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Archaeological study of 37 India Street
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098825/00001
 Material Information
Title: Archaeological study of 37 India Street
Physical Description: 31p. : map, photos.
Language: English
Creator: Huddleston, Fred Harley
Publisher: Fred Harley Huddleston
Place of Publication: Nantucket, Mass.
Publication Date: 1972
Copyright Date: 1972
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Historic preservation -- Nantucket, Massachusetts
Coordinates: 41.283635 x -70.10272
 Notes
General Note: Written for University of Florida Preservation Institute: Nantucket, summer, 1972
General Note: UF AFA Historic Preservation document 886
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UF00098825:00001

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title page
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Appendix
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
Full Text
















































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NANTUCKET PROGRAM / UNIVERSITY OP FLORIA. DEPARTMENT OF AMOHITECTURE, AFA W 01., GAINuSVILLE, PLORI A 32601


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During-one week, July 19th 26th 1972, a small dig was carried

out in the rear (service) yard of India House, 37 India Street,

Nantucket, with the permission of Mr. Stephen DeBaun, owner. Assist-

ing in the dig, at various times, were Fred Huddleston, Hank Spicer,

and Jeff Barnes, also students at the "antucket Institute, and Gail

Borwick, of the University of Pennsylvania. The excavation, which

was done with mason's trowels, brushes, and hands, was started as a

4' by 4' square in a corner of the yard. Down at a depth of approx-

imately 30" a concentration of artifacts in the N.E. corner of the

square was observed and the excavation was extended in this direc-

tion. This concentration proved to be a wood-lined trash pit (privy?).

Similarly, at 24" down a wood post was uncovered on the west side of

the pit and the earth was taken out in this area and proved to be

a wood-lined trash pit jammed with fragments of earthenware and

glass. This pit was excavated by tunneling, as a time limitation

ruled out taking down the earth overhead to that level. As a result,

the outline of the excavation(*see illustrations) at its conclusion

was rather unscientifically irregular. The most puzzling feature

uncovered during this dig, was the deposit of molded brick over-

laying the trash pits. Many photographs were taken at each stage of

excavation in hopes of discerning from the photographs later what we

could not discover in person; that is, what were those bricks doing

there. Was it a collapsed wall? There were traces of mortar. But

the bricks were very jumbled; shouldn't we have reached an undis-

turbed foundation section? Was it the lining to a well? This was






-2-


our first thought, although we didn't know if we would have the time

or equipment to attempt excavation of such an archaeologically rich

feature. But none of the bricks were curved, although a few seemed

twisted from the kiln. Also, there was no circular pattern to their

placement, in fact, no pattern at all. They did, however, occur in

a rough line cutting across the dig from N.W. to S.E., and it would

be interesting to continue the dig to the S.E., towards the house.

Was it a walkway? But that would only require one layer of brick,

it wouldn't account for the volume of brick encountered in such a

small area.

The purpose of the dig was to satisfy a burning curiosity about

the mystery of archaeology that had been aroused by a talk given

by Dr. James Deetz of Plymouth Plantation, and increased by Ivor

Noel Hume's book, Historical Archaeology. As ignorant as I was, I

was encouraged by this passage in Hume's book:

By suggesting that trash sites be used for
teaching and learning, I am fully aware that
museum curators may furiously remind me that
some of the world's finest and best-preserved
antiquities have been salvaged as individual
relics and are immensely valuable regardless
of their lack of archaeological associations.
This is all very true, but the primary purpose
of archaeology is to extract information from
the ground...and not to provide museums with
treasures. At the same time, the student
archaeologist invariably thinks in terms of
complete objects, and his treasure hunting
instincts are not for beneath the surface.
It is therefore useful to let him study on a
site that contains such plums, for the pros-
pect of discovering them will sustain his
enthusiasm through the early stages until he
discovers that the really exciting part of
archaeology is in learning rather than finding.
(Hume, p. 193)







-3-


This was not to say that I had any knowledge of trash pits at India

House I just assumed that there would have to be archaeological

features at any site of like vintage in downtown Nantucket. The

dig was done at India House simply because I was able to get per-

mission of the owner, who was a personal friend. The spot in which

we chose to dig was also selected at random, the thinking being that

because it was in the very corner of the yard it would have been

a more likely spot to place a pit or privy than simply along one

border. Finding as many artifacts as we did was definitely "beginners

luck". But I do believe that downtown Nantucket offers an ideal

situation for future study of colonial sites and artifacts. My only

caution being against over publicizing such work to the point where

owners and tenants would be both hunting in their backyards, ruin-

ing many a good site for the controlled type of dig that this one

didn't come close to. As I have talked to more people about tech-

niques and findings, I am more and more appalled at how the dig was

approached; all I can say is "Next time I'll do better."

The month following the dig itself was spent reassembling,

photographing, and identifying the artifacts. In this latter task

I am most indebted to Mr. John Rugge, who has a comprehensive know-

ledge of pottery, porcelain, and glass. Prior to this dig, I had

no knowledge and little more interest in pottery or porcelain. This

is obviously not the most ideal way to approach such a dig. Identi-

fication, made after excavation and cleaning, was made by gleaning

bits of knowledge from visitors passing through the studio and the










valued opinion of Mr. Rugge, when I could get him over. Several

books in the Atheneum were of h-lp, but there was nothing on Nantucket

like Hume's Guide to the Artifacts of North America, which would have

been a valuable tool, saving hours of guessing and opinion-seeking.

On my return to Philadelphia in September, I took numerous slides

and photographs with me, and sought additional opinion from Dr. John

Cotter, Dr. Barbara Liggett, and Ms. Betty Cousins. Eric Ekholm, of

Brown University and Plymouth Plantation, was also of great help in

showing me their laboratory and examples like the Nantucket arti-

facts pictured in the contact sheets I had brought.

The dig itself was done over the course of a week, perhaps 30

hours all told, but the laboratory work and identification has

stretched out over several months, and this I have done myself. In

the future, I would enlist the help of several people in the total

project, not just the dig itself (the fun!), to insure a more rapid

summation of findings.

The artifacts were dug under the agreement suggested by Dr. Hume

in Historical Archaeology, that they would remain the property of

the owner, after study. The study was abbreviated by the end of

summer, but rolls of photographs and slides were taken before leaving

the crates of artifacts with Mr. Stephen DeBaun at India House, where

many of the most intact pieces are on display appropriately in a

built in china cupboard. This of course, was the intent of the dig,

to excavate articles used by inhabitants of years ago and perhaps

make history come more alive for this particular house. Unfortunately,


-4-







-5-


this was not a conclusive result of the dig research, which, ideally,

should have been done before putting trowel into ground. A summary

of research for 37 India Street (Charles Hussey House) follows:

Deed 7/21/1803

Grantor: Reuben Hussey and Phebe Hussey
Consideration: $215
Grantee: "Our son Charles Hussey, Rope-maker
"A certain peice of land situated in that part of the town at N. called
Wescot being bounded as follows:
S. by Pearl Street
W. by the territory of Uriah Bunker 2nd
N. by land belonging to Batchelor Hussey and others
E. by land belonging to Hezekiah Bunker

Deed 9/14/1813

Grantor: Charles Fittenberry Hussey, Rope-maker
Consideration: $6300
Grantee: Silvanus Folger Jenkins a N.Y. merchant
Bounded on:
N,- by a lane or highway called Hussey Court (!)
E.--by Hezekiah Bunker's land. Containing 30 rods or thereabouts
be the quantity more or less, together with my dwelling house
which I built on the said land with the barn, fences and all the
outbuildings and accommodations which are on the said land, with
all the privileges and appurtenances to the same belonging at
everykind and nature whatsoever, nothing excepted or reserved.

Document July 1830

1829-1834: Thom. Leggett and Thom. Jenkins, guardians at Carolina
Jenkins and Silvanus Jenkins, minors at said N.Y. and children of
Silvanus Jenkins, late of said city, deceased at N. licensed to
make sale at the whole at said minors estate, situated in said N. -
July 1830.

Deed 10/7/1865

Grantors: Joshua Parker and Edward C. Austin, both of Nantucket
Consideration: $700
Paid by Robert Foster of city of Brooklyn N.Y.
Bounded on:
N. by land of John C. Brock, late of Benj. C. Sayer and by land of
John Riddell

April 9, 1894


Mabel Foster, widow to Wilbur D. Steele, for $6500







-6-


Then:
19th Century owners of "India House"

Charles Hussey 1803-1813
*Silvanus Jenkins 1813-1830
*Joshua Parker and Edward Austin ?-1865
Robert Foster 1865-1894
Wilber Steele 1894-?

*On the basis of their dates of manufacture, the artifacts were most
likely to have been the trash of these 3 families.

The water table in the vicinity of India House is high, accord-

ing to the owner, on the basis of his flooded basement each time it

rains. An old timer told him the house across the street is built

on a filled pond. So it just goes to show that no matter how bad

things are for you, they are worse for somebody else. Anyway -

I would agree that the water table is high, as we hit water at 3

feet. Much of the artifacts were consequently fished out of the

water and mud by feel, since we didn't want to thrust a trowel where

we couldn't see. And as a consequence of this method, our finger-

tips got all sliced up from the great volume of broken glass, flat

window glass especially.

The artifact deposits were from 3 distinct periods: the tightly

packed contents of the lidded trash pit on the west side of the

excavation dated from 1790 1810. The other trash pit at the N.E.

corner of the original excavation contained a large quantity of

artifacts dating from 1810 1860, while a large collection of

bottles recovered from the North wall of the excavation (between the

2 trash pits) were clearly turn of this century pickle, catsup and

medicine bitters bottles.

The remainder of the dig report consists of photographs and

descriptions of these individual artifacts and artifact groups.














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In the beginning, Fred Huddleston takes great care in scrapping the
first layer away, while I take a picture.


Objects encountered during first 12" of scraping on day one.






































First "layer" of bricks encountered about a foot down. Is there
an order to these bricks?



















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Day 2 of the dig. ME. About this time we realized the dirt would
have to be removed a little further than the edge of the hole.








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Down 2 feet and deeper into the brick mystery.


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Day tree of the dig, which didn't win any awards for neat-
ness. Shows evolution of pit outline.

















































Looking into northeast extension of the dig. Bottle and blue ringed
bowl being unearthed. Forgive the focus.


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Porcelain (?) buttons found throughout the dig.


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Table holding all material from the West pit and the glass from
between the West and East pits before reassembly.


Table holding most of the material excavated from the East
pit. The four chamber pots found in this one lend credence
to the suspicion that this was indeed a privy.




























Lefts 1/2 pint whiskey bottle, strap-sided, clear. 5 7/8" high
Middle, Oval bottle, clear. 6 5/16" high
Right: Bitters bottle, greenish. 7 7/16" high. Raised lettering,
"Burnham Boston"


Left: Mouth of pickle jar? clear
Rights Catsup bottle, clear, with screw lip. 10 3/8 high, bottom
diam. 2 5/8". Raised lettering "Curtice Brothers Co.
Preservers Rochester N.Y."















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Left to Rights Vial, clear, 3 1/4* high
Twelve-sided bottle, greenish, 5 7/8" high
Medicine bottle, clear. 4 5/6" high. Raised
lettering: "Hadley's Pure Preparations"
Flat bottle, greenish, 5 3/8" high
Tapered bottle, clear, 4" high



























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Left: Iive green Height 10", push up bottom 3 1/2"
Right: Blown 3 piece mold applied lip. Dense black-yellow. Height
9 1/4", push up bottom 3 1/2". 1850?


AssorGed bottle necks. Amber and green.


























Assorted bottle bottoms. Amber and green. The muted one 2nd from
the rightip unusually large, has a diameter of almost 4".


Medicine bottle. Green. Height 5 5/16", diameter 1 9/16". Sealed
11th liquid inside, turpentine odor.

































Bitters bottles, Left: pale green, Height 7 1/16", has a very irregular
surface, possibly 'whittle marks' caused by glass being blown in cold
mold or the glass itself being below ideal temperature. "It is also
believed these were caused by the mold carver's knife and were
evident on the- first bottles blown in a new mold before the heat
from the glass burned the mold smooth." (John Adams Bottle Collecting
in New England). "Bitters Boston"
"Clarks Sherry Wine Bitters"
Right: Pale green, height 7 3/4". Bitters were supposedly a
medicinal or tonic but were actually 50o or more alcohol, which
accounts for their popularity.


Assorted lamp globes, bottle necks and a jar. Clear glass.




























Assorted pressed glass tumblers and one wine glass stem and base.
Several of the goblets rang nicely when struck, meaning English
crystal?


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Unidentified glass bulb, height 5", diameter 2". Free blown,
clear an ice reservoir for a decanter?









































Triple ringed decanter neck. Clear. Rings applied (slipped over
neck). Identical to examples of Georgian decanters with triple
ringed necks and glass stoppers c. 1790 in English Bottles and
Decanters 1650-1900, World Publ. New York, 1972.



























Blue transfer printed pitcher. Height 6", diameter at lip 3 1/2".
Youth in ruffled collar with birds on one side, still life of fruit
on the other. (notice large missing piece in this view, and weep!).
From Ann K. Cole's How to Collect the "hew Antiaues": "-ost china
was hand decorated until transfer printing came into use in 1756.
This was a method devised by Sadler and Green, otters of Liverpool,
and it appeared on much of the good china of -he iime, even porcelain.
It consisted of engraving a metal plate or a special stone (like the
lithography process) and coloring it with enamels. Tissue papers were
then printed from it, one for each color, and from them the designs
were transferred to the china." If you look closely at the transfer
printed piece, you can see where the ends of zhe tissue pattern overlap.


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Blue soft paste ladle, diameter 2 1/2". Figure of a cleric whipping
a pack animal. A crest on the bottom reads "Riley's Semi-China" on
an oval belt with buckle. This was the mark of John and Richard
Riley of Burslem, England, who worked before 1827. They were well
known manufacturers of ironstone china. (Katherine McClinton, A
Handbook of Popular Antiques).


Blue transfer printed ironstone tea cup and plate fragments. Cup
height 2 1/4", diameter at lip 3 11/16". Note the cup is handleless,
indicating perhaps an early date, as the tea cup evolved from the
handleless Chinese type to the form we recognize today when people
grew weary of burning their fingers.
A word about ironstone from W.E. Honey's English Pottery & Porcelain.
"A new material of this period was the so-called stone china, a
hard dense, and heavy glazed earthenware usually of a grayish tone.
Spode introduced his variety in 1805, the famous 'ironstone' of
0.J. and G. Miles Mason, alleged to contain slag of iron, was
patented in 1813."


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Pale blue Staffordshire chamber pot, faceted (ten) body and flared
lips. Height assembled 5", diameter at lip 8 1/2", base dimension
6 1/8". Gothic garden scene.




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Brown transfer printed ironstone tea cups and fragments. Height of
whole cups on the right (note: one cup with handle, the other handle-
less) is 2 7/8", diameter of lip 3 1/2". Scene on left hand cup
shows people fishing, in contrast to all the other scenes of elegant
people languishing in romantic gardens.,


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Close ups of Challinor ironstone saucer.


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Brown ironstone plate. Diameter 9 1/4". Flower basket medallion,
rim in 'seaweed' pattern. AqTrOs Pfexr.T?



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"Amarantl- crest on bottom of seaweed pattern ironstone plate.











































Brown on white ironstone bowl, Chinese motif. Basket weave interior
rim decoration. Top diameter 6 1/2", bottom diameter 3", height 4".
Manufacturing mark on the bottom is shown. This type of mark was
in use throughout England from 1842-1867. According to a chart, this
particular mark reveals that the bowl was manufactured on December
4th, 1845. Finding out the exact day and year that this bowl first
took form, combined with an instructive attraction to its sinuous
form, made this my favorite artifact.


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Blue banded bowl (ironstone?)*One antique dealer called it "blue
banded Leeds, mochaware." Top diameter 6", bottom diameter 3",
height 3 1/2". This bowl was unearthed completely intact. There is,
however, a 2" hairline crack in the body.


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Brown on white ironstone mug. Tea leaf pattern Wm. K. Cole,
How to Collect the 'New' Antiques: "Another pattern popular with
our grandmothers was called TEA LEAF. It was ironstone varying
in quality, some more like semi porcelain, the color white and the
decoration a spring or scattered tea leaf...of copper luster. It
was first made in 1880, and reached its peak of popularity in the
1890's.... The luster, sprigs and leaf shapes varied from nmanufac-
turer to manufacturer. Ieakin, urnvwal, Burgess, i'edgwood & Co. (not
Josiah) and other English potters made it."















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Blue-lavender on white Chelsea saucer. Urn and flower applied
ornament. Very high glaze. Diameter 7".


White ironstone cups. Diameter at lip 3 1/4", height 3". Raised
molded design (lilies of the valley?), known as 'Sprigware.'


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White clay pipe bowls and stems. Right hand pipe has crown on near
side,anchor on the reverse. Middle pipe has sunburst on near side,
wheat sheaf on other. Left hand pipe, both sides as shown.


Gray pomade (cosmetic) jar. Diameter 2 18", height 1 1/8".
Supposedly this kind of container was fitted with a wooden lid.


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Brown and speckled yellow fragment (probably BASE), Rockingham
vessel (pitcher? bowl?). Unfortunately, this was the only piece
of this interestingly mottled ware that was found. From Bennington
Pottery and Porcelain by Richard Carter Barrett: "In America...
Rockingham generally denotes a coarse ware with a brown tortoise-
shell mottled glaze.... This mottled brown Rockingham is to pottery
what gaberdine is to textile. From about 1835 on, every sizeable
pottery in America has produced Rockingham. Thus a piece of pottery
can be Bennington-made Rockingham, East Liverpool-made Rockingham,
or Rockingham which was made in one of a hundred other potteries.


Yelloware? kitchen bowl. Diameter 12", glazed inside and out, flat
bottom.


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Yelloware kitchen bowl, diameter 14", height 3 1/2". Glazed inside
and out, flat bottom. Scalloped inside rim. English?

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Gray jar with blue brown highlights, and lid. Bottom diameter 5",
hieght 6 1/4", diameter of lid 3 3/4". Found intact. Identified
as Chinese jar used for importing ginger. Unglazed band on lid and
unglazed band at top of jar apparently were intentional, as a silk
band and wax were used to seal the vessel. Chinese character on
bottom. A potter pointed out that the jar was cast in 2 parts,
there being a definite seam about midway up the vessel, visible
(and feelable) only on the inside.



































































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Clear glass case bottle. Height 8 3/8", bottom 4 3/16 X 2 1/2".
Intact, but for a chip out of the lip. Bottle for spirits made
squared to fit into squared slots in a wood chest, or case, taken
on board ships. Typical case contained six such bottles. (See
Folger Museum exhibit)


Fri-Op


Sandwich glass (?) lamp base. Clear. Height 3 1/2", base 3 3/16 X
3 3/16".























Wine glass base and stems. Clear, with patina. Left: base diameter
2", out of round. Right: base diameter 2 1/2".


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Green glass: rum bottle (left), fragments (center) and a large
decanter (right). The large decanter, of which the lip, base,
and some body shards were found, must have been quite round,
quite large, and quite handsome (opinion). Rum bottle stands
11 1/4" tall, with a base diameter of 3 3/4", push up bottom.


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Hand painted pearlware,saucer, blue, yellow and green on white.
1820? Diameter at lip 5 5/8".


Blue on white hand painted pearlware cup and saucer. Cup height
2 3/16", diameter at lip 3 1/2", saucer diameter at lip 5".


























Hand painted bowl. Brown, green and yellow on white. Height 3",
diameter 6".


Blue on white transfer printed jar; height 3 7/8", diameter of base
3 5/16".Anih Italian scene, done in an oriental style.


















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Blue edged Pearlware plate, with central monogram. Diameter 9 1/2".
Many fragments of blue edged Pearlware were found (also some green
edged) but this plate is the only one so decorated. Mr. Noel I. Hume
wrote about this plate (see attached letter) "...the blue edged
pearlware plate with the personal cypher in the middle in brown
is extremely interesting and unusual, and if the owner can be
tracked down (and even if he cannot) it deserves to be in a museum."


,4


Only fragment of sponged peafowl ware. Vivid yellow, green, blue
and.brown.

































Gray-brown stoneware beer b
quarter 19th century.

























Brown-alazed redware cham
lip 8 3/4", height 6 3/4"
flatfoot and partial glaz


bottle. Height 6", diameter 2 1/2". Lst


ber pot. Diameter of base 5", diameter at
SOne of 5 chamber pots found. Notice
ing From the Complete Encyclopedia of





the dai ry, o fd or table-u-e aloarrg s-ide- pewter of common 'woodewar
he simple forms of this sturdy folk potterywEre washed or splashed
with pleasant color glazed with browns or yellows... For this the
least equipment was needed: a horse powered mill for grinding and
mixing clay, a home-made potters wheel, a few wooden tools, perhaps
a few molds as well."




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Brown-glazed redware kitchen bowl Height 4 3/4", bottom diameter
5 1/2", top diameter 12". Rough texture of surface of glaze (notice
reflection). Sloped foot.


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Brown-glazed redware bowl. Height 4", bottom diameter 3 7/8", top
diameter 9 1/2". Partial glaze, but done a bit more neatly than
the example previously noted. Gray-streaked glaze (notice inside).


F--






























Brown milk pan, glazed on inside. Height 9", diameter 18 1/2". Massive
piece of kitchen ware, probably of local manufacture.


Yellow and brown glazed redware pitchers. Right: height 6 1/2",
diameter at lip 3 3/4". Left: height 5", diameter at lip 3".


















'- ^ ^ --------------- --~-- ------ ---J

Gray-streaked black Whieldon teapot spout. Length 4 3/4". No
more pieces of this vessel were found! W.B. Honey describes
whieldon ware in English Pottery and Porcelain as, "A brilliant
black glaze, due to iron and manganese,...often attributed to Thomas
Whieldon...More subtle in technique are the 'agate' wares formed
by mingling brown, white and blue-stained clays in distant imitation
of a veined or marbled natural stone...The pieces with fewer marbling
generally have a prevailing blue-gray tone due to the tinting of the
glaze. The cobalt in the blue-stained clay... The young Josiah
Wedgwood was in partnership with Whieldon (as Staffordshire potter)...


Beer and pretzel, 1972. You deserve one for wading through this
report. THANK YOU.





Telephone: 703-229-1000








DVAWER C
WILLIAMSBURg-, VIRCqNlA 23185

October 26, 1972




Mr. Douglas S. Walter f
371 Haddon Avenue
Collinswood, New Jersey ~ Vft"

Dear Mr. Walter:

Jim Short has passed your box of goodies along to me
for identification, and has asked me to comment on the
excavation in general as described in your letter. Let me
say at once that I am most impressed by your diligence and
reasoning, but at the same time I am dismayed to know that
the material has been dug up and, to a degree, dispersed
without being published and so made available to others
who are interested in such matters. I say that I am dismayed,
but I really should not be. It is happening all the time,
and not only among pot-hunting amateurs! Many a professionally
dug site has been carefully recorded in the field (sometimes
to the point of idiocy), but once the season was over the
professor has returned to his classroom leaving the testimony
of the artifacts to go to hell. There is of course not the
slightest difference between the pot-hunter who loots sites
to acquire artifacts and the professional who digs with
great finesse, but who doesn't care what happens to the
artifacts and their information after he is through. In
your case, material that you have assumed would not be all
that important, has been scattered (through no fault of yours,
of course) and its evidence will not be available, say, to an
archaeologist excavating similar privies in Charleston, South
Carolina. If there were already numerous published reports
on groups of the character and date representated by yours,
this would not matter. Alas, however, there are very few
such reports and therefore, the prospect of another unfinished
job is regretable.

With that said, I must admit that the artifacts, though
certainly interesting and of major significance to the history
of the property on which they were found, are not otherwise
unique or of superb quality. They are, in short, precisely
what you would expect to find in any American privy sealed






Mr. Douglas S. Walter 2 October 26, 1972


prior to the Civil War. They are, for example, closely
paralleled by the vast quantity of material that has been
excavated from well and privy sites in downtown Alexandria,
Virginia, by Richard Muzzrole. I might add that if you are
in that area, you really should take the opportunity of meeting
Mr. Muzzrole and examining the collection. His home address
is: Apartment 913, 2800 Quebec Street, N.W., Washington, D.C.
20008.

In spite of your professed ignorance, I was very
impressed by the way you have used the artifacts to arrive
at what I think are very sound dating conclusions. I shuddered
at your reference to all those "many layers of a regular brick
that ran diagonally across the pit", for they sound rather like
walkways, and, if so, as far as that site was concerned, their
location and purpose could be of greater importance than the
artifacts.

The fragments that you sent down range in date from
about 1810 to 1850 and include both pearlwares and the later
white earthenwares, along with Chinese export porcelain,
English bone china, and a piece of what I take to be New
England lead-glazed earthenware. The wine bottle fragments
are hard to date, but I would place the green piece in the
period circa 1810 to 1840, and I would not dismiss the
possibility that although the amber fragment could have been
made at the opening date it might equally well have been produced
somewhat later than the closer.

It is extremely dangerous to offer firm opinions
based only on photographs, and therefore I will make no
attempt to do so. I will say, however, that the blue-edged
pearlware plate with the personal cypher in the middle in
brown is extremely interesting and unusual, and if the owner
can be tracked down (and even if he cannot), it deserves to
be in a museum. The majority of the pieces from the first
pit are fairly run of the mill examples of decorated pearlware
-- by no means unattractive, of course, but not rare. Another
of the slides shows pieces of Chinese export porcelain of
no great quality. On the other hand, the case bottle is
certainly very nice and probably dates in the first quarter
of the 19th century. The "A PRESENT FOR JOHN" can would
seem to be of late creamware and probably dates around 1820.
I am not going to risk saying much about the second pit,
for as you tell us that the annular ware bowl is blue banded,
and as we cannot see a trace of blue in what appears to be
a brown banded bowl, I think that the color problems inherent
in the slides make identification impossible. My guess is
that the archaeologist in Philadelphia is probably nearer
the mark than was your antique dealer who called the bowl
"a valuable piece of Leeds". It was kind of you to allow
us to keep the slides, and we will do so with thanks, for






Mr. Douglas S. Walter


they will provide us with useful comparative material. As
for the sherds, I am having them packed up and sent back
to you as they are of no great use to us. Besides, by
keeping them I fear we will be condoning the dispersal
of unpublished artifacts!

With best wishes,

Sicerely yours,
/ /


Iv /N o Hme
D e or
D artment of Arc a logy

Copy to:
Mr. J. R. Short


October 26, 1972


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