was

that infants who show retarded cognitive development would

also show a corresponding lag in affective development.

Stimuli selected to elicit laughter were one of four types:

auditory, tactile, visual, and social. The auditory and









tactile items were intrusive and required less participa-

tion from the infant than the visual or social items which

were cognitively more complex. The visual items required

active attention from the inl'ant, and the social items re-

quired active participation to produce the. stimulus.

Mothers were trained to administer the items at home.

'he median onset of laughter in infants with DS was at

10 months (range G to 15 monulhs) compared to age 3 or 4

months in normal infants. In spite of the delay in laughter

in infants with DS, the order in which they responded to the

items paralleled the order in which normal infants (Sroufe

& Wunsch, 1972) responded: they responded first to the

auditory and tactile stimuli, then to the visual stimuli,

and finally to the social stimuli. The infants with DS

smiled at the items to which normal infants responded with

laughter. Smiling was determined to be a more powerful sign

of affective response in infants with DS than laughter.

Negative affect or fear responses were reported to have

occurred infrequently.

Response to the cognitively complex social items began

at 10 months in DS infants and at 5 months in normal infants.

DS and normal infants responded the same way on one item:

holding the infant in the air elicited laughter from both

normal and DS infants. The authors noted that the DS in-

fants had been observed to laugh in informal settings and

suggested that the standardized test situation did not allow









the infants to process incongruity rapidly enough to generate

the tension which is required for laughter.

In addition, Cicchetti and Sroufe (1976) found a strong

positive correlation between the age of onset of laughter

and smiling and scores on the lnunt-Uzgiris Scales and the

Bayley Mental Scale (range = .62 to .92), indicating an

association between cognitive and affective development.

Furthermore, prediction of scores on the Bayley Mental Scale

at 16 months could be made from the onset of smiling and

laughing. There was no overlap of Bayley Mental scores for

DS infants who laughed by 10 months (N = 9; DQ range =

58 to 83, X = 72) and those infants who laughed after 10

months (N = 5, DQ range = 40 to 55, X = 47).

Carr's (1975) longitudinal study of the development of

infants with DS followed 45 home-reared infants with DS and

an equal number of normal infants matched for age, sex, and

social class from age 1.5 months to 4 years. One aspect of

the study included a parental report on the behaviors of the

infants at 15 months. Mothers reported on the incidence of

temper tantrums and crying in their infants. Tantrums were

defined as ". .. the physical expression of an outburst of

anger which lasted for at least a few minutes" (p. 56).

Tantrums included some of the following behavior: kicks or

stamps, screams, stiffens or throws self back, throws or

bangs things, goes red in the face, waves arms about, lies

down or throws self onto the floor. Mothers responded that

0% of their children with DS had temper tantrums "often"









versus 21% of normal children (p < .01) and that 44% of

their children with DS "never" had tantrums versus 15%' of

the comparison group (p < .05). The amounts and causes of

crying were reported to be significantly different. Normal

children cried more often for psychological reasons (frus-

tration), and children with DS cried in response to physical

distress. In general, normal children cried more frequently.

Thirty children with DS were tested with a looming

stimulus and on the visual cliff at ages 4, 8, 12, and 16

months (Cicchetti & Sroufe, 1978). In the looming stimulus

condition, DS infants took more trials than the normal in-

fants to cry. When the DS infants cried, they remained upset

throughout the testing, unlike normal infants who could be

soothed. On the visual cliff, the infants with DS remained

placid, while the tendency among normal infants was to be-

come fearful. Comparisons of amount of crying in these two

situations revealed that the normal 12-month-old infants

cried more than the 16-month-old DS infants.

Sorafica and Cicchetti (1976) examined the attachment

behaviors of young children with DS in the strange situa-

tion. The subjects were 12 normal children with a mean age

of 32.8 months and 12 children with DS with a mean age of

33.5 months. The mean Bayley DQ for DS children was 56.45

(range = 50 to 65). No DQs were reported for the normal

children. All the subjects were white, family reared, and

middle-class. The children were tested in Ainsworth and

Wittig (1969) strange situation, a ". .series of episodes









designed to be progressively more stressful but not any more

so than any experience a child was likely to encounter in

his everyday life" (Serafica & Cicchetti, 1976, p. 140).

All episodes except the first were three minutes long, and

all episodes were presented to ;i11 subjects in the following

order:

1. (NI, C, E) Mother (M) and child (C) were es-
corted by the experimenter (E) to the experi-
mental room.
2. (M, C) M puts C in the starting position (on
the floor) then sits quietly in her chair,
interacting only if C seeks her attention.
3. (S, M:, C) A female stranger (S) enters, sits
quietly for one minute, and then gradually
approaches C, showing him a Loy. At the end
of the third minute, M. leaves unobtrusively,
leaving her purse on the chair.
4. (S, C) If C is happily engaged with one of the
toys, S plays a nonparticipant role. If C is
inactive, S tries to get him interested in the
toys. When C is distressed, S tries to dis-
tract him, assuage his stress or comfort him.
5. (M, C) M enters, calls the child's name twico,
pausing in the doorway to give C an opportunity
to spontaneously respond to her. S then leaves
unobtrusively. If C does not require being com-
forted, M sits quietly in her chair, interacting
only in response to C's overtures. AL the end
of three minutes D1 leaves the room.
6. (C) C is left alone for three minutes, unless
he becomes so distressed that the episode has
to be curtailed.
7. (S, C) S enters and behaves as in episode 4.
8. (M, C, S) M returns and behaves as in episode
5. S leaves unobtrusively. After three
minutes transpire, the observation period is
terminated. (p. 141)

The dependent measures, all of which were considered to be

attachment behaviors, were crying, smiling, locomotion or

approach to an adult, physical contact initiated by the

child and directed toward an adult, and vocalization. The

study also examined exploratory behavior in the strange









situation and the dependent measures were locomotion

around the room, visual regard directed to objects in the

room or visual scanning of the room, gross motor manipula-

tions, and fine motor manipulations of objects.

The infants were not significantly different on any of

the attachment measures except vocalizing and crying. The

normal children were more vocal in seven of the eight epi-

sodes. Significant differences were found on reunion with

mother (episode 5), when the child was left alone (episode

6), and when the stranger returned to the child (episode 7).

Significantly more normal children cried during episodes

4, 6, and 7. A difference in exploratory behavior was found

when the children were left alone (episode 6). The DS

children looked around the room, while normal children re-

mained visually oriented to the door.

The authors concluded that the children with DS had

formed an attachment to mother. The differences in crying

and vocalizing behavior were thought to reflect differences

in the meaning that the experience of being left alone had

for the children. The normal children perceived the situa-

tion as stressful and responded with distress and attempts

at regaining proximity to mother by vocalizing. The DS

children did not respond with distress and did not attempt

to regain proximity to mother by calling to her. The authors

suggested that the few differences they found supported

Zigler's (1973) position that a lag in cognitive development

does not imply a lag in social development It is well to







note, however, that the strange situation task was designed

for year-old infants; Waters (1978) suggested that it should

be interpreted with caution if used with children over age

2 years. If differences exist between the children with

DS and the normal children, they may be obscured by the

task itself which has not been validate-d for 33-mion th-old

cli i dren.

The conclusions of the Cicchetti and Sroufe (1976)

study and the Serafica and Cicchettii (1976) study disagree

as to the relationship between ctognitive and affective

devel opmen t. Cicchetti and Sroufe (1976) concluded that a

delay in cognitive development was associated with a delay

in affective development. S(eratl'ij and Cicchett.i (1976)

suggested tha t the Ili': in cognit ive development was not

associated with a lag in affective behavior as expressed

in attachment behavior at age 33 months. Their findings

may be due to the fact that their measure of attachment was

designed for year-old infants and may not be valid for

normal infants at. 33 inmonths.

In summary, the study of affective expression in in-

fa nts with I)S concluded that the lag in cognitive develop-

ment was accompanied by a lag in affective response. Ie-

sponsiveness to stimuli paralleled normal development buL

at a reduced rate. Infants with DS were most responsive

to intrusive stimuli beginning at (C month hs and continuing

throughout the first year. Response to cognitively complex

stimuli was not made until 10 months versus 5 months for









normal infants. Infants with DS expressed less intense

affect; they smiled when the normal infants laughed. Re-

ports by mothers of infants with DS noted significantly

fewer temper tantrums and less crying with the principal

cause for crying listed as physical distress. In the attach-

ment study of 33-month-old infants, the children with DS

did not cry when the mother was absent from the experi-

mental room, suggesting that although attachment had been

formed, the absence of mother was not as psychologically

stressful for the children with DS as it was for the normal

subjects.

Development I al Examinations and Attachment

Developmental QuOtient s and
Al tacuhnsint in Normal [nfants

Studies of normal development suggest a relationship

between DQ and attachment. Schaffer and Emerson (1964)

found a positive correlation between early onset of attach-

ment measured by separation protest and high DQ. In a com-

parative study of 41 children, 23 of whom had their mothers

as primary caregivers and 18 of whom had been in day care

from age 12 months, Caldwell and her associates found that

children with higher DQs at age 30 months had stronger

attachments to their mothers (Caldwell, Wright, Honig, &

Tannenbaum, 1970).

These studies lend support to the hypothesis that a lag

in cognitive development may be accompanied by a lag in

affective-attachment development.








Developmental Examinations
of Infants with DS

There is conflicting evidence about the developmental

progress of infants with DS during the first six months

of life. Fishler, Share, and Koch (1964), using the Gesell

Developmental Examination, and Dameron (1963), using the

California First Year Mental Scale, reported that infants

with DS develop relatively normally between birth and 6

months. Dicks-Mireaux (1972) found differences as early

as 3 months using the Gesell Developmental Examination.

Carr (1975), using the Bayley Scales, found differences

between her comparison group and DS infants as early as 1.5

months. Carr acknowledged, however, that on the basis of

test scores alone 681Vt of her DS subjects at age 1.5 months

were within the normal range. They scored 80 or over. This

was also the case in the Dicks-Mireaux study. At 3

months (12 weeks), the infants with DS had average DQs of

71.3; the normal infants had DQs of 99.6. Although signifi-

cantly different, the DS subjects were within the "normal"

range.

Both Carr (1975) and LaVeck and LaVeck (1977) found

that infants with DS had higher mental than motor scores in

the second half of the first year. Dicks-Mireaux (1972)

reported that social, adaptive, and motoric development

were equivalent throughout the first year.

The conclusion reached by all of the researchers was

that infants with DS have developmental patterns which

parallel normal development during the first six months of









life. By age 6 months the DQ ranges from 71 (Dameron,

1963; Dicks-Mireaux, 1972) to 77(Carr, 1975). Carr (1975)

reported a sharp drop in DQ scores between 6 and 10 months.

By age 12 months, there is general agreement that the child

with DS lags behind his normal peers by about Jour months

(Carr, 1975; Dameron, 1963; Dicks-Mireaux, 1972).

Children with DS who are raised in their own homes

score higher on developmental examinations, IQ tests, and

tests of soci:il maturi ty than children in foster homes

(Carr, 1975) or institutions (Centerwall & Centerwall, 19G0;

Cornwall & Birch, 1969; Shipe & Shotwell, 1965; Stedman &

Eichorn, 1964).

Developmental inventories are not predictive; they are

descriptive (Dicks-Mireaux, 1972). The Gesell Developmental

Examination is not an intelligence test; it is a tool for

observation of behavior and provides a score which is an

average (DQ) of five evaluations (Ames, 1967). It is also

a measure of psychobiological integrity (Crano, 1977;

Gesell & Amatruda, 1947). It is particularly useful in

understanding delayed development (Gesell & Amatruda, 1947).

In summary, although differences in development between

normal infants and infants with DS have been recorded as

early as 1.5 months, during the first six months of life,

the infant with DS responds to developmental testing within

the lowest end of the normal range. The second six months

of life are marked by a progressive deceleration of develop-

ment, and by age one year the DS infant is functioning on









an eight month level. Infants raised at home are cogni-

tively and socially more advanced than those placed in

foster homes or institutions.

Visunl Preference and Visual Discrimination
Ability of' lf:intlss With DS

In studies of visual preference of normal and DS in-

infants age 8 months, Miranda and Fantz (1973) found that

both groups showed equal interest in patterned versus plain

surfaces, a finding consistent with normal development.

Infants with DS were able to discriminate stripes of 1/32

inch wide, although their normal peers were able to make

finer distinctions. The infants with DS did significantly

poorer on tasks of discrimination in pairs of patterns of

differing depth, arrangement of elements, or form of the

contours. The inability of the infants with DS to discrim-

inate on this latter task raised questions as to their

ability to make simple pattern discrimination which normal

infants do at 2 months.

In a longitudinal study of infants with DS between

age 5 and 33 weeks, Miranda (1976) reported that at

five weeks infants with DS were able to discriminate pat-

terned over plain surfaces. The ability to discriminate

patterned surfaces improved with age but lagged behind the

development of normal infants. Using the same patterned pairs,

as in the study of eight month olds by Miranda and Fantz

(1973), Miranda determined that infants with DS were able

to select curved over straight lines between 7 and 11

weeks, checked over lattice arrangements at 9 weeks









and irregular over regular arrangements at 11 weeks. Clearly,

the inability to discriminate patterns at 8 months was

not due to an inability to discriminate patterns between

ages 3 and 6 months.

Miranda's data showed differences between the groups

at di fferent ages. Preferences among the DS infants emerged

in the same order butl four to six weeks later than prefer-

ences in normal infants. This suggests that the sensory

and motor capacities of the DS infant are not deficient but

require more time to develop. The most startling finding

was that beginning at G mon ths the ability of the subjects

with DS to distinguish patterns by showing preferences

dropped off to chance level. This change in performance was

reflected in the study of eight month olds by Miranda and

Fantz (1973).

Miranda (1976) argued that it is reasonable to assume

that discrimination and attention to pattern variation

(for example, form of contours and arrangements) are impor-

tant aspects of perception and, therefore, in assimilating

the environment. They may be early evidence of cognitive

functioning. The movement toward a chance level of pattern

discrimination at age 6 months in infants with DS may be

a better predictor of cognitive deficit than the lag in

the appearance of the preferences.

In a study of visual perception of novelty, Miranda

and Fantz (1974) observed normal infants and DS infants

between 5 and 33 weeks of age. Novel stimuli were









preferred by the normal infants at. we eks and by the DS

infants at 17 weeks. Infants wi Lh DS also looked at the

novel stimulus longer than the normal infants. The most

difficult discrimination of novelty required seeing the

overall configuration. The differences in ability between

the normal and DS infants were greatest for [his task,

suggesting a retardation in form perception or, as Miranda

(1976) added, a difference in the onset of memory for

features of the environment. A delay of two months, whether

in form perception or memory, as was demonstrated in the

novelty tasks, can be a serious handicap in learning.

In summary, the infant with DS develops normal pattern

discrimination between birth antd ( months at a rate slower

than the normal infant. At (i months, however, the ability

to discriminate between patterns drops ol'f to a chance level

in infants with DS, indicating a loss of ability. Evidence

from visual discrimination of novelty suggests that there

is a two month lag in the onset of this ability in infants

with DS, but that once the subjects are able to discriminate

novelty, they perform comparable to their normal counter-

parts. None of the DS subjects was able to discriminate the

most complex configural stimulus, suggesting an inability to

perceive this complexity or an inability to remember between

presentation intervals.

Retardation in DS infants may be seen as early as 3

months; however, it is most dramatic at. months, when

there is a degneeral ive response to pattern discri mi nation.









These observations are similar to those from developmental

testing. It is also supportive of Kirman's (1970) obser-

vation of the pattern of decline and deceleration shown by

infants with DS:

The measures of performance applied to the young
infilan do not reveal the full extent of the defect,
which only becomes apparent when more sophisticated
demands in the way of learning and social adaptation
are made at a later stage in development. (p. 64)

Relationships Between Attachment and
Infants With DS

In normal infants attachmenln is not esl.ablished until

the end of the first year (Ainsworth, 1963; Schafter &

Emerson, 1964). As the infant with DS is within normal

limits on tests of development during the first six months

of life (Carr, 1975; Dnmeron, 19f33; Dicks-Mireaux, 1972;

Fisher, Share, & Koch, 1964), it would be expected that

ill an assessment of attachment behaviors there would be no

differences between normal infants and infants with DS at

age 6 months.

After 6 months, the differences in the rate of develop-

ment between normal infants and DS infants are marked (Carr,

1975; Miranda & Fantz, 1974). Cicchetti and Sroufe (197G)

have suggested that a lag in cognitive development in chil-

dren with DS is accompanied by a lag in affective develop-

ment. The intensity of affective behavior, both laughing

and crying, is less in infants with DS (Carr, 1975; Cicchetti

& Sroufe, 1976, 1978), and DS infants are less responsive

to psychological stress (Carr, 1975; Serafica & Cicchetti,









1976). The strange situation, the technique used to elicit

attachment behaviors, was designed as a stressful situation

for normal infants (Ainsworth & Wittig, 1969; Gordon et al.,

1973). The expectation for DS infants at age 12 months,

observed in the strange situation, is that they will dis-

crininate Iheir mothers from strangers, but will display

little or no negative affect toward the stranger or in

response to their mother's depar ture. They will show less

need for proximity or contact maintaining behaviors directed

toward mother in the reunion episode.

Summa ry

The review vof he literature had three main foci,

first., the preconditions necessary for the formation of

attachment in normal infants; second, the developmental course

of behaviors evidenced in attachment: response to the

stranger, response to brief separations from mother, response

to reunion with mother, and response to a toy; third, studies

relative to the affective and cognitive development of infants

with DS.

1. Current theory suggests that the infant must be able

to discriminate mother from other and to respond differ-

entially to her before attachment can be made. Empirical

studies of infants indicate that they are capable of discrimi-

nation and differential response to caregiver by age 6 months

and probably earlier. Theory further suggests that the in-

fant must have developed the beginnings of person









permanency in order that mother may be seen as a separate

entity. None of the studies has demonstrated the develop-

mental sequencing of these phenomena. However, Bell has

associated adaptive attachment with the advanced development

of person permanence and malaidaptlive attachment with a

delayed developm(en t of person permanence. The beginnings of

the development of person permanence are between 7 and 9

months; attachments to mother are usually formed by the end

of the first year.

2. Infant response to the stranger, response to brief

separations from mother, response to reunion with mother and

response to a Loy are dependent on age of the infant and

context in which the event occurs. In general, wariness

and distress in response to separation increase with age

between their onset and the end of the first year. The

typical response to a stranger is a neutral one at 6 months

and a wary brow by 12 months; when familiarized with the

stranger, infants may demonstrate friendly behaviors. Younger

infants respond to a toy by taking it quickly and exploring

it by repeating behavior sequences upon it. Infants over

8 months are more cautious in accepting a toy, look at it

longer, and explore it according to its structure.

3. Studies of affective behavior of DS infants indi-

cate that they express affective behavior with less inten-

sity than normal infants. Overall, they achieve normal

milestones but at a slower rate. By the end of the first

year they are developmentally four months behind normal peers.









They demonstrate attachment behavior at age 33.5 months, but

they do not use crying or vocalizing to regain proximity to

mother. There is evidence that a degenerative effect occurs

in visual discrimination after age G months.

The hypothesis of this study is that at age 6 months

there will be no differencesin the expressionsof attachment

behaviors between normal infants and DS infants, including

ability to discriminate mother from stranger, affective

orientation to mother and stranger, postural approach and

postural avoidance of mother and stranger, acceptance and

exploration of a toy when presented by mother and stranger.

At age 12 months, there will be differences between the

behaviors of normal infants and DS infants. The normal in-

fants will demonstrate a negative affective orientation to

the intrusive behavior of the stranger and will posturally

avoid her, will be distressed by the separation from mother,

will demand proximity to mother by postural approach, and

will be distressed by her second leaving. The normal in-

fants will be less accepting of a toy from the stranger.

The DS infants will not display negative affect toward

the stranger or be distressed when mother leaves, will not

demand proximity to her, as demonstrated by postural approach,

will not posturally avoid the stranger, and will not be dis-

tressed on mother's second departure. The DS infants will

accept and explore the toy readily when it is presented by

the stranger and the mother.






41


The second hypothesis involves the relationship between

DQ and attachment behaviors at age 12 months. There will be

an association between DQ and looking at the unfamiliar

adult, positive and negative affect directed toward the un-

f'amiliar adull positive and negative affect directed toward

the mother, postural avoidance of t.he unfamiliar adult,

and postural approach toward the mother.















CHAPTER III

METIIODOLOGY

This study was pla nned t o provide comparisons (if attach-

ment behavior in DS and normal infants at ages 6 and 12

months.

Design

In this cross-sectional sludy, carried out in a labora-

tory situation, the independent variables were diagnostic

status, age, and elicitor of behavior. The dependent vari-

ables were looking, positive affect, negative affect, postural

approach and postural avoidance, acceptance and exploration

of a toy, and response to maternal departure. In addition,

the Gesell Developmental Examination was administered to each

infant and a DQ score obtained.

The hypotheses to be tested in this study are as follows:

1. Looking behavior is different as a function of

diagnostic status, age, and elicitor of behavior.

2. Positive affect is different as a function of

diagnostic status, age, and elicitor of behavior.

3. Negative affect is different as a function of diag-

nostic status, age, and elicitor behavior.

4. Postural approach is different as a function of

diagnostic status, age, and elicitor of behavior.









5. Postural avoidance is different as a function of

diagnostic status, age, and elicitor of behavior.

6. Normal and DS infants age 6 months accept the toy

equally promptly when it is presented by 1 ho unfamiliar adult

or the mother.

7. Normal and DS infants age 6 months explore the toy

with equal amounts of enthusiasm when it is presented by the

unfamiliar adult or tlhe mother.

8. Normal infants age 12 months are more hesitant than

DS infants in accepting a toy from the unfamiliar adult.

9. Normal infants and DS infants al 12 months accept

the toy equally promptly from their mothers.

10. Normal infants age 12 months display more negative

affect than DS infants when their mothers depart for the

second time.

11. DQ, as measured by the Gesell Developmental Examin-

ation at 12 months, is associated with looking at the un-

familiar adult.

12. DQ, as measured by the Gesell Developmental Examina-

tion at 12 months, is associated with positive affect toward the un-

familiar adult.

13. DQ, as measured by the Gesell Developmental Examina-

tion at 12 months, is associated with negative affect toward

the unfamiliar adult.

14. DQ, as measured by the Gesell Development Examina-

tion at 12 months, is associated with postural avoidance of

the unfamiliar adult.









15. DQ, as measured by the Gesell

nation at 12 months, is associated with

directed toward the mother.

16. DQ, as measured by the Gesell

nation at 12 months, is associate d with

directed toward the mother.

17. DQ, as measured by the Gesel

Examination at 12 months, is associated

toward the mother.


Developmental Exami-

positive affect



Developmental Exami-

negative affect



Developmental

with postural approach


Subjects

The subjects of the study were 17 white infants with

DS diagnosed by cytogenetic study and an equal number of

normal infants matched for age, sex, and socio-oconomic

status. (Appendix A contains social class, age, and sex

for each subject.) Eight of the DS and eight of the normal

infants were seen within + one week of their sixth-month

birthday (age 26 weeks), and nine of the DS and nine of the

normal infants were seen within + two weeks of their

twelfth-month birthday (age 52 weeks).

Ten of the 17 mothers of the normal infants and 14

mothers of the infants with DS reported some problem or

special circumstance associated with their pregnancy, the

labor or the delivery of their baby. (See Appendix B for

details.) Table 1 gives the mean birth weight by age and

diagnosis. A t-test for the difference between means indi-

cated no significant birth weight differences between the

normal and DS infants. One infant with DS was adopted at









age one week and t aken from the hospital by his adoptive

parents. Two of the DS infants had congenital heart abnor-

malities. (Thirty percent of all DS infants have some

congenital heart problems according to Levinson et al.,

1955.) Among the normal infants, 11 (58%) were breast fed,

and among the DS infants, 7 (385) were breast fed.

Table 1

Mean Birth Weight and Standard Deviations
by Age and Diagnosis

Age in Birth Weight in Pounds
Mouths N DS Infants Normal Infants
Mean S.I). Mean S.D.

6 8 6.11 1 .4 8.18 .46

12 9 G.5 .42 7.49 .85


The Gesell Developmental Examination was given to each

infant. The mean age of the infants at the time of testing

and their mean DQ may be seen in Table 2. (See Appendix C

for each infants' age and DQ.) In the case of one infant

who was small for date and one infant who was premature,

corrected chronological ages were calculated, and the cor-

rected birthdays were used both for the administration of

the Gesell Developmental Examination and for the observa-

tion procedure (Gesell & Amatruda, 1947; Tilford, 1976).









Table 2

Mean Ages and Gesell Developmental
Quotients of Subjects

Mean Age Gese I Developmental
N in 1'eeks Quot i c ts, Weeks
Men n S. D.


Down's Syndrome 8 27
9 52

Normal 8 25.40
9 51.80


19. 63
,I 1 50
,11.50

.31
54.30


3.25
4.66

3.34
4.64


Families of the Subjects

The lImilies ol the subjects were matched on the

flollingshead Two-Factor Index of Social Posilion (Hollings-

head & Redlich, 1958). (See Appendix A for social position

of subject.) All parents were married and living together.

Table 3 presents the mean number of years married and t.he

mean ages of mother and fathers. Table 4 presents the

birth order of the subjects. All families of the DS infants

had chosen to keep their infants at home, and all were in-

volved with an agency for handicapped children.









Table 3

Mean Ages of Parents and Mean
Number of Yeairs Married


Age/Diagnosis Age of Mother
Menn S.D.


Age of Father
Mea n S.D.


Years Married
Mean S.D.


6 month olds
1)S 27.85
N= 8
N 28.G3

12 month olds
DS 32.22
N 9=
N 29.77


12.57

5. 34


28.3-1

29. 13


1 3.75

6.06


8.12 38.89 8.20

4.32 32.44 8.10


8.75

8.63


5.01

' .87


8.88 3.92

7.22 4.32


Table 4

Subject's Ordinal Position


Position in Family


6 molt.lh olds
D)S N


12 month olds
DS N


Firstborn 2
Second 3
Third 2
Fourth 0
Fifth 0
Sixth 0
Seventh 0
Eighth 0
Ninth 1


0
0
0
0









Procedures

Recruitment of Subjects

Subjects with DS were recruited through agencies and

groups working witl retarded children. (See Appendix D

for a listing of agencies.) Aftlr the agency agreed to

assist in recr'ut ing subjects, one agency staff person con-

tacted the eligible families. Those families agreeing to

participate in the study were then contacted by the investi-

gator who explained the purpose of the study, the procedures,

answered any questions, and made tentative arrangements for

the observation.

Normal infan ts were recruited through personal contacts,

newspaper and newsletter advertisements, and community

agencies. When a mother agreed to participate, she was told:

The purpose oC this study is to compare the way in
which infants with Down's syndrome and normal in-
fants relale to unfamiliar adults and to their own
mothers. The observation begins by having you and
your infant come to the study room which has a one-
way mirror. A woman enters and begins to play with
your baby. After a short time, you leave the room;
you may see your baby through the oneway glass.
During your absence, the woman continues to play
with your baby. Then, the woman also leaves the
room. The baby is left by himself/herself, seated
in an infant-table for a few moments. You return
to the room and play with your baby the same way
as the woman did. During tile entire episode, which
lasts about 12 minutes, one or two observers,
sitting behind the oneway mirror, have noted what
your baby was doing.

After the observation, the Gesell Developmental
Examination will be given. The purpose of this is
to record the developmental progress of your in-
fant. It involves observing the way your baby
plays with small cubes and toys. You are present
throughout this part of the session, which takes
about 20 minutes.








The refusal rate among lhe families of DS infants

appeared small.. Two agencies reported that two families

among those solicited chose not to participate. Among the

normal infants, one baby was ill during the critical time

for observation and two mothers recruited through a family

agency reneged, explaining that heir husbands did not wish

them to participate. Because the families of the normal

infants were of a higher socio-economic status than the

families of the DS infants, the infants wore matched on age,

sex, and socio-economic status. Of 50 infants observed 16

were excluded because of the matching (11 normals and four

infants with DS).

Final arrangements for the observation were made by

telephone. The mother was asked to select a time of day

when the infant was well fed and alert. The observation was

scheduled for that time. When the mother and infant arrived

at the observation center, they were greeted by the investi-

gator. They were made comfortable in the waiting room, and

the mother was asked to fill out the information form sheet

and to sign the informed consent form. (Appendix E contains

informed consent form and Appendix F the information form.)

The procedure for the observation was reviewed. The mother

was given a cobbler's apron with a toy in the pocket, and

she and the infant were brought to the observation room.

The instructions for each episode, as narrated by the

investigator, were played on a cassette recorder located in

the observation room. The unfamiliar adult was a white









female who wore an apron identical to that worn by the

mother. The infant's behaviors were recorded on a coding

form by the observer who was stationed behind the oneway

mirror. (The coding form is contained in Appendix G.)

When the observation procedure was completed, the (iesell

Developmental Exnminai ti on was admini stered by the investi-

gator for the purpose of determining developmental status

of the infants.

Materials and Observation Room

Because the subjects with DS were drawn from different

parts of the state, eighl testing sites were used. Although

the rooms were different in shape and purpose, the arrange-

ment of the equipment was standard relative to the oneway

mirror. Directly opposite the onewny mirror was the screen.

To the right and in front of the screen was the mother's

chair and the infant-table. A cassette recorder was placed

on the floor near the infant-table. To the left of the one-

way mirror was the entry.

The equipment used was:

1. a straight-back chair for the mother

2. an infant-table

3. a screen six feet high x four feet wide

4. A cassette recorder with a tape of instructions

5. two pink cobbler aprons

6. two circular infant toys (6 inches in diameter).









Instrument at ion

Assessment of At tachment
Behavi or

Observations of attachment behavior were made using

the Gordon et al. (1973) unfamiliar adult, situal ion. Like

Ainsworth's strange situation, each infant is exposed to a

scenario enacted by an unfamiliar adult and the mother.

Throughout, an observer coded infant behaviors on eight vari-

ables: looking, positive affect, negative affect postural

approach, postural avoidance, accopltance and exploration

of a toy, and response to mother's departure. (Appendix H

contains the interobserver reliabilities for the Gordon et al.

(1973) unfamiliar adult scale or "LtrusL" scale.)

The scenario begins with the infant seated on the

mother's lap. It was divided into consecutive episodes as

follows:

1. The unfamiliar adult (UA) enters and stands six feet

in front of the baby (B) and smiles.

2. UA talks to the B in a cheerful manner.

3. UA approaches the B, smiles, and says "IHello."

4. UA pats B's fingers in a game-like fashion several

times.

5. UA picks B up, holds him/her, and walks around the

room.

6. UA wiggles B in the air several times.

7. Transition: UA walks behind screen and mother (M)

leaves the room quietly. UA returns holding B, MI is gone.









8. UA puts B into infant-table.

9. UA offers toy to B. UA offers toy repeatedly if B

does not take it. immediately.

10. Transition: UA takes toy from B and leaves. M

enters and stands six feet in front of B. She talks and smiles.

11. M pats B's fingers in a game-like fashion several times.

12. i holds the B and walks around the room.

13. M wiggles B in the air several times.

141. Ml returns B to the infant-table.

15. M offers toy to B. M offers it repeatedly if B

does not take it immediately.

16. M leaves slowly waving "Bye-bye."

The coding form itself comprised the operational defini-

tions for each of the dependent variables (see Appendix G).

These behavioral definitions together with the videotapes of

the procedure provide the means for learning to code the be-

haviors. (The videotapes are available from the Ira J. Gordon

Library Collection, College of Education, University of North

Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27514.)

Behaviors were coded on a four-point scale of intensity.

Appendix G provides a sample coding form for all of the scales

and designates the behaviors coded during each episode.

Coders, Training for Coding,
and Interobserver Agreement

In the present study, three women, two psychology stu-

dents and one an assistant in a class for handicapped chil-

dren, were trained to code infant responses. The categories

of infant behavior were described in the original study and









were used to score behavior during training. Videotapes from

the original study were coded for practice. Disagreements

were resolved by reviewing the tapes and by discussion. After

one week of viewing lapes, thr-c infants were placed in the

unfamiliar adult situation, and their behaviors were coded.

Interobserver agreement in the practice situation was 95%.

Interobserver agreement, assessed during the data gathering

sessions, was 92% for two observers for seven observations.

The Ifornmula used f'or computing agreement was:

STotal number of agreements (Fox, 199).
Agreement Total number of observations

Training for Administration of
th l Gosell DevTe loplmeli'll a
ilxamini at i on

Thle investigator administered the Gesell Developmental

Examination to each infant. The investigator had been trained

by Hilda Knobloch. Training included scoring from videotape,

from direct observation, and administering the examination

under supervision. Interrater agreement after training was

96% with Dr. Knobloch.

Data Analysis

The intensity scores for the five principal dependent

measures were summed across episodes and under elicitors as

follows:

1. looking: episodes 1 + 4 compared to episode 10 + 11.

2. positive affect: episodes 1 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 9 com-

pared to episodes 10 + 11 + 12 + 13 + 15.

3. nega ive a 'fee.: episodes 1 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 9 com-

pared to episodes 10 + 11 + 12 + 13 + 15.









4. postural approach: episodes 3 + 4 + 5 compared to

episodes 10 + 11 + 12.

5. postural avoidance: episodes 3 + 4 + 5 compared to

episodes 10 + 11 + 12.

Episodes were excluded from the analysis (for example, 2 and

3) when there were no comparable episodes under the other

elicitor. A split-plot factorial analysis of variance for

age and diagnostic status over subjects and elicitors over

repeated measures was performed for each of the five princi-

pal dependent measures. Analyses of variance for repeated

measures were performed for:

1. acceptance of a toy: episode 9 compared to episode 15

2. exploration of a toy: episode 9 compared to

episode 15

for DS and normal infants at age 6 months. To analyze the re-

sponse of the 12-month-olds to the acceptance of the toy from

the unfamiliar adult (episode 9), acceptance of the toy from

their mothers (episode 15), and the departure of their mothers,

t-tests were used. Gardner (1975) suggested that parametric

statistics are appropriate for use in summated scales in

which ". . the items will display a limited range of popu-

larity (the attitudinal equivalent of cognitive difficulty)

and will be differentiating (discriminating)" (p. 53).

Pearson product-moment correlations were computed to

determine the association between DQ at 12 months and looking,

positive and negative affect. and postural avoidance of the

unfamiliar adult. and positive and negative affect and






55


postural approach directed toward the mother. For all

statistical tests differences were deemed to be significant

if p < .05.















CHAPTER IV

RESULTS

This stLudy ex.inuined the interaction of hree independent

variables: diagnostic status, age, and elicitor on five de-

pendent measures of at tachmen : looking, positive affect,

negative affect, postural approach, and post-ural avoidance.

The variables were analyzed in a two-way analysis of variance

split-plot design for repeated measures. Acceptance and ex-

ploration of a toy presented by the mother and unfamiliar

adult were analyzed at age 6 months by means of an analysis

of variance for repeated measures. Acceptance of the toy from

the mother, acceptance of tlie toy from the unfamiliar adult,

and response on lhe second departure of the mother were an-

alyzed for the 12-ionth groups by means of t-tests. In addi-

tion, Pearson product-moment correlations were computed on

selected attachment behaviors at age 12 months.

Hypothesis 1. The first hypothesis that looking be-

havior as observed in the unfamiliar adult situation was dif-

ferent as a function of diagnostic status, age, and elicitor

of behavior was not confirmed. Cell means and standard de-

viations are presented in Table 5. The three-way interaction

was not significant. Neither were the two-way interactions

nor any of the main effects significant. The summary table

is presented in Table 6.
















0
a


CS


i . . I "



3 t)
CS- i c c




II -








S 0 !O

0 2 -
-a x -r






. ri .. I




h d s
rt 0 i .
< ,, o i, '*




OO O C
. cH 4 I -
-HI




'H C

Co S
i '2 : i !








0 i
C- -





E- i 3 I - _











'C O O -: |


C- a
















Table 6

Summary Table for Analysis of Variance Split-Plot
Ior Roepa ted Measures for Looking

Sum i of Mea '
Source Squares (d Square F p


Diagnostic Status

Age

Diagnos tic Status
x Age

Error

Elicitor

Elicitor x Diagnos-
tic Status

Elicitor x Age

Elicitor x Diagnos-
tic Status x Age


Error


4.84

6. (32


5.90

55. G0

2.29


8.83

1.00


0.84

76.99


4.84

G.62


5.90

1 85

2.29


8.83

1 .00


0.84

2.56


2.61

3.57


0.12

0.07


3.19 0.08



0.89 0.35


3.44

0.39


0.07

0.54


0.33 0.57









Hypothesis 2. The second hypothesis that positive

affect as observed in the unfamiliar adult situation was

different as a function of diagnostic status, age, and elici-

tor of behavior was not confi armed. The three-way interaction

for diagnostic status, age, and elicitor on behavior was not

statistically significant, F (1,30) = 3.97, p < .0(3. Cell

means and standard deviations are reported in Table 5. The

analysis o' variance summary table for positive affect is

presented in Table 7.

A statistically significant interaction was found between

elicitor and diagnostic status, F (1,30) = 5.74, p < .02.

Marginal means for elicitor and diagnostic status were:

unfamiliar adult at DS infants = 1.79; mother at DS infants =

4.41; unfamiliar adult at normal infants = 2.94; mother at

normal infants = 3.58. Analysis of simple main effects for

elicitor x diagnostic status, seen in Table 8, indicated

there was a significant difference between positive affect

for the DS infants when the mother rather than the unfamiliar

adult was the elicitor. The infants smiled more at their

mothers than at the unfamiliar adult. There was no differ-

ence in intensity of smiling between the normal infants

whether the elicitor was the mother or the unfamiliar adult.

Figure 1 depicts this relationship.

Age and elicitor were also significant, F (1,30) = 8.41,

p < .01, and the marginal means were: unfamiliar adult at

6 months = 2.56; mother at 6 months = 3.00; unfamiliar adult

at 12 months = 2.16; mother at 12 months = 4.99. Analysis
















T'ab (l 7

Summary Table for Analysis of Variance Split-Plot
lor Repeated Moasiurs for Posit ive Affecl


Source


Diagnostic Status

Age

Diagnostic Stntus
x Age

Error

Elicitor

Elicitor x Diagnos
tic Stal us


Sum of
Squares


0.41

10.90


7.30

189.69

45.31


16.59


Elicitor x Ago 24.31

Elicitor x Diagnos-
tic Status x Age 11.47

Error 86.69


Mean
d Squa re


1 0.41

1 10.90


7.30

G.32

45.31


16.59

24.31


11 .47

2.89


F p


0.07

1.72


0.80

0.20


1.15 0.29



15.68 0.00


5.74

8.41


0.02

0.01


3.97 0.06









Table 8

Summary Table for Simple Main Effects for
Positive Affect: )Diagnos ic Status
x El icitor and El icitor x Age


Source


Diagnostic Stitus
x Elicitor

Elicitor at
Down's Syndrome
Elicitor at Normal
*Pooled 12Error


Sum of
Squares


Mean
df Square


60.29
4.97


60.29
4.97
4. 01


Age x Elicitor


Age and Utn ami 1 iar
Adul t

Age and Mother
*Pooled Error


*Sub, w. groups


-1.27
33.89


-1.27

33.89
4.61


+ IMSB x Sbj .
B x Subj w.


groups )


(Kirk, 1968, p. 289)


**p < .02.


13.08**
1.08


.27
7.35**



























M other


Unfamiliar Adult



1



DS normal
DS Normal


Figure 1. Positive Affect: Elicitor x Diagnostic Status.









for simple main effects for age and elicitor indicated that

6-and 12-month-olds differ when the mother is the elicitor

of behavior. Table 8 presents a summary table. The 12-month-

olds display iore intense positive affect toward her than do

the 6-month-olds. There was no di fference between the age

groups for positive affect directed toward the unfamiliar

adult. At both ages, the infants smiled less at the unfamiliar

adult than at the mother. This relationship may be seen in

Figure 2.

Hypothesis 3. The third hypothesis that negative affect

as observed in the unfamiliar adult si station was different

as a function of diagnostic status, age, and elicitor of be-

havior was not confirmed, as reference to Table 9 indicates.

Cell means and standard deviations are reported in Table 5.

The three-way interaction for negative affect was not sta-

tistically significant, F (1,30) = 2.94, p < .10. The two-

way interaction for elicitor and diagnostic status was sta-

tistically significant, F (1,30) = 9.35, p < .01. Table 10

provides a summary table for the analysis of simple main

effects. Marginal means for DS infants at unfamiliar adult

= .58; for DS infants at mother = .47; for normal infants at

unfamiliar adult = 2.43; for normal infants at mother = 4.03.

The normal infants displayed significantly more negative

affect than the DS infants in the presence of the mother but

not the unfamiliar adult. The infants with DS showed vir-

tually no negative affect in the presence of either the

mother or I.he unfamiliar adult. Figure 3 displays this rel-

lati onship.






64














6


5 12 months


4


3 -6 months










Unfamiliar adult Mother



Figure 2. Positive AffecL: Elicitor x Age.
















Tab l 9

Summary Table for Analysis of Variance Split-Plot
Rept-atc!d Meaisur'es for Negative Affect


Sum of
Source Squares


Diagnostic SLatus 124.26

Age 26.47


Diagnostic Status
x Age

Error


15.56

33G.50


Elicitor 9.35

El ici tor x
Diagnostic Status 12.36

Elicitor x Age 2.29

Elicitor x Diagnos-
tic Status x Age 3.89

Error 39.64


Mean
df Squa re


124.26

26. 17


15. 56

11.22

9.35


12.36

2.29


3.89

1 .32


F p


11 .08

2.36


0.002

0.14


1.39 0.25



7.08 0.01


9.35

1.74


0.01

0.20


2.94 0.10


for















Table 10

Summary Table for Simple Main Eflects for
Neg I i v Afflcc : Diagno l ic
S Iitu x N Ili i lor


Source

Diagnostic Status at
Un famni l iar Adu I L

Diagnostic Status at
Mout hr


Sum of
S(I tlar es


30. 1 1


113.05


*Pooled Error


Mean
df Squa re F



1 30.11 4.79


1 113.05 18.03**


6.27


**p < .02.


*(Kirk, 1968).


























Nornm 1


SDS
Unfamniliar Adult Mother


Figure 3. Negative Affect: Elicitor x Diagnostic Status.


r









Hypothesis 4. The fourth hypothesis that the postural

approach of the infants observed in the unfamiliar adult

situation was different as a function of diagnostic status,

age, and elicitor of hehnvior wais not coni rmed, as reference

to Table 10 indicates. Cell means and standard deviations are

reported in Tible 5. There was no statistically significant

three-way interaction, F (1,30) = .02, p < .88. There was

a statistically significant two-way interaction for elicitor

and age, F (1,30) = 7.82, p < .01. Simple main effects were

analyzed (see Table 11).

Marginal means for age 6 months at unfamiliar adult =

2.37; for age 6 months at mother = 2.50; for age 12 months

at unfami liar aIdult = 2.28; for age 12 months at mother =

4.55. At age 6 months, there was no difference between the

infants when either the mother or the unfamiliar adult was

the elicitor, At 12 months, there was a significant differ-

ence between the postural approach toward the mother and the

unfamiliar adult. The older infants approached their mothers

significantly more than they approached the unfamiliar adult.

There was no difference for either age group when the un-

familiar adult was the elicitor of behavior, but when the

mother was the elicitor, the 12-month-olds approached her

more than the 6-month-olds. These relationships may be seen

in Figure 4.

The main effect for diagnostic status was statistically

significant, F (1,30) = 4.23, p < .05. Infants with DS dis-

played more postural approach than normal infants.
















Ta ble I 1

Summary TaI)ble for Analysi s oF1 VariaInce Spl it-Plt for
RPi'n01t l d Mea tsur four Po' I urn I A l)iproach


Sum of
Source Squares d


Diagnostic Status 18.38


Age




Error

Elici tor

Elicitor x Diagnos-
tic Stt at u

Elicitor x Age

Elicitor x Diagnos-
tic Status x Age


16.24


0.74

130.38

21 .45


5.23

19.63


0.05


Meuan
f Sqularl

1 18.38

1 16.24


S 0.7-1

0 4.35

1 24.45


1 5.2:3

1 19.03


1 0.02


F p


4 .23

3.74


0.05

0.OG


0.17 0.68



9.74 0.01


2.08

7.82


0.16

0.01


0.02 0.88


75.32 30 2.51


Erro r
















Table 12

Summary Table for Simple Main Effects for
Posture l Approach: Elicitor x Age


Sum of lMan
Source Squares df Square F

Age 6 months at
Elicitor .10 1 .10 .03

Age 12 months at
Elicitor 84.02 1 84.02 24.50**

*Pooled Error 60 3.43


*(Kirk, 1968).

**p < .02.





















6




Mother
4






SUnfamiliar adult





0
6 months 12 months


Figure 1. Postural Approach; Elicitor x Age.









Hypothesis 5. The fifth hypothesis that postural avoid-

ance as measured in the strange situation was different as a

function of diagnostic status, age, and elicitor of behavior

was not confirmed, as reference to Table 13 indicates. Cell

means and standard deviations are reported in Table 5. Neither

the three-way nor any of the two-way interactions were statis-

tically sign ficarnt. Main effects for age, F' (1,30) = 7.16,

p < .01, and elicitor, F (1,30) = 14.62, p2 .001, were sta-

tistically significant. The summary table is presented in

Table 13. The older infants were more avoidant than younger

ones, and the unfamiliar adult was avoided more than the mother.

Hypothesis 6. The sixth hypothesis that normal and DS

infants age G months accepted the toy equally promptly when

presented by the untamiliar adult and equally promptly when

presented by the mother was confirmed, as reference to Table

14 indicates. The two-way interaction was not statistically

significant, F (1,14) = 2.03, p < .18. Both groups accepted

the toy equally promptly when presented by the unfamiliar

adult and by the mother. There was a statistically signifi-

cant main effect for elicitor, F (1,14) = 5.65, p < .03. The

main effect indicated that the infanLts accepted the toy more

readily when presented by their mothers. Cell means and

standard deviations are presented in Table 15.

Hypothesis 7. The seventh hypothesis that normal and

DS infants age 6 months explored the toy with equal amounts

of enthusiasm when it was presented by the unfamiliar adult
















Tuble 13

SunImmry Tablwe for Analyseis of Variance Split-Plot for
IRetLpta Id MOlesul's for Postulra] Avoidance


Sum of


Source


Mean


Squares idf Scquare F p


Diagnosis ic Status

Age

Diagnostic Status
x Age

Error

Elicitor

Elicitor x Diagnos-
tic Status

Elicitor x Age

Elicitor x Diagnos-
tic Status x Age


2.29

20.10


S.00

85.49

39.18


2.50

7.07


0.21


Error 80.43


1 2.20

1 20.40


1.00

2.85

39.18


2.56

7.07


0.21

2.68


0.81

7.16


0.38

0.01


0.35 0.56



14.62 0.001


0.96

2.64


0.34

0.12


0.08 0.78
















Table 14

ANOVA Summary Table for Acceptance of Toy at 6-Months
from Unfamiliar Adult and ,Mother


Sum of
Squares


Mean
df Square


F p


Diagnostic Status

Error


Elicitor


Elicitor x Diagnostic
Status


10. 13

39.75

3.13


1.13


1 10.13 3.57 .08

14 2.84


3.13 5.65 .03


1.13 2.03 .18


7.75 14


Source


Error















Table 15

Cell Means and Standard Deviations for Acceptance and
Explorat ion of Toy by 6-Month-Old DS and Normal
Tnfants by Unfamniliar Adult and Mother

Diagnostic Unfamiliar Adult Mother
Variable Statu.s Mean SD Mean SD

Acceptance DS .88 1.36 1.13 1.25
o f Toy
Normal 1.63 1.50 2.63 1.06

Exploration DS .64 .58 1.33 1.53
of Toy
Normal 1.60 1.11 2.60 .55









or the mo other wias con 'i rmned, is re ference to Table 1G indi-

cates. The two-way interaction was not statistically

significant., F (1,G) = .12, p < .74. (Degrees of freedom

were adjusted to indicate that not all of the infants accepted

the toy and, therefore, not all explored the toy.) The 6-

month-old groups explored the toy with equal intensity, when

both mother and unfamiliar adult presented it. Cell means

and standard deviations are presented in Table 15.

lHypothesis S. hlie eighth hypothesis 1hat the normal

infants at age 12 months were more hesitant than the DS in-

fants in accepting a toy from the unfami liar adult was re-

jected, t (16) dlC = -.22, p < .3;:i. Table 17 presents lhe

cell means, standard deviations, and results of the t-test.

Both groups of infants accepted the toy with the same degree

of promptness.

Hypothesis 9. The ninth hypothesis that normal and DS

infants at 12 months did not differ in promptness in accepting

a toy from their mothers was confirmed, t (16) = 1.51, p >

.05. Table 17 presents the cell means, standard deviations,

and results of the t-test. Both groups accepted the toy

equally promptly when it was presented by the mother.

Hypothesis 10. The tenth hypothesis that normal infants

at 12 months displayed more negative affect than comparable

age DS infants when their mothers depart for the second time

was confirmed. Table 17 presents the cell means, standard

deviations, and results of the t-test. There was a statis-

tically significant difference between the 12-month-old DS

and normal infants, I (14) = -2.82, p < .05.
















Table 16

ANOVA Summary Table for Exploration of Toy at G Months
When Presanted by Un 'ami l i\r Adult. and Iotthtrr

Suni of Mean
Source Squares d_f Square F p

Diagnostic Status 4.54 1 4.54 4.25 .09

Error 6.40 G 1.07

Elicitor 2.60 1 2.60 2.93 .14

Elicitor x Diagnostic
Status 0.10 1 .10 .12 .74

Error 5.33 6 .89















Table 17

Cell Means, Standard Deviations, and l-Statistics for


Acceptance ol Toy from Motlier, Cromn
Adult Response t.o Depalrtiur
lMother at 12 Months


Unlamili ar
of


Variable Group Coll Moans SD df t


Acceptance of toy DS 2.33 1.11 16 -.22
f r'oiii tin raIIi i i r
adult N 2.44 1.01

Acceptance of toy DS 3.00 0 16 1.51
from Inother
N 2.33 1.32

Response to mother's DS 0 0 16 -2.82*
second departLure
N 1.55 1.33


*< .05.









The following hypotheses dealt with the relationship

of DQ as measured by the Gesell Developmental Examination

at 12 months and at tachment behaviors measured at. 12 months

in the un'amli i ar adult situation. Results are listed in

Table 18.

Hypothesis I The eleventh hypothesis that DQ was

associated with looking at the unfianiliar adult was not con-

fimed. No association was found, r = .35, p < .17.

Hypothesis 12. The twelfth hypothesis that DQ was

associated with positive affect directed toward the unfamiliar

adult was not confirmed. No association was found, r = .14,

p) < .(1.

llypothesis 13. The t.lirt.eenth hypothesis that DQ was

associated wi th negative affect directed toward the unfamiliar

adult was confirmed. The correlation was r = .4G, p < .05.

Hypothesis 14. The fourteenth hypothesis that DQ was

associated with postural avoidance of the unfamiliar adult

was not confirmed. No association was found, r = .17,

p < .49.

Hypothesis 15. The fifteenth hypothesis that DQ was

associated with positive affect directed toward the mother

was not confirmed. No association was found, r = -.14,

p < .59.

Hypothesis ]G. The sixteenth hypothesis that DQ was

associated with negative affect directed toward the mother

was confirmed. The association found was r = .63, p < .005.
















Table 18

Pearson Product-Moment Correlations Between DQ and
Al tlaclunent Bhavi iors at Age 12 Mnnths


Behavior


Looking at Unfamiliar Adult

Positive Affect--
Unlamiliar Adult

Negative Affect--
Unfamiliar Adult

Postural Avoidance--
Un 'aini] iar Adult

Positive A f fect--Mo he r

Negative Affect--Mother

Postural Approach--Mother


Correl at ion
Coeffl'i cient Probability


.35 .17


.17

-.14

.63

-.05


.05*


.49

.59

.005*

.85









Hypothesis 17. The seventeenth hypothesis that DQ was

associated with postural approach toward the mother was not

confirmed. No association was found, r = -.05, p < .85.

Summary

llypotheses one through five which predicted that there

would be interactions between the independent variables:

diagnostic status, age, and elicitor of behavior and each of

the principal dependent variables: looking, positive affect,

negative affect, postural approach, and postural avoidance,

were not confirmed. There were no statistically significant

three-way interactions for any of the attachment variables.

There were statistically significant two-way interactions for

diagnostic status and elicitor, and elicitor and age for

positive affect, elicitor and diagnostic status for negative

affect, and elicitor and age for postural approach. Main

effects were statistically significant for diagnostic status

for postural approach and for both age and elicitor for

postural avoidance.

Hypotheses six and seven which predicted that there would

be no difference between the groups of 6-month-olds on the

acceptance and exploration of a toy presented by the unfamiliar

adult or the mother were confirmed. There was a main effect

for elicitor on acceptance of toy, indicating that both groups

of infants accepted the toy more readily when it was presented

by their mothers.

Hypothesis eight which predicted that the 12-month-old

normal infants would he more hesitant in accepting the toy

from the unfamiliar adult than the DS infants was rejected.









Hypothesis nine which predicted no difference between

the groups of infants at age 12 months in accepting the toy

from their mothers was confirmed.

Ilypothesis ltn which predicted that the normal infants

at age 12 months would display more negative affect than DS

infants when their mothers left the room for the second time

was confi rmed.

Hyplot.hesis 11 through 17 predicted that DQ as measured

by the Gesell Developmental Examination at 12 months was

associated with specific attachment behaviors observed in the

unfamiliar r adult, situat ion. Hypotheses 15 and 18 which pre-

dicted an association between DQ and negative affect dis-

played toward the unfamiliar adult and the mother respec-

tively were confirmed. There were no statistically signifi-

cant associations between DQ and looking at the unfamiliar

adult, positive affect directed toward the unfamiliar adult,

postural avoidance of the unfamiliar adult, positive affect

directed toward mother, or postural approach directed toward

mother,















CHAPTER V

DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS

Overvi ew

This study compared the expressions of attachment be-

havior of normal and DS infants at ages 6 ana 12 months.

The subjects were eight normal and eight DS infants seen

within one week of their sixth-month birthday and nine normal

and nine DS infants seen within two weeks of their twelfth-

month birthday. The infants were matched for sex, age, and

social class.

DQ for each infant was measured on the Gesell Develop-

mental Examination. The infants were observed in the unfa-

miliar adult situation, a procedure designed to elicit

attachment behaviors. The independent variables were diag-

nostic status, age, and elicitor of behavior (unfamiliar

adult or mother) and the five principal dependent measures

were: looking, positive affect, negative affect, postural

approach, and postural avoidance. The variables were analyzed

in a two-way factorial analysis of variance split-plot design

for repeated measures. Measures of the acceptance and

exploration of a toy presented by the mother and the unfa-

miliar adult to the 6-month-olds were analyzed in a two-way

analysis of variance for repeated measures. Differences

between 12-mon h-old DS and the normal infants on acceptance









of the toy from the mother, from the unfamiliar adult, and

response to a second departure by the mother, were analyzed

by means of t-tests. Pearson product-moment correlations

were computed on DQ at age 12 months and selected attachment

behaviors.

The hypothesis predicted that there were no differences

in the expression of attachment behavior by the 6-month-old

groups, but there were differences between the 12-month-old

groups on the measures of attachment. DQ was predicted to

be associated with selected attachment behaviors. There were

no statistically significant three-way interactions. There

were statistically significant two-way interactions for

elicitor x diagnostic status and age x elicitor for positive

affect, elicitor x diagnostic status for negative affect, and

age x elicitor for postural approach as well as significant

main effects for elicitor for postural approach, and age and

elicitor for postural avoidance.

For the 6-month groups there were no differences be-

tween the promptness with which the infants accepted a toy,

or explored a toy whether it was presented by the mother or

the unfamiliar adult. However, both groups of infants

accepted the toy more readily from the mother.

For the 12-month-old infants there were no differences

in the promptness with which they accepted a toy from either

the mother or the unfamiliar adult. There were differences

in negative affect when the mother left the room the second

time. Finally, at age 12 months DQ was found to be associated









with negative affect directed toward the mother and the

unfamiliar adilt.

Discussion

Looking Behavior

No differences were found between the groups of infants

at either age or between the DS and the normal infants on look-

ing behavior. The 6-month-old DS infants tended to look at

the unfamiliar adult and their own mothers more than the 6-

month-old normal infants. Studies of discrimination and novelty

perception in DS infants ages 19 to 35 weeks indicated that

they fixate on the stimulus longer than comparable age normal

infants (Cohen, unpublished; Miranda & Fantz, 1974).

The most intense looking was directed toward the un-

familiar adult by the normal 12-month-old. Although not sta-

tistically significant this trend is in agreement with the

findings of Bretherton and Ainsworth (1974) and Gordon et al.

(1973). Bretherton and Ainsworth (1974) suggested that look-

ing at the stranger is a form of appraisal which occurs prior

to the expression of affiliation or wariness. The 12-month-

old DS infants looked with equal intensity at the unfamiliar

adult and their mothers.

Looking behavior in this study did not indicate a differ-

ence either between the DS and normal infants or between the

groups at 6 and 12 months.

Positive Affect

The 12-month groups of infants expressed significantly

more posit iveo a fede toward heir mothers than the 6-month









groups regardless of diagnostic status. The most intense

positive affect was expressed by the 12-month-old DS infants

toward their mothers. Both age groups expressed equal amounts

of positive affect toward the unfamiliar adult, but the normal

infants decreased the intensity of expression of positive

affect toward the unfamiliar adult between 6 and 12 months

although this decrease was not statistically significant. A

decrease in positive affect toward the unfamiliar adult between

ages 6 and 12 months is supported by other studies of normal

infants (Bronson, 1972; Waters, Malas, & Sroufe, 1975). From

6 to 12 months the infants with DS increased positive affect

toward the unfamiliar adult. This increase was not statis-

tically significant.

Positive affect did not differentiate the groups in the

expected way. The literature on DS infants indicates that

DS infants have less intense affective expression than normal

infants (Cicchetti & Sroufe, 1978; Emde et al., 1978). Pre-

diction was that the 12-month-old DS infants would show less

positive affect toward their mothers than the 12-month-old

normal infants. Thus, one of the most interesting findings

was that the infants with DS at both ages showed more intense

positive affect toward their mothers than their normal counter-

parts.

Emde et al. (1978) reported that the most intense smile

of the 31-month-old infant with DS was less intense and

qualitatively different--lacking crinkling around the eyes

and upturning it the corners of the mouth--than the smile

of the normal infant. McCall (1972) suggested that









when the memory for a given stimulus is immature, smiling

will intensify when that stimulus is presented. The DS in-

fants in this study were sufficiently different in intensity

of smiling to indicate a discrimination of mother vis a

vis the unfamiliar adult.

Zelazo (1972) noted that the smiling response in in-

fants is curvilinear with regard to familiarity: smiling

increases with increasing familiarity to a stimulus and de-

creases with continued familiarization--a habituation effect.

This may explain the smiling response of the normal infants

compared with the DS infants. The discussion of this finding

of differences between the normal and DS infants in smiling

at the mother, however, may be best understood by reference

to the following measure--negative affect.

Negative Affect

The normal infants are distinguished from their DS

counterparts by expression of negative affect toward their

mothers. Gordon et al. (1973) suggested that it was an

attachment behavior in the unfamiliar adult situation. This

negative affect expressed by the normal infants may explain

why there is an unexpected difference in the expression of

positive affect by the normal infants.

The expectation from the literature was that there were

no differences between the groups of 6-month-olds. This

hypothesis was based upon the fact that although distress

reactions to separation have been recorded as early as seven

months and distress reactions to the stranger have been









reported to occur as early as five months (Bronson, 1972;

Tennes & Lempl 1964), the response to the approaching stranger

at age 6 months is neutral or smiling (Gordon et al., 1973;

Skarin, 1977).

Year old normal infants have been shown to respond with

wariness and distress to the intrusive behavior of a stranger

(Gordon e. al., 1973; Skarin, 1977; Sroufe, 1977) and to separ-

ation from the mother (Ainsworth, 1973). The normal infants

in this study reacted in exactly that way. In addition, the

sequence of interactions with the mother occurred after those

with the stranger. The infant's distress at seeing the mother

after her brief absence, after the experience with the un-

familiar, adult and finally in response to the mother's depar-

ture, is in sharp contrast to the DS infants, who did not re-

spond with distress to these events.

When negative affect was compared between the 12-month-

old DS and normal infants after mother left the infant alone

in the observation room, the normal infants were significantly

more distressed than the DS infants. This is predicted from the

literature on the "strange situation" (Ainsworth & Bell, 1970)

as well as from the literature on separation distress in 12-

month-old infants (Schaffer & Emerson, 1964; Tennes & Lempl,

1964) and reveals one of the predicted distinctions between

DS and normal infants (Seralica & Cicchetti, 1976).

The responses of the DS infants were predominantly neu-

tral, a finding consistent with previous research on DS in-

fants (Carr, 1975; Serafica & Chicrhetti, 1976). Waters et

al, (1975) noted thiat the expressions of positive and









negative affect in the year old infant were not mutually

exclusive. (In this study, there were 16 instances of year-

old infants expressing both dimensions of affect in the same

episode.) The response to the mother particularly by the

year old normal infants in these circumstances was often

tearful. The frustration on seeing the mother after a brief

absence was compounded for the normal 12-month-olds by the

infant-table which restrained the infants who frequently

opened their arms in a gesture indicating a wish to be re-

moved and held by the mother. The affect of the normal

infants in this situation was more complex than that of the

DS infants which was expressed in fewer dimensions. Although

the difference between the DS and the normal infants was

significant, the difference between the normals at 6 and 12

months was not. Nonetheless, the intensity of negative

affect for the 6-month-old normals was half of that measured

for the 12-month-old normals. This result is similar to the

findings of Gordon et al. (1973) and Skarin (1977): younger

infants display less negative affect in the presence of a

stranger than do older infants.

The finding of a difference in negative affect between

normal and DS infants supports the findings of Carr (1975)

and Cicchetti and Sroufe (1978). These authors concluded

that negative affect is more difficult to arouse in DS in-

fants. Serafica and Cicchetti (1976) in their study of

33-month-old DS infants found almost no negative affect

aroused during the strange situation among the DS as opposed




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