Group Title: Students' cognitive styles as indicators of success with an audiovisual-tutorial instructional package in typewriting /
Title: Students' cognitive styles as indicators of success with an audiovisual-tutorial instructional package in typewriting
CITATION PDF VIEWER THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098845/00001
 Material Information
Title: Students' cognitive styles as indicators of success with an audiovisual-tutorial instructional package in typewriting
Alternate Title: Students' cognitive styles as indicators of success ..
Physical Description: xi, 187 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rosenbloom, Lester Lee, 1942-
Publication Date: 1979
Copyright Date: 1979
 Subjects
Subject: Typewriting -- Study and teaching -- Audio-visual aids   ( lcsh )
Programmed instruction   ( lcsh )
Cognitive styles   ( lcsh )
Curriculum and Instruction thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Curriculum and Instruction -- UF
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Thesis: Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 181-186.
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: Vita.
Statement of Responsibility: by Lester Lee Rosenbloom.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098845
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000097918
oclc - 06638427
notis - AAL3359

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:

PDF ( 7 MBs ) ( PDF )


Full Text











STUDENTS' COGNITIVE STYLES AS INDICATORS
OF SUCCESS WITH AN AUDIOVISUAL-TUTORIAL
INSTRUCTIONAL PACKAGE IN TYPEWRITING














By

LESTER LEE ROSENBLOOM


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY








UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1979































To my wi6e, SheJyZ














ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


With much gratitude I wish to acknowledge the valuable

direction and advice received from Dr. Arthur J. Lewis,

Dr. Laurel Dickerson, and Dr. James L. Wattenbarger who

helped guide my graduate program. I would like to thank

also Dr. William R. Terrell and Dr. Lee J. Mullally for

sharing with me their expertise in the field of the educa-

tional science of cognitive style.

To Dr. John J. Dallman I owe a special debt for his

encouragement and support throughout the preparation of

this document.

To LeAnne Brown, a fellow student and loyal friend,

for never losing faith in me, I wish to express my humble

gratitude.

I would like to also thank Anne Smith and Mary Courtney

for their patient and dedicated work in the preparation of

this document.

Finally, to Dr. Ronald K. Bass, for his inspiration

and guidance, for his many long hours of assistance, and

for his friendship, I am forever grateful.












TABLE OF CONTENTS


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . . . . . . . . .

LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . .

LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . .

ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . .

CHAPTER

I. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . .


Statement of Purpose . .
Need for the Study ..
Significance of the Study
Method . . . . .
Definition of Terms . .
Questions to be Answered .
Summary . . . . .
Overview of Chapters . .


Page

iii

vi

viii

ix







6
7
7
10
12
12


II. SELECTED LITERATURE . . . . . .

Theories and Research on Cognitive Style
The Educational Science of Cognitive
Style . . . . . . . .
Studies Within the Educational Sciences
of Cognitive Style . . . . .
Matching Instruction to Students Via
Cognitive Style . . . . . .
Audiovisual-Tutorial Individualized
Instruction . . . . . . .
Summary . . . . . . . .

III. DESIGN OF THE STUDY . . . . . .


Population . . . . .
Procedure . . . .
Course Evaluation . .
Data and Instrumentation .
Determining Degree of Match
Operational Hypotheses . .
Analytic Technique . . .
Summary . . . . .


. . . 34
. . 36
. . 38
. . . 40
. . . 49
. . . 52
. . 55
. . . 58











Page

IV. ANALYSIS OF DATA . . . . . ... 60

Findings of the Study . . . ... 63
Additional Analysis . . . ... 75
Summary . . . . . . . . 79

V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS
AND RECOMMENDATIONS . . . . .. 85

Summary . . . . . . . 85
Conclusions . . . . . . 87
Implications and Recommendations for
Further Research . . . . .. 88

APPENDICES

A. COGNITIVE STYLE MAPPING INVENTORY . 94

B. INSTRUMENTATION OF INVENTORY . . .. 108

C. TYPEWRITING EXPERIENCE QUESTIONNAIRE . 112

D. STUDENTS' MAPS . . . . . ... 114

E. COURSE OUTLINE . . . . . ... 121

F. THEORY TESTS, FINAL EXAMINATION,
PRODUCTION TESTS . . . . ... 127

G. SUGGESTED AVT GRADE SCALES . . ... 174

H. KOLMOGOROV-SMIRNOV STATISTICAL TABLE . 179

BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . ... 181

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . . . . . . .. 187











LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

4-1 Description of Statistical Symbols .... 60

4-2 Raw Data . . . . . . . ... 61

4-3 Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test Between High and
Low Degree of Match Groups and AVT
Theory Test Grades . . . . ... 63

4-4 Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test Between High and
Medium Degree of Match Groups and AVT
Theory Test Grades . . . . ... 64

4-5 Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test Between Medium and
Low Degree of Match Groups and AVT
Theory Test Grades . . . . . 65

4-6 Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test Between High and
Low Degree of Match Groups and AVT
Production Test Grades . . . ... 66

4-7 Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test Between High and
Medium Degree of Match Groups and AVT
Production Test Grades . . . ... 67

4-8 Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test Between Medium and
Low Degree of Match Groups and AVT
Production Test Grades . . . ... 68

4-9 Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test Between High and
Low Degree of Match Groups and AVT
Speed and Accuracy Test Grades . . .. 69

4-10 Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test Between High and
Medium Degree of Match Groups and AVT
Speed and Accuracy Test Grades . . .. 70

4-11 Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test Between Medium and
Low Degree of Match Groups and AVT
Speed and Accuracy Test Grades . . .. 71

4-12 Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test Between High and
Low Degree of Match Groups and AVT
Overall Course Grades . . . . .. 72














4-13 Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test Between High and
Medium Degree of Match Groups and AVT
Overall Course Grades . . . . .. 73

4-14 Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test Between Medium and
Low Degree of Match Groups and AVT
Overall Course Grades . . . . .. 74

4-15 Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test Between High and
Low Degree of Match Groups and AVT
Overall Course Grades (Including NP) . 76

4-16 Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test Between High and
Medium Degree of Match Groups and AVT
Overall Course Grades (Including NP) . 77

4-17 Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test Between Medium and
Low Degree of Match Groups and AVT
Overall Course Grades (Including NP) . 78

4-18 Summary of Results Students' Achievement
in Typewriting Theory . . . . .. 80

4-19 Summary of Results Students' Achievement
in Typewriting Production . . . ... 81

4-20 Summary of Results Students' Achievement
in Typewriting Speed and Accuracy ... . 82

4-21 Summary of Results Overall Course Grade 83

4-22 Summary of Results Overall Course Grade
(Including NP Students) . . . ... 84


Page


Table













LIST OF FIGURES


Figure Page

1. Cartesian Product of Sets of Educational
Sciences . . . . . . . . 17

2. Cartesian Set of Cognitive Style . . .. 22


viii













Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate
Council of the University of Florida in Partial
Fulfillment of the Requirements for the
Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


STUDENTS' COGNITIVE STYLES AS INDICATORS
OF SUCCESS WITH AN AUDIOVISUAL-TUTORIAL
INSTRUCTIONAL PACKAGE IN TYPEWRITING

By

Lester L. Rosenbloom

December, 1979



Chairman: Arthur J. Lewis
Major Department: Curriculum and Instruction



The purpose of this study was to determine if the degree

of match between an individual student's cognitive style and

a theoretical cognitive style map established by a panel of

experts for an audiovisual-tutorial typewriting (AVT) package

was an indicator of the degree of success which that student

would achieve through interaction with the package.

The sample consisted of the 17 students enrolled in

Elementary Typing I at Tompkins Cortland Community College in

Dryden, New York. A Cognitive Style Mapping Inventory was

administered and a map for each student was established. A

cognitive style map for the AVT package was determined by a












panel of experts and represented the elements deemed necessary

for a typing student to be successful in gaining information

from the AVT package.

At the end of the semester the typing theory, production,

speed and accuracy and overall grades of the students were

determined by the instructor. Students were ranked in three

match groups and then a comparison was made between the

student's degree of match with the AVT package and their

typing grades to determine if any significant relationship

existed. Data were analyzed by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-

sample statistical test of significance. Twelve operational

hypotheses were generated to answer the basic questions of

the study and an additional three hypotheses were generated to

test if any relationship existed between students who failed

to pass the course and their level of match.

The results of this study revealed that

1. No significant difference was found among any of the

three cognitive style match groups (high, medium, or low) in

the scores of achievement in typewriting theory when measured

in pairwise comparison.

2. No significant difference was found among any of the

three cognitive style match groups (high, medium, or low) in

the scores of achievement in typewriting production when

measured in pairwise comparison.













3. No significant difference was found among any of the

three cognitive style match groups (high, medium, or low) in

scores of achievement in typewriting speed and accuracy when

measured in pairwise comparison.

4. No significant difference was found among any of the

three cognitive style match groups (high, medium, or low) in

the scores of achievement in the overall course grade when

measured in pairwise comparison.












CHAPTER I


INTRODUCTION



Statement of Purpose



The purpose of this study is to determine if the degree

of match between an individual student's cognitive style and

a theoretical cognitive style map established by a panel of

experts for an audiovisual-tutorial typewriting (AVT) package

was an indicator of the degree of success which that student

would achieve through interaction with the package.


Need for the Study



According to Cross (1976) there is an increasingly urgent

need for educators to develop more effective methods of teaching.

Nowhere is this need more evident than in the community college.

The academic abilities of students is one of the most researched

areas in higher education; yet, a special challenge exists for

the community college in dealing with its students for whom

traditional methods of instruction may not be appropriate.

Students are being admitted to the community college with a

variety of entering skills and learning characteristics, and

Cross does not feel that present day community college faculty












members are prepared for this level of classroom heterogeneity.

She concludes that these students have some talents that are

not being developed in the traditional curriculum and recommends

utilization of individualized instruction, mastery learning,

and self-paced modules, all of which necessitate an under-

standing of students' individual learning styles by the

instructional designer.

In a study sponsored by the Carnegie Commission on Higher

Education in 1971, Medsker and Tillery concluded that students

entering community colleges have extremely diverse backgrounds--

coming from almost all levels of academic ability, achievement,

family background, and motivational level (Medsker and

Tillery, 1971). Due to this diversity, teachers and adminis-

trators must "work together towards student achievement

through teaching methods, grading practices, individualized

instruction, advanced placement tests, and adequate counseling

and guidance" (p. 158).

The call for individualized instruction, as cited by

Cross, Medsker, and Tillery, is not new to education. Pro-

grammed instruction (Davis et al., 1970), computer assisted

and computer managed instruction (Holtzman, 1970), audio-

tutorial (Edling, 1970), and other techniques utilizing

specialized hardware and software, combined with variance of

schedules and variance in classroom environments, have been

attempted to meet the individualized needs of students.












One technique for individualizing instruction was tested

by Edwards (1968) at Lansing Community College in Michigan.

He compared traditional lecture methods of teaching business

machines applications and typewriting with experimental

teaching employing the use of slides and audiotape recordings

in an open laboratory skill center. Differences in the two

groups of students indicated that the experimental group

learned significantly more as measured by the final performance

tests. The package of slides and audiotape recordings utilized

by Edwards in the study has subsequently been produced

commercially by the Media System Division of Harcourt, Brace,

Jovanovich Publishing Company and is one of the principle

tools employed in this study.

Open laboratory skill centers, as described above, have

enjoyed rapid growth in community colleges and their successes

have been documented in programs of individual instruction

(Cross, 1976).

Callahan reports on the maximization of physical and

human resources through the use of the audiovisual-tutorial

skill center, at a cost effectiveness that is "somewhat

startling with these skills centers as the heart of the

program--a facility that is open to students day and night,

equipped with audiovisual-tutorial material that allow for

self-paced study of a subject, staffed by both teachers and

trained assistants--the educational goals of community

colleges are receiving new impetus" (Callahan, 1977, p. 27).












What this open-lab technique and many of the other

individualized approaches lack, however, is a method for

matching the individual to the particular instructional

package in terms of his or her unique learning style.

The increasing emphasis upon the learner's relationship

to the educational environment has been described in con-

temporary publications. Bloom's (1973, 1976) "mastery

learning" involves the use of behavioral objectives, criterion

referenced assessment and greater attention to the individual

learner's needs.

Gagne' (1970) suggests that individuals may be either

visually minded or auditory minded and, therefore, learn

better from visual presentations or auditory presentations,

respectively.

Campeau (1966), in her review of media and education,

suggests that the limited usefulness of research in instruc-

tional development and educational media is because of a

failure by the researchers to analyze carefully the influence

of the learner's characteristics on the experimental results.

The Aptitude Treatment Interaction studies as reviewed by

Cronbach and Snow (1977), and Allen (1975) support this view

of the importance of the interaction of the learner's charac-

teristics with the instructional treatment.

Bass (1974), in summarizing the works of Tyler, Hamerus,

and Gustad, and the Commission on Instructional Technology,












states that the three factors that must be taken into account

by educators when seeking solutions to instructional problems

are the student's characteristics, the instructional strategy,

and "some unifying conceptual framework within which decisions

can be made concerning both the student and the strategy"

(Bass, 1974, p. 5).

A relatively new and promising approach to the considera-

tion of the needs and characteristics of the learner is

supported by research that has been conducted through the

Institute for Educational Sciences by Joseph E. Hill and his

staff at Oakland Community College in Bloomfield Hills,

Michigan. They perceive the Educational Sciences as a process

through which the personal characteristic of learners and

the processes through which they learn can be interpreted and

classified (Hill, 1968). The Educational Sciences are classi-

fied into seven categories (also termed sciences) which will

be described in Chapter II. They are as follows:

1. Symbols and their meanings

2. Cultural determinants

3. Modalities of inference

4. Biochemical and electrophysiological aspects of

memory-concern

5. Cognitive style of the individual

6. Teaching, administrative, and counseling styles

7. Systemic analysis decision making












Cognitive style in the Educational Sciences is a method

for describing how an individual seeks meaning from his/h-

surroundings, interprets and attempts to reason with that

meaning.

This study will explore the effectiveness of a specific

kind of individualized instruction for specific individuals

through analysis of the instruction and the individual charac-

teristics of the students who interact with it within the

framework of the Educational Science of Cognitive Style.



Significance of the Study



In Oakland Community College's Personalized Education

Program (PEP) a number of alternative learning situations

have been developed for students with different learning

styles. For each of these alternative situations (programmed

text, video tape recorder, youth-tutor-youth training, library

books and microfilms, enrichment seminars, rap sessions,

traditional lecture, and independent study), a hypothetical

map has been developed that indicates which elements are

probably necessary in a student's map for that student to

achieve a basic understanding of the material presented.

The present study is based upon the premise that an

individual must have a specific set of elements in his/her

cognitive style map if he/she is to learn effectively from

an audiovisual tutorial instructional package.












Method



The sample of students for this study was drawn from

students enrolled in Introductory Typewriting I, a course

taught via AVT in the Business Administration Division of

Tompkins Cortland Community College in Dryden, New York.

Data on each student's cognitive style were obtained through

the use of the Cognitive Style Mapping Inventory developed

by the Oakland Community College faculty. Success in type-

writing was judged by tests in typing theory, typing pro-

duction, and tests of typing speed and accuracy.

The degree of match between the student's map and the

theoretical map for the AVT package was determined by way of

a formula developed by Hill.

The expectation is that those students whose maps most

closely match the map for the AVT package will out-perform

those students whose maps less closely match the map for the

AVT package.

The AVT package was viewed by a panel of experts to

determine the elements of cognitive style necessary in a

student's map for successful interaction with the package.



Definition of Terms


1. Audiovisual Tutorial Instruction An instructional

method combining programmed text, prerecorded audiotapes,












and sets of slides in an instructor-monitored open laboratory

skill center.

2. Cartesian Product A particular type of space or

set whose elements may be combined into profiles defined over

that space. The "X" sign does not denote any algebraic or

numerical operation but indicates that elements from each of

the sets depicted must be combined to determine the exact

reference points of each multi-element profile in the space.

3. Cognitive Style A concept for describing an

individual's mode of behavior in searching for meaning. An

individual's cognitive style is determined by the way he/she

takes notice of his/her total surrounding. It is identified

by an individual's disposition to use certain types of

symbolic forms vs. others, the derivation of meaning of those

symbols from roles the individual has found most satisfying

and the manner in which he/she reasons.

4. Cognitive Style Map A picture of the way an individual

derives meaning from his/her environment. A map of an individual's

cognitive style provides a look at the way in which he/she

derives meaning and is based upon his/her use of symbolic

orientation, personal experiences, and ways of reasoning

(Bass, 1972).

5. Cultural Determinants The part of a person's cognitive

style that reflects that person's preference for influence on

his/her search for meaning.












6. Educational Sciences A common structure within which

inquiry of significance for the fundamental aspects of the

applied field of education can be conducted. The concept of

the educational sciences was developed to create a conceptual

framework and language for the study of the educational process.

7. Major Orientation When the student scores 75 percent

or more on the test for the particular element in his/her

cognitive style map that person is said to have exhibited a

major orientation (Bass, 1972).

8. Minor Orientation When the student scores between

25 and 74 percent on the test for the particular element in

his/her cognitive style map he/she is said to have exhibited

a minor orientation (Bass, 1972).

9. Modalities of Inference A set of elements which

indicate the person's way of making sense out of the informa-

tion which he/she collects from his/her environment.

10. Negligible Orientation When the student scores less

than 25 percent on the test for the particular element in his/

her cognitive style map he/she is said to have exhibited a

negligible orientation.

11. Qualitative Symbols Symbols used by the individual

to convey feelings, commitments, and values; and to provide

insight into one's self. Qualitative symbols represent to

the individual's nervous system that which they actually

are (for example, seeing a cup).











Theoretical Symbols Spoken or written words or numbers

which represent the meaning something in the environment has

for an individual. Theoretical symbols present to the nervous

system and then represent to it something different from that

which they themselves are. For example: the spoken word

"cup" is an auditory symbol which presents to the nervous

system a sound which represents an image of a cup.



Questions to be Answered


1. Do students with the highest degree of match with the

AVT package attain higher typing theory scores than those with

the lowest degree of match?

2. Do students with the highest degree of match with the

AVT package attain higher typing theory scores than those with

the medium degree of match?

3. Do students with a medium degree of match with the

AVT package attain higher typing theory scores than those with

the lowest degree of match?

4. Do students with the highest degree of match with the

AVT package attain higher typing production scores than those

with the lowest degree of match?

5. Do students with the highest degree of match with the

AVT package attain higher typing production scores than those

with a medium degree of match?












6. Do students with a medium degree of match with the

AVT package attain higher typing production scores than those

with the lowest degree of match?

7. Do students with the highest degree of match with the

AVT package attain higher typing speed and accuracy scores

than those with the lowest degree of match?

8. Do students with the highest degree of match with the

AVT package attain higher typing speed and accuracy scores

than those with a medium degree of match?

9. Do students with a medium degree of match with the

AVT package attain higher typing speed and accuracy scores

than those with the lowest degree of match?

10. Do students with the highest degree of match with

the AVT package attain higher grades in the typewriting course

than those with the lowest degree of match?

11. Do students with the highest degree of match with the

AVT package attain higher grades in the typewriting course

than those with a medium degree of match?

12. Do students with a medium degree of match with the

AVT package attain higher grades in the typewriting course

than those with the lowest degree of match?











Summary


The interest by educators in developing more effective

methods of individualizing instruction has been intensified

in recent years and is nowhere more evident than in the

community college. This interest in improving the learning

process has fostered the development of the Educational Sciences

within which the individualization of the instruction and

classification of learners in terms of cognitive style are

emphasized. This study will analyze student interaction with

an audiovisual tutorial (AVT) package to see if the individual's

cognitive style is an indicator of success with the AVT

package. It has special significance for educators and in-

stitutions who plan to augment the individualization of

learning through the open laboratory AVT approach.



Overview of Chapters


A general statement of the problem and its relationship

to relevant facts and concepts was developed in Chapter I.

This included a statement of the purpose, an explanation of

the need for the study, its significance, definition of key

terms and a summary.

Chapter II contains a review of selected related litera-

ture and is divided into five major areas: (1) Theories and

Research on Cognitive Styles; (2) The Educational Science of







13



Cognitive Style; (3) Studies within the Educational Sciences

of Cognitive Style; (4) Matching Instruction to Students via

Cognitive Style; (5) Audiovisual-Tutorial Individualized

Instruction.

The design of the study and data collection procedures

followed in the research are reported in Chapter III,

including a statement of the hypotheses to be tested.

The results of the study and analysis of the data are

presented in Chapter IV.

Chapter V summarizes the study, draws conclusions and

suggests implications for further research.









CHAPTER II


SELECTED LITERATURE


The following literature review is presented in the areas

of (1) Theories and Research on Cognitive Styles, (2) The

Educational Science of Cognitive Style, (3) Studies within

the Educational Sciences of Cognitive Style, (4) Matching

Instruction to Students via Cognitive Style, and (5) Audiovisual-

Tutorial Individualized Instruction.

Theories and Research on Cognitive Styles

Cognitive style refers both to individual
differences and general principles of cog-
nitive organization (e.g., simplification
and consistency trends) and to self-
consistent idiosyncratic tendencies that
are not reflective of human cognitive
functioning in general (i.e., intolerance
of ambiguity, memory for particular types
of experiences). It reflects differences
in personality organization as well as
genetically and experientially determined
differences in cognitive capacity and
functioning. (Ausabel and Fitzgerald,
1971, p. 500)

Ausabel and Fitzgerald see cognitive style in relation to

cognitive organization. Many have used the term "cognitive

style" in psychological literature to represent various con-

structs of conceptualization or organization theory. Klein

(1951) describes "cognitive styles" as the distinctive ways

an individual "deals with" reality.











Broveman and Lazurus (1958) use two constructs in des-

cribing cognitive style. When dealing w. h a new or difficult

task, they describe cognitive style as conceptual or perceptual.

When dealing with a task that is not new or difficult, they

describe cognitive style as either strong or weak automation.

Kagen, Moss and Sigel (1963) describe cognitive style as

one's preferred method of categorization of visual representa-

tion. They identify three types of categories: (1) Descriptive -

objective, physical attributes, (2) Relational conceptual -

functional categorizational style, and (3) categorical infer-

ential based on inferred characteristics. Sigel's (1966)

later studies further indicate that an individual's cognitive

style varies with social class, age, and certain personality

characteristics.

Another cognitive style construct described by Witkin

and associates (1962) is that of field dependence/field

independence. They describe the field dependent individuals

as needing visual cues to align their body vertically and

generally lacking the capacity to distinguish figure ground

relationships. The field independent individual, however,

has an innate sense of his/her body position in space and could

distinguish the figure from the ground. They further observed

that infants appeared to be field dependent, which indicates

that field independence was probably part of a maturation

process.











According to Berke (1976), Hill and his associates have

built upon the concepts of Kagen, Moss, Sigel, Witken, and

others in developing the construct of Educational Cognitive

Style--the way in which an individual acquires meaning.


The Educational Science of Cognitive Style

The concept of the educational sciences was developed to

create a conceptual framework and language for the study of

the educational process. This framework consists of seven

sciences described below and illustrated by the following

cartesian Products of Sets in Figure I.

Symbols and Their Meanings Individuals acquire meaning

and knowledge through symbols. Therefore, the mediation of

the symbol into something that is meaningful to that individual

is the sole purpose of the educational process. The study of

the individual's symbolic orientation is pertinent to the

determination of teaching methods and materials which match

the individual's symbolic orientation. This science is based

on the work of Cassier, Dewey and others (Wasser, 1971, p. 3)

and refers to the ability of individuals to acquire and

assimilate meaning through two types of symbols. Theoretical

symbols present to the nervous system of the individual

something other than that which the symbol itself represents

(the written or spoken word "frog"). Qualitative symbols

present and represent to the nervous system of the individual

that which the symbol itself is to the individual (seeing a

frog itself).



















C LiU
I w I







H-r-
t I -- -"

-J
= C CO LI I .C.







-C I
L C3 0
I -J '. I























x _ 0
.- --I -- -
I I I




i->i > u
I I I
S-1 I I
C- IU I I
4.D C ..) L I T-


SLQ- 4..) I = 0
I---- (.U LU--- I -
LU >- -- 0. I O
L -- C I L





i C L. c -3
0
-1 I 1 0
La LLU I -
CJ I I4. U
H-- --- I LUJ -
L.. L.J C -



< O H



H- <3 c0


-H.3 - I -

J LL I IU

- I I-
I I)
II c


LU I I
- J H I I
I |





CO < --I I
I I
I I




.I I
|__________











Theoretical symbols can be divided into visual and auditory

classes and then further divided into linguistic and quantita-

tive classes creating a four-element breakdown (Wasser, 1971,

p. 5):

1. T(VL) Theoretical Visual Linguistic finding meaning

in words we see.

2. T(AL) Theoretical Auditory Linguistic finding

meaning in the words we hear.

3. T(VQ) Theoretical Visual Quantitative finding

meaning in numerals we see.

4. T(AQ) Theoretical Auditory Quantitative finding

meaning in the numbers we hear.

(Hill and Nunney, 1971, p. 5)

There are 20 qualitative symbols whose meanings are

derived from (1) story stimuli, (2) cultural codes, and (3)

programmatic effects of major events on objects (Wasser,

1971, p. 13).

The five sensory stimuli are:

1. Q(A) Qualitative Auditory the ability to perceive

meaning through the sense of hearing (non-linguistic).

2. Q(O) Qualitative Olfactory the ability to perceive

meaning through the sense of smell.

3. Q(S) Qualitative Savory the ability to perceive

meaning through the sense of taste.

4. Q(T) Qualitative Tactile the ability to perceive

meaning through the sense of touch.











5. Q(V) Qualitative Visual the ability to perceive

meaning through the sense of sight (non-linguistic).

The five qualitative codes related to programmatic

effects are:

1. Q(P) Qualitative Proprioceptive the ability to combine

or coordinate several senses into a specific function or

operation (such as running toward and catching a baseball or

typing from written material).

2. Q(PK) Qualitative Proprioceptive Kinematics a subset

of Q(P) relating to motor skills (playing the piano from sheet

music).

3. Q(PT) Qualitative Proprioceptive Temporal a subset

of Q(P) relating to timing (the exact moment to "spike" a

volleyball).

4. Q(PD) Qualitative Proprioceptive Dextral a subset

of Q(P) relating to right-hand predominance.

5. Q(PS) Qualitative Proprioceptive Sinstral a subset

of Q(P) relating to left-hand predominance.

The remaining 10 qualitative symbols are associated with

cultural codes:

1. Q(CEM) Qualitative Code Empathetic the ability to

put one's self into another's place and have feeling for the

other person.

2. Q(CES) Qualitative Code Esthetic the ability to

enjoy the beauty of an object or an idea.












3. Q(CET) Qualitative Code Ethics the commitment to

specific values or duties.

4. Q(CH) Qualitative Code Histrionics the ability to

deliberately stage behavior or emotion to produce a desired

effect.

5. Q(CK) Qualitative Code Kinesics the ability to

communicate and read non-verbal body motions and positions.

6. Q(CKH) Qualitative Code Kinesthetics the ability

to produce muscular coordination according to acceptable

form (the figure skater).

7. Q(CP) Qualitative Code Proximics the ability to

judge the critical, physical, and social distance between

oneself and another as perceived by the other person.

8. Q(CS) Qualitative Code Synnoetics an honest know-

ledge of one's abilities.

9. Q(CT) Qualitative Code Transactional ability to

influence the actions and/or goals of others.

10. Q(CTM) Qualitative Code Temporal having a sense of

acceptable social timing as perceived by the other person

(Hill and Nunney, 1971, p. 5).

Cultural Determinants

The symbols bringing knowledge and meaning to
man will be determined and shaped by the per-
son's culture and sub-culture. A person does
not interpret the theoretical and qualitative
symbols as a unique being, he interprets them
as a person cast into a role that has specific
expectations imposed on it. These expectations
may be imposed by societal norms, peers, or
associates, or the family and extend influence
on the person through his life. (Fragale,
1971, p. 4)












What, therefore, a person perceives as the meaning of

a symbol is greatly determined by one of the three cultural

determinants.

1. A Associates groups with whom the person has

contact and who may be involved with the person in the situation.

2. F Family either immediate or extended which

tends to establish guidelines of behavior from early age.

3. I Individuality individuals predisposed to

utilize their judgment alone in problem interpretation and

solution.

Modalities of Inference The meanings of symbols are

greatly influenced by the pattern of inference the individual

tends to employ. In this science four inductive inference

patterns for drawing probability conclusions and one deductive

pattern are described.

1. M Magnitude categorical classification and thinking -

using rules and definitions.

2. D Difference making one-to-one contrasts of

selected characteristics or measurements.

3. R Relationship comparing relationship or traits of

two or more characteristics or measurements.

4. L Appraisal a unique process providing equal

weight to the consideration of Magnitude, Difference, and

Relationship in the process of making a probability conclusion

(Hill and Nunney, 1971, p. 5).










5. Deductive in addition to the above inductive

reasoning processes, individuals may also employ deductive

inferential patterns (Wasser, 1971, p. 5).

Biochemical and Electrophysiological Aspects of Memory-

Concern This science is the least developed of the educational

sciences even though it is an essential element to an individual's

cognitive style. Recent study by psychobiologists and bio-

chemists have indicated that there may be a two-stage memory

process which distinguishes short-term memory from long-

term memory. This science is not presently utilized in the

mapping process.

The Cognitive Style of Individuals The science of cognitive

style is made up of elements from the first four sciences.

These elements are organized into a cartesian product of sets

to provide a picture or "map" of the style utilized by the

individual in seeking meaning from his/her environment (Figure 2).

Although the biochemical and electrophysiological aspects of

memory-concern are included in the framework of the cognitive

style of the individual, only the first three sciences are

included in the "map" and this study.


Figure 2. Cartesian Set of Cognitive Style



SYMBOLS
AND CULTURAL MODALITIES
THEIR X DETERMINANTS] X OF
MEANINGS INFERENCE
--------------COGNITIVE STYLE---------- -











Cognitive style can be used as a means for diagnosing the

way an individual learns and for prescribing specific activities

that would provide the individual with a high probability for

success in a specified learning situation.

According to Hill, it is necessary that a cognitive style

analysis be made not only of the student, but also of the

learning task. Both are required if the construct of cognitive

style is to be used as an effective tool for improving upon

the more conventional methods of analyzing and evaluating

the learning process (Hill, 1968). Used in this way, cognitive

style analyses can actually compare the method that the student

is using for dealing with the symbols with the symbolic

conditions of the learning task. This comparison is a key

element in this study.

Teaching Style, Administrative Style and Counseling Style -

Even though cognitive style is a fundamental aspect of the

educational process, it does not completely explain all aspects

of that process. Other factors are necessary to fully explain

these processes.

1. Teaching Style: Depending upon the way the teacher

responds to the teacher/student relationship the teacher can

be classified as authoritative, adjustive, or flexible.

2. Administrative Style: Education is influenced by the

administrative decision-making process. These processes can

be classified as either dominant, adjusting, cooperative, or

passive-custodial.











3. Counseling Styles: The counselor's order of priorities

for the generic elements of the counseling process--person,

processes and properties is combined with a decision on

whether the goal setting is the counselor's or the client's

responsibility. From this combination of elements the

counselor's style can be classified into either distinctive,

situational, or nondirective (Hill, 1968, p. 16).

Systemic Analysis Decision Making Hill describes systems

as a collection of elements with their interconnections con-

sidered over a period of time (Hill, 1968, p. 18). The Educa-

tional Science of Systemic Analysis Decision Making is the

construct which combines the other six sciences into an organized

whole. The design criteria of the educational sciences system

is to model the education process for analysis and decision-

making to optimize its efficiency and effectiveness.

The educational sciences as described above have been

proposed by Hill as a conceptual framework for the applied

field of education. Rather than being regarded as isolated

and unrelated facts, the educational sciences can act as tools

to provide information to educators in an organized system

with a generally accepted language.


Studies Within the Educational Sciences of Cognitive Style

During the past 20 years over 100 doctoral dissertations

dealing with the Educational Sciences have been completed.

Many of the clarification studies have dealt with the inter-

action of student style with teacher or subject or instruction











style. Research that specifically deals with Cognitive Style

is pertinent to this study, and some 3f the me t sifgificant

studies will be reviewed in this section.

Zussman (1968) states that the purpose of his study was

"the clarification, explanation, and suggested application of

the first three strata of the Educational Sciences." He

determined that there is a cognitive style which can be identi-

fied for public school administrators and also for community

college administrators. The difference between the cognitive

styles of the two can be identified (p. 14).

Wasser (1969) studied the similarity and dissimilarity

of teacher and pupil cognitive styles with reference to the

grades received by pupils in various subjects taught in elemen-

tary schools. The study indicated that students having

cognitive styles judged similar to the teacher's received

higher grades than did those who were not similar. Wasser also

pointed out that an individual's symbolic success (possession

of symbolic attributes Stratum I) is more important to his/

her scholastic success than the manner in which he/she infers

thought or ideas (Stratum III) or the particular cultural

determinants which influence his/her symbolic meaning (Stratum II).

Fragale (1969) found collective cognitive styles existed

for both industrial technology teachers and students and that

matching of the teacher and students according to their

cognitive styles positively effected the students' level of

academic success.











Schroeder (1970) confirmed that students in English classes

with cognitive styles similar to that of the instructor re-

ceived higher grades than did those students whose styles

significantly differed from that of the instructor; the

similarly matched student also perceived the instructor as being

more effective.

Lange (1972) studied the effects on learning when matching

cognitive style of students and instructors in nursing educa-

tion and concluded that the failure-withdrawal rate of the

matched groups was significantly different from the non-matched

and that the more elements present on a student's cognitive

map the greater is his/her chance of success in nursing education.

Bass (1972), in his study for developing procedures for

measuring and mapping qualitative symbolic orientation, used

videotape to draw positive correlation between what students

thought was their level of symbolic orientation and their

actual level. Another result of Bass's study was that the three

to four hour paper and pencil Oakland Cognitive test battery

could be replaced, in certain qualitative areas, by a shorter

videotaping procedure and still be predictive of classroom

performance.

Wyett (1967), as a result of his exploratory study of a

group of teachers who participated in the Teacher Education

Experimental Project at Wayne State University, indicated

that a general cognitive style orientation can be established

for a particular teacher in a given teaching situation. Once












this was determined, he suggests that the cognitive style of

a teacher strongly influences his/her teaching style. He

also found that instructors who were placed in teaching situa-

tions which were not in keeping with their cognitive styles

did not perform as well as did those who were properly

matched.

Shuert (1970) was able to identify certain unique cogni-

tive style characteristics for students who were successful

in a particular math course. This supports the concept of

others such as Blanzy (1970) and Spitler (1970), that there

is a definite relationship between student cognitive style

characteristics and their success in mathematics.

Hoogasian (1970) determined that there is a direct corre-

lation between a student's chance for success (and higher

letter grade) and the number of elements (major or minor)

in their cognitive style profile.

Schuendinger's (1976) study examined the importance of

Modalities of Inference, in relation to school achievement.

He found that subjects with four major modalities achieved

significantly higher spelling scores on the Iowa Test of

Basic Skills than did subjects with three major modalities.

Ogden and Brewster (1977) identified common and unique

elements in the composite cognitive styles of successful and

unsuccessful (and male and female) science students at the

secondary level.











Boyer (1976) derived cognitive style maps for ten occu-

pational areas accountn nig, finance, credit, secretarial,

clinical lab assistant, medical assistant, licensed practical

nurse, drafting technologist, electronics technologist, and

surface mining operation technologist). His thesis was that

each occupational area requires a person having a particular

cognitive style compatible with the requirement of the job

style.


Matching Instruction to Students via Cognitive Style

The following studies represent the initial research that

has been completed relating to the matching of students'

cognitive styles to specific types of instruction (individual-

ized multimedia, programmed instruction, didactic film,

simulation games, computer assisted instruction, audio-

tutorial instruction, and videotape instruction). These

studies are described below in an effort to support the need

for a study utilizing the Educational Science of Cognitive

Style as a method for predicting student success in

audiovisual-tutorial instruction.

Warner (1970) discovered that students with certain elements

in their cognitive style map are amenable to a lecture dis-

cussion approach to a life science course while students with

other elements prefer a more individualized multimedia approach.

Blanzy (1970) determined that the success of students in

math is related to certain patterns in their cognitive style

and that if their map showed a strong reliance on the individual












(themselves) as a cultural determinant, they would be more

successful learning math through the use of programmed in-

structional materials. Spitler (1970) reaffirms the above and

calls for a new model for the study of mathematics.

Strother (1973) found that students with a strong cultural

code I, inferential pattern R and auditory orientation T(AL) -

T(AQ) had a greater degree of achievement from the use of

didactic films.

Hand (1972), in a study involving the matching of pro-

grammed instructional packages to particular students, found

that success could be predicted on the basis of cognitive

style.

DeNike (1973) found that certain educational cognitive

style elements were found to be common to students who achieve

with cognitive learning when simulation games are employed as

the instructional strategy.

Stringfellow's (1975) findings indicated that a higher

degree of match between a student's map and that of the

Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) package would result in an

improvement in performance on the CAI package.

Terrell (1974) was able to support his contention that

the matching of Life Science students' cognitive styles to the

cognitive style of the instructional mode (audio-tutorial)

would reduce debilitating anxiety levels in the students and

allow the students to achieve higher grades than those that

are non-matched.












Brose (1974) investigated the significance of the degree

of match between college students and a videotape instructional

package to predict success with the package.


Audiovisual-Tutorial Individualized Instruction

Interest in individualization is not new to education. Many

contemporary publications and much research have focused upon

the hypotheses that students are unique individuals who learn

best while proceeding at their own pace in an environment

geared to their particular needs. Postlewait (1969), Keller

(1974), and others have designed instruction for the student

as an individual.

Fry (1970) classifies four categories of variables utilized

to individualize instruction: personality, cognitive, inquiry

and sequencing. He describes more than 50 studies investigating

them.

Cronbach and Snow (1977), in the first chapter of their

review of aptitude treatment interaction studies, describe a

"Talent Department" operation. By matching a student's unique

characteristic to the specific instructional techniques to

enhance their learning, maximum achievement is possible.

Campbell (1972) concluded that certain personality

characteristics of studentL were important contributors to

success in the utilization of learning activity packages em-

ployed for individualizing science instruction at NOVA High

School in Broward County Florida.


1











Blackburn (1974) determined that students taught by a

self-paced modularized r,-hod achieved at a significantly

higher level and rated their course more positively than

those who were taught the same subject by traditional methods.

Edwards (1968) compared traditional lecture methods of

teaching business machine applications and typewriting with

an experimental group taught in an open laboratory skill

center employing the use of slides and accompanying audiotape

recordings. Differences in the two groups of students indicated

that the experimental group learned significantly more as

measured by the final performance tests. Students' affective

responses at the end of the instructional period indicated

that those students who experienced the audiovisual-tutorial

approach had a more positive attitude toward typing instruction

than did those students who experienced the traditional lecture

approach.

Gagne' (1965) asserts that individuals can be either

"visual-minded" or "auditory-minded" and learn better from

visual presentations or audio presentations, respectively.

In a study he conducted for the U. S. Office of Education,

Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, he implied

that pictoral presentations can be of considerable usefulness

enhancing both retention and transfer.

Contrary to these implications, prominent reviewers, such

as Cronbach and Snow (1977), Campeau (1966), Allen (1975),











Levie and Dickie (1973), and Lumsdaine (1963), have found it

at times difficult to find studies which confirm Gagne's

assertions.

DeNike (1976) confronts these inconclusive results of

researchers in the educational media field and questions

whether this state is due to the nature of the research or

the shortcomings of the instructional strategy. He determined

that very little attention is given to the characteristics

of the student who learns well under a specific strategy.

The studies and the individualizing techniques do not

indicate how to insert the individual into the learning

environment in terms of his/her learning style. A principle

concern of educators should be, therefore, the development

of methods of individualizing instruction which might be

categorized according to their match-up to the cognitive

styles of their target students (p. 67).


Summary

Selected research related to Cognitive Style Theories,

the Educational Sciences of Cognitive Style, Cognitive Style

Mapping, the Matching of Instruction to Students in Terms of

Cognitive Style, and the use of Audiovisual-Tutorial Individu-

alized Instruction as an Instructional Tool has been reviewed.

The research has indicated that there is a need to aid

the educator in his/her approach to instruction. Individualiza-

tion has been one technique attempted, with a high degree of







33



success, by educators. The Educational Science of Cognitive

Style was examined and the success of a cognitive style approach

for individualization of instruction has been demonstrated.

The studies cited herein indicate that much work of an

exploratory nature has been conducted in the area. Many more

studies have been completed and are in various stages of

completion. This review of the literature provides a back-

ground for using the cognitive style concept as a basis for

individualizing instruction via audiovisual-tutorial instruction.










CHAPTER III


DESIGN OF THE STUDY



This study investigated the effectiveness of using cogni-

tive style mapping as a tool for predicting success with an

audiovisual-tutorial instructional package (AVT) in typewriting.

A Cognitive Style Mapping Inventory was administered

to 17 students who represented the entire class of Typing

101, Introductory Typing I, at Tompkins Cortland Community

College, Dryden, New York. The degree of match between each

student's map and a theoretical map established for the AVT

package was determined. (The typewriting course was taught

using the AVT approach.)

At the end of the semester the grades of the students

were determined by the instructor.

The relationship between data from the students' course

grades and their degree of match with the theoretical map

for the AVT package were analyzed using the Kolmogorov-

Smirnov two-sample tests. The analysis of the data was used

to answer the basic questions identified in Chapter I of the

study.


Population

The population for this study was composed of the 17

students enrolled in Typing 10, Introductory Typing I, at












Tompkins Cortland Community College in Dryden, New York,

during the Spring Semester, 1979.

Tompkins Cortland Community College is one of t 30

community colleges in the State University of New York system

located in Dryden, New York and serves both Tompkins and

Cortland Counties. Dryden is located just north of Ithaca

(Cornell, Ithaca College) in upstate New York. The headcoint

enrollment for the Fall Semester was 2,870 full and part-time

students who generated 24,651 credit hours or 1,643 full-

time equivalent students.

The students in the population represented the program

areas of Secretarial Science (7 students), General Studies

(4), Business Administration (2), Clerical Studies (2), and

Liberal Arts (2).

The population consisted of 16 women and one man. Two

of the students were foreign born (fluent English) and five

were above 30 years of age.

Kerlinger refers to this type of nonprobability-cluster

sampling procedure as "purposive sampling, which is character-

ized by the use of judgment and a deliberate effort to obtain

representative samples by including presumably typical areas

or groups in the sample" (Kerlinger, 1973).

The demographic breakdown of the class was considered

to be normal according to the head of the secretarial science

department and lead typing instructor, Mrs. Joyce Damery.










The higher percentage of older adult women in the class is

due primarily to active recruitment by Tompkins Cortland

Community College in the older adult category and the open-

door philosophy of the institution. The presence of the

foreign born in the class is a result of the proximity of

Tompkins Cortland Community College to Cornell University.

Many of Cornell's foreign faculty and student's family

members attend Tompkins Cortland Community College for

undergraduate coursework.


Procedure

The Audiovisual-Tutorial (AVT) instructional package in

typewriting that was designed for and utilized in the Edwards

(1968) study cited in Chapter II and utilized in this study

was created at Lansing Community College and has subsequently

been produced commercially by the Harcourt, Brace and

Jovanovich Publishing Corporation.

The AVT system combines audiovisual materials (slide-

tape) and printed materials (programmed text) in an instructional

design that permits each student to proceed at a pace and on

a schedule that is determined by the student. The course is

scheduled in an "open" laboratory at Tompkins Cortland

Community College in a four-hour-per-week block, but the

student can elect to utilize the laboratory at other times

of the day if he/she desires. The blocking of the time

allows the student to know when the instructor will be in











attendance. The student may elect to attend more or fewer

hours than are scheduled. If he/she chooses to utilize the

laboratory at other than the assigned block of time, there

is a full-time technical assistant on duty in the lab to

provide assistance.

The course consists of 42 lessons. Lessons 1-9 present

the alpha-numeric keyboard and the basic operation of the

typewriter. Lesson 10 is a review lesson which prepares

students to take Theory Test 1. Lessons 11-22 begin the

development of typing speed and accuracy. Lesson 23 is a

review lesson for Theory Test 2.

Lessons 24-43 continue to emphasize speed and accuracy

and in addition present the student with practical typing

problems (typing of block-style memoranda, postcards, personal

and business letters, envelopes, themes and manuscripts and

dealing with such problems as proofreading, vertical and

horizontal centering, correcting errors, aligning paper,

drawing vertical and horizontal lines, tabulation, dividing

words, carbons, and outlines). Lessons 34 and 43 are review

lessons for Theory Tests 3 and 4 (Appendix F).

In addition to the four theory tests mentioned above,

there are lessons that include skill-building timed writings

(Lessons 5, 6, 11-22, and 35-42).

The students work at their own pace; and if they have

questions, they may contact the instructor or the technical







38



assistant. If a student feels that he/she is ready for either

a time writing, production test or theory test, he/she must

request the instructor's assistance.

The AVT typing pretest is intended to aid the instructor

in advance placement of a student in the course if the student

had indicated previous typing experience and/or education.

It is designed to determine the area of typing in which a

student is competent and to reveal those areas in which

students need instruction or review. The pretest consists of

a typing theory test and two timed writings and is keyed

to the lessons of the course.

Of the 17 students enrolled in the course, five were

placed at Lesson 10, indicating previous keyboard experience.

The remaining 12 students began the course at Lesson 1.

The results of this pretest conformed to the expectation of

previous experience/course placement as revealed by the

investigator's questionnaire (Appendix C) which accompanied

the cognitive style mapping inventory administered at the

beginning of the course.


Course Evaluation

The final course grade (A through D and No Pass) is

determined by a weighted average including the four theory

tests averaged (30%); two production tests averaged (30%);

the three best five-minute timed writings of previewed

material averaged (20%); and a final examination (20%).












The four theory tests consist of 50 multiple-choice

questions each.

The production tests are product oriented. Test one

consists of: a block style memorandum, a postcard, a short

theme, and a business letter. Test two consists of pro-

duction problems in tabulation, an outline with carbon

copy, and a top bound manuscript with footnotes.

The timed writing grades are based on the following

scale:

Adjusted Gross Words Per Minute* Grade

45+ A

44 A-

43 B+

41-42 B

40 B-

38-39 C+

36-37 C

34-35 C-

33 NG

*Four errors or less are allowed in the above words

calculation. For each error over four, two gross words per

minute are subtracted to calculate grade.

The final examination is a 100-question multiple choice

exam.

The theory tests, production tests, final examination,

corresponding answer keys, and recommended grading scales











are supplied to the Tompkins Cortland Community College

Typing faculty by the AVT publishers. These suggested

grading scales are, in fact, the ones utilized to determine

the student's grades in the investigated course (Appendix G).

The suggested grading scale for timed writings furnished

by the publishers is not used to determine the students'

grades in the Tompkins Cortland typewriting course. The

faculty members determined that the publisher's speed and

accuracy requirements were not stringent enough for their

students (36 + adjusted gross words per minute = A). Instead,

they felt that the scale described above represented more

realistic grades for their students.

Jim Cassella, Director of Sales for the Media System

Division of Harcourt, Brace, Javonovich Publishing Company,

confirmed that of the 600 community colleges in the United

States that have AVT installations a majority of them use

the suggested theory, production, and final examination

grading scales but adjust the suggested speed and accuracy

scales upward (more gross words per minute for an A).


Data and Instrumentation

Student cognitive style maps were determined through the

use of the Oakland Community College Cognitive Style Mapping

Inventory (Appendix A) developed by members of the Oakland

Community College faculty as a short form of the 3-1/2 hour











battery currently in use at Oakland Community College.

Results of a study of Heum and others (197 yielded

strong evidence for the edumetric reliability and validity

of the mapping inventory. Hill (Appendix B) describes

validity and reliability indices that have been found through

the work at Oakland Community College and those doctoral

dissertations dealing specifically with community college

samples.

The inventory was administered to the typing class on

February 8, 1979. The inventory took the students from 45

minutes to one hour to complete. They also completed a

short questionnaire (Appendix C) designed to obtain basic

personal data and to determine what, if any, typing experience

they had.

The cognitive style map for the AVT package was determined

by a panel with expertise in cognitive style mapping and rep-

resented the elements (symbols and their meanings, cultural

determinants and modalities of inference) deemed necessary

for a typing student to be successful in gaining information

from the AVT package.

The panel consisted of Drs. Ronald K. Bass, William R.

Terrell, and Lee J. Mullally, all with experience with

cognitive style mapping. Bass, of the Department of Dental

Education, University of Florida, has written and consulted

extensively in the area of cognitive styles and is involved











with an ongoing mapping program within the University of

Florida Dental School. Bass' doctoral dissertation (1972)

involved the development of alternative imperial methods for

mapping and measuring qualitative symbolic orientation.

Terrell, who is with the Department of Instructional

Design at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University,

has been conducting cognitive style research and is presently

redesigning a mapping instrument. Terrell's doctoral disser-

tation research (1974) was an examination of the modification

of anxiety levels in students utilizing cognitive style

matching.

Mullally, Associate Professor and Program Area Leader

to Educational Media and Instructional Design, University

of Florida, has designed and taught courses in the use of

cognitive style mapping in instructional design. He is

presently coordinating research in the Theoretical Auditory

Linguistics/Theoretical Visual Linguistics area and is

designing and norming a new mapping instrument.

The panel of experts worked individually each viewed

portions of the AVT slidetape package; read accompanying

portions of the programmed textbook; examined the publisher-

produced theory, production and final examinations; examined

the course objectives, course outlines and grading scales

for the various portions of the course; and designed the

following Cognitive Style Maps for the theory, production,

speed and accuracy portion of the AVT course and an overall

AVT course map.









Theory Map
Bass Terrell Mullally

T(VL) T(VL) T(VL)
T(AL) T(AL) T(AL)

T'(VQ) T'(VQ) T'(VQ)
T'(AQ) T'(AQ) T'(AQ)

Q(V) Q(V) Q(V)
Q(CET) Q(CET) Q(CET)

Q(CS) Q(CS) Q(CS)
Q'(P)
I I I
F' F' F'
M M M
D' R'

Production Map
Bass Terrell Mullally

T(VL) T(VL) T(VL)

T'(VQ) T(VQ) T'(VQ)
T(AL) T(AL) T(AL)

T'(AQ) T'(AQ) T'(AQ)

Q(V) Q(V) Q(V)
Q(CET) Q(CET) Q(CET)
A(CS) Q(CS) Q(CS)

Q(P) Q(P) Q(P)
Q'(A) Q'(A) Q'(CES)
Q'(T) Q(T) Q(T)
Q'(CKH) Q'(CKH) Q'(CKH)











Production Map (continued)


I I I

F' F' F'

M M M
D' R'

Speed/Accuracy Map

Bass Terrell Mullally

T(VL) T(VL) T(VL)

T'(AL) T'(AL) T(AL)
T'(AQ)

T'(VQ)

Q(V) Q(v) Q(V)

Q(P) Q(P) Q(P)
Q(CET) Q(CET) Q(CET)

Q(CS) Q(CS) Q(CS)
Q'(CKH) Q'(CKH) Q'(CKH)

Q(T) Q(T) Q(T)

Q'(A) Q'(A)

I I I
F' F' F'

M M M
D' R'











Overall AVT Course Map

Bass Terrell Mullally

T(VL) T(VL) T(VL)

T(AL) T(AL) T(AL)

T'(AQ) T'(AQ) T'(AQ)

T'(VQ) T'(VQ) T'(VQ)

Q(V) Q(V) Q(V)

Q(P) Q(P) Q(P)
Q'(T) Q'(T) Q(T)

Q'(A) Q'(A) Q'(CES)

Q(CET) Q(CET) Q(CET)

Q(CS) Q(CS) Q(CS)
Q'(CKH) Q'(CKH) Q'(CKH)

I I I

F' F' F'

M M M

D' R'

In order to combine the three member's of the panel of

experts cognitive style maps of the course segments into

one, a mathematical scoring procedure was utilized. One

point was assigned to each element (major or minor orienta-

tion) in each of the individual panel member's maps. If two

or more points were assigned to a particular element, it

was included in the composite map for that portion of the

AVT course. If less than two points were assigned to a







46



particular element, it was excluded from the composite map

for that portion of the AVT course.

Had one panel member indicated an element as a major

orientation, the second member indicated that element as a

minor (') orientation, and the third member indicated that

element as a negligible orientation (did not appear) the

element would have been included in the composite map as a

minor orientation; this did not, however, occur.

The panel members were contacted and agreed to the above

scoring procedure.

Composite Overall AVT Course Map

T(AL) I M

T(VL)

T'(VQ)

T'(AQ)

Q(V)

Q'(A)

Q'(T)

Q(P)
Q(CET)

Q(CS)
Q'(CKH)

The elements of cognitive style presented in this map

are: Theoretical Auditory Linguistic, T(AL)--the AVT package

would appeal to a student who performs well through hearing







47



the spoken word; Theoretical Visual Linguistics, T(VL)--

the student who performs well by seeing the printed word;

Theoretical Visual Quantitative, T'(VQ) the student should

have a minor (indicated by an apostrophe) orientation towards

acquiring meaning through the visual interpretation of

numerals; Theoretical Auditory Quantitative, T'(AQ)--a minor

orientation in acquiring meaning through the hearing of

numbers.

The Qualitative Codes (Q) indicate that the student

should do well with the overall AVT package if he/she has an

orientation towards perceiving meaning through Q(V)--the sense

of sight; Q'(A)--the sense of hearing (minor); and Q'(T'-

the sense of touch (minor). Q(P) in the first set is a

qualitative code which refers to the ability to produce a

natural performance of movement or "programmatic effects";

Q(CET)--Qualitative Code Ethic, a commitment to a set of values,

duties or obligations; Q(CS)--Qualitative Code Synnoetics,

personal knowledge of his/her abilities; and Q'(CKH)--Qualitative

Code Kinesthetics, motor skill abilities.

The I--Individual and F--Family in the second set indicate

that for a student to be most effective with the AVT package

he/she is a self-oriented decision maker but is influenced

somewhat by perceived family members.

The M--Magnitude symbol in the third set shows that the

student should do best if he/she is a categorical classifier.











In the same fashion, the panel of experts described

separate maps representing the separate areas of ne AVT

package that is examined in the study (theory, production
and speed/accuracy). These appear below.

Composite AVT Theory Map

T(VL) I M

T'(VQ) F'
T(AL)

T'(AQ)

Q(v)
Q(CET)

Q(CS)

Composite AVT Production Map

T(VL) I M

T'(VQ) F'
T(AL)

T' AQ)

Q (V)
Q' (A)
Q (T)

Q(CET)

Q(CS)
Q(P)
Q' (CKH)











Composite AVT Speed/Accuracy Map

T(VL) I M

T'(AL)

Q(V)
Q'(A)

Q(T)

Q(P)
Q(CET)

Q(CS)
Q'(CKH)

Determining Degree of Match

It is assumed that if a student's cognitive style map has

all of the elements described above in the AVT map, he/she

will have a perfect match with the package. This score is set

at 100% the maximum or perfect match with the AVT package.

The next step is to compare the AVT map elements, in individual

and binomial combinations within each set, with those of each

student. Using the formula first designed by Hill and

described by Hand (1972) the degree of match of each student's

map to the map of the AVT package is determined.

The sample calculation of the maximum 100% score of the

AVT theory package shown below is calculated by awarding

two points for each symbolic element as it occurs individually

and in binomial combinations.









T(VL) =

T'(VQ) =

T(AL) =

T'(AQ) =

Q(V) =
Q(CET) =

Q(CS) =
T(VL) + QCV) =

T(VL) + Q(CET) =

T(VL) + Q(CS) =

T'(VQ) + Q(V) =

T'(VQ) + Q(CET) =

T'(VQ) + Q(CS) =

T(AL) + Q(V) =

T(AL) + Q(CET) =

T(AL) + Q(CS) =

T'(AQ) + Q(V) =

T'(AQ) + Q(CET) =

T'(AQ) + Q(CS) =

TOTALS


The AVT theory map


I = 2

F' = 2

I = F' 4






























8

score maximum is then:

62 + 8 + 2

=3=1


To determine the relationship between the student's map

and the AVT theory map a calculation is made of the numerical

score of the student's map, and this is compared to that of

the AVT theory map.


M = 2










For each individual match between an element on the

student's map and the AVT theory map two points are assigned.

A minor (') orientation on one map corresponding to a major

on the other is assigned one point.

The following hypothetical student's map has been

abbreviated to show only those elements which appear on the

AVT theory map.


T'(AQ) =

T(VL) =

T'(VQ) =

Q(CS) =

Q'(V) =

Q'(CET) =

T'(AQ) + Q(CS) =

T' (AQ) + Q' (V) =

T'(AQ) + Q'(CET) =

T(VL) + Q(CS) =

T(VL) + Q'(V) =

T(VL) + Q'(CET) =

T'(VQ) + Q(CS) =

T'(VQ) + Q'(V) =

T'(VQ) + Q'(CET) =

TOTAL


Student

2

2

2

2

1

1

4

3

3

4

3

3

4

3

3

40


The student's score

40 + 8 + 1

3


#1 (Appendix D)

I = 2

F' = 2

I + F' = 4


M = 1


is:

.645 + 1 + .5 = .715 or 72% match

3












Student cognitive style map scores were then operationally

defined as being either a high match (81 100%), medium

match (61 80%), or low (0 60%) for purposes of testing

the operational hypothesis.

Operational Hypotheses

The following operational hypotheses were generated in

order to answer the basic questions of the study.


1. Students exhibiting a

their cognitive style and that

significantly better on scores

theory than those exhibiting a

2. Students exhibiting a

their cognitive style and that

significantly better on scores

theory than those exhibiting a

3. Students exhibiting a

their cognitive style and that

significantly better on scores

theory than those exhibiting a

4. Students exhibiting a

their cognitive style and that


high degree of match between

of the AVT package will do

of achievement in typewriting

low degree of match.

high degree of match between

of the AVT package will do

of achievement in typewriting

medium degree of match.

medium degree of match between

of the AVT package will do

of achievement in typewriting

low degree of match.

high degree of match between

of the AVT package will do


significantly better on scores of achievement in typewriting

production than those exhibiting a low degree of match.

5. Students exhibiting a high degree of match between

their cognitive style and that of the AVT package will do












significantly better on scores of achievement in typewriting

production than those exhibiting a medium degree of match.

6. Students exhibiting a medium degree of match between

their cognitive style and that of the AVT package will do

significantly better on scores of achievement in typewriting

production than those exhibiting a low degree of match.

7. Students exhibiting a high degree of match between

their cognitive style and that of the AVT package will do

significantly better on scores of achievement in typewriting

speed and accuracy than those exhibiting a low degree of match.

8. Students exhibiting a high degree of match between

their cognitive style and that of the AVT package will do

significantly better on scores of achievement in typewriting

speed and accuracy than those exhibiting a medium degree of

match.

9. Students exhibiting a medium degree of match between

their cognitive style and that of the AVT package will do

significantly better on scores of achievement in typewriting

speed and accuracy than those exhibiting a low degree of

match.

10. Students exhibiting a high degree of match between

their cognitive style and that of the overall AVT package

will do significantly better as measured by the final grades

in the typewriting course than will students exhibiting a

low degree of match.

11. Students exhibiting a high degree of match between











their cognitive style and that of the overall AVT package will

do significantly better as measured by the final grades in the

typewriting course than will students exhibiting a medium

degree of match.

12. Students exhibiting a medium degree of match between

their cognitive style and that of the overall AVT package

will do significantly better as measured by the final grades

in the typewriting course than will students exhibiting a

low degree of match.

In order to answer the questions posed in Chapter I of

the study and to decide whether to accept or reject a

corresponding operational hypothesis the operational hypothesis

must be converted to equivalent statistical hypothesis. The

operational hypothesis is converted to a simple mathematical

statement known as the statistical alternative hypothesis

(Ha). For example, operational hypothesis number 11, "Students

exhibiting a high degree of match between their cognitive style

and that of the overall AVT package will do significantly

better as measured by the final grades in the typewriting

course than will students exhibiting a medium degree of

match," will be converted to the statistical alternative

hypothesis:

Hall: OFh > OFm

0 stands for the overall grades, Fh stands for the

relative cumulative frequency of the students in the high












match category, and Fm stands for students in the medium match

category.

After the statistical alternative has been stated its

opposite, the null hypothesis (Ho), is formulated.

HO1l: OFh < OFm

It is the null hypothesis which will be tested using

the Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-sample test.

The 12 statistical null and alternative hypothesis

corresponding to the above operational hypothesis will be

generated in Chapter IV.


Analytic Technique

The cognitive style maps of the students within the sample

were compared to the theoretical cognitive style map for the

AVT package, and a degree of match was determined. Student

performance was then analyzed in terms of the relationship

of that degree of match and their grades in typing theory,

production, speed and accuracy, and in the overall course

using the two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistical test

method. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-sample test is a non-

parametric test that was chosen because it is especially

useful and powerful with small samples. Violations of the

assumptions of the shape or variance of the population scores

underlying the parametric tests are very likely to go un-

detected with small samples. (Kerlinger, 1973, p. 296)




w


56



Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-sample test is used to
determine whether two populations are dis-
tributed in the same fashion. Its use
requires data at least on an ordinal scale,
and the assumption is made that the data are
continually distributed. (Roscoe, 1975, p. 276)

The level of significance selected for rejecting the null

hypotheses was at the .05 Alpha level.

An example of the method used is presented below, using

a hypothetical score distribution and the statistical null

hypotheses number 11 stated above (Holl: OFh < OFm).



OVERALL AVT COURSE GRADES


MATCH A B C D n
GROUP


2 1 0 0
HIGH 2 = 16 3 = 24 3 = 24 3 = 24 3
(81-100%) ? TT S 3 -7 T Ti


1 3 2 2
MEDIUM 1 = 3 4 = 12 6 = 18 8 = 24 8
(61-80%) 8 74 IT ? T4 7 7 4


GROUP 13* 12 6 0
DIFFER- 7T 7T i4 74
ENCES



In this hypothetical distribution of student scores the

two horizontal rows represent the students' degree of match

with the AVT package. The vertical columns represent the

students' grades in the course. The grades range from A to D

with the letter A being the highest grade. The number two in




w


57



the upper left corner of the high match/A grade block indicates

that two subjects who scored a high match with the map for

AVT theory package received final theory grades of 'A'. One

high match received a 'B', no one received a 'C', and no one

received a grade of 'D'. The three in the high match 'n' block

indicates that there was a total of three students in the high

match category.

The fraction 2/3 in the high match/Z block and the

corresponding 16/24 (24 being the lowest common denominator

for the high and medium match group) represents the cumulative

distribution (adding from left to right) showing that two

out of three high match students were in this block. The fraction

3/3 in the high match/B block and the corresponding 24/24 -

represents the cumulative distribution showing that three students

have received A's and B's in the high match row.

In the row labeled "medium" match there are eight observed

scores distributed as one, three, two and two among the four

theory grade categories. These frequences are then converted

to cumulative fractions and the absolute group difference

between the high match and medium match row is determined and

shown in the bottom row of the table. The largest absolute

difference (13/24) is marked with an asterisk. This figure is

then compared with a table (Appendix H) figure for the critical

values of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov one tail test at .05 Alpha

to determine if the absolute difference is significant.











The table, modified from Pearson and Hartley (1972, p. 361)

is utilized to determine the value of c in:

Pr[Dm,n > c/mn] < a (Pearson and Hartley, 1972, p. 122)

Where Pr represents the probability of occurance; D is

the maximum absolute difference between two distributions;

and m and n are the sample sizes of the two groups being

tested.

Therefore, in our example above, with group sizes of

m = three and n = eight, three and eight would be multiplied

together to form the denominator 24 of our test fraction. The

numerator c of the test statistics determined from the table

of critical values (Appendix H) would be 21. Comparing the

observed absolute difference of 13/24 to the critical value

of 21/24 and finding it to be less the test results indicate

that no significant difference exists between the high and

medium matched group grades and the null hypothesis being

tested (Holl: OFh < OFm) cannot be rejected.

It should be noted that in certain cases the number of

subjects in a particular cell may be too small (n size) to be

tested at a confidence level of .05 due to the conservative

nature of Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic (Appendix H).


Summary

A Cognitive Style Mapping Inventory was administered to

students enrolled in Beginning Typewriting I at Tompkins












Cortland Community College in Dryden, New York. The degree of

match between each student's map and a theoretical map

established for the AVT typewriting package was determined.

Each student then proceeded through the AVT typewriting course,

and records of their attendance and performance were maintained.

At the end of the course a comparison was made between

the students' degree of match with the AVT package and their

typewriting production, theory, speed, and overall course grades

to determine if any significant relationship existed. Twelve

operational hypotheses were generated to answer the basic

questions of the study. The data were analyzed by the

Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-sample statistical test of significance.







CHAPTER IV


ANALYSIS OF DATA



An analysis of the data is reported in this chapter. The

hypotheses are reviewed and subjected to statistical testing

in the order of presentation in the previous chapter. The

appropriate test results are reported.

Symbols utilized to present the hypothetical statements

are defined below:


Table 4-1. Description of Statistical Symbols


Symbol Description


H Null Hypothesis
o
Ha Alternative Hypothesis

Fh High matched students-
cumulative frequency (81-
100%)

Fm Medium matched students-
cumulative frequency (61-
80%)

F1 Low match students-
cumulative frequency (0-
60%)

T Students matched with Typing
Theory Map

P Students matched with Typing
Production Map

S Students matched with Typing
Speed/Accuracy Map

0 Students matched with Over-
all AVT Map Testing-final
course grade


60











Data collected on each student is presented in Table 4-2.

The data collected were used in compiling the information for

the Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-sample nonparametric test. The

level of significance for the one-tailed test was established

at .05 Alpha.


Table 4-2. Raw Data

4J U 0 C1U

0 k.O L) 0 .0) '- U cc 3 S> 3 U 0 3-
C) mu 40i 4-m 0 a U 4-i 0 U 4-1 P: -.i
ML l n 3 !- U - > .1 -4 0 ^

1 72 A- 72 B- 66 NC 71 C+

2 85 B+ 83 B+ 85 B- 80 B+

3 60 B 58 C- 60 C 59 C

4 58 65 66 64 NP

5 76 B+* 76 C- 76 X 76 C+

6 57 A-* 59 A 55 X 58 A

7 82 A-* 84 A- 84 X 82 B+

8 80 B* 78 B+ 74 X 79 A-

9 57 59 63 58 NP

10 69 72 76 70 NP

11 59 B- 60 C+ 67 B 60 B-

12 65 A 67 B+ 71 B 66 A-

13 68 67 67 66 NP

14 80 B+ 81 A- 82 A 80 A

15 69 C 71 C 70 NC 70 D

16 62 C-* 70 B+ 70 X 69 B-

17 68 B 67 C+ 67 A 66 B-


*Average of last three theory grades.













Of the population of 17 students, five were excluded from

the first ten lessons as indicated by the students' pretest

results. These students' theory test scores were based on an

average of three tests of theory rather than four as the first

theory test is based upon information contained in the first

ten lessons. (Operational Hypotheses 1-3). For the same

reason, the grades of these five students will be eliminated

from the speed and accuracy grade analysis (Operational

Hypotheses 7-9).

Two of the remaining students received no credit for

the speed/accuracy portion of the course and will not be

included in that portion of the analysis.

Of the population of 17 students, four did not complete

the course and will be included only in the portions of the

analysis measuring the overall grade in the course (Opera-

tional Hypotheses 10-12).




r_"0WP


63


Findings of the Study


Operational Hypothesis 1. Students exhibiting a high degree

of match between their cognitive style and that of the AVT

package will do significantly better on scores of achievement

in typewrting theory than those exhibiting a low degree of

match.

Statistical Hypothesis 1.

Null Hypothesis Hol: TFh < TF1

Alternate Hypothesis Hal: TFh > TF1

Table 4-3. Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test Between High and Low
Degree of Match Groups and AVT Theory
Test Grades.


AVT GRADES Theory Tests

Match I
Group A B C D n
1 1 0 0
TFh 1 3 2 6 2 6 2 = 6 2
(81-100%) 7 T 7 E 7 T 7 T
1 2 0 0
TF1 1 2 3 6 3 6 3 6 3
(0-60%) 7 T 7 6C 3 _
Group
Differ- 1* 0 0 0
ence ____ T

The largest absolute difference in Table 4-3 is 1/6.

According to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov Table of critical values

(Appendix H) this value indicates that no significant difference

exists between the two distributions being compared. The null

hypothesis TFh < TF1 cannot be rejected and the alternate

hypothesis TFh > TF1 cannot be accepted. Therefore, Operational

Hypothesis 1 cannot be accepted.











Operational Hypothesis 2. Students exhibiting a high degree of

match between their cognitive style and that of the AVT package

will do significantly better on scores of achievement in type-

writing theory than those exhibiting a medium degree of match.

Statistical Hypothesis 2.

Null Hypothesis Ho2: TFh < TFm

Alternate Hypothesis Ha2: TFh > TFm

Table 4-4. Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test Between High and Medium
Degree of Match Groups and AVT Theory Test Grades.


AVT GRADES Theory Tests

Match
Group A B C D 11
1 1 0 0
TFh 1 =4 2 8 2 8 2 8 2
(81-100%) 7 7 2 7 _

TFm 2 2 6 6 8 8 8 8 8
(61-80%) B B ______
Group
Differ- 2* 2 0 0
ence __T___

The largest absolute difference in Table 4-4 is 2/8. Accord-

ing to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov Table of critical values (Appendix

H) this value indicates that no significant difference exists

between the two distributions being compared. The null hypothesis

TFh < TFm cannot be rejected and the alternate hypothesis

TFh > TFm cannot be accepted. Therefore, Operational Hypothesis 2

cannot be accepted.











Operational Hypothesis 3. Students exhibiting a medium degree

of match between their cognitive style and that of the AVT

package will do significantly better on scores of achievement

in typewriting theory than those exhibiting a low degree of

match.

Statistical Hypothesis 3.

Null Hypothesis Ho3: TFm < TF1

Alternate Hypothesis Ha3: TFr > TF1

Table 4-5. Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test Between Medium and Low
Degree of Match Groups and AVT Theory Test Grades.


AVT GRADES Theory Tests

Match
Group A B C D n
2 4 2 0
TFm 2 = 6 6 = 18 8 = 24 3 24 8
(61-80%) 7 2 TT T 7~ 7 T
-2 0 0
TF1 1 = 8 3 =24 3 = 24 3 24 3
(0-61%) T TT 2 3 TT 3 7
Group
Differ- 2 6* 0 0
ence T T T 4 _____

The largest absolute difference in Table 4-5 is 6/24.

According to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov Table of critical values

(Appendix H) this value indicates that no significant difference

exists between the two distributions being compared. The null

hypothesis TFm < TF1 cannot be rejected and the alternate

hypothesis TFm > TF1 cannot be accepted. Therefore, Operatonal

Hypothesis 3 cannot be accepted.











Operational Hypothesis 4. Students exhibiting a high degree of

match between their cognitive style and that of the AVT package

will do significantly better on scores of achievement in type-

writing production than those exhibiting a low degree of match.

Statistical Hypothesis 4.

Null Hypothesis Ho4: PFh < PF1

Alternative Hypothesis 11a4: PFh > PF1

Table 4-6. Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test Between High and Low Degree
of Match Groups and AVT Production Test Grades.


AVT GRADES Production Tests

Match
Group A B C D n
2 1 0 0
PFh 2 3 3 3 3
(81-100%) 3 3 3,
1 0 2 0
PF1 1 1 3 3
(0-60%) s s 3 37
Group
Differ- 1 2* 0
ence 3 S _


The largest absolute difference in Table 4-6 is 2/3. Accord-

ing to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov Table of critical values (Appendix

H) this value indicates that no significant difference exists

between the two distributions being compared. The null hypothesis

PFh < PF1 cannot be rejected and the alternate hypothesis

PFh > PF1 cannot be accepted. Therefore, Operational Hypothesis 4

cannot be accepted.











Operational Hypothesis 5. Students exhibiting a high degree of

match between their cognitive style and that of the AVT pack-

age will do significantly better on scores of achievement in

typewriting production than those exhibiting a medium degree

of match.

Statistical Hypothesis 5.

Null Hypothesis Ho5: PFh < PFm

Alternate Hypothesis Ha5: PFh > PFm

Table 4-7. Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test Between High and Medium
Degree of Match Groups and AVT Production Test Grades.


AVT GRADES Production Tests

Match
Group A B C D n
2 1 0 0
PFh 2 14 3 21 3 21 3 21
(81-100%) 7 T T 7 2T 3 = 3

PFm 0 0 4 12 7 21 7 21
(61-80%) 7 2T 7 i 7 T 7 2T 7
Group
Differ- 14* 9 0 0
ence7T 2 T 7T


The largest absolute difference in Table 4-7 is 14/21.

According to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov Table of critical values

(Appendix H) this value indicates that no significant difference

exists between the two distributions being compared. The null

hypothesis PFh < PFm cannot be rejected and the alternate

hypothesis PFh > PFm cannot be rejected. Therefore, Operational

Hypothesis 5 cannot be accepted.











Operational Hypothesis 6. Students exhibiting a medium degree

of match between their cognitive style and -hat of the AVT

package will do significantly better on scores of achievement

in typewriting production than those exhibiting a low degree

of match.

Statistical Hypothesis 6.

Null Hypothesis H 6: PFm < PF1

Alternate Hypothesis Ha6: PFm > PF1

Table 4-8. Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test Between Medium and Low Degree
of Match Groups and AVT Production Test Grades.


AVT GRADES Production Tests

Match I
Group A B C D n
0 4 3 0
PFm 0 _0 4 12 7 21 7 21
(61-80%) 7 -21 7 7-2 7 T 7 T

PF1 1 7 1 7 3 21 3 21
(0-60%) 73 i S = T 7" ZT T 3
Group
Differ- 7* 5 0 0
ence :T 7T 2T 2T


The largest absolute difference in Table 4-8 is 7/21.

According to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov Table of critical values

(Appendix H) this value indicates that no significant difference

exists between the two distributions being compared. The null

hypothesis PFm PF1 cannot be rejected and the alternate

hypothesis PFm > PF1 cannot be accepted. Therefore, Operational

Hypothesis 6 cannot be accepted.











Operational Hypothesis 7. Students exhibiting a high degree of

match between their cognitive style and that of the AVT package

will do significantly better on scores of achievement in type-

writing speed and accuracy than those exhibiting a low degree

of match.

Statistical Hypothesis 7.

Null Hypothesis Ho7: SFh < SF1

Alternate Hypothesis Ha7: SFh > SF1

Table 4-9. Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test Between High and Low Degree of
Match Groups and AVT Speed and Accuracy Test Grades.



AVT GRADES Speed and Accuracy Tests

Match
Group A B C D n

1 1 0 0
SFh 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2
(81-100%) 7 7 7 27 7 7Z
0 0 1 0
SF1 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 2
(0-60%) 1 7 T 7 7 7 1
Group
Differ- 1 2* 0 0
ence 7 7 7 7 _


The largest absolute difference in Table 4-9 is 2/2. Accord-

ing to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov Table of critical values (Appendix

H) this value indicates that no significant difference exists

between the two distributions being compared. The null hypothesis

SFh < SF1 cannot be rejected and the alternate hypothesis

SFh > SF1 cannot be accepted. Therefore, Operational Hypothesis 7

cannot be accepted.












Operational Hypothesis 8. Students exhibiting a high degree of

match between their cognitive style and that of the AVT package

will do significantly better on scores of achievement in type-

writing speed and accuracy than those exhibiting a medium degree

of match.

Statistical Hypothesis 8.

Null Hypothesis Ho8: SFh < SFm

Alternate Hypothesis Ha8: SFh > SFm

Table 4-10. Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test Between High and Medium Degree
of Match Groups and AVT Speed and Accuracy Test Grades.



AVT GRADES Speed and Accuracy Tests

Match
Group A B C D n
1 1 0 0
SFh 1 3 2 6 2 6 2 6
(81-100%) 7 7 2 7 2
1 2 0 0
SFm 1 2 3 6 3 6 3 6
= -- T 3
(61-80%) 5 3 6 J3 6
Group
Differ- I* 0 0 0
ence___ ___


The largest absolute difference in Table 4-10 is 1/6.

According to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov Table of critical values

(Appendix H) this value indicates that no significant difference

exists between the two distributions being compared. The null

hypothesis SFh SFm cannot be rejected and the alternate

hypothesis SFh > SFm cannot be accepted. Therefore, Operational

Hypothesis 8 cannot be accepted.











Operational Hypothesis 9. Students exhibiting a medium degree

of match between their cognitive style and that of the AVT

package will do significantly better on scores of achievement

in typewriting speed and accuracy than those exhibiting a low

degree of match.

Statistical Hypothesis 9.

Null Hypothesis Ho9: SFm SF1

Alternate Hypothesis Ha9: SFm > SF1

Table 4-11. Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test Between Medium and Low Degree
of Match Groups and AVT Speed and Accuracy Test Grades.



AVT GRADES Speed and Accuracy Tests

Match
Group A B C D n
1 2 0 0
SFm 1 3 3 3
(61-80%) 3 3 3 3

0 0 1 0
SF1 0 0 0 0 1 3 1 3
(0-60%) 1 1 1 T -T 1

Group
Differ- 1 3* 0 0
ence 7 T 7 3


The largest absolute difference in Table 4-11 is 3/3.

According to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov Table of critical values

(Appendix H) this value indicates that no significant difference

exists between the two distributions being compared. The null

hypothesis SFm < SF1 cannot be rejected and the alternate

hypothesis SFm > SF1 cannot be accepted. Therefore, Operational

Hypothesis 9 cannot be accepted.












Operational Hypothesis 10. Students exhibiting a high degree of

match between their cognitive style and that of the overall AVT

package will do significantly better as measured by the final

grade in the typewriting course than will students exhibiting

a low degree of match.

Statistical Hypothesis 10.

Null Hypothesis Hol0: OFh < OF1

Alternate Hypothesis Hal0: OFh > OF1

Table 4-12. Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test Between High and Low Degree of
Match Groups and AVT Overall Course Grades.



AVT GRADES Overall Course

Match
Group A B C D n

OFh 0 0 1 = 3 1 3 1 3 1
(81-100%) 1 3 1 3 1T 3 1T
1 1 1
OF1 1 1 2 2 3 3 3 3 3
(0-60% 7 3 T 7 T 7
Group
Differ- 1* 1 0 0
ence 3 3 3 3


The largest absolute difference in Table 4-12 is 1/3.

According to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov Table of critical values

(Appendix H) this value indicates that no significant difference

exists between the two distributions being compared. The null

hypothesis OFh OF1 cannot be rejected and the alternate

hypothesis OFh > OF1 cannot be accepted. Therefore, Operational

Hypothesis 10 cannot be accepted.












Operational Hypothesis 11. Students exhibiting a high degree of

match between their cognitive style and that of the overall AVT

package will do significantly better as measured by the final

grade in the typewriting course than will students exhibiting

a medium degree of match.

Statistical Hypothesis 11.

Null Hypothesis Holl: OFh < OFm

Alternate Hypothesis Hall: OFh > OFm

Table 4-13. Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test Between High and Medium Degree
of Match Groups and AVT Overall Course Grades.



AVT GRADES Overall Course

Match
Group A B C D n
0 1 0 0
OFh 0 0 1 9 1 9 1 9
(81-100%) 1 T 7 T T 1
3 3 2 1
OFm 3 3 6 6 8 8 9 9
(61-80%) 75 7 9 9 7 7 9 7
Group
Differ- 3* 3 1 0
ence 7 ____ 7


The largest absolute difference in Table 4-13 is 3/9.

According to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov Table of critical values

(Appendix H) this value indicates that no significant difference

exists between the two distributions being compared. The null

hypothesis OFh < OFm cannot be rejected and the alternate

hypothesis OFh > OFm cannot be accepted. Therefore, Operational

Hypothesis 11 cannot be accepted.











Operational Hypothesis 12. Students exhibiting a medium degree

of match between their cognitive style and that of the overall

AVT package will do significantly better as measured by the

final grade in the typewriting course than will students

exhibiting a low degree of match.

Statistical Hypothesis 12.

Null Hypothesis H 12: OFm < OF1

Alternate Hypothesis Hal2: OFm > OF1

Table 4-14. Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test Between Medium and Low
Degree of Match Groups and AVT Overall Course Grades.



AVT GRADES Overall Course

Match
Group A B C D n
3 3 2 1
OFm 3 6 8 9
(61-80%) 7 7 7 9
1 1 1 0
OF1 1 3 2 6 3 9 3 9
(0-60%) 9 3 7 7
Group
Differ- 0 0 1* 0
ence ___7 7 7


The largest absolute difference in Table 4-14 is 1/9.

According to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov Table of critical values

(Appendix H) this value indicates that no significant difference

exists between the two distributions being compared. The null

hypothesis OFm < OF1 cannot be rejected and the alternate

hypothesis OFm > OF1 cannot be accepted. Therefore, Operational

Hypothesis 12 cannot be accepted.







75



Additional Analysis

The relationship in terms of the degree of match between

the students' maps and the overall grades in the AVT course

will also be analyzed, including the four students who did

not complete the course and received no credit for it. For

purposes of this analysis three additional operational

hypotheses will be generated as well as their corresponding

statistical null and alternate hypothesis.

The grade NP, or not-pass, will be utilized as part of

the Kolmogorov-Smirnov testing procedure.












Operational Hypothesis 10 A.

Students (including NP students) exhibiting a high degree

of match between their cognitive style and that of the overall

AVT package will do significantly better as measured by the final

grades in the typewriting course than will students exhibiting

a low degree of match.

Statistical Hypothesis 10 A.

Null Hypothesis H : OFh < OF1
olOA

Alternate Hypothesis al0A: OFh > OF1
alOA
Table 4-15. Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test Between High and Low Degree
of Match Groups and AVT Overall Course Grades
(Including NP).



AVT GRADES Overall Course (Including NP)

Match
Group A B C D NP n
1 0 0 0
OFh 0 0 1 4 1 4 1 4 1 4 1
(81-100%) 1 T T T T 4 1 4 1 4
1 1 1 0 1
OF1 1 2 3 3 4
(0-60%) T T T T
Group
Differ- 1 2* 1 1 0
ence T 4 T T T

The largest absolute difference in Table 4-15 is 2/4.

According to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov Table of critical values

(Appendix H) this value indicates that no significant difference

exists between the two distributions being compared. The null

hypothesis OFh < OF1 cannot be rejected and the alternate

hypothesis OFh > OF1 cannot be accepted. Therefore, Operational

Hypothesis 10 A cannot be accepted.











Operational Hypothesis 11 A.

Students (including NP students) exhibiting a high degree of

match between their cognitive style and that of the overall AVT

package will do significantly better as measured by the final

grade in the typewriting course than will students exhibiting

a medium degree of match.

Statistical Hypothesis 11 A.

Null Hypothesis HollA: OFh < OFm

Alternate Hypothesis HallA: OFh > OFm

Table 4-16. Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test Between High and Medium
Degree of Match Groups and AVT Overall Course
Grades (Including NP).


AVT GRADES Overall Course (Including NP)

Match I i
Group A B C D NP n
0 1 0 0 0
OFh 0 0 1 = 12 1 12 1 = 12 1 12
(81-100%) T IT T TT T -21 T T 17
3 3 2 1 3
OFm 3 6 8 9 12 12
(61-80%) T1 17 IT 17 T2
Group
Differ- 3 6* 4 3 0
ence IT7 T Tl 1-7 T _


The largest absolute difference in Table 4-16 is 6/12.

According to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov Table of critical values

(Appendix H) this value indicates that no significant difference

exists between the two distributions being compared. The null

hypothesis OFh < OFm cannot be rejected and the alternate

hypothesis OFh > OFm cannot be accepted. Therefore, Operational

Hypothesis 11 A cannot be accepted.












Operational Hypothesis 12 A.

Students (including NP students) exhibiting a medium degree

of match between their cognitive style and that of the overall

AVT package will do significantly better as measured by the

final grade in the typewriting course than will students

exhibiting a low degree of match.

Statistical Hypothesis 12 A.

Null Hypothesis 1Ho2A: OFm < OF1

Alternate Hypothesis Hal2A: OFm > OF1

Table 4-17. Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test Between Medium and Low Degree
of Match Groups and AVT Overall Course Grades
(Including NP).


AVT GRADES Overall Course (Including NP)

Match
Group A B C D NP n
3 2 1I I
OFm 3 6 8 9 12 12
(61-80%) -T i 1T 12T IT _
1 1 1 0 1
OF1 1 2 6 3 9 3 9 4 12 4
(0-60%) T T 4 12 4 12 12 4 12__
Group
Differ- 0 0 1* 0 0
ence 1-2 12 2 I12 1-

The largest absolute difference in Table 4-17 is 1/12.

According to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov Table of critical values

(Appendix H) this value indicates that no significant difference

exists between the two distributions being compared. The null

hypothesis OFm < OF1 cannot be rejected and the alternate

hypothesis OFm > OF1 cannot be accepted. Therefore, Operationa

Hypothesis 12 A cannot be accepted.












Summary

Fifteen null hypotheses were generated and tested. Each

null hypothesis was tested using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-

sample test. All hypotheses were tested at the .05 level of

significance. Three hypotheses were formulated dealing with

the scores students achieved in typewriting theory. Three

hypotheses were formulated dealing with the scores students

achieved in typewriting production. Three hypotheses were

formulated dealing with the scores students achieved in

typewriting speed and accuracy. Three hypotheses were formu-

lated dealing with the overall grades students achieved in

the typewriting course. The final three hypotheses were

formulated dealing with the overall grades students received

in the course including the students who received no credit

for taking the course. A summary of the results is presented

in Tables 4-18, 4-19, 4-20, 4-21, and 4-22.













Table 4-18. Summary of Results Students' Achievement
in Typewriting Theory




Operational Hypothesis Results of
Statistical Tests


1. Students exhibiting a high degree
of match between their cognitive
style and that of the AVT package
will do significantly better Null not rejected
on scores of achievement in
typewriting theory than those
exhibiting a low degree of
match.


2. Students exhibiting a high degree
of match between their cognitive
style and that of the AVT package
will do significantly better on Null not rejected
scores of achievement in type-
writing theory than those
exhibiting a medium degree of
match.


3. Students exhibiting a medium degree
of match between their cognitive
style and that of the AVT package
will do significantly better on Null not rejected
scores of achievement in type-
writing theory than those
exhibiting a low degree of match.













Table 4-19.


Summary of Results Students' Achievement
in Typewriting Production


Operational Hypothesis Results of
Statistical Tests


4. Students exhibiting a high degree
of match between their cognitive
style and that of the AVT package
will do significantly better on Null not rejected
scores of achievement in type-
writing production than those
exhibiting a low degree of
match.


5. Students exhibiting a high degree
of match between their cognitive
style and that of the AVT package
will do significantly better on Null not rejected
scores of achievement in type-
writing production than those
exhibiting a medium degree of
match.


6. Students exhibiting a medium
degree of match between their
cognitive style and that of the
AVT package will do significantly Null not rejected
better on scores of achievement
in typewriting production than
those exhibiting a low degree
of match.













Table 4-20.


Summary of Results Students' Achievement in
Typewriting Speed and Accuracy


Operational Hypothesis Results of
Statistical Tests


7. Students exhibiting a high degree of
match between their cognitive style
and that of the AVT package will do
significantly better on scores of Null not rejected
achievement in typewriting speed
and accuracy than those exhibiting
a low degree of match.


8. Students exhibiting a high degree of
match between their cognitive style
and that of the AVT package will do
significantly better on scores of Null not rejected
achievement in typewriting speed
and accuracy than those exhibiting
a medium degree of match.


9. Students exhibiting a medium degree
of match between their cognitive
style and that of the AVT package
will do significantly better on Null not rejected
scores of achievement in type-
writing speed and accuracy than
those exhibiting a low degree of
match.













Table 4-21. Summary of Results Overall Course Grade




Operational Hypothesis Results of
Statistical Tests


10. Students exhibiting a high degree
of match between their cognitive
style and that of the overall AVT
package will do significantly
better as measured by the final Null not rejected
grade in the typewriting course
than will students exhibiting a
low degree of match.


11. Students exhibiting a high degree
of match between their cognitive
style and that of the overall AVT
package will do significantly
better as measured by the final Null not rejected
grade in the typewriting course
than will students exhibiting a
medium degree of match.


12. Students exhibiting a medium degree
of match between their cognitive
style and that of the overall AVT
package will do significantly
better as measured by the final Null not rejected
grade in the typewriting course
than will students exhibiting a
low degree of match.













Table 4-22. Summary of Results Overall Course Grade
(Including NP Students)




Operational Hypothesis Results of
Statistical Tests


10A. Students (including NP students)
exhibiting a high degree of
match between their cognitive
style and that of the overall
AVT package will do significantly Null not rejecte-
better as measured by the final
grades in the typewriting course
than will students exhibiting
a low degree of match.


11A. Students (including NP students)
exhibiting a high degree of
match between their cognitive
style and that of t; overall
AVT package will do -gnificantly Null not rejected
better as measured b. the final
grades in the typewriting course
than will students exhibiting
a medium degree of match.


12A. Students (including NP students)
exhibiting a medium degree of
match between their cognitive
style and that of the overall
AVT package will do significantly Null not rejected
better as measured by the final
grades in the typewriting course
than will students exhibiting a
low degree of match.











CHAPTER V


SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS



The purpose of this study was to determine if the degree

of match between an individual student's cognitive style and

a theoretical cognitive style established by a panel of experts

for an audiovisual-tutorial typewriting package is an indicator

of the degree of success which that student would achieve

through interaction with the package.


Summary

The literature review has indicated that there is a need

to aid educators in their approach to instruction. This need

has become increasingly evident in community colleges where

there is a large amount of variance in the learning ability of

students. One of the ways instructors are reacting to this

dilemma is by turning to various approaches to individualized

instruction, but with mixed successes. The studies cited

herein indicate that much research has been conducted within

the framework of the Educational Science of Cognitive Style

as a basis for the individualization of instruction.

The present study was undertaken within the conceptual

framework of the Educational Science of Cognitive Style in

an attempt to assess whether or not a relationship exists












between a student's cognitive style and successful learning

in that student via a specific individualization method. The

assessment of the students' cognitive style was made using

the cognitive style inventory developed by Dr. Joseph E. Hill

and his associates at Oakland Community College in Bloomfield

[ills, Michigan. An audiovisual-tutorial instructional package

in typewriting was selected as the individualized instructional

method.

The subjects for the study were students in Introductory

Typewriting I at Tompkins Cortland Community College in

Dryden, New York. The cognitive style mapping inventory was

administered to the student population and was then analyzed

to produce an individual cognitive style map for each student.

The degree of match between each student's individual cognitive

style map and a theoretical map established for the AVT package

by a panel of experts (outlining those elements required in

each student's map if the student was to be successful in inter-

action with the package) was determined.

Students' success in interaction with various components

of the course (typing theory, typing production, typing

speed and accuracy, and final grade) was then analyzed based

upon the degree of match between the student's map and the map

of the package.

Twelve operational hypotheses were formulated to

facilitate the answering of the questions posed in Chapter I.












The data collected were analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov

two-sample statistical test of significance. Results of the

tests are reported in Chapter IV and form the basis for the

following conclusions, implications, and recommendations.


Conclusions

The findings of the present study are as follows:

1. No significant difference was found among any of the

three cognitive style match groups (high, medium, or low) in

the scores of achievement in typewriting theory when measured

in pairwise comparison.

2. No significant difference was found among any of the

three cognitive style match groups (high, medium, or low) in

the scores of achievement in typewriting production when

measured in pairwise comparison.

3. No significant difference was found among any of the

three cognitive style match groups (high, medium, or low) in

the scores of achievement in speed and accuracy when measured

in pairwise comparison.

4. No significant difference was found among any of the

three cognitive style match groups (high, medium, or low) in

the scores of achievement in the overall course grade when

measured in pairwise comparison.












Implications and Recommendations for Further Research

The present study did not find the relationship it hypothe-

sized. On the basis of this study there appears to be no

relationship between students' cognitive style and their degree

of success with an audiovisual-tutorial instructional type-

writing package. Further research may reveal that this relation-

ship does exist.

Based upon the experiences and insights gained during the

investigation certain implications for future investigations

may be relevant to the field of cognitive style mapping and

the educational sciences in general.

1. The present study should be replicated using a larger

sample size. The increased sample size may permit a greater

range of statistical alternatives to be considered with the

possibility of greater discriminative precision.

2. The present study should be replicated incorporating

careful measurement of the number of times students interact

with the AVT package and the amount of interaction time.

The implication here is that student-package interaction time

may be a confounding variable in that given enough time in a

competency-based curriculum mode all students could be able

to reach minimum competency.

3. The present study should be replicated incorporating

careful measurement of the student attitudes toward the mode











of instruction before and after the instruction takes place.

The implication is that the student's attitude could have an

over-riding effect on his/her degree of interaction (intensity)

with the AVT package. The student's attitude may also be

predicted by his/her level of cognitive style match with the

AVT package.

4. The present study should be replicated with an alter-

native method for assessing the cognitive style of the sampled

students. The Oakland Community College Cognitive Style

Mapping Inventory used in this study assumes that students

know their reactions under various hypothetical conditions

which the student may or may not have been exposed to in real

situations. Tests such as the one designed by Bass (1972) for

diagnosing Q(CS) could be developed which may be more reliable

in this study.

The instrument should also be designed to identify the

four subsets of Qualitative Proprioceptive Q(P) which

are: Qualitative Proprioceptive Kinematic Q(PK), Qualita-

tive Proprioceptive Temporal Q(PT), Qualitative Proprioceptive

Dextral Q(PD), and Qualitative Proprioceptive Sinstral -

Q(PS) (see p. 13 for explanation). The implication is that

these programmatic effects may be important indicators of

student performance in the speed/accuracy area of typewriting

ability.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs