Title: French influence in the Colonial architecture of New Orleans
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098819/00001
 Material Information
Title: French influence in the Colonial architecture of New Orleans
Physical Description: 16 p. : photocopies
Language: English
Creator: Rigney, David P.
Publisher: David P. Rigney
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Copyright Date: 1977
Subject: Historic preservation
Architectural history
Architecture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Architecture -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: Louisiana - New Orleans
General Note: UF course number AE681
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098819
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Full Text
Presentation Notes David Rigney
AE 681
Precence in France
Slide 1 House types
Form is basically gothic
Note steep roof and narrow dormers and hipped roof form
Note interior chimney
Note poteaux structural system
Slide 2 Building methods and materials French farm house
Note brick in-fill (brick entre poteaux) with plaster covering
Slide 3 Close-up of brick entre poteaux also known by term Collombage which is more general
Mote the raising of the sill on brick foundation this is part of an
evolution in the early buildings of New Orleans Note the pattern of the brick
Slide 4 Diagram of building elements shows how the gothic form is generated Note the poteaux system and the raised sill relate the left part of the section to the structural blow-up
Slide 5 Framing of column to summer beam
Planning Concepts
The men generating the overall plan of New Orleans will be the military engineers assigned by the French government to the settlement. The early planning will reflect the official planning attitude developed during the reign of Louis XIV. Under Louis XIV the concept of focus and axial relationship became a major consideration in planning. This will be most obvious in the placement of New Orleans on a crescent bend of the Mississippi River. The initial plan developed site (unseen by Engineer Perrier) reflects the baroque attitude more strongly than any of the plans that were put into effect with the placement of the major fortress on axis with the town square, which in turn is the major focus of the axes thru the grid of residential blocks. Also, the oval that forms the perimeter fortification converges on the main fort in a baroque fashion. Note the proposed fortified town planning precisely reflects military planning developed by Vauban, the Chief Military engineer under Louis XIV. A fortress plan identical to the one proposed will appear in a 1764 publication of "The Elements of Fortification" by LeBlond indicating Vauban's influence throughout the 18th century although he died in 1707.
French Colonial Period
Slide 6 Settlement: New Orleans was founded by Jean Babtiste Le Moyne, Sier de Bienville in 1718 under the auspices of the John Law Company of the West which gained a trade monopoly in Louisiana around 1715. Bienvilles first experience in the area had been in 1699 when-he accompanied brother Pierre le Moyne, Sier de Iberville at the founding of Ft. Maurepas on Biloxi Bay.

Slide 7 Note the position on the crescent establishing strong two-way visual control on the river as well as the focus concept of the baroque planning concept.
John Law was a financial advisor to Phillippe, Duke of Orleans and Prince Reagent of France during the minority of Louis XV. Law convinced Prince Phillippe that New Orleans could be a very profitable under-taking. So, with backing from the Prince Reagent the settlement began.
Slide 8 From the beginning, New Orleans was intended primarily as a trade center for Louisiana and the settlements farther North on the Mississippi River. As a secondary consideration New Orleans was to be a part of a military effort to strengthen French hold on the Mississippi Valley area.
Bienville decided in favor of the location between the bayous of Lake Pontchartrain and the Mississippi River in spite of certain disadvantages for the following reasons:
1. Access by water was maximum by the river and Lake Pontchartrain by way of Bayou St. John. The site of the settlement is is located adjacent to an Indian portage between the river and the Boyou. In actuality New Orleans was on an Island surrounded by water, access that avoided the river current.
2. Location on the crescent bend gave a commanding position; with cooling breezes coming off the river.
Major opposition to the site came from the fact that the ground was low and marshy and subject to flooding. As a military position a site closer to the mouth of the river would be preferable. Also access by merchant ships entering from the Gulf of Mexico would be facilitated.
Jonathas Darby described the founding of New Orleans as follows: Monsier de Bienville, General Commandant of Louisiana arrived with six vessels loaded with provisions and men. These were thirty workmen, all convicts six carpenters and four Canadians. There were also Monsieur Pailloux, commander of the future city, Monsieur Chassin, intendant of commerce and Monsieur Dreux. Monsieur de Bienville cut the first cane and Monsieur Pailloux and Monsieur Dreux the second, and also tried to open a passage through the dense cane brake from the river to the place where the barracks were to be.
(Flash Slides 10 & 11)
A year later Darby described the existing buildings as:
1. An empty store-house of rough timber frame
2. Frame warehouses holding articles of commerce for the John Law Company
3. Barracks of standing post and boards with walls and chimneys of dirt (bousillage) covered with cypress bark
4. Cabins for the workmen
Monsieur Pailloux was left at the site and was responsible for the little initial planning that took place. Growth took place haphazardly, start ing at the south end of the settlement near land allotted for Bienville

plantation and edging northward along the river. A Monsieur Perrier was appointed the first Chief Engineer but died before reaching the site. His orders included provisions for moving the site if he thought best but his untimely death precluded this option.
Slide 9 Monsieur Le Blond de la Tour, Chief-Engineer for Louisiana and his subordinates developed the first plans with knowledge of the site for the settlement in 1721. Designs for New Biloxi served as a model for New Orleans in the Vauban tradition. Adrian de Pauger Le Blond's second engineer was primarily responsible for carrying out the plan. In the realization of the plan, Pauger moved it closer to the river bank to take advantage of higher ground and air movement off the river.
Note positions of various buildings military and civic functions around the PI ace'd Armes.
Note the extent of the levee for which de Pauger was responsible. This is after the hurricane of 1722 which accounts for the orderlyness.
(Flash 10 & 11 again)
Note probability that these are similar to shelters used in New Orleans, 1718 1721.
Slide 12- These are the barracks designed in 1722 by Le Blond to replace the first shacks.
Note the composition which is in the style of Louis XIV, especially, the detail of the dormers on the house and also the hospital on the right. Note the interior location of chimneys.
The construction is timber framing over wood sills on grade with wide board siding.
Slide 13- Note similarity of Fort Balise by Le Blond (1722) at the mouth of the river. The chapel-front center served as a lighthouse and military housing designed by Pauger in 1723, similar to previous slide.
Slide 14- Barracks designed for Fort Balise (1731) same construction of timber and board siding but now two-story built on sills over timber foundations; wall sections pre-assembled and tilted up. Note that brick is available in New Orleans at this time.
Slide 15- Comtemporary with the Fort Balise Barracks (1731) is the prison at New Orleans which is probably the first major brick building designed by Pierre Baron, Engineer in chief, at the time.
Slide 16- The first brickyard established in 1725 on the road to Bayou St. John;
also manufactured roof tile both flat and round. The flat tile used on steeper roofs and round on roofs of less incline. Charles de Morand set up and eventually became owner of the brickyard. By 1800 it came into the hands of Claude Treme' and eventually was subdivided as part of Fauborg Treme'
Slide 17- (1731) Plan of New Orlens by M. Gonichon under Pierre Baron shows the
further development of the town, the completion of the levee, a series of drainage canals and the moat started after the 1729 Natchez uprising

(moat two-thirds complete). Note the squares allotted for the first Ursuline convent. This plan was intended to show the state of the colony at the time it reverted back to the French government.
Slide 18- (1732) Drawings of Mill on the John Law Company plantation located across the river from New Orleans. It was originally cleared by de Pauger after laying out New Orleans. Bienville sued for possession of the land and eventually turned it over to the Company. The mill, built under Baron's direction, was of timber construction with exposed brick in-fill, ill-fated due to the porosity of the brick.
Slide 19- (1726) Design for two warehouses on Dumaine Street near the front of the settlement. They'replaced dilapidated timber warehouses built by de Pauger-Brique entre poteaux on brick foundation with board covering one of the earliest examples of brick-between-posts modification of colombage.
Note the roof form and dormer decoration-probably under Broutin's direction shortly before Pauger's death in June 1726. Drawing was signed Devin.
Slide 20- Proposed plans dated 1724 by Pauger for the Parish Church which had
occupied a rough warehouse up to this point. Note the timber foundations and buttressing for resistance to hurricanes. Brick became available shortly after the plans were completed and replaced the timber foundation this church which was the first recorded use of brick-between-posts served this function until it burned in 1788.
Slide 21- The residence and astronomical observatory built by Pierre Baron (1730) later served as the governor's residence. Baron was Chief Engineer from 1727 to 1730. Baron was generally credited with the inovation of the ill-fated exposed brick-between-post construction. The porous brick weathered quickly in the humid climate of New Orleans. Note the kitchen on the left is plastered over for fire protection. Note the baroque form of the gate and the dormer.
Slide 23- Royal Hospital addition to the first Ursuline convent (1737 by Ignace Francois BroUtin, Chief Engineer (1731-1751). Note the contrast between the exposed brick in-fill of the first Ursuline convent built by Pierre Baron and the addition with its plaster coating. The first Ursuline convent was first designed by Broutin who for political re-sons was removed as Chief Engineer before the building was raised by his successor, Pierre Baron, with some design changes the exposed brick being one of these. An innovation in this building proposed by Broutin is the 40 foot building width instead of 20 feet as commonly practiced. This will be seen in several of Broutin's buildings. Note-the construction of the convent resulted in a major planning change-combining two block and closing Chartre Street at that point. The Convent site had been planned for an arsenal by Broutin's. predecessors.
Slide 24- First plan for the second Ursuline Convent by Broutin in 1745. The
building was widened to allow for three central openings at each floor instead of one. This is the only French colonial building remaining intact in New Orleans; some changes have been made to the original

building. The precedent for the two-story, all brick construction of the second Convent was a pair of barracks designed by Broutin in 1732. The style was that developed under Louis XIV taken directly from Belidor's "The Science of Engineers" of 1729. This became the official style for civic buildings in New Orleans. The Convent is notable in that it was the only building of this heavy brick construction that remained structurally sound. The barracks that initiated the style had to be demolished in the early 1750's.
Slide 22- Note the convent housed a library, an infirmary and orphanage as well as housing the Ursuline nuns.
Slide 25- Proposed intendance building in same style as the Convent and earlier Barracks designed by Broutin in 1749.
Slide 26- Note the galleries were removed in the elevation to allow clear view of the fenestration. This is the first of the examples of formal civic architecture where the gallery becomes a prominent feature. The building was never constructed.
Slide 27- Roof tile details
Flat tile for steep
Round tile for flatter roofs
Manufactured at the brickyard
Slide 28- Plan of New Orleans by British, Phillip Pittman, Military Engineer. Broutin died in 1751 succeeded by Bernard Deverges. In 1760 the British threat spurred a drive to fortify New Orleans to include a peripheral pallisade and moat.
Spanish Period (1762 1803)
November 3, 1762, New Orleans along with all of France's holdings west of the Mississippi River were ceded to Spain and the rest to England.
After the official change of hands there were two more French Intendants; D'Abbadi (died) and was succeeded by Phillip Aubry.
Don Antonio d Ulloa arrived March 5, 1766 to take over New Orleans for the Spaniards but did not take official charge of the colony. He was expelled (1768) in the first American revolt against European control and they threatened to expel! French ex-officials. August 18, 1769, Don Alexandro O'Reilly arrived in a show of force and took official charge the same day without a shot.
Slide 29- Note typical form of Louisiana house and French influence steep, hip roof and narrow dormers
Slide 30- Typical house plans and expansion potential Note interior chimneys
Slide 31- Madaame John's legacy typical French form although the house was built late in the Spanish period narrow dormers, two-pitch hip roof. Raised main floor on brick basement, board siding over brick filled timber. As in the earliest collombage structures the door and windows

are framed in the wall timber. Note the low arched heads a form common in the formal civic architecture. Explain the evolution of the two-pitch roof.
Slide 32- Laffitte's Smithery note general French form; no gallery, no basement, brick entre poteaux on a brick sole, shimneys removed.
Slide 33- Note adjacent positions of shop and quarters instead of over-under arrangement.
Slide 34- Smithery elevations
Slide 35- (1798) Spanish engineer, Carlos Trudeau, shows plantation development -basic adherance to the French plan with a new fortification line (not built until 1792). Note former Bienville plantation, leased to Jesuits early in French period to be sub-divided as Fauborg St. Mary after the American acquisition.
Note position of Fauborg Treme and Fauborg Marigny-developments making any fortification virtually useless.
Spanish fortifications designed by French engineer, Gilbert Guillemard, in 1794 to replace the dilapidate French pallisade.
Shows 1790 plan showing future fauborgs and over-all position on the river.
Slide 38- Street scenes of general character before the fires.
Slide 39- Area burned in 1794 description of 1788 fire indicated 850 buildings burned.
Generally the buildings of the Spanish period before the fires were repetition of the French Period. Even the major rebuilding of the city after the hurrican of 1779 retained the attitudes and form of the French Period. After the second fire architecture was due for a change.
Code established as follows: December 8, 1794
1. all two-story buildings shall be brick or timber with brick in-fill, timber to be covered with minimum 1" plaster
2. roofs were required to be flat covered with tile or brick
3. one-story wooden houses permitted of depths less than 30' including gallery
4. all houses required to face the street except where frontage is less than 30'
This resulted in the building of many flat terraced roofs
Slides 40-43 Describe characteristics-basic French character with flatter roofs as opposed to the steep roof.
Slide 44- Sketch of Cabildo of 1792 replacement of the town hall built by O'Reilly in 1769 after the fire of 1788 part of three-building design by Gilberto Guillemard Cabildo, Cathedral and Presbytere. The Cabildo and Presbytere are the major surviving buildings of the Spanish period. The flat tile roofs are typical of the post-fire architecture. Note Empire style-classical detailing.

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(6) :n of New Orleans", a proposed plan possibly drawn in Paris by the Engineer Perrier after he was appointed Engineer-in-Chief of Louisiana in 1718.

David Rlgney
AE 681
I. Precedence in France
A. House Types
B. Building Methods and Materials
C. Planning Concepts
II. French Colonial Period (1718 1762) A. Settlement
1. Development of the town plan
a. Influence of the official French style
b. Modification by the environment
2. Development of civic architecture
a. Modification of form by environment
b. Evolution of construction types and materials
3. Development of domestic architecture
a. Evolution of materials and construction methods
b. Evolution of the gallery
III., Spanish Colonial Period (1762 1803)
A. Continuation of French influence
B. Fires of 1788 and 1794
1. Modification of construction materials and methods
2. Modification of planning
3. Opening a door to a new American architecture

1 Typical French house elevation types; Les Maisons de la Normandie, p.11
2o Farm building of brique entre poteaux; Le3 Maisons de la Normandie, p. 53
3. Detail of brique entre poteaux; Les Maisons de la Normandie, p. 17
A. Diagram of French Norman building elements; Les Maisons de la Normandie, p 26
5. French Norman structural detail; Les Maisons de la Normandie, p. 62
6 Map of New France settleements; Early American Architecture, p. 254
7. Map of New Orleans; Louisiana, Guide to the State, p. 326
8. Map of the Mississippi River Delta; Louisiana, a Narrative History, p. 139 9* Plan of New Orleans (1723); Vieux Carre, Historic District, p. 16
10. Aboriginal shelters; Spain and Her Rivals on the Gulf Coa3t, p. 98
11. Nw Biloxi shelters; Louisiana Purchase, p. 10
12. Barracks plan; Bienville's New Orleans, plate 17
13. Fort la Balise; Bienville's New Orleans, plate 29
14. Barracks at Fort la Balise; Bienville's New Orleans, plate 30
15. Section through the prison (1730); Bienville's New Orleans, plate 24
16. Plan of the prison (1730); Bienville's New Orleans, plate 23
17. Plan of New Orleans (1731); Vieux Carre, Historic District, p. 28
18. Drawings of John Law Plantation Water Mill; Spain and Her; Rivals on^ the Gulf Coast, p. 106
19. Warehouses on Dumalne Street (1726); Bienville's New Orleans plate 26
20. Parish Church (1724); Bienville's New Orleans, plate 20
21. Baron's House and Observatory; Bienville'3 New Orleans, plate 32
22. Plan of 1st Ursuline Convent; Bienville's New Orleans, plate 40
23. Elevation of Hospital addition to 1st Convent; Bienville's New Orleans, plate 39
24. 2nd Ursuline Convent; Early American Architecture;, p. 262
25. Proposed Intendance Building; Bienville's New Orleans, plate 44
26. Plan of proposed Xntendance Building; Bienville's New Orleans, plate 45
27. Tile Roof Detail; Bienville's New Orleans, plate 34
28. Plan of New Orleans (1765-1770); The Present State of the Eurpjpean_S_ejttl^enta on the Mississippi, p. viii

29. Typical Acadian Bouse; Louisianay _Guida ftc the Stats, p. 136
30. Acadian House Plana; Early American Architecture, p. 263
31. Madame John's Legacy; New Orleans and It's Environs, face page
32. Lafitte's Smithery; New Orleans and It's Environs, plata 1
33. Lafitte's Smithery plan; New Orleans and It's Environs, plate 119
34. Lafitte's Smithery elevations; New Orleans and It's Environs, plate 118
35. Plan of New Orleans (1798); Vieux Carre, Historic District, p. 49
36. Spanish Fortifications (1794); Vieux Carre^ Historic District, p. 47
37. Plan of New Orleans (1798); Louisiana, a Narrative History, p. 139
33. Street Scenes of New Orlean's Vieux Carre; New Orleans and It's Environs, plate 2
39. Map of New Orleans fire of 1794; The Spanish In the ^SSiSSJSSJ^lB^S.' Plate
40. Street Scenes of New Orlean's Vieux Carre; New Orleans and It'a Environs, plate 4
41. Street Scenes of New Orlean's Vieux Carre; New Orleans and It's Environs, plate 5
42. Casa Finard Elevation; New Orleans and It's Environs, plate 120
43. Casa Finard Plan; New Orleans and It's Environs, plate 121
44. Cabildo of 1792; Sketches of Old New Orleans, p. 23

Chriatovich, Mary Louisa; Holder., Pat; Swanson, Betsy; Tolodano, Roulhac; New Orlfcaft Architactugo; Volume 11: Thfc American Sector., Pelican Publishing Company Gretna,, Louisiana, 1972.
This volume continues in a manner similar to that of Volume 1 in the documentation of New Orleans Architectural History. Essays by Samuel Wilson are detailed and informative.
Coffin, Levis A.j Polhemoa, Henry M.; Klorthingten, Addison F.; Small French Buildings3 Charles Scribner's sons, New York, 1926
This book is a photographic essay of the vernacoler architecture of France expressed in a profusion of village and rural architecture of a less than pretentious nature. There is little in the descriptions to tie the photographs into a pattern of architectural development.
Hansen, Harry; Louisiana A Guide to the State, Hastings House, Publishers, Inc., New York, 1971.
This handbook provides a comprehensive guide to the past and present of the state of Louisiana. In addition to a brief but relatively complete section on the state's history there arc sketches and photographs relative to the character of colonial Louisiana.
I.emann, Bernard; Wilson, Samuel Jr.; New Orleans Architecture; Volume 1: The Lower Garden District, Pelican Publishing Company, Inc.- Gretna, Louisiana,, 1971.
This is the first of a series intended to eventually complete a historical-architectural inventory ef New Orleans pertinent to the 3ubjec area. The Graphic supplementation is primarily photographic but there are a number of reproductions of early site plans, architectural drawings some of which are in color.
Pictman, Philip; The Present State of the European Settlements on the Mississippi (Facsimile Reproduction) University of Florida Press, Gainesville, I973*
This book is a narrative of Pittmari's observations of the settlements and fortifications along the Mississippi River from West Florida to Illinois. The narrative is accompanied by a number of maps and site plans.
Rieciuti, Italo William, New Orleans and Its Environs The Domestic Architecture 1727-1870, Bonansa Books, New York, 1938.
This bock is primarily a photographic essay on the architecture cf New Orleans from 1727-1870. In addition to photographs there are a number measured drawings. Attention is paid to general architectural character, interiors, and detailing*

asa T. i The Lvfallings or^ Colonic! At-t/.-'.f.F., Tha :.i ^ar&ity North -v.jj-, Ch^oltlliTtr 1.950. "
This book covers the development of risidciitu I architecture, during the colonial period. Kaphasia ia on the Eastern colonies, Photographs are the primary graphic supplementation. Coverage of interiors is considerable.
Wilaon, SamuelP Jr.; Bj.eival2.lgJon New Orleans, The Friends of tba Cabildo, New Orleans, .1968.
Graphic assay on the French Colonial period of New Orleanst intended to record the 250th Anniversary of the founding of New Orleans. The graphic reproductions are examples of the materials from the French archives on loan to the Louisiana State Museum for the occassiott. The description and opening comments by the author are very informative.
Wilson, Samuel9 J 5 New Orleans Architecture; Volume XV; The Grade Faubourgs Pelican Publishing Company, Inc., Gretna, Louisiana, 1974.
Continuation of the series ~,detailed and informative*
Wilson, Samuel, Jr.; The Vieux Carta Ha' Orleans, Its Plan, Its Growth, Its Architecture, Bureau of Governmental Research, New Orleans, 1968.
A complete and detailed description of the development of New Orlean's Vieux Carre up to the twentieth century supplemented by a multitude of photographs, maps, site place, and architectural drawings, this book includes numerous verbal characterisations of New Orleans during its development .
watai isri. The C::ola>; P

^Davis, Edviu Adatna; Louisiana,., A. Narrative History, Claitor's Publishing Division* 1.911,
The xijest 15 chapters deal in depth with colonial Louisiana (I8th century) including geography, aboriginal population, European colonial policies, economy and culture.
Drury, John; Historic Medwest Houses, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 1947.
This anthology of historic homes in the Midwest Includes articles on some of the 18th century French houses: at Kaskaskia (Pierre Menard House 1802), Cahokia Courthouse (Jean Baptlste Saucier House-1737), both In Illinois; St.. Genieveve (Jean Baptlste Valley-1785), Missouri; and In Green Bay, Wisconsin (Tank Cottage-1776).
Drury, John; Midwest Heritage, "Old French Towns" Chapter 8, pp. 136-155, A. A, Wyn, Inc., New York, 1948.
Old engravings of the period illustrate thi3 historical, ethnographic almost geographic description of the Midwest in the 19th century. The author does some justice to the French contribution to Mississippian urban development with scenes of Old Cahokia, Kaskaskia, Fort da Chartres (in ruins), Pralre du P.ccher, Carondelet, Saint Char3.es, Praire du Chlen and Sauit Sainte Marie.
Drury, John; Old Illinois Houses, Illinois State Historical Society, Springfieldf 1949*
The first three chapters are historical and architectural analyses in brief of k the Jean Baptiste Saucier House (Courthouse) in Cahokia, the Creole House,
Prairie du Rocher and the Pierre Menard House, Kaskaskia.
Drury, John; The Heritage of Early American Houses, Coward-McCaan, Inc., New York, 1969.
A history of individual houses, representing architectural styles in different parts of the country; the following articles deal with French influence in she Mississippi Valley:
1) Elgin Mansion 4) Pierre Menard House
2) Holly Hedges 5) Jean Baptiste Valle' House
3) Ringro3e 6) Roi-Porlier-Tank Cottage
Freal, Jacques; Maisons de Normandle, Hachette Literature, Paris, France, 1973* (Written in French)
An inventory assembled by the author surveying remaining examples of 18th century rural French architecture; excellent photos of construction details, styles and techniques; an essential source for French building terminology and historic architectural vocabulary; in the old barns and houses of Normandy can be seen the construction traditions imported by French colonists to new France.
Gray. Lewis Cecil; "Agriculture In the Lower Mississippi Valley and Gulf Costal Plains in the 18th Century", pp. 60-84, History of Agriculture in the Southern United States to 1860.
w A history of French efforts to colonize the Mississippi from an economic point
f of view, with explanations for the limitations and failures of agricultural
enterprises which influenced the slow growth of the colony.

134, v>.",Xy i>, xv<-;Jf.
A brief description with photo3 of French colonial architecture in Canada, sighting a few remaining important examples,
Hcber, Leonard V.; Wilson, Samite1, Jr.; Bareness Pontalba's Buildings, The Friends of the Cabildo, Inc., Jackson Square, New Orleans, Louisiana, 1964c
Family history of the Pontalba's, Patrons of building projects in New Orleans, architects, plans, previous colonial buildings and European precedents and design inspirations.
Huber, Laonard V.; NewOrleans A Pictorial History, Crown Publishers, Inc., New York, 1971.
The first chapter, "Discovery and Development", pp. 16-37, gives a brief but well highlighted and illustrated history of colonial New Orleans,
Keeper, Frederick; jjllncls Architecturev From Territorial Times, T^.The Present, the University cf Chicago Press, Chicago, 1968.
Photographs and brief historical and architectural descriptions of the courthouse and church at Cahokia (founded 1699), Fort dp Chartres (1753) and the Creole House at Prairie du Rocher (1800)=
Laughlln, Clarence John; Ghosts Along The Mississippi, Bonanze Books, Njw York, 1961.
Photographs taken by the author in the 1930fs and 1940fs show the often pitiful condition of the abandoned plantations, many still retaining their elegance and pride although in & semi-state of ruin; first published in 1948 this photographic and poetic essay of Louisiana plantation architecture was written to arouse sympathy and public action to preserve these elegant remains of America's heritage
Lynn, Stuart M.; New Orleans, Bonanza Books, New York, 1949.
A beautiful photo essay of New Orleans architecture Including some scenes of the Vieux Carre* and the. cities remaining examples of colonial styles.
Matthews, R C; Joseph Penaell's Sketches Of Old New Orleans, Hope i-ssblicatlons, New 0 cleans Louisiana 70121.
Ink sketches and drawings by Joseph Pennell with random biographical account by the author evoke the moods, scenes, and life in New Orleans savored during the artist's years in residence.
MeDerraott, John Francis, Editor; Frenchmen And French Ways In The Mississippi Valley. University of Illinois Press, Chicago, 1969.
Handsomely illustrated collection of articles and papers by the leading authorities of French colonial history in North America; includes chapters on Ste. Genevieve, Missouri, Fort Massac, Fort de Chartres, strategic planning, unpublished memoirs and Ignaee Francois Broutin.
KcDezmott, John Francis, Editor; The Spanish In The Mississippi Valley, 1762-1804, Cnlver*tv Of Illinois Press, Chicago, 1974. ~
An anthology cf sixteen original essays by experts of the Spanish colonial period: dealing mostly with political, economic and social aspects, this compilation does section Spanish architectural contributions in the chapter, "Almonester. Philanthropist and Builder in New Orleans" by Samuel Wilson.

Valley", ChaptW~8TFp. "258-268, taford University Press, Kcv York, 1952,
Morrison's chapter about the French Mississippi cakes a full survey: New Orleans, m ae:*tiements, building types, construction, plans, and specific houses which re-
w present the architectural evolution of the French Missippi style. An excellent
cap of New Franca (Canada and the Mississippi) showing towns and trading posts
with their corresponding dates illustrates the expanse of the French claims on
the North American continent.
Oliver, Nola Nance; The Gulf Coast, Hastings House, New York, 1941.
A thorough photo essay concerned with remaining examples of French and Spanish colonial architecture of Biloxi, Ocean Springs, Points Aux Cheues, Pascagoula and Isle Auxoies-all on the Mississippi State Coast and many of which possibly no longer exist since the date of publication.
Gverdyke, W. Darrellj Louisiana Plantation Homes, Colonial and Ante Bellum, Architectural Book Publishing Company, New York, 1965.
Photographic inventory of existing 18th and early 19th century plantation homes in rural Louisiana; complete. Illustrated with drawings of plans and detailed ironwork.
Psterson, Charles E.; "Early St. Geneveve and Its Architecture" pp. 207-232. The Missouri Historical Review, January, 1941, Vol. XXXV.
An excellent description of the 18th century French settlement homes history and architecture with accompanying photos showing the condition of the fabric ^ before recent restoration.
Pickens, Buford; "The Architecture of Old Saint Louis", (pp. 6-9), "Colonial Period" in The Building Art in St. Louis, by George McCue.
Buford Pickens sights the sources for our sketchy knowledge of what was the architecture of colonial St. Louis: "View of the Valley of the Mississippi" by Robert Baird, 1832, series of pen and ink sketches made by Clarence Hoblitselle of early French Sto Louis architecture, and contemporary surviving examples in Illinois (Cahokia, Kaskaskia) and in St. Genieveve, Missouri.
v-ukens, Buford L.; "Regional Aspects of Early Louisiana Architecture" Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. 7, Nos. 1-2, pp. 33-38 (January-June 1948).
A copy of this could not be found in the Florida library.
ahea, John Gilmary, Discovery and Exploration of tjie_Misai3aippi Valley, Joseph McDonoughs Joseph McDonough, Albany, 1903.
The original nerratives of Marquette, Allouea, Membre', Hennepin and Anastase Douray and facsimiles of their early maps, letters, etc.
aaithj, Frasser; white Pillars, Early Life and Architecture of J^J^i^^^SS^SiSS^JlBM^L
Beautiful ink renderings, floor plans, and histories include several houses of the French-Spanish colonial era: Concord at Natches (1794), Old Scherts Fame in Acadia Parish (1750's), Labatut, Psrlange, Keller Plantation, Ormond Plantation; with a final chapter on styles and details.

Tatjice Cc-lenial Fe*iud_f Charles Seribner's Sonet New Y ^ pp. 54-55 Brief description and accompanying photoc of the Courthouse at
P Cahokia, Illinois and Homeplace Plantation, Hahnville, Louisiana two
examples of Miesissippian French colonial architecture.
Wilson, Ssauel Jr.; Colonial Fortifications and Military Architecture in the Mississippi Valley, reprinted from The French in the Mississippi Valley, edited by John Francis McDei-mott, University of Illinois Press, Urbana, 1965.
A summary of colonial fort building in the Mississippi River Valley, their purpose as the cornerstone for new settlements; Wilson credits specific forty to various military engineers and uses their design drqwings to illustrate the conceptual and ideal, as well as actual, military architecture of New France.
Wilson, Samuel; "Gulf Coast Architecture" pp 82-130, Spain and Her Rivals, proceedings of the Gulf Coast History and Humanities Conference, edited by Ernest F. Dibble and Earle W. Newton, The State of Florida; Department of State, Historic Pensaeola Preservation Board, 1971.
An excellent collection of Documentary drawings serve to enhance the author's discourse on the earliest French colonial structures, including the houses and plans of New Orleans and Biloxi, forts and plantations in their vicinity, actual renderings, elevations, plans and concepts of the first Louisiana architects: La Blond de La Tour, de Pauger, Broutin, Pierre Barron and Bernard Deverges.
fcliison, Samuel; "The Colonial Period 1723-1803", The Cablldo on Jackson Square, The Friends of the Cablldo, Inc., New Orleans, Louisiana, 1970.
A history, illustrated by documents, contemporary 18th century design drawings and conjectural sketches of New Orleans' colonial prisons, guard houses, and government buildings culminating at the erection of the "New Cabildo" (1795-1803), the final capitol of the Spanish Regime in Louisiana.

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