Title: Caribbean WaterWays = Vias Fluviales Caribenas
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098815/00014
 Material Information
Title: Caribbean WaterWays = Vias Fluviales Caribenas
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Publisher: GEF-IWCAM
Place of Publication: Castries, Saint Lucia
Publication Date: March 2009
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098815
Volume ID: VID00014
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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cl Caribbean WaterWays

SGrF Newsletter of the GEF IWCAM Project
GEF Voume 3, Issue 1 arch 2009

EHI Volume 3, Issue 1 March 2009

In this issue:

* Making a Positive
Difference in the
Cienfuegos Water-
shed- the GEF-
IWCAM Cuba Dem-
onstration Project
(pgs. 1,2,3)

* Caibbean partici-
pates in 5th World
Water Forum
(pgs.1, 7)

* Background on the
ject (pg.2)

* Cuba Demo-His
nickname used to
be "Candelita"(pg.

* "Weh yuh dash
weh nuh wash
weh": Community
Involvement in the
Jamaica Demo
Project (pg. 4-5)

* Is time running out
for Buccoo Reef?
(pg. 6)

* Reflecting on Les-
sons Learned (pg.

* Signs of Trouble -
Marine Algae (pg.

Caribbean participates in
5th World Water Forum
The GEF-IWCAM project supported
participation of representatives from the Carib-
bean, who were also actively involved in the
build up to the region's representation at the
Forum. These included the Honourable Dr.
Horace Chang, Minister for Water in Jamaica,
and Cyprian Gibson, the President of the Car-
ibbean Water & Wastewater Association
(CWWA). Regional partners at the Forum
included the Global Water Partnership (GWP)
-Caribbean, the Caribbean Environmental
Health Institute (CEHI), and the Organization
of American States (OAS).

The six-day meeting was attended
by over 25,000 persons and involved a num-
ber of parallel sessions, an exposition, and a
high-level Ministerial segment. GEF-IWCAM
was represented formally in two sessions: the
Americas Region session on March 17, and
the Session: 'Local Action Thinking beyond
the water box: What adaptation to global and
climate change?' which took place on the
afternoon of the same day.
(Continued on page 7)

Feature Article:
Making a Positive Difference in the
Cienfuegos Watershed
-the GEF-
Project "

Since it's official
launch in February
2008, Cuba's Demon-
stration Projec : in:u t a
"Application of lWCAM
Concepts at Cienfuegos Bay and Watershed" has made
significant progress in introducing and demonstrating best
practices in land use and management for more integrated
management of the watershed and coastal areas (IWCAM).

Environmental Monitoring linked to the decision-making
Data is collected, analyzed and made available
through a functional Geographic Information System (GIS) to
a specially created Local Authority and other relevant stake-
holders. In January 2009 their database, the Sistema Integral
de Gestin de Informacin Ambiental (SIGIA) was introduced
to stakeholders at the First Provincial Environmental Monito-
ring Programme meeting.

This has resulted in significant strengthening of
wastewater management as the Local Authority and linked
institutions have a complete and updated inventory of point
sources of pollution in the area along with an evaluation of
contaminant loads. Alain Muoz Caravaca, the Demonstra-
tion Project Manager, has
stressed that with the intro- [
duction of this system, IW-
CAM issues are being ad-
dressed with better collabora-
tion and coordination
amongst all stakeholders.

Model farms for IWCAM
In the agricultural s il Ii~'rice IIr II'trlilr.ii lor
and forest sectors, demon- Jarm'rs
(Continued on page 2)


IWCAM Caribbean WaterWays Newsletter


"His nickname used to be

The farmer on the right used to be known in his part of Cienfue-
gos Province for his affection for slash and burn farming. In the past, he
would jump at any opportunity to burn fields. His fellow farmers at the
Sarduy farm in the Cienfuegos Province of Cuba are now looking for a
S new name for him, since he has seen with his own eyes the benefits of
composting, and other soil conservation techniques.

The Sarduy Farm is a medium sized farm, with about 10 agri-
cultural workers. It is being used as a pilot in the GEF-IWCAM Project in
Cuba to demonstrate best agricultural practices. Their hard work is yield-
ing impressive results. The leader of the farm, Mr. Sarduy, told a visiting
group that they have noticed that some of their crop yields (most notably
tomatoes), have increased substantially. They are even getting extra
S- (unexpected) crops in each season.

ST,' In addition to composting, the workers at the Sarduy farm are
also using live barriers, shifting the orientation of their crops to better
follow the contour of the land, and increasing the efficiency of their irriga-
tion practices Mr Sarduy is proud of the work of the farm and is eager to
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1 finiIrV ,o, Ag[ricilluri


The Global Environment Facility-funded Integrating Watershed
and CoastalAreas Management in Caribbean Small Island De-
velopment States (GEF-IWCAM) Project was approvedby the
Global Environment Facility (GEF) in May2004. Implementing
agencies are the United Nations Environment Programme
(UNEP) and the United Nations Development Programme
(UNDP). Executing agencies are the Secretariat of the
Cartagena Convention (UNEP-CAR/RCU) and the Caribbean
Environmental Health Institute (CEHI) and the UN Office for
Project Services (UNOPS). The thirteen participating SIDS are:
Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Cuba, Grenada,
Dominica, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Saint Kitts and
Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Trini-
dad and Tobago. The length of the Project is years and com-
menced in the second quarter of 2005. The Project Coordinating
Unit is located at the CEHI, as agreed by the Implementing and
Executing Agencies and the participating countries.

(Continuedfrom page 1)
station areas of best practice in land use and man-
agement are being implemented (see Box A, page
2). On-going training activities are important aspects
of these initiatives because it is recognized that repli-
cation of good practice at community level gives
workers new environmental knowledge, increases
production and helps protect fragile ecosystems.

The "14th July" sugar factory within the wa-
tershed is being used to demonstrate best land-use
practices in agriculture. Water is recycled and con-
sumption has been reduced. Sugar plantations are
irrigated with sugar cane wastewater in a program on
water quality for irrigation and soil conservation. Bio-
waste is conserved and applied in the field; a prac-
tice which seems to be improving crop yields.

Ensuring learning and replication

Efforts are being made to provide informa-
(Continued on page 3)


rUL_~_~,---~~--- .,;

IWCAM Caribbean WaterWays Newsletter

(Contmuedfrom page 2)
tion on best practice to targeted sectors. The education
of workers at every level is seen as important and is an
on-going and systematic process. A manual titled:
"Guidelines for better environmental practices in the agro-
industrial sugar sector" has been completed and is being
distributed to other Cuban enterprises. In addition an Eng-
lish version has been prepared to assist other Caribbean
SIDS involved in sugar production.

Public Education
CEAC and the University of Cienfuegos jointly run
the environmental education programme which began in
2008 and has already made some significant inroads.

MP1 I( %e sI iol In the rural fishing
community of Casti-
Ilo, which is serving
as a pilot site for
many of the public
education activities
under the GEF-
IWCAM Project, an
Information Centre for
Community Environ-
mental Education
(Sala de Informacin Para la Educacin Ambiental Comu-
nitaria, SIPEAC) was established.

SIEPEAC provides residents of Castillo with im-
portant environmental and cultural information and activi-
ties related to the Cienfuegos Watershed. Some exam-
ples include identification of traditional meals from the
sea, data and research on local aquatic species, ways to
save the mangrove, the establishment of 'Circles of Inter-
est' on issues such as pollution, coastal and mangrove
vegetation, macroalgae, and mollusks, which bring to-

accreditation process for an MSc in Integrated Coastal
Zone Management, an expansion of an initiative of the
Canadian and Cuban Governments and other partners.

Three cohorts have already been enrolled in this
course and a fourth will begin this year, based for the first
time in Cienfuegos. The project team is working with oth-
ers to evaluate the possibility of establishing a similarly-
oriented doctoral degree.

CEAC and the University of Cienfuegos, under
the public education and awareness component of the
demonstration project, have also completed a training
needs assess-
ment and stake- ..
holder identifica-
tion exercise.
This is helping
them to better,
target their inter-
ventions and
activities. Based
on this informa-
tion, they have
already planned Iraining IroIra.nmee Ij
two training
workshops in 2009 and more in 2010. The creation of a
community-based working group which will take an inte-
grated approach to management of the area is also being

gether youths with similar interests to explore such com-
mon themes.

In 2008, the demonstration project completed the


S~rrtl~rrr~-trrr irrrlorrrrrr rrrrjilr Rlorrl,

IWCAM Caribbean WaterWays Newsletter

"Weh yuh dash weh nuh wash
Community Involvement in the Jamaica
Demo Project
Once a month the Driver's River Stakeholders Group
meets to share information on Project activities and progress, and to
make decisions on the way forward. This is the means by which the
various communities throughout the Driver's River Watershed par-
ticipate in Project decision-making.

From the onset the GEF-IWCAM Jamaica Demonstration
Project has used a participatory approach very effectively. An ear-
lier feature article, in Caribbean WaterWays, Vol. 1, Issue 3, Sep-
tember 2007, described the Project's scope and objectives. It rec-
ognized that environmental challenges in the area are rooted in a
number of interrelated causes which have physical, socio-economic
and institutional dimensions.

Stakeholders were initially involved, through participation
in a Stakeholder's Workshop which began the process of strategic
planning during the early stages of the project. The Project Man-
agement Unit, which is based at the National Environment and
Planning Agency (NEPA) in Kingston, included stakeholder input in
preparing the Project Work Plan and Budget. The Stakeholders
Group was established in the early stages of the Project and has
continued to meet throughout project implementation.

Buy-in to the Project by the several communities which
make up the Driver's River Watershed is significant, as evidenced
by the range of activities initiated by and discussed at the rather
lively Stakeholders Meetings.

Four sub-Committees were fielded early from amongst
Project staff as well as stakeholders. Here is a quick look at some
of the activities managed by the various sub-Committees:

Governance and Enforcement
Sanitation and Livelihoods
Environmental Monitoring
Public Awareness

Governance and Enforcement:
The Governance and Enforcement Committee coordi-
nated the conduct of a Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAPS)
Survey in the Demonstration Project Area. It reached 735 house-
holds in the watershed. The results of the survey were presented
and discussed at a Governance Workshop which was subsequently
held in October 2008. Participants felt that the Stakeholder Analysis
helped them to better understand the needs of the community and
how they might make a positive contribution to the Project.

The Governance Workshop addressed the following is-
sues: stakeholder analysis (who they are and how to improve part-

nership?); the role of governance in fixing issues within communities
of local Stakeholders; and the importance of partnership with gov-
ernment and non-government organizations. It was described by
those who participated as being very interactive. Committee mem-
bers acted as facilitators and there were over forty participants.
There was the sharing of Best Practices from other communities
(Boundbrook and Prospect) which were involved with the Coastal
Water Quality Improvement Project (CWIP) and the Ridge to Reef
Watershed Project (R2RW). Outputs included a Vision Statement,
the development of a one year Action Plan for the Watershed and a
Victory Statement for the Project.

Most significantly, the Workshop led to the strengthening
of the human resources of the Project's sub-Committees as partici-
pants were co-opted to serve on and become involved in their work.
There was a significant increase in awareness of land-use and pol-
lution problems in the watershed accompanied by a willingness to
seek solutions. This is seen in the fact that members of the Govern-
ance sub-Committee are involved in a wide range of activities. An
illegal dump in Long Bay, for instance, was successfully removed
with their assistance late last year. The group also recognized the
need for, and planned, an Enforcement Workshop in December

Sanitation and Liveli-g er Tro
Flooding after Tropical
hoods: Stoer, ,u oth
This vibrant
sub-Committee ad-
dresses sanitation and
livelihood issues
throughout the project
area. As part of the
Improved Livelihood
component of the Pro-
ject, for instance, follow-
ing the heavy damage
caused by Tropical Storm Gustave in Setember 2008, much of the
Committee's energy went to helping subsistence farmers get on
their feet once again. This included: the supply of baby chicks to 9
women and one high school within the Watershed; efforts to procure

(Continued on page 5)


IWCAM Caribbean WaterWays Newsletter

S "" --i the 5 seed crops and organic fertilizer and
pesticides for distribution to farmers and
coconut seedlings for some areas along the
S. coast. The farmers were chosen based on
a needs assessment done through the
Rural Agricultural Development Authority
(RADA). Fair Prospect High School also
received 34 chicks for their school farm.

Training events such as Farmers
Training Days (Hectors River, September
2008, Rowlandsfield, October 2008, and
Manchioneal, December 2008), and Fisher
Folk Workshops (Manchioneal, and Bryans
Bay, November 2008) are planned by the
Committee, often to coincide with wider events such as National
Wood and Water Day (NWWD.
The Farmers
Training Day held in
Rowlandsfield in Octo-
ber 2008 was typical.
Forty farmers attended
along with representa-
tives from local
branches of RADA, as
well as NEPA who
provided technical
expertise. The Pesticide Control Authority also attended. The train-
ing day focused on land husbandry, soil stabilization, and composting
techniques. In addition the farmers were trained in proper tree plant-
ing techniques for fruit trees such as Jew Plum, Naseberry, Otaheite
Apple, and Jackfruit. Some attendees received fruit trees as an in-
centive for their level of participation in the training.

The commemoration events for National Wood and Water
Day (NWWD) were particularly well planned and participation was
excellent. They took place over a two day period, with Fair Prospect
High School hosting the planting of cassava sticks on the Friday and
a community planting day on the Saturday at Long Bay and Man-

Environmental Monitoring:
The Environmental Monitoring sub-Committee (EMC) over-
sees water quality, stream flow and metrological monitoring within the
Project area. Water quality sampling is carried out by trained volun-
teers from the communities. Analysis is done by NEPA, and the
EMC makes decisions for action to be taken. This sub-Committee
consists of a number of state agencies as well as community stake-
holders and has the technical expertise to guide the proper manage-
ment of the Watershed. The EMC meets monthly to discuss the re-
sults of monitoring. Hotspot communities are selected. A town meet-
ing is then held informing communities of the results and engender-
ing solutions, which almost always lead to a clean-up of some kind.
This mechanism for informing the community of water quality results
is a particularly interesting one because it means that data collected
is put to practical use.

The Water Resources Authority measures stream flow
while Meteorological Services is responsible for rainfall data. The
EMC receives reports on these efforts and deals with matters such
as the training of new volunteers (as some are lost over time).

The EMC took the lead on International Coastal Cleanup
Day (ICCD) which was
marked with an event which
took place 20 21 Septem-
ber 2008 in Manchioneal
and Long Bay. Over the two
days, 174 volunteers partici- .
pated including members of
the community, students,
Peace Corps and National
Youth Service (NYS) volun-

Public Awareness:
The Public Awareness Committee leads a range of public
awareness and education activities within the Demonstration Project
area. These include: debating and poster competitions in schools;

day camps for children
aged 9 13 years; and,
project awareness initia-
tives around certain
themes or events (e.g.
National Wood and Wa-
ter Day)such as the
planning of a "Town
Cry". In addition support
is given to the advertis-
ing of meetings and
assistance with informa-
tion and logistics for
project and community
events such as Wood &
Water Day and Farmer's
Field Day.

......... .- ----------------------
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u: JnJJ Elarr 's Sjinii.

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n Adii L r ijnj r ciInndi j y
En~pam inmd Plbnnb Agn Pr~qa iGEF.I M~lPAl.
NI. P~L CO"' i ol~h S~i~lJ

Lisa Kirkland,
Demo Project Manager,
stresses that an integrated approach is always taken to problem
solving. Although a particular committee may take the lead on a
particular issue, all committees and stakeholders are involved in a
number of cross-cutting events.

By successfully including watershed stakeholders in project
implementation since its beginning, the Jamaica Demonstra-
tion Project has been able to achieve much that is of benefit to
the community. There is significant "buy-in" by people who
live in the watershed. They are encouraged, energized and
empowered as they see that by their actions, and with a little
support, they can achieve positive results. Already there is
discussion about creating a Sustainable Management Commit-
tee to ensure sustainability and this initiative is from the
stakeholders themselves!


IWCAM Caribbean WaterWays Newsletter

Is time running out for Buccoo Reef ?

The GEF-IWCAM National Demonstration Project for Trinidad and Tobago: Land-Use
Planning and Watershed Restoration in the Courland Watershed and Buccoo Reef Area,
seeks to reduce the impact of the Courland Watershed and other smaller watersheds from Cas-
tara in the North, to Crown Point in the Southwestern end of Tobago, upon coastal areas, from
Little Englishman's Bay to Buccoo Reef. This Demonstration Project is being implemented by the
Buccoo Reef Trust (BRT), in close collaboration with the Tobago House of Assembly (THA). The
BRT has established a Project Management Unit (PMU).

In January 2007 a long-term reef monitoring program was begun by the Buccoo Reef
Trust as part of the GEF-IWCAM Project. The study includes a detailed mapping and baseline
data-collection project and a reef monitoring program using fixed stations.

These sites, which were designed to provide long-term data on the condition of the
reefs over time, are routinely being monitored by the research team for: water quality, reef com-
munities (e.g. fish and habitat surveys), bleaching and disease. Data collection started in Janu-
ary 2007 using sediment traps, water quality testing and underwater video.

A series of twelve permanent monitoring stations were established on the main coral
reefs around Tobago. Eight of these sites are located on the leeward side of the island (the Carib-
bean coast), and four of them on the windward side (the Atlantic coast). These include several
monitoring stations which are outside the project area for the sake of comparison.

Monitoring during the latter part of 2008 found that the average percentage of live hard
coral cover dropped from 18.07% in the period July-September to 15.29% in the October-
December quarter in the monitoring sites that are inside the IWCAM area. This is the biggest
reduction in live reef building corals since the beginning of these surveys in January 2007.

The decrease observed can be attributed to a relatively high abundance of diseases
present in Tobago's reefs (specifically yellow blotch disease) with direct effects on reef building
species of corals like the star coral, Montastraea faveolata. Other factors which have a negative
effect on coral reefs are sediments which come from inland areas after land has been exposed to
the elements, pollution from poor sewage treatment, rising sea temperatures, and others.

For the same period, monitoring showed that both Kariwak Reef and Little English-
man's Bay had significantly high amounts of sediments settling on the corals. Both of these sta-
tions have rivers nearby which could be transporting sediment washed off land which is being
cleared in surrounding areas.

In addition, macroalgae cover was reduced from 6.8% in July-September to 2.5% in
October-December. This is an unexpected result since the rainy season was expected to trigger
algal reproduction. The amount of macroalgae present in the monitoring stations from July to
December 2008 has been significantly lower than in previous surveys. This would seem to indi-
cate that some features of Tobago's coastal waters could be changing or that some other varia-
tion is taking place in this aquatic environment, such as grazing animals feeding more voraciously
on the algae.

The Trinidad and Tobago GEF-IWCAM Demonstration Project is working to educate
and involve stakeholders in its conservation programmes. School children are participating in
land-sea interaction education programmes. Local community groups are involved in reforesta-
tion efforts and water quality monitoring. Farmers are being encouraged to use more traditional,
environmentally sustainable agricultural practices.

For more information contact: Sandra Timothy: s.timothy@buccooreef.org


IWCAM Caribbean WaterWays Newsletter

Reflecting on Lessons


Saint Lucia's Demonstration Project Man-
ager, Cornelius Isaac, reflects on Lessons
Learned, some of the Challenges faced and the
Critical Success Factors:
Cornelius Isaac has been the Saint Lucia
Demonstration Project Manager since its beginning
in 2007. His experience working with the Govern-
ment of St. Lucia, since 1982, which included being
the Regional Forest Manager, as a Project Officer on
a Canadian-funded forest management project, and
on the NOAA-funded Watershed Project in Soufriere
where there were good results, has helped with
many aspects of this project. Excerpts from an inter-

(Continuedfrom page 1)

1 in .n I RPL. I 1 -1115

view with him on the Rainwater Harvesting (RWH)
Initiative, in the Fond D'or watershed, site of the
Saint Lucia Demonstration Project, follow:
"On-the-ground activities were important be-
cause we needed to find ways to showcase IWCAM.
People have basic needs and if you don't address
them first you can't talk to them about anything else."
"When the project began there was a great
deal of anger in the community aimed at WASCO
(the Water and Sewerage Company) which was
seen as the source of water and responsible for all
problems related to water. The Project has helped
the community instead to focus on the entire river
system and watershed; the entire drainage system,
and their roles. Before the Project they did not be-
lieve that they had a say or made a contribution to
the problem, much less the solutions. The commu-
nity now feels greater responsibility and realizes that
WASCO is just one user of the river, that they can do
more to help themselves ...they feel empowered."
Demonstrating direct and tangible benefits to
the community is in Cornelius' view critical to the
success of the Project. Other critical success factors
include: the use of appropriate and accessible tech-
nology; successful co-operation with other projects;
and, strong linkages with various resource agencies
for the sharing of information, and initial and ongoing

Caribbean participates in WWF5 cont'd...

The Americas Region session was attended by well over 200 persons and
took place in the second largest hall at the WWF. It included presentations from Minis-
ter Chang, Patricia Aquing (CEHI's Executive Director), and the GEF-IWCAM RPC.
Recommendations made and positions stated at the Water Forum of the Americas
(known as the Message of Iguassu Falls, MIF) in November 2008 were presented for
consideration by the WWF.
The GEF-IWCAM RPC was able to present a Case Study on behalf of the
Caribbean sub-region which highlighted success stories in IWCAM, considered to be
of most relevance to the sub-region. The presentation focused on the St. Lucia and
Jamaica demonstration projects and the IWRM work being catalyzed by the project.
This has been included in GEF:lnternational Waters publication titled "Ridge to Reef',
which was launched at the Forum (see: http://www.gefweb.org/uploadedFiles/

The GEF-IWCAM PCU also, through the Technical Coordinator, Sasha RPC andChristianSeverin, GEFSecretariat
Gottlieb, co-wrote (with the Pacific Islands Applied Geoscience Commission -
SOPAC) a perspective document for the Session which focused upon Small islands F -i...i -
on Water in Pacific and Caribbean small island countries Adapting to Climate Charna i ,..i-,ti
resources and water services (see: http://www.waterandclimate.org/ili.ii-; rFh'
id=5thWorldWaterForumpublications810). The GEF-IWCAM RPC participated in this sessio:,n as
well as in the Round Table discussions on Areas with Increasing Precipitation, Run Or ..-,li >..
Level Rise. He emphasized the distinctions between SIDS and large developed countries in how
they are able to respond to climate change impacts, such as severe weather, storm surges, sea-
level rise, floods and water shortages.


IWCAM Caribbean WaterWays Newsletter

Signs of Trouble...


Marine algae like this can be seen on many
Caribbean beaches. You might think it's quite pretty
but it is often a sign that the water is polluted and
should be considered a warning to us.

Such algae grows when the water is nutri-
ent-rich. Phosphorous in detergents, as well as
other nutrients are washed into our drains and even-
tually end up in the sea. There they encourage the
growth of algae. This algae as it becomes more
abundant, depletes oxygen in water, leading to the
eutrophication of coastal waters.

Rapid growth of marine algae can quickly
overgrow corals, smothering them in the process.

Where does this pollution come from?
There are many sources: point sources such as
manufacturing plants and marine vessels; urban
non-point run-off (stormwater runoff and combined
overflow discharges); non-urban point runoff (farms

qE. 1 ,

and livestock pastures); irrigation return flows; and a
variety of sources upstream.

Act now! Learn more about the problem and
how you can help!

GrandAnse Bay, Grenada

Participating Country Focal Points, Demonstration Projects and others are invited to submit articles. Please contact
Donna Spencer at dspencer@cehi.org.lc
Contact Information:
IWCAM Project Coordination Unit
P.O. Box 1111, The Morne, Castries, Saint Lucia
Tel: (758)-452-2501/1412; Fax: (758)-453-2721
E-mail: dspencer@cehi.org.lc



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