Title: Caribbean WaterWays = Vias Fluviales Caribenas
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098815/00003
 Material Information
Title: Caribbean WaterWays = Vias Fluviales Caribenas
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Publisher: GEF-IWCAM
Place of Publication: Castries, Saint Lucia
Publication Date: June 2007
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098815
Volume ID: VID00003
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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] Caribbean WaterWays

SNewsletter of the GEF IWCAM Project

EHI Volume 1, Issue 2 June 2007
A-EH COM lii

In this issue:

* World Environ-
ment Day 200/.
Melting Ice A
Hot Topic for
Caribbean SIDS!
(pgs. 1,5,8)

* Feature: Land.
Use Planning
and Watershed
Restoration in
the Courland
Watershed and
Buccoo Reel
Area, Tobago
(pgs. 1,2,3,4)

* WED 2007 and
references ipql.2i

* Background on
Project (pg. 2)

* IWCAM Training
for Project Man-
agers and Na-
tional Focal
Points (pg. 6)

* International
Year of the Reef

IKONOS image of Buccoo Reef andadjacent land, Tobago (2004)

World Environment Day,

5 June 2007:
Melting Ice -A Hot Topic for Carib-
bean SIDS!

2008 (pg.7) The February 2007 report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate

* GEF-funded Change (IPCC), Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis notes
Sustainable the increase in average Arctic temperatures, the resulting decline in both
IWRM Project in mountain glaciers and snow cover and their contribution to sea level rise.
Pacific Island The last time that the polar regions had extended periods of warmer tem-
Countries (pg.7) peratures was approximately 125,000 years ago. At that time the melted
polar ice resulted in a 4 to 6 metre rise in sea level. If you consider that
* The LBS Proto- currently, global sea level rise is estimated at 2 mm a year, you begin to
col Update (pg. realize that these levels will rise. What implications does this have for Carib-
8) bean Small Island Developing States (SIDS)?

First, some background: Research by the British Antarctic Society (BAS)
indicates that the melted ice in the Antarctic Peninsula had served as a vital
(Continued on page 5)

Feature Article:

Land-Use Planning and Wa-
tershed Restoration in the
Courland Watershed and
Buccoo Reef Area, Tobago

The IWCAM National Demonstration Project for
Trinidad and Tobago: Land-Use Planning and
Watershed Restoration in the Courland Water-
shed and Buccoo Reef Area, on the island of
Tobago, is one of the more advanced GEF-
IWCAM demonstration projects. In this article
Sandra Timothy, Demonstration Project Manager,
gives some background to the project and shares
their experience so far.

Tobago has been awarded the title of "World's
Best Eco-tourism Destination" by the prestigious
World Travel Awards for the fourth consecutive
year. Notwithstanding its rich ecosystems and
such prestigious international awards, its natural
resources, like those of its Caribbean neighbours,
have not been managed in a sustainable way.
Kamau Akili, a member of the Council for Sustain-
able Development in the Tobago House of Assem-
bly (THA), summed the problem up in this way, "A
narrow sectoral approach to natural resource man-
agement in Tobago has been compounded by a
lack of data, as well as limited human and techni-
cal resources. This has resulted in poorly-informed
decision-making and inadequate management of
natural resources leading to environmental degra-
dation andresource use conflicts."

The Buccoo Reef is one of the main tourist attrac-
tions on the island and the major revenue earner
for sea tour operators in the Southwestern part of
the island. It was designated a marine park in
1973, but over the years, has increasingly come
under threat from anthropogenic impacts and,
more recently, from climate change-induced coral
bleaching. It is recognized as a national biodiver-
sity hotspot and was declared an Environmentally
(Continued on page 2)


IWCAM Caribbean WaterWays Newsletter

References used for the article "Melting Ice A Hot Topic
for Caribbean SIDS" and useful if you want to learn more
about sea level rise include:

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/portal/climate change/


http://earthobservatorv.nasa .ov/Librarv/GlobalWarminaUpdate/

news/2004/12/1206 041206 global warming.html


http://www.ccap.ora/Presentations/CDM-FAD/2004 November %



The Integrating Watershed and CoastalAreas Management in Caribbean Small
Island Development States (IWCAM) Project, with a value of USD 112 million,
was approved by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) in May 2004. Imple-
menting agencies are the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and
the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Executing agencies are
the Secretariat of the Cartagena Convention (UNEP-CAR/RCU) and the Carib-
bean Environmental Health Institute (CEHI) and the UN Office of Project Ser-
vices (UNOPS). The thirteen ..; :_.. SIDS are:Antigua and Barbuda, The
Bahamas, Barbados, Cuba, Grenada, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Haiti
Jamaica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines,
and Trinidad and Tobago. The length of the Project is years and commenced in
the second quarter of2005. The Project Coordinating Unit is located at the CEHI,
as agreed by the Implementing and ExecutingAgencies and the, :.

(Continuedfrom page 1)
Sensitive Area in 2005 and subsequently a Ramsar Site in 2006.
Despite these designations, the lack of enforcement of park
rules and the inadequate implementation of the Management
Plan (prepared in 1995 by the Institute of Marine Affairs for the
THA ) have resulted in Buccoo Reef being little more than a
"paper park".

The Courland Watershed is Tobago's largest watershed and
most important water catchment area. It supplies water for rural
villages in the watershed and the entire west and south coast.
The catchment drains into the coastal areas adjacent to Buccoo
Reef, which is located 7km to the south. It is the site of many
activities, including both planned and unplanned housing devel-
opments, farming and hunting. Changes in land use patterns in
the Courland Watershed, in particular increasing deforestation
as a result of poor farming practices and bush fires, have greatly
affected the quality of the run-off, and damaged the health of
adjacent fringing coral reefs. The gradual degradation of Buc-
coo Reef has been documented by over 30 scientific studies,
which all point to land-based sources of pollution as the
main culprit in the loss of live coral cover.

Exposed land ii Courland Walershed

It was against this backdrop that the GEF-IWCAM National
Demonstration project for Trinidad and Tobago: Land-Use Plan-
ning and Watershed Restoration in the Courland Watershed
and Buccoo Reef Area, was developed.

This project seeks to reduce the impact of the Courland Water-
shed and other smaller watersheds from Castara in the North, to
Crown Point in the Southwestern end of Tobago, upon coastal
areas, from Little Englishman's Bay to Buccoo Reef. The project
objectives include:

* Reforestation of the Courland Watershed and a monitoring
programme to include surveys to identify point and non-point
sources of pollution;
(Continued on page 3)


IWCAM Caribbean WaterWays Newsletter

(Continuedfrom page 2)
* Incorporation of community involvement into the manage-
ment programme;
* Diversion of surface drains into a constructed artificial wet-
* Upgrading of the land-use plan in the target area and im-
provement of the Enviromental Impact Assessment process;
* Establishment of a sustainable and effective programme of
data collection;
* Development of a formal procedure for data flow;
* Instigation of an integrated approach to decision-making,
* Undertaking a long-term public awareness and sensitization

This Demonstration project is being implemented by the Buccoo
Reef Trust (BRT), a Non-governmental Organization (NGO), in
close collaboration with the Tobago House of Assembly (THA).
The BRT has established a Project Management Unit (PMU), led
by a Project Manager. The project team also includes a GIS
Specialist, a Scientific Diving Officer and an Environmental Edu-
cational Coordinator. Since its inception in January 2007, the
PMU has been working along with other members of staff at
BRT and members of the National Intersectoral Committee

Achievements to date:

Formation ofthe NIC
The NIC was formally launched in November 2006 following
a Cabinet decision for its establishment. Its inaugural meet-
ing was held in January 2007 and it has convened three
successful meetings to date.

The role of the
NIC is to inte-
grate IWCAM
principles into
national policy for
Trinidad and
Tobago. Its com-
position therefore
includes repre-
Second feeling ol the NIC sentatives of a
wide cross-
section of agencies and Ministries across the national com-
munity. These include relevant Divisions of the THA,
NGOs, the United Nations Development Programme (one
of the project's implementing agencies), and the Tobago
Hotel Association; a total of ten members so far. It is ex-
pected that more agencies will nominate representatives.
The NIC is chaired by Linford Beckles, a THA representa-

Stakeholders Meetings

Several one-on-one stakeholder meetings have been held.
Interest in, and anticipated participation in IWCAM sub-
activities is high.

Public Awareness Campaign

A simple public awareness campaign has begun. This will
be expanded when more funds are available:
* Interview on Tobago's local television morning show,
"Rise and Shine".
* Distribution of approximately 1,500 public awareness
flyers in villages situated in the watershed, with the assis-
tance of The University of the West Indies campus volun-
teer group.
* Article in a bi-monthly magazine.

Data Collection and Monitoring

External Partnership
BRT is fortunate to have entered into partnership with Coral
Cay Conservation (CCC). CCC is a UK-based NGO with
over 20 years experience in mapping and monitoring coral
reefs worldwide, using the effective approach of combining
qualified marine biologists
with trained vc.liiuni rs F- "
The BRT, with Iinanicial
assistance from Ihi e THA
and the Global Enviro:in-
ment Facility's Small
Grants Programrmen i(EF-
SGP, implemented ,v .Ih.
UNDP), invited CCC' Ii '
Tobago to underiate a
major reef mapping pro-
gramme called Ih.e r.-.
bago Coastal E...-1- ;twi
Mapping 'T.,e, r
Baseline survey
This 2-year project, whichri
started in April 2007, will develop a detailed database of all
the coastal areas surrounding Tobago down to a depth of
30 metres. This information will be of critical importance in
formulating recommendations for the management of To-
bago's reefs and fits perfectly into the overall aims of IW-
CAM. The project has a substantial education and capac-
ity-building programme, including 48 scholarships to local
volunteers for free training in scuba diving, marine taxon-
omy and survey techniques. For more information on
TCEMP see www.coralcay.orci


IWCAM Caribbean WaterWays Newsletter

In addition to the above-described mapping and baseline
data collection of Tobago's coastal areas, the PMU has
established a long-term coral reef monitoring programme.

Work in Proqress

Watershed Restoration

Baseline survey

The aim of this component is to establish 12 permanent
monitoring stations on reefs around the island in order to
assess any changes over time. These stations have been
set-up and the monitoring programme, using underwater
video techniques, is well underway with video surveys car-
ried out in both January/February and March/April. This
work is being assisted and expanded through a partnership
with Dr. Jennie Mallela, a coral reef post-doctoral re-
searcher at the University of the West Indies.

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Unit Establish-

In preparation for the installation of the GIS, discussions
have been held with many of the local authorities with re-
sponsibilities in the Demonstration Project area, including
the Department of Natural Resources and the Environment
(DNRE), the Town and Country Planning Unit and the To-
bago National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA).
Discussions were also held with the Institute of Marine Af-
fairs (IMA).

The GIS Specialist expressed interest in possible avenues
of cooperation with each of these agencies. These discus-
sions underlined the fact that there is a keen interest in GIS
amongst stakeholders, and, that the IWCAM Project can
make a distinct contribution to the development of GIS in
Trinidad and Tobago.

The unit should soon be equipped and once properly in-
stalled at the BRT, initiatives aimed at encouraging commu-
nity participation will begin. These will include a Citizen
Science approach with high school students and On-the-
Job internships for tertiary level students.

--t ---



Initial talks have been held regarding restoration of the
watershed with some key stakeholders. Actual work is on
hold until a Memorandum of Understanding is established
between the THA and BRT. It is anticipated that watershed
reforestation work will be done in partnership with the Water
Resources Agency, the Division of Natural Resources and
the Environment; and the Reforestation Unit of the THA

Community Participation
BRT will also partner with the Poverty Reduction Pro-
gramme and the Division of Community Development and
Culture to support and empower communities in the water-
shed to start self-help projects which will have positive im-
pacts upon the watershed.


* The BRT is working together with the government on the
execution of this demonstration project. For example, the THA's
Division of Agriculture, Marine Affairs and the Environment, as
the GEF-IWCAM National Focal Point, has an oversight role on
the demonstration project. Institutional arrangements between
BRT and government entities should be established to ensure
progress, efficiency, and attention to sensitive political or cultural
issues. This requires a consistent and concerted approach to
communication and information-sharing.

* Overcoming difficulty in information sharing amongst agen-

* Maintaining a national profile for the Demonstration Project
which is located in Tobago, particularly as the lessons learned
must be applied at the national level.

Courland Watershed. Tobago

IWCAM Caribbean WaterWays Newsletter

(Continuedfrom page 1)
barrier to the movement of the glacier and as a result of its melt-
ing, they predict that glaciers in Antarctica now flow into the
ocean up to six times faster than before. In the past decade,
several major sections of Antarctic ice have broken off: the Lar-
sen A ice shelf (1995 1,600 square kilometres), the Wilkins ice
shelf (1998 1,100 square kilometres), and the Larsen B ice
shelf (2002 13,500 square kilometres). It is estimated that the
melting Antarctic ice caps contribute to at least 15% of the cur-
rent global sea level rise. In January 2006, the British Antarctic
Society, in a study commissioned by the British government,
warned that the disintegration of the west Antarctic ice sheet
could raise sea levels by at least 5 metres.

On the other side of the globe, the multinational Arctic Climate
Impact Assessment (ACIA) report recently concluded that in
Alaska, western Canada, and eastern Russia, average tempera-
tures have increased at nearly twice the global average (3 to 4
degrees Celsius) in the past 50 years. This impacts the
Greenland Ice
Sheet, which is 1.71
million square kilo- What causes the
meters and gener-
ally between two to a ,.,, .
three kilometers in &W ....ano
thickness. Scientists s~o" .... .. M d ino ch ."
who have been Subens eo in
measuring its melt-- i.ebh, a
tectorac displacements
ing rate since 1979 -.jlh,
report that in the
period between
1979 and 2002 the
melting has in-
creased by approxi-
mately 16 percent.
In 2006, based on
images from a
NASA satellite, the
melting rate was
estimated at 239
cubic kilometres
annually. It is predicted that if the ice sheet were to melt in its
entirety, which is a long term possibility, global sea levels would
rise 7.2 metres.

From our perspective, the impacts of glacial melt upon
Small Island Developing States (SIDS) will be especially
destructive, both in the short and long-term. These include
changes in water temperature, salinity, and sea level rise.

The GEF-funded Mainstreaming Adaptation to Climate Change
(MACC) project, which aims to mainstream climate change ad-
aptation strategies into the sustainable development agendas of
the small island and low lying states of CARICOM, has high-

lighted some of these impacts as:

Beach erosion: As sea level rises, more Caribbean SIDS
beaches will be reclaimed by the Atlantic Ocean and
Caribbean Sea.

Salinisation of soil, aquifers, and estuaries: Sea level
rise will bring salt and brackish waters into the soil,
aquifers and estuaries, threatening drinking water
supplies, agriculture, and important coastal ecosys-

Degradation of mangroves, seagrass beds, and coral
reefs: Both salination and beach erosion, as men-
tioned above, would cause degradation of these habi-
tats. Additionally, sea level rise will result in a reduced
amount of light reaching coral reefs and sea grass
beds. The consequences of their destruction would be
far reaching, including decreased stocks of the fish
which live and feed
in and around the
level to change? reefs; reduction in
the amount of natu-
ral protection offered
by coral reefs and
se""' mangrove swamps
in particular, from
he ""e ... ex~ storm surges; de-
creased tourism
activities, such as
snorkeling, scuba
diving, and fishing;
and a decrease in
valuable biological

Enhanced storm
surges: To further
complicate the mat-
ter of diminished
protection from
storm surges, the higher sea level, combined with
other climatic changes, will bring about more severe
storm surges, wreaking havoc on coastal ecosystems
and communities.

Coastal inundation: With over 90% of populations and
economic activities located in the coastal zones of
Caribbean SIDS, flooding will have a negative impact
upon economic livelihoods and cause loss of life.

Ronny Jumeau, the Seychelles' Minister for Environment and
Natural Resources, addressed this threat to SIDS in his essay
(Continued on page 8)


IWCAM Caribbean WaterWays Newsletter

IWCAM Training for Project Managers and
National Focal Points

Demonstration Project Managers Trained on Indicators,
Integrated Water Resources Management & Environmental
Monitoring of Industrial Waste in Coastal Zones, May 14-18,

The Global Environment Facility (GEF)-funded Integrating Wa-
tershed and Coastal Areas Management Project (IWCAM) re-
cently conducted a regional training activity in St. Lucia. Demon-
stration Project Managers from 7 of the 9 demonstration sites as
well as representatives from 11 of the 13 GEF/IWCAM Partici-
pating Countries participated in the week of activities designed
to orient them towards the project objectives and also provide
training in key technical areas related to the project. The objec-
tives of the week of activities were as follows:

For Demonstration Project Managers:

To catalyze networking and communications amongst
IWCAM Demonstration Projects.
To introduce Demonstration Project Managers to the
IWCAM Project Coordinating Unit.
To train Demonstration Project Managers in IWCAM-
specific administrative, public awareness and educa-
tion procedures.

For Demonstration Project Managers and National Focal Points:

To provide an initial introduction to GEF International
Waters outcomes and indicators and their incorpora-
tion into project work planning, execution, and monitor-
To provide training on integrated water resources
management (IWRM) and roadmapping for national
IWRM plans.
To develop "next steps" for IWRM Mainstreaming, in
both demonstration project sites and at the national
To provide training in aspects of environmental plan-
ning and monitoring, including: Coastal Zone Manage-
ment Planning; Impacts of industrial waste; Monitoring
programmes; Coastal
IWCAM Orientation sampling techniques;
and Relevant labora-
tory analyses.

Resource persons for
the week included staff
of the regional GEF/
IWCAM Project Coordi-
nating Unit as well as

technical officers from the Caribbean Environmental Health Insti-
tute (CEHI).

This initiative, jointly spearheaded by the GEF/IWCAM Project,
in collaboration with the Caribbean Environmental Health Insti-
tute (CEHI) was co-funded by the Government of Japan, under
the Japan-CARICOM Friendship and Cooperation Fund and the
GEF, under the IWCAM Project.

The Workshop was held at the Bay Gardens Hotel. The feature
address at the formal opening of the workshop was given by Mr.
Donovan Williams, Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Economic
Affairs, Economic Planning, National Development and Public
Service for the Government of St. Lucia. It is expected that the
execution of the workshop will result in a better understanding of
GEF procedures, a better appreciation of IWRM, improved envi-
ronmental planning and monitoring capabilities of the partici-
pants, and in improved coastal zone monitoring regimes for
coastal marine industrial pollution in the Region.

Participants in the Workshops visited the Fond D'or Water-
shed on Friday 18 May


IWCAM Caribbean WaterWays Newsletter

~9 L

International Year of the Reef
(IYOR 2008)

The International Coral Reef Initiative (ICRI), a partner-
ship among governments, international organizations,
and non-government organizations throughout the world,
has designated 2008 as the International Year of the Reef
(IYOR 2008) to celebrate one of Earth's most precious,
fragile, and diverse ecosystems. By raising awareness
and understanding of coral reefs, IYOR 08 aims to pro-
mote urgent conservation and management policies to
best protect our coral reefs on a global scale.

Over the last few decades, the health of coral reefs and
their associated ecosystems (mangroves, seagrass, etc...)
have degraded considerably worldwide. Marine resources
within and surrounding coral reefs have also significantly
declined, primarily due to human influences.

The first IYOR was declared and implemented in 1997 in
response to the increasing threats and loss of coral reefs
and associated ecosystems. IYOR 97 was a global effort
to raise awareness and understanding of coral reefs and
the threats they face, and support related conservation,
research and management efforts. Despite IYOR 97's
success in raising global awareness of coral reefs and
associated ecosystems, ten years later, there remains an
urgent need to increase awareness, to take action, fur-
ther conserve and manage coral reefs and associated

The overall objectives of the International Year of the
Reef 2008 (IYOR 2008) are to:

> Strengthen awareness about the ecological,
economic, social and cultural value of coral reefs
and associated ecosystems

SImprove understanding of the critical threats to
coral reefs and generate both practical and inno-
vative solutions to reduce these threats

S Generate urgent action at all levels to develop
and implement effective management strategies
for conservation and sustainable use of these

The ICRI partners are committed to ensuring that IYOR
2008 is a success, and activities are already underway in
many countries including several from the Caribbean. We
also anticipate many exciting developments as the plan-
ning for IYOR 2008 begins in earnest, and you will be able
to follow the progress by visiting: http://www.ivor.ora
(where you can sign-up to the IYoR newsletter). For fur-
ther information on IYOR 2008 including ways to become
involved in the year, please visit www.ivor.org or contact

The GEF-funded Sustainable Integrated Water Re-
sources and Wastewater Management Project in the
Pacific Island Countries

In an effort to share some of the lessons learned during the GEF-
IWCAM development phase, GEF-IWCAM Technical Coordinator,
Sasha Gottlieb, traveled to Fiji to participate in the GEF-funded
Sustainable Integrated Water Resources and Wastewater Manage-
ment Project in the Pacific Island Countries Second Steering
Committee Meeting. The project in the Pacific is in its develop-
ment phase and plans to submit a full project brief to the GEF in
late 2007. Given the similar approaches, colleagues from the
Pacific were particularly interested in learning about the GEF-
IWCAM approach for demonstration project development and
hotspot diagnostic.

The two regions, along Sasha Golllieb of IWCAMpre-
with colleagues from the sens in Fiji
Indian Ocean and Atlantic
Ocean SIDS, willtt continue .

velopment of an IWRM n
methodology and guide-
lines for SIDS and to serve
as resources for each
other throughout project~

GEF-IWCAM Consultancies:

IWCAM Consultancies which are underway, or which will shortly begin, include: a Capability Assessment for
Geographic Information Systems; a Review of Policy, Legislation and Institutional Structures; an Indicators
Mechanism Assessment; and a Review of Relevant IWCAM-related Projects. In coming months the Project
will be sharing the outcome of this research.


IWCAM Caribbean WaterWays Newsletter

(Contmuedfrom page 5)

No Island Is an Island, stating, "We are all linked together: what
happens in the Arctic affects us all on the Equator... (Former)
UNEP Executive Director, Klaus Toepfer, said that the... Arctic
was 'the early warning system for the world'. The very same
term has also been used to describe small island states as,
thanks to our smallness and special frailties, we will be the first
to succumb to the major environmental problems afflicting the
world today."

Sea level rise from glacial melt is indeed a serious issue and one
that should not be overlooked until it is too late. While reducing
the carbon dioxide emissions of SIDS will not be sufficient to
curb the global warming trend, islands can mitigate some im-
pacts of sea level rise through sustainable and integrated man-
agement of watersheds and coastal areas.
Maintenance of coastal ecosystems will protect developments
from storm surge and beach erosion. Reducing contamination,
sedimentation and erosion will help keep mangroves, seagrass
beds, and coral reefs healthy, better enabling them to respond to
the degradation caused by sea level rise. Protection and main-
tenance of watersheds will maintain important freshwater re-
sources, especially as sea level rise will increasingly cause salt-
water intrusion into aquifers. Improved water efficiency will re-
duce demand on increasingly stressed water supplies.

These actions are part and parcel of the integrated watershed
and coastal area management that GEF-IWCAM is helping the
13 Participating Countries to adopt. The coastal zones of SIDS
are being developed with little regard to loss and degradation of
land and flooding during storm surges. Our exposure to these
threats in particular will increase with sea level rise. Responding
to the challenge will require assessments of future rates of sea
level rise amongst SIDS, information on likely effects and public
awareness of these, as well as, adaptation and mitigation meas-
ures. The integrated approach to managing our watersheds and
coastal areas must take these things into consideration.

Contributors to this issue of Caribbean WaterWays:

S.inlk. rnmolli\ oII l.i\ [i]. s l'.nl.ui S.slI. B tIlli Gollh. [ I#h:it t
Si rIlo /1 .tlloJ l']( 11111.1 SfI Ih84l

The LBS Protocol Update

In October 1999, Parties to the Cartagena Convention
adopted the Protocol Concerning Land-Based Sources
and Activities (LBS Protocol), a regional agreement for the
prevention, reduction, and control of marine pollution from
land-based sources and activities in the Wider Caribbean

The main point sources of pollution to the Caribbean Sea
are: domestic sewage, oil refineries, sugar factories and
distilleries, food processing, beverage manufacturing, pulp
and paper, and, chemical industries. The main non-point
source category of pollution is run-off from the land.

The Protocol provides the
framework for addressing
pollution based on national
and regional needs and
priorities. It adopts an ap-
proach which focuses upon
addressing the sources of
pollution, including the ap-
plication of most appropri-
ate technologies and best
management practices. It
also promotes the estab-
lishment of pollution stan-
dards and schedules for

Two countries (Trinidad
and Tobago and Panama)
have so far acceded to the
Protocol. Seven more countries must accede before it can
come into force. The United States, in March 2007 moved
closer to ratifying the Protocol.

Several Caribbean countries will, with the assistance of the
Assessment and Management of Environmental Pollution
(AMEP) Sub-Programme of the Caribbean Environment
Programme (CEP), based at UNEP-CAR/RCU, the Re-
gional Activity Centres at the Institute of Marine Affairs
(IMA), and the Centro de Ingenieria y Manejo Ambiental de
Bahias y Costas (CIMAB), and the IWCAM Project, hold
workshops to promote the Protocol at the national level.

For more information see: www.cep.unep.org

Participating Country Focal Points, Demonstration Projects
and others are invited to submit articles. Please contact
Donna Spencer at dspencer@cehi.org.lc

Contact Information:
IWCAM Project Coordination Unit
P.O. Box 1111, The Morne, Castries, Saint Lucia
Tel: (758)-452-2501/1412; Fax: (758)-453-2721
E-mail: dspencer@cehi.org.lc


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