Title: Caribbean WaterWays = Vias Fluviales Caribenas
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098815/00016
 Material Information
Title: Caribbean WaterWays = Vias Fluviales Caribenas
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Publisher: GEF-IWCAM
Place of Publication: Castries, Saint Lucia
Publication Date: December 2009
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098815
Volume ID: VID00016
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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cl Caribbean WaterWays

G'F Newsletter of the GEF IWCAM Project
I EF Voume 3, Issue 4 December 2009

EHU Volume 3, Issue 4 December 2009

In this issue:

* Mapping Groundwa-
ter Resources in the
Basseterre Valley,
St. Kitts-a Wake-
up Call (pgs. 1,2,3)

* EndofYearMes-
sage from the GEF-
IWCAM RPC (pgs.1,

* Background on the

* Jamaica's Demo
Project Closes with
a Celebration of
Community Empow-
erment (pgs. 4-5)

* GEF-IWCAM well
represented at 18th
Annual CWWA Con-
ference (pg. 6)

* COLACMar 2009-
Marine Sciences:
Integration for De-
velopment (pg. 6)

* Fourth Project
Steering Committee
Meeting in the DR
(pg. 7)

* IWCAM Matters at
GEF-IWC5 (pg. 8)

* Legislative Toolkit
for IWCAM Pub-
lished! (pg. 8)

* Workshop on Ap-
plied Project Man-
agement for GEF-
UNEP Projects (pg.

End of Year Message
from GEF-IWCAM Regional
Project Coordinator

Dear Colleagues and
One year ago
we were looking forward
to accelerated implemen-
tation in 2009 and antici-
pating greater communi-
countries andhigher lev-
els of cooperation. We
also anticipated the conduct of the projects Mid-
Term Evaluation (MTE), which is a required stock-
taking" exercise and essentially an external "audt"
of our efforts, at the Project Coordinating Unit,
among Implementing and Executing Agencies, and
among participating countries. As we end theyear, I
am pleased to report that we received a positive
rating from the Mid- Term Evaluator anda strong
endorsement for our collective work so far

The MTE noted that the "GEF WCAM is a
very significant project that will deliver important
(Contnued on page 7)

Figure 1:

MER Location
Map, Basseterre
Valley, St. Kitts,
February 2009

Mapping Groundwater Resources in
the Basseterre Valley, St. Kitts
a Wake-up Call

The aquifer which underlies the Basseterre Valley is a
significant economic and social asset to the people of St. Kitts
and Nevis. The potable water extracted from this aquifer
represents well over 40% of the total water supply for the is-
land of St. Kitts. To ensure that this aquifer continues to be a
safe and reliable source of drinking water in the future, the
GEF-IWCAM demonstration project in St. Kitts aims to dem-
onstrate proper management and protection of the aquifer
and well-field on three fronts:

1. Mitigation ofthreats from contaminants;
2. Protection of the aquifer, well-field and supportive ecosys-
tem; and,
3. Improved user-resource management.

In tackling these objectives, the first step is to understand
the groundwater resource itself. A thorough hydrogeological
survey was undertaken to fully comprehend the properties
and characteristics of the aquifer which would aid in its day-
(Continued on page 2)


IWCAM Caribbean WaterWays Newsletter

MER Transect Al

- - sea-tevl
Unit I

3 60 93 12/ 150 1BDl


ernnio, = 6 RMWS t8 62% L2 =0.67 Electrod Spacing = 6 m

A~~, showng locatian of MER Truised Al
Tr~nsect rus west to ~ast

Unit 1 sufficial s~'d day and r~dcs
Unt II- ~nnixed sand, cay and h c~s, higher wat~ cantpnt
UnI 111 coE.~ sands, grav.4 ad boulde r~wck

Figure 2: MER Transect Al


The Global Environment Facility-funded integrating Watershed and
CoastalAreas Management in Caribbean Small Island Developing
States (GEF-IWCAM) Project was approved bythe Global Environment
Facility (GEF) in May 2004. implementing agencies are the United Na-
tions Environment Programme (UNEP) and the United Nations Devel-
opment Programme (UNDP). Executing agencies are the Secretariat of
Cartagena Convention (UNEP-CAR/RCU), the Caribbean Environ-
mental Health Institute (CEHI) and the UN Office for Project Services
(UNOPS). The thirteen participating SIDS are: Antigua and Barbuda,
The Bahamas, Barbados, Cuba, Grenada, Dominica, Dominican Re-
public, Hait, Jamaica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent
and the Grenadines, and Trinidad and Tobago. The length of the Project
is years and commenced in the second quarter of 2005. The Project
Coordinating Unit is located at the CEHI, as agreed by the Implement-
ing and Executing Agencies and the participating countries.

(Continuedfrom page 1)
to-day sustainable management.

What do we need to know?

The Basseterre Valley Aquifer was the first aquifer to be
thoroughly studied in St. Kitts in the 1970s by Dr. Joseph Christ-
mas. Prior to this, the source of freshwater for St. Kitts had
strictly been freshwater springs. Dr. Christmas' landmark PhD
thesis stood as the primary source of information on the aquifer
for many years. However, as St. Kitts continued to grow and
develop, more wells were drilled in the area and management of
the well-field became more challenging as water demand in-
creased and land use changed significantly within the water-

A comprehensive hydrogeological survey was completed for
the aquifer in September 2009, after 9 months of work by a
team of consultants that also worked on various other elements
of the project. The survey included various elements not limited

(Continued on page 3)



210 /20





IWCAM Caribbean WaterWays Newsletter

(Continuedfrom page 2)
1. Review and evaluation of all existing hydrogeologic data;
2. Recording of water levels and video survey of existing
3. Mapping of the aquifer using a novel geophysical tech-
4. Sampling of wells for various water quality parameters;
5. Construction of a computer simulation model.

The main focus of this article is the mapping of the aquifer
using a technique named Multi-Electrode Electrical Resistivity
(MER). MER was used to delineate:

* The thickness and distribution of sediments throughout
the aquifer;
* Zones of increased porosity (areas where water can flow
more easily);
* Zones of possible contamination; and,
* The fresh/salt water interface (freshwater floats on sea-
water because seawater is about one-fortieth more dense
than freshwater).
Traditionally, these aquifer parameters are estimated from
direct observation and data collection from drilling of multiple
boreholes and installation of monitoring wells. However, drill-
ing is a time consuming, labor intensive and very expensive
activity. MER is a non-invasive geophysical technique that
accurately records variations in sediment distribution, poros-
ity, and gross water quality. Each hour of mapping with MER
is equivalent to drilling 56 boreholes without the data gaps
between boreholes!

How does it work?

Resistivity is the property of a material that resists the
flow of electrical current. Geophysical techniques such as
MER introduce electric current into the ground using pairs of
electrodes and observe the electrical fields that flow through
the various layers of earth in the subsurface. The electrodes
are typically arranged in a linear array (called a transectt") -
as the distance between the electrodes is increased, more
data on subsurface resistivity from successively greater
depths can be achieved. MER is a useful technique in
groundwater hydrology because each type of earth material
(sand, clay, rock etc.) exhibits a different resistivity. Also, the
resistivity of earth materials is very sensitive to water content.
In turn, the resistivity of water changes as its salt content in-

What did we find?

Figure 1, pg. 1, demonstrates the various transects
that were laid out within the area of the well-field. The MER

technique identified three units in the Basseterre Valley Aquifer:

Unit I: A high resistivity unit of dry sands, clayey sands and
volcanic rock. Unit I was an average thickness of 5.5 me-
Unit II: A layer of intermixed sand, clay and rock similar to
Unit I but its resistivity signature is different due to partial
saturation with water. Unit II is approximately 14 meters
Unit III: A unit of gravels, coarse sands and boulder rocks
which is the water storage unit of the aquifer system.
This unit begins at about mean sea level. Unit III is about
22 meters thick. The resistivity of the lower part of Unit III
is indicative of salt water. Thus, the fresh/salt water inter-
face is found in the bottom half of Unit III. This is shown
in Figure 2, pg. 2, (the interface is shown as the dashed
red line).
Figure 3 shows a map of the elevation of the fresh/salt
Elevation of FreshlSalt Water Interface
Relative to Sea-Level


Figure 3

water interface for the whole well-field area. This information is
incredibly useful in terms of managing pumping levels in the
aquifer and to understand the likelihood of salt water intrusion
in the future especially with the likely impacts of climate change
and sea level rise. We can see that the pumping level in parts
of the aquifer is in close proximity to the fresh/salt water inter-
face. Together with water quality data (not shown here), the
early stages of saltwater intrusion have been documented.

Overall, the use of MER has provided a wealth of NEW
information about the Basseterre Valley Aquifer for a reason-
able cost. The results of the MER analysis have proven to be
an excellent method for delineating the upper parts of the aqui-
fer as well as the depth and variations in the fresh/salt water
interface in response to long-term pumping. This knowledge is
an integral part of any proposed Integrated Water Resources
Management Plan for the Basseterre Valley Aquifer as we con-
tinue to move forward in our efforts to protect this valuable re-
This article was prepared by Dr. Halla Sahely of the St. Kitts
Water Services Department.


IWCAM Caribbean WaterWays Newsletter

Jamaica's Demonstration

Project Closes with a

Celebration of

Community Empowerment!

The GEF-IWCAM Demonstration Project in Ja-
maica officially closed on 12th November 2009 with a won-
derful ceremony which celebrated the empowerment of 13
communities in the Driver's River Watershed.

The Driver's River Watershed is rated one of the
least degraded in Jamaica and was chosen to help de-
velop Best Management Practices in environmental habits
and activities incorporating the lessons and experiences
gained in other watershed management units and Small
Island Developing States. These were identified, planned
and implemented through a participatory process involving
agency and community partnerships. Key to the success
of this project was the formation of four committees to en-
sure the adaptation and implementation of these practices
(Governance & Enforcement, Sanitation & Sustainable
Livelihoods, Environmental Monitoring, and Public Educa-
tion & Awareness).

The Project also featured a Grants component
which gave twelve communities the opportunity to design
and implement a range of projects which addressed
schools sanitation improvement, solid waste disposal,
mangrove rehabilitation and protection of river and water-
ways, among other things.

The Closing Ceremony featured presentations by
both agency and community partners. Tributes by commu-
nity persons in particular were testimony to the significant
impact of the project. The Project Management Unit was
based at, and received excellent support from, the National
Environment and Planning Agency (NEPA). Mrs. Win-
some Townsend, Director, was the first to bring greetings.
She was followed by Donna Spencer, representing the
GEF-IWCAM Project Coordinating Unit, Christopher Cor-
bin, representing UNEP CAR/RCU, one of the Executing
Agencies, and Machel Donegan, Chief Executive Officer of
the Portland Environment Protection Association. The
Feature Address was given by Patricia Aquing, Executive
Director of CEHI, also one of the GEF-IWCAM Project's
Executing Agencies. She congratulated all partners on the
project's achievements and voiced confidence in the com-
munities' ability to both replicate and sustain activities
which make a positive difference in the Watershed.

Public Education
and Awareness

A range of activities for
students as well as
adults designed to share
interventions, create
awareness and encour-
age environmental Best
Practices were organ-
_ized. In addition to
tree planting ceremo-
S- nies and summer
: camps, there were
debating, essay and
poster competitions;
expos and community
outreach meetings
(town meetings).

School Sanitation Facilities

Sanitation facilities (including toilets
and wash basins) were built
in several schools. Before
After --


IWCAM Caribbean WaterWays Newsletter

Community Solid Waste


garbage skips and the
introduction of clean-up
and recycling pro-
grammes in several
communities. I,,,.


Assessing the
vulnerability and
risk of the
Driver's River
looking at social
and physical
distribution of
hazards facili-
tated through
interviews and
surveys which
involved communities. Outputs included a handbo(
on how to conduct risk assessment, a map of high
risk areas, brochures, signs and three training ses-

Improving Livelihood,
Recycled Paper Produc

Under the Grants component o

effective use of com-
posl: and. planning
techniques and "cut-backs". Farming practicall"
were also organized for a few local schools.

Environmental Monitoring

"- ~~- F

aimed at teaching
some of the skills
needed to run small
businesses success-
fully. This venture
helps provide an
income for those
involved and they
are fully committed
as they have no
other full time
jobs. They produce
a range of items
from recycled paper.


this I

Demo Project, funds were used
lo acquire equipment for a
small-scale paper making ven-
lure which recycles waste paper
collected in the area. Commu-
nily members also benefited
from a Management Workshop


IWCAM Caribbean WaterWays Newsletter

GEF-IWCAM well represented at
18th Annual CWWA Conference

The Caribbean Water and Wastewater Association
(CWWA) held its 18th annual conference and exhibition under the
theme "A Green Future Developing Caribbean Water and Waste
Resources" from October 4th to 10th, in St. Thomas, USVI. Mem-
bers of the GEF-IWCAM team participated in various events held
during the conference.

Vincent Sweeney, GEF-IWCAM Regional Project Coordi-
nator and Patricia Aquing, Executive Director of CEHI participated
and moderated various sessions during the 5th High Level Session
(HLS) focused on the theme "Building a Water Secured Region: A
Caribbean Response". The group made the following recommen-
1. The High Level Session be endorsed as a CARICOM Fo-
2. A joint session of COTED and COHSOD be convened in
2010 with water as the agenda.
3. The CARICOM Consortium on Water be designated as a
technical advisory body on water to COTED and COH-
4. A Regional Action Plan for Water be urgently developed
within the context of a Common Water Framework.
5. The Regional Action Plan adopt IWRM and include strate-
gies for resource mobilization, capacity building, data col-
lection and management in collaboration with Ministries of
Finance and Planning.
6. Water be represented at the quasi-Cabinet level of CARI-
COM as a substantive portfolio.

The RPC and CEHI's ED
gave opening remarks at the confer-
ence Opening Ceremony and were
also presenters and panelists during
the opening plenary session held on
Tuesday, October 5, 2009. Present-
ers during the plenary session high-
lighted "green" activities being imple-
mented in the water and waste sec-
tors in the Caribbean.

Four papers featuring the
1 ,m. .... m ',., I work of three of the GEF-IVVCAM
,t it, l, [ ,,.,, demonstration projects were pre-
sented during the technical sessions:

"Wastewater Treatment Plants as a Best Practice for Rural
Settlements on Impervious and Semi-lmpervious Rock
Overlaid by Shallow Soils" presented by Cornelius Isaac,
St. Lucia GEF-IWCAM Project Manager
"Protection of the Basseterre Valley Aquifer. Part 1: Hydro-
geologic Evaluation" presented by Sandy Nettles, Ocean
Earth Technologies
"Protection of the Basseterre Valley Aquifer. Part II: Natu-
ral Resources Survey and Park Management Plan" pre-
sented by Dr. Halla Sahely, Assistant Water Engineer, St.
Kitts Water Services Department
"Community Approach in Addressing Point and Non-Point

Sources of Marine Pollution:
Experiences in Trinidad and
Tobago and Jamaica" pre-
sented by Sandra Timothy,
Trinidad and Tobago GEF-
IWCAM Project Manager and
Lisa Kirkland, Jamaica GEF-
IWCAM Project Manager

Al were well received and
generated lively discussion. A key
aspect of the GEF-IWCAM project is to
share lessons learned and ensure best
practices are widely adopted through-
out the Caribbean region. Ma. te.,,ai fo., r De ,i

The conference closed with
an awards ceremony and banquet at which the Engineer Ronald Wil-
liams Award for Technical Excellence (in conference paper author-
ship and presentation) was awarded to Sandra and Lisa for their
combined effort. Congratulations to Sandra and Lisa!

COLACMar 2009
Marine Sciences:
Integration for Development

Havana, Cuba served as host to the 13th Latin American
Congress on Marine Sciences (COLACMAR) and the 8th Cuban Con-
gress on Marine Sciences (MarCuba'2009) in October 2009. This
year's conference theme, "Marine Sciences: Integration for Develop-
ment", was ideal for showcasing the work of the GEF-IWCAM Project.

The GEF-IWCAM Demonstration Project in Cienfuegos,
Cuba, exhibited several technical posters on themes such as agro-
ecological management of farms. In addition to the substantial work
of the Cuban team, GEF-IWCAM sponsored the participation of mem-
bers of the demonstration project teams from the Dominican Republic
and Trinidad and Tobago.

Mercedes Inoa Pantaleon, GEF-IWCAM Demonstration Pro-
ject Manager from the Dominican Republic presented on the evolu-
tion of pollution on the lower Haina River Watershed and its impact
on the coastal zone. Richard Parkinson, Scientific Diver for the GEF-
IWCAM Demonstration Pro-
llect in Trinidad and Tobago,
qe hibited a technical poster
Son the findings of the long-
-- term coral reef monitoring
programme in Tobago. This
programme is a highlight of
1 the demonstration project in
the Courland Watershed of
S Tobago as well as the Moni-
Ra toning and Evaluation as-
-pec't of the larger GEF-
IVvC,/tM Project.

Jesus Manuel Rey of CITMA displays his poster (Continued on page 7)


IWCAM Caribbean WaterWays Newsletter

(Contmnuedfrom page 6)
Sasha Beth Gottlieb, GEF-IWCAM Technical Coordina-
tor, participated in a panel on regional environmental projects.
She highlighted some of the challenges of multi-country, regional
projects as well as the successes realized to date.

The Project also shared an exhibition booth with the GEF-funded
Reducing Pesticides Run-off to the Caribbean Sea (REPCar) Pro-
ject and the UNEP Regional Activity Centre Centre of Engineer-
ing and Environmental Management of Bays and Coasts (RAC-
i CIMAB), displaying
posters and distrib-
I uting materials on
Sthe project.

Participants Lorenzo Brito of
Cuba and Mercedes Inoa Pan-
taleon ofthe Dominican

Richard Parkin-
son ofthe Buccoo
ReefTrust, To-
bago, beside his

(Continuedfrom page 1) ...RPC's End of Year Message

regional benefits and offer lessons to other SIDS globally. It also found
that the Project was well formulated and well undertaken by an experi-
enced Project Coordination Unit with sufficient support from the two Im-
plementing Agencies and three Executing Agencies. In addition, the
Evaluator found that '"o significant corrective actions were needed to the
project's objectives, activities or outcomes' A number of recommenda-
tions were however made to ensure that we keep on track, and these
recommendations have been largely endorsed by the Project Steering

All this means that midway through our project, we are doing
well and heading in the right direction. It however does not mean that
further effort is not required to keep us on track. 2009 saw the continua-
tion of al nine Demonstration Projects, and the eventual completion of
one, in Jamaica. We remain veryproud of and encouraged by, the many
on-the-ground activities that have had direct impact on the lives of people
in the Participating Countries. These nowinclude improved waste water
treatment in rural St. Lucia, and improved livelihoods of women's groups
in Jamaica through entrepreneurship, utilizing waste material to make
products (such as greeting cards) for retail trade.

Participating countries received laboratory equipment to im-
prove environmental monitoring and training continued in related areas
such as Quality Assurance & Quality Control, Integrated Water Re-

Fourth Project Steering
Committee Meeting in the DR

The Fourth Regional Project Steering Committee
Meeting (PSC4) for GEF-IWCAM was held 15 16 October
2009 in Santo Domingo. This was preceded by a meeting of
the Implementing and Executing Agencies (IA/EA), on Octo-
ber 14. The meetings reviewed the Draft Work Plan and
budget for 2010, received updates on project activities and
received the Mid-Term Evaluation Report. It was attended
by representatives from all but one of the 13 Participating

sources Management (IWRM), Wastewater Management, andApplied
Project Management. Countries also promoted their work through partici-
pation in national, regional and international conferences and exhibitions
and through staff exchanges with relevant projects and agencies. The
Project continued to strengthen partnership with other agencies, organi-
zations and associations, and supported regional initiatives being pro-
moted by CARICOM, the Global Water Partnership and the Caribbean
Water & Wastewater Association, as well as showcasing our work at the
global level, during the th World Water Forum and the th GEF Interna-
tional Waters Conference. Outreach also included production of the Car-
ibbean Waterways Newsletter, publication of other documentation (such
as the Legislative Toolkit for IWCAM), and convening of a series of work-
shops across Participating Countries.

We approach 2010 with a clear recognition that the momentum
which has built up thus far must not be lost. There is still much to be
learned and much to achieve. On behalf of the GEF-IWCAM Project
Coordinating Unit, I wish to thank allpartners for their on-going support
andlook forward to even more in 2010. Please accept our best wishes
for a blessed and productive year.
Vincent Sweenev-


IWCAM Caribbean WaterWays Newsletter


The GEF-
S.... attended the
S5th GEF Inter-
wwwm o national Wa-
ters Confer-
ence (IWC5)
held in
Cairns, Aus-
tralia, from
October 25-
Ik l on tmn rr C r, ( rri h, irrl .\l\on I ntlr l .'-tli oririr'iiir', \ 29, 2009.
1 .\II- IR RL C iippreiiiie the (F1 -II C 1.11exhibih I
The four-day meeting was attended by approximately 250 persons and involved a num-
ber of plenary and parallel sessions, an exhibition (referred to as the "Innovation Market-
place"), a film festival of GEF IW Project videos, and a number of field trips, one of which
was to the Great Barrier Reef. GEF-IWCAM chaired a parallel session table during
the "Small Table Dialogues on Mainstreaming Climate Considerations in IW'
and mounted an exhibit at the Innovation Marketplace titled "IWCAM Matters".

Legislative Toolkit for IWCAM pub-

?OMkM1 For InalftultonaI,
Policy, and Legimiative
c~~. -~-

This useful resource for use in amending and/or
drafting appropriate legislation in support of the
core objectives of the LBS Protocol is now avail-
able. Download it from our website:
www.iwcam.org or request a hard copy from the

Workshop on Applied Project Management for GEF-UNEP Projects

A regional workshop on Applied Project Management V ~ *
was conducted by the Management Institute for National Devel- M
opment for the GEF-IWCAM Project in Rodney Bay, St. Lucia rict" Proit.. Managt..m Triinlg -
from 21-25 September 2009. n rt.. .

This training aimed to provide key IWCAM stake-
holders and managers as well as some UNDP project officers
with the knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary to manage the
implementation of GEF-UNEP projects associated with the man-
agement of watershed and coastal areas in 13 Caribbean Small
Island Developing States.

The workshop, which had 26 participants, also focused
upon the development and enhancement of core competencies
in Applied Project Management and upon enabling a better un-
derstanding of the GEF's project management principles.

Participating Country Focal Points, Demonstration Projects and others are invited to submit articles. Please contact
Donna Spencer at dspencer@cehi.org.lc
Contact Information:
GEF-IWCAM Project Coordination Unit
P.O. Box 1111, The Morne, Castries, Saint Lucia
Tel: (758)-452-2501/1412; Fax: (758)-453-2721
E-mail: dspencer@cehi.org.lc




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