Title: Implications of Maslow's needs theory for counseling older Americans
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 Material Information
Title: Implications of Maslow's needs theory for counseling older Americans
Physical Description: x, 279 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Orr, James Marshall, 1944-
Copyright Date: 1979
 Subjects
Subject: Aged -- Psychology   ( lcsh )
Old age assistance -- United States   ( lcsh )
Counseling   ( lcsh )
Counselor Education thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Counselor Education -- UF
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Thesis: Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 272-278.
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: Vita.
Statement of Responsibility: by James Marshall Orr, Jr.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098843
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000097765
oclc - 06609799
notis - AAL3206

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IMPLICATIONS Ol HAL::OW'S hILJL)I IlIEO'Y
POR iCOUISELIN OLI) E AOELD ICAII













YJA

JAMSE MARSHALL ORR, JR.


A DISSERTATION PRIESNTEDL TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL
OF Til;:HE UNIVUklFTY oF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL IULIjLLMENr O[' THE REQUIREMENTS FOR TIll:
DIl'RriI Ol' DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY





UIl IVIR' ITY OfP ILORIUA




















For Joyce who loved me through it all


















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


My sincere and deepest gratitude is extended to the following:

Dr. Harold C. Riker, my advisor and chairman of my doctoral

committee,for his leadership, guidance and untiring dedication to

my professional growth and development. No one could have been

more unselfish with their gift of time and energy.

Dr. Walter Busby, a member of my committee,for his loving

guidance that made the SNAP a solid research instrument, and his

loving friendship that made me a better person for the experience.

Dr. E. L. Tolbert, a member of my committee,for the quality

of his input and the wisdom of his experiences.

To Dr. Milan Kolarik from whom I have drawn much strength

over the past three years. Merci pour votre joi de vivre.

To Nancy Herford for turning my chicken scratch into some-

thing I could read.

And to my Dad for his constant encouragement.


















TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. ........ . . . . .. iii

LIST OF TABLES. .. . ................. vi

ABSTRACT. .... . . . . . . . . . . iv

CHAPTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

I INTRODUCTION . . ...... . . . . .. 1

Need for the Study . . . .... ... 2
Purpose of the Study . . .... ... 4
Rationale. ..... ... . . . 5
Research Questions .. ...... ... ... 6
Definition of Terms. ........ ... 8

II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE . . . . . . .. 10

Study of Aging and the Older American. ... 10
Theoretical Considerations of Aging. . . . 14
Demographic and Statistical Description 18
of the Older American .. . .....
Society's Negative View of Aging . . . . 2
Counseling the Elderly . . . . . 27
Maslow's Basic Needs Theory. . . . . . 33
Needs Assessment Instruments in Gerontology. . 41
Summary. .. . . . . . . . . 45

III METHODOLOGY. ....... . . . . . . 48

Subjects . . ... . . . . . 49
Development of the Instrument. . . . . 52
Analysis of Data . . . . .. ...... 55
Possible Limitations ............. 57

IV RESULTS. . . . . . . . . .. ... 59

Research Sample. ...... . . . . 59
Reliability. .................. 65
Procedures . . . . . . . . ... 67
Research Questions . ............. 69
















Page
V SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION, CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS
AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH . . . . 136

Summary and Discussion ... . . . . . . 137
Conclusions . . . . . . . . . 145
Implications ..... . . . . . . . 148
Suggestions for Further Research . . . . . 149

APPENDICES . . . . . . .

A NEED/PROBLEM AREA DEFINITIONS FOR FACE VALIDITY
CHECK .. . . . . . . . . . . . 153

B COMPREHENSIVE LIST FOR ITEM VALIDITY GIVEN TO
PANEL OF EXPERTS ... . ... . . . .. . 155

C SURVEY OF NEEDS AND PROBLEMS . . . . . . 164

D FORM LETTER TO SUBJECTS, POST CARD TO BE
RETURNED TO THE RESEARCHER . . . . . . . 180

E FOUR MULTIPLE COMPARISON ANALYSES OF THE NEED/
PROBLEM ITEMS OF THE SURVEY OF NEEDS AND
PROBLEMS . . . . . . . . . . . .... 183

F TABLES GENERATED FROM DATA ANALYSIS OF THE
SURVEY OF NEEDS AND PROBLEMS . . . ..... ..... 229

G WRITE-IN RESPONSES OF STUDENTS . . . . . . .. 242

H WRITE-IN RESPONSES OF WORKING EDUCATORS. . . . . 252

I WRITE-IN RESPONSES OF RETIRED EDUCATORS. . . . .. 261

REFERENCES. ... . . . . . . ....... 272

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . . .. .. . . . . . . 279

















LIST OF TABLES


TABLE Page

1 SELECTED SCHEMATA OF HUMAN GROWTH . ... . . 34

2 DEMOGRAPHIC DATA FOR THE RESEARCH POPULATION: STUDENTS,
WORKING EDUCATORS, AND RETIRED EDUCATORS. . . . ... 62

3 NEED/PROBLEM ITEM RESPONSES OF STUDY POPULATION BY
GROUP INDICATING GRAND MEANS, GROUP MEANS AND
SIGNIFICANCE OF F . . . . . . . .. . . 71

4 SENIOR STUDENT RESPONSES TO THE SURVEY OF NEEDS AND
PROBLEMS RANKED BY MEAN SCORES. . . . .... . . 75

5 WORKING EDUCATOR RESPONSES TO THE SURVEY OF NEEDS AND
PROBLEMS RANKED BY MEAN SCORES ... . . . . . 81

6 RETIRED EDUCATOR RESPONSES TO THE SURVEY OF NEEDS AND
PROBLEMS RANKED BY MEAN SCORES. . . . . . ... 86

7 STUDY POPULATION'S RATING OF NEED/PROBLEM ITEMS ON
THE SNAP QUESTIONNAIRE ACCORDING TO FREQUENCY OF
RESPONSE IN "SOMEWHAT SERIOUS PROBLEM" (4) AND "VERY
SERIOUS PROBLEM" (5) CATEGORIES . . . . . ... 92

8 SIGNIFICANT RESULTS FROM A ONE-WAY ANALYSIS OF SNAP
ITEMS BY RACE (WHITE X MINORITY). . . . . . 101

9 SIGNIFICANT RESULTS FROM A ONE-WAY ANALYSIS OF SNAP
NEED/PROBLEM ITEMS BY SEX .. . . . . . . .. 103

10 NEED/PROBLEM ITEMS WITH SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES AMONG
RETIRED EDUCATORS, WORKING EDUCATORS AND SENIOR
STUDENTS OBTAINED BY AN ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR NEED
PROBLEM ITEMS BY GROUP MEMBERSHIP . ... . . .107

11 TOP THREE RESPONSES BY GROUP TO QUESTIONS ASKING FOR
MOST IMPORTANT ITEM IN SPECIFIC NEED/PROBLEM AREAS. . I

12 SUBJECTS WHO ADDED ITEMS WITHIN THE FIVE NEED/PROBLEM
AREAS . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

13 NEED/PROBLEM AREA MEANS SD AND POOLED MEANS BY GROUP
MEMBERSHIP. ... . .. .. ...... . .. . 117




vi











14 NEED/PROBLEM AREA RANKINGS BY POOLED MEAN SCORES AND
BY DIRECT MEASURE . . . . . . . . . . .

15 RESPONSES BY GROUP MEMBERSHIP TO OPEN-ENDED STATEMENTS
WITH CODED RESPONSES, ABSOLUTE FREQUENCIES, AND
PERCENTAGE FIGURES......... . . . . . .

16 RESULTS OF A ONE-WAY ANALYSIS (ANOVA) OF SNAP NEED/
PROBLEM ITEMS BY RETIRED EDUCATORS' RESPONSES TO
THE OPEN-ENDED STATEMENT "MY GREATEST WORRY/NEED/
PROBLEM IS..." . . . . .

17 SIGNIFICANT RESULTS OF A ONE-WAY ANALYSIS (ANOVA)
OF SNAP NEED/PROBLEM ITEMS BY RETIRED EDUCATORS'
RESPONSES TO THE OPEN-ENDED STATEMENT "IF MY BODY
HAD A VOICE IT WOULD SAY..." . . . . .......

18 POOLED MEANS OF NEED/PROBLEM ITEMS GROUPED BY LOWER
AND HIGHER NEED/PROBLEM AREAS BY SEX FOR TOTAL STUDY
POPULATION, SENIOR STUDENTS, WORKING EDUCATORS, AND
RETIRED EDUCATORS . . . . . . . . . . .

19 MEAN SCORE RESPONSES TO LIFE SATISFACTION ITEMS BY
GROUP MEMBERSHIP . . . .

20 FREQUENCY SCORES BY GROUP MEMBERSHIP FOR RESPONSE
CHOICES ON LIFE SATISFACTION ITEM: "TODAY'S DATE" . . .

21 SIGNIFICANT MAIN EFFECTS OF A MULTIPLE COMPARISON
ANALYSIS (ANOVA) BY LOCATION OF RESIDENCE, RACE,
AND GROUP MEMBERSHIP......... . . . . .....

22 SIGNIFICANT MAIN EFFECTS OF A MULTIPLE COMPARISON
ANALYSIS (ANOVA) BY LIVING ARRANGEMENT, SEX, AND
GROUP MEMBERSHIP . . . . .

23 SIGNIFICANT MAIN EFFECTS OF A MULTIPLE COMPARISON
ANALYSIS (ANOVA) BY PURPOSE OF LIFE, ATTITUDE
TOWARD COUNSELING AND GROUP MEMBERSHIP . . . .

24 SIGNIFICANT MAIN EFFECTS OF A MULTIPLE COMPARISON
ANALYSIS (ANOVA) BY GROUP MEMBERSHIP, LEVEL OF INCOME
AND MARITAL STATUS......... . . . . . .

25 POOLED MEAN SCORES OF ENTIRE STUDY POPULATION FOR NEED/
PROBLEM AREAS BY SEX, LIVING ARRANGEMENT, AND
ATTITUDE TOWARD COUNSELING .. . . . .......

26 POOLED MEAN SCORES OF SENIOR STUDENT GROUP FOR NEED/
PROBLEM AREAS BY SEX, LIVING ARRANGEMENT, AND
ATTITUDE TOWARD COUNSELING ........


Page

121




124


132


133



135



229




230



233




234



235




236










Page

27 POOLED MEAN SCORES OF WORKING EDUCATOR GROUP FOR
NEED/PROBLEM AREAS BY SEX LIVING ARRANGEMENT, AND
ATTITUDE TOWARD COUNSELING . . ... ... . . . 237

28 POOLED MEAN SCORES OF RETIRED EDUCATOR GROUP FOR
NEED/PROBLEM AREAS BY SEX, LIVING ARRANGEMENT, AND
ATTITUDE TOWARD COUNSELING .. . . . . . . 238

29 MEAN SCORES AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR PERSONS
RETIRED LESS THAN, OR MORE THAN 5 YEARS. . . . ... 239















A l tfac ol II[.,.r il Lon 1'r d 1 L t li, [\ i I,' ln i L, U CG I: IiI I,
of thu lIn iv I: i ly ut I 1 1,1 il 1 t 1,1 1 I 1l iu I[ lIIL-t At thu 1 e1ir n
S or t1i' lj I %I'' t'r l Io L (') t I I i ,I t.f 1 'I hy


IM I 'l ,I A'i' IUN: 01' MA:.:lf, W ; :lliE)E I'llljI 'Y
I '1 t'O i '..AL I!1; 1LDLR AM I t,' lI'A .;

1'V

Jiml i a' tijll lt' ,lJr .

bucmurip 197K

ChdirnLin: 11alold C. Kik- I '
Major lD'-partdir'llnt.: (lCuun;i'Ior l(ilnc'i, ion

This study w.j- dri it. t.mlipt to ide1( nst l'rlti the d[,pl icdtion of the

theoretic' r iework Il'upoj;,(d Iby Abrifiduai M[is luw inl increasing the

understaldi ig', o01 the lrnee'l .ani r'rbiLlcris a]ii u At' Ln rl'ii~icans.

More spe,:it ically, this study involved Ithe duvelopmient ut the

Survey ou Hleeds dand Prubl iims (; AP) qu:rtA iuliiire. The SNAP was

pilot tested and rietiii-d. 'Th, ifinjl rotrn was lield tested on three

separate age jipouldt Lons: studtnl;, who wer' seniior's in the CoLlege

of Education, Uliiversity of l'l]oiid' working educators in the age

category of 35-50, antd it irced TQuc.atotr's. These three populations

were used to provide a imea;ii.r't on changee in needs and problemsii over

time.

Needs and iprdiblem w'rtue I tlLasred inl six areas. The six drcas

were 1) phyiululAgiil, 2) -.ul ty, 3) Love/LeoiurgiJng, ) sell-

estecii, ird 5) S. llt-.1 tl izttion.

]'t:.;ill-ti ini ic [d I c ,i r l iiv'lIy ]ow level ol cori 'urn (as Lx-

preLs:-t'd by il 1 ;'cor; ..) I' th ne /p it r bl.m I.tims pruesuntd in











the SNAP' questionnaire Whe iln scoqre.. tor the neud/prle 1 cm

iteis were pooled I I y ttod 11t-,1e i n' ,at y it w LA i d higVherl

by reti td CducaLoUrL thin Wri' l h ie- uther need ir I... l'hysulogicaI

needs tandl problems Wr CI'L Ila ytiLtui'n Lu i.tircId i duijloru. ''Th

physiu logical and SAtl uty It i l:d i.itats sI wh-l Miaslow cClls lower

order needs.

'Thuise itletim whiich tie jlddlid by individuals in this study had

a luuch higher' ictmle icoiu iand in dicsted the presence tof more riou

problems within did the iteilis pleseilLnteld iln the SNAP.

Oi the three gmrouLp:; i;t sulbj;Lcts in this study, retired edu-

cators were mIos likely to eupoueu an unselfisih, giving philosophy

of life. Retired educators were, to a sitgni licant degree, less

likely to leel inferior to others, to fear idilure, to not like

their looks, or to teel they had no senue ol tirut with their fiends.

Retired educators, as did tlhe oiher two groups of subjects in this

study, indicated a high degree ol sdtisiaction in their life.

Males of the study indicated having significantly less ol a

problem with many of the necd/problem items than did the females

of this study. Members ol minority races had less ot a problem

with several of the items than did members of the white race.

The general ovut-all picture of the older segment of the

American population as jprewented by the results of this study

is much more positive than would hiav been indicated in a review

of culent LitLerature on hli e cldiely. Findings here suggest the

possibility of establishing a new pLositivi' theory o0 aging.

The sludy ,0onclud0 with a d JiCsustion ol the itmplicatione ; i or

the field of counseling',, nd su|i'estion., lor turthIr research.
















CHAPTER-' L

INTRODUCTION

Gerontology is a relatively new social science, born in this con-

tury. Yet, even from the outset, it has been characterized by various

theories accentuating the negative and often despairing aspects or ag-

ing (Aslin, 1974; Blake, 1975; Buckley,1972). Lansing (1952)calls aging

a decremental process, while Kleameier (1961) refers to aging as "a

flight of irregular stairs down which some journey more quickly than

others."

The negative view of aging is extensive throughout our culture.

It touches us all. As Neugarten (1971) has said, most Americans see

aging as "alien to the self and tend to deny or repress the associated

feelings of distaste and anxiety" (p.45). Counselors, too, are not

immune to the stereotypes and veiled negatives that are often presented

in the media (Garfinkel,1975; Schlossberg, Vontress, Sinick,1974).

Fortunately there is much evidence to indicate that national trends

are swinging away from the negative and toward a more positive view

of the aging/developmental process. There is a growing awareness of

the destructive consequences of a divided society. By becoming aware

of aging, and "ageism," R.N. Butler's term for all the stereotypical

negatives surrounding aging (Butler & Lewis,1977), we increase the

possibilities for a full and happy life at any age.









The ground work is being laid for social and cultural changes

concerning aging within our society. People in government, education,

and social services are putting' rorth a greatly increased effort dimed

at improving the nation's general understanding of the older segment of

its population. By better understanding the aging process we bring a

light of truth to Lear on a time of life so often veiled in silence

and ignorance.

This study adds further data to the general body of knowledgee used

by counselors who work with older Americans. By understanding the needs

of older Americans, counselors increase their effectiveness and, as a

result, older Americans increase their chances of continually improving

upon the quality of their lives.

Need for the Study

Helping p'ofessionals must, in their efforts to understand, treat

the older American as a total human being related to an environment.

If counselors are to encourage positive human growth and development,

attention must be paid to a person's problems and concerns in whatever

area they arise. It would be a weak and narrow focus to consider only

the social problems of aging, or only the psycho-physical changes that

occur with the passing of time.

Counseling efforts, social and educational programs, legislation--

all services utilized by the older American--must be grounded in an

understanding of a wide variety of personal concerns.

This understanding requires knowing the needs and problems of

the older American, related demographic data, and something of the

environment that has contributed to or hindered personal growth.










Research has shown that the needs of persons living in a mid-sizr d

town are quite different thdn the needs of those living in rural or

large urban areas (Myers, 1978). A service organization thIit treated

all recipients the sdine would Le running the r'ik of complaTits absout

inadequate services or charges of impersonal, insensitive treaatmient.

It was the premise of this research that services organized to meet

the needs of a specific group liould sLart with a clear picture of

what the needs really dre. What older Americans see as their' own

problem/noed areas offers the groundwork for a systematic approach

for the delivery of counseling services.

Counseling the older American is a new undertaking for rost

professionals, and counselors still have a long way to go in under-

standing this population. In many ways the older person who presents

him/herself as a client is no different than other people of other age

groups presenting the same kind of concerns. Yet, in many ways, the

older American is different.

The passing of time brings varied expert iences that make older

Americans a much more diverse population than, say,a class of high

school seniors. Being less hormogeneous Lhan other age groups, more cau-

tion is needed in making generalizations about older Americans. It is

helpful in working with any population to understand the cohort group.

But because of the diversities that exist amonri individual older Amer-

icans, this population must be approached with greater caution when try-

ing to understand the individual ba;ed on cohort data. Additionally,

this greater diversity underscore- the need to understand the total per-

son when dealing with specific areas of need or concern. Therefore,










counselors serving older Americans will be required to deal with more

than the psychological needs of their clients. Perhaps more than with

any other cohort group, these helping professionals will be using a

large body of information to deal with a broad spectrum oF client

needs.

This study sought to familiarize counselors and other profession-

als with the general total needs structure of this client population,

and to provide familiarity with a system that can Le used in helping

clients conceptualize needs and problems within a total developmental

framework. Such a system is provided by Maslow (1954), who delineated

man's needs into a comprehensive, five-tiered hierarchy. This study

also focused on the changes that might have taken place in a person's

needs over time. By sampling three separate age populations--under-

graduate university students who are seniors in the College of ;Educa-

tion, working educators, and retired educators--information was gath-

ered that gave a general picture of a change in needs over time. This

general picture will certainly help further the understanding of what

it means to grow old in America.

The Purpose of this Study

There is still a lack of agreement and understanding surrounding

the process of psycho-social aging and development. It was the purpose

of this study to demonstrate the application of the theoretical frame-

work proposed by MIaslow (1951) in increasing the understanding of the

needs and problems of the older American population. More specifically,

an instrument was developed for gathering data over a broad spectrum of









human concerns. By sampling the older American population and comparing

the results to samples of two other age groups, data were provided that

can be used to help further clarify and develop the counselor's role

in the on-going, life-long process of psycho-sucial aging and develop-

ment. This researcher sees this understanding of client needs as a

vital component in the counseling/helping relationship.

Rationale

Maslow (1954) has developed a system for viewing human needs that

takes into account the total person. His Iive-tieaed hierarchy of needs

provides a structure for as'essing the needs of a population. By

grounding the delivery of counseling services in this in toto perspec-

tive, helping professionals arne able to aid the individual in meeting

needs and concerns, regardless of the areas in which these needs may

lie. Programs designed to nmeeL specific needs will increase their

benefit to the target population by incorporating an understanding of

the total person, as well as his or her relationship to the cohort group.

With the assessed needs prioritized by the potential recipient of

services, and organized around a strong theoretical framework as Maslow

has proposed, understanding of the psycho-social development process

and specific problems of aging comes that much closer to being a real-

ity.

Man's natural direction of change and growth is up the hierarchical

ladder (Maslow, 194), from basic physiological needs, through safety,

love/belonging, and self-esteem to self-actualization and its accom-

panying needs. If external (psycho-, socio-, -conomLc) forces









did not impede human growth, we would find a direct correlation betweti-n

an individual's age (maturity), and his or her level on Mdslow's

hierarchal ladder (Maslow, 1954).

However, there are many factors that work against this natural

growth process. We know that the negative values and beliefs that

society holds about the older American affect not only how we will

feel about ourselves as we age, but also have a direct effect on the

needs, values, and beliefs of today's elderly. Other factors that

inhibit growth are fears, anxieties, regrets, and worries. Maslow

(1954, p.82) states "another peculiar characteristic of the human

organism when it is dominated by a certain need is that the whole

philosophy of the future tends also to change."' This means that we not

only alter our present with unmet needs, but we change our receptions

of what we see for ourselves in the future. In instances where an

older American's focus of concern is dominated by low-level needs, he

or she will be hindered from progressing toward the higher-level needs

which are inherently part of this natural growth process. Understand-

ing these factors will hopefully lead to strategies for their reduc-

tion or elimination, a step beneficial not only to older Americans

themselves, but also to the programs which serve them.

America is a society proud of its individual freedoms, one of the

basic of these being freedom from want. As a social response to

individual needs, many human service organizations, both public and

private have been set up. Traditionally these organizations have

functioned by delivering services geared more to meeting the capabil-

ities of the delivery system than to responding to the needs of the










recipients of services (Myers, 1978). It was not the goal of this

study to recommend corrections for this problem; however, the data

collected did indicate areas for program emphasis, particularly where a

need for counseling service was indicated.

Although counseling was targeted as one of four priority funding

areas in gerontology by H.E.W. (H.E.W., 1977) a definition of counsel-

ing is far from being operationalized. As of this writing there is

still no one working for the Florida Division of Aging and Adult

Services who holds the job title of counselor. One can only conclude

that the counseling needs of the elderly go unmet or are addressed by

serving the client circuitously in any of a wide variety of existing

programs (e.g., meals on wheels, legal aid, and homemaker service).

Americans are still a society that fails to personalize the natural

progression of aging from birth to death. The tendency is to deny our own

aging and repress the feelings of distaste and anxiety that "ageism"

generates. On the rationale that knowledge and understanding are prime

movers in the eradication of misgivings, falsehoods and stereotypes, this

study was designed to help increase the knowledge of life span develop-

ment, particularly in the later years. It was not this researcher's

goal to reach some final understanding of aging, but rather to help

track man on a fluid and seemingly limitless path of development.

Research Questions

This study sought to answer the following research questions:

1. What are the needs and problems of the older American?

2. How do the strength and arrangement of these needs and problems

change over time?









3. Do needs and problems vary by specific demographic variables?

4. What are older Americans' attitudes toward being involved in

counseling?

5. Does the older American population differ from the younger in

ranking lower (physiological, and safety) needs, and higher (love/

belonging, self-esteem, and self-actualization) needs?

6. With regard to life satisfaction, how do older Americans differ

from other age groups in the direction they see their lives taking

from 5 years in the past to 5 years in the future?

Definition of Terms

Concern: A matter of interest or importance to one, causing un-

easiness or anxiety (Webster's New World Dictionary 1962, p. 302).

Counseling Needs: The type of concerns, problems, or developmental

issues which may confront an individual and for which counseling

may be a possible source of assistance (Ganikos, 1977, p. 10).

Importance of a Need: For the purposes of this study, the relative

importance of a need is defined as the amount of time, energy,

and/or thought that goes into a need or need area.

Need: Desire or requirement for the well-being of a person.

Need Area: Any one of five areas delineated by Maslow; physio-

logical, safety, love/belonging, self-esteem, or self-actualization

(Maslow, 1954).

Older Americans: Synonymous with "older adults," "elderly," "aged."

Persons who are 65 years of age or older. Although most recent govern

mental legislation and gerontological studies are using 60 as the






9



chronological definition of older Americans, this study sampled a

population that is, with few exceptions, 6E years or above. Recent

(August 1, 1979) changes in Florida law allowing for retirement with

full benefits after 30 years of service account for the few exceptions.

















CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF Til: LITIkAfl'U.-

The review of related literature is divided into six sections:

1) The Study of Aging and the Older American, 2) Demographic and

Statistical Descriptions of the Older American, 3) Society's negative

View of Aging, 4) Counseling the Elderly, 5) Maslow's BasicNeads Theory,

and 6) Need Assessment instruments in Gerontology.

The Study of Aging and the Older American

The elderly have always been a part of our society, but it has only

been in recent times that they have received so much attention. The

following brief chronology of the study of the elderly gives a clear

perspective on its present stage of development.

The first of what could be considered empirical studies on this

segment of the American population came in the early part of the

twentieth century as an offshoot of the older disciplines of psychology

and sociology (Guilden, 1976). It was during this time period that the

word "gerontology" was first used. In 1922, G. Stanley Hall became the

first psychologist to write about aging (Jarvik 1975). Writing at the

age of 73, Hall resented aging, and his hook Senescence, the Last Half

of Life was marked with a pessimism that has been associated with the

psychology of aging ever since (Jarvik 1975).

The field of gerontology in the 1930's was primarily concerned

with the biological processes of aging (Tibbits 1060). Instead of









looking at dietary deficiencies or other ex vivo causes for explaining

the onset of some new psychological change or condition in the elderly,

many assumed the decrements to be just part of the natural decline due to

aging.

This opposition to citing biological change as the cause of

psychological changes or conditions is evident in the old psychological

lexicon. The current psychological terms of chronic brain syndrome (CBS)

and schizophrenia have replaced the old term of dementia praecox or

"premature madness." In the past dementia praecox was delineated from

the term senile dementia which was the madness of old age--the irrever-

sible deterioration with its concomitant emotional disturbance--often

seen as the inevitable accompaniment of aging.

The 1940's saw E.W. Burgess, serving as chairman of the Social

Science Research Council's Committee on Social Adjustment, spearhead

the establishment of a committee on Social Adjustment in Old Age

(1945). This committee published a research planning report which

called attention to the need for research in individual adjustment to

aging and retirement (Mason, 1971).

in 1946 Lawrence Frank, writing in the newly established Journal,

Gerontology, enumerated a large number of social and economic problems

needing study. Frank stated that in the last analysis, aging is a

problem of social science. However, Frank was unable to report on the

existence of any significant amount of social research or any attempts

to outline or systematize the field (Frank, 1946). Also in 1946 the

American Psychological Association (APA) established a division of Later

Maturity and Old Age (Tibbits, 1960). By the end of the forties

America had established the ground work for an organized scrutiny

of its elderly.









The 1950's signaled an expansion in gerontological interests.

In 1950 the first National Conference on Aging dealt with various aspects

of aging. Eight sections were devoted to the social, economic and related

elements of aging (Mason 1971). The Cerontological Society established

a division of psychology and Social Science in 1952 (Tibbits 1960, p.[).

Unfortunately, much of the research conducted during this period

was research of convenience. The subjects were drawn mostly from the

institutionalized aged who represented only a small percentage of the

total older American population. Today's institutionalized elderly

account for about 5% of all older Americans (Butler and Lewis, 1977).

Research methodologies of the time were limited and reflect the infancy

of the discipline (Tibbits, 1960).

The decade of the 1960's began with the first White House Confer-

ence on Aging (1961). This conference was a national statement of

commitment to understanding and, where possible, alleviating the prob-

lems of aging. The 1960's were marked with an increased interest in

the entire field of gerontology. This surge of growth was particularly

evident in journal articles, newspaper articles, books, and legislation.

America was making a unified attempt at understanding and improving the

lot of its older citizens. However, many negativities, shortcomings,

and stereotypes surfaced as a result of research investigation. In 1971

Mason published an article that fairly well states the consensus of

the times. In it he says

I am sure that most of us would agree that the
direction in which we have been moving during
the past 10 years for the most part has not been
rationally planned. There have been responses
to problems with answers found as we have followed
the line of least resistance. (Mason 1971, p. 22)











The final report of the second White House Conference on Aging

(1971) described older Americans, as viewed over the previous decade,

to be "increasingly disadvantaged and at least one fifth were "still

in the desperate, life-destroying circumstances of dire poverty" (Flemming

1971, p. 3). It was at this convention that a firm commitment was

established for social service to the elderly (Morris, 1971). One of

the main focuses of conference staff effort was the importance of a

counseling function "to assist troubled or confused individuals to work

out appropriate courses of action based on their own efforts" (Morris

1971, p. 5). This report further recognized the mental health needs

of older Americans were being seriously neglected-both because of

personnel shortages and lack of resources. Findings indicated that

at-home treatment was "seriously underprovided" while institutionalized

treatment was being overused and over-indicated. In 1967 the aged

constituted 9.5% of the general population, but comprised 30% of all

patients in mental hospitals (Morris, 1971). Conference recommendations

included establishing a center for the mental health of the aged within

The National Institute of Mental Health, and adopting the philosophy

of a right to care and treatment. It was further recommended that all

mental health programs be open to all elderly without having to submit

to a means test.

The American Personnel and Guidance Association (APGA) Committee

on Adult Development and Aging can be traced back to 1973. In that

year, a small commission, chaired by Dr. Daniel Sinick of George

Washington University,was formed and titled the Commission on Aging.

In 1975 the commission became a committee with the title which it now










bears (Ganikos 197u). Also in the decade of the 1970's, lullic Law

93-296 was passed (1974) that authorized the establishment of the

National Institute on Aging. The purpose of this law is to coordinate

all the federal agencies involved in aging research (H.E.W., 1977).

At last there was a clear focusing of energies to deal with under-

standing older Americans in the context of the total person.

Theoretical Considerations of Aging

Two major schools of thought dominate current thinking on the

psycho-sociological issue of aging: "The activity theory, which assumes

any decrease in a person's activity level will lead to a series of

negative changes for the older person" (Guilden, 1976), and the disengage-

ment theory, which assumes that a decrease in social interaction is

desired by the older American and accepted by society (Henry and Cumming,

1963).

Activity Theory

The activity theory was proposed by Havinghurst and Albrecht in

1953 (Guilden 1976). This theory stresses social role participation,

implying that active people are the happiest and express the greatest

life satisfaction (Neugarten, Havinghurst, and Tobbin 1961). Lemon,

Bengtson, and Preston (1972, p. 515) list four postulates that relate

the activity theory to life satisfaction:

1. The greater the role loss, the less activity one is likely to

engage in.

2. The greater the activity level,the more role support one is likely

to receive.











3. The more role support one receives, the more positive one's self-

concept is likely to be.

4. The more positive one's self-concept, the greater one's life

satisfaction is likely to be.

The view proposed by tle activity theory was favored by "most

of the practical workers in gerontology" (Havinghurst 1961, p. 4). It

has been termed the generally accepted theory (Cuilden 1976).

Those who support the activity theory believe that people should

hold on to the attitudes, values, and activities that were part of

their lives during middle age (at least) as long as possible. When

factors such as change in health or finances demand the discontinuance

of any activity, then the healthy thing to do is to fill the void with

another activity--not to pull away from avocations, or whatever activ-

ities one has found to be fulfilling. It seems part of human nature

to determine much of our self-concept from our activities. Activity

is seen as synonymous with psychological health and adjustment (Adams

1969; Britton 1963).

Tobin and Neugarten (1961), in interviewing 187 older Americans,

found that with advancing age, engagement (activity) rather than dis-

engagement was more clearly associated with well-being.

Butler and Lewis (1977) see one's personality as taking a key

role in determining reactions to biological and social changes, and

"an active rather than passive role is important for mental health

and satisfaction" (p. 27).

However, the validiLy of the activity theory is not insured

simply because it is the generally accepted theory of aging. "It












can be argued that the idea of staying active is a middle class value

which actually hinders the adjustment to the aging process" (Guilden

1976,p. 26). This may, as Henry and Cumming (1963) have pointed out,

"result in a failure to conceive old age as a potential developmental

stage in its own right" (p. 63).

Disengagement Theory

The systematic, theoretical statement of disengagement was first

proposed by Henry and Cumming in 1961. Others have expanded on the

model (Havinghurst, Neugarten, and Tobin, 1968; Maddox, 1964 ), but

the basic assumptions remain the same--an individual's withdrawal from

social activity has positive, intrinsic qualities. Disengagement is a

natural, free choice process, rather than something imposed upon the

older American (Henry and Cumming, 1963 p. 24).

Another basic assumption of the theory is that older persons are

by choice less involved in the life around them than when they were

younger, and the process by which they become so can be described

(Guilden 1976). Cumming and Henry (1971) see this process as initiated

either by the individual or by others in the situation (e.g., being

asked to retire). Disengagement may begin with the older person

withdrawing more markedly from some classes or groups of people, while

at the same time remaining relatively close and active with others.

Certain institutions in our society make it easy for the older American

to begin the disengagement process: The Social Security Administration

with early retirement benefits, early maturing insurance policies,

and the retirement policies of business and industries are but a few

examples.










When the aging process is complete, the equilibrium
which existed in middle life between the individual
and his or her society has given way to a new
equilibrium characterized by a greater distance and
an altered type of relationship. (Cumming and Henry
lv/l p. 15)


An example of disengagement is presented in the research of Alston

and Dudley (1973) in which they are able to show an increased routiniza-

tion of life over time. Their results lend further support to the

disengagement theory.

The disengagement theory assumes that change will occur in three

orders of interaction (Cumming and Henry 1'71, p. 15):

1. Individuals will lessen the number of individuals with whom they

interact. Also, the purpose of these interactions may alter.

2. A qualitative change will occur in the style or pattern of inter-

action between the older individual and other members of his inter-

actional system.

3. There will also be changes in the older individual's personality

which will both cause and result in decreased involvement with others,

and increased preoccupation with one's self.

A healthy person, as viewed with respect to this theory, will

usually be the person who has reached a new equilibrium--a psychological

well-being characterized by a greater psychological distance from others

and society, decreased social interaction, and an altered concept of

relationships (Guilden, 1976).

Fmpirical data supporting this theory are not convincing (Having-

hurst 1968; Maddox 1974). While Havinghurst and associates were able










to find some empirical support in their Kansas City Study of Adult Life,

their findings are insufficient for an unquestioned endorsement of

either the activity or disengagement theory (Guilden 1975).

In summary, the research indicates that neither the activity

nor the disengagement theory adequately deals with the total adjustment

of the older American. The past definitional, theoretical and method-

ological weaknesses that have existed in this area still persist, and

underscore the need for further research and theory formation.

Demographic and Statistical Description of the Older American

At the time of America's Declaration of Independence from England,

the total colony population was about 2.5 million (Prior, 1l77). Life

expectancy was 38 or 30 and the older segment of our population (65+)

numbered about 50,000, or about 2% of the total population. By 1900

Americans over 65 represented 4% of the total population. Infant

mortality was still high and the average life expectancy was 47 years

(Butler and Lewis, 1977, p. 5).

Through the advancement of medicine and improved sanitation con-

ditions this country has been able to reduce the infant mortality rate

and lengthen the average life span. Between 1900 and 1968 the total

U.S. population doubled, but the over 65 segment of our population

increased six-fold (Mason 1971, p. 5). Older Americans represented

5.5% of the total population by 1968. By 1976 this figure rose to 11%

of the total population--a segment 22 million strong. Peterson (1976 p. 3)

makes an interesting observation when he notes:









The achievement of the rate of zero population
growth for the past two years projected 30 years
from now gives us an estimate that one half of
the U. S. population will be over 50 years of age.

Whether or not the older segment of our population will ever

reach these proportions is debatable. But it does point to the

fact that older Americans are continuing to grow in numbers, making

a greater and greater impact on our society.

Each day approximately 5,000 Americans celebrate their 65th

birthday. Each day 3,600 persons above the age of 65 die. The net

increase of 1,400 per day means 500,000 more older Americans each

year (Prior, 1977). These figures underscore the need to see that the

responsive helping agencies of our society keep pace with the changes

taking place among the cohort group of older Americans by frequently

re-evaluating the present needs of the elderly. Mason (1971) has

pointed out that every 10 years 70% of the elderly population changes.

These new members most certainly bring with them different systems of

needs, values, and beliefs. If the helping professions and agencies

are to assist older Americans in meeting their needs, they must first

understand the population as it exists and have the flexibility of

thought to keep pace with the changes that will occur.

The following subsections provide a brief but important sketch

of the demography of the older American population.

Sex Ratio and Life Expectancy

American females outnumber males at a ratio of 105.5 per 100 males

in the general population (Butler and Lewis, 1977, p. 5). The difference










among the older segment of our population is even more pronounced.

There are 134 females for every 100 males. In the 85+ category this

ratio increases to 160 females for every 100 males. In America the

life expectancy of females is 70.0 for white and 71.2 for minorities.

The life expectancy for American males is 68.9 for whites and 62.9 for

minorities (U.S. Bureau of Census, 1976). The fact that females

have a longer life span might seem to indicate a biological superiority

of the female organism. However, this researcher believes that it is

the stress differential existing between the different life styles of

the sexes that accounts for this difference. As females take on more of

the pressures and responsibilities that have historically been left to

the males, it would seem logical that the life expectancy differential

between the sexes will begin to collapse.

Income

Poverty is very much a part of the lives of older Americans. In

1971 ten million older Americans, half of the older American population,

lived on less than 75 dollars a week (Butler and Lewis, 1977, p. 11),

16% lived below the official poverty level of $2,100 for a single per-

son and $2,600 for a couple. These figures compute to just a little

over three dollars a day for shelter, food, clothing, transportation,

medical expenses--the bare bones of existence.

Location of the Elderly

One fourth of the nation's elderly live in three states: California

New York, and Pennsylvania (Prior, 1977). The fastest growing elderly

population (1960-1970) are in the states of Arizona, Florida, Nevada,

Hawaii, and New Mexico. Tn each of these states the over-65 population









increased by one third or more during this ten-year period. In 1975

Florida had an older American population that accounted for 16.1% of the

state's residents. In 1975 California had the greatest concentration of

the nation's elderly--2,056,000. New York was second with 2,030,000.

The above mentioned states, because of their high concentration of older

Americans, make logical targets for further research on the elderly.

Martial Status

Butler and Lewis (1977) and Prior (1977) have underscored the well

known fact that among the elderly there is a great discrepancy between

the marital status of men and women. In 1976 seven million or 77% of

the older American male population was married. Only 53% of the older

American females were married (Prior, 1977). There are many more older

women than men. Because these women usually have married men who

are older than themselves and who die at an earlier age there are 5.5

times as many widows as widowers. In the 75+ category, 70% are widows.

In our culture men tend to marry women younger than themselves.

This situation reduces the availability of marriage partners for older

American women; thus, only 2.2 widows per 1000 over the age of 65 re-

marry. Widowers over the age of 65 remarry at a rate of 18.4 per 1000

(Prior 1977). Butler and Lewis (1977, p. 7) state the fact another

way: "Each year some 35,000 older men marry while for the women the

comparable figure is only 16,000."

Living Arrangements

It is a common stereotype to think of the American elderly as

residing in institutions. Early gerontological and psychological










studies of the elderly contributed to this notion by concentrating on

the institutionalized elderly as a convenient population to be sampled.

These studies no doubt contributed to the notion that institutionalization

was to be expected in one's later years. However, in fact only 5% of

the elderly reside in institutions (Butler and Lewis, 1977); 95% of the

elderly are living elsewhere.

Of the total older American population, 30% of the men and 60% of

the women live in family units with spouse and/or children. Approximate-

ly 25% live along or with nonrelatives (Prior,1977). Pointing again

to the discrepancies that exist by sex, Prior (1977) states that about

57% of all older American men live in a family unit that includes a

wife, but older American women who live in families that include a

husband account for only 33% of all older women. "More than three

times as many older women live alone or with nonrelatives than did older

men." (Prior, 1977, p. 6).

Place of Residence

As of 1974, 65% of all older Americans lived in metropolitan

areas. Of the approximately 40% living in non-metropolitan areas,

most (35%) lived in small towns, while 5% lived on farms (Butler and

Lewis, 1977).

Level of Education

In 1975 half of the older Americans had not
completed one year of high school. About 2.3
million older people are functionally
illiterate, having no schooling or less
than five years. About 8% were college grad-
uates. (Prior 1977, p. 6)










While these, figures reflect U coaort group with an educational

level below the national average, it is encouraginP to note that the

educational level among the elderly seems to be on the rise. Pdlmore

(1976) predicts that by 1994, the older American population will equal

the middle-aged population (45-04) in level of education.

Racial Composition

Butler and Lewis (1977) provide an excellent profile of the racial

composition of the older American population. The following information

was taken from their book--Aging and Mental Health: Positive Psycho-

logical Approaches (Butler 6 Lewis 1977).

American Blacks. Elderly blacks now constitute 7.8% of the total

black population. While blacks comprise 10 of the total American

population, they represent only 5" of the older age group. This fact

is generally a result of their low socio-economic status which involves

poor nutrition and health care. Black males have a life expectancy of

60.1 years while black females live to an age of 67.5 years. In 1970

this difference meant that for every 100 black elderly men, there were

131 black elderly women.

Spanish Americans. Spanish Americans make up approximately 5% of

the total American population, but because of their relatively low life

expectancy of 56.7 years, they comprise only .02% of the total elderly

population. Of the Cuban American population 8.6% are over 65.

American Indians. American Indians are the poorest people in

America. Their life expectancy is only '17 years. Very few survive to

the age of 65.










Last Asian Americans. Oriental Americans comprise 1% of the total

American population. Of this 1%, 6-8a are over 65, over hall live

alone, and over half live in big cities.

Society's legiative View of Aging

America is a youth-oriur.nd culture. To tell someone that they

look young is a compliment. The valuation of youth has contributed

greatly to the devaluation of the elderly and to all the associated

negative stereotypes and prejudices that exist in our culture today.

Older Americans are often looked upon as less than full citizens.

They are a segment of our population who have been "sacraficed .

for the sake of productivity" (Butler G Lewis 1977, p. 141), and

devalued both culturally and physically (Buckley 1972, p. 755). As a

society Americans have maintained and propagated the view that the

elderly are a cohort group whose health and vigor have decreased

(Aslin 1974), who are behind the times and who are rigid thinkers, set

in their ways with little or no worth to our present day society.

The National Council on Aging (1977) describes the American

myth of the elderly:

Typically, he's a man in his sixties. Not so long
ago, he was a productive member of society. But
as he approaches 65, his job brought him less and
less satisfaction. His work suffered, he had more
than his share of on-the-job accidents, and his
number of sick days increased. He looked forward
to forced retirement with growing eagerness.

He used to live in his own home, but he can't get
around as he once did, his savings are almost gone
and he will most likely live out his days in an
institution for the aged.

Although his needs are fewer than when he was young,
he's becoming a drain on the country's resources;









still, after so many years of stress, ie feels he
deserves a little peace and quiet.

He gets depressed more than he used to, and his sex
life is a thing of the past. Like most people over
65, he's apt to forget things, make foolish remarks,
throw tantrums. He accepts these chaugics, Lecause
after all, this is his second childhood, a time of
disengagement. (;:COA, 1977)

The myths of aging are not objective occurrences in our society.

They get translated into personal belief systems. Americans of all

ages become unwitting supporters of "ageism," and thus propagate all

"the prejudices and stereotypes that are applied to older people sheerly

on the basis of age" (Butler S Lewis, 1977, p. lIll). Rosenfclt

(1965) saw the elderly being viewed as dull and uncreative. Harris

(1975) in surveying 4,254 people, reported that those under 65 viewed

the older American as basically inactive, nonproductive members of

society.

Ageism is historically ingrained in our society, and for the past

century seems to have increased rather than decreased in its intensity.

An analysis of children's literature from 1870 to 1960 shows a decreas-

ingly positive attitude toward the elderly(Seltzer E Atchley, 1971).

That whichshapes our thinking as children helps to form our belief

system as an adult.

Humor is another way in which ageism gets promulgated in the

American culture (Palmore, 1976). In cartoons and jokes where the

elderly are represented, the majority of the time the connotation is

negative. Jokes make fun of the elderly for their physical disabili-

ties, appearance, or mental limitations. Jokes stereotype older

American women into the role of "old maid,';a consequence is age

concealment.










Television, the most powerful and influential of the ma:;s media,

seldom represenLs the elderly appropriately. When they are repreiented,

it is often in a deferring role, for example, with :i dominant and

attractive female. The elderly are portrayed as having more than the

average share of problems and having to rely on the competent younger

adult for assistance (Horthcott, 1975).

Americans approaching their later years are bomLarded with commller

cial advertisements to hide their hearing aids, wear contact lenses

instead of glasses and dye their hair for that youthful appearance.

The outcome of these campaigns is often a lower self concept for the

elderly. A natural reaction to these commericals is a desire to be

other than one's own age.

America has described the later years of life in such negative

terms that it is no wonder that older Americans have internalized

negative beliefs. For example, the suicide rate for persons over

55 is twice as high as for those under 55 (Gardner Bahn, 1964), yet

the older American is reluctant to seek help. In a sample of 8,000

first calls to a suicide prevention center only 2.5% were from persons

60 or older (Rachlis, 1970).

Ageism is doubly destructive. It not only places today's elderly

in a subjugated position, with feelings of worthlessness and poor self-

esteem, it sets up the general population with the negative expecta-

tions that the same decrements and infirmities of life will befall

them when they are older.










The fact that so many of America's elderly are poor is a direct

cause of many of the problems of this age group. Poverty breeds

mental illness (Butler Lewis 1J77). It can cause malnutri Lion and

anemia that directly result in psychological changes within the individ

ual.

It seems that the elderly are often victims of a vicious circle

of events and circumstances. External events or the beliefs of "ageism"

infringe upon the person in a way that leads to a state of depression.

This internal state may lead to loss of appetite, which may lead to

undernourishment, or even malnutrition, and negative psychological

changes. The internal state produces changes which are seen as age

related, but in actuality are the reversible reflections of the

affective state of the individual (Jarvik, 1975).

This researcher has sought to counter the effects of ageism by

presenting a clear picture of the needs and problems of older Amer-

icans. By profiling these needs and problems, helping professionals

will have a sound basis for developing their individual strategies for

serving the client population. Training programs ,too, will benefit

from the results of this research by placing the training emphasis

where the needs and problems are indicated.

Counseling and the Elderly

On a societal level, the problems of the aged at
any particular time arise from two primary factors:
1) the composition of the aged population at that
time (size, economic status, health, beliefs), and
2) the social environment within which the elderly
are located (housing, medical facilities, welfare
programs, kinship patterns). (Uhlenberg, 1977,
p. 190)










As a population, older Americans have readily demonstrated the

need for counseling services, but the concept of counseling is outside

their sphere of experience. Vany of today's older Americans have

lived their lives with a strong sense of independence and self-reliance.

Seeking out the help of others, for any matter, has been a last resort.

Yet millions of older Americans live from day to day with a wide

variety of unmet needs.

Buckley (1972) found the elderly's most common problem to be a

feeling of separateness, a feeling of having been put aside, discarded.

Negative beliefs about aging and retirement became self-fulfilling

prophecies as Americans left employment and entered into a more

unstructured life style. Work, which promoted ego strength and feelings

of acceptance among colleagues and peers, was gone. Work, which

offered an escape from the tensions existing in the home, was gone.

With retirement came hugh blocks of time, often with no plans for

filling the hours. Idleness shifted the focus to one's self. The

loss of income and self-esteem forced a change in life style and often

brought about feelings of dependency.

Loneliness is another problem of the elderly often reported in

the literature (Buckley, 1972; Caitz S Scott, 1975; Jackson, 1976).

This problem is especially prevalent among older black women. In 1970

25% of the elderly black women had never had children. Additionally,

there were about 77.2 black males for every 100 females, and many of

the males had younger wives. Only 20% of the older black women lived

with their husbands (Butler & Lewis, 1977). Jackson (1976, p. 51)









has stated "The plight of loneliness generally increases with age,

and cannot be reduced effectively through the typical ploys of aging

services." Counselors and other helping professionals will Le called

upon to find new ways of approaching this problem area.

With the death of one's spouse, social isolation increases and

cultural isolation follows. The sharp changes in personal relation-

ships, the abrupt changes in social status upon retirement, all serve

to precipitate an identity crisis for the elderly. When individuals

are unable to respond in a way that moves them through times of crisis,

an attitude of helplessness ensues which "can easily lead to inactivity

with consequent intellectual decline that could have been avoided in

the absence of detrimental psychological influences" (Jarvik, 1975,

p. 578). Although the need for counseling services among the elderly

is evident, the programming of those services still requires further

input on the needs and problems presented by this potential client

population.

What is so often the case with the elderly is the fact that many

older Americans have to deal with not one major crisis in their lives,

but a series of related changes at a time when strength, self-con-

fidence, and resilience seem Lo be waning. Life-coping strategies

that worked in the past are often found to be inadequate when older

Americans are faced with multiple crises in their later years. Some

older Americans would choose a counseling service if it were offered

(Myers, 1978), while others would attempt to handle their problems

themselves. In either case, by gaining a better understanding of

counseling as a viable choice in one's personal problem solving










system, older Americans can open for themselves the realization that

one's later years hold just as much potential for growth and develop-

ment as any other period in one's life.

The younger segment of American society, who have been exposed

to the human potential movement of the 1960's, seem generally to accept

that it is a human condition to, at times, need the psychological and

emotional support of others. There is a healthy connotation to

receiving help in one's personal growth. Older Americans, on the other

hand, seem caught between the behavioral patterns of independence

learned in the past, and the problems of today's complex and rapidly

changing world.

The challenge to the counselor presents no small task--to help

older Americans see the value of helping professionals as people

trained to assist others in working through problems so that happiness

may again return to their lives. But, as a general rule, older Amer-

icans are still not using counselors as resource people. Buckley

(1972) found that only 1% of the contacts at a mental health center

were from persons over 65. Stevens (1973), doing a needs survey in

a public housing project for the elderly, found that the professionals,

although carefully selected, were met with suspicion and mistrust.

The respondents feared how the information might be used. The coun-

selor's task is clear--to understand older Americans against the back-

ground of their values and beliefs, and to develop appropriate

strategies to help them meet their needs.

When older people are able to get over the feelings that needing

counseling is a sign of personal failure, and begin working with









helping professionals, the interaction process is generally not so

different than with any otheradults seeking help.

When older people come in for counseling they have
the same need's that we find among the youth and
middle-aged: the need to feel loved, to feel self-
worth, to have practical matters of life made clear
or easier, to be understood by someone who cares,
to find a way to cope and carry on when problems
seem insurmountable, and to find acceptance and
support. (Buckley, 1972, p. 755)

Literature in the field of aging and adult development is exten-

sive (Schmidt, 1976), but in the area of counseling the elderly the

literature is scarce. While America, a society, has physically and

culturally devalued the aged (Blake, 1972), helping professionals

have followed suit. No doubt the stage was set (circa 1900) when

Freud refused to see patients over 50 years of age because they did

not have the "elasticity of the mental processes on which counseling

depends" (Hiatt, 1971). In the 50 years since Freud, little has

changed. "Older people have been the forgotten and ignored of the

American Personnel and Guidance Association" (Blake, 1975, p. 736).

A review of APGA journals reveals "virtually no concern for the

experiences of the elderly." During the period from September 1968

to September 1974, only eight articles appeared concerning the

elderly. In an article by McDaniels (197') which projected counselor

employment needs in the near future, there was no mention of geron-

tology. As the literature is found lacking, so is there a dirth of

training programs offering counseling in gerontology. "The majority

of students enrolled in counselor education programs do not have the

opportunity to take a course specifically designed for counseling the










elderly" (Salisbury, 1975, p. 236). In a questionnaire survey of 305

counselor education programs (Salisbury, 1975), none was found to have

a required course in counseling the elderly. Only 18 had a course

available as an elective. This and other evidence (Schlossberg,

Vontross, Sinick, 1974) indicates that "ageism" must not he thought

of as a value judgement which exists only outside of the helping pro-

fessions. Counselors have not been immune to the biases present in

the general population. Unfortunately, "ageism" is evident in the

quality and types of services offered to the older American.

The literature has shown that, as a general rule, the mental

health practitioner has a negative, defeatist attitude about the prob-

lems of the elderly client. There is often careless diagnosis. Where

the therapist believes the majority of the symptoms and problems to

be irreversible, treatment is either poor or non-existent. Yet, this

belief is totally without foundation. "Over 50% of the elderly show

prompt and longlasting response to therapy, another 20% show a positive

reaction" (Linden, 1963). Because the later years of life have

been falsely characterizedas atinlc.f psychological and emotional

rigidity, counseling and other psychological services have either

not been offered, or have been established with less than a full

commitment to the elderly.

In the face of the overwhelming evidence of the presence of

"ageism" both among the elderly and among helping professionals, it

seems increasingly important that Americans be given some preparation

for their later years. It cannot be assumed, in the generally pre-

vailing atmosphere of today's society, that all people will prosper

and grow old gracefully with feelings of self-worth.









These changes seem indicated in the field of gerontological

counseling: 1) counselors must increase the level of their awareness

of their own beliefs about aging, 2) they must integrate into their

practice the findings of recent literature aimed specifically at

counseling the elderly, and 3) there must be a focus on educating the

older American in both the value of outside help in working through

one'sproblens and the idea that life is a developmental process in

which one's later years hold the opportunity for personal growth and

self-fulfillment. Research of the type undertaken here hopefully

helps to clarify the picture of the needs and problems of the older

American. This knowledge can and should be a solid foundation upon

which to build both counselor training and social service program

implementations.

Maslow's Basic Needs Theory

The idea that human needs are arranged in a hierarchy is not

exclusively a Maslowian idea (table 1). This theory has been proposed

in one form or another by various writers (e.g., Argyris, 1957; Davis,

1956; Haire, 1956; Leavitt, 1958; Smith, 1955; Viteles, 1953). Maslow

was not even the first theorist to assume a hierarchical system of

needs, movitation, and growth. Langer (1937) preceded him by some six

years. But it has been Maslow's theory (1943, 1954) that has been

quoted, used in research across many disciplines, and cited as a

reference in many fields other than psychology. For example, Maslow's

work has often been referred to in the field of business. In 1974,

Maslow's (1943) article ranked second in the total number of citations

in the area of management literature (Matteson, 1974).




















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35



Evidence of the use of Maslow's theory can be found in anthro-

pology (Aronoff, 1967; Montague, 1970), political science (Bays, 1968;

Knutson, 1968), vocational rehabilitation (Goldberg, 1967); and,

of course, psychology (Argyris, 19624; Haire, 1956; Mcfregor, 1960;

Roe, 1956, 1900; Samler, 1968; and Schein, 1965). Maslow's theory has

been widely used, but surprisingly enough it has not been widely

tested for validity.

Maslow sees needs as being hierarchical in nature, arranging

themselves in a priority order from most potent to least potent. The

higher order needs are not as important (or potent) to an individual

until lower needs are satisfied. This principle of prepotency holds

throughout the hierarchy. Maslow is not saying an individual can only

or will only attend to one need at a time. While several needs may

act simultaneously as motivators, one at a time will predominate.

Maslow's theory delineates man's needs system into the following

five categories (1954, p. 89):

Physiological. This need includes the body and what it requries

to maintain good health: air, food, exercise, sex, sleep, medicine--

all are possible areas of need. Physiological needs are considered

the most prepotent of all needs. It is most often the human condition

to be concerned with several need areas at one time; however, when

needs compete for satisfaction, the lower order needs will predominate.

If all the needs are unsatisfied, and the
organism is then dominated by the physical
needs, all other needs become simply non-
existent orare pushed into the background.
(Maslow 1954, p. 82)









Individuals, for example, would risk safety to eat, but would be

limited in the amount of eating they could forego for the sake of

safety. When needs are generally satisfied in this area, the next

higher category on the hierarchical ladder becomes the prime motivator

of human behavior.

Safety. Safety needs are concerned with how safe and secure

people feel in their environment, how protected they feel from out-

side forces. Needs and problems in this area cover the home, neigh-

borhood, safety and security while on the job, financial worries, and

transportation difficulties. Maslow (1954, p. 87) states that the

healthy, normal fortunate adult in our society is largely satisfied in

the area of safety needs. Needs in this area are generally the active

and dominate motivating force in times of emergencies. When a state

of homeostasis or satisfaction exists, attention is turned toward the

next higher need area.

Love and Belonging. Needs in this area are related to loving

and being loved, and both the giving and receiving of love. The

motivation here is that of having a significant person in one's life.

Being a member of a social group and the concomitant needs for accept-

ance are grouped into this category. If man's needs in this category

are being met, they take on less of an importance, become less of a

motivating force, and the next category of needs increases in strength

as a motivator.

Self-Esteem. Self-esteem needs are motivators to action which

result in a feeling of pride in one's self, the need to be recog-

nized for one's accomplishments. Maslow states: "All people in our










society...have a need or desire for a stable, firmly based, usually

high evaluation for themselves, for self-respect, or self-esteem,

and for the esteem of others" (1i54, p. 30). Maslow also comments

on the necessity to base self-esteem on "deserved respect from others

rather than on external fame or celebrity and unwarranted adulation"

(p. 91).

Self-Actualization. This area includes the feelings and activ-

ities that allow us to be all we can he. Self-actualization was first

coined by Goldstein (1939) but is used by Maslow and by his researcher

in a more limited fashion to refer to man's desire for self-fulfillment.

Self-actualization is less of a state and more of a direction of move-

ment. The term "peak" or religious experience is often used in

connection with self-actualization. This category includes concepts

like justice, liberty, and equality. Ac Livities in the self-actualiza-

tion category are more varied and personalized than in the other need

and problem areas. Some people seek self-actualization experiences

through contact with people or nature, while others might find art,

music, or even politics to be the fitting activity for self-growth.

Higher and Lower Order Needs

In a 1948 article Maslow laid down the differences between

"higher" and "lower" needs. The lower order needs are in the physio-

logical and safety categories, while higher order needs are included

in the categories of love/belonging, self-esteem, and self-actualiza-

tion. This two-level system has been operationalized by Mitchell

and Moudgill(1976). Analysis of data obtained from administering a

ten item needs questionnaire to a sample of accountants, engineers,








and scientists indicated the existence of a two level hierarchy

(security needs and higher needs). Further support for a two-

level hierarchical system of needs has coin from Barnes (1960),

Harrison (1966), and Lawler (1973). Statistical evidence is also

indicated in the work of Nahba and Bridwell (1974), Maslow (1948)

delineates higher and lower needs in several ways:

1. "The higher the need the less imperative it is for sheer

survival, the longer gratification can be postponed, and the easier

it is for the need to disappear permanently" (p. 434). With the higher

needs there is not the urgency for fulfillment that we see with the

lower needs. They will most always fall to the lower priority when

lower order needs or concerns present themselves. Also, when one

is deprived of the higher needs there is not the "desperate defense

and emergency reactions" (Maslow 1948, p. 343) that often accompany

the needs and concerns at the physiological and safety levels.

2. Higher needs do not always present themselves clearly. "They

are less perceptible, less unmistakable, more easily confounded with

other needs by suggestions, imitations, by mistake, belief or habit"

(p.434). This makes higher order needs more difficult to articulate.

As Maslow points out, the ability to understand what one's needs really

are, and to know what one wants, is always a considerable achievement.

To have this ability in the area of higher order needs is an even

greater accomplishment.

3. "Higher need gratifications produce more desirable subjective

results,i.e. more profound happiness, serenity, and richness of inner

life" (p. 434). Lower order needs, when satisfied, seem to lead only








to feelings of relief, relaxation, homeostasis. Counselors will most

likely see the greatest client change when counseling efforts result

in satisfying higher order needs.

4. The higher needs have more preconditions than the lower needs

(Maslow, 1954). Because the need system proposed by Maslow (1943,

1954) is prepotent, much more has to be attended to before the higher

needs are brought to conscious awareness. For example, satisfying the

need to be accepted by a group (self-esteem) required that many more

factors fall into place than when the need/concern is centered

around the feeling that one's home is free from break-ins (safety),

5. "The pursuit and gratification of the higher needs have

desirable civic and social consequences" (p. 435). Society benefits

when a person is living in a way that satisfies his higher needs.

Others are involved in this satisfaction process, and others benefit.

Loyalty, friendship, and civic consciousness are fostered in the

effort to satisfy one's own higher needs.

6. Satisfaction of higher needs is closer to self-actualization.

People who are successful at meeting their higher needs are more

likely to exhibit the qualities of self-actualizing people. Examples

of these qualities are: more efficient perception of reality, self-

acceptance, spontaneity, detachment, need for privacy, and creative-

ness, (Maslow 1954). People satisfying higher needs are also living

in a way that improves the general quality of life. The activities

which move people toward self-actualization also increase love for

oneself. As Fromm (1941) states, love for oneself is synergic with,

rather than antogonistic to, love for others.










Several researchers have attempted to use Maslow's hierarchy as

a framework for assessing needs (Goldberp, 1967, Hall Nougain,1968

Porter, 1971). However, few have sought to validate the theory.

Lollar (1974) is one researcher who attempted to validate and opera-

tionalize Maslow's theory. The Needs Satisfaction Schedule (Lollar,

1974) was used with a sample of 200 delinquent adolescents to measure

psychological, physical safety and security, affection, and self-

esteem needs. A statistical treatment of the data indicated that the

hierarchy did occur in a generally pronounced manner. Nomological

validity using Campbell's (1969) criteria was indicated.

Lawler and Suttle (1972) attempted a causal correlational test of

the need hierarchy concept using the Porter (1961) questionnaire. They

collected longitudinal data on 187 managers in two business organiza-

tions. Data analysis indicated little support for the idea of a multi-

level needs hierarchy. However, there was support for a two-level

(higher needs, lower needs) hierarchy. Lawler and Suttle concluded

their study by saying, "Despite the lack of emperical support for the

idea of a multi-level hierarchy of needs, it is far too early to give

up on the idea that some kind of hierarchy exists" (p. 284).

Goodman (1968) studied the three middle-need levels in Maslow's

hierarchy using a sample of engineers and assembly workers. He found

no evidence of a hierarchical system of needs in the work setting.

He explained this results by stating that when a job offers "no real

hazards, reasonable security, and a good level of interaction oppor-

tunities, no one level of hierarchy will predominate" (Goodman, 1968,

p. 57).









Mitchell and Moudgill (1976) attempted to measure Maslow's hier-

archy by administering a ten-item instrument to a total of 892 pro-

fessionals employed in public and private organizations in Canada.

Their results showed support for Maslow's five-category concept.

These results represent a "reasonably successful operationdlization

of Maslow's construct" (343). This study accepted the face validity

of Maslow's hierarchy and hoped to show a difference in strength of

higher and lower order needs over time.

Needs Assessment instruments in Gerontology


This section reviews the predominant needs assessment instruments

in the field of gerontology today.

Havens (forthcoming) provides an excellent review of the needs

assessment instruments currently being used. The criteria for including

an instrument in the review were the following: 1) the instrument had

to have been designed for the purpose of assessing a multiple of needs,

and 2) the instrument must have been tested on a sample of the older

population. Instruments reviewed were grouped into three categories:

those that were designed coimmunity-specific, those with a national

focus, and those with a broader potential of applicability.

Community-Specific Needs Assessment Instruments

Elderly Needs Assessment. This instrument was a result of the

Northern Kentucky Area Development study of 1976. It assessed,

by means of a telephone survey, the following need areas: transporta-

tion, housing, health, nutrition, and recreation. There have been no

reported validity or reliability data.









Needs Assessment Interview Schedule for Colorado Elderly. Develop-

ed by the Center for Social Research and Development (1974) at the

University of Denver, this instrument was designed to measure the

following variables: housing, transportation, employment, income and

expenditures, health and medical care, food and nutrition, and social

activity and relationships. In addition, respondent's perception of

helping resources were assessed. Unfortunately, reliability and

validity have not been appropriately determined. There are no reported

data on its use.

Older Persons Counseling Needs Survey. This instrument was

developed by Myers (1978) and field tested on 850 older persons through-

out the state of Florida. The validity and reliability data on the

OPCNS encourage its use as a need assessment instrument. There are many

useful items. There is no apparent theoretical foundation.

Study of the Economic and Social Needs of Elderly Americans in

Non-Metropolitan Areas: A Pilot Study. This instrument was developed

by Powell County, Kentucky (Larson and Yomans, 1975) to assess: housing

wants and needs, health status, level of activity and extent of social

isolation, transportation, economic well being, and service needs of

an outreach center. The target population was limited to the non-

metropolitan elderly. There are no reported data on use.

Needs Assessment Instruments with a National Focus

Myth and Reality of Aging in America. This questionnaire was

developed by Louis Hlarris and Associates in 1975. It was not specifi-

cally designed to measure needs but does contain some useful personal

problem items. For needs assessment purposes, only parts of this

instrument are relevant.









Improving the Quality of Life. This instrument was developed

for a study aimed at identifying opportunities for improving the

quality of life of older age groups. Authored by Flanagan and Russ-ErL

(1976a, 1976b), this instrument only measured the variable "quality of

life." It remains untested in a lull survey, with validity data un-

available. While there is no theoretical basis, there are some useful

items.

Instruments with Potential for a Broader Applicability

Health Care Needs. Branch and Fowler (1975) studied the health

care needs of the elderly and the chronically disabled. They used an

interview format which considered the following variables: transpor-

tation, food shopping, personal care, social contact, food preparation,

housekeeping, emergency assistance, social interaction, and medical/

paramedical assistance. This instrument does a fair job of assessing

needs in the aforementioned area, but is limited in scope.

O.A.R.S. This multidimensional functional assessment instrument

was developed at Duke University (Pfeiffer, 1975). Variables include:

physical health, mental health, social resources. The variables which

seem to be assessed most accurately are economic resources, and

activities of daily living. But again,this instrument has too narrow

a focus for this study.

Older Americans Status and Needs Assessment Survey. Developed

for the RMC Research Corporationin 1975 by Burkhardt and Lewis, this

interview questionnaire was designed toreflect local variations in

existing programs (A.O.A., 1974). Variables are: income, transporta-

tion, crime (or protection), isolation, health care, spare time, and









home repair. This instrument covers a broader area of variables

than most other assessment instruments. There has been no formal

validity and reliability testing. There does seem to be convincing

face validity.

Social Indicators for the Aged. Developed at the Institute for

Inter-Disciplinary studies in 1171, this instrument offers no

reliability or validity data. It is however, widely used.

Meeting Community Needs. This instrument was developed by Kahana

(1972, 1974),and had a lengthy interview format which requires the use

of skilled interviewers. The variables are; perceived health and

status needs, perceived financial needs, perceived need for services,

cognitive function, vulnerability relative to purchasing, community

discrimination, governmental services, neighborhood problems, social

network exchange, and utilization patterns. The reliability data

are unreported, and the instrument is possibly too specifically

designed for the urban populations.

Resources Ability to Meet Needs. This instrument was developed

by Havens and Thompson in 1977 (MDHSM, 1973-77) and deals with the

effectiveness of agencies to meet the needs of their clients. It is

lengthy, taking approximately I hour 15 minutes for an initial

interview and an additional 1 hour and 45 minutes for a telephone

interview follow-up. Variables are: psycho-social, shelter, house-

hold maintenance, food and clothing, ethno-cultural, physical health

and functioning, economic, accessibility, and availability of resources.

This instrument is not meant to be used for client evaluation but

does give insight into instrument construction for the purpose.










After reviewing the needs assessment instruments currently in

use in the field, this researcher concluded that there appears to be

no available instrument which attempts to assess the needs of older

Americans over the broad range of human concerns considered in this

study. Additionally, this researcher was unable to locate any needs

assessment instrument currently in use in the field of gerontology

which claims a theoretical base in its construction. These findings

underscore the importance of this study by pointing out: 1) the need

for new assessment instruments which meet the challenge of understand-

ing the broad spectrum of human needs and problems, and 2) the present

lack of theoretical consideration in constructing needs assessment

instruments for use in gerontology and gerontological counseling.

Summary

The elderly have been with us always, but not in any great numbers

until recently. Prior to the 20th century there was little or no

scientific concern for this segment of our population. Early research

was weak in methodology and targeted heavily on the institutionalized

older American, giving rise to the false belief that one's later years

would necessarily be brought with decrements, infirmities, and loss

of independence. Of today's 22 million older Americans, only 5% are

institutionalized.

The 1960's brought a surge of interest in the field of gerontology.

As a result an awareness began to grow that the mental health needs

of older Americans were being seriously neglected. Literature in the

area of counseling the elderly is scarce, and programs of service are

either non-existant or slow in coming.









The myths of aging were found to re.vade the entire American

culture. Ageism, R.N. Butler's term for all stereotypes, and

negativities about aging, was a two-edged sword that not only placed

older Americans in a subjugated position, with feelings of worthless-

ness and poor self-esteem, but also invested the general population

with the expectation that the same decrements and infirmities of life

would befall them when they were old. Helping professionals too

have not been immune to the effects of ageism. As a result there

has Leen little professional involvement in the field of gerontological

counseling. The older American population increases at the rate of

500,000 each year, yet in many communities counseling services for the

elderly are still non-existent. The majority of students enrolled

in counselor education programs as of 1975 did not have the oppor-

tunity to take a course designed especially for counseling the elderly.

The assumption cannot be made that all Americans will grow old

gracefully, with feelings of self-worth. Life-coping strategies of

the past are often inadequate today when older Americans are faced

with multiple crises in their later years.

Attempts to understand aging in a theoretical light have also

been inadequate. Neither the activity theory, which assumes any

decrease in a person's activity level will lead to a series of negative

changes for the older person, nor the disengagement theory, which

assumes a decrease in social interaction to be healthy, can be said

to adequately deal with the total adjustment of the older American.

On the other hand, Haslow's theory of human needs provides an excellent

system for examining the needs and problems of older Americans over a

broad spectrum of human concerns.






47

This review of the literature was unable to locate to any

assessment instrument currently in use in the field of gerontology,

that deals with the total range of human needs and problems. There-

fore, Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory became a key component in

designing a research questionnaire aimed at increasing the knowledge

of needs and problems of older Americans. Maslow's theory allows for

a systematic exploration of needs and problems as well as a clear format

for treating the resulting data. Findings from this research add to

the growing body of knowledge of the life-long process of aging and

development in America.

















CHAPTER II

METHODOLOGY


The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the application of

the theoretical framework proposed by Ilaslow (1954) in increasing

understanding of the needs and problems of older Americans. More

specifically, an instrument was developed for gathering needs and

problem data over a broad spectrum of human concerns. Most available

needs assessment instruments in use in the field of gerontology today

either have not been adequately tested for validity and reliability,

or are too narrow in their focus to be of use in this study. This

research offers a much needed instrument which can be used to help

clarify and further develop the understanding of psycho-social aging

and development in America.

The research questions investigated in this study are:

1. What are the needs and problems of older Americans?

2. How do the strength and arrangements of these needs and

problems change over time?

3. Do these needs and problems vary by specific demographic

variables?

4. What are older Americans' attitudes toward being involved

in counseling?












5. Does the older American population differ from the younger

in ranking lower (physiological, and safety) needs, and

higher (love/belonging, self-esteem, and sulf-actualization)

needs?

6. With regards to life satisfaction, how do older Americans

differ from other age groups in the direction they see their

lives taking from five years in the past to five years in the

future?

Subjects

The two variables that set participants in this study apart from

the general population were an interest in the field of education as

a vocation, and a higher than average level of education. Both vari-

ables were selected in order to increase the similarity among the

groups and improve the usefulness of the research findings in making

inferences about changes in needs, problems, and life satisfaction

over time.

The subjects in this research were obtained from a random

sampling of three independent populations: 1) undergraduates who

were seniors in the College of Education, University of Florida,

2) educators aged 35-50 working at the University of Florida or in

the Alachua County (Florida) public school system, and 3) educators

over 65 years of age who retired from either the Alachua County

public school system or the University of Florida. Added to this

last category, but not randomly selected, were 17 Black Americans










retired from the faculty of Florida A & M University, and 9 members

of the Visionnaires, a Black women's social group composed mostly

of retired Alachua County school teachers. These two subsamples

were included in the study in order to increase the possibility of a

larger number of minority participants.

Seniors in the College of Education

Using a table of random numbers, a sample of 230 names and addresses

was taken from the official computerized enrollment of the College of

Education, University of Florida. Listed were the current students

enrolled in classes for the Spring term, 1979. The register contained

1750 names, 541 of which were classified as seniors.

Working Educators aged 35-50

This sample of 230 working educators consisted of 115 names

taken randomly from the official computerized personnel list of

Alachua County teachers. The list, which includes date of birth,

was obtained from the personnel office of the Alachua County School

Board and contained a total of 1300 names and addresses -- 344

individuals were between the ages of 35 and 50. This sample also

included 115 University of Florida faculty members, aged 35-50 whose

names and addresses were randomly selected from the computerized

records of the Office of Academic Affairs, University of Florida. Of

the approximately 2700 faculty members of the University of Florida,

1367 were aged 35 to 50.

Retired Educators

The names and addresses of 115 persons who were members of the

Alachua County Retired Teachers Association were randomly chosen










from the 191 names listed in the current (1979) year book. Persons

eligible for membership in this organization were retired superintendents,

supervisors, principals, and teachers who live close enough to

Gainesville, Florida to attend the monthly meetings. Another 115

names were randomly selected from the current (1979) membership list

of the Retired Faculty of the University of Florida. The membership

list contained the names and addresses of 235 individuals who had

retired from the faculty of the University of Florida. The list was

obtained from the secretary of the organization. Also included were

17 persons identified by the Personnel Office, Florida A 6 H University,

as being retired faculty members, and 9 members of the Visionnaires,

a woman's social group in Gainesville, Florida. Both of these pop-

ulations were composed of retired Black educators and were included to

increase the total number of Black Americans sampled.

These three populations were chosen to represent three important

periods on the continuum of psycho-social aging and development: Adol-

escence (college seniors), Maturity (working educators), and Senescence

(retired educators) (Pikunas, 1976).

Maslow's hierarchical theory of human needs (1954) is the theoreti-

cal foundation that was utilized in developing the questionnaire

employed in this research. Some of the need areas conceptualized by

Maslow are often difficult to articulate, e.g., self-actualization.

The selection of subjects with an above average level of education

increased the probability of an accurate understanding of the question-

naire items. By utilizing subjects with a vocational interest in the

field of education this researcher increased the chance of previous









exposure to the ideas of Maslow. These ideas are often part of

course work in learning theory or the psychological foundations of

education. A higher than average level of education, previous ex-

posure to the work of Maslow, and a common interest in education as

a vocation are all seen by this researcher as variables that increased

the validity of this study.

Development of the Instrument

As indicated by the literature review, there currently exists no

appropriate instrument for assessing the needs of the older American

over the total needs spectrum. Therefore, a necessary and important

part of this research was the development of the Survey of Needs and

Problems (SNAP) questionnaire. The SNAP was designed to provide the

following information:

1. Specific demographic data.

2. The types and inLensity of needs and problems experienced by

individuals.

3. A measure of attitude toward being involved in counseling.

4. A measure of life satisfaction, five years in the past to five

years in the future.

The items indicating respondent needs and problems are of two

types: 1) statements of need or problem followed by a Likert-type

scale, and 2) open-ended statements. The Likert-type scale items

have the following five response choices: very serious problem for me,

somewhat serious problem for me, hardly any problem for me, true but

no problem for me, and not true for me. These statements of need or

problem are grouped and considered according to the needs categories










used by Maslow (1954). The categories are: physiological, safety,

love/belonging, self-esteem, and self-actualization. At the end of

each section space is provided for subjects to list any other needs

or problems that they might have in that specific area.

The following procedures were used in the systematic development

of the SNAP questionnaire:

Generation of Items

A review of the literature on the needs and problems of older

Americans was conducted and the findings were listed in statement

form. Additional items were added by reviewing need assessment in-

struments currently in use in the field of gerontology. This compre-

hensive list of 100 needs and problems was combined with a list of

53 open-ended statements that was constructed to elicit either: 1) a

response that related to a specific need area in the Maslow hierarchy,

or 2) a response that might fall into any one of the need areas, de-

pending on the respondent's frame of reference.

From a review of the literature on the works of Maslow, this

researcher constructed concise definitions of each of the five need

areas (Appendix A).

Item Validity

a panel of experts was chosen that was comprised of two advanced

graduate students in counselor education, an advanced graduate student

and a professor in the psychological foundations of education, and two

senior staff counselors--all from the University of Florida. After

establishing face or conceptual validity of the five need area defi-

nitions (Appendix A) with an agreement criterion of 100%, the









panel of experts was given the combined list of needs and problems and

the open-ended statements (Appendix B), with instructions to check,

for each item, the need area or areas into which subject responses

might fall: physiological, safety, love/belonging, self-esteem,

self-actualization, or all areas. Panel members unsure of how to rate

an item could also check a category marked "don't know." Items

categorized into one or all areas of the hierarchy with 85% agreement

by the panel were included in the SNAP (Appendix C).

Reliability

The reliability of the SNAP questionnaire was verified by means

of the test-retest method. Thirty subjects were randomly selected,

ten from each of the three major populations to be sampled. Two

administrations of the instrument took place no less than and not more

than two weeks apart. Twenty subjects completed the retest admini-

stration. The reliability coefficient of the instrument (.62) was

determined by analyzing the data from the two administrations. Using

the Spearman r statistic from the Statistical Package for the Social

Sciences (SPSS), the reliability of each need and problem item was

determined at the .05 level of acceptance. Items found not reliable

at this level were either revised or eliminated from the study.

Procedures

To 690 subjects (230 in each of the three major groups), a letter

with an enclosed post card was mailed. The letter (Appendix D)

introduced the study and asked for participation. Those willing to

participate were asked to mail back the post card. The post card

repeated the statement of informed consent which was in the letter,









and asked participants to fill in their signature and address. The

return rate was 32.2% or a total of 222 post cards. When the research-

er received the post card, the SNAP questionnaire, along with a pre-

addressed stamped envelope was mailed to the address indicated. Of

the 222 questionnaires mailed out, 205 or 92.3% were returned. The use

of the short introductory letter and post card proved to be an excel-

lent method of obtaining a commitment to complete and return the

relatively lengthy (14 page) instrument.

Analysis of Data

After the SNAP questionnaire was administered and collected, the

data received were transferred to code sheets. From these sheets the

data cards for use in computer analysis were punched. The data were

analyzed in the following manner:

Data from the need and problem items (SNAP pp 2-11) were analyzed

using the appropriate programs chosen from the Statistical Package for

the Social Sciences (SPSS). Item responses were given the following

numerical value: 5-very serious problem for me, 4-somewhat serious

problem for me, 3-hardly any problem for me, 2-true but no problem for

me, and 1-not true for me. All items were subjected to 4 post hoc

multiple comparison analyses (3-way ANOVA). Those items showing a

substantial difference in mean scores at the 0.05 level of significance

were further analyzed in a one-way ANOVA using Tukey's test for an

Honestly Significant Difference. Mean and standard deviation scores

were reported. Additional analysis provided the percentage of re-

sponses by item for each response category.

Data on the item rating the relative importance of the five need

areas (SNAP p. 12) were analyzed by response percentages using









frequency tables taken from the SPSS computer program.

Data from the item on attitude toward being involved in counsel-

ing (SNAP p. 13) were analyzed within a multiple comparison analysis

(counseling attitude x purpose of life x group membership). Items

showing a significant difference at the 0.05 level were further analyzed

in a one-way ANOVA using Tukey's test for an Honestly Significant

Difference. Response percentages were also reported.

Data from the open-ended items (SNAP p. 13) were too varied to

allow for direct reporting of responses. Hence, a comprehensive

categorization scheme was designed by the researcher to permit the

data to be reported in a communicative fashion:

Item Number Categorization of Responses

2, 15, 24 1. Focused on self
13 2. Focused on others

3, 5, 8, 1. Positive response
10, 14, 20, 2. Negative response
22 3. Neutral response

4, 8, 12, 1. Physiological need
19, 23 2. Safety need
3. Love/Belonging need
4. Self-esteem need
5. Self-actualization need

1, 21 1. Focused on spouse
2. Focused on family
3. Focused on friends
4. Focused on community, nation
world, or organizations

The data were tabulated by frequency of response and compared among

groups according to specific demographic data, using a one-way analysis

from SPSS.

The life satisfaction scale data were analyzed by coding the

numerical value of the response (SNAP p. 14) for each of the ten years.









Possible values ranged from 10 (highest high--things could not be

better) to 1 (lowest low--things could not be worse). Means and

standard deviations were calculated for each group and displayed in

graph form.

The results of these statistical procedures are located in the

appropriate tabular and graphic forms, and are discussed in Chapter

IV. Conclusions and suggestions for further research are presented

in Chapter V.

Possible Limitations

Possible limitations of the study may be discussed in terms of

sampling, procedures, adequacy of instrumentation, and response errors.

The selection of highly educated and intelligent people intro-

duced a possible selection bias, since the characteristics of these

subjects are different from the characteristics present in the general

older American population. This situation potentially limits the

extent to which results may be generalized to the entire cohort group

of older Americans.

The sampling procedures discussed in Chapter III introduced

additional possible limitations. Persons contacted to participate in

this study were take from a population that lived in and around a

medium-sized city located in north central Florida. By limiting

subjects to this geographical area, certain response biases may have

been introduced in the resulting data.

All three subject groups were chosen for their common interest

in the field of education. Yet, because or the age and cultural

differences that exist among the three groups, there may have been a










wide range of reasons for making this vocational choice. It cannot

be assumed that the homogeniety of these three groups is necessarily

increased simply by selecting persons who have made a common vocation-

al chioce.

The procedures represent a second source of possible bias in the

results. Many of the SNAP items were stated in the negative and may

have generated a response bias. In addition the test-retest reliability

coefficients for the SNAP questionnaire may have been influenced by

the sample selected. It is possible that the use of a different group

of subjects might have resulted in a lower reliability coefficient.

The third source of possible error was involved in the preparation

and processing of the computer data. Although the key punched cards

were checked for accuracy, errors may have occurred and gone undetected.
















CHAPTER IV

RESULTS

Chapter IV reports the results of the analysis of data gathered by

means of the Survey of Needs and Problems. Results are presented in the

following order: Research Sample, Reliability of the Survey of Needs

and Problems, Procedures, and Answers to the Research Questions.

Appropriate tables accompany the discussion or are included in the

appendices.

Research Sample

A total of 690 persons was contacted by mail and asked to partici-

pate in this study. To the 222 persons (32.2%) who were willing to do

so, the Survey of Needs and Problems (SNAP) questionnaire was mailed,

along with a stamped pre-addressed envelope. The return rate was 92.3%

or 205 persons.

The study population ranged in age from 20 to 91. Although special

efforts were made to increase the possible number of minority partici-

pants by sampling persons known to be Black Americans, the research pop-

ulation included only 18 persons of an ethnic minority race (9 retired

educators, 5 working educators, and 4 senior students). This racial

composition represented a percentage of all three research groups that

is very close to the figures characterizing the minority race make-up of

the state and nationwide older American population. Osterbind (1977)

has estimated that ethnic minorities represent 8.0% of Florida's over-

60 population. The national figure is 9.3% (Califano et. al., 1978).









The primary criterion for including individuals in this study

was membership in one of three groups which are described in the

following sections.

Seniors in the College of Education, University of Florida

From the initial inquiry addressed to 230 seniors in the

College of Education, 48 or 20.9% completed the SNAP questionnaire.

Table 2 presents demographic data for this group of students and

allows for reader comparison with the other groups in the study.

Of the 48 students comprising the senior student group, 11

(22.9%) were male and 37 (77.1%) were female. This group ranged

in age from 20 to 38 years of age. There were 4 people over the

age of 25. The average age was 22.4.

Over half the students (52.3%) reported having an A.A. degree.

The sampling of this senior student population took place two weeks

before the end of the 1979 spring quarter. Many of these students

viewed themselves as already having earned their bachelor's degree

and 31.8% responded accordingly.

Most students (83.3%) had never been married. Only 7 (14.6%)

were married and none were divorced; one had remarried.

Two thirds (66.7%) lived with a non-relative. Those who

lived with spouse or partner (16.7%) comprised the second largest

category. Ten percent of the students owned their own home or

apartment and,as could have been expected, most (66.7%) rented

either a home or an apartment.

This study included participants who lived in and around

Gainesville, Florida, a medium-sized city in the north central









part of the state. In responding to the qeustion of location, the

great majority (83',) stated that they lived in a medium-sized city

or suburb. The next largest group (12.8%) responded with the cate

gory "town." Only 1.2% responded by saying they lived in either a

big city or a rural area.

As might have been predicted, the students' income was, on the

average, the lowest of the three groups. lost (80.9%) made less

than $5,000 a year.

Working Educators

Working educators comprised the second largest group in the

study (N=59). Of the original 230 persons in this group who were

asked to participate, 25.7% completed and returned the SNAP question-

naire. More males (N=34) than females (N=25) completed and returned

the questionnaire. The same war true for the retired educators' group

(M=59, F=43). 'able 2 presents several demographic variables for the

working educators' group in a way that allows for comparison with the

other two groups of subjects in this study. The educational level for

working educators was higher than for either the senior students or the

retired educators. The majority (76%) had over 6 years of college

education and 8A% reported a master's degree or higher (47% had a Ph.D.

degree). A larger percentage of working educators (78%) was married

than was true for either the senior student or retired educator group.

About 1 out of 7 (15.3%) had never married, and 13.6% lived alone.

Responses to the questionnaire item regarding living arrange-

ments proved difficult to interpret. "Family" was likely to mean












Table 2

Demographic Data for the Research Populalion: Students, Work ing Educa-
tors and Retired Educators


Senior
Students


Absolute
Response
Item Frequency


Work ing
Educators


Absolute
Response
% Frequency


Retired
Educators


Absolute
Response
% Frequency


Educational Level
H.S. Diploma
Years of College


Highest Degree
H.S. Diploma
AA
BA or BS
Master's
Ed.S.
Ph.D.

Marital Status
Married
Remarried
Divorced
Never Married
Widowed

Living Arrangement
Live Alone
Non-Pelative
Spouse/Partner
Family


13.6 1
52.3 1
31.8 6
2.3 16
27
27


7 14.6 42
1 2.1 4
3
40 83.3 9
1


6.3 8
f6.7 3
16.7 20
10.4 28


3.7
7.4
13.0
25.9
3.7
20. 4
13.0
13.0


1.8
1.18
10.5
28.1
10.5
47.4


4.8
2.4
lb.7
13.1
16.7
11.9
17.9
14.3
2.4




1.1
21.5
38.7
1.1
37.6


63.3
4 1
4.1
4.1
24.5


26.5
1.0
46.3
8.2


13.6 26
5.1 1
33.9 63
47.5 8











Table 2-continued


Senior
Students


Absolute Absolute
Response Response
Itiel Frequency % Frequency


Absolute
Response
% Frequency


Live Where
Own Home or Apt.
Rent Room
Rent Home or Apt.
Relative's Home or
Apt.
Other

Location
Big City
Medium City
Town
Rural or Country

Income
0-$5,000
5-$10,000
10-$15,000
15-$25,000
$25,000 +


10.4 49 84.5 93 01.9


6 10.3 3 3.1


12.5 2 3.4 2 2.0


2.1 2
83.0 43
12.8 9
2.1 5


80.9
14.9
4.3


3.4 3
72.9 71
15.3 10
8.5 12


1.7
15.3
44.1
39.0


Working
Educators


Retired
Educators









parents to a college senior, and/or wife and child to a working

educator. If these categories are combined, the majority (81.4%)

of working educators lived with either spouse or family. These twu

categories also provided for the greatest response (72.5%) of

retired educators; although, again, "family" to a retired educator

may have meant living with one's children.

Most (84.5%) working educators owned their home, and about

10.3% rented either a home or an apartment. Responses to thi

location of residence item presented a very similar pattern to

that of both the senior students and retired educators. Most (72.9%)

lived in a medium-sized city, while the next largest response cate-

gory was for those living in a town (15.3%).

Working educators had the largest salaries of any group. The

majority (83.1%) reported an annual salary of over $15,000 and

only 1.7% indicated an income of less than $5,000.

Retired Educators

This population was comprised of 55 males and 43 females who

were between the ages of 51 and 91. There were 4 people below the

age of 60 and 6 people above the age of 80. The mean age was 69.6.

As Table 2 indicates, approximately 63.1% of the retired educa-

tors had at least two years of formal education beyond a four year

degree. While this percentage is not quite as high for the working

educators (76.9%), it is far above the national figure for the older

American Population. As of 1077, about 8% of all older Americans

had a four-year college degree (Prior, 1977). A four-year college

degree was held by 98.9% of the retired educators in this study.









Over one third (37.6%) of the retired educators held the degree of

Doctor of Philosophy.

Most retired educators in this study were married (63.3%)

with "widowed" being the next largest category of response (24.5%).

Over half (64.4%) lived with their spouse or partner and 26.5%

lived alone. The majority (74.0%) of retired educators lived in

a medium-sized city or its suburb. Another 10.4% lived in a small

town and 12.5% lived in the country or a rural area.

The income level of retired educators was quite high compared

to the average income of older Americans in general. The majority

(75%) had an annual income in the $5-10,000 range. Another 12.5%

lived on an income of $15-25,000 a year. These figures are higher

than those reported for the total older American population: over

half of all older Americans live on less than $75.00 a week or

$3,900 a year (Butler & Lewis, 1977).

Nearly all (94.9%) of the retired educators in this study owned

their own home or apartment. Very few (3.1%) lived in rental units,

whether a home or apartrient.

Reliability

The Survey of Needs and Problems (SNAP) is a 14 page needs

assessment instrument with four sections. The first section on

needs and problems presents 65 statements--each grouped into

one of the five need/problem areas proposed by Maslow (1943, 1954).

Each statement is followed by a Likert-type rating scale: 1) not

true for me, 2) true, but no problem for me, 3) hardly any problem

for me, 4) somewhat serious problem for me, and 5) very serious

problem for me.








The second section of the SNAP asks respondents their person-

al preference or attitude toward being involved in counseling. The

third section is a list of 23 open-ended statements, and the fourth

section is a question regarding life satisfaction five years in

the past to five years in the future.

A post hoc reliability analysis was conducted on the items

in the first section of the SNAP. A Pearson r correlation pro-

vided a covariance matrix consisting of each item within a

specific need/problem area. Reliability coefficients were ex-

pressed in terms of a standardized alpha score. Alpha levels

greater than 0.80 are considered a measure of high homogeneity.

The five need/problem areas of the SNAP had the following alpha

values:
Physiological 0.84 Self-Esteem 0.90

Safety 0.72 Self-Actualization 0.80

Love/Belonging 0.89

For all individual items in the first section of the SNAP

questionnaire an alpha value was calculated which indicated

what the alpha values for the need/problem area would be if that

particular item was deleted. If alpha values rise as a result of

the exclusion of the item it should be considered for revision or

omission from the questionnaire. Only 2 items out of a field of

65 showed an increased alpha level when they were omitted from

their respective need/problem area: safety item 2, "I don't know

my way around where I live" and love/belonging item 13, "there is

no honesty between us" (spouse or partner). However, both these

items raised the alpha level by a value of only .01.









Procedures

Ddtd analysis which sought to answer the research questions

began with a one-way analysis (ANOVA) of the need/problem items of

the Survey of Needs and Problems (SNAP) questionnaire. The one-

way analysis by group memlbership--senior students, working edu-

cators, and retired educacors--provided mean score responses on

all 65 need/problem items. An alpha level of 0.05 was the criterion

used for evaluating statistical significance throughout this research

study.

A second perspective on responses to the 65 need/problem items

was obtained by analyzing frequency of response using a program

from the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). The

resulting data were analyzed to determine which items had the high-

est percentage of responses in the Likert scale categories of (4)

"somewhat serious problem for me," and (5) "very serious problem

for me."

In order to conduct a thorough analysis of the data generated

by the need/problem items, it was necessary to perform several post

hoc multiple comparisons using a variety of demographic items as

the independent variables.

Four separate multiple classification analyses (ANOVA) examined

the need/problem items with respect to the following variables:

1. Location of residence x race x group membership

2. Living arrangement x sex x group membership

3. Purpose of life x attitude towards counseling x group

membership

4. Group membership x income level x marital status









Where the F values for main effects were significant at the 0.05

level, further analyses were conducted. A one-way ANOVA was per-

formed on the appropriate items in order to isolate the effects of

the specific variables.

Data generated within each of the five need/problem areas of

the SNAP--physiological, safety, love/belonging, self-esteem, and

self-actualization--were analyzed to determine which item was

considered the most important need or problem for each group of

respondents. Subjects were encouraged to add their own need or

problem items and these responses were analyzed to determine where,

within the five need/problem areas, the greatest frequency of re-

sponses occurred.

In order to obtain a clear picture of the strength and arrange-

ment of the need/problem areas rather than individual items, the

researcher activated an SPSS program that reported pooled means

by need/problem area for each group of respondents within the

total study population.

Pooled mean data were utilized in comparing the relative

strength of lower--physiological and safety--needs and higher--

love/belonging, self-esteem, and self-actualization--needs.

Responses to the open-ended statement items (1-24) of the SNAP

were coded in the following manner:

Item number Categorization of Response

2, 15, 24, 1. Focused on self
3 2. Focused on others

3, 5, 8, 1. Positive response
10, 14, 20, 2. Negative response
22 3. Neutral response









Item Number Categorization of Response

4, 8, 12, 1. Physiological need
19, 23 2. Safety need
3. Love/Belonging need
4. Self-esteem need
5. Self-actualization need

1, 21 1. Focused on spouse
2. Focused on family
3. Focused on friends
4. Focused on community, nation,
world, or organizations

The data were tabulated by frequency of response and compared

among groups according to specific demographic data, using a one-

way analysis from SPSS.

The Survey of Needs and Problems item measuring life satis-

faction asked participants to draw a line on a graph which repre-

sents their perception of how satisfied they have felt about their

life in the past five years, how satisfied they feel today, and

what they expect their life satisfaction to be like over the next

five years. The range of possible responses was from 1, "lowest

low--things couldn't be worse," to 10, "highest high--things

couldn't be better." Mean scores and standard deviations were

taken from a one-way analysis of the data on each response year.

Research Questions

Research Questions 1 & 2

What are the needs and problems of older Americans?
and
How do the strength and arrangement of
these needs change over time?

Because the senior student and working educator groups were

included in this study to give a perspective for viewing the needs

and problems of older Americans as well as to provide a cross-









sectional measure to assess tle change in needs and problems over

time, the above two research questions are treated simultaneously.

Table 3 presents the need/problema items of the Survey of eedis and

Problems questionnaire grouped into five need areas and prei::nted,

according to the hierarchical scliene proposed by Maslow (i19)i),

physiological needs through sell-actualiztion needs.

The grand mean score of each item represents the mean scores

of all participants in this study. Iean scores are also presented

for each group of subjects. Tile general picture presented by

Table 3 is one of a relatively low range of mean scores for all

three subject groups. Separate tables were compiled that ordered

the mean scores for responses to all need/problem items by group

membership. While the major focus of this research is the needs

and problems of older Americans, tabular data on students (Table 4)

and working educators (Table 5) are presented first in order to

provide a frame of reference for changes in the needs and problems

of older Americans over time. This is a classical example of the

cross-sectional sampling approach used here to help further under-

standing of the life growth continuum.

Senior Students

Table 4 presents the mean score and standard deviation for the

responses made ly senior students in the College of Education. Mean

scores for all 65 need/problem items were ranked according, to

subject responses which indicated the seriousness of the item as a

problem. The mean scores ranged from a low of 1. 0--physiological

item 17, "I have a hearing loss," and physiological item 1i, "I












Table 3

Need/Problem Item Responses of Study Population by Group Indicatiing
Grand Means, Group Heans and SigLnificance of F.


Grand
Mean Senior Work ng Retired Significance
Item Total Students Educa':ors Educators of F


Physiological

1 2.0 2.49 2.40 1.04 .412

2 1.88 1.8: 1.83 1.93 .440

3 1.82 1.83 1.88 1.79 .826

4 1.60 2.00 1.60 1.40 .016"

5 2.16 2.34 2.40 1.91 .041*'

6 1.35 1.85 1.28 1.15 .000"

7 1.44 1.85 1.47' 1.22 .001"

8 1.41 3.31 1.45 1.45 .991

9 1.68 1.50 1.57 1.85 .129

10 1.52 1.63 1.53 1.46 .464

11 1.88 2.22 1.75 1.34 .000-'

12 1.65 1.23 1.42 2.00 .000"

13 1.41 1.30 1.144 1.42 .344

14 1.47 1.73 1.39 1.40 .312

15 1.25 1.15 1.15 1.35 .057

16 1.27 1.13 1.19 1.39 .252

17 1.63 1.00 1.45 2.04 .000'0

n1 1.75 1.39 1.47 2.10 .000"

19 1.18 1.00 1.08 1.34 .010'


20 1.75 1.24


2.20 .000 "'












Table 3 continued


Grand
Mean Senior Working Retired ign ificdrnc-
Item Total Students Educators Educators of F


Physiological

21 1.22 1.32 1.33 1.13 .25'

Safety

1 1.99 2.54 1.80 1.82 .005

2 1.11 1.23 1.03 1.09 .062

3 2.19 2.29 1.79 2.29 .209

4 3.19 3.27 3.17 3.17 .657

5 1.88 1.79 2.14 1.77 .099

6 2.00 2.58 1.81 1.81 .011'

7 1.53 1.93 1.44 1.36 .090

8 2.26 2.71 2.10 2.12 .029"

0 3.36 3.44 3.59 3.13 .114

Love/Belonging

1 2.09 2.13 2.14 1.88 .108

2 1.64 1.59 1.71 1.62 .300

3 1.71 2.09 1.80 1.47 .006*

4 1.85 1.93 1.80 1.84 .852

5 1.67 1.78 1.86 1.49 .085

6 1.60 1.42 1.60 1.60 .144

7 1.80 2.00 1.92 1.64 .320

11 1.60 1.47 1.':2 1.45 .032

19 1.44 1.50 1.62 1.30 .372











Table 3 -continued


Grind
M1 an Snior Wo k ing
Item To al Studlent ers Educatoi


Love/lel on:ing

13

16

17

18

19

22

23

24

25

Self-Esteem

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

10

10


1.23

1.53

1.39)

1.43




1.5h

1.55

1.4b

1.78




2.06

1.45

1.46

1.75

1.77

1.54

1. 8

1. 3

L. 91

1.71


1.11

1. b7

1.58

1.58

2.33

1.65

1.G3

1.73

1.58




2.441

1.52

1.73

2.25

1.92

1.81

2.65

1.58

2.71

1.83


i. 51


1.39

1.411

1.74

1.56

1. 66

1.47

1 .37




2.23

1.32

1.54

1.80

1.58

1. 64

2.114

1.42

2.03

1.71


Retired Siinrificcnc
1: ucaILorS of F


1.18

1.46

1.30

1.35

1.78

1.46

1 .44

1. 32

1.76




1.72

1.49

1.28

1.47

1.81

1.35

1.55

1.26

1.60

1.04


.ucG

.667

.37b

.563

.106

.422

.323

.080

.191




.004*

.4811

020"

002*

.374

.023

. 000

.224

.000

. 897











Tdble 3 -continued


GPdild
Mean
Item Tutal


Self-
Actualizat Lon


Senior Working Retired Significance
Students L.ducators Educators of F


1.81


2.15 2.06


1.65


1.56


1.70 1.8b


1.81


1.92


2.17 2.27

1.58 1.52


*Significanit at 0.05 level


1.91

1.b3




















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have a sensory loss other than sight or hearing"-- to a high of

3.44--safety item 9, "my expenses are increasing." Of the top ten

items receiving the highest ranking, six are either in the physio-

logical or safety areas--areas Maslow (1948) calls lower order needs.

Only 17 of the 65 items had a mean response score above response

category 3, "hardly any problem for me." Two items--safety item

9, "my expenses are increasing," and safety item 4, "I worry about

the state of the nation"--were also the two top rated items for

both the working educators and retired educators (see Tables 5 & 6).

Working Educators

The need/problem data on working educators were ordered by

mean scores in Table 5. The mean score and standard deviation are

presented for each item. Mean scores ranged from a low of 1.03

(safety item 2, "I don't know my way around where I live") to a

high of 3.59 (safety item 9, "my expenses are increasing"). There

were 13 items out of a field of 65 that had a mean score above 2.00.

The items were fairly evenly divided among the 5 need areas. Four

were safety items, 3 were self-esteem items, and 2 items were from

each of the physiological, love/belonging, and self-actualization

areas.

Retired Educators

The 65 need/problem items of the SNAP were rank ordered by

the mean response scores of retired educators and are presented in

Table 6. The range of mean scores was very close to the range

found to exist within the student and working educator groups. The

low mean score was 1.11 for safety area item 2, "I don't know my




















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