Title: Caribbean WaterWays = Vias Fluviales Caribenas
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098815/00018
 Material Information
Title: Caribbean WaterWays = Vias Fluviales Caribenas
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Publisher: GEF-IWCAM
Place of Publication: Castries, Saint Lucia
Publication Date: June 2010
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098815
Volume ID: VID00018
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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Caribbean WaterWays

-l. k. a Newsletter of the GEF IWCAM Project

EHI Volume 4, Issue 2 June 2010

In this issue:

Feature Article:

* Mitigation of Impacts
of Industrial Wastes
on the Lower Haina
River Basin and its
Coast, DR (pgs. 1,2,3)

* Riverbank Stabiliza-
tion-a Collaborative
Effort in the Fond
D'or Watershed, St.
Lucia (pgs.1, 4and

* World Environment
Day 2010 (pg. 2))

* Background on the

* Ridge to Reef Work-
shop (pg.6)

* 5th ISTAC (pg. 6)

* GEF-IWCAM Exhibits
at CEF-5 (pg. 6)

* St. Lucia Demo Pro-
ject closes... and the
TMR takes over! (pg.

* Global Ocean Confer-
ence 2010 (pg. 8)



Riverbank Stabilization
a Collaborative
Effort in the Fond D'or
Watershed, St. Lucia


Rivers in the lower Fond D'Or Water-
shed are severely degraded. Along many
stretches, the river bank (riparian zone) has
been used for intensive farming practices and
livestock grazing. Agricultural cultivation is
dominated by intensive banana production and
many of the active banana plantations along
the rivers are being managed without any form
of appropriate soil conservation measures. As
a result, many sections of rivers in this water-
shed have collapsed and high levels of sedi-
ment from poorly designed and maintained
drains are transported in overland flow contrib-
uting to increased soil erosion and channel

Rivers frequently need to be de-
silted, particularly in areas of the lower water-
shed where flooding of adjacent settlements
and the road network occurs. In addition ripar-
(Continued on page 4)

Mitigation of Impacts of Industrial
Wastes on the Lower Haina
River Basin and its Coast,
Dominican Republic

The Lower Haina River Basin is one of the Dominican
Republic's main industrial conglomerations, with over one
hundred medium to large sized industries. The region is
highly contaminated by these industries as well as the solid
and liquid wastes generated by the communities. Most indus-
tries lack an environmental component among their objec-
tives. Final disposal of industrial waste is mostly carried out
by third parties without environmental authorization and diffi-
culties in the management of toxic and hazardous waste are
further exacerbated by poor capacity and infrastructure.

The Dominican Republic's GEF-IWCAM Demonstra-
tion Project aims to obtain tangible results in the reduction of
pollutants in this hydrographic basin. The principal interven-
tion is in the industrial sector with the implementation of clean
production programmes to reduce contamination by develo-
ping recycling and reutilisation mechanisms.

The main expected results are a reduction in the pol-


(Continued on page 2)


IWCAM Caribbean WaterWays Newsletter

(Continued from page 1)



World Environment Day 2010 Message:

"The destruction of the natural world costs the global
economy some $2 to $5 trillion every year but economists
barely notice the loss. This is a fundamental and profound
market failure at the heart of our global economic system.
Nations must work together to place a value on biodiversity,
just as we need to place a global price on carbon emissions.
Only when we fully value nature will we properly protect it.
We rely on the natural world for our food, for clean water, for
protection from floods and storms and to provide us with a
habitable climate. If we lose nature, we lose ourselves."

Mohamed Nasheed, President of the Republic
of Maldives -


The Global Environment Facility-funded Integrating Watershed and
Coastal Areas Management in Caribbean Small Island Developing States
(GEF-IWCAM) Project was approved by the Global Environment Facility
(GEF) in May 2004. Implementing agencies are the United Nations Envi-
ronment Programme (UNEP) and the United Nations Development Pro-
gramme (UNDP). Executing agencies are the Secretariat of the
Cartagena Convention (UNEP-CAR/RCU), the Caribbean Environmental
Health Institute (CEHI) and the UN Office for Project Services (UNOPS).
The thirteen participating SIDS are: Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas,
Barbados, Cuba, Grenada, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica,
Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and
Trinidad and Tobago. The length of the Project is 5 years and commenced
in the second quarter of 2005. The Project Coordinating Unit is located at
the CEHI, as agreed by the Implementing and Executing Agencies and the
participating countries.

.Sohil i
-lution emitted by the industrial sector, improvements to
water quality within the basin, and the creation of a sustaina-
ble management programme for the hydrographic basin.

Full project implementation began in June 2008 and
is due to end in September 2010.

Project Partners
Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources
Haina Association of Industries and Businesses
Herrera Association of Industrial Businesses
Lower Haina Municipal Government (City Hall)
Dominican Institute for Hydraulic Resources
Autonomous University of Santo Domingo (UASD)
Ministry of Education
Coordinator of Haina Neighborhood Councils
San Cristobal Province Directorate of the Ministry of
Environment and Natural Resources

Project Activities and Achievements

Establishment of a management infrastructure and strat-
egy for the Haina River Basin

The Project Steering Committee, which includes the
various partners, will be converted into the Haina Manage-
ment and Development Council when the project ends.
Monitoring capacity is being developed within the watershed,
with training being provided to the Municipal Environmental
Management Units of the Municipal Governments (UGAM)
located in the project area.

Legislative and policy review to provide incentives for
reductions in discharges and emissions, and to estab-
lish responsibility for monitoring and compliance

(Continued on page 3)


IWCAM Caribbean WaterWays Newsletter

(Contmued from page 2)
Design and application of a survey to 110 of the 126
industries in Haina, enabling a comprehensive analysis
of the solid and liquid waste practices and atmospheric
emissions in the area.

Establishment of 20 sampling points to gather baseline
surface water quality data in the Lower Haina River
watershed and adjacent coast.

An inventory of indicator species and / or species that
are pollution-resistant at these sites.

Based upon the findings of the industrial survey and
river and coast sampling, proposals to revise some
environmental regulations in the Surface Water Quality
and Discharge Control and in the Ground Water regu-
lations were made. The first of these is currently being

Development of a map of industrial discharge for the
Lower Haina River Watershed (useful information for
the Ministry of Environment, which previously only had
recorded information from the 31 industries granted
environmental permissions).

Identification and implementation of mechanisms to
reduce point-source pollutants

Cleaner Production Mechanisms have been identified
and will be implemented in ten industries at a pilot level. It is
projected that the remaining 116 industries will also have
these mechanisms implemented gradually (short, medium,
and long term).

Clean-up and Public/Private Sector Awareness

Development of a clean-up strategy for the water-
shed, to be implemented by the Municipality, and monitored
and supervised by the Haina Management and Development

llaia is iii ir homei,

Committee. This is supported by a communication strategy
aimed at various sectors: industrial, academic, community
(neighborhood councils), and transport. Groups were formed
to support the environmental protection and conservation
work, e.g. the Volunteer Nature Guardians (made up of stu-
dents from the four middle schools of Haina) and the Environ-
mental Defense Clubs (made up of primary school students
from 2 schools in Haina).

Summary of the Demonstration Project's Impacts

Attitude change amongst industries related to man-
agement of industrial discharge

Improved communication between the industrial sec-
tor and the Ministry of Environment

Improved integration between different parts of the
Ministry of Environment and other governmental insti-
tutions in the execution of the project

In the medium term, considerable improvement in the
air quality and management of solid waste

Students were motivated to form the volunteer Nature
Guardians and Environmental Defense Clubs;
Neighborhood Councils identified more with environ-
mental issues

Community involvement in work related to clean-up of
the watershed increased

Creation of synergies with other activities within the
Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, such
as: the construction of barriers to prevent dumping of
solid waste and informal dumps in zones near the
river and estuary; on-site stabilization of contaminated
soil contaminated lead from an old smelting plant and
battery recycling center, and; restoration of the wet-
lands in the lower Nigua, and, declaration of that site
as a protected area.


llaia Associatio,, o/ hihII-iL' auid Iha,'~inc,1om

IWCAM Caribbean WaterWays Newsletter

(Continuedfrompage 1)

ian zones and riparian vegetation are being lost. These play an
important part in maintaining water quality because they act as
buffers, filtering out some of the agricultural chemicals before they
enter the water courses.

River Bank Assessment
An assessment of vegetation along the main rivers within
the Fond D'Or watershed was conducted in January 2009. The
survey assessed the condition of the river, land tenure, farming
practices and the total area required for planting along farms near
the river bank. Aerial photography was used to enable assess-
ment of long stretches of the river channel more easily and GIS
maps were prepared showing various land uses.

The riverbank assessment and site observations con-
ducted during the exercise revealed relatively high levels of sus-
ceptibility to bank degradation of the selected rivers, primarily to
bio-physical and environmental factors. Most of the natural vege-
tation has been removed in favour of other types of land use and
what remains is further threatened by intensive banana cultivation
and cattle grazing. The Fond D'Or, Derniere Riviere and Grande
Ravine Rivers were found to be the most degraded and vulnerable
of the four rivers selected and to require immediate remedial ac-
tion to prevent further levels of degradation.

A 6 metre wide vegetated buffer strip was recommended
along each side of the river channel from the Fond D'Or Bay, up-
stream to the upper reaches of the watershed as a front line meas-
ure of defence. The assessment recommended that, as a matter
of priority, measures be taken to mitigate the destruction of the
natural vegetation within the riparian buffer. In addition to vege-
tated buffer zones along the entire length of the river, appropriate
control systems to stabilize and settle out contaminants from farms
and households were needed. The vegetated buffer could be es-
tablished from natural vegetation, tree crops or commercially im-
portant timber species. Traditionally, land owners tend to favour
tree crops, and given the prevailing agro-ecologic conditions in the
area, mango, citrus breadfruit and cocoa were deemed to be suit-
able species.

Most of the farmers interviewed during the exercise
agreed that most of the river banks are degraded and accepted
partial responsibility for the current status of the river buffer zone.
However, while most were prepared to participate in the rehabili-
tation program, they stressed a preference for tree crops due to
their perception that timber trees provide excessive shade which
ultimately affects banana crop production levels.

It was estimated that a total distance of 19,862 metres
of riverbank was degraded and would require rehabilitation by re-
vegetation of the banks. The study went so far as to estimate the
length of river segment to be planted on each property.

A Collaborative Approach to Replanting Riverbanks

Riverbank rehabilitation programs undertaken in the
area before have had varying levels of success. It was therefore
decided that a more "collaborative approach" to rehabilitation
of the river banks would be used.

The new banana certification programme under the Fair
Trade label requires that all farmers establish a buffer zone along
the river where they have established banana farms. The GEF-
IWCAM St. Lucia Demonstration Project therefore collaborated
with the National Fair Trade's Mabouya Valley office (given its
mandate under the farmer certification programme), the Forestry
Department of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries,
MAFF, (given its mandate under the Forest Soil and Water Con-
servation Ordinance), the Agricultural Extension Department of
MAFF, and the Project for Peace, a Non-Governmental Organi-
zation, to address the problem. Farmers and private land own-
ers, schools and other partner organizations were also included
amongst stakeholders consulted.

Following the assessment, a meeting was held with Fair
Trade, the Forestry Division of the Ministry of Agriculture, For-
estry and Fisheries, and the Project for Peace, to discuss a num-
ber of initiatives. It was agreed that the project should focus
upon one affected area, the Grande Ravine tributary. This would,
in effect, be a demonstration of good practice for river bank stabi-
lization which could be replicated throughout the Fond D'or Wa-
tershed. Among things discussed were:

Funding to acquire the tree crops recommended for

An educational programme;

The number of plants each farmer would receive and
when they could be made available; and

The responsibility for monitoring of planting and mainte-

(Continued on page 5)


IWCAM Caribbean WaterWays Newsletter

(Continuedfrompage 4)

nance of the tree crops by Fair Trade.

Meetings were subsequently held with the banana farm-
ers from the Grande Ravine settlement and farmers from other
settlements in the watershed. They were briefed on the water
quality problems and the need to have them as partners if the pro-
gramme was to be successful. The Project for Peace supported
the initiative by purchasing the planting material from the Ministry
of Agriculture at a subsidized cost, and, in addition to providing
some technical support, GEF-IWCAM contributed towards the cost
of two signs. The Forestry Department provided forest tree seed-

Additional support and sponsorship was provided by a
private sector company, First National Bank, which both contrib-
uted funds to, and participated in, the tree planting exercise. They
also hired a company to videotape the event which was later aired
on national television.

Public Awareness and Sensitization
In an effort to stimulate interest and participation, a sensi-
tization and awareness programme was conducted before the
planting programme began by the Ministry of Agriculture's Infor-
mation Unit along with the Government Information Service (GIS).

The planting exercises took place from September to
October 2009. Given prevailing land management practices
adopted by farmers along the riverbanks, it was necessary to
stake all trees immediately after planting. This, it was hoped,
would help to prevent damage to trees when herbicide is being
applied to crops; a serious concern as past experiences showed
that when trees planted along riverbanks were not staked, the risk
of damage due to herbicide contamination was extremely high.

In an effort to ensure timely and successful execution of
the exercise, full participation by farmers and land owners was
encouraged. Farmers whose holdings were not adjacent to the

rivers were encouraged to work with farmers whose land was. In
areas which were abandoned or where land owners were not inter-
ested in participating in the program, schools within the valley were
invited to participate as part of an effort to provide students with
hands-on experience.

Present Status
The 2009 2010 dry season began early and was severe,
taking its toll on forested areas, agricultural areas and resulting in
river water levels which are below average, even for the dry sea-
son. The efforts to establish a small governmental group to con-
tinue monitoring planted areas, were not successful. Farmers
faced serious challenges irrigating their crops, providing drinking
water for their cattle and other livestock and keeping newly-planted
trees watered. The status of the new trees and replanted areas is
still to be assessed.

Lessons Learned
There is a need for public education and awareness pro-
grammes about the importance of the riparian zone, its
important function and protective measures.

Significant collaboration amongst stakeholders resulted in
an ambitious programme of replanting which was sup-
ported by both the public and private sector. The experi-
ence demonstrates however that the setting up of a moni-
toring and evaluation programme, as well as the provision
of ongoing technical advice to farmers, particularly with
regard to river bank stabilization measures, is essential for

Participating farmers, in particular, need to be educated
about the value of maintaining a healthy riparian zone if
they are to be fully committed to protecting and stabilizing
the river bank, particularly in the long-term.

Compromise in the selection of tree species for planting
was necessary to ensure the participation of farmers.


1 Palic qun^ in h,- ex en %L,

IWCAM Caribbean WaterWays Newsletter

Ridge-to-Reef (R2R) Workshop

The IWCAM Regional Project Coordinator (RPC)
participated in an Experts meeting for a new Ridge-to-Reef
(R2R) Initiative being developed by IUCN, convened from
May 19-21, 2010 in Punta Leona, Costa Rica. This meeting
was organized by IUCN and included representatives from
the IUCN offices in various regions of the world, as well as
partners and collaborating agencies. The RPC was invited to
bring an IWCAM and Caribbean perspective to the delibera-
Experts heard a history of the initiative and dis-
cussed the objectives of the meeting, followed by presenta-
tions on the work of a Consultant,Mr. Noel Jacobs, in the
form of a White Paper: Ridge to Reef Water Management
Practices to Support Ecosystem Services and Improve Ri-
paran and Coastal Livelihoods. Technical presentations
were made, based on the White Paper but the majority of the
meeting involved plenary and work group discussions on the
proposed programme, defining aspects of the programme
and identifying a Vision, Goal, Global Objective and Specific
Objectives, as well as desired Results. This new R2R initia-
tive is expected to build on the experience of GEF-IWCAM in
the Caribbean.


LBS Interim Scientific, Technical
Advisory Committee (ISTAC)

The RPC participated in the LBS ISTAC and IMO
Regional Workshop on the London Protocol and MARPOL
Convention which took place in Panama City, 24 28 May
2010. He presented on the work of the project and was given
responsibilities for crafting Recommendations, based on the
discussions at the ISTAC. Of great significance was the
number of participating countries who indicated their intent to
sign the LBS Protocol. In the case of Antigua/Barbuda, a
document was expected to have been presented to the Par-
liament during the week of the ISTAC meeting.

In addition, networking opportunities were utilized.
These included meeting with the French delegation to dis-
cuss opportunities for collaboration on IWRM and support for
LBS Protocol ratification. These discussions led to the agree-
ment on collaboration in a planned event on Bio-indicators
later in 2010.



GEF-IWCAM Exhibits at
Fifth Biennial Caribbean Environ-
mental Forum and Exhibition, CEF-5,
21-25 June 2010, Montego bay, Jamaica

Our exhibit focuses upon all nine
GEF-IWCAM Demonstration Projects.
Visit us to learn about the work of the projects, their
achievements and how Participating Countries and the
Region are benefitting from their activities.
We will also be introducing you to our Community Based
Resource Assessment (CBRA) Tool which will be launched
later this year!
For information on CEF-5 see:

IWCAM Caribbean WaterWays Newsletter

GEF-IWCAM St. Lucia Demonstration
Project Closes...
And the Trust for the Management of
Rivers takes over!

On 30 May 2010, the GEF-IWCAM St. Lucia Dem-
onstration Project held its Closing Ceremony and officially
launched the Non-Governmental Organization, the Trust for
the Management of Rivers (TMR).

The lively ceremony was a tribute to participants in
the Project as well as a symbolic handing over of responsi-
bility from the Fond D'Or Watershed Management Commit-
tee (WMC), which was the core of the participatory water-
shed management mechanism during project implementa-
tion, to the newly created TMR.

Due to concern by WMC members that beneficial
activities begun during the project would not be sustainable,
a series of consultations took place in 2009 to explore the
best type of organizational structure for a group dedicated
to continuing an integrated approach to the management of
the watershed after project completion.

The TMR already has a mission statement and ob-
jectives, rules and regulations, and a Transitional Plan of
Action. Its mission is:

to achieve recreational water standards in the river
through the promotion of improved land use prac-
tices throughout the watershed.

Its functions are:

To provide leadership for river water management,
research, education, etc.
To promote, establish and enhance partnerships
To develop coordinated river water quality efforts
based on GOs and NGOs Programmes.


Closing Ceremony tribute dance

TheG(LI-II 131IILpI.'ii. ouii eIri.', lii. iR
Trevalyn Clovis


IWCAM Caribbean WaterWays Newsletter

Global Oceans


The GEF-IWCAM Project
was represented at the Fifth Global
Conference on Oceans, Coasts and
Islands (GOC 5), at UNESCO in Paris,
3-7 May 2010, by the CNIS, Donna
Spencer. Her presentation on Critical
Success Factors for Sustainable IW- "
CAM in Caribbean SIDS, was made
during Session 42 of the GOC5.

This session was co-
convened with the US NOAA Interna-
tional Program Office and UNEP-
GPA and focused upon Strengthening
Implementation of Integrated Water-
shed and Coastal Management.

The Project was also repre-
sented by LaVerne Walker who pre-
sented on the Establishment of a Par-
ticipatory Watershed Management Ambassador Dessima Williams, Grenada, Chair, Alliance of Small Island
Model in the St. Lucia Demonstration Project. States (AOSIS), chairs Plenary Panel 6: SIDS andMauritius Strategy Im-
plementation in the Context of Climate Change Vulnerabilities, 7 May 2010

a rLTIr" Walker
Pa pag Cu Focal Pont, Demonstration herpres-
Conta'l Info tin Ses-
"wonl 42 while
GEF-IWCAM Projectalo Crdinatin Unit
P Box 1111, The) n Clement es, Sant Luca
lofTel: (758)45225011412; FNOAA
E-mail: dspen

Participating Country Focal Points, Demonstration Projects and others are invited to submit articles. Please contact
Donna Spencer at dspencer@cehi.org.1c
Contact Information:
GEF-IWCAM Project Coordination Unit
P.O. Box 1111, The Morne, Castries, Saint Lucia
Tel: (758)-452-250111412; Fax: (758)-453-2721
E-mail: dspencer@cehi.org.Ic


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