Neotropical primates

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Title:
Neotropical primates a newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCNSSC Primate Specialist Group
Abbreviated Title:
Neotrop. primates
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 27 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
Conservation International
Center for Applied Biodiversity Science
Publisher:
Conservation International
Place of Publication:
Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
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quarterly
regular

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Subjects / Keywords:
Primates -- Periodicals -- Latin America   ( lcsh )
Primates -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Wildlife conservation -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
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review   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
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Brazil

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Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Language:
English, Portuguese, and Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1, no. 1 (Mar. 1993)-
Issuing Body:
Issued jointly with Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, <Dec. 2004->
General Note:
Published in Washington, D.C., Dec. 1999-Apr. 2005 , Arlington, VA, Aug. 2005-
General Note:
Latest issue consulted: Vol. 13, no. 1 (Apr. 2005).

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 28561619
lccn - 96648813
issn - 1413-4705
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UF00098814:00065


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NEOTROPICAL PRIMATES rfnnftbnfbrfn bfntnbbft n n n bfbb bbffb bbn n nbr bffnnnbnn nfnbnbffnnbnntfbf

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pt-BRNeotropical Primatespt-BRA Journal of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group pt-BRConservation Internationalpt-BR 2011 Crystal Drive, Suite 500, Arlington, VA 22202, USA ISSN 1413-4703 Abbreviation: pt-BRNeotrop. Primatespt-PT Editorspt-PT Erwin Palacios, Conservacin Internacional Colombia, Bogot DC, Colombia Liliana Corts Ortiz, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA pt-PT Jlio Csar Bicca-Marques, Pontifcia Universidade Catlica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brasil Eckhard Heymann, Deutsches Primatenzentrum, Gttingen, Germany Jessica Lynch Alfaro, Institute for Society and Genetics, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USApt-PT Anita Stone, Department of Biology, Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, MI, USApt-PT News and Books Reviews pt-PT Brenda Solrzano, Instituto de Neuroetologa, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Mxico pt-PT Ernesto Rodrguez-Luna, Instituto de Neuroetologa, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Mxico Founding Editors Anthony B. Rylands, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science Conservation International, Arlington VA, USA pt-PT Ernesto Rodrguez-Luna, Instituto de Neuroetologa, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Mxico Editorial Board Bruna Bezerra, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA Hannah M. Buchanan-Smith, University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland, UK pt-PT Adelmar F. Coimbra-Filho, Academia Brasileira de Cincias, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Carolyn M. Crockett, Regional Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA pt-PT Stephen F. Ferrari, Universidade Federal do Sergipe, Aracaj, Brazil Russell A. Mittermeier, Conservation International, Arlington, VA, USA pt-PT Marta D. Mudry, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina Anthony Rylands, Conservation International, Arlington, VA, USA pt-PT Horcio Schneider, Universidade Federal do Par, Campus Universitrio de Bragana, Brazil Karen B. Strier, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA pt-PT Maria Emlia Yamamoto, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Brazil Primate Specialist Group Chairman, Russell A. Mittermeier Deputy Chair, Anthony B. Rylands Vice Chair, Special Section on Great Apes, Liz Williamson Vice Chair, Special Section on Small Apes, Benjamin M. Rawsonpt-PT Regional Vice ChairsNeotropics Mesoamerica, pt-PTLiliana Corts-Ortiz Andean Countries, Erwin Palacios and Eckhard W. Heymann Brazil and the Guianas,pt-PT pt-PTM. Ceclia M. Kierul, Fabiano R. de Melo and Mauricio Talebipt-PT Regional Vice Chairs Africa W. Scott McGraw, Janette Wallis and David N.M. Mborapt-PT Regional Vice Chairs Madagascar Christoph Schwitzer and Jonah Ratsimbazafypt-PT Regional Vice Chairs Asia China, Long Yongcheng Southeast Asia, Jatna Supriatna, Christian Roos, Ramesh Boonratana, and Benjamin M. Rawson South Asia, Sally Walker and Sanjay Molur Layout: Kim Meek, Washington, DC IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group logo courtesy of Stephen D. Nash, 2002. pt-BR Front cover: Adult male of Alouatta guariba clamitans in Cachoeira do Sul, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Photo: Jlio Csar Bicca-Marques. is issue of Neotropical Primates was kindly sponsored by the Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation, 432 Walker Road, Great Falls, Virginia 22066, USA, and the Los Angeles Zoo, Director John R. Lewis, 5333 Zoo Drive, Los Angeles, California 90027, USA.

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1 A enSYMPATRIC DISTRIBUTION OF TWO SPECIES OF en ALOUATTAen (en A. SENICULUSen AND enA. PALLIATAen: en PRIMATES) IN CHOC, COLOMBIAenSara A. Zuiga Lealen1en and Thomas R. Defleren2,*en en1 enPontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogot D. C., Colombiaen2 enUniversidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogot D.C., Colombia, E-mail: Abstract We studied a zone of sympatry between Alouatta seniculus and Alouatta palliata on the left bank of the Atrato River (Choc). We located 110 groups of Alouatta, consisting of 81 groups of A. palliata and 29 groups of A. seniculus, recorded between 12 300 m a.s.l. Alouatta seniculus was associated principally with arracachal and panganal vegetation of alluvial soils along side the Atrato River below 50 m altitude, and A. palliata was associated with upland vegetation of gallery forest, primary forest and secondary forest (20-300 m a.s.l.). e average number of animals per group of A. seniculus was 5.59 (range 2-7 individuals) while the average for A. palliata was 6.76 (range 2-18 individuals). No phenotypic evidence of hybridiza tion was detected in contrast to other studies of hybridization of Alouatta. e condition of many of the forests in this study suggests the necessity of a conservation program in order to protect this unique zone of sympatry between the two species. Keywords: Alouatta seniculus, Alouatta palliata, sympatry, Choc, Colombia, primates Resumen es-ES Se estudi una zona de simpatra entre es-ES Alouatta seniculuses-ES y es-ESAlouatta palliataes-ES en la margen izquierda del ro Atrato (Choc). es-ES La distribucin de ambas especies se determin mediante observaciones directas y encuestas. Los rboles utilizados fueron es-ES identicados, la estructura y nmero de individuos en cada grupo determinado, la ubicacin registrado con GPS y los es-ES datos fueron analizados con SIG para determinar posibles factores ecolgicos y geogrcos que limitan la presencia de las es-ES dos especies. Se observaron 110 grupos de es-ES Alouattaes-ES consistiendo en 81 grupos de es-ES A. palliataes-ES y 29 grupos de es-ES A. seniculuses-ES es-ES diferentes, a alturas que varan entre 12 y 400 msnm. es-ES Alouatta seniculuses-ES est asociada principalmente a vegetacin de tierras es-ES aluviales por debajo de los 50 msnm y es-ES Alouatta palliataes-ES a tierras altas. El promedio del tamao de los grupos de es-ES Alouatta es-ES seniculuses-ES fue de 5.59 animales (rango 2-7 individuos) y el de es-ES A. palliataes-ES de 6.76 (rango 2-18 individuos). No se detect es-ES evidencia fenotpica de hibridizacin como se ha reportado en otros estudios de simpatra de es-ESAlouattaes-ES. El tipo de vegetacin es-ES mayormente utilizado por es-ESA. seniculuses-ES fue arracachal y panganal de los bajos, y principalmente al lado del ro Atrato, es-ES mientras que es-ESA. palliataes-ES utilizaba bosque de galera, bosque primario, y bosque secundario y rastrojo. La condicin de es-ES muchos de los bosques en este estudio sugiere la urgente necesidad de un programa de conservacin para proteger esta zona es-ES nica de simpatra entre las dos especies. Palabras clave: Alouatta seniculus, Alouatta palliata, simpatra, Colombia, primates Introduction Alouatta is the most wide-spread Neotropical primate genus, distributed from southern Mexico to northern Ar gentina (Milton, 1980; Crockett, 1998). In Colombia two species are found that are generally allopatric, though there are poorly dened historic records and some recent obser vations that suggest a large sympatric zone between Alouatta palliata and A. seniculus for northern Colombia extending from the left banks of the Peye and Atrato in the Choc department to the region around Cartagena, south to the ro Sin (Fig. 1). Whether A. palliata was at all common in northern Colombia east of the Atrato River can no longer be said; it is now very scarce in the region, perhaps having been largely displaced by A. seniculus which has a high tolerance for anthropogenic disturbances (Deer, 2012; Eisenberg, 1979). ree of the 14 recognized Alouatta species are known to have allopatric distributions with other Alouatta species (Crockett and Eisenberg, 1987). Small sympatric overlaps are known for Alouatta pigra and A. palliata in Central America (Horwich and Johnson, 1986), A. palliata and A. seniculus in Colombia (Hernndez and Cooper, 1976) and A. caraya and A. fusca in northeast Ar gentina (Crockett, 1998).

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2 is study was designed to describe and characterize the area of sympatric overlap between A. palliata and A. seniculus from a zone on the left bank of the Atrato River in the Darien, Colombia, and to search for phenotypical evidence of possible hybridization. We attempted to identify ecolog ical factors characteristic of these species that could aect their distribution along the lower Atrato River. Alouatta seniculus persists at least sympatrically with A. palliata until the latitude of Quibd (5N) and, on the left bank of the lower Atrato river, A. palliata is present in the same region but on generally higher ground.MethodsenStudy Area e Colombian Darin in northwestern Colombia is part of the Choc biogeographic region, recognized for its strategic position as a bridge between Central and South America. e region comprises the Panamanian province of Darin and the northern Choc of Colombia and includes a forested low mountainous frontier between Panam and Colombia as well as extensive lowland swamplands on both sides of the Atrato River. e climate of the region studied is generally drier than other parts of the Choc to the south and has a unimodal annual precipitation between 1,9003,100 mm, contrasting with the high precipitation of the central and southern portions of the department where the highest precipitations for any rain forest have been re ported (13,300 mm in Llor, south of Quibd). Annual temperatures in the north are also higher at around 24 C in the lowlands, compared to further south (Rangel-Ch. and Arellano-P., 2004). Topography is varied from a wide belt of wetlands along the Atrato river at near sea level to hills and low moun tains, that gradually increase in height towards the Panama border, becoming the low mountains of the Serrana del Darien, with average heights of only 500 m but a maxi mum height of 1,875 m for the Cerro Tacarcuna. Original ly the entire region was covered in thick forest that could be classied as bh-T in the Holdridge life-zone system (Holdridge, 1967), but currently the region is in rapid conversion of the natural vegetation to an anthropogenic landscape (Rangel-Ch., 2004a). Current forest cover in the study area up to the boundary of Los Katios National Park is limited to fragments of primary forest and secondary forest repre senting distinct oristic communities. e forest fragments are generally surrounded by pasturelands used for cattle as well as cultigens (corn, yams, manioc, rice, plantains and bananas, sugar cane and some coca leaf) and tree planta tions (particularly of cativo Prioria copaifera, ceder Guarea aligero and roble Tabebuia rosea). e principal economic activities in the zone are cattle ranching and small scale lumbering. e study area includes the municipalities of Acand (8' 00"N, 77'00"W) and Ungua (8'00"N, 77'07"W) [Colombian municipalities are similar to counties in the United States and include several towns and much countryside]. We selected ten localities because of conrmed presence of howlers and their locations, per mitting reasonable access with manageable logistics. ese localities were as follow: La Playona (Acand), Balboa, Titu mate, San Francisco, Tanela, Santa Mara la Nueva, Gilgal, Ungua and Los Katios National Park (Unguia). e particular characteristics of these localities are listed in Table 1. Data collection took place during the dry season between November, 2009 and February, 2010 (Table 1). e region has six sympatric species of primates; Alouatta palliata, Alouatta seniculus, Ateles georoyi ruventris (=Ateles fusciceps ruventris) Cebus capucinus, Saguinus georoyi and Aotus zonalis, but Ateles georoyi is becoming increasingly scarce due to hunting and habitat loss (Deer, in press-b).en Evaluating the species distribution We used two methods to evaluate the distribution of the two species of Alouatta: unstructured interviews with local people and daily searches along paths and rivers (Pinto and Rylands, 1997; Iwanaga and Ferrari, 2002). e interviews consisted of questions about where groups had been seen, the color of their pelage and the type of vocalization. We also asked about hunting activities, the occupation of the interviewee and their time of residence in the area. People interviewed were principally subsistence hunters, small Figure. 1. Sympatry between Alouatta palliata (no. 2-4, 10-23) with A. seniculus. Numbers 10-20 are recent observations of biologists. Number 22 is an introduced island colony formed by animals introduced from the mainland (around no. 20) while 21 and 23 are historical records of past biologists.

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3 farmers, park guards and farm owners. Observations were made on foot and from boat. For each locality we noted GPS coordinates, number of individual primates observed, age-class, sex, pelage phenotype, height from ground when rst observed, altitude over sea level, and the forest type. Individuals were classied as adults, subadults, juveniles and infants (Deer, 1981). We analyzed the coordinates of our observations using the program ArcGIS, version 9.3 (2008) in order to map them. Forest habitat structure was classied and sketched by topography (hilly, hill top, sides of hills, lowland and swampy), forest type (primary, secondary, re-growth, spe cial types of forest) and altitude above sea level. Vegetation structure was analyzed measuring DBH (diameter at breast height), tree height, and the identication of tree species. We measured tree height and DBH only from trees where the groups were rst seen.ResultsWe completed 85 interviews and obtained 132 locations for Alouatta groups. We were able to locate 110 groups at these locations. e 110 groups totaled 672 individual howler monkeys of which 29 groups were A. seniculus and 89 groups were A. palliata.en Alouatta seniculus For A. seniculus we found the 27 observed groups of the species in ve dierent localities, conrming the presence of the species in four forest types varying in altitude from 735 m a.s.l. (average = 19.3 m). eir distribution was restricted to oodable river plains and swampy lowlands. Eighteen of the 27 groups were seen on the left bank of the Atrato river in panganal ( Raphia taedigera) associations in Katios National Park (Fig. 2).Table 1. Sampled localities and condition of forest. Site Structure of Habitat Selective Cutting Hunting PLAYONA High forest and secondary fragmented vegetation surrounded by pasture Medium/High Very Low BALBOA Fragmented high forest and secondary vegetation with a mosaic of pastureland and cropland. High During Study Medium/High TANELA Very fragmented high forest surrounded by grasslands and cropland. Panganal Association is highly intervened. Low at the present time. Low TITUMATE High continuous forest surrounded by grassland and [oil] palm plantations. Medium Low SAN FRANCISCO Secondary growth surrounded by grasslands and tree plantations. Medium Low SANTA MARIA Secondary growth surrounded by grasslands and tree plantations. Medium Low GILGAL High forest, fragmented vegetation surrounded by grasslands and kitechen gardens. High High UNGIA Highly fragmented secondary vegetation surrounded by grasslands and conserved panganales. Medium Medium/High PNN KATIOS Continuous high forest and primary vegetation and conserved secondary vegetation, buer zone wo cattle pastures. Low Low Figure 2. Distribution of howler groups in the Choc Darien

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4 e A. seniculus groups had an average of 5.59 +/2.08 (range 2-12 individuals) (Table 2). Two groups contained 11 and 12 individuals. e groups were made up of 1 or 2 adult males, 1-3 adult females and 1-3 subadults; the number of infants varied generally from 0-5. We observed two solitary adult males. e ratio of male adults to female adults was 1:1.1 and the ratio of adult females to immature (infant + juvenile) animals was 1:1.3. Pelage color was generally totally red-orange (Burnt Sienna to Mahogany Red or Chestnut ac cording to Hershkovitz, 1949), although in some individuals there was some blackish coloring in the pelage that could not be closely observed due to the shyness of this species. Dark patches would suggest genetic introgression from A. palliata. We observed A. seniculus 55.2% of the time atop palm trees at an average height of only 12.5 m. Middle parts of the low forest at about 9.2 m were used about 44.8% of the time.en Alouatta palliata We observed A. palliata in nine localities, conrming the presence of this species in ve types of forest. e altitude of these groups fell between 12 400 m a.s.l. (average 94 m). ey were principally observed in gallery forests and in old growth of secondary forest. e structure and composition of 76 groups of this species averaged 6.76 animals per group (range 2-18 individuals; DS: 3.6) (Table 3). Two groups had between 17 and 18 individuals. Groups usually had 1-3 adult males, 1-4 adult females, 1-3 subadults and from 0-3 immature animals for the 76 groups. e ratio of adult males to adult females was 1:1.5 and the ratio of adult females to immature animals was 1:0.99. Usually the pelage of this species was totally black, although occasionally there were individuals with patches of brown on Table 2. Age-sex composition for 29 groups of Alouatta seniculus in the Darien region of the Colombian Choc. Grupo A A S S J J I Undet. Total Ind Altitude (m) P12 1 3 1 1 1 7 7 P20 1 2 2 5 20 TA7 1 2 1 3 7 3 SM4 1 1 1 1 1 5 16 SM5 1 1 1 3 13 SM6 1 1 2 1 5 18 U1 1 1 1 1 4 10 U2 1 1 1 1 1 5 10 U4 1 1 1 1 1 5 10 PK1 2 1 1 1 5 18 PK2 1 2 1 1 5 27 PK3 1 1 2 1 1 6 31 PK4 1 1 1 2 5 30 PK5 2 1 3 32 PK6 2 1 3 2 2 1 1 12 22 PK7 2 2 1 1 1 7 25 PK8 1 2 2 1 6 25 PK9 2 1 3 20 PK10 1 1 1 4 7 18 PK11 1 1 2 1 5 26 PK12 1 3 1 1 6 22 PK13 2 1 3 2 2 1 11 30 PK14 1 2 2 5 23 PK15 2 1 3 27 PK16 1 1 1 3 6 27 PK17 2 2 1 5 29 PK18 1 2 1 1 3 20 TOTAL 31 35 22 15 16 7 5 20 151 Average 1.15 1.30 0.81 0.56 0.59 0.26 0.19 5.59A: adult, S: subadult, J: juvenil, I: infant, und A: adult, S: subadult, J: juvenil, I: infante, Undet.: undetermined sex P= PLAYONA, TA= TANELA, SM= SANTA MARIA, U= UNGUIA, PK= PARQUE

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5 Table 3. Composition of 76 Groups of A. palliata in the Darien region. Group A A S S J J I Undet. Total Altitude (m) P1 2 1 1 4 21 P3 1 1 1 1 1 5 19 P4 1 2 2 1 4 2 12 23 P5 2 1 1 1 1 6 36 P6 1 2 3 22 P7 1 2 4 4 2 3 1 17 25 P8 2 1 1 1 1 6 26 P9 2 4 1 3 4 14 24 P10 1 1 2 26 P11 3 4 3 4 2 2 18 30 P14 2 3 1 1 2 9 16 P16 1 2 3 1 2 9 25 P17 1 3 3 1 3 11 36 P18 1 1 1 3 30 P22 2 2 1 2 7 28 P23 2 3 2 1 1 9 34 P24 2 2 4 22 P25 1 2 1 1 5 29 P26 2 4 3 1 10 26 P27 2 1 3 17 B1 2 2 2 1 1 8 108 B2 2 3 2 1 1 9 102 B3 1 2 2 1 1 7 122 B4 2 2 1 1 3 2 11 110 B5 2 3 1 3 4 2 15 128 B6 1 1 2 1 5 109 B7 3 3 1 1 1 9 81 B8 1 1 2 156 B9 1 1 1 1 1 5 152 B10 2 3 1 2 1 9 167 B11 1 1 1 3 145 B12 2 4 3 1 1 11 163 B13 2 1 2 2 7 80 B14 2 1 3 83 B15 1 1 2 4 102 B17 1 2 2 1 6 110 B18 2 4 1 1 8 102 B19 1 1 1 3 146 B20 1 1 2 80 B21 2 4 1 1 2 1 1 12 114 SF 1 3 2 2 1 9 14 TA1 1 1 2 2 6 27 TA2 1 2 3 1 1 8 16 TA3 2 3 1 1 7 12 TA4 1 1 1 3 22table continued on next page

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6 the anks and the dorsal area. One male adult had whitish coloration in the mesial part of the tail. ere was no pelage evidence of hybridization with A. seniculus on these animals. We observed a total of ve solitary animals, three of which were males, one was a solitary female and one was a solitary subadult sex unknown. e solitary subadult A. palliata was heavily infested by bot ies (Alouattamyia baeri ?). A. palliata was seen 77.8% of time at canopy height of 22.7 +/5.0 m while the undergrowth was used only 22.2% of the time with an average height of 9.5 m +/3.3 m. en Forests habitat structure Generally A. palliata and A. seniculus were associated with dierent types of habitat. e wetlands of Darin are dominated by plant communities like the panganales, arracachales and cativales (very impacted due to lumbering of the tall cativo tree [ Prioria copaifera, Rangel-Ch, 2004a]) that are found along edges and dikes of the Atrato river, sometimes at the base of hills and terraces. P anganales are dominated by the pangana palm ( Raphia taedigera), the suerdo ( Ficus dendrosida, Cecropiaceae) and the chachafruto Group A A S S J J I Undet. Total Altitude (m) TA5 1 1 2 15 TA6 2 3 2 1 8 12 TA8 1 1 2 23 SM1 1 1 1 3 28 SM2 1 1 2 1 1 6 25 SM3 2 1 3 22 SM7 1 1 2 22 SM8 1 2 1 1 5 26 SM9 2 1 3 30 SM10 3 4 2 9 36 G1 1 2 1 1 5 209 G2 2 3 1 2 2 10 301 G3 3 1 1 1 6 322 G4 1 1 2 298 G5 2 2 1 5 298 G6 2 2 1 1 1 2 9 301 G7 1 1 2 245 G8 2 4 1 1 8 322 G9 1 1 1 1 1 5 136 G10 2 1 1 4 136 G11 2 4 1 1 2 1 2 13 79 PK1 2 3 2 1 8 19 PK2 3 1 1 2 7 35 PK3 3 2 1 1 1 1 9 31 T1 2 1 1 1 5 222 T2 1 1 2 191 T3 1 1 1 1 2 1 7 179 T4 2 1 1 1 2 1 8 100 T5 2 3 1 6 183 T6 1 2 2 3 2 1 11 169 T7 2 3 1 3 1 10 165 TOTAL 119 142 69 21 69 52 22 20 514 Average 1.57 1.87 0.91 0.28 0.91 0.68 0.29 6.76A: adult, S: subadult, J: juvenile, I: infant, undet.: undetermined ABREVIATIONS: P= PLAYONA, B= BALBOA, SF= SAN FRANCISCO, TA= TANELA, SM= SANTA MARIA, G= GILGAL, PK= PARQUE NACIONAL NATURAL LOS KATIOS, T= TITUMATEtable continued from previous page

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7 ( Erythrina fusca, Fabaceae). In the medium stratum cativo ( Prioria copaifera, Caesalpineaceae [an endangered tree spe cies or EN in the IUCN system for Colombia], yarumo ( Cecropia sp.) and guamo ( Inga spp., Mimosaceae) are common. is type of forest is the most important for Al ouatta senciculus and Cebus capucinus in the Darien region. Nevertheless it is one of the most transformed associations because of extraction of woody species and the opening of canals to drain ooded areas for use as pasture land. Arracachales dominated by the widely distributed arracacho (Montrichardia arborescens, Araceae) is the principal association on the ood plain of the Atrato river. e arracacho ( Montrichardia arborescens reaches 10-15 species per square meter with an average height of only 2 m (Plan de Manejo Katios, 2007). Arracachos grow in association with other dominant species such as Blechnum serrulatum, Acos tichum aureum, Scleria secans, Scleria melaceuca and species of elytpteris and Panicum (Rangel-Ch, 2004a), often in terspersed with ferns such as Macfadyena ungis Alouatta seniculus using this community are easily seen because of the very low vegetation, in contrast to other vegetation types. Rastrojo had a sometimes discontinuous, sometimes con tinuous canopy and thick undergrowth. Important tree species were Ficus spp. (Moraceae), cecropia (Cecropia sp., Cecropiaceae), hobo ( Spondias mombin, Anacardiaceae), copey ( Clusia sp., Clusiaceae), abarco ( Cariniana pyriformis, Lecythidaceae), roble ( Tabebuia rosea o Taebuia sp., Bignoniaceae), cedro ( Cedrela cf. angustifolia, C. odorata, Meliaceae), cativo ( Prioria copaifera, Caesalpinaceae), balso ( Ochromoa pyramidale, Bombacaceae), ceiba ( Ceiba pentandra, Bombacaceae), caracol ( Anacardium excelsum, Anacardiaceae), rubber ( Castilla sp., Moraceae), churimo ( Inga sp. probably I. edulis, Mimosaceae). Height of trees in this forest reaches 20 m, especially in the cases of Ceiba pentandra, Anacardium excelsium and Jacaranda caucana (Bignoniaceae). Rastrojos are often dicult of access because of the dense and closed vegetation, although some rastrojos were more open and especially exposed along the borders. ese forests result from cutting the original forest for agriculture or other purposes and allowing a new forest to grow and mature on the same spot. Rastrojos were often isolated from other forest, requiring terrestrial travel for the Alouatta groups. Gallery forests represented 25% of all observations of A. palliata. ese primates were found alongside small rivers such as the Chugandi, Negro, Tanela, Tanelita, Cuti, Tibirri and the Titiza among others. Some groups were lo cated in forest bordering very small streams and most of this forest was made up of tall (20-25 m) and continuous vegetation. Common trees of the gallery forest are balso ( Ochromoa pyramidale, Bombacaceae), guaimaro ( Brosi mum alicastrum y B. guianense, Moraceae), cedro ( Cedrela cf. angustifolia, C. odorata, Meliaceae), abarco ( Cariniana pyriformis, Lecythidaceae), caracol ( Anacardium excelsum, Anacardiaceae). DBHs ranged from 0.63-2.67 m. Gallery forests have been conserved in most of the veredas (subdivision of a municipio in Colombia), since the inhabitants understand the importance for water quality. Secondary growth forests showed various states of succession. Disturbances that created clearings modify the struc ture of the original forest allowing the growth of many pioneer species. Common trees growing in secondary growth forests (similar to rastrojo) were cedro ( Cedrela cf. angustifolia, C. odorata, Meliaceae), copey ( Clusia sp., Clusiaceae), palma mil pesos ( Jessenia bataua, Araceae), cuipo ( Cavanillesia platanifolia, Bombacaceae), guamo ( Inga spp, Table 4. Altitudinal ranges of sampled sites and the number of sites with either presence or absence of the species. Landscape type Elevation (m) No. Sites Alouatta palliata Alouatta seniculus Both spp present Low terraces 0-49 95 42 29 0 Slope 50-99 14 4 0 0 Low hills 100-199 35 26 0 0 Medium hills 200-499 20 9 0 0 Mountains 500-600 0 0 0 0en Table 5. Groups associated with forest types in the study area. Forest type A. palliata A. seniculus General total A. arracachal 0 1 1 A. panganal 1 24 25 Gallery forest 21 0 21 Primary forest 15 0 15 Secondary forest 18 1 19 Cut-over regrowth 26 3 29 General total 81 29 110

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8 Mimosaceae), copey ( Clusia sp., Clusiaceae) yarumo ( Ce cropia spp., Cecropiaceae), balso ( Ochromoa pyramidale, Bombacaceae) tachuelo ( Zanthoxylum grandifolum, Rutaceae) and churimo ( Inga edulis, Mimosaceae). ese forests were usually surrounded by pasturelands used by cattle. Primary forests were often disturbed due to logging so that species with low economic value predominated, even though three strata of trees existed. e highest stratum consisted of emergent trees up to 20-25 m, dominated by species such as higuern ( Ficus sp., Moraceae), cedro ( Ce drela cf. angustifolia, C. odorata Meliaceae), caracol ( Ana cardium excelsum, Anacardiaceae), hobo ( Spondias mombin, Anacardiaceae), almendro ( Dipteryx oleifera, Fabaceae) and cordoncillo ( Piper imperialis, Piperaceae) among others. is forest type characteristically contained climbing plants and lianas, and very little undergrowth. Of six forest types, A. palliata was found in ve and A seniculus in four (Table 5). A. palliata was mostly in second growth and gallery forests and never in the arracachal as sociations (Montrichardia arborescens). We observed one group of A. palliata in panganal ( Raphia taedigera). In contrast, A. seniculus commonly used the panganal association and was seen very rarely in second growth (rastrojo) (Table 5). We never observed either species of Alouatta in tree plantations or in other crops, in contrast to Cebus capucinus, which we observed several times in both forest plantations and other cultivars.DiscussionenSympatry is study conrms the sympatry between A. seniculus and A. palliata along the west bank of the Atrato river and for mally register other sites east of the Atrato river, but we cannot conrm hybridization between the two species. Ac cording to local information, sympatry between the two species continues upriver to an undetermined point along the Atrato river. Hybridization is not well-known in Al ouatta. A study of Alouatta sympatry describes hybridization between A. caraya and A. clamitans in a group of eight individuals observed near the Paran river in Brazil, in the ecotone between rain forest and the Cerrado, showing in termediate morphological variation (Aguiar et al., 2007). Another study in Tabasco, Mexico, reported hybridization of individuals with a mosaic of morphological characteris tics between A. palliata and A. pigra ese included indi viduals living in various grades of disturbed vegetation and that had characteristics of both species (Cortes-Ortiz et al., 2007). Also, hybridization is known in captivity between A. caraya and A. guariba (de Souza et al., 2010). Habitat preferences e two species of Alouatta in this study are not completely syntopic; their habitat preferences seem to overlap some what, aording some contact. According to Agostini et al. (2010) in undisturbed habitat the two species could be avoiding competition, employing strategies associated with dierent diets and dierent habitat use when in sympatric contact (Lehmann, 2004). Given the dierences detected in the use of distinct types of forest in this research and a lack of clear-cut morphological evidence for hybrids, we suspect that the two species maintain eective separation. Further to the east in the highly disturbed and fragmented Colom bian Caribbean there may be animals with mixed pheno types (obs. pers. A. Flrez and F. Garcia-Castillo) and these animals should be studied, especially in Crdoba (Fig. 1). Bicca-Marques et al. (2008) indicate that the habitat and utilization of resources are not considered factors that main tain a separation of species of Alouatta. Other authors consider that disturbed habitats can play a fundamental role in the sympatry and overlap of species ranges (Aguiar et al., 2007, 2008; Agostini, 2010). e situation of the Darien is of a disturbed habitat. Colonization has led to changes in vegetation cover resulting in much pastureland for cattle ranching and disturbed vegetation (Plan de Manejo Katios, 2007). Accordingly it seems logical that these activities might inuence contact between the two species. In the Choc A. palliata was present at all sites sampled from sea level to above 300 m, although its presence in panganal was minimal. But Alouatta seniculus was absent on the sides of hills from primary and secondary forest, although this species has been found up to 3,200 m in the Colombian Andes and is found in many types of primary forests in the lowlands of Amazonia, as well as gallery forest in Orinoquia and sub-Andean forests in Quindo (Hernn dez and Cooper, 1975; Gaulin and Gaulin, 1982; Izawa, 1988; Deer, 1981, 2010; Stevenson et al., 1991). In the Darien A. seniculus is restricted to swampy forest, panganales especially along the borders of rivers (Neville 1972; Deer 2010) and it is limited to elevations below 50 m. ese uses of particular habitats clearly show there to be a minimum of distribution overlap in the Choc. e use of forest strata by A. palliata and A. seniculus is related principally to the food supply, solar exposure and locomotion (Braza et al., 1981; Lehmann, 2004). ese animals prefer forest with adequate connectivity between canopies (Neville, 1972; Izawa, 1976) and tall trees, gener ally of 20-25 cm diameters or more (Gmez-Posada et al., 2007). e observations of A. palliata and A. seniculus in this research showed a preference of these primates for upper strata. During the study, A. palliata groups were found 77.8% of the time in the canopy. ey were only found in underbrush when they were eating from low trees or resting in shade (Palma, 2005). Groups of A. seniculus were seen in the low canopy 55% of the times observed where they generally were eating or resting. e middle stratum was used for travel (Izawa, 1976; Braza et al., 1981). ey were not observed in tall emergent trees in this study, a contrast to some other studies (Deer, 1981, 2010). e forests that were sampled contained plant species that already have been reported as being highly important for the diet of the

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9 two species of Alouatta (Neville et al., 1988). ese generally correspond to the Moraceae (usually the most important family in the diet of Alouatta) (Milton, 1980; Crockett and Eisenberg, 1987), including especially Ficus spp, Cecropia spp. as some of the most important genera (Milton, 1980; Gaulin and Gaulin, 1982; Crockett and Eisenberg, 1987; Gmez-Posada et al., 2007; Giraldo et al., 2007). Studies of A. seniculus suggest that this species is more a generalist than is A. palliata and usually does not depend on one type of habitat in particular (Neville, 1972; Stevenson et al., 1991; Julliot, 1996; Bicca-Marques, 2003). Other authors report preferences of the species for specic types of vegetation found at riversides, on river terraces, and in transitional forests and forest of Igap during the dry season (Palacios and Rodrquez, 2001; Iwanaga and Ferrari, 2002) where they consume species such as Cecropia sp. and Ficus sp. and new leaves (Stevenson et al., 1991). e densest populations known are found in the llanos of Colombia and Venezuela (Crockett and Eisenberg, 1987; Deer (in press-a). In this study A. seniculus was associated with vegetation that is frequently inundated and where the species Raphia taedigera, Erythrina fusca and Cecropia sp. were found. Such associations reached heights of only 8-9 m and did not have a continuous stratum along the edge of the Atrato river. is primate was also associated with the plant species Wela regia and Prioria copaifera and the animals were often syntopic with Cebus capucinus. River and lake-side preferences of A. seniculus in eastern Colom bia have also been described where no second species of Alouatta is present (Deer, in press-a) A. palliata has demonstrated its capacity for surviving in fragmented habitats (Crockett and Eisenberg, 1987; Clarke et al. 2002; Rodrguez-Toledo et al., 2003; Bicca-Marques, 2003). In this study this species seemed quite habituated to human beings, since during the majority of observations they continued their activities without being disturbed by our presence. Nevertheless, hunting of A. palliata in some parts of the Darien is reported to be very high, since they are avidly pursued by members of various indigenous ethnic groups such as the Cunas and Emberas (com. pers. various interviewees). Hunting pressure on A seniculus is medium to high along the banks of the Atrato River, according to comments from locals. In other cases, for example around the Cinega de Unga and because of the low vegetation, the animals are harassed and chased as a diversion, caus ing fear towards humans in both cases (probably always a reasonable response).en Conservation issues e Darien was considered one of the 17 most critical areas in the world for conservation, according to the concept rst developed by Myers (1988), underlining the importance of conservation planning and resource management in local development. Human activities compromise the continued presence of howlers in this region, and data on hunting, descriptions of habitat alteration and diseases are relevant for the management and conservation of these species over time. Studies of the ecology of closely related sympatric species represent a challenge, since these relationships are not commonly found in all habitats and their ecological relationships are not always evident. It is particularly im portant to integrate the demographic history and popula tion structure of these primates to be able to monitor the changes that occur over time (Crockett, 1998; Rodrquez et al., 2003; Asencio et al., 2009; Deer, 2010). It is fun damental to dene the technical and scientic criteria to be included in any resource planning and to include the active participation of communities in any region for the success of any future studies that facilitate the conservation of these species in the future. Acknowledgements Sara Zuiga Leal especially thanks her mother, Alexandra Leal, who has supported her in these and all of her forma tion. We thank the people of the Choc region, UAES PNN (Colombian Parks Service), Katios National Park, Lilia Crdoba and relatives for their support at all time. We also thank Jaime Burbano for orientation using ArcGis and Marcela Fonseca, Maritza Larrota and Silvana Garca for their support. omas Deer thanks the Universidad Nacional de Colombia for support during the writing of this article. References Agostini, I., Holzmann, I. and Bitetti, M. 2010. Are howler monkey species ecologically equivalent? Trophic niche overlap in syntopic Alouatta guariba clamitans and Alouatta caraya. Am. J. Primat. 72(2):173 Aguiar, L., Mellek, D., Abreu, K., Boscarato, T., Bernardi, I., Miranda, J. and Passos, F. 2007. Sympatry of Alouatta caraya and A. clamitans and the rediscovery of freeranging potential hybrids in Southern Brazil. Primates 48:245 Aguiar, L., Pie, M. and Passos, F. 2008. Wild mixed groups of howler species Alouatta caraya and Alouatta clamitans and new evidence for their hybridization. Primates 49:149 Bicca-Marques, J. C. 2003. How do howler monkeys cope with habitat fragmentation? In: Primates in frag ments. Marsh LK, (ed.), pp. 283-301. Kluwer Academic/ Plenum Publishers, New York. Bicca-Marques J., Rodrigues, F. and Jones, C. (2008) Survey of Alouatta caraya, the blackhand-gold howler monkey, and Alouatta guariba clamitans, the brown howler monkey, in a contact zone, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: evidence for hybridization. Primates 49:246 Braza, F., Alvarez, F. and Azcarate, T. 1981. Behaviour of the Red Howler Monkey (Alouatta seniculus) in the Llanos of Venezuela. Primates 22(4): 459-473.

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10 Chapman, C. and Balcombin, S. 1998. Population char acteristics of howlers: Ecological conditions or group his tory. Int. J. Primatol. 19: 385-403. Corts-Ortiz, L., Bermingham, E., Rico, C., Rodrguez, E., Sampaio, I. and Garca, M. 2003. Molecular systematics and biogeography of the Neotropical monkey genus, Al ouatta. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 26:64. Corts-Ortiz, L., Duda, Jr., T. F., Canales-Espinosa. D., Garca-Ordun, F. and Rodrguez Luna, E. and Berm ingham, E. 2007. Hybridization in large-bodied New World primates. Genetics 176(4): 2421-2425. Crockett, C. 1998. Conservation biology of the genus Al ouatta. Int. J. Primatol. 19(3):549-598. Crockett, C. and Eisenberg, J. 1987. Howlers: variations in group size and demography. In: Primate Societies, Smuts, B. B., Cheney, D. L. and Seyfarth, R. M. et al. (eds). e University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 54-69. Deer, T. R. 1981. e density of Alouatta seniculus in the eastern llanos of Colombia. Primates 22: 564-569. Deer. T. R. In press-a. Species richness, densities and bio mass of ten primate communities in eastern Colombia. Rev. Acad. Colomb. Cienc. Exactas Fs. Nat. Deer, T. R. In press-b. Aspectos para la conservacin de los primates colombianos: cul es el futuro? En. Primates colombianos en peligro de extinction. Deer, T. R., Stevenson, P. R. Bueno, M. L. y Guzman, D., (eds.) Asociacin Primatolgica Colombiana, Bogot. Deer. T, R. 2010. Historia natural de los primates colombianos. Universidad Nacional de Colombia: Bogot, DC de Souza Jesus, A., Schunemann, H. E., Mller, J. and da Silva, M. A. 2010. Hybridization between Alouatta caraya and Alouatta guariba clamitans in captivity. Pri mates 51:227 Fedigan, M., Rose, M. and Morera, R.. 1998. Growth of Mantled Howler groups in a regenerating Costa Rican dry forest. Int. J. Primatol. 19 (3): 405-432. Gaulin, S. and Gaulin, C. 1982. Behavioral ecology of Al ouatta seniculus in Andean cloud forest, Colombia. Int. J. Primatol. 3: 1-32. Giraldo, P., Gmez-Posada, C., Martnez, J. and Kattan, G. 2007. Resource use and seed dispersal by red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus) in a Colombian Andean forest. Neotrop Primates 14(2):55-64. Gmez-Posada, C,, Martnez, J., Giraldo, P. and Kattan, G. H. 2007. Density, habitat use, and ranging patterns of red howler monkeys in a Colombian Andean forest. Neotrop. Primates 14(1):2-10. Hernndez-Camacho, J., Cooper, R. W. 1976. e non human primates of Colombia. In: Neotropical Primates: Field Studies and Conservation orington, R. W., Heltne, P. G. (eds.), pp. 35. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC Holdridge, L. R. 1967. Life zone ecology. Tropical Science Center. San Jos, Costa Rica. Horwich, H., Johnson, D. 1986. Geographical distribution of the black howler ( Al ouatta pigra) in Central America. Primates 27 (1): 53-62. Iwanaga, S. and Ferrari, F. 2002. Geographic distribution of red howlers ( Alouatta seniculus) in southwestern Brazilian Amazonia, with notes on Alouatta caraya. Int. J. Primatol. 23(6):1245-1256. Izawa, K. 1976. Group sizes and compositions of monkeys in the upper Amazon basin. Primates 17: 367-399. Izawa, K. 1988. Preliminary reports on social changes on red howlers ( Alouatta seniculus). Field Studies of New World Monkeys, La Macarena, Colombia 1: 29-33. Julliot, C. 1996. Fruit choice by red howler monkeys ( Al ouatta seniculus) in a tropical rain forest. Am. J. Primatol 40: 261-282. Lehmann, S. M. 2004. Biogeography of the primates of Guyana: eects of habitat use and diet on geographic dis tribution. Int. J. Primatol. 25:1225. Milton, K. 1980. e foraging strategy of howler monkeys. A study in primate economics Columbia University Press. New York. pp. 4-51 Milton, K., Mittermeier, R. A. 1977. A brief survey of the primates of Coiba Island, Panama. Primates 18: 931-936. Myers, N. 1988. reatened biotas; Hotspots" in tropical forests. e Environmentalist 8: 1-20. Neville, M. 1972. e population structure of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus) in Trinidad and Venezuela. Folia Primatol. 17: 56-86. Neville, M. K., Glander, K. E., Braza, F., Rylands, A. B. 1988. e howling monkeys, genus Alouatta. In: Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical Primates Mittermeier, R. A., Rylands, A. B., Coimbra-Filho, A. and Fonseca, A. B. C., (eds.). World Wildlife Fund, New York. Palacios, E. and Rodriguez, A. 2001. Ranging pattern and use of space in a group of red howler monkeys ( Alouatta seniculus) in a southeastern Colombian rainforest. Am. J. Primatol. 55: 233 251. Palma, A. C. 2005. Requerimientos de espacio de Alouatta seniculus en la Reserva Naturalde Yotoco (Valle, Colombia). Tesis de pregrado en Biologa. Universidad de los Andes. Bogot. Parques Nacionales Naturales 2007. Plan de manejo 2007 2011 Parque Nacional Natural Katios. Resumen Ejecu tivo. Parques Nacionales Naturales de Colombia, Direccin Territorial Noroccidente, Medelln (Antioquia). Peres, C. A. 1990. Eects of hunting on western Amazo nian primate communities. Biol. Conserv. 54:47-59. Pinto, L. P. de S., Rylands, A. 1997. Geographic distribu tion of the golden-headed lion conservation. Folia Primatol. 68:161-180. Plan de Manejo Katios 2007. Plan de manejo 2007 2011 Parque Nacional Natural Los Katios: Resumen Ejecutivo. Parques Nacionales Naturales deColombia, Medelln (Antioquia), unpublished manuscript, 30 pp. Rangel-Ch, O. 2004a. La vegetacin del Choc biogeogrco de Colombia y zonas coridilleranas aledaas sntesis. En. Colombia: Diversidad Bitica IV: El Choc biogeogr co/Costa/ Pacca. Rangel-Ch, J. O., (ed.), pp. 769-815. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogot. Rangel-Ch., O. 2004b. Amenazas a la biota y a los ecosiste mas del Choc biogeogrco. En: Rangel-Ch., J. O. (ed), Colombia: Diversidad Bitica IV: El Choc biogeogrco/

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11 Costa/ Pacca pp. 841-866. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogot. Rangel-Ch., J. O., Arellano-P., H. 2004. Clima del Choc biogeogrco de Colombia. En: Colombia: Diversidad Bitica IV: El Choc biogeogrco/Costa Pacca. RangelCh., J. O. (ed), pp. 39-82. Universidad Nacional de Co lombia, Bogot. Rodriguez-Toledo, E.M., Mandujano, S. and F. GarcaOrdua 2003. Relationships between forest fragments and howler monkeys ( Alouatta palliata mexicana ) in southern Veracruz, Mexico. En: Primates in fragments, Marsh, L. K., (ed.), pp. 79-97. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York. Rudran, R. and Fernndez, D. 2003. Demographics changes over thirty years in a red howler population in Venezuela. Int. J. Primatol. 24:925-945. Rylands, A. and Mittermeier, R. 2009. e diversity of the New World primates (Platyrrhini): An annotated taxon omy. South American Primates. En: Comparative Perspectives in the Study of Behavior, Ecology and Conservation Garber, P. A., Estrada, A., Bicca-Marques, J. C., Hey mann, E. W. and Strier, K. B. (eds.), pp. 23-54. Springer, New York. Stevenson, P., Quiones, M. and Ahumada, J. 1991. Re lacin entre la abundancia de frutos y las estrategias ali menticias de cuatro especies de primates en el ro Duda, Macarena. Informe nal presentado a la Fundacin para la Promocin de la Investigacin y la Tecnologa, Banco de la Repblica, Bogot.

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12 enA NEW POPULATION OF RED UAKARIS (en CACAJAO CALVUSen Sen SP.) IN THE MOUNTAINS OF en NORTH-EASTERN PERUenJan Vermeeren1,2, *en, Julio C. Tello-Alvaradoen1,3en, Jos T. Villacis Del Castilloen1,3en and Antonio J. Bveda-en Penalbaen1en en1 enProyecto Mono Tocn, Jr. Reyes Guerra 422, Moyobamba, Peruen2 fr-FRLe Conservatoire pour la Protection des Primates, La Valle des Singes, 86700 Francefr-FR3 enUniversidad Nacional de San Martn-T, Facultad de Ecologa, Jr. Prolongacin 20 de Agosto, Moyobamba, Peruen3en *enCorresponding Author: Jan Veermer,en en jan.veermer@telfort.nl,en en 0031 55 3010311(phone)AbstractHere we report on the discovery of a new population of red uakaris in the mountains of northern San Martin, north-eastern Peru. is population is isolated from the other known uakari populations in the eastern lowlands, which raises questions concerning their taxonomic status and biogeographical history. is follows a recent range extension of this taxon west of the Ucayali River. Previously, the Peruvian red uakari ( Cacajao calvus ucayalii) was only known in Peru from the lowlands between the Amazon, Ucayali and Yavar Rivers. Keywords   : Cacajao, red uakari, Peru, range extensionResumenes-ESReportamos aqu el descubrimiento de una nueva poblacin de uakaris calvos en las montaas del norte de San Martn, es-ES nororiente del Per. Esta poblacin se encuentra aislada de las otras poblaciones conocidas de uakaris en las tierras bajas del es-ES oriente, lo cual genera preguntas relacionadas con su estatus taxonmico e historia biogeogrca. Esto se da despus de una es-ES reciente extensin del rango de este taxon al occidente del Ro Ucayali. Previamente, el uakari calvo peruano (es-ES Cacajao calvus es-ES ucayaliies-ES) era conocido en Per solamente de las tierras bajas entre los ros Amazonas, Ucayali y Yavar. Palabras clave : Cacajao, uakari calvo, Per, extensin de rango Introductione distributions of many primate species in Peru and other South American countries are still not well known. New taxa and populations are still detected (Aquino et al., 2008; Boubli et al., 2010; Boveda-Penalba et al., 2009; Rhe et al., 2009; Deer et al., 2010; Vermeer et al., 2011), and much more research is still needed to understand the distribution and taxonomy of Peruvian primates. Accord ing to Hershkovitz (1987), Cacajao calvus ucayalii is the subspecies of red uakari occurring in Peru. Its distribution was generally thought to range from the east bank of the Ucayali River eastwards to the Yavar River and from the Amazonas River in the north to the Urubamba River in the south (Aquino and Encarnacin, 1994). Recently, Bowler et al. (2009) reported on the presence of the species on the west bank of the Ucayali River, in the Pacaya-Samiria National Reserve (see Fig. 3), demonstrating that major rivers are not absolute geographical barriers for uakari dis persal. However, the extent of this population is unclear and is assumed to be small (Bowler et al., 2009). Peruvian red uakaris are often thought to be ooded-forest specialists (Kinzey, 1997), but recent work by Heymann and Aquino (2010) showed that most records of this subspecies come from terra rme forest. e related black-headed uakaris ( Cacajao hosomi) are also reported to inhabit a wide variety of forest types (Boubli, 1999). To date, Cacajao calvus ucayalii has been recorded only at low altitudes, the highest being 600-700 m a.s.l. (Hey mann and Aquino, 2010). During the surveys in 2007 and 2008 on the distribution of the endemic and critically en dangered San Martin titi monkey (Callicebus oenanthe) by the Proyecto Mono Tocn (Bveda-Penalba et al., 2009; Vermeer et al., 2011), we received information from local inhabitants on the presence of red uakaris in the moun tains of the northern San Martin Department, Peru. As red uakaris were only known to live in the eastern lowlands (Hershkovitz, 1987), we considered this information as unreliable. However, reports of sightings increased and we decided to investigate the situation. In 2009, we encoun tered an American anthropologist who not only informed us that he had seen uakaris in northern San Martin, but also provided us with pictures of a dead specimen killed

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13 during a hunting party expedition that he had witnessed (Shane Green, personal communication to Jan Vermeer) (Fig. 1 and 2). Additionally, we obtained pictures of Awajun people, the indigenous community of northern San Martin, with head-dresses made from red uakari skins. With this information, we organised eld trips in 2009 and 2010 to collect scientic evidence for the presence of red uakaris in the mountains of northern San Martin. MethodsWe reviewed the literature on the distribution and taxono my of Cacajao in Peru, and conducted interviews with local habitants of northern San Martin. Most of the interviewees were farmers whose plantations were in or near the forest and who regularly went hunting. erefore, their knowl edge of local wildlife was good. For the interviews, we used a series of pictures of 15 primate species that occur in Peru. e interviewed person had to name all primates that he recognized and was asked if he had ever seen them in his area. After the interview, we together judged the reliability of the information supplied. We double-checked positive reports on the presence of uakaris with other inhabitants, to determine where eld surveys could lead to observations of red uakaris. Based on the information obtained, we selected three study localities on the southern slope of the central mountain range (la Cordillera Cahuapanas) for eld studies (Localities 1, 3 and 4 Fig. 3) and two sites north of the mountain range; one near the border of the Amazonas and Loreto Departments (Locality 6 Fig. 3) and one in the Datem del Maran Province, Loreto De partment (Locality 7 Fig. 3). On the way to survey sites, we interviewed local inhabitants to gather additional data on the presence of uakaris in the area (Localities 2 and 5 Fig. 3). e localities in the Cordillera Cahuapanas were several days walking distance from existing roads and well-pre pared expeditions with guides and mules were necessary to reach the study sites. e other study sites could easily be reached by car and foot. Once we arrived at the chosen site, we erected a eld camp and used the following days to survey the area surrounding the camp to determine if uakaris were present. We used the so-called travel recon naissance walks" as our survey method (Walsh and White, 1999), using pre-existing paths that were normally used by hunters or local people collecting forest products. Encounters with uakaris and other primate species were docu mented. When possible, the animals were photographed and lmed, and the GPS coordinates were noted. Study areasenCordillera Cahuapanas e Cordillera Cahuapanas is a mountain range situated on the northern side of the Alto Mayo Valley. It is the border between the San Martin and Loreto Departments, and sep arates the Alto Mayo Valley from the Amazon lowland. For several species, like the endemic San Martin titi monkey ( Callicebus oenanthe), it acts as geographical barrier to their distribution (Bveda-Penalba et al. 2009). A detailed de scription of the geology and vegetation of the Central Cor dillera Cahuapanas is provided by Treidel (2004). All forest Figures 1 and 2. Male red uakari killed during a hunting party in the Cordillera Cahuapanas (photo courtesy of Shane Green).

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14 types above 1000 m a.s.l. were regarded as Montane Forests in eld classication. According to their topographic posi tion, Treidel (2004) divided the Montane Forest into Mon tane Crest Forests Montane Slope Forests and Montane Swale Forests. e Montane Slope Forest was the most prevalent and widespread vegetation type in the Central Cordillera Cahuapanas, covering the slopes of the investigated area between 1500 and 1800 m a.s.l. With some exceptions, the tree height doesn't exceed 23 m, while the mean canopy height is only 15 m. e trees of the Montane Swale For ests are considerably higher, with a mean canopy height of approximately 23 m and some trees reaching heights of 36 m. Montane Swale Forests occur in depressions at dif ferent elevations in the Central Cordillera Cahuapanas and were recorded between 1000 m and 1570 m a.s.l. Domi nant tree species do hardly vary from those of the Crest and Slope Forests. e most frequent palm tree is Huacra pona ( Socratea exorrhiza), constituting between 20 and 30 % of all woody individuals in some zones. Rubiaceae, Lauraceae and Melastomataceae were the species-richest families in the Cordillera Cahuapanas between 1000 and 1840 m a.s.l., followed by Arecaceae, Clusiaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Sapotaceae. According to Treidel (2004), the ora of the montane forests of the Cordillera Cahuapanas contains typical elements of the lower as well as of the higher eleva tions, with a tendency towards the higher elevations. en Datem del Maran Between the Cordillera Cahuapanas, the Maran and Huallaga Rivers, there is a vast area of lowland forest, part of the Datem del Maran and Alto Amazonas Provinces, Loreto Department (Fig. 3). is area is approximately 16,000 km and its altitude varies from 130-300 m a.s.l.. Considering that bald uakaris are usually known only from lowland forest, we assumed that they could live in that area and could have dispersed from the lowlands into the Cordillera Cahuapanas. As no biological information was available from that region, we decided to visit the small river town of Saramiriza (locality 7 Fig. 3) to collect ad ditional information. On our way to Saramiriza, we also conducted interviews at Santa Mara de Nieva (locality 6 Fig. 3), which is near the border of the Amazonas and Loreto Departments. ResultsWe encountered individuals of Cacajao only at two sites within the selected localities; these were near Candamo and Figure 3. Study sites: Candamo (1); Aguas Verdes (2); Kusu (3); the border of the Yarau territory (4;) El Alamo (5); Santa Mara de Nieva (6) and Saramiriza (7).

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15 near the native community of Kusu, both in the Cordil lera Cahuapanas. In September 2009 we observed, during an expedition of seven days, two uakaris near the settle ment of Candamo (05'S 077W'; altitude 1,421 m a.s.l.). e specimens were observed from several hundred meters away using 10 binoculars and we were not able to take photographs. Inhabitants of the Candamo sector are well acquainted with the species, which they call mono cotulo", meaning the monkey without a tail". A hunter even described the beautiful green eyes of a female that he had killed (at an altitude of 1,312 m a.s.l.). e spe cies is usually not being hunted as it is too small, and the hunter regretted his deed. A second visit of 10 days to the Candamo area in April 2010 resulted in more reports from local settlers, but no observations. e presence of Cacajao was also reported along the path to Candamo, near Aguas Verdes (05'S 077'W; altitude 1,004 m a.s.l.). Our 6-day expedition in July 2010 to Santa Mara de Nieva (04'S 077'W; altitude 208 m a.s.l.) and Saramiriza (04'S 077'W; altitude 148 m a.s.l.), on the right bank of the Maran River and north-west of the Cordil lera Cahuapanas, didn't result in any evidence that uakaris live in that area. Elders of the (native) community indicat ed that they had observed the species near Iquitos (which is well within their known distribution range), but never on their territory. From 18-25 of August 2010 we surveyed the area on the border of the Awajun community of Kusu (05'S 077'W; altitude 1,115 m a.s.l.). ere is little human disturbance in this remote site, and already on the rst day we encountered a group of 30 bald uakaris. e animals were afraid of humans, but we observed very well the group, consisting of adults, juveniles and carried infants and could take photographs and videos. No uakaris were seen during the rest of the survey. During our last expedition from 8-17 November 2010, local settlers reported that no uakaris have ever been seen near El Alamo (05'S 076'W; altitude 1,416 m a.s.l.) or elsewhere in their territory. However, one person had observed the species on the territory of the neighbouring Awajun Yarau community. erefore we set up our camp on the border of their territory and the Yarau community (05'S 076'W; altitude 1,021 m a.s.l.). During the eight days that we surveyed the area, no uakaris were ob served. is site is some 35 kilometres east of Kusu and also south of the Cordillera Cahuapanas (Fig. 3), and was chosen to investigate the eastern extent of the population. e living and dead animals we saw during our surveys and on the pictures mentioned before match phenotypi cally with C. c. ucayalii, although they might be slightly larger. During the study we collected data on the distribution of 11 other primate species, of which 6 were observed (Table 1). Discussione discovery of this population of red uakaris is of great biogeographic and conservation interest. e population is separated from the known population in the east by more than 365 kilometres and by the wide and fast owing Hual laga River. Although uakaris have recently shown to exist west of the Ucayali River (Bowler et al., 2009), the western extent of this population is thought to be limited as the species has never been observed in the western part of the Pacaya-Samiria National Reserve (personal communication with guides living on the western border of the reserve to Jan Vermeer). e large gap between the populations is dicult to explain. e forest between both populations is continu ous, and there are relatively few people living in the area. Common woolly monkeys (Lagothrix poeppigii), which we observed near Kusu (Locality 3 Fig. 3), also live in the Pacaya-Samiria National Reserve (personal observations, Jan Vermeer). e same is true for saki monkeys ( Pithecia sp.), although the taxonomy of this genus is unclear and it is possible that the species observed during this study is dif ferent from the animals in the Pacaya-Samiria National Reserve. e Brazilian subspecies of Cacajao calvus calvus and Table 1. Reports and observations of other primate species at three study localities on the southern slope of the central moun tain range (la Cordillera Cahuapanas), and two additional ones near the border of the Amazonas and Loreto Departments and in the Datem del Maran Province, Loreto Department, Peru. Locality Observations Reports Species Altitude (m a.s.l.) Species Candamo Ateles belzebuth 1,162 Alouatta seniculus 1,412 Cebus apella 1,163 Cebus albifrons 1,200 Saguinus fuscicollis 1,370 + 1,170 Saramiriza Saguinus fuscicollis 148 Ateles belzebuth Ateles chamek Alouatta seniculus Cebus albifrons Cebus apella Callicebus discolor Pithecia sp. Aotus sp. Saimiri sciureus Callithrix pygmaea Kusu Lagothrix poeppigii 1,046 Saguinus fuscicollis 1,065 Yarau Cebus apella 1,021 Saguinus fuscicollis 1,370 El Alamo Pithecia sp. 1,309

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16 Cacajao calvus rubicundus seem to have disjunct distribu tion ranges, although their precise distribution is still poorly understood (Veiga et al., 2008). Our observations become even more interesting as they extend the recorded altitudi nal range of the species. e animals in Kusu were encoun tered at an altitude of 1,115 m a.s.l., and we observed some individuals at an altitude of 1,421 m a.s.l. near Candamo. is is more than 700 meters higher than the former high est known altitude for Peruvian red uakaris (Heymann and Aquino, 2010). Only one other uakari species, the black Cacajao hosomi, is also known to be exible in altitudes, as it has been reported from both the lowland and the mon tane forests at altitudes of 1,500m in Pico da Neblina Tepui mountain (Boubli, personal communication). Black uakaris are known to migrate seasonally to other areas, following the seasonal variation in fruit availability (Boubli 1999). It is possible that San Martin's uakaris have descended in the past into the lowland forests of the Alto Mayo Valley (8001,000 m a.s.l.), towards the Mayo River, as local inhabitants reported that the species occupied once the lowlands south of the Mayo River (personal communication of local set tlers to Julio C. Tello-Alvarado). e ooded forests near the Mayo River resemble in many aspects the forests of the Amazon lowlands. e Aguajal palm ( Mauritia exuosa) is common and the Aguajal swamp forests are comparable to those in the Amazon lowlands where Cacajao calvus ucay alii is common (Brner, 2000). In eastern Peru, the fruit of Mauritia exuosa is an important food resource for Cacajao calvus ucayalii, although probably not essential (Aquino and Encarnacion, 1999; Bowler and Bodmer, 2011). However, since the completion in 1975 of the Carretera Marginal through the Alto Mayo Valley, immigration and illegal settlement has resulted in a high annual human population growth and much forest has been converted to agricultural lands. In most areas, the connection between the montane forests and the lowland forests has been disrupted. If access to the lowland forest of the Alto Mayo Valley was essential for the survival of this population, the disruption of the connection between the Cordillera Cahuapanas and the lowland forests, with its extensive Aguajal swamps, could have serious consequences for its future. On the other hand, the review of the habitat of Cacajao calvus ucayalii by Hey mann and Aquino (2010) shows that the species is exible, and it is possibly that these uakaris are able to adapt to a new situation. We were not able to determine the extent of the distribution range of this population within the connes of this study, but assume it to be small. e most western observation, in the Candamo sector, is on the eastern border of the Bosque de Proteccin Alto Mayo, a large nature conservation area. If the species were widespread further west, it would already have been reported by guards or scientists working in the reserve. e most eastern of the new localities from where the species is reported here is the native community of Yarau, only 100 km east of the Candamo sector. It is not reported from the lowlands north of the Cordillera Ca huapanas, while most of the southern lowlands have been deforested. Additional surveys will be needed to estimate the total distribution range of the population. More in terviews with the native communities living north of the Mayo River may result in more data on the (historical) dis tribution range of the species, and the importance of the lowland forests near the Mayo River for this population. Considering their distant separation from the other popu lations, one could expect to nd genetic dierences and that the mountain uakaris represent a new taxon, as was the case in the black uakaris reported by Boubli et al. (2008). Additional studies should provide evidence as to whether this is correct or if these animals represent a sepa rate population of Cacajao calvus ucayalii In any case, the population seems to be small and have a restricted range. Given their possible ecological discrepancy from other red uakari populations (i.e. altitudinal range) eorts to protect these mountain red uakaris" and their habitat are urgent. Proyecto Mono Tocn intends to assist local organisations with the protection of their mountain habitat. Acknowledgementse Proyecto Mono Tocn was initiated by Le Conservatoire pour la Protection des Primates of La Vallee des Singes Primate Park in Romagne, France. We are grateful to Eck hard W. Heymann (German Primate Center, Gttingen), Kevin Caley (Twycross Zoo) and two anonymous reviewers for their valuable revisions of the publication. We want to thank CEPA (Conservation des Espces and Populations Animales, France) and especially Zoo de La Boissire du Dor for the nancial support of the study. Additional nancial support for the study was received from La Valle des Singes, the Friends of Blackpool Zoo, Apenheul Primate Park, Twycross Zoo, the Zoological Society of London, the Shaldon Wildlife Trust, Zodiac Zoos and Basel Zoo. We thank Shane Green for the providing the pictures of the hunters with the dead uakari. During the eldwork we were accompanied by Fernando Guerra Vsquez, Majorie Vermeer, Csar Manuel Paredes Arvalo, Eder Murrieta Villalobos and Ramiro Galoc Pinedo (ranger of BPAM). Special thanks go to the habitants of Santa Mara de Nieva, Saramiriza, Aguas Verdes, Candamo, El Inca, La Verdad and El Alamo for their support during the eld studies. We thank the Jefatura del Bosque de Proteccin Alto Mayo (BPAM) and the Direccin General Forestal y de Fauna Silvestre (DGFFS) for their permission to con duct the study (permits nr. 006-2009-SERNANP/BPAM, 002-2010-SERNANP-BPAM and 0305-2010-AGDGFFS-DGEFFS) and their support. ReferencesAquino, R. and Encarnacin, F. 1994. Primates of Peru. Primate Report 40:1. Aquino R. and Encarnacin, F. 1999. Observaciones pre liminares sobre la dieta de Cacajao calvus ucayalii en el nor-oriente peruano. Neotrop. Primates 7:1.

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17 Aquino, R., Terrones, W., Cornejo, F., & Heymann, E. W. 2008. Geographic distribution and possible taxonomic distinction of Callicebus torquatus populations in Peruvian Amazonia. Am. J. Primatol. 70:1181. Brner, A. 2000. Classication of premontane tropical For ests at the Eastern Slope of the Andes in the Ro Avisado Watershed, Alto Mayo Region, Northern Per. Doctoral esis in Geoecology, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany. Boubli, J. P. 1999. Feeding Ecology of Black-headed Uacaris ( Cacajao melanocephalus melanocephalus ) in Pico da Neblina National Park Brazil. Int. J. Primatol. 20(5):719. Boubli, J. P. da Silva, M. N. F., Amado, M. V., Hrbek, T., Boavista Pontual, F. and Farias, I. P. 2008. A taxonom ic Reassessment of Cacajao melanocephalus Humboldt (1811), with the Description of Two New Species. Int. J. Primatol. 29(3):723. Bveda-Penalba, A., Vermeer, J., Rodrigo, F. & GuerraVsquez, F. 2009. Preliminary report on the distribution of the Rio Mayo Titi Monkey ( Callicebus oenanthe) on the eastern feet of the Andes. Int. J. Primatol. 30:467. Bowler M, and Bodmer, R. E. 2011. Diet and food choice in Peruvian red uakaris (Cacajao calvus ucayalii): selective or opportunistic seed predation? Int. J. Primatol. 32:1109. Bowler, M., Noriega Murrieta, J., Recharte, M., Puertas, P. and Bodmer, R. 2009. Peruvian Red Uakari Monkeys ( Cacajao calvus ucayalii ) in the Pacaya-Samiria National Reserve A Range Extension Across a Major River Bar rier. Neotrop. Primates 16(1):34. Deer, T. R., Bueno, M. L. and Garca, J. 2010. Callicebus caquetensis: A new and critically endangered titi monkey from southern Caquet, Colombia. Primate Conservation 2010 (25): 1. Hershkovitz, P. 1987. Uacaries, New World monkeys of the genus Cacajao (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): A preliminary taxonomic review with the description of a new subspe cies. Am.J.Primatol. 12:1. Heymann, E. W. & Aquino, R. 2010. Peruvian red uakaris, Cacajao calvus ucayalii, are not ooded-forest specialists. Int. J. Primatol. 31(5): 751. Kinzey, W. G. 1997. New World primates: Ecology, evolution, and behavior. New York: Aldine de Gruyter. Rhe, F., de Sousa e Silva Jr, J., Sampaio, R. and Rylands, A. B. 2009. A new subspecies of Saguinus fuscicollis (Primates, Callitrichidae). Int. J. Primatol. 30: 533. Treidel, H. 2004. Geomorphologic features, soils and vegetation of the central cordillera Cahuapanas (Alto Mayo, Peru). Doctoral thesis in geoecology, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany. Veiga, L. M., Bowler, M., Silva Jr., J. S., Queiroz, H. L., Boubli, J. P. and Rylands, A. B. 2008. Cacajao calvus. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red list of threatened species. Version 2011.2. < www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded   on   19   April   2012. Vermeer, J., Tello-Alvarado, J., Moreno-Moreno, S. & Guerra-Vsquez, F. 2011. Extension of the geographical range of white-browned titi monkeys ( Callicebus discolor) and evidence for sympatry with San Martin titi monkeys ( Callicebus oenanthe). Int. J. Primatol. 32(4): 924. Walsh, P. D. and White, L. J. T. 1999. What will it take to monitor forest elephant populations?" Conservation Biology 13: 1194.

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18 enPRIMER REPORTE DE en PARSITOSen INTESTINALES EN en CALLICEBUS MODESTUSen en DEL en DEPARTAMENTO DE BENI, BOLIVIAenJos Luis Mollericonaen1en, Jess Martnezen1en, Rolando Limachien1en, Pamela Carvajal en1en y Erika Alandia-en Roblesen1, 2en1en Programa Gran Paisaje Madidi-Tambopata, Wildlife Conservation Society, Calle Gabino Villanueva #340 Calacoto, Casilla en 3-3en 5181 S.M., La Pazen2en Wildlife Health Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, New York, USAResumenes-ESLa diversidad de parsitos intestinales presente en es-ES Callicebus modestuses-ES de vida libre fue evaluada en dos grupos presentes en la es-ES provincia Jos Ballivin del Departamento de Beni-Bolivia. Durante 10 meses (septiembre 2010 a junio 2011) se colectaron es-ES muestras fecales de los miembros de una pareja de adultos, macho y hembra (grupo A), as como de un segundo grupo es-ES (grupo B) que inclua a un par de monos adultos (macho y hembra), un juvenil (hembra) y una cra (macho) habitando una es-ES zona poco fragmentada en relacin al grupo A. Mediante pruebas coproparasitolgicas se identicaron formas inmaduras es-ES de parsitos del orden Strongylida, orden Spiruridaes-ES es-ES y representantes de los gneros es-ES Strongyloideses-ES y es-ESBertiellaes-ES. Los huevos es-ES del parsito es-ES Strongyloideses-ES spp. fueron los ms prevalentes a lo largo del periodo de estudio (presente en 9 de los 10 meses), es-ES seguidos de huevos del parsito Strongylida (presente en 6/10 meses de estudio). Formas inmaduras de los parsitos del orden es-ES Spirurida y del gnero es-ESBertiellaes-ES fueron observados nicamente al nal de la poca de lluvias. Ninguno de los individuos es-ES monitoreados present indicios de problemas sanitarios relacionados a la presencia de estos parsitos, sin embargo, cabe es-ES resaltar el hallazgo de huevos del parsito es-ESBertiellaes-ES spp. por las implicancias que puede tener para la salud pblica. Palabras clave: Parsitos intestinales, Callicebus modestus, primates silvestres, BoliviaAbstractIntestinal parasite diversity was evaluated in two groups of free-ranging Callicebus modestus from the Jos Ballivin Province of the Beni Department, Bolivia. During 10 months (September 2010 to June 2011) fecal samples were collected from an adult pair (group A), and a second group (group B) living in a less fragmented area than group A composed by an adult pair, a juvenile female and an infant male. Immature structures from parasites belonging to the Strongylida and Spirurida orders and the Strongyloides and Bertiella genera were detected through coproparasitology. Eggs from Strongyloides spp. were the most prevalent along the study (present in 9 of 10 months), followed by Strongylida eggs (present in 6 of 10 months). Immature structures of parasites from the Spirurida order and the genera Bertiella were only observed at the end of the rainy season. None of the monitored individuals presented evidence of health problems related to the presence of parasites, how ever, the presence of Bertiella spp. eggs is relevant for its public health implications. Keywords: Intestinal parasites, Callicebus modestus, free-ranging primates, Bolivia Introduccines-ESLos primates del gnero es-ES Callicebuses-ES son considerados los ms es-ES diversos en la regin neotropical habindose reconocido a es-ES la fecha 30 especies (Roosmalen es-ES et ales-ES., 2002; Wallace es-ES et ales-ES., es-ES 2006; Gualda es-ES et ales-ES., 2012). En Bolivia se tiene conrmada es-ES la presencia de las especies es-ES C. donacophiluses-ES,es-ES C. aureipalatiies-ES es-ES y es-ES C. pallescenses-ES que habitan los departamentos de Beni, es-ES Pando, Norte de La Paz, Cochabamba y Santa Cruz; y las es-ES especies endmicas, es-ES C. modestus es-ES y es-ES C. olallaees-ES, que habitan el es-ES Suroeste del departamento del Beni (Martnez y Wallace, es-ES 2010). es-ES Callicebus modestuses-ES,es-ES es-ES conocido localmente como es-ES mono lucachi, tiene una distribucin que abarca un rea de es-ES ocurrencia de 1,800 kmes-ES2es-ES y un rea ocupacional altamente es-ES restringida de 450 kmes-ES2es-ES. El hbitat de esta especie est es-ES constituido por islas de bosque fragmentadas compuestas es-ES por vegetacin de porte bajo, las cuales suelen encontrarse es-ES en medio de establecimientos ganaderos. La coexistencia es-ES de factores como la fragmentacin de los bosques, es-ES actividades de ecoturismo no reguladas y el mejoramiento es-ES de la carretera Corredor del norte" hace que el hbitat de es-ES Ces-ES es-ES modestuses-ES sea susceptible a disiparse, con el consecuente es-ES riesgo de extincin de la especie (Martnez y Wallace, es-ES 2007). Adicionalmente, la aparicin de enfermedades es-ES infecciosas y no infecciosas puede provocar cambios es-ES conductuales, siolgicos y de patrones de movimiento de

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19 los primates, pudiendo as repercutir negativamente en las es-EStasas de natalidad y mortalidad de las poblaciones (Suzn es-ES et ales-ES., 2000). es-ES Si bien la fauna parasitaria en algunas especies del gnero es-ES Callicebuses-ES fue estudiada en algunos pases de Sudamrica es-ES (Tabla 1), los estudios de parsitos de primates en Bolivia es-ES no brindan informacin para este gnero y se limitan a es-ES especies de las familias Cebidae y Atelidae (Notarnicola es-ES et ales-ES., 2007; Beltrn es-ES et ales-ES., 2009), la primera en cautiverio es-ES y la otra un espcimen de cacera. Dado el grado de es-ES endemismo y las amenazas existentes para la conservacin es-ES de es-ES C. modestuses-ES, conocer los factores ecolgicos y la dinmica es-ES de las enfermedades que podran afectar a las poblaciones es-ES de estos primates en Bolivia se torna un aspecto de gran es-ES importancia. Es as que el presente trabajo contribuye es-ES con informacin referida a la diversidad de parsitos es-ES intestinales identicados en dos grupos de es-ESCes-ES es-ES modestuses-ES en es-ES vida libre.es-ESMateriales y mtodoses-ESEl estudio fue realizado en la Estancia Ganadera San es-ES Miguel, ubicada aproximadamente a 15 km del pueblo es-ES de Santa Rosa del Yacuma en la provincia Jos Ballivin es-ES del Departamento del Beni, Bolivia (-13'7.13"S y es-ES 66'5.20"O). La zona pertenece a la ecoregin de pampa es-ES mojea y consiste en un rea de bosque fragmentado de baja es-ES altura inmerso en una matriz de pasturas que se encuentran es-ES bajo manejo para la alimentacin de ganado vacuno. En es-ES esta zona la poca seca abarc los meses de julio a octubre.es-ES En el rea de estudio se identicaron dos grupos de es-ES Ces-ES es-ES modestuses-ES: un grupo A conformado por dos monos es-ES lucachis adultos (macho y hembra), y un grupo B que inclua es-ES a un par de adultos (macho y hembra), acompaados de un es-ES juvenil (hembra) y una cra (macho). Ambos grupos fueron es-ES seleccionados para formar parte de un estudio de ecologa es-ES de comportamiento de la especie, para lo cual se caracteriz es-ES a los individuos de cada grupo en base al sexo, tamao y es-ES coloracin del pelo. Luego de un periodo de habituacin, es-ES el cual sirvi para armar el reconocimiento de cada uno es-ES de los individuos, se inici el registro de comportamiento. es-ES Los grupos fueron observados por periodos de 10 das por es-ES mes. Adicionalmente, entre septiembre 2010 y junio 2011 es-ES se colectaron mensualmente muestras de heces de los seis es-ES individuos con el objetivo de levantar una lnea base de la es-ES fauna parasitaria de es-ESC. modestuses-ES. Durante los periodos de es-ES observacin, cuando alguno de los animales era observado es-ES defecando y previa identicacin del individuo, se proceda es-ES a ubicar la muestra en el suelo para luego conservarla en un es-ES frasco con formol al 10%. Dado que los anlisis de materia es-ES fecal requieren muestras de 5-10 gr, a cada individuo se le es-ES asign un frasco para cada periodo de observacin en el es-ES cual se agruparon sus deyecciones.Tabla 1. Parsitos reportados en primates no-humanos del gnero Callicebus en Sudamrica. Especie Parsitos Pas Referencia Callicebus cupreus Raillietina trinitatae Prosthenorchis elegans Bertiella mucronata Atriotaenia megastoma Per Dunn (1962, 1963) Callicebus moloch Trichospirura leptostoma Colombia Orihel y Seibold (1971) Callicebus personatus Bertiella mucronata Per Brack (1987) Callicebus personatus Primasubulura jacchi Brasil Melo et al. (1995) Callicebus caligatus Subulura distans Brasil Vicente et al. (1997) Callicebus personatus Strongyloides sp. Strongyloidea Trichuris sp. Ascaridoidea Giardia sp. Brasil Figueiroa et al. (2001) Callicebus torquatus Trypanoxyuris croizati Venezuela Hugot et al. (1994) Callicebus nigrifrons Mathevotaenia megastoma Hymenolepis spp. Primasubulura jacchi Trichospirura leptostoma Brasil Pacheco et al. (2003) Callicebus cupreus Prosthenorchis elegans Per Tantalen et al. (2005) Callicebus cupreus Prosthenorchis elegans Spirurido Strongyloides cebus Per Mller (2007) Callicebus cupreus Prosthenorchis elegans Per Mller et al. (2010)

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20 es-ESLa presencia de formas evolutivas de parsitos es-ES gastrointestinales se determin mediante el mtodo es-ES de enriquecimiento de otacin por centrifugacin es-ES (Hendrix, 2002) con solucin de Sheater y el mtodo de es-ES sedimentacin modicada de Ueno y Gutirrez (1983). La es-ES identicacin de las formas inmaduras se realiz mediante es-ES la observacin de las caractersticas estructurales y por es-ES micrometra en un microscopio ptico binocular de luz es-ES Para determinar la proporcin de es-ES Callicebuses-ES infestados con es-ES los diferentes parsitos identicados, se consideraron los es-ES parmetros edad y sexo de los hospederos. Adicionalmente, es-ES se analizaron patrones de variacin temporal en base a los es-ES meses con presencia de cada especie de parsito.es-ESResultadoses-ESEl trabajo realizado permiti la colecta mensual de muestras es-ES fecales de seis individuos es-ES C. modestuses-ES de vida libre por es-ES un periodo de 10 meses. Mediante anlisis coprolgicos es-ES se identicaron huevos de forma elipsoidal con doble es-ES cscara delgada y lisa, de 63.75 (.29) m de longitud es-ES por 36.75 (.041) m de ancho, con extremidades es-ES paralelas y morulados en el momento de la puesta. Estos es-ES huevos fueron identicados como pertenecientes al orden es-ES Strongylida (Fig. 1.A). Otros huevos con cscara delgada y es-ES na, con polos ligeramente aplanados y de menor tamao es-ES que los huevos de estronglidos, 50.09 (.98) m de es-ES longitud por 27.41 (.102) m de ancho, presentando una es-ES larva ya desarrollada en el momento de la puesta, fueron es-ES identicados como huevos de es-ES Strongyloideses-ES spp. (Fig. 1.C). es-ES Del mismo modo, se hallaron huevos de forma ovalada con es-ES paredes gruesas, de 24,5 (.972) m de longitud por 10.88 es-ES (.449) m de ancho y en cuyo interior se identicaron es-ES larvas individuales en desarrollo, correspondiendo esta es-ES descripcin a huevos de parsitos del orden Spirurida (Fig. es-ES 1.B). Por ltimo, se observ un cuarto tipo de huevo, es-ES de forma oval con medidas de 41.25 (.303) m de es-ES longitud y 33.75 (.768) m de ancho, en cuyo interior es-ES se observaba un aparato piriforme caracterstico del cestodo es-ES anoploceflido es-ES Bertiellaes-ES spp. (Fig. 1.D).es-ES El seguimiento mensual realizado mostr la eliminacin es-ES de huevos de es-ESStrongyloideses-ES spp. a lo largo de casi todo el es-ES estudio (9/10 meses) (Figura 2). La eliminacin de estos es-ES huevos fue ms constante entre los miembros del grupo A es-ES (7/10 meses), mientras que en el grupo B los huevos de es-ES Strongyloideses-ES spp. se registraron nicamente en 3 de los es-ES 10 meses monitoreados (Fig. 3).es-ESFigura 1.es-ES Formas inmaduras de parsitos intestinales identicados en es-ES Callicebus modestus es-ES(n=6), en la estancia San Miguel de la Provincia es-ES Jos Ballivin del departamento del Beni, Bolivia. A) Huevo Estronglido; B) Huevo de es-ES Strongyloideses-ES spp.; C) Huevo Spirurido; D. Huevo es-ES de es-ES Bertiellaes-ES spp.

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21 Los huevos del orden Strongylida se observaron en 6/10 meses es-ESde estudio, siendo su eliminacin permanente entre los es-ES meses de febrero y junio en el grupo B (Fig. 2) y comn a es-ES ambos grupos de es-ESCallicebuses-ES en los meses de mayo y junio es-ES (Tabla 2). Adicionalmente, en estos dos meses se observ es-ES un incremento en la diversidad y prevalencia parasitaria con es-ES la aparicin de huevos de Spirurida en ambos grupos y la es-ES presencia de huevos del cstodo es-ESBertiellaes-ES spp. en el grupo B.es-ES Si bien el limitado tamao muestral no permite tener un es-ES poder estadstico suciente para establecer diferencias es-ES signicativas, a lo largo del estudio se observ una es-ES tendencia a que los machos de cada grupo presentan es-ES periodos de parasitosis ms prolongados en relacin a los es-ES otros miembros de sus grupos (Tabla 2). As mismo, los es-ES individuos del grupo A parecen tener una tendencia a es-ES eliminar huevos de parsitos de forma ms constante que es-ES los miembros del grupo B (Fig. 3).es-ES Durante los 10 meses de seguimiento realizados, no fueron es-ES observados comportamientos anormales ni signos como es-ES diarrea, anorexia o decaimiento, que denotaran indicios de es-ES enfermedad en ninguno de los individuos monitoreados en es-ES el presente estudio.es-ESDiscusines-ESEl presente estudio determin la presencia de parsitos del es-ES orden Strongylida y Spirurida, es-ES Strongyloideses-ES spp. y es-ES Bertiellaes-ES es-ES sp. en la especie es-ES Callicebus modestuses-ES.es-ES es-ES Estos hallazgos guardan es-ES relacin con la fauna parasitaria descrita para los primates es-ES del gnero es-ESCallicebuses-ES en Per y Brasil (Tabla 1). Estudios de es-ES Figueiroa es-ES et ales-ES. (2001), Bowman es-ES et ales-ES. (2004) y Chinchilla es-ES et ales-ES. (2010) sealan que es-ES Strongyloideses-ES spp. es el parsito es-ES ms prevalente en los primates neotropicales. Nuestro es-ES estudio coincide con estos reportes ya que huevos del es-ES parsito es-ES Strongyloideses-ES spp. fueron los ms frecuentemente es-ES observados. Este nemtodo presenta dos ciclos de es-ES vida (heterognico o fase de desarrollo de vida libre, y es-ES homognico o fase parsitaria), y cuenta adems con dos es-ES vas de infeccin en el hospedador (vas percutnea y oral) es-ES (Ramrez-Herrera es-ES et ales-ES., 2001). Estos factores podran es-ES explicar la amplia distribucin del parsito en los grupos de es-ES estudio y a lo largo del ao.es-ES Los estronglidos presentan un ciclo de vida directo y su es-ES desarrollo se ve favorecido bajo condiciones de humedad es-ES y calor (Cordero del Campillo es-ESet al.es-ES, 1999). Es posible es-ES que estos factores expliquen la frecuencia de presentacin es-ESFigura 2.es-ES es-ES Variacin mensual en la prevalencia de parsitos es-ES intestinales en es-ESCallicebus modestuses-ES de la estancia San Miguel de es-ES la Provincia Jos Ballivin del departamento del Beni, Bolivia. es-ES A= presencia exclusiva en el grupo A; B= presencia exclusiva en es-ES el grupo B.es-ES Figura 3es-ES.es-ES es-ES Presencia de huevos de parsitos intestinales en muestras es-ES fecales individuales de es-ESCallicebus modestuses-ES de la estancia San es-ES Miguel de la Provincia Jos Ballivin del departamento del Beni, es-ES Bolivia.es-ES A1= Hembra adulta; A2= Macho adulto; B1= Hembra adulta; es-ES B2= Macho adulto; B3= Hembra juvenil; B4= Macho cra. es-ESTabla 2.es-ES es-ES Registro de parsitos por grupo, edad y sexo en dos grupos de es-ES C. modestuses-ES monitoreados durante 10 meses en la estancia San es-ES Miguel de la Provincia Jos Ballivin del departamento de Beni, Bolivia. Parsitos Grupo A Grupo B Adulto Cra Juvenil Adulto Hembra Macho Macho Hembra Hembra Macho Strongyloides spp 5* / 10** 7 / 10 1 / 10 1 / 10 0 / 10 1 / 10 Estronglido 2 / 10 2 / 10 1 / 10 2 / 10 1 / 10 5 / 10 Spirurido 1 / 10 2 / 10 2 / 10 2 / 10 1 / 10 1 / 10 Bertiella spp 0 / 10 0 / 10 0 / 10 1 / 10 0 / 10 0 / 10* Meses con observacin de parsitos ** Nmero de meses evaluados.

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22 es-ESde estronglidos en 6 de los 10 meses de estudio, es-ES principalmente al nal de la poca de lluvias (marzo-junio). es-ES Si bien los parsitos de este orden fueron ms recurrentes es-ES entre los miembros del grupo B, el nmero reducido de es-ES individuos estudiados no permite obtener conclusiones es-ES sobre las posibles causas de esta aparente diferencia en la es-ES prevalencia del parsito en ambos grupos. A diferencia es-ES de es-ES Strongyloideses-ES spp. y estronglidos, los cuales presentan es-ES ciclos de vida directos, el nemtodo Spirurida requiere de es-ES la presencia de artrpodos como cucarachas de la familia es-ES Blatidae para desarrollarse (Campos y Vargas, 1977; es-ES Bowman es-ES et ales-ES., 2004). Del mismo modo, el cstodo es-ES Bertiellaes-ES spp. requiere la presencia de caros oribatidos de es-ES los gneros es-ES Dometorina,es-ES es-ES Achipteriaes-ES, es-ES Galumnaes-ES, es-ES Scheloribateses-ES es-ES y es-ES Scutovertexes-ES, los cuales forman parte de la microora del es-ES suelo, para completar su ciclo de vida (Acha y Szyfres, es-ES 2003; Bowman es-ES et ales-ES., 2004). Dado que Ces-ES .es-ES es-ES modestuses-ES es una es-ES especie principalmente frugvora y folvora, pero tambin es-ES insectvora (Martnez y Wallace, 2010), la observacin de es-ES Spirurida y es-ES Bertiellaes-ES spp. al nal de la poca de lluvias no es-ES sera un hallazgo sorprendente. es-ES Los estudios de Pope (1966), Hamilton y Zuk (1982), es-ES Urza es-ES et ales-ES. (2004) y Muehlenbein y Watts (2010), es-ES plantean que la hormona andrognica testosterona, de vital es-ES importancia para la expresin de caracteres secundarios es-ES como el incremento de masa corporal y crecimiento de es-ES pelo, entre otros, puede tener un efecto inmunosupresor es-ES que hara que los machos sean ms vulnerables a es-ES ser parasitados. Otros factores como la conducta, es-ES territorialidad, movimiento, interacciones sociales y la dieta es-ES pueden tambin estar relacionados con las diferencias en la es-ES exposicin de helmintos observada entre hembras y machos es-ES (Poulin, 1996). Dado que el presente estudio se enmarc es-ES dentro de un estudio de comportamiento de monos es-ES lucachi y busc nicamente levantar una lnea base de la es-ES fauna parasitaria en esta especie, el nmero de individuos es-ES monitoreado y el diseo empleado no fueron adecuados es-ES para realizar inferencias estadsticas. Sin embargo, a lo largo es-ES del estudio se observ que en ambos grupos los machos es-ES adultos tendieron a presentar mayor diversidad parasitaria es-ES en relacin a los otros miembros de sus grupos. A n de es-ES establecer si la tendencia observada en el presente estudio es-ES reeja una caracterstica del grado de exposicin parasitaria es-ES observada entre gneros en esta especie, se recomienda es-ES ampliar los estudios a un mayor nmero de animales.es-ES Diversos reportes sealan que los parsitos identicados es-ES en el presente estudio pueden llegar a causar efectos es-ES adversos en la salud de sus hospedadores. En el caso del es-ES parsito es-ES Strongyloideses-ES spp., los animales con infestaciones es-ES moderadas pueden presentar diarreas, prdida de peso, es-ES anorexia, anemia moderada y, en infestaciones muy severas, es-ES erosin y ulceracin de la mucosa intestinal (Soulsby, es-ES 1987; Tantalen, 2009). Estos sntomas pueden verse es-ES exacerbados cuando existen infestaciones concomitantes es-ES con parsitos estronglidos. Por su parte, los parsitos del es-ES orden Spirurida, de los cuales se reportaron en primates es-ES los gneros es-ES Streptopharaguses-ES, es-ES Gongylonemaes-ES, es-ES Protospiruraes-ES, es-ES Physocephaluses-ES, es-ES Rictulariaes-ES y es-ESPhysalopteraes-ES (Bowman es-ESet ales-ES., es-ES 2004), pueden llegar a causar diarreas intermitentes, es-ES inapetencia, emaciacin progresiva, deshidratacin y es-ES anemia (Ceballos y Norea, 2007). Si bien en el presente es-ES trabajo se identic la presencia de estos parsitos, ninguno es-ES de los sntomas sealados fue observado en los hospederos es-ES durante el estudio de comportamiento realizado. Esto es-ES podra estar indicando la existencia de cargas parasitarias es-ES bajas o insucientes para causar dao en los hospederos, es-ES reejando as un probable estado de equilibrio entre los es-ES parsitos y sus hospederos. Finalmente, cabe resaltar es-ES la presencia de cstodos del gnero es-ES Bertiellaes-ES spp., cuyo es-ES representante ms comn en primates neotropicales es es-ES Bertiella mucronataes-ES (Dunn, 1963). Si bien este parsito no es-ES causa sntomas ni lesiones en sus hospederos denitivos es-ES (Souza Jnior es-ES et ales-ES., 2008), su hallazgo cobra importancia es-ES por constituirse en un parsito de carcter zoontico. La es-ES infeccin en humanos, la cual puede llegar a producir dolor es-ES abdominal, diarrea intermitente, anorexia, constipacin y es-ES prdida de peso (Acha y Szyfres, 2003; Aibar es-ES et ales-ES., 2010), es-ES fue reportada en personas que co-habitan con primates es-ES (Denegri y Perez-Serrano, 1997; Bhagwant, 2004).es-ES El presente estudio constituye el primer reporte de los es-ES parsitos intestinales presentes en es-ES Callicebus modestuses-ES. Los es-ES datos obtenidos mediante el uso de tcnicas indirectas y es-ES poco invasivas permitieron determinar la fauna parasitaria es-ES presente en dos poblaciones de esta especie endmica es-ES del departamento de Beni. Los estudios observacionales es-ESrealizados en ambos grupos sugieren que la presencia de es-ES los parsitos identicados no estara causando efectos es-ES negativos en los individuos evaluados. Sin embargo, es-ES considerando las actividades antropognicas a las cuales es-ES estn expuestas las poblaciones de es-ES C. modestuses-ES, mismas es-ES que podran tener efecto sobre su estado sanitario, se es-ES recomienda ampliar los estudios a otros grupos y otras es-ES zonas con distinto grado de intervencin. As mismo, para es-ES futuros estudios en esta y otras especies, se recomienda la es-ES utilizacin de tcnicas adicionales que sean ms sensibles es-ES para la deteccin de parsitos protozoarios, as como el es-ES uso de tcnicas coprolgicas cuantitativas a n de poder es-ES monitorear variaciones en las cargas parasitarias, las cuales es-ES han sido reportadas como efecto de situaciones de estrs, es-ES cambios ambientales o problemas sanitarios en poblaciones es-ES silvestres (Gillespie es-ESet al.es-ES, 2005; Chapman es-ESet al.es-ES, 2006).es-ESAgradecimientoses-ESA la Fundacin Bobolink, Margot Marsh Foundation es-ES y Primate Consevation Inc. por nanciar este trabajo. A es-ES los asistentes de campo E. Gonzlez y E. Fernndez, y los es-ES propietarios de las Estancias Nogales por brindarnos acceso es-ES al sitio de estudio. A Pablo Beldomenico, Rodolfo Nallar, es-ES Marcela Uhart, Andrs Gmez, Robert Wallace y un revisor es-ES annimo por la revisin crtica del artculo.

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23 Referencias es-ESAcha, P. N. y Szyfres, B. 2003. es-ES Zoonosis y enfermedades es-ES transmisibles comunes al hombre y a los animales.es-ES Vol III. es-ES Parasitosis 3a. ed. Organizacin Panamericana de la es-ES Salud, Washington, D.C.es-ES Aibar, M. A., De Escalante, B., Ramrez, E. y Garcs, es-ES V. 2010. Infeccin por es-ES Bertiella studeries-ES en una nia de es-ES Guinea Ecuatorial. es-ES Cartas cientcas/Enferm. Infecc. es-ES Microbiol Clnes-ES.es-ES es-ES 28: 652.es-ES Beltrn, L. F., Beldomenico, P. M. y Gonzales, J. L. 2009. es-ES Estudio coproparasitolgico de mamferos silvestres es-ES en cautiverio con destino a relocacin en Santa Cruz, es-ES Bolivia. es-ES Vet. Zootec.es-ES 3: 51.es-ES Bhagwant, S. 2004. Human es-ES Bertiella studeries-ES (Family es-ES Anoplocephalidae) infection of probable Southeast Asian es-ES origin in Mauritian children and an adult. es-ESAm. J. Trop. es-ES Med. Hyg.es-ES 70: 225. es-ES Bowman, D. D., Lynn, R. C. y Eberhard, M. L. 2004. es-ES Parasitologa veterinaria De Georgies-ES. 8a ed. Elsevier. es-ES Madrid, Espaa.es-ES Brack, M. 1987. es-ES Agents transmissible from simians to manes-ES es-ES Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, Germany.es-ES Campos, M. y Vargas, M. 1977. Biologa de es-ESProtospirura es-ES muricolaes-ES Gedoelst, 1916 y es-ES Mastophorus murises-ES Gmelin, es-ES 1790 Nematoda: Spiruridae, en Costa Rica. I. Huspedes es-ES intermediarios. es-ES Rev. Biol. Trop.es-ES 25: 191.es-ES Ceballos, Y. D. y Norea, J. E. 2007. es-ES Prevalencia de es-ES endoparsitos en primates que ingresan al centro de atencin es-ES y valoracin de fauna silvestre (CAV) del rea metropolitana es-ES del valle de Aburres-ES Tesis de Licenciatura, Universidad es-ES Nacional de Colombia, Medelln, Colombia.es-ES Chapman, C., Wasserman, M., Gillespie, T., Speirs, es-ES M., Lawers, M., Saj, T. y Ziegler, T. 2006. Do food es-ES availability, parasitism, and stress have synergistic eects es-ES on Red Colobus populations living in forest fragments? es-ES Am. J. Phys. Anthropol.es-ES 131: 525.es-ES Chinchilla, M., Urbani, B., Valerio, I. y Carlos Vanegas, es-ES J. 2010. Parasitosis intestinal en monos capuchinos es-ES cariblancos es-ES Cebus capucinuses-ES (Primates: Cebidae) de un es-ES rea protegida en la provincia de Limn, noreste de Costa es-ES Rica. es-ES Rev. Biol. Trop.es-ES 58: 1335.es-ES Cordero del Campillo, M., Rojo, V., Martnez, F., es-ES Snchez, A., Hernndez, R., Dez, B. y Carvalho, V. es-ES 1999. es-ES Parasitologa veterinaria.es-ES 1a ed. McGraw-Hill es-ES Interamericana, Madrid.es-ES Denegri, G. M. y Prez-Serrano, J. 1997. Bertiellosis in es-ES man: a review of cases. es-ES Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Pauloes-ES es-ES 39: 123.es-ES Dunn, F. L. 1962. es-ES Raillietina (R.) trinitataees-ES (Cameron and es-ES Reesal, 1951), Baer and Sandars, 1956 (Cestoda) from es-ES a Peruvian primate. es-ESHelminthol. Soc. Wash. Proc. es-ES 29: es-ES 148.es-ES Dunn, F. L. 1963. Acanthocephalans and cestodes of es-ES South American monkeys and marmosets. es-ES J. Parasitol. es-ES 49: 717-722.es-ES Figueiroa, M., De Oliveira, A., De Brito, M., Oliveira, es-ES R. y Sobrinho, A. 2001. Perl coproparasitolgico es-ES de mamferos silvestres en cautiverio en el estado de es-ES Pernambuco, Brasil. es-ESParasitol. da es-ES25: 121.es-ES Gillespie, T., Chapman, C. y Greiner, E. 2005. Eects es-ES of logging on gastrointestinal parasite infections and es-ES infection risk in African primates. es-ES J. Appl. Ecol.es-ES 42: es-ES 699.es-ES Gualda, B. J., Nascimento, F. O. D. y Amaral, M. K. es-ES D. 2012. A new species of es-ES Callicebuses-ES omas, 1903 es-ES (Primates, Pitheciidae) from the states of Mato Grosso es-ES and Par, Brazil. es-ESPap. Avulsos Zooles-ES. 52: 261.es-ES Hamilton, W. y Zuk, M. 1982. Heritable true tness and es-ES bright birds: a role for parasites? es-ESScience es-ES 218: 384.es-ES Hendrix, C. M. 2002. Internal parasites. En: es-ES Laboratory es-ES procedures for veterinary technicianses-ES Hendrix, C.M. (ed.), es-ES pp. 257. Mosby, Missouri.es-ES Hugot, J., Morand, S. y Guerrero, R. 1994. es-ES Trypanoxyuris es-ES croizaties-ES n.sp. and es-EST. callicebies-ES Hugot y Vaucher, 1985 es-ES (Nematoda: Oxyuridae), two vicariant forms parasitic es-ES in es-ES Callicebuses-ES spp. (Primatia, Cebidae). es-ES Syst. Parasitol. es-ES 27: es-ES35.es-ES Martinez, J. y Wallace, R. B. 2007. Further notes on the es-ES distribution of endemic Bolivian titi monkeys, es-ES Callicebus es-ES modestuses-ES and es-ESCallicebus olallaees-ES. es-ES Neotrop. Primates es-ES14: es-ES 47.es-ES Melo, A. L., Neri, F. M. y Ferreira, M. B. 1995. Helmintos es-ES de saus, es-ES Callicebus personatuses-ES, recolhidos no resgate de es-ES fauna durante a construcao da usina hidreletrica Nova es-ES Ponte-MG.1-Resultados preliminares. Presentado en el es-ES VII Congreso Brasileiro de Primatologa, Natal.es-ES Muehlenbein, M. y Watts, D. 2010. e cost of dominance: es-ES testosterone, cortisol and intestinal parasites in wild male es-ES chimpanzees. es-ES BioPsychoSocial Medicinees-ES 4: 1.es-ES Mller, B. 2007. es-ES Determinants of the diversity of intestinal es-ES parasite communities in sympatric new world primates es-ES (es-ES Saguinus mystax, Saguinus fuscicollis, Callicebus es-ES cupreuses-ES)es-ES Tesis de Doctorado, Tierrztliche Hochschule es-ES Hannover, Hannover, Germany.es-ES Mller, B., Mtz-Rensing, K., Prez Yamacita, J. G. y es-ES Heymann, E. 2010. Pathological and parasitological es-ES ndings in a wild red titi monkey, es-ES Callicebus cupreuses-ES es-ES (Pitheciidae, Platyrrhini). es-ES Eur. J. Wildl. Reses-ES .es-ES es-ES 56: 601.es-ES Notarnicola, J., Jimnez, F. A. y Gardner, S. L. 2007. A new es-ES species of Dipetalonema (Filarioidea: Onchocercidae) es-ES from es-ES Ateles chamekes-ES from the Beni of Bolivia. es-ES J. Parasitol.es-ES es-ES 93: 661-667.es-ES Orihel, T. C. y Seibold, H. R. 1971. Trichospirurosis in es-ES South American monkeys. es-ESJ. Parasitol. es-ES57: 1366.es-ES Pacheco, L. R., Neri, F. M., Frahia, V. T. y de Melo, A. L. es-ES 2003. Parasitismo natural em saus, es-ESCallicebus nigrifronses-ES es-ES (Spix, 1823): variacao na eliminacao de ovos de nematoda es-ES e cestoda. es-ESNeotrop. Primates es-ES11: 29.es-ES Pope, B. L. 1966. Some parasites of the howler monkey of es-ES Northern Argentina. es-ESJ. Parasitol. es-ES52: 166.es-ES Poulin, R. 1996. Sexual inequalities in helminth infections: es-ES a cost of being a male? es-ESAm. Nat. es-ES147: 287.es-ES Ramrez-Herrera, O., Rodrguez-Vivas, R. I., Montes-es-ES Prez, R. y Torres-Acosta, J. F. 2001. Seguimiento anual es-ES de la parasitosis gastrointestinal del tepezcuintle, es-ESAgouti

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24 es-ESpacaes-ES (Rodentia: Agoutidae) en cautiverio en el trpico es-ES mexicano. es-ES Rev. Biol. Trop. es-ES 49: 1171.es-ES Roosmalen, M. G. V., Roosmalen, T. V. y Mittermeier, es-ES R. A. 2002. A taxonomic review of the titi monkeys, es-ES genus Callicebus omas, 1903, with the description es-ES of two new species, es-ES Callicebus bernhardies-ES and es-ESCallicebus es-ES stephennashies-ES, from Brazilian Amazonia. es-ESNeotrop. Primates es-ES 10: 1.es-ES Soulsby, E. J. L. 1987. Parasitologa y enfermedades es-ES parasitarias en los animales domsticos. 7a. ed. es-ES Interamericana, Mxico.es-ES Souza Jnior, J. C., Goulart, J. A. G. G., Varnier, S. V., es-ES Denegri, G., Silva Filho, H. H. y Hirano, Z. M. B. H. es-ES 2008. Bertiellosis in Brazilian non-human primates: es-ES natural infection in es-ES Alouatta guariba clamitanses-ES (Cabrera, es-ES 1940) (Primates: Atelidae) in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. es-ES Rev. Patol. Trop. es-ES 37: 48.es-ES Suzn, G., Galindo, F. y Ceballos, G. 2000. Importancia es-ES del estudio de enfermedades en la conservacin de fauna es-ES silvestre. es-ES Vet. Mx. es-ES31: 223.es-ES Tantalen, M., 2009. Parasitismo en animales silvestres. es-ES Presentacin en Powerpoint. Brigada Fauna Silvestre, es-ES Per. Website: http:/www.es.scribd.com. Consultado el es-ES 20 de julio de 2012.es-ES Tantalen, M., Snchez, L., Gmez, L. y Huiza, A. 2005. es-ES Acantocfalos del Per. es-ESRev. peru. Biol. es-ES12: 83.es-ES Ueno, H. y Gutirrez, V. C. 1983. es-ES Manual de laboratorio es-ES para el diagnostico de helmintos en rumiantes.es-ES Universidade es-ES Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS. Brasil.es-ES Urza, C., Morales, M. A., Vergara, U., Palau, M. T. y es-ES Ziga, C. 2004. Sexo del hospedero y dosis infectante es-ES de parsitos como factores en el desarrollo de la infeccin es-ES con es-ES Trypanosoma cruzies-ES en un modelo murino. es-ESParasitol. es-ES Latinoames-ES.es-ES es-ES 59: 104.es-ES Vicente, J. J., Rodrigues, H. de O., Gomes, D. C. y Pinto, es-ES R. M. 1997. Nematides do Brasil. Parte V: Nematides es-ES de mamferos. es-ESRev. bras. Zooles-ES.es-ES es-ES 14: 1.es-ES Wallace, R. B., Gmez, H., Felton, A. y Felton, A. M. es-ES 2006. On a new species of titi monkey, genus es-ES Callicebuses-ES es-ES omas (Primates, Pitheciidae), from Western Bolivia es-ES with preliminary notes on distribution and abundance. es-ES Primate Conserv.es-ES 20: 29.

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25 VARIABLE DENSITY RESPONSES OF PRIMATE COMMUNITIES TO HUNTING PRESSURE IN A enWESTERN AMAZONIAN RIVER BASINenCooper Rosinen1en & Varun Swamyen1,2en1en en Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, P.O. Box, 90328, Durham, NC 27708. E-mail: cooper.rosin@duke.eduen2en Harvard Forest, 324 North Main St., Petersham, MA 01366AbstractLarge-bodied game species are in decline in tropical forests worldwide due to unsustainable extraction levels by hunters, which can result in cascading eects on vertebrate community structure. In this study, we examine the density responses of primate populations to dierent levels of hunting pressure in the Madre de Dios river basin, Peru. Across three surveyed sites, both smalland mid-sized primates exhibited population-level density compensation in response to the extirpation of sympatric large primates. Small primate density at one heavily hunted site was 5x that of a comparable nonhunted site, while the highest density of mid-sized primates was recorded at mid-level hunting pressure. Primate response to hunting pressure appears to be inuenced by reproductive rate, with strong interspecic variability. High reproductive rate, infrequent extrac tion, and the relaxation of competitive interactions with extirpated large primates appear to facilitate increasing density of the smallest-bodied species. Evidence from elsewhere in the Madre de Dios basin suggests that large primates are particularly slow to recover from past hunting pressure, with continuing recovery even in sites that have not been hunted for several decades. ese variable density responses to hunting pressure alter inter-specic and community dynamics, with potentially expansive shortand long-term ecosystem-level eects. Key Words: Competitive release; conservation; density compensation; distance sampling; game vertebrates; hunting; tropical forest.Resumenes-ESLos vertebrados de tamao grande estn en declive en los bosques tropicales a nivel mundial debido a niveles insostenibles es-ES de extraccin por cazadores, lo cual puede resultar en efectos de cascada sobre la estructura de la comunidad de vertebrados. es-ES En este estudio, examinamos el efecto de diferentes niveles de presin de caza sobre primates en cuanto a la estructura de es-ES la comunidad y densidades de sus poblaciones en la cuenca del Ro Madre de Dios, Per. En los tres sitios estudiados, los es-ES primates de tamaos pequeo y mediano mostraron compensacin de densidad al nivel de la poblacin como respuesta a es-ES la extirpacin de los primates grandes simptricos. La densidad de primates pequeos en un sitio con alta cacera fue cinco es-ES veces ms que en un sitio comparable sin cacera, mientras que la densidad ms alta de primates de tamao mediano fue es-ES registrada en el sitio con una presin mediana de caza. La respuesta de los primates a la presin de caza parece estar inuida es-ES por la tasa de reproduccin, con una fuerte variabilidad inespecca. Altas tasas de reproduccin, extraccin infrecuente, es-ES y la disminucin de interacciones competitivas con especies de primates grandes extirpados parecen facilitar una densidad es-ES creciente de primates de tamao pequeo. Evidencia de otras partes de la cuenca del Ro Madre de Dios sugiere que los es-ES primates grandes se recuperan lentamente de la presin de caza, presentndose recuperacin continua an en sitios en los es-ES cuales no se ha cazado por varias dcadas. Estas respuestas de densidad variables a la presin de caza cambian las dinmicas es-ES interespeccas y de la comunidad entera, con efectos potencialmente amplios al nivel del ecosistema a corto y largo plazo. Pes-ES alabras Clavees-ES: Liberacin de competencia; conservacin; compensacin de densidad; muestreo de distancias; vertebrados es-ES de caza; cacera; bosque tropical.

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26 IntroductionSubsistence and commercial demand drives hunting pres sure on primates and other game vertebrates, resulting in increasingly empty" forests worldwide (Redford, 1992; Wilkie et al., 2011). In recent decades, expanding road net works have allowed unprecedented access to Neotropical forests for extractive purposes, with the extent of accessibil ity approaching 100% in the Brazilian Amazon (Peres and Lake, 2003). Our current understanding of tropical forest primate communities and associated ecological dynamics should therefore be reexamined in the context of human disturbance, particularly with regard to directly extractive activities such as hunting. Hunters in Neotropical forests can be highly selective, targeting large-bodied vertebrates (Redford and Robinson, 1987); in primate communities specically, large Ateline monkeys ( Ateles spp., Lagothrix spp.) are subject to intense hunting pressure while small and medium-sized primates are often ignored (Peres, 1990). In the absence of anthropogenic disturbance, the largest primate species are dominant, conspicuous, and highly abundant, particularly in sites that support high densities of eshy-fruited tree species (Terborgh, 1983). When subject to hunting pressure, these ecological mainstays are in creasingly replaced by their smaller counterparts (Peres and Dolman, 2000). Targeted hunting of the largest species can thus be a transformative force on the faunal assemblage. If inter-specic competition for resources plays an im portant role in vertebrate population regulation, smaller vertebrates may exhibit a compensatory response from competitive release in the absence of large vertebrates, a phenomenon known as density compensation (MacAr thur et al., 1972). Although density compensation has been studied most extensively in island and fragmented avifaunas (Diamond, 1970; Wright, 1980; Feeley and Ter borgh, 2008) and its underpinnings have been debated (Faeth, 1984), some evidence of such responses exists for Amazonian primate communities, with increased abun dance of small and mid-sized primates in response to the hunting-induced decline of large-bodied species (Peres and Dolman, 2000). However, more evidence of density compensation from additional sites particularly for the smallest-bodied species is necessary in order to better un derstand the long-term impacts of hunting on the verte brate community of tropical forests. is study examines the density responses of primate populations to dierent levels of hunting pressure in the Madre de Dios river basin, Peru. We hypothesize that response to hunting pressure is inuenced by reproductive rate, with strong interspecic variability. Infrequent extraction, higher reproductive rate, and the relaxation of competitive interactions with extir pated large primates may thus facilitate increasing density of the smallest-bodied species with hunting.MethodsenField sites e Madre de Dios river basin in southeastern Peru com prises ca. 80,000 km2 of lowland tropical forest, including several large protected areas. Human use of the area ranges from small-scale swidden agriculture to more intensive log ging, mining, and hunting, as well as expanding develop ment around urban centers such as Puerto Maldonado. ree sites under varying degrees of protection from hunt ing pressure were selected for faunal surveys (Fig. 1), based on documented and anecdotal historical information on human pressures, and an initial assessment of surround ing landuse via satellite imagery. We used the size of the focal protected area and straight-line distance to the near est human settlement as proxies for ranking the degree of hunting pressure. e sites were selected to minimize po tentially confounding natural variation and allow for the isolation of specic eects of hunting pressure from other forms of anthropogenic disturbance such as logging and agriculture.Figure 1. Field sites and transects in the Madre de Dios river basin, Peru; Reserva Amaznica (RA), Los Amigos (LA), and Tambopata Research Center (TRC). Human use surrounding eld sites is evident in extensive landuse change (RA) and remnant mining pools (LA).

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27 Reserva Amaznica (RA) [12'4"S, 69'13"W] is a 17,000 hectare private ecological reserve, owned and managed by the Asociacin Inkaterra, a Peruvian ecotourism company. Given its relatively small size and proximity to Puerto Maldonado (1km from nearest human settlement, 16 km from Puerto Maldonado population center), the forest within the RA site has faced substantial human pres sure in recent years. e lands surrounding the reserve are dominated by human use, with forests converted for farming, mining, and urban expansion. e RA region is characterized as a site under low protection from hunt ing pressure. e Los Amigos Biological Station / Centro de Investigacin y Capacitacin Rio Los Amigos (LA) [12'10"S, 70'52"W] is a 453 hectare research center adjacent to the 146,000 hectare Los Amigos Conserva tion Concession (2km from the nearest human settlement, Boca Amigos). e Concession was established in 2001 by two non-governmental organizations: the Peruvian Asociacin para la Conservacin de la Cuenca Amaznica (ACCA) and the US-based Amazon Conservation Associa tion. e immediate grounds and many of the station fa cilities themselves were formerly the headquarters of a large gold mining enterprise. During the peak period of mining activity on the station grounds, from the late 1980s to early 1990s, the high density of miners up to 120 at one point (Pitman, 2010) fueled active hunting in the im mediate area. Although the permanent mining settlement was abandoned and later repurposed with the designation of the land as a conservation concession, artisanal mining persists, scattered along the river. Overall, LA is character ized as a site under medium protection from hunting pres sure. e Tambopata Research Center (TRC) [13'9"S, 69'59"W] is an eco-lodge and research facility located within the 275,000 hectare Tambopata National Reserve, and adjacent to the million-hectare Bahuaja-Sonene Na tional Park (>50km from the nearest human settlement). e facilities are managed by the eco-tourism company Rainforest Expeditions, while the majority of the land is managed for strict conservation by the Peruvian govern ment. Prior to the 1990 establishment of the reserve zone, gold mining operations existed in the region, with activity tapering o after designation of the reserve and as a likely result of resource overexploitation in the region. e in tensity of human disturbance is minimal and the site is well-protected from hunting. TRC is characterized as a site under high protection from hunting pressure.en Documenting vertebrate abundance Our research team followed line transect protocol as de scribed in the literature specic to tropical forest surveys of primates (Peres, 1999a; Marshall et al., 2008; Buckland et al., 2010), with minor modications to account for sitespecic circumstances. We implemented line transects of 1m width and varying length (from 750m to 1,500m, ac cording to terrain conditions and station layout) at each site. Given the small size of each focal area, transects were placed in parallel or zig-zag" orientations to ensure system atic and ecient sampling (Peres, 1999a; Buckland, 2001), with four transects at RA and three each at LA and TRC, spaced no fewer than 200m apart. Trail heads were locat ed at a distance greater than 500m from the station base, and all transects were contained within mature oodplain forest. We agged and georeferenced each transect at 50m intervals, and left all transects to rest for at least 1 day prior to sampling. Transects were surveyed in sequence during two daily periods corresponding to peak activity of study subjects: in the morning (0630-1100 h) and afternoon (1300-1730 h). We did not sample transects under rainy conditions. To survey each transect, a team of two (CR plus a trained eld technician familiar with local fauna) walked quietly at a mean pace of ~1.5km/hour, listening for detec tion cues and scanning the transect line and surrounding forest. We stopped briey approximately every 100m to listen for any additional cues. Focal species included di urnal primates present across the three study sites (Table 1). For each primate sighting, several data were recorded: time of day, species, number of individuals, perpendicular distance from transect (PD", in meters), detection mode (visual or acoustic), and group diameter when applicable. For group encounters, PD was measured to the center of the group (Marshall et al., 2008). Large dispersed groups were sub-grouped to the greatest extent possible to maximize the likelihood that all individuals were counted and that PD measurements were accurate. PDs were measured via pacing, with regular re-calibration to ensure accuracy and consistency.en Analyzing transect data For each species surveyed, we calculated an individual en counter rate per every 10km of sampled transect. Verte brate transect data was modeled by functional group using the program Distance v. 6.0, a Windows-based computa tional package, to generate site-specic population density estimates for each focal species (Buckland, 2001). Dis tance allows for selection among several models; here, the Hazard-rate model with a Cosine adjustment oered the best density estimator for forest primates, as determined by the minimum Akaike information criterion (Peres, 1997; Buckland, 2001). All data were truncated to exclude the largest 5% of perpendicular distance values, which further benetted model t. Although sightings can be infrequent for some species particularly when hunting reduces en counters of fauna already occurring at naturally low densi ties small sample sizes can provide robust density esti mates given a favorable distribution of data (Peres, 1999a). Given these constraints, we pooled detection data across sites to increase robustness of analysis. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) comparing PD values across sites provided sta tistical support for data pooling. Data from the Monk Saki (Pithecia monachus) was not included in nal density esti mates, as the species did not occur at all three sites.ResultsWe collected data over a total of 304.95km of transect survey eort, with 100.15km at RA, 102.3km at LA, and

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28 102.5km at TRC. e total number of encounters was 29 for large primates (Ateles chamek [23] and Alouatta seniculus [6]), 44 for mid-sized primates (Cebus apella and Cebus albifrons), and 43 for small primates (Saimiri boliviensis, Saguinas fuscicollis, and Saguinas imperator). e majority of detections (74%) resulted from an initial auditory cue, primarily from vocalizations or locomotion. Values of the coecient of variation (CV) for some density estimates are expectedly high given constraints on detec tion frequency (see Figure 2 description). Data pooling benetted statistical robustness of model outputs; ANOVA results were non-signicant (p>.05), with the exception of Saimiri boliviensis, for which further ANOVA of a subset of the data indicated that pooling was appropriate across two rather than all three sites. Observed encounter rates (Table 1) and Distance-derived density estimates (Fig. 2) reect the impact of protection from hunting on relative densities of primate species at each site. At the RA site, large primates are completely absent, with low densities of mid-sized primates, and high densities of small primates. Conversely, at the large and well-protect ed TRC site, large primates are abundant, while mid-sized and small primates occur at lower densities. e LA site, representing a forest under moderate protection, exhibits mid-level densities for most species, with a notable abun dance of mid-sized primates.DiscussionenDensity responses to hunting Hunting most dramatically aects large-bodied vertebrates those greater than 5kg which comprise the largest com ponent (65-78%) of animal biomass at nonhunted sites (Peres, 1990; 2000). In primate communities, population declines of the Atelid monkeys ( Ateles chamek and Alouatta seniculus in this study region) represent the main eect of hunting (Peres, 1990; 1999b). Such declines are the result of both hunter preference and low fecundity (see below). Large frugivorous primates are often abundant and highly conspicuous at nonhunted sites. Given their large body mass and gregarious social structure, large primates are prized prey species for human hunters, providing easy detectability and a large meat payo. Hunter preference can vary based on several of these factors, as well as cultural taboos (da Silva et al., 2005), but the strongest determinant of preference is large body size (see Table 1). Given this size selectivity, large game vertebrates may be drastically reduced at hunted sites while smaller non-target species escape hunting pressure. Our results support this assertion, with a complete absence of large primates at our least protected site.Table 1. Body mass, hunter preference (Peres and Lake 2003), and encounter rate of focal species across three study sites. Common Name Latin Name Body Mass (kg) Hunter Preference* Encounter Rate (ind./ 10km) RA LA TRC Spider monkey Ateles chamek 9.0 4 1.4 6.8 Red howler monkey Alouatta seniculus 6.5 3 0.3 2.2 Brown capuchin Cebus apella 2.9 3 1.0 7.9 6.2 White-fronted capuchin Cebus albifrons 2.7 2 0.4 2.8 Monk saki Pithecia monachus 2.2 2 0.7 Squirrel monkey Saimiri boliviensis 0.9 0 2.3 6.1 2.7 Saddleback tamarin Saguinus fuscicollis 0.4 0 9.5 5.4 2.8 Emperor tamarin Saguinus imperator 0.4 0 0.3 * Degree of hunter preference on a scale of 0 (always ignored) to 4 (never ignored) Figure 2. Densities of focal species by body size and hunting pres sure at three sites: TRC site (no hunting), LA site (medium hunt ing pressure), and RA site (high hunting pressure). Large-bodied primates are further separated as folivorous ( Alouatta seniculus: top bars) and frugivorous ( Ateles chamek: bottom bars). CV values are as follows: small primates 26.8 (TRC), 31.5 (LA), 50.5 (RA); mid-sized primates 38.6 (TRC), 42.4 (LA), 85.7 (RA); large pri mates 58.8 (TRC), 89.7 (LA).

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29 Drastic reductions of dominant species such as the spider monkey (Ateles chamek) and the howler monkey ( Alouatta seniculus) also impact the broader faunal assemblage. Re sults from this study suggest a compensatory response of smaller-bodied primates at hunted sites (Fig. 2). e density of small primates was lowest at the nonhunted site (TRC) and highest at the most heavily hunted site (RA). At the RA site, the predominant small primate was the saddleback tamarin (Saguinas fuscicollis). S. fuscicollis is normally sub ordinate to larger primates and subject to frequent agonistic displacement at fruiting trees (Terborgh and Stern, 1987). e absence of large primates frees up space, time, and re sources previously unavailable due to inter-specic compe tition. S. fuscicollis could be considered hyperabundant at RA, given densities ve times larger than our comparable non-hunted site and cohesive supergroups" as large as 17 individuals well above estimates of typical mean group size (5 individuals per group; Terborgh, 1983) and range (2-12 individuals per group; Emmons and Feer, 1997). e response of mid-sized primates (Cebus spp.) to hunting appears dependent on the degree of pressure. Cebus spp. occurred at very low density under intense hunting pressure, but increased to its greatest density in moderately hunted rather than nonhunted forest. is is likely due to two factors. First, under mid-level hunting pressure mid-sized primates are less targeted, while intense hunting pressure results in their being taken as well (Peres, 1990). Second, like S. fuscicollis, Cebus spp. may respond negatively to the presence of sympatric primates particularly Ateles chamek and benet from relaxed competition for shared resources when these large primates are no longer abundant (Fig. 2). Both smalland mid-sized primates in this study appear to exhibit population-level density compensation responses to the extirpation of sympatric large primates. ough our scope of inference is limited to three sites within a small geographic range, these results are potentially indicative of similar changes to primate community structure in other hunted forests. Observed composition and density of primate popula tions in forests subject to hunting are likely inuenced by species-specic reproductive rates and strategies. In general, smaller relative body size is a strong predictor of higher in trinsic rates of population increase in mammals (Fenchel, 1974). For Neotropical primates specically, shorter interbirth interval may be a function of smaller relative brain weight (Fedigan and Rose, 1995). Both factors oer small er primates greater resilience and faster recovery when sub ject to hunting pressure. Evidence from elsewhere in the Madre de Dios basin suggests that even in forests that have not experienced any hunting pressure for decades, primate populations may still be undergoing recovery from past disturbances. Symington (1988), in a complete census of the local spider monkey (Ateles chamek) population in the vi cinity of Cocha Cashu Biological Station in Manu Nation al Park, documented the total presence of 77 individuals. In a follow-up census 19 years later, Gibson (2008) found that the same population had grown to 119 individuals. While this notable increase may be due to several factors, it is likely that these populations were still recovering from local hunting pressure during the rubber boom at the turn of the 20th century, more than 75 years prior to Syming ton's survey (Terborgh, pers. comm.). is may explain dierences seen in population densities between other sites in the basin as well (e.g. Endo et al., 2010). Ateles chamek population densities in TRC less isolated and more re cently protected than Manu are considerably lower than those documented at Cocha Cashu (Gibson, 2008). is suggests that the TRC populations may also be in a state of recovery and increasing abundance. e fact that popula tions of game vertebrates such as Ateline primates can be so slow to recover from disturbance does not bode well for their long-term viability in unprotected forests.en Conservation implications Hunting is not an ephemeral or geographically limited ac tivity. Wild game can be a major food resource for subsis tence hunters across the Neotropics (Redford, 1992). In tropical forest localities, the estimated carrying capacity for humans dependent exclusively on wildlife for protein may be as low as 1 person/km2 (Robinson and Bennett, 2000), though population densities exceed this nearly everywhere across the tropics. Many large game vertebrates are inher ently vulnerable to major population declines, given their low reproductive capacity. Atelid monkeys in particular take several years to reach reproductive age, and then have long interbirth intervals with extended nursing periods (Milton, 1981; Symington, 1987). Hunting of large pri mates is therefore likely to be unsustainable in many areas, except perhaps when adjacent to large, strictly protected source reserves (da Silva et al., 2005; Ohl-Schacherer et al., 2007). Even moderate hunting pressure may be problem atic, as large vertebrate dispersers need not be completely eliminated for hunting to have secondary impacts. Species in half-empty forests" (Redford and Feinsinger, 2001) may be suciently reduced that they cease to provide eco logical services such as seed dispersal before they become locally extinct (McConkey and Drake, 2006). In addition to altering vertebrate population structure, hunting can have broad eects on the forest community as a whole. In general, frugivorous vertebrates suer more severe declines at hunted sites than either granivorous or folivorous species, regardless of body size (Peres and Pa lacios, 2007). By mediating the dispersal of a majority of large-seeded eshy-fruited canopy tree species, large verte brate frugivores are crucial in maintaining biodiversity and regeneration dynamics in tropical forests (Janzen, 1970; Connell, 1971). Smaller non-targeted species, even with increased abundance, cannot adequately replace the dispersal function of larger ones due to inherent anatomical and physiological limitations (Peres and Van Roosmalen, 2002; Poulsen et al., 2002; Knogge and Heymann, 2003; Stoner et al., 2007). Under high hunting pressure, tree spe cies most reliant on large frugivores may experience substantially reduced recruitment, which can dramatically

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30 alter forest regeneration processes at the community level (Wright et al., 2007; Nuez-Iturri et al. 2008; Terborgh et al., 2008). Increased population densities of smaller-bod ied species may, however, favor the smaller-seeded plants which they consume, given limited dispersal distances of larger-seeded counterparts whose dispersers are hunted (Wright et al., 2007). Changes to plant recruitment success based on traits such as seed size and type of fruit may thus accompany shifts in faunal communities, to the detriment of species dependent on hunted wildlife and the benet of those which are not. In the long term, the hunting-induced disruption of gameand non-game vertebrate population dynamics is thus likely to eect change beyond faunal den sity responses, with expansive transformations to tropical forest community composition and biodiversity.AcknowledgmentsWe are grateful to John Terborgh for his insight and thoughtful review, Rachel Rosin for her extensive assistance with the project, and to the following sources of funding for eld data collection: the Kuzmier-Lee-Nikitine Endow ment Fund, the Nicholas School International Endowment Fund, and the Lazar Foundation. Anonymous review also substantially improved the quality of this manuscript.ReferencesBuckland, S. T. 2001. Introduction to distance sampling: es timating abundance of biological populations. Oxford University Press. Buckland, S., A. Plumptre, L. omas, and E. Rexstad. 2010. Design and analysis of line transect surveys for pri mates. Int. J. Primatol. 31: 833. Connell, J. H. 1971. On the role of natural enemies in preventing competitive exclusion in some marine animals and in rain forest trees. In : Dynamics of populations. den Boer, P. J. and G. R. Gradwell (eds.). Centre for Agri cultural Publications and Documentation. Wageningen, e Netherlands. da Silva, M. N. F, G. H. Shepard, and D. W. Yu. 2005. Conservation implications of primate hunting practices among the Matsigenka of Manu National Park. Neotrop. Primates 13: 31. Diamond J. M. 1970. Ecological consequences of island colonization by Southwest Pacic birds. P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 67: 1780. Emmons, L. and F. Feer. 1997. Neotropical rainforest mam mals: a eld guide. University of Chicago Press, Chicago IL. Endo, W., C. A. Peres, E. Salas, S. Mori, J. L. Sanchez-Vega, G. H. Shepard, V. Pacheco, and D. W. Yu. 2010. Game vertebrate densities in hunted and nonhunted forest sites in Manu National Park, Peru. Biotropica 42: 251. Faeth, S. 1984. Density compensation in vertebrates and invertebrates: a review and an experiment. Ecological communities: conceptual issues and the evidence Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Fedigan, L. M. and L. M. Rose. 1995. Interbirth inter val variation in three sympatric species of neotropical monkey. Am. J. Primatol. 37: 9. Feeley, K. J. and J. W. Terborgh. 2008. Direct vs. indi rect eects of habitat reduction on the loss of avian spe cies from tropical forest fragments. Anim. Conserv. 11: 353 Fenchel, T. 1974. Intrinsic rate of natural increase: the rela tionship with body size. Oecologia 14: 317. Freese, C. H., P. G. Heltne, C. R. Napoleon, and G. Whi tesides. 1982. Patterns and determinants of monkey densities in Peru and Bolivia, with notes on distributions. Int. J. Primatol. 3: 53. Gibson, K. N. 2008. Mating tactics and socioecology of white-bellied spider monkeys (Ateles belzebuth chamek). PhD Dissertation, Yale University. Janzen, D. H. 1970. Herbivores and the number of tree species in tropical forests. Am. Nat. 104: 501. Knogge, C. and E. W. Heymann. 2003. Seed dispersal by sympatric tamarins, ( Saguinus mystax) and ( Saguinus fuscicollis): diversity and characteristics of plant species. Folia Primatol. 74: 33. MacArthur R. H., J. M. Diamond, and J. R. Karr. 1972. Density compensation in island faunas. Ecology: 330. Marshall, A. R., J. C. Lovett, and P. C. L. White. 2008. Am. J. Primatol. 70: 452. McConkey, K. R. and D. R. Drake. 2006. Flying foxes cease to function as seed dispersers long before they become rare. Ecology 87: 271. Milton, K. 1981. Estimates of reproductive parameters for free-ranging Ateles georoyi. Primates 22: 574. Nuez-Iturri, G., O. Olsson, and H. F. Howe. 2008. Hunting reduces recruitment of primate-dispersed trees in Amazonian Peru. Biol. Cons. 141: 1536. Ohl-Schacherer, J., G. H. Shepard Jr., H. Kaplan, C. A. Peres, T. Levi, and D. W. Yu. 2007. e sustainability of subsistence hunting by Matsigenka native communities in Manu National Park, Peru. Cons. Biol. 21: 1174. Peres, C. A. 1990. Eects of hunting on western Amazo nian primate communities. Biol. Cons. 54: 47. Peres, C. A. 1997. Primate community structure at twenty western Amazonian ooded and unooded forests. J. Trop. Ecol. 13: 381. Peres, C. A. 1999a. General guidelines for standardizing line-transect surveys of tropical forest primates. Neotrop. Primates 7: 11. Peres, C. A. 1999b. Eects of subsistence hunting and forest types on the structure of Amazonian primate com munities. In: Primate Communities. Fleagle, J. G., C. Janson, and K. Reed (eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Peres, C. A. 2000. Eects of subsistence hunting on verte brate community structure in Amazonian forests. Cons. Biol. 14: 240. Peres, C. A and J. W. Terborgh. 1995. Amazonian nature reserves: an analysis of the defensibility status of exist ing conservation units and design criteria for the future. Cons. Biol. 9: 34.

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31 Peres, C. A. and P. M. Dolman. 2000. Density compensa tion in neotropical primate communities: evidence from 56 hunted and nonhunted Amazonian forests of varying productivity. Oecologia 122: 175. Peres, C. A. and M. van Roosmalen. 2002. Patterns of primate frugivory in Amazonia and the Guianan shield: implications to the demography of large-seeded plants in overhunted tropical forests. In: Seed dspersal and fru givory: ecology, evolution and conservation. D.J. D.J. Levey, W.R. Silva, and M. Galetti (eds.). Oxford, UK: CABI International. Peres, C. A. and I. R. Lake. 2003. Extent of nontimber re source extraction in tropical forests: accessibility to game vertebrates by hunters in the Amazon basin. Cons. Biol. 17: 521. Peres, C. A., J. Barlow, and W. F. Laurance. 2006. Detect ing anthropogenic disturbance in tropical forests. Trends Ecol. Evol. 21: 227. Peres, C. A. and E. Palacios. 2007. Basin-wide eects of game harvest on vertebrate population densities in Ama zonian forests: implications for animal-mediated seed dispersal. Biotropica 39: 304. Pitman, N. C. A. 2010. An overview of the Los Amigos watershed, Madre de Dios, southeastern Peru. February 2010 version of an unpublished report available from the author at ncp@duke.edu. Poulsen, J. R., C. J. Clark, E. F. Connor, and T. B. Smith. 2002. Dierential resource use by primates and hornbills: implications for seed dispersal. Ecology 83: 228. Redford, K. H. 1992. e Empty Forest. BioScience 42: 412. Redford, K. H and J. G. Robinson. 1987. e game of choice: patterns of indian and colonist hunting in the Neotropics. Am. Anthropol. 89: 650 Redford, K. H. and P. Feinsinger. 2001. e half-empty forest: sustainable use and the ecology of interactions. Conservation Biology Series, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Robinson, J. G. and K. H. Redford. 1986. Intrinsic rate of natural increase in Neotropical forest mammals: relationship to phylogeny and diet. Oecologia 68:516. Robinson, J. G. and E. L. Bennett. 2000. Hunting for sustainability in tropical forests. Columbia University Press. Stoner, K. E., K. Vulinec, S. J. Wright, and C. A. Peres. 2007. Hunting and plant community dynamics in tropi cal forests: a synthesis and future directions. Biotropica 39: 385. Symington, M. M. F. 1987. Sex ratio and maternal rank in wild spider monkeys: when daughters disperse. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 20: 421. Symington, M. M. F. 1988. Demography, ranging pat terns, and activity budgets of black spider monkeys (Ateles paniscus chamek) in the Manu National Park, Peru. Am. J. Primatol. 15: 45. Terborgh, J. 1983. Five New World Primates. Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press. Terborgh, J. and M. Stern. 1987. e surreptitious life of the saddle-backed tamarin, Am. Sci. 75: 260. Terborgh, J., G. Nu n ez-Iturri, N. C. A. Pitman, F. H. C. Valverde, P. Alvarez, V. Swamy, E. G. Pringle, and C. E. T. Paine. 2008. Tree recruitment in an empty forest. Ecology 89: 1757. Wilkie, D. S., E. L. Bennett, C. A. Peres, A. A. Cunning ham. 2011. e empty forest revisited. Ann. NY. Acad. Sci. 1223: 120. Wright, S. J. 1980. Density compensation in island avifau nas. Oecologia 45:385. Wright, S. J., A. Hernndez, and R. Condit. 2007. e bushmeat harvest alters seedling banks by favoring lianas, large seeds, and seeds dispersed by bats, birds, and wind. Biotropica 39: 363.

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32 enATUALIZAO DO CONHECIMENTO SOBRE Oen en SAUIM-DE-CARA-SUJA, en SAGUINUS WEDDELLIen en (PRIMATES, CALLITRICHINAE), NO ESTADO DE RONDNIAenAlmrio Cmara Gusmoen1en,en enMarcella Alves Crispinen2en,en enSandro Leonardo Alvesen3en, Kurazo Mateus Okada en Aguiaren4en,en enRicardo Sampaioen5en, Jos de Sousa e Silva Jnioren6pt-PT1pt-PTSecretaria de Estado da Educao (SEDUC), Escola Carlos Gomes. 76.96pt-PT0-0pt-PT 00, Cacoal, Rondnia, Brasil. E-mail: pt-PT almeriocg@hotmail.com pt-PT2pt-PTAv. Naes Unidas, 2096, Bairro Pincesa Isabel.76.96pt-PT0-0pt-PT 00, Cacoal, Rondnia, Brasilpt-PT3pt-PTPrograma de Ps-Graduao em Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Par / Museu Paraense Emlio Goeldi, caixa postal 399, pt-PT 6604pt-PT0-1pt-PT 70, Belm, Par, Brasilpt-PT4pt-PTAv. Diogenes Silva, 1118, apto E, Buritiza, 6890pt-PT1-0pt-PT 90l, Macapar-SA, Amap, Brasilpt-PT5pt-PTFloresta Nacional do Purus, Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservao da Biodiversidade (ICMBio), Rua Ceclia Leite, 67, pt-PT 6985pt-PT0-0pt-PT 00, Boca do Acre, Amazonas, Brasilpt-PT6pt-PTCoordenao de Zoologia, Museu Paraense Emlio Goeldi (MPEG), caixa postal 399, 6604pt-PT0-1pt-PT 70, Belm, Par, BrasilResumopt-BRO presente estudo consiste em uma atualizao do conhecimento sobre a distribuio geogrca e dados populacionais do pt-BR sauim-de-cara-suja (pt-BRSaguinus weddellipt-BR) na rea situada a leste do rio Madeira, em Rondnia. Foi realizado um levantamento pt-BR bibliogrco e uma srie de expedies aos municpios de Cacoal, Machadinho D'Oeste, Nova Brasilndia D'Oeste, pt-BR Chupinguaia, So Francisco do Guapor e Costa Marques. Os resultados indicaram a existncia de 39 pontos de registros pt-BR empricos de pt-BRS. weddelli pt-BRna rea de estudo, 31 dos quais foram extrados da literatura e oito resultaram dos trabalhos de pt-BR campo. Um dos novos registros situa-se alm da distribuio geogrca conhecida, representando uma extenso da mesma. pt-BR Apesar deste txon no ser considerado como ameaado de extino, sua situao na rea de estudo requer cuidados, uma pt-BR vez que tm sido registrados altos ndices de desmatamento nesta regio nos ltimos 40 anos. pt-BR Palabras-chave: pt-BR Saguinus weddellipt-BR, distribuio geogrca, Rio Madeira, Brasilpt-BRAbstractpt-BRis study consists of an update on the knowledge of the geographical distribution and population data of the saddle-back pt-BR tamarin (pt-BRSaguinus weddellipt-BR) in the area lying east of the Madeira River in Rondnia. A literature review were conducted as pt-BR well as a series of expeditions in the municipalities of Cacoal, Machadinho D'Oeste, Nova Brasilndia D'Oeste, Chupinguaia, pt-BR So Francisco do Guapor and Costa Marques. e results indicated the existence of 39 sites where pt-BR S. weddelli pt-BRwas recorded pt-BR in the study area, 31 obtained from the literature and eight resulting from eldwork. One of the new records is located pt-BR beyond the known geographic range of the species, representing an extension of such a range. Although this taxon is not pt-BR considered endangered, its status in the study area deserves attention, since high rates of deforestation in this region have pt-BR been recorded during the past 40 years. pt-BR Keywords: pt-BR Saguinus weddellipt-BR, geographic range, Madeira River, Brazil pt-BRIntroduopt-BRSaguinus weddelli pt-BR (Deville, 1849) um primata de pequeno pt-BR porte, insetvoro, frugvoro e gumvoro (Ferrari e Martins, pt-BR 1992; Ferrari pt-BR et alpt-BR., 1993; Power, 1996), que ocorre em pt-BR uma grande variedade de habitats nas orestas tropicais pt-BR no sudoeste da Amaznia (Lopes e Ferrari, 1994). Em pt-BR sua diagnose, Hershkovitz (1977) ressaltou a colorao pt-BR da pelagem negra na cabea, membros anteriores, peito e pt-BR nuca, com membros posteriores laranja; dorso rajado de pt-BR preto e marrom-claro; cauda negra, com a base castanho-pt-BR escura; face negra, com as regies perinasal e circum bucal pt-BR claras, e as sobrancelhas brancas (Fig. 1). Tais caractersticas pt-BR foram revistas por Rhe et al. (2009). At recentemente, pt-BR este txon foi considerado uma das 14 subespcies de pt-BR Saguinus fuscicollis pt-BR(Spix, 1823), seguindo o esquema pt-BR taxonmico proposto por Hershkovitz (1977). Entretanto, pt-BR de acordo com Rylands et al. (2000), com a invalidao pt-BR de pt-BR S. f. acrensispt-BR por se tratar de uma forma hbrida (pt-BR sensupt-BR pt-BR Peres, 1993) e a elevao de pt-BR S tripartitus, S. melanoleucus

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33 e pt-BR S. crandallipt-BR categoria da espcie (orington, 1988; pt-BR Rylands pt-BR et alpt-BR., 1993, 2000; Groves, 2005), este nmero pt-BR cou reduzido para 10: pt-BR S. f.pt-BR pt-BR fuscicollis pt-BR (Spix, 1823), pt-BRS. f. pt-BR fuscus pt-BR (Lesson, 1840), pt-BRS. f. lagonotus pt-BR(Jimnez de la Espada, pt-BR 1870), pt-BR S. f. leucogenys pt-BR (Gray, 1866), pt-BR S. f. illigeri pt-BR (Pucheran, pt-BR 1845)pt-BR, S. f. nigrifrons pt-BR (I. Georoy, 1850pt-BR), S. f. avilapiresi pt-BR Hershkovitz, 1966, pt-BR S. f. cruzlimai pt-BR Hershkovitz, 1966, pt-BR S.pt-BR pt-BR f. primitivus pt-BR Hershkovitz, 1977 e pt-BR S. f. weddelli pt-BR (Deville, pt-BR 1849). Com a descoberta e descrio de um novo txon pt-BR (pt-BR S. f. murapt-BR Rhe et al., 2009) distribudo na Amaznia pt-BR central, o nmero de subespcies dept-BR S. fuscicollispt-BR foi elevado pt-BR para 11. Mais recentemente, com base nos resultados de pt-BR anlises moleculares, Matauschek et al. (2011) elevaram pt-BR S. pt-BR lagonotuspt-BR, pt-BR S. leucogenyspt-BR, pt-BR S. illigeript-BR, pt-BR S. nigrifronspt-BR e pt-BR S. weddellipt-BR pt-BR categoria da espcie, sendo seguidos por Rylandspt-BR pt-BR et al. pt-BR (2012) e pelos autores do presente estudo.pt-BR Saguinus weddellipt-BR a nica espcie do gnero encontrada a pt-BR leste do rio Madeira, em Rondnia (Fig. 2). Os primeiros pt-BR registros para esta regio foram publicados por Vivo (1985). pt-BR Ferrari & Lopes (1992) revisaram a distribuio geogrca pt-BR desta espcie, conrmando o intervio Ji-Paran-Madeira-pt-BR Guapor como parte de sua rea de ocorrncia. Durante pt-BR estudos do Programa Integrado de Desenvolvimento do pt-BR Noroeste do Brasil (POLONOROESTE), Ferrari et al. pt-BR (1998) identicaram 25 reas de ocorrncia de pt-BR S. weddellipt-BR pt-BR distribudas no oeste, centro e norte de Rondnia. Por pt-BR sua vez, trs levantamentos de mamferos registraram pt-BR Spt-BR pt-BR weddellipt-BR na poro central de Rondnia (Ferrari et al., pt-BR 1996; Selhorst, 2008; Gusmo et al., 2010a), ampliando a pt-BR distribuio geogrca conhecida da espcie. Apesar destes pt-BR avanos, as informaes disponveis para a parte sul e leste pt-BR do estado ainda so escassas. O objetivo do presente estudo pt-BR atualizar o conhecimento sobre a distribuio geogrca pt-BR e dados populacionais de pt-BR S. weddellipt-BR em Rondnia, na rea pt-BR situada a leste do rio Madeira.pt-BRMaterial e mtodospt-BRNa maioria dos locais de ocorrncia de pt-BRS. weddellipt-BR na rea pt-BR de estudo, a vegetao constituda por oresta de terra pt-BR rme e inundvel (igap) do bioma Amaznia. Observa-pt-BR se tambm, no extremo oriental desta regio, vegetao pt-BR transicional com o cerrado. A classicao tosiolgica pt-BR a Floresta Ombrla Aberta (Projeto Radambrasil, 1978). pt-BR O clima do tipo tropical AW, com estao seca durante pt-BR os meses mais frios (junho a setembro) e estao chuvosa pt-BR durante os meses mais quentes (dezembro a maro), e pt-BR temperatura mdia de 26C (Kppen, 1948). Uma reviso pt-BR bibliogrca permitiu que as informaes sobre ocorrncias pt-BR e dados populacionais de pt-BR S. weddellipt-BR na rea de estudo pt-BR fossem extradas da literatura. Alm disso, foram realizadas pt-BR expedies aos municpios de Chupinguaia, Cacoal, pt-BR Machadinho D'Oeste, Nova Brasilndia D'Oeste, So pt-BR Francisco do Guapor e Costa Marques. Os dados foram pt-BR obtidos pelo mtodo de transeco linear (Burckland et pt-BR al., 2010), que consiste no registro de animal-transeco, pt-BR animal-observador, horrio, altura dos animais avistados e pt-BR caminhada do observador a uma velocidade de 1,5 km/h. O pt-BR reduzido nmero de observaes (> 30) impediu o clculo pt-BR da densidade populacional. Contudo, foi considerado pt-BR o clculo de abundncia relativa (taxa de indivduos por pt-BR cada 10 km percorridos). Para a identicao dos animais, pt-BR foram obtidos registros fotogrcos (Fig. 1), os quais foram pt-BR comparados com as diagnoses e ilustraes disponveis na pt-BR literatura (Hershkovitz, 1977; Rylands et al., 2008; Rhe pt-BR et al., 2009; Bairro Ruivo, 2010), e tambm com os pt-BR exemplares pertencentes ao acervo da coleo de mamferos pt-BR do Museu Paraense Emlio Goeldi.pt-BR Os registros no distrito de Vila Boa Esperana, municpio pt-BR de Chupinguaia, foram realizados em janeiro de 2010 pt-BR (100 km/esforo de amostragem, totalizando 66h) e em pt-BR outubro do mesmo ano (20 km/esforo de amostragem, pt-BR totalizando 12h). Duas transeces de 4 km foram pt-BR percorridas, sempre pelas manhs (05:30h s 11:00h), pt-BR por cinco pesquisadores. Os registros no interior do pt-BR depsito de resduos slidos da prefeitura municipal de pt-BR Cacoal e no municpio de Machadinho D'Oeste foram pt-BR realizados atravs de buscas aleatrias no interior e borda pt-BR de fragmentos orestais das duas localidades. Foi adotado pt-BR um esforo de amostragem de duas horas de busca direta, pt-BR entre 8h e 10h do dia 22 de dezembro de 2009, no pt-BR fragmento de oresta do depsito de resduos slidos do pt-BR municpio de Cacoal, e duas horas de amostragem, das 8h pt-BRs 10h do dia 03 de janeiro de 2010, em um fragmento de pt-BR oresta no permetro urbano de Machadinho D'Oeste. O pt-BR reduzido esforo de amostragem em ambos os fragmentos pt-BR se deveu ao tamanho extremamente reduzido dos mesmos pt-BR (< 15 ha). Na fazenda Soares, municpio de Nova pt-BR Brasilndia D'Oeste, o registro foi obtido em uma incurso pt-BR ocorrida entre 12 e 14 de abril de 2009. Trilhas de 3,6 km, pt-BR 0,8 km e 0,3 km foram percorridas por um pesquisador pt-BR em um fragmento de mata, entre 7h e 11h, totalizando pt-BR 12 h de esforo de amostragem. Em Costa Marques e pt-BR So Francisco do Guapor, o esforo de amostragem pt-BR foi concentrado na Reserva Biolgica do Guapor, uma pt-BR Unidade de Conservao com cerca de 600,000 hectares, e pt-BR reas do entorno. Entre os anos de 2006 e 2010, as espcies pt-BR de primatas foram registradas por meio de observaes pt-BR ocasionais durante incurses realizadas principalmente ao pt-BR longo dos rios Guapor e So Miguel (Alves et al., 2012). pt-BR Registros no interior da Reserva Biolgica do Guapor pt-BR foram obtidos atravs de censos utilizando a metodologia pt-BR de transeco linear (617.8 km de esforo de amostragem) pt-BR em 13 transeces distribudas por oresta de terra rme, pt-BR oresta de igap e cerrado.pt-BRResultados e discussopt-BRDe acordo com o levantamento bibliogrco realizado, pt-BR 14 publicaes continham registros de pt-BRSaguinus weddellipt-BR na pt-BR rea de estudo (Tabela 1). O conhecimento atual indica pt-BR a existncia de 39 pontos de registro emprico (Tabela 1, pt-BR Figura 2), 23 deles com dados de censos (Ferrari et alpt-BR .pt-BR pt-BR 1998; Messias, 2001, 2004a,b; Ferronato pt-BR et al.pt-BR, 2005;

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34 pt-BRTabela 1pt-BR.pt-BR Registros empricos de ocorrncias e dados de censos de pt-BRSaguinus weddellipt-BR na rea de estudo. Stio Referncia Localidade Coordenadas geogrcas Obs./10km 1 Vivo (1985) Porto Velho 08'S, 63'W 2 Vivo (1985) Alto Paraso 09'S, 63'W 3 Lopes e Ferrari (1994); Bonavigo et al. (2004); Ferrari et al. (1998) Candeias do Jamari (cachoeira Samuel) 08'S, 63'W 4 Ferrari et al. (1998) Porto Velho (foz do rio J-Paran) 08'S, 62'W 5 Ferrari et al. (1998) Nova Mamor (Parque Estadual Guajar-Mirim) 10'06"S, 64'31"W 0,2 6 Ferrari et al. (1998) Campo Novo (rio Jaci-Paran) 10'30"S, 64'50"W 0,7 7 Ferrari et al. (1998) Nova Mamor (stio do Antnio) 10'07"S, 64'26"W 0,6 8 Ferrari et al. (1998) Nova Mamor (stio do Cabo Cleto) 10'16"S, 64'04"W 0,2 9 Ferrari et al. (1998) Campo Novo (fazenda do A. Dias) 10'25"S, 64'26"W 0,2 10 Ferrari et al. (1998) Nova Mamor (fazenda do Luiz) 10'12"S, 64'10"W 0,1 11 Ferrari et al. (1998) Campo Novo (stio do Lourival) 10'45"S, 63'03"W 0.5 12 Ferrari et al. (1998) Campo Novo (fazenda do Reuter) 10'28"S, 64'30"W 0,4 13 Ferrari et al. (1998) Ariquemes (fazenda Nova Vida) 10'58"S, 62'57"W 0,4 14 Ferrari et al. (1998) Machadinho do Oeste (fazenda do Maurcio) 09'17"S, 62'57"W 0,6 15 Ferrari et al. (1998) Guajar-Mirim (RESEX Ouro Preto I) 10'39"S, 64'46"W 0,6 16 Ferrari et al. (1998) Guajar-Mirim (RESEX Ouro Preto II) 10'37"S, 64'36"W 0,4 17 Ferrari et al. (1998) Guajar-Mirim (RESEX Ouro PretoIII) 10'58"S, 64'36"W 0,2 18 Ferrari et al. (1998) So Miguel do Guapor (fazenda do Mansur) 11'55"S, 62'33"W 0,4 19 Ferrari et al. (1998) So Francisco do Guapor (fazenda do Geraldo) 12'37"S, 63'42"W 1,7 20 Ferrari et al. (1998) Parecis (fazenda Arara Azul) 12'03"S, 61'59"W 0,1 21 Ferrari (2001) Guajar Mirim (REBIO Traadal) 11'34"S, 64'39"W 0,3 22 Messias (2001) Guajar Mirim (REBIO do Rio Ouro Preto) 10'58"S, 64'36"W 2,1 23 Messias (2004 a) Porto Velho (Est. Ecol. Antnio Mugica Nova) 10'06"S, 64'31"W 1,2 24 Messias (2004 b) Guajar Mirim (PARNA Serra da Cutia) 10'37"S, 64'36"W 0,2 25 Ferronato et al. (2005) Cujubim (fazenda Manoa) 08'27"S, 62'06"W 1,2 26 Oliveira et al. (2005) Municpio de Porto Velho 10'07"S, 64'26"W 27 Gusmo et al. (2008) Pimenta Bueno (Parque Natural Municipal de Pimenta Bueno) 11'21" S, 61'20" W 28 Selhorst (2008) Alto Alegre dos Parecis (fazenda Santa Rita) 12'23"S, 63'34"W 29 Gusmo et al. (2010a) Seringueiras (fazenda Estrela do Oeste) 11'55"S, 62'33"W 30 Gusmo et al. (2010b) Cacoal (RPPN gua Viva) 11'47S, 62'42"W 2,0 31 Presente estudo Cacoal (depsito de resduos slidos da prefeitura municipal) 11'53"S, 61'23"W 32 Presente estudo Machadinho do Oeste (permetro urbano) 08'23'S, 62 38' 28'' W 33 Presente estudo Nova Brasilndia (fazenda Soares) 12'37"S, 63'42"W 34 Presente estudo Chupinguaia (Vila Boa Esperana) 11'53"S, 61'22" W 35 Presente estudo Porto Murtinho (So Francisco do Guapor) 12'30"S, 63'40"W 36 Presente estudo Municpio de Costa Marques (permetro urbano) 12'35"S, 64'45"W 37 Presente estudo Mata ciliar do rio So Miguel (So Francisco do Guapor) 12'10"S, 64'45"W 38 Presente estudo Fazenda Pirapora (So Francisco do Guapor) 12'12"S, 63'57"W 39 Alves et al. (2012) REBIO Guapor 12'42"S, 63'00"W 1,9

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35 Gusmo et al pt-BR.pt-BR 2010b) e trs com dados de comportamento pt-BR e dieta (Ferrari e Martins, 1992; Ferrari pt-BR et al.pt-BR, 1993; Lopes pt-BR e Ferrari, 1994). pt-BR Distribuio geogrcapt-BR Rylands e Mittermeier (2008) haviam atualizado a pt-BR distribuio dept-BR S. weddellipt-BR (no bojo do mapa de distribuio pt-BR de pt-BR S. fuscicollispt-BR) com base na literatura at ento disponvel, pt-BR indicando como limite sudeste o rio So Miguel. Contudo, pt-BR Rylands e Mittermeier (2008) no haviam tido acesso aos pt-BR dados de Ferrari et al. (1996), Ferrari et alpt-BR.pt-BR (1998), Gusmopt-BR pt-BR et al. (2008) e Selhorst (2008). Posteriormente, Ferrari et pt-BR al. (2010), Gusmopt-BR pt-BR et al. (2010b) e Alvespt-BR pt-BR et al. (2012) pt-BR publicaram novas ocorrncias alm desse limite. No presente pt-BR estudo, das 39 localidades com registros de pt-BRS. weddellipt-BR, oito pt-BR representam novos registros (Tabela 1; Fig. 2). pt-BR S. weddellipt-BR pt-BR ocorre na maior parte do estado de Rondnia, e seus limites pt-BR de distribuio parecem ser delineados principalmente por pt-BR barreiras uviais. Dos oito novos registros, um situa-se na pt-BR poro nordeste, trs no centro-leste, e quatro no centro-sul pt-BR de Rondnia. pt-BR Os dados permitiram um maior renamento do pt-BR conhecimento acerca dos limites da distribuio de pt-BR S. pt-BR weddellipt-BR no estado de Rondnia. Como observado por pt-BR Lopes e Ferrari (1992) e Ferrari et al. (2010), os limites pt-BR norte, nordeste e leste coincidem com a margem esquerda do pt-BR rio Ji-Paran/Machado, em toda sua extenso. Entretanto, pt-BR as observaes em Vila Boa Esperana (Localidade # pt-BR 34) indicam a presena da espcie alm da distribuio pt-BR geogrca conhecida. Assim, a ocorrncia de pt-BR S. weddellipt-BR pt-BR esquerda do rio Apidi (Fig. 1) representa uma pequena pt-BR extenso de sua distribuio geogrca no sudeste do estado. pt-BR Ferrari et al. (1998) sugeriram que os limites meridionais da pt-BR distribuio geogrca de pt-BR S.pt-BR pt-BR weddellipt-BR seriam delineados pela pt-BR Chapada dos Parecis. De acordo com Ferrari pt-BR et alpt-BR. (1998), pt-BR estes limites estariam sob inuncia de fatores biticos, Figura 1. Saguinus weddelli em Vila Boa Esperana, Chupinguaia (Localidade # 34). Foto. K. M. O. Aguiar. Figura 2. Registros de S. weddelli em Rondnia, Brasil. O polgono cinza mostra parte da distribuio geogrca publicada por Rylands e Mittermeier (2008). As localidades (numeradas de acordo com a Tabela 1) representadas por tringulos pretos indicam os registros en contrados na literatura. Os crculos pretos representam os oito novos registros.

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36 pt-BRcomo as formaes distintas de orestas e ambientes abertos pt-BR do bioma Cerrado naquela regio. Entretanto, permeando pt-BR a vegetao de cerrado da Chapada dos Parecis, existem pt-BR corredores e manchas de tipologias orestais (cerrado, pt-BR orestas estacionais, oresta de galeria) que, aliados a fatores pt-BR histricos, poderiam permitir a ocorrncia dept-BR S. weddellipt-BR pt-BR alm destes limites. Contudo, ainda no existem inventrios pt-BR no extremo sul do estado. Segundo Vivo (1996, 2007) pt-BR e Silva Jnior (1998), a decincia de amostragem um pt-BR dos principais empecilhos para o avano no conhecimento pt-BR sobre a diversidade e distribuio geogrca dos mamferos pt-BR no Brasil. Assim, a realizao de novos estudos nesta regio pt-BR certamente propiciar um delineamento mais seguro dos pt-BR limites da distribuio geogrca dept-BR S. weddellipt-BR nesta poro pt-BR do estado de Rondnia.pt-BR S. weddellipt-BR ocorre em simpatria com duas espcies da pt-BR mesma subfamlia (Callitrichinae) na rea de estudo. pt-BR A simpatria com pt-BRMico rondonipt-BR j havia sido bem pt-BR documentada (Ferrari e Martins, 1992; Lopes e Ferrari, pt-BR 1994; Haymann e Buchanan-Smith, 2000; Ferrari et pt-BR al., 2010). Recentemente, S. Alves observou simpatria pt-BR dept-BR S. weddellipt-BR com pt-BR Mico melanuruspt-BR na regio do vale do pt-BR Guapor. reconhecido que pt-BR S. weddellipt-BR leva vantagem pt-BR competitiva sobre pt-BRM. rondonipt-BR na busca por alimentos, e sua pt-BR distribuio geogrca no limitada por competio com pt-BR outras espcies de calitriquneos (Lopes e Ferrari, 1994). pt-BR Esta hiptese pode ser agora testada atravs da realizao pt-BR de novos estudos com o objetivo de avaliar a convivncia pt-BR simptrica dept-BR S. weddellipt-BR com a outra espcie da mesma pt-BR subfamlia, pt-BR M. melanuruspt-BR.pt-BR Dados populacionaispt-BR A reviso bibliogrca indicou que os grupos de pt-BR S.pt-BR pt-BR weddellipt-BR pt-BR so compostos por dois a nove indivduos (e.g. Messias, pt-BR 2001; Gusmo et al., 2010b). A abundncia de pt-BR S. weddellipt-BR pt-BR foi semelhante na maior parte dos locais estudados. pt-BR Destaca-se, entretanto, a Reserva Biolgica do Rio Ouro pt-BR Preto (Messias, 2001) e a Reserva Particular do Patrimnio pt-BR Natural (RPPN) gua Viva (Gusmo et al., 2010b), pt-BR com os maiores nmeros de observaes por 10 km pt-BR percorridos. Os resultados obtidos na RPPN gua Viva pt-BR (Gusmo et al., 2010b), onde o nmero de observaes pt-BR foi proporcionalmente superior quando comparado com pt-BR os resultados de outros trabalhos realizados em Rondnia pt-BR (Tabela 1), foram congruentes com os de Bonavigo pt-BR et alpt-BR. pt-BR (2005b). Segundo estes autores, diferenas nas abundncias pt-BR relativas podem ser causadas por um adensamento de fauna pt-BR nas reas mais modicadas pela ao humana. Isto se pt-BR mostrou verdadeiro para pt-BRS. weddellipt-BR, uma vez que os valores pt-BR de abundncia relativa aumentaram em funo do nvel de pt-BR alterao do fragmento de oresta estudado. pt-BR No presente estudo, um grupo com nove indivduos, pt-BR composto por cinco adultos, dois juvenis e dois infantes, foi pt-BR observado no interior do fragmento de mata de terra rme pt-BR localizado no depsito de resduos slidos da prefeitura pt-BR municipal de Cacoal (Localidade # 31). Um grupo com pt-BR cinco indivduos, todos adultos, foi encontrado em um pt-BR fragmento de mata com oresta de terra rme na fazenda pt-BR Soares, municpio de Nova Brasilndia D'Oeste (Localidade pt-BR #33). Um grupo com trs indivduos, composto por dois pt-BR adultos e um jovem, foi observado em um fragmento de pt-BR oresta de terra rme no permetro urbano do municpio pt-BR de Machadinho D'Oeste (Localidade # 32). Cinco grupos pt-BR foram encontrados em um fragmento com vegetao de pt-BR transio entre oresta e cerrado no distrito de Vila Boa pt-BR Esperana (Localidade # 34), totalizando 17 indivduos pt-BR observados. O tamanho mdio dos grupos nestas localidades pt-BR variou entre dois e trs indivduos. Durante censos pt-BR realizados no interior da Reserva Biolgica do Guapor pt-BR (Localidade # 39) e Porto Murtinho, mata ciliar do rio pt-BR So Miguel e Fazenda Pirapora (Localidades # 35, 37, 38, pt-BR respectivamente), municpio de So Francisco do Guapor, pt-BR foram obtidos nove registros da espcie em oresta de terra pt-BR rme e um em oresta de igap. O tamanho mdio dos pt-BR grupos nestas localidades variou entre um e trs indivduos.pt-BR Conservaopt-BR S. weddellipt-BR no foi citado na lista da fauna brasileira pt-BR ameaada de extino (Machado pt-BR et alpt-BR., 2005). Por sua pt-BR vez, Rylands & Mittermeier (2008) avaliaram este pt-BR txon (identicado como pt-BRSaguinus fuscicollis weddellipt-BR), pt-BR classicando-o como no ameaado. Apesar disso, grande pt-BR parte da regio identicada no presente estudo como parte pt-BR da rea de distribuio desta espcie vem sendo alvo de pt-BR intensa atividade humana, o que requer cuidados. A grande pt-BR modicao da vegetao nativa decorrente da extrao de pt-BR madeira e desmatamento ocorridos durante a colonizao pt-BR de Rondnia (Oliveira, 2002; Fearnside, 2005; Ferreira pt-BR et al., 2005) ocasionou a perda de hbitat para as espcies pt-BR nativas, isolando populaes em remanescentes de oresta. pt-BR No entanto, pt-BR S. weddellipt-BR foi registrado em importantes pt-BR Unidades de Conservao no norte e oeste do estado, pt-BR como a REBIO do Rio Ouro Preto (Messias, 2001), pt-BR Reserva Extrativista (RESEX) Ouro Preto, Parque Estadual pt-BR Guajar-Mirim (Ferrari pt-BRet alpt-BR., 2010), Estao Ecolgica de pt-BR Samuel (Ferrari e Martins, 1992; Lopes e Ferrari, 1994; pt-BR Bonavigo et al., 2005a) e Reserva Biolgica do Guapor pt-BR (Alves et al., 2012). Alm destas, existem outras de provvel pt-BRocorrncia da espcie, como a RESEX do Bom Futuro e o pt-BR Parque Nacional dos Pacas Novos, e que podem abrigar pt-BR populaes viveis. Contudo, a poro sudeste, alm de pt-BR concentrar a maior faixa da rea desorestada de Rondnia, pt-BR tambm carente de reas protegidas. Medidas urgentes pt-BR para a conservao de populaes de vertebrados no sudeste pt-BR de Rondnia envolvem a implantao de corredores pt-BR ecolgicos conectando estes remanescentes de oresta. pt-BR Outras medidas que, certamente, sero de grande valia para pt-BR a conservao desta e de outras espcies da fauna da rea de pt-BR endemismo Rondnia (pt-BR sensupt-BR Cardoso da Silvapt-BR pt-BR et al., 2005) pt-BR so o incentivo implantao de RPPNs e outras Unidades pt-BR de Conservao nas reas de oresta ainda existentes, pt-BR principalmente no vale do Guapor, uma intensicao da pt-BR scalizao das atividades de desmatamento e captura, e a pt-BR realizao de programas de educao ambiental.

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37 Agradecimentos pt-BR Secretaria de Estado de Desenvolvimento Ambiental pt-BR SEDAM/Rondnia, Dr. Mrio de Vivo e Dione Seripierri pt-BR (Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de So Paulo) pt-BR pelo envio de literaturas e Celso C. Santos Jnior pela pt-BR colaborao em campo.pt-BRReferncias pt-BRAlves, S. L., Santos Jnior, C. C. e Lopes, M. A. 2012. pt-BR Mamferos no-voadores da Reserva Biolgica do pt-BR Guapor: estado atual do conhecimento. pt-BR Inpt-BR : pt-BR VI Congresso pt-BR Brasileiro de Mastozoologiapt-BR, Corumb, Mato Grosso do pt-BR Sul, Brasil.pt-BR Bairro Ruivo, E.pt-BR pt-BR 2010. pt-BR Eaza Husbandry Guidelines for pt-BR Callitrichidae. 2nd Editionpt-BR Beauval zoo. Saint Aignan sur pt-BR Cher, France.pt-BR Bonavigo, P. H., Ferronato, M. L. e Messias, M. R. 2005a. pt-BR Mamferos diurnos de mdio e grande porte da estao pt-BR ecolgica de Samuel/RO: rea fonte para a mastofauna da pt-BR regio centro-norte do estado. pt-BR Inpt-BR : pt-BR III Congresso Brasileiro pt-BR de Mastozoologiapt-BR, pt-BR Anais do III Congresso Brasileiro de pt-BR Mastozoologiapt-BR. Aracruz, Esprito Santo, Brasil.pt-BR Bonavigo, P. H., Ferronato, M. L. e Messias, M. R. 2005b. pt-BR Levantamento de mamferos de hbitos crpticos da rea pt-BR de manejo orestal da fazenda Manoa. pt-BR Inpt-BR :pt-BR III Congresso pt-BR Brasileiro de Mastozoologiapt-BR, pt-BR Anais do III Congresso Brasileiro pt-BR de Mastozoologiapt-BR. Aracruz, Esprito Santo, Brasil.pt-BR Buckland, S. T., Plumptre A. J., omas L. and Rexstad, E. pt-BR A.. 2010. Design and analysis of line transect surveys for pt-BR primatespt-BR. Int. J. Primatol. pt-BR31: 833-847.pt-BR Cardoso da Silva, J. M., Rylands, A. B. e Fonseca, G. A. B. pt-BR 2005. O destino das reas de endemismo da Amaznia. pt-BR Megadiversidade pt-BR 1: 124.pt-BR Ferrari, S. F. and Martins, E. S. 1992. Gummivory and pt-BR gut morphology in two sympatric callitrichids (pt-BR Callithrix pt-BR emiliaept-BR and pt-BRSaguinus fuscicollis weddellipt-BR) from Western pt-BR Brazilian Amazonia. pt-BRAm. J. Phys. Anthropol.pt-BR 88: 97.pt-BR Ferrari, S. F. and Lopes, M. A. 1992. New data on the pt-BR distribution of primates in the region of the Jiparana pt-BR and Madeira River in Amazonas and Rondnia, Brazil. pt-BR Goeldiana Zool.pt-BR 11: 2. pt-BR Ferrari, S. F., pt-BRLopes, M. A.pt-BR e Krause, E. A. K. 1993. Gut pt-BR morphology of pt-BRCallithrix nigriceps pt-BRand pt-BR Saguinus labiatuspt-BR pt-BR from western Brazilian Amazonia. pt-BR Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. pt-BR 90: 487.pt-BR Ferrari, S. F., Iwanaga S. and Silva, J. 1996. Platyrrhines pt-BR in Pimenta Bueno, Rondonia, Brazil. pt-BR Neotrop. Primatespt-BR, pt-BR 4(4): 151. pt-BR Ferrari, S. F., Iwanaga, S., Messias, M. R., Cruz Neto, E. pt-BR H., Ramos, E. H., Ramos, P. C. S. e Silveira, A. P. A. pt-BR 1998. Um estudo dos efeitos da colonizao humana pt-BR sobre as populaes de mamferos em Rondnia. pt-BR Inpt-BR : pt-BR Resumos XXII Congresso Brasileiro de Zoologiapt-BR Recife, pt-BR Pernambuco, Brasil. pt-BR Ferrari, S. F., 2001. pt-BR A fauna de mamferos no voadores pt-BR da Reserva Biolgica TraadalROpt-BR.pt-BR Relatrio Tcnico no pt-BR publicado, Governo do estado de Rondnia. Porto Velho, pt-BR DC.pt-BR Ferrari, S. F., Sena, L., Schneider, M. P. C. e Silva-Jnior, J. pt-BR Spt-BR .pt-BR 2010.pt-BR pt-BR Rondon's marmoset, pt-BR Mico rondonipt-BR sp. n., from pt-BR Southwestern Brazilian Amazonia. pt-BR Int. J. Primatol. pt-BR 31: pt-BR 693.pt-BR Ferreira, L. V., Venticinque, S. e Almeida, S. S. 2005. O pt-BR Desmatamento na Amaznia e a importncia das reas pt-BR protegidas. pt-BR Estudos Avanadospt-BR,pt-BR pt-BR 19 : 1.pt-BR Ferronato, M. L., Bonavigo, P. H. e Messias, M. Rpt-BR .pt-BR pt-BR 2005.pt-BR pt-BR Mastofauna de mdio e grande porte na fazenda pt-BR Manoa, Cujubim/RO: um estudo de caso do impacto da pt-BR explorao orestal manejada na mastofauna amaznica. pt-BR Inpt-BR :pt-BR III Congresso Brasileiro de Mastozoologiapt-BR pt-BR Anais do III pt-BR Congresso Brasileiro de Mastozoologia pt-BR. Aracruz, Esprito pt-BR Santo, Brasil.pt-BR Fearnside. P. M. 2005. Desmatamento na Amaznia pt-BR brasileira: Histria, ndices e conseqncias. pt-BR Megadiversidadept-BR 1: 113.pt-BR Groves, C. P. 2005. Order Primates. pt-BR Inpt-BR : pt-BR Mammal Species of pt-BR the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, pt-BR 3pt-BR pt-BRed., pt-BR D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder (eds.), pp.111. e pt-BR Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.pt-BR Gusmo, A. C., Pazzer, A. C., Naujokat, E. M., Domingues, pt-BR S. P. e Dos Santos, W. V. 2008. Primatas do Parque pt-BR Natural Municipal de Pimenta Bueno, Pimenta Bueno, pt-BR Rondnia. pt-BR Rev. Cient. Facimedpt-BR, 1: 1.pt-BR Gusmo, A. C., Casagrande L. P., Souza, M. R., Suszek, pt-BR E., Brizidio, K., Garcia, J. R. F., Melo, P. e Santos, W. V. pt-BR 2010a. Mamferos de mdio e grande porte na Fazenda pt-BR Estrela do Oriente, municpio de Seringueiras RO. pt-BR Inpt-BR :pt-BR pt-BR XXVIII Congresso Brasileiro de Zoologia. Belmpt-BR, Brasil.pt-BR Gusmo, A. C., Crispim, M. A. e Ferronato, M. L. 2010b.pt-BR pt-BR Riqueza relativa e composio de grupo de pt-BR Saguinus pt-BR fuscicollis weddellipt-BR (Devile, 1849) na RPPN gua Viva. pt-BR Inpt-BR : pt-BR II Simpsio de Iniciao Cientca da Facimedpt-BR. Cacoal, pt-BR Rondnia, Brasil.pt-BR Hershkovitz, P. 1977. pt-BR Living New World monkeys, with an pt-BR introduction to primates pt-BR V. 1. Chicago University Press. pt-BR Chicago. pt-BR Heymann, E. W. and Buchanan-Smith, H. M. 2000. pt-BR e behavioural ecology of mixed-species troops of pt-BR Callitrichine primates. pt-BRBiol. Revpt-BR., 75: 169.pt-BR Kppen, W. 1948. pt-BR Climatologia com un estudio de los climas pt-BR de la tierra. pt-BRFondo de Cultura Econmica, Mexico.pt-BR Lopes, M. A. and Ferrari, S. F. 1994. Foraging behavior pt-BR of a tamarin group (pt-BR Saguinus fuscicollis weddellipt-BR) and pt-BR interations with marmosets (pt-BR Callithrix emiliaept-BR). pt-BR Int. J. pt-BR Primatol.pt-BR 15(3): 373.pt-BR Machado, A. B.; Martins, C. S. e Drummond, G. M. 2005.pt-BR pt-BR Lista da fauna brasileira ameaada de extino incluindo as pt-BR espcies quase ameaadas e decientes em dadospt-BR Fundao pt-BR Biodiversitas. Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais.pt-BR Matauschek, C., Roos, C. & Heymann, E.,W. 2011. pt-BR Mitochondrial phylogeny of tamarins (pt-BR Saguinuspt-BR pt-BR Homannsegg, 1807) with taxonomic and biogeographic pt-BR implications for the pt-BRS. nigricollis pt-BRspecies group. pt-BR Am. J. pt-BR Phys. Anthropolpt-BR., 144: 564.

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38 pt-BRMessias, M. Rpt-BR pt-BR 2001. Mamferos de mdio e grande pt-BR porte da Reserva Biolgica Estadual do Rio Ouro Preto, pt-BR Rondnia Brasil. pt-BRPublicaes Avulsas do Instituto Pau pt-BR Brasil de Histria Natural,pt-BR 4: 27.pt-BR Messias, M. R. 2004a. Mastofauna diurna da Estao pt-BR Ecolgica Estadual de Antnio Mujica Nava. pt-BR Inpt-BR : pt-BR XXV pt-BR Congresso Brasileiro de Zoologia.pt-BR Braslia, Distrito Federal.pt-BR Messias, M. R. 2004b. Mastofauna diurna do PARNA pt-BR Serra da Cutia /RO: Subsdio elaborao do Plano de pt-BR Manejo. pt-BRInpt-BR :pt-BR XXV Congresso Brasileiro de Zoologia. pt-BR Braslia, pt-BR Distrito Federal.pt-BR Oliveira, M. A., Gomes, I. B. S. R. e Messias, M. R. 2005. pt-BR Formao de bando mistos em fragmentos orestais em pt-BR Porto Velho/RO entre pt-BR Mico nigricepspt-BR, pt-BR Saguinus fuscicollispt-BR, pt-BR Callicebus brunneuspt-BR, pt-BR Pithecia irroratapt-BR e pt-BRCebus apellapt-BR. pt-BR Inpt-BR : pt-BR III Congresso Brasileiro de Mastozoologiapt-BR. Aracruz, Esprito pt-BR Santo, Brasil.pt-BR Oliveira, O. A. 2002. pt-BR Geograa de Rondnia espao e pt-BR produopt-BRDinmica, Porto Velho, Brasil.pt-BR Peres, C. A. 1993. Notes on the primates of the Juru river, pt-BR western Brazilian Amazonia. pt-BR Folia Primatol.pt-BR, 61: 97.pt-BR Power, M. L. 1995. e other side of Callitrichine pt-BR gumnivory: Digestibility and nutritional value. pt-BR Inpt-BR : M. A. pt-BR Norconk, A. L. Rosenberger and P. A. Garber (eds.), pt-BR Adaptive radiations of Neotropical primatespt-BR pp.87. pt-BR Plenum Press, New York.pt-BR Projeto RadamBrasil. 1978.pt-BR Geologia, geomorfologia, pt-BR pedologia, vegetao e uso potencial da terra.pt-BR Departamento pt-BR Nacional de Produo Mineral, Vol. 1. Braslia, pt-BR Distrito Federal. pt-BR Rhe, F., Silva-Jnior, J. S., Sampaio, R. and Rylands, A. B. pt-BR 2009. A new subspecies of pt-BR Saguinus fuscicollispt-BR (Primates, pt-BR Callitrichidae). pt-BR Int. J. pt-BRPrimatolpt-BR., 30: 533.pt-BR Rylands, A. B., Coimbra-Filho, A. F. and Mittermeirer, R. pt-BR A. 1993. pt-BRSystematics, distributions, and some notes on the pt-BR conservation status of the Callitrichidaept-BR pt-BR Inpt-BR : Marmosets pt-BR and Tamarins: Systematics, Behavior and Ecology, pt-BR A. B. Rylands (ed.), pp.11. Oxford University Press, pt-BR Oxford. pt-BR Rylands, A. B., Schneider, H., Langguth, A., Mittermeier, pt-BR R. A., Groves, C. and Rodrguez-Luna, E. 2000. An pt-BR assessment of the diversity of New World primates. pt-BR Neotrop. Primatespt-BR, 8(2): 61.pt-BR Rylands, A. B. and Mittermeier, R. A. 2008. pt-BR Saguinus pt-BR fuscicollis pt-BR ssp.pt-BR weddellipt-BR. pt-BR Inpt-BR : IUCN 2012. pt-BR IUCN Red List pt-BR of reatened Speciespt-BR Version 2012.2. Website: www.pt-BR iucnredlist.org. Consultado em 6 de dezembro de 2012.pt-BR Rylands, A. B., Mittermeier, R. A., Coimbra Filho, A. F., pt-BR Heymann, E. W,, Torre, S. L., Silva-Jnior, J. S., Noronha, pt-BR M. A. and Rhe, F. 2008. pt-BR Marmosets and Tamarins Pocket pt-BR Identication guide.pt-BR Conservation International. pt-BR Rylands, A. B., Mittermeier, R. A. and Silva-Jnior, J. S. pt-BR 2012. Neotropical primates: taxonomy and recently pt-BR described species and subspecies. pt-BR Int. Zoo Yearbook, pt-BR 46: pt-BR 11. pt-BR Selhorst, V. C. 2008. pt-BRLevantamento da mastofauna de mdio pt-BR e grande porte em fragmentos orestais no municpio de Alto pt-BR Alegre dos Parecis, Rondniapt-BR Monograapt-BR.pt-BR Faculdade de pt-BR Cincias Biomdicas de Cacoal FACIMED. Rondnia, pt-BR BR.pt-BR orington Jr., R. W. 1988. Taxonomic status of pt-BR Saguinus pt-BR tripartituspt-BR (Milne-Edwardspt-BR, pt-BR 1878). pt-BR Am. J. Primatolpt-BR ., 15: pt-BR 367.pt-BR Silva-Jnior, J. S. 1998. Problemas de amostragem no pt-BR desenvolvimento da sistemtica e biogeograa de pt-BR primatas neotropicais. pt-BRNeotrop. Primatespt-BR, 6(1): 21.pt-BR Vivo, M. 1985. On some monkeys from Rondnia, Brazil pt-BR(Primates: Callitrichidae, Cebidae). pt-BRPapis Avulsos de pt-BR Zoologia, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de So Paulopt-BR pt-BR 36: 103. pt-BR Vivo, M. 1996. How many species of mammals are there pt-BR in Brazil? pt-BRInpt-BR : C. E. Bicudo and N. A. Menezes (Eds.),pt-BR pt-BR Biodiversity in Brazil: A First Approach.pt-BR pt-BR Proceedings of the pt-BR Workshop Methods for the assesment of Biodiversity in pt-BR Plants and Animals".Campos do Jordo, So Paulo.pt-BR Vivo, M. 2007. Problemas da mastozoologia brasileira. pt-BR Boletim da Sociedade Brasileira de Mastozoologia, pt-BR 48: 1.

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39 S A enTWO NEW SPECIMENS FOR THE BOLIVIAN en ENDEMIC TITI MONKEYS, en CALLICEBUS OLALLAEen en AND enCALLICEBUS MODESTUSen Jess Martnezen Robert B. Wallaceen Heidy Lpez-Straussen Paula De La Torreen Hugo AranibarIntroductione genus Callicebus is one of the most diverse for Neotropical primates (Van Roosmalen et al., 2002; Wallace et al., 2006; Deer et al., 2010). Six species of titi mon keys are now considered present in Bolivia including two endemics, Callicebus olallae and Callicebus modestus (Anderson, 1997; Wallace & Mercado, 2007; Martinez & Wal lace, 2010). Lnnberg (1939) described these two endemic primate species based on only three specimens: one for C. olallae and two for C. modestus, collected by the Ollala brothers in a 1937-1938 eldtrip. Despite the low number of specimens and the proximity of the original collection sites (Patterson, 1992; Anderson, 1997), Lnnberg found sucient evidence to consider them as separate species, and this position has been upheld in more recent taxonomic revisions of the genus (Hershkovitz, 1990; Kobayashi, 1995). No further information was available on these spe cies until 2002 when researchers of the Wildlife Conserva tion Society (WCS) began eld studies on the distribution, abundance and genetics of both endemic primates (Felton et al., 2006; Barreta, 2007, Martnez & Wallace, 2007; Lopez-Strauss, 2008). ese studies noted several dierences in pelage color between the two species. However, in the eld this represents a great challenge because of the need to observe hair coloration patterns with observations at great distances and under dicult light conditions. e scientic collection of further specimens of these species for a complete taxonomic revision has not been considered due to their endemic status and probable low population sizes (Martnez & Wallace, 2007; Lopez-Strauss, 2008). Instead, emphasis has been placed on collecting fresh scats in order to facilitate genetic analyses of taxonomic status (Wallace et al., 2013; Barreta et al., unpublished data). e area where these primates occur also includes other spe cies of scientic and conservation interest, for example, the wattled curassow, Crax globulosa, which was rediscovered in 2001 (Hennessey, 2003). During a 2005 eld trip along the Negro River, near the Beni River (Fig. 1) to document the biology of this regionally threatened cracid, HA was able to photograph a juvenile or subadult captive C. modestus individual in the Monte Rey community (13.284611 S; 67.259861 W). On a return visit in June 2005 HA was able to collect the recently deceased monkey that had been decomposing for almost a week and preserved it in alcohol. is specimen was frozen in the laboratory of the Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology from the Uni versidad Mayor de San Andrs in La Paz. In May 2009, the C. modestus specimen was prepared, and subsequently deposited in the Mammalogy Department of the Colec cin Boliviana de Fauna in La Paz (Specimen Number: CBF 8381). In June 2007, JM began a behavioral ecology study on C. olallae at La Asunta (14.236483 S; 66.982533 W), a private cattle ranch adjacent to the Yacuma River (Figure 1). On 15th June 2007, he rescued a C. olallae skin from ranch workers that had been hunted opportunisti cally for shing bait. is adult male skin had already been cleaned, stretched and dried in sunlight, and is incomplete because the head, feet and hands were removed and not preserved. is skin was also deposited in the Coleccin Boliviana de Fauna in La Paz (Specimen Number: CBF 8380). Here we describe these new specimens and compare pelage color and characteristics with previous descriptions (Lnnberg, 1939; Hershkovitz, 1990; Felton et al., 2006; Martinez & Wallace, 2007). Results e new C. modestus skin is predominantly a non-uniform brown color with orange tones (Fig. 2a). is color is somewhat darker dorsally becoming paler on the ventral portions of the specimen. e pelage, particularly dorsally, shows a conspicuous agouti pattern with light and dark bands alternating along each hair, resulting in the nonuniform brown appearance (Fig. 2b). e tail is conspicu ously dark gray and contrasts clearly with body color (Fig. 2c). Fore and hindquarters are also non-uniform brown although somewhat lighter than body, and hand and feet pelage include black and gray hairs (Fig. 2d and 2e). A noticeable feature, despite the partial deterioration of the C. modestus specimen, is that in general the pelage of ap pears to be short and somewhat disheveled. e previous description is consistent with previous holotype skin and eld observation descriptions which have mentioned the agouti pattern of body pelage, overall pelage coloration and the dierent color of tail as dening characteristics (Ln nberg, 1939; Hershkovitz, 1990; Felton et al., 2006; Mar tinez & Wallace, 2007). e original descriptions by Ln nberg (1939) indicated a general gray tone in all the pelage and eld observations of Felton et al (2006) and Martnez & Wallace (2007) reported a pale zone at the ventral base of tail. Neither of these characteristics was observed in this new juvenile specimen. e skin of the new C. olallae specimen is characterized by a uniform reddish brown pelage color (Fig. 3a). Indi vidual hairs do not show agouti banding patterns. Instead hairs show a broad orange brownish band with dark brown hair tips (Fig. 3b). Body color is darker dorsally turning paler on the ventral side of the body, arms and legs (Fig.

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40 3c, 3d & 3e). Tail color is darker than the body but does not contrast as markedly as in C. modestus (Fig. 2a, 2c and 3a). However, at the base of the tail there is a 6.7 cm long band that appears markedly paler (Fig. 3c). e long hairs of the body and tail give the pelage a very silky texture. is C. olallae specimen shows the characteristic features men tioned in previous descriptions (Lnnberg, 1939; Hershkovitz, 1990; Felton et al., 2006; Martinez & Wallace, 2007). Figure 1. Original localities of the skins of Callicebus modestus and Callicebus olallae.

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41 a) c) b) d) e)Figure 2. Callicebus modestus skin (a), and details showing (b) agouti coloration pattern of hair, (c) coloration of body and tail pelage, (d) hairs on arm and hand and (e) leg and foot.

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42 a) c) b) d) e)Figure 3. Callicebus olallae skin (a), and details showing (b) hair coloration pattern, (c) basal tail pelage, (d) hairs on arm and hand and (e) leg and foot.

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43 However, Felton et al (2006) reported disheveled pelage textures more similar to C. modestus, but this may have been due to recent rain and resulting wet fur in their eld observations (A. Felton pers. comm.to Wallace, 2002). is change in appearance was also observed for C. olallae in a behavioral study (Martnez pers. obs., 2007). We measured the skins and the hair (Table 1). Lnnberg (1939) reported average hair length for each species, how ever, there is no description of how he did this and so we measured back hair length from the central part of the back. Hair length is slightly longer in C. olallae than in C. modestus, an observation similar to previous examinations by Lnnberg (1939) and Hershkovitz (1990). Dierences in the age of the specimens ( C. modestus was a juvenile or subadult) as well as the incomplete nature of the C. olallae skin (lacking of head, hands and feet portions), makes body size measurement comparisons challenging. e condition of the C. olallae skin also precludes the possibility to compare facial and head hair color. It is also important to recognize that the new C. modestus specimen does not completely show the adult representative coloration patterns, although observed dierences increase our knowledge about the de velopment and morphology of this species. Nevertheless, all descriptions refer to the conspicuous banding present in C. modestus hairs as the most relevant diagnostic character istic between the two species. C. olallae has longer and silky hair than C. modestus, and the tail coloration in C. olallae is more similar to the body hair color although the base of the tail is paler. Tail color in C. modestus is entirely dark gray ish and clearly dierent from body color. ese are useful diagnostic characteristic and conrm eld observations (Martinez & Wallace, 2007). Although the preservation of these specimens by local people did not follow standard taxidermy standards, this study underlines the potential importance of local people for donating valuable scientic material that would otherwise be thrown out as garbage or consumed by domestic animals.Conclusionsese new C. olallae and C. modestus specimens represent a unique opportunity to compare previous taxonomy and to conrm eld identications, particularly if we consider that the original descriptions of both species were made over seventy years ago using only two individuals for C. modestus and one for C. olallae. Considering their similar appear ance, close proximity, threatened status and the ongoing ecological studies that have been initiated on both Bolivian endemic monkeys, the conrmation of their identication using genetic material such as the opportunistically collect ed specimen reported herein and/or scat material (Barreta et al., unpublished data) is of paramount importance. Jess Martnez* Robert B. Wallace, Wildlife Conserva tion Society, Greater Madidi Landscape Conservation Pro gram, Casilla 3-35181, San Miguel, La Paz, Bolivia and Wildlife Conservation Society, 185th Street and South ern Boulevard, Bronx, New York, 10460, U.S.A. E-mail: *, Heidy Lpez-Strauss, Wildlife Conservation Society, Greater Madidi Landscape Conser vation Program, Casilla 3-35181, San Miguel, La Paz, Bo livia, Paula De La Torre, Wildlife Conservation Society, Greater Madidi Landscape Conservation Program, Casilla 3-35181, San Miguel, La Paz, Bolivia and Carrera de Bi ologa, Universidad Mayor de San Andrs, La Paz, Bolivia, and, Hugo Aranibar Asociacin Armona, Santa Cruz, Bolivia.ReferencesAnderson S. 1997. Mammals of Bolivia: taxonomy and distribution. B. Am. Mus. Nat. His New York. Barreta, J. 2007. Caracterizacin gentica de dos especies de monos tit Callicebus olallae y Callicebus modestus del Departamento del Beni. Informe tcnico. Wildlife Conservation Society & Instituto de Biologa Molecular y Biotecnologa, La Paz, Bolivia. 15 pp. Deer, T. R., M. L. Bueno & J. Garcia. 2010. Callicebus caquetensis: a new and critically endangered titi monkey Table 1. Some comparative measurements of the hair of the new specimens in relation with the holotypes. Source Callicebus modestus Callicebus olallae Lnnberg (1939) Hershkovitz (1990) New specimen Lnnberg (1939) Hershkovitz (1990) New specimen # of individuals observed 2 2 1 1 1 1 Average hair length [mm] 45     45     Maximum hair length [mm] 50     60     Back hair length [mm]     40     53 Head-Body length [mm] 315 315 315 *410 325 **290 Tail length [mm] 400 400 240 *340 425 500*: ese data maybe incorrect in Lnnberg (1939). erefore we recommend using the Hershkovitz (1990) measurements. **: Note: this skin was lacking head, hands and feet and as such the true value would be slightly larger.

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44 from southern Caquet, Colombia. Primate Conserv. 25: 1. Felton A., A. M. Felton, R. B. Wallace, H. Gmez. 2006. Identication, distribution and behavioural observations of the titi monkeys Callicebus modestus Lnnberg 1939, and Callicebus olallae Lnnberg 1939. Primate Conserv. 20: 40. Hennessey, B. 2003. Conservation presentation to Tacana communities within the last Bolivian site of the Wattled Curassow (Crax globulosa). Informe Tcnico. Wildlife Conservation Society & Armona, La Paz, Bolivia. 5 pp. Hershkovitz P. 1990. Titis, New World monkeys of the genus Callicebus (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): a preliminary taxonomic review. Fieldiana Zool. N. S. (55): 1. Kobayashi S. 1995. A phylogenetic study of titi monkeys, genus Callicebus, based on cranial measurements: I. Phy letic groups of Callicebus. Primates 36: 101. Lnnberg E. 1939. Notes on some members of the genus Callicebus. Arkiv. Zoologi. Stockholm. 31A (13): 1. Lopez-Strauss, H. 2008. Estimacin de densidad y com posicin de grupos de dos primates, Callicebus olallae y Callicebus modestus, especies endmicas del sud-oeste del Departamento del Beni Bolivia. Undergraduate thesis, Universidad Mayor de San Andrs, La Paz, Bolivia. Martnez J., R. B. Wallace. 2007. Further notes on the distribution of endemic Bolivian titi monkeys, Callicebus modestus and Callicebus olallae. Neotrop. Primates 14: 47. Martnez, J., R. B. Wallace. 2010. Pitheciidae. Pp. 305330. In: Wallace R. B., D. Rumiz & H. Gomez (eds.). Mamferos Medianos y Grandes de Bolivia: Distribucin, Ecologa y Conservacin. Editorial: Centro de Ecologa y Difusin Simn I. Patio, Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Patterson, B. D. 1992. Mammals in the royal natural his tory museum, Stockholm, collected in Brazil and Bolivia by A.M. Olalla during 1934-1938. Fieldiana Zool. N.S. No. 66. Van Roosmalen M. G. M., T. Van Roosmalen, R. A. Mittermeier. 2002. A taxonomic review of the titi monkeys, genus Callicebus omas, 1903, with the description of two new species, Callicebus bernhardi and Callicebus stephennashi from Brazilian Amazonia. Neotrop. Primates 10: 1. Wallace, R. B., H. Gomez, A. Felton, A. M. Felton. 2006. On a new species of titi monkey, genus Callicebus omas, from western Bolivia (Primates, Cebidae) with preliminary notes on distribution and abundance. Pri mate Conserv. 20: 29. Wallace R. B., N. Mercado. 2007. La diversidad, distribu cin y abundancia de primates en Bolivia: recomenda ciones preliminares para su conservacin. V Congreso Nacional de Biologa para la Conservacin y el Desar rollo Sostenible, 28-30 de Marzo de 2007, Santa Cruz, Bolivia. enVARIACION MENSUAL DEL USO DEL en TERRITORIO POR EL MONO CHORO en LAGOTHRIX CANAen en EN EL PARQUE NACIONAL en YANACHAGA CHEMILLEN, PERU. en Deisi Vanessa Luna Celinoes-ESIntroduccines-ESLa extensin y calidad del territorio en el cual se mueve es-ES un primate suele depender de factores importantes como es-ES los recursos naturales explotables: alimento, agua y sitio es-ES para dormir. Para los monos del gnero es-ES Lagothrixes-ES que viven es-ES en el bosque tropical con rboles grandes, el factor ms es-ES inuyente en el uso del territorio es el recurso alimenticio es-ES (Deer, 1989). Como animales predominantemente es-ES frugvoros (Di Fiore y Campbell, 2007), los monos choro es-ES tienen un rea domiciliaria extensa para poder localizar es-ES los frutos consumibles que se encuentran en el bosque en es-ES forma de parches dispersos de manera azarosa o agregada es-ES (Deer 1989; Peres, 1996). A nivel temporal, la fruta es-ES tampoco est distribuida uniformemente. Se tienen picos es-ES de fructicacin a lo largo del ao que suelen coincidir es-ES con la estacin lluviosa. Ante esta situacin los monos del es-ES gnero es-ES Lagothrixes-ES deben modicar su dieta, patrones de es-ES actividad e incluso el uso del territorio para satisfacer los es-ES requerimientos energticos de todos los individuos que es-ES conforman el grupo (Deer 1989, 1995; Peres 1994,1996; es-ES Stevenson es-ESet al.,es-ES 1994; Deer y Deer, 1995; Soini 1995a, es-ES 1995b; Di Fiore, 2003; Stevenson, 2006). es-ES El presente trabajo evala la variacin, a lo largo de nueve es-ES meses, en el uso del territorio por parte de un grupo de es-ES Lagothrix canaes-ES en el Parque Nacional Yanachaga Chemilln, es-ES selva central del Per. El hbitat se evala en trminos es-ES de la topografa y de los tipos de bosque por medio del es-ES Anlisis de Disponibilidad de Hbitat (Pozos y Youlatos, es-ES 2005). Este estudio aporta informacin ecolgica sobre esta es-ES especie de mono choro en su ubicacin ms cercana a los es-ES Andes dentro de su rango de distribucin (Fooden, 1963, es-ES Groves, 2000).es-ESMateriales y Mtodoses-ESArea de estudioes-ES Se encuentra en las inmediaciones de la Estacin Biolgica es-ES Paujil (S10'34" W75'35"), en el extremo oriental es-ES del Parque Nacional Yanachaga Chemilln, departamento es-ES de Pasco, Per (Fig. 1). El rea de estudio comprende una es-ES extensin de 300 ha entre los 400 a 600 msnm., con una es-ES topografa predominantemente ondulada. Es un Bosque es-ES Hmedo Tropical (bhT) con temperaturas medias anuales es-ES de entre 23C a 25C y precipitaciones anuales por encima es-ES de los 3,000 mm (datos de la estacin meteorolgica ms es-ES cercana para la misma zona de vida en Puerto Bermdez: es-ES S 10 18' 1", O 74 54' 1"). La estacin lluviosa va de octubre

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45 a abril con un pico hacia el mes de marzo, mientras que la es-EStemporada seca es corta y se da entre mayo a setiembre.es-ES Grupo de estudioes-ES Compuesto por siete individuos (dos hembras adultas, es-ES cuatro machos adultos y una juvenil), adems de una cra es-ES nacida en abril que ya no fue vista ms en las siguientes es-ES evaluaciones. Todos ellos identicados por la forma del es-ES cuerpo, color de pelaje y marcas naturales. El grupo pudo es-ES ser habituado sin mucha dicultad durante el mes y medio es-ES anterior al inicio de la toma de datos. Adicionalmente, se es-ES realiz seguimiento a otros dos grupos con el propsito de es-ES evaluar el grado de superposicin del territorio con el grupo es-ES de estudio.es-ES Evaluacin de la Preferencia de Hbitat (EPH)es-ES Desde abril a noviembre del 2012 se acumularon es-ES 236 horas de seguimiento a individuos focales, distribuidas es-ES equitativamente a los largo de 6 evaluaciones mensuales; es-ES es decir, del nal de la estacin lluviosa, durante toda la es-ES estacin seca e inicios de la siguiente estacin lluviosa. es-ES Cada mes fue evaluado entre 5 y 8 das, dependiendo de es-ES la acumulacin de las horas de seguimiento diario. Cada es-ES 30 minutos se registr la posicin (con GPS) y el tipo es-ES de bosque y topografa en el que se encontraba el grupo, es-ES totalizando 510 registros que indican la preferencia de es-ES hbitat. Los datos fueron obtenidos a partir del individuo es-ES focal, sin embargo, debido al alto grado de cohesin del es-ES grupo (observacin personal), pueden ser considerados para es-ES todo el grupo. Los puntos de posicin fueron analizados con es-ES el mtodo de Polgono Convexo Mnimo (MCP) usando el es-ES 100%, 95% y el 50% de los puntos ms cercanos. El MCP es-ES es una herramienta de HRTools para ArcGis 9.3 con el que es-ES se pudo obtener reas domiciliares mensuales.es-ES Anlisis de la disponibilidad de hbitat (ADH)es-ES Se aplic la metodologa usada por Pozo y Youlatos (2005) es-ES a un bosque de tierra rme de 300 ha. -que incluye el es-ES rea domiciliaria del grupo de estudio-, donde se han es-ES recorrido 3 transectos paralelos de 1 kilmetro cada uno es-ES separados 500 metros entre s. Cada 10 m dentro de dichos es-ES transectos se tomaron datos del tipo de topografa (cima, es-ES ladera, terraza, quebrada) a partir de la pendiente del suelo, es-ES y del tipo de bosque (bosque primario, bosque de galera y es-ES bosque secundario), totalizando en 279 puntos que indican es-ES la disponibilidad de hbitat.es-ES Tipos de bosquees-ES Fue establecido a partir de la medicin del DAP, la altura y es-ES la densidad de los rboles (datos no publicados) dispuestos es-ESFigura 1.es-ES rea de estudio: Parque Nacional Yanachaga Chemilln

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46 es-ESen los 5 metros a ambos lados del punto usado para el ADH. es-ES Asimismo, se tom en cuenta la presencia de ciertas especies es-ES indicadoras. Se tienen cuatro tipos de bosque: a) El bosque es-ES secundario, producto de la agricultura de roce y quema a es-ES nales de los aos 60's que se dio en parte de lo que ahora es es-ES el sitio de estudio (INRENA, 2005); b) el bosque primario, es-ES con rboles de 20-30 metros de alto y dosel continuo con es-ES rboles emergentes de hasta 40 metros; c) bosque de galera, es-ES segn Malleux (1982), localizado en colinas y terrazas es-ES con fuerte erosin elica y cercanas a quebradas grandes, es-ES resultando en un dosel discontinuo y numerosos rboles es-ES cados; y d) claros de bosque, zonas donde la erosin elica es-ES ha sido bastante fuerte como para dejar reas extensas es-ES descubiertas (de ms de 0.1 ha). Finalmente, a partir del es-ES ADH y de la EPH se obtuvo el ndice de Preferencia (IP) de es-ES la topografa y del tipo de bosque de acuerdo a la siguiente es-ES relacin: IP = Preferencia/Disponibilidad.es-ESResultados y discusines-ESRespecto al uso total del territorio, los monos usaron un es-ES territorio de 209.4 ha a lo largo de los 9 meses que dur la es-ES evaluacin. Sin embargo, solo 25 puntos (5%) adicionaron es-ES 90 ha, el 43% del rea domiciliaria total, el que perteneci es-ES casi exclusivamente al mes de junio (ver diferencias entre es-ES MCP 95 y MCP 100, Fig. 2). Adicionalmente slo en es-ES los meses de abril, julio, agosto, setiembre y noviembre la es-ES curva de acumulacin de hectreas se aplana mostrando un es-ES adecuado esfuerzo de muestreo (Fig. 3).Figura 2. rea domiciliaria de L. cana y los transectos usados para el anlisis de la estructura de hbitat es-ESFigura 3.es-ES Curvas de acumulacin de reas domiciliares mensuales

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47 Disponibilidad y preferencia topogrca es-ESEl rea de estudio presenta una topografa ondulada es-ES donde predominan terrazas (60%), laderas (35%) y cimas es-ES (2%). Se observ que los mayores ndices de preferencia es-ES de hbitat se dan sobre el tipo topogrco cima (IP=7.8), es-ES seguido por la terraza (1.7) y la ladera (1.4). Las cimas es-ES de las colinas fueron preferidas probablemente porque es-ES permiten mayor facilidad de traslado en recorridos largos, es-ES tal como fue encontrado en Di Fiore y Suarez (2007) es-ES para monos atelidos en Yasun. Adems, muchos de los es-ES frutos que consumieron se encontraban en los bosques es-ES de galera, que estn mayoritariamente sobre terrenos es-ES con pendiente. Pozo (2009) encontr que las preferencias es-ES topogrcas de los monos choros responderan en parte a es-ES evitar la competencia con otras especies de monos atlidos. es-ES Ante la inexistencia de otras especies de monos atlidos es-ES en el rea de estudio, lo que podra estar ocurriendo es la es-ES competencia con grupos vecinos de es-ESLagothrix cana,es-ES ms es-ES grandes en nmero de individuos, con los que el grado es-ES de superposicin de territorio es por lo menos del 60%. es-ES Nuestro grupo de monos tambin comparte territorio con es-ES otras especies de primates, como los pichicos (es-ES Saguinus sp.es-ES) es-ES y capuchinos (es-ES Cebus albifronses-ES), que son especies de menor es-ES tamao y probablemente por ello no causaran ningn es-ES efecto en la preferencia topogrca (Stevenson es-ES et al.,es-ES 2000). es-ES Disponibilidad y preferencia de los tipos de bosquees-ES En el rea de estudio predomina el bosque primario (72%) es-ES sobre el bosque de galera (16%), el bosque secundario es-ES (6%) y los claros de bosque (6%). Se encontr que los es-ES IP mensuales del bosque de galera y del bosque primario es-ES variaron inversamente; es decir, que mientras terminaba es-ES la estacin lluviosa, y avanzaba la estacin seca, hubo es-ES un aumento en el uso del bosque de galera, para luego es-ES disminuir hacia inicios de la siguiente estacin lluviosa es-ES (Fig. 4). Con ello se aprecia un incremento del uso del es-ES bosque de galera con el consumo de las especies es-ES Cecropia es-ES sciadophyllaes-ES, es-ES Ficus americana, Ficus krukoviies-ES e es-ESInga albaes-ES, las es-ES que juntas conformaron el 49% y 71% de la dieta en frutos es-ES para los meses de julio y agosto, respectivamente (Luna, es-ES datos no publicados). Estas especies se caracterizan por su es-ES rpido crecimiento, heliotrofa, crecimiento en ambientes es-ES degradados y fenologa asincrnica (Guariguata y Kattan, es-ES 2002), tal como ocurre en el Yanachaga. Con ello la es-ES preferencia a este tipo de bosque pareciera ser dependiente es-ES de las especies que estn produciendo frutos en l, como se es-ES ha encontrado en Tinigua (Stevenson, 2006).es-ES Los IP promedio de todo el periodo de evaluacin del es-ES bosque primario y del bosque de galera son similares es-ES y se acercan a uno (1.2 y 1.1, respectivamente. Fig. 4). es-ES Sin embargo, estos son datos no incluyen un adecuado es-ES muestreo de la estacin lluviosa donde se esperara, segn es-ES la tendencia, un mayor uso del bosque primario. Por otro es-ES lado, el IP del bosque secundario siempre fue bajo (menor es-ES de 0.1), lo que demuestra el comportamiento evasivo de es-ES los monos hacia este tipo de formacin boscosa, por la es-ES ausencia de una adecuada cobertura arbrea que permita es-ES el fcil desplazamiento (Emmons y Gentry, 1983) y es-ES evite el ataque de los depredadores (Di Fiore, 2002). es-ES Dicho comportamiento fue reportado por Peres (1996) es-ES y Stevenson (2006), donde los monos choro tambin es-ES rechazaban los bosques secundarios, sobre todo los ms es-ES jvenes. Sin embargo, queda pendiente evaluar por qu el es-ES bosque secundario de la zona de estudio se mantiene tal es-ES cual despus de 40 aos de haber acontecido la ocupacin. es-ES Para Peres (1996) y Stevenson (2006) el uso de territorio es-ES en la estacin seca fue bastante variable, lo que se cumpli es-ES en los monos del Yanachaga solo para inicios de dicha es-ES estacin, en el mes de junio, cuando el consumo de hojas es-ES nuevas fue mayor -del 33% frente al 12% en promedio es-ES para toda la evaluacin(Luna, datos no publicados), y es-ES se us un territorio de 121 ha. De hecho, en este mes no es-ES hubo una correspondencia entre la extensin de territorio es-ES utilizado y el esfuerzo de muestreo (Fig. 3). Para el resto de es-ES la estacin seca el rea domiciliaria fue menos extensa y el es-ES recorrido diario del grupo se hizo ms predecible, debido a es-ES que las plantas que les proveyeron de frutos se encontraban es-ES en forma de parches dentro del bosque de galera.es-ES El presente estudio pone nuevamente en evidencia el grado es-ES de plasticidad en el uso de hbitats de los monos es-ES Lagothrixes-ES es-ES como respuesta a una potencial variacin espacio-temporal es-ES en la disponibilidad de recursos, siendo este un aporte al es-ES conocimiento de la ecologa de es-ES Lagothrix canaes-ES, la especie es-ES de mono choro comn menos estudiada hasta ahora, en es-ES su distribucin dentro del piedemonte andino amaznico. es-ES El sitio de estudio particularmente cuenta con bosques con es-ES cierto grado de perturbacin, sobre todo debido a los efectos es-ES de la erosin elica, de all que se resalte la importancia de es-ES los gneros es-ES Cecropiaes-ES, es-ES Ficuses-ES e es-ES Ingaes-ES en la dieta de los monos es-ES en los meses pico de la estacin seca. es-ESAgradecimientoses-ESA la Fundacin Liz Claiborne-Fundacin Art Ortenberg es-ES y al Jardn Botnico de Missouri por nanciar y asesorar es-ES este proyecto de investigacin. A Rodolfo Vsquez y Roco es-ES Rojas por el apoyo durante todo el trabajo de campo, as es-ES como por la asesora en temas botnicos, y a Erwin Palacios es-ES por los comentarios pertinentes al presente manuscrito.es-ESFigura 4.es-ES ndice de preferencia del tipo de bosque

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48 es-ESDeisi Vanessa Luna Celino,es-ES Investigadora asociada del Jardn es-ES Botnico de Missouri-Per. Prolongacin Bolognesi 399, es-ES Oxapampa-Pasco, Per.es-ES es-ES E-mailes-ES: .es-ESReferenciases-ESDeer, T. R. 1989. Recorrido y uso del espacio en un grupo es-ES de es-ES Lagothrix lagothricha es-ES(Primates: Cebidae) mono lanudo es-ES churuco en la Amazona Colombiana. es-ESTrianeaes-ES 3: 183.es-ES Deer, T. R. 1995. e time budget of a group of wild es-ES woolly monkeys (es-ES Lagothrix lagotrichaes-ES). es-ES Int. J. Primatoles-ES es-ES 16: 107.es-ES Deer, T. R. y Deer, S. B. 1995. Diet of a group of es-ES Lagothrix es-ES lagothricha lagothrichaes-ES in southeastern Colombia. es-ESInt. J. es-ES Primatoles-ES. 17: 161. Di Fiore, A.   2002. es-ES Predator sensitive foraging in ateline es-ES primates.es-ES En: es-ESEat or Be Eaten: Predator Sensitive Foraging es-ES among Primateses-ES, L. E. Miller (ed.), pp. 242. es-ES Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. es-ES Di Fiore, A. 2003. Ranging behavior and foranging es-ES ecology of lowland woolly monkey (es-ES Lagothrix lagothricha es-ES poeppigii) es-ES in Yasuni National Park, Ecuador. es-ES Am. J. es-ES Primatoles-ES. 59: 47.es-ES Di Fiore, A. y Campbell, C. 2007. e Atelines: variation es-ES in ecology, behavior, and social organization. En: es-ES Primates es-ES in Perspectivees-ES, C. Campbell, A. Fuentes, K. MacKinnon, es-ES M. Panger y S. Bearder (eds.), pp. 155-185. Oxford es-ES University Press, New York.es-ES Di Fiore, A. y Suarez S. A. 2007. Route-based travel and shared es-ES routes in sympatric spider and woolly monkeys: cognitive es-ES and evolutionary implications. es-ESAnim. Cogn.es-ES 10: 317.es-ES Emmons, L. H. y Gentry, A. 1983. Gliding and prehensile-es-ES tailed vertebrates and the structure of the tropical forest es-ES canopy. es-ES Am. Nates-ES. 121: 513.es-ES Fooden, J. 1963. A revision of the woolly monkeys (genus es-ES Lagothrixes-ES). es-ES J. Mammes-ES. 44: 213.es-ES Groves, C. 2000. An assessment of the diversity of New es-ES World primates. es-ESNeotrop. Primes-ES. 8: 61.es-ES Guariguata, M. R. y Kattan, G. H. 2002. Ecologa y es-ES conservacin de bosques neotropicales. 1. ed. Ediciones es-ES LUR, Cartago (Costa Rica). es-ES INRENA. 2005. es-ESPlan Maestro del Parque Nacional es-ES Yanachaga Chemilln 200es-ES 5-2es-ES 009es-ES. Ministerio de es-ES Agricultura. Lima (Per). es-ES Malleux, J. 1982. es-ESInventarios Forestales en Bosques Tropicaleses-ES. es-ES Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima.es-ES Peres, C. A. 1994. Diet and feeding ecology of gray woolly es-ES monkeys (es-ESLagothrix lagotricha canaes-ES ) in Central Amazonia: es-ES comparisons with other atelines. es-ES Int. J. Primatoles-ES 15: 333.es-ES Peres, C. A. 1996. Use of space, spatial group structure, es-ES and foraging group size of gray woolly monkeys es-ES (es-ES Lagothrix lagotricha canaes-ES) at Urucu, Brazil. En: es-ES Adaptive es-ES Radiations of Neotropical Primateses-ES M. A. Norconk, A. L. es-ES Rosenberger y P. A. Garber (eds.), pp. 467. Plenum es-ES Press, New York.es-ES Pozo, W. E. 2004. Preferencia de hbitat de seis primates es-ES simptricos del Yasun, Ecuador. es-ESEcologa Aplicadaes-ES 3: es-ES 128. es-ESPozo, W. E. 2009. Uso preferencial de hbitat en primates es-ES atlidos en el Parque Nacional Yasun, Ecuador. es-ES Boletn es-ES Tcnicoes-ES 8, es-ESSerie Zoolgicaes-ES 4-5: 25es-ES Pozo, W. E. y Youlatos, D. 2005. Una metodologa rpida es-ES y econmica: el anlisis de la estructura de hbitat en es-ES estudios primatolgicos. es-ES Boletn Tcnico es-ES 5es-ES Serie Zoolgicaes-ES es-ES 1: 7. es-ES Soini P. 1995a. Informe preliminar de la ecologa y dinmica es-ES poblacional del choro' es-ES Lagothrix lagotrichaes-ES (Primates). es-ES En: es-ES Reporte Pacaya-Samiria: Investigaciones en la Estacin es-ES Biolgica Cahuana 1979es-ES, P. Soini, A. Tovar N. y es-ES U. Valdez Q. (eds.), pp. 227. Universidad Nacional es-ES Agraria La Molina, Lima. es-ES Soini P. 1995b. La dieta del mono choro (es-ES Lagothrix es-ES lagotrichaes-ES). En: es-ES Reporte Pacaya-Samiria: Investigaciones es-ES en la Estacin Biolgica Cahuana 1979es-ES P. Soini, A. es-ES Tovar N. y U. Valdez Q. (eds.), pp. 251. Universidad es-ES Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima.es-ES Stevenson, P. R. 2006. Activity and ranging patterns of es-ES Colombian woolly monkeys in north-western Amazonia. es-ES Primateses-ES 47: 239. es-ES Stevenson, P. R., Quiones, M. J., y Ahumada, J. A. es-ES 1994. Ecological strategies of woolly monkeys (es-ES Lagothrix es-ES lagotrichaes-ES) at Tinigua National Park, Colombia. es-ES Am. J. es-ES Primatoles-ES. 32: 123.es-ES Stevenson, P. R., Quiones, M. J., y Ahumada, J. A. 2000. es-ES Inuence of fruit availability on ecological overlap among es-ES four Neotropical primates at Tinigua National Park, es-ES Colombia. es-ES Biotropicaes-ES. 32: 533.pt-BR RELATO DE CASO DE MORTE POR AGRESSO pt-BR ENTRE MACACOSPREGO pt-BRSAPAJUS NIGRITUSpt-BR pt-BR PRIMATES: CEBIDAE NO JARDIM BOTNICO pt-BR DO RIO DE JANEIROpt-BR Cristiane Hollanda Rangelpt-BR Jos Gustavo V. Adlerpt-BR Gabriela C. Heliodorpt-BR pt-BRAnderson Santos Jr.pt-BR Carlos Eduardo Veronapt-BRIntroduopt-BRInteraes agressivas resultando em morte tm sido relatadas pt-BR em primatas no-humanos como chimpanzs (Wrangham, pt-BR 1999; Watts & Mitani, 2001), gorilas-da-montanha (Watts, pt-BR 1989), colobus-vermelhos (Starin, 1994), Muriqui-do-sul pt-BR (Talebi pt-BR et alpt-BR, 2009) e tambm em caiararas (Miller, 1998; pt-BR Gros-Louis pt-BR et alpt-BR, 2003), e em macacos-pregos (Ramrez-pt-BR Llorens pt-BR et alpt-BR, 2008; Scarry e Tujague, 2012). A manuteno pt-BR do monoplio sobre os recursos alimentares na rea de pt-BR vida e/ou sobre as potenciais parceiras reprodutivas, so pt-BR fatores que exercem forte presso sobre animais sociais, pt-BR principalmente em primatas, fazendo com que os animais pt-BR invistam em interaes agonsticas intensas. Estas podem pt-BR incluir contato fsico e at mesmo serem fatais (Sasaki,

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49 1998; Di Bitetti, 2001; Campbell, 2006; Harris, 2010). pt-BRInteraes agonsticas fatais em macacos-prego e caiararas pt-BR podem ser motivadas por disputa de poder, agresso contra pt-BR novos indivduos no grupo, e encontro entre grupos com pt-BR consequente disputa por territrio (Gros-Louis pt-BR et alpt-BR, 2003). pt-BR O risco de encontro com machos de outros grupos ou pt-BR machos solitrios a maior preocupao dos pt-BRC. capucinuspt-BR pt-BR machos no comportamento de viglia (Rose e Fedigan, pt-BR 1995). pt-BR Recentemente o gnero pt-BR Cebus pt-BR foi separado em dois, pt-BR Sapajuspt-BR e pt-BRCebus pt-BR (Lynch Alfaro pt-BRet alpt-BR, 2012), e talvez existam pt-BR diferenas entre eles no que se refere suas interaes pt-BR intraespeccas e importncia delas para a dinmica dos pt-BR grupos. pt-BR Sapajus apellapt-BR, por exemplo, parece ser menos pt-BR agressivo durante encontros intergrupais do que pt-BR Cebus pt-BR capucinuspt-BR e pt-BRC. albifronspt-BR (Becker & Berkson, 1979; Deer, pt-BR 1982; Perry 1996; Gros-Louis pt-BR et alpt-BR, 2003; Ramrez-Llorens pt-BR et alpt-BR, 2008). As disputas de poder so eventos bastante pt-BR conitantes podendo resultar em morte em pt-BR Cebuspt-BR (Gros-pt-BR Louis pt-BR et alpt-BR, 2003; Scarry e Tujague, 2012). Muitos estudos pt-BR com ambos os gneros relatam casos de infanticdio por pt-BR machos assim que conquistam o mais alto nvel hierrquico pt-BR do grupo (Izar pt-BRet alpt-BR, 2007; Ramrez-Llorens et al. 2008; pt-BR Rose, 1994), o que refora o quadro agonstico dos casos de pt-BR disputa hierrquica. O presente estudo relata o caso de um pt-BR indivduo de macaco-prego (pt-BRSapajus nigrituspt-BR Goldfuss, pt-BR 1809) macho adulto, encontrado gravemente ferido no pt-BR arboreto do Jardim Botnico do Rio de Janeiro, pelos pt-BR pesquisadores do Projeto de Conservao da Fauna.pt-BRMetodologiapt-BRA rea de estudo faz parte do Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim pt-BR Botnico do Rio de Janeiro (JBRJ) localizado na zona sul pt-BR da cidade do Rio de Janeiro (22' a 22' S e 43' pt-BR a 43' W). Sua rea fsica compreende 137 hectares, pt-BR sendo 54 ha do arboreto com cultivo de cerca de pt-BR 8,000 espcies arbreas entre nativas e exticas de vrias pt-BR partes do mundo, e 83 ha de remanescentes orestais de pt-BR Mata Atlntica contnuas ao Parque Nacional da Tijuca pt-BR (PNT). Essa ligao com o parque permite o trnsito da pt-BR fauna autctone, que utiliza o arboreto do JBRJ para se pt-BR alimentar, nidicar e se estabelecer (Rangel, 2010). Apesar pt-BR de ser uma rea de conservao pt-BR ex situpt-BR de plantas, o JBRJ pt-BR funciona como zona de amortecimento desta unidade de pt-BR conservao federal e colabora para diminuir seus efeitos pt-BR de borda, sendo, portanto, uma rea de conservao pt-BRin situpt-BR pt-BR para a fauna.pt-BR Desde 2007 o Projeto de Conservao da Fauna no JBRJ, pt-BR um projeto de longa durao, monitora a comunidade pt-BR de primatas de vida livre na rea. Durante esse tempo, pt-BR pelo menos um dia por semana h pesquisadores pt-BR observando os grupos de macacos-prego, com esforo pt-BR mdio de 8 horas dirias, em estudos de rea de vida, pt-BR comportamento e dieta. Os macacos-prego dos grupos pt-BR estudados foram classicados como pt-BRSapajus nigrituspt-BR pt-BR devido s suas caractersticas morfolgicas, de acordo pt-BR com Silva Jr. (2001). Dois grupos de pt-BR Sapajus nigrituspt-BR pt-BR vem sendo acompanhados desde 2007. O grupo 1 usa pt-BR o arboreto e parte baixa da rea de mata secundria do pt-BR JBRJ, o mais avistado, estudado e com composio pt-BR conhecida. O grupo 2, que usa a parte mais alta da mata pt-BR secundria, se sobrepe parcialmente com a rea do grupo pt-BR 1 (Fig. 1), e avistado apenas ocasionalmente. Na data pt-BR da observao do animal ferido, o grupo 1 de macacospt-BR prego possua 21 indivduos: trs machos adultos, dois pt-BR machos sub adultos, sete fmeas adultas, quatro jovens, pt-BR e cinco infantes. Nas poucas ocasies em que o grupo pt-BR 2 foi acompanhado, seu tamanho estimado foi de cerca pt-BR de 10 indivduos, com possibilidade de haver mais.Figura 1. Detalhamento das reas do Jardim Botnico do Rio de Janeiro ocupadas pelos grupos 1 e 2 de macacos-prego (S apajus nigritus), indicando sua zona de sobreposio e local de encontro do animal ferido. Adaptado de Google Maps.

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50 pt-BRResultadospt-BRUm macaco-prego macho adulto ferido foi encontrado na pt-BR zona de sobreposio dos dois grupos s 14h de 20/07/2012 pt-BR com laceraes recentes e graves em trs membros e na pt-BR cintura plvica. Realizou-se o resgate e conteno do animal pt-BR para encaminhamento, pela Patrulha Ambiental, para a pt-BR Clnica de Reabilitao de Animais Silvestres (CRAS). O pt-BR animal, porm, no resistiu aos ferimentos e veio a bito pt-BR antes mesmo do atendimento veterinrio. A necropsia pt-BR realizada no referido animal indica uma srie de ferimentos pt-BR que, pelas formas e medidas das laceraes e perfuraes, pt-BR assim como marcas deixadas na pele e musculatura, so pt-BR compatveis com mordidas de macacos-prego (a Figura 2 pt-BR apresenta maiores detalhes das leses).pt-BR O animal necropsiado apresentava laceraes ocorridas pt-BR em dias distintos, algumas mais recentes, outras ocorridas pt-BR dias antes do bito, vericado pelo incio de formao de pt-BR tecido cicatricial nas bordas lesionadas. Os ferimentos dos pt-BR membros anteriores incluam laceraes com marcas de pt-BR dentes, por mordidas e amputaes de partes de membros pt-BR como terceira falange do dedo mdio, por arrancamento. pt-BR Incluam tambm leses indicativas de aes defensivas, pt-BR como ferimentos nas palmas dos membros anteriores e pt-BR posteriores. A fratura exposta de tbia e fbula tambm pt-BR sugeria que a leso havia sido criada por um episdio de pt-BR conito fsico, assim como todas as outras leses, por ser pt-BR observada a presena de mordidas nos locais. A leso na pt-BR regio ventro-lateral da virilha direita mostra nitidamente pt-BR a impresso de dentes compatveis com as dimenses e pt-BR similaridades anatmicas da dentio de primatas do gnero pt-BR Sapajuspt-BR adultos, tanto na pele quanto na musculatura. pt-BR Acompanhamentos posteriores do grupo 1 mostraram que pt-BR sua composio no havia sido alterada, sugerindo ento pt-BR que o macho adulto que veio a bito seria proveniente do pt-BR grupo 2, ou seria um macho solitrio. pt-BRDiscusso e conclusopt-BRO local de encontro do animal e as caractersticas das pt-BR feridas sugerem a ocorrncia de uma interao agonstica pt-BR fsica intraespecca como causa do bito. A ausncia de pt-BR mudana na composio do grupo 1 mostra que o animal pt-BR encontrado poderia ser do grupo 2, que teria se envolvido pt-BR em conito intragrupal ou com o grupo 1, ou um animal pt-BR solitrio ferido em um conito no encontro com um dos pt-BR grupos. Este caso refora os padres de comportamento pt-BR encontrados em outros estudos quanto a agressividade de pt-BR um conito intraespecco em pt-BR Sapajus nigrituspt-BR (Di Bitetti, pt-BR 2001; Lynch e Rimoli 2000; Scarry e Tujague, 2012), e pt-BR levanta questes quanto ecologia e sociedade da espcie, pt-BR tais como presso na sobrevivncia do grupo e em sua pt-BR dinmica.pt-BRFigura 2.pt-BR Esquema da localizao e imagens dos ferimentos do macaco-prego (pt-BR Sapajus nigrituspt-BR) encontrado no Jardim Botnico do Rio pt-BR de Janeiro.

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51 Os registros sobre os potenciais predadores de macacospt-BRprego na rea indicam a presena de jibia (pt-BR Boa constrictorpt-BR), pt-BR gavio-pega-macaco (pt-BRSpizaetus tyrannuspt-BR), e ces e gatos pt-BR domsticos, porm nenhum deles capazes de produzir pt-BR leses com as caractersticas documentadas. Os machos pt-BR adultos de caiararas passam a maior parte do tempo em pt-BR comportamento de viglia por conta da presena de pt-BR indivduos estranhos ao grupos, mais do que ameaas de pt-BR predadores (Rose e Fedigan, 1995), revelando a importncia pt-BR de conitos intraespeccos na dinmica do grupo, o que pt-BR parece ser o caso do presente estudo com pt-BRS. nigrituspt-BR.pt-BR A disputa por stio alimentar parece ser um fator importante pt-BR no presente estudo. No local onde o indivduo ferido foi pt-BR encontrado h uma jaqueira onde, frequentemente, os pt-BR dois grupos foram observados se alimentando, mas nunca pt-BR ao mesmo tempo. A jaqueira (pt-BRArtocarpos heterophylluspt-BR) pt-BR uma rvore extica, presente em quase todo o JBRJ e pt-BR no Parque Nacional da Tijuca, e seus frutos representam pt-BR grande parte da dieta dos macacos-prego durante todo o pt-BR ano (Rangel, 2010). provvel que esta jaqueira tenha pt-BR inuncia no encontro entre os dois grupos, revelando o pt-BR valor alimentar das reas de vida como um fator relevante pt-BR no comportamento agressivo contra potenciais invasores pt-BR (Enquist e Leimar, 1987; Vogel pt-BRet alpt-BR 2007; Harris, pt-BR 2010). A zona de sobreposio das reas dos dois grupos pt-BR tambm o caminho de acesso para o arboreto do JBRJ, pt-BR que uma fonte de recursos alimentares pois diariamente pt-BR visitantes fornecem alimento diretamente aos animais, pt-BR ou indiretamente, nas lixeiras exploradas como locais de pt-BR forrageamento (Rangel, 2010). pt-BR Outro fator que pode ter inuncia na postura agressiva pt-BR a diferena de tamanho de cada grupo. O grupo 1 parece pt-BR ser consideravelmente maior, o que poderia encorajar sua pt-BR investida contra o grupo menor na zona de sobreposio, pt-BR fora do ncleo do territrio do grupo menor. Grupos pt-BR maiores aumentam sua probabilidade de vitrias, exceto nos pt-BR ncleos do territrio de um dos grupos, onde a tendncia pt-BR o grupo residente, mesmo em menor nmero, ganhar pt-BR a disputa (Crofoot pt-BR et alpt-BR, 2008). Um terceiro aspecto que pt-BR pode inuenciar relaes agonsticas a oportunidade de pt-BR parceiras de reproduo, provocando competio e defesa pt-BR de parceiras (Rose, 1994; Perry 1996; Campbell, 2006).pt-BR Uma quarta possibilidade seria de um conito intragrupal pt-BR no grupo 2. Conitos intragrupais, incluindo infanticdio, pt-BR podem resultar em graves ferimentos ou mortes por pt-BR consequncia de uma disputa pela hierarquia do grupo, pt-BR como fora relatado em pt-BR Cebus capucinuspt-BR e pt-BR Sapajus nigrituspt-BR pt-BR (Gros-Louis pt-BR et alpt-BR, 2003; Izar pt-BRet alpt-BR, 2007; Ramrez-Llorens pt-BR et alpt-BR, 2008; Rose, 1994; Lynch & Rmoli, 2000; Scarry e pt-BR Tujague, 2012). Os conitos intragrupais so potenciais pt-BR presses seletivas para o comportamento e dinmica dos pt-BR machos e fmeas nos grupos. De certo, o risco de ter um dos pt-BR seus descendentes mortos, afetando a propagao de seus pt-BR caracteres genticos, exerce presso sobre os machos alfa, pt-BR sendo mais um dos fatores que os predispem a atitudes pt-BR agressivas diante de disputas hierrquicas. Ramrez-Llorens pt-BR e colaboradores (2008) apontam para uma estratgia de pt-BR evitao do infanticdio pelas fmeas prenhes de pt-BR S. nigrituspt-BR pt-BR ao se acasalarem imediatamente com o novo macho alfa, pt-BR enquanto que as fmeas de pt-BRC. capucinuspt-BR grvidas procuram pt-BR acasalar ainda com machos imigrantes mesmo que de pt-BR menor nvel hierrquico. Seriam necessrios mais estudos pt-BR com outras espcies dos dois recentes gneros para vericar pt-BR se a diferena vlida e ocorre entre os gneros. provvel pt-BR que as disputas por status e suas consequncias exeram pt-BR forte papel na disposio do gnero pt-BR Sapajuspt-BR, dispondo-os pt-BR a se engajar em brigas intragrupais intensas, enquanto nas pt-BR interaes intergrupais tende a encontros mais brandos pt-BR (Deer, 1982; Becker & Berkson, 1979). pt-BR Os achados macroscpicos de necropsia no so sucientes pt-BR para indicarem a pt-BR causa mortispt-BR. A extenso das laceraes, pt-BR fraturas e mutilaes sofridas pelo animal agredido em pt-BR diferentes momentos, provavelmente em intervalo de dias, pt-BR sugere que o animal tenha vindo a bito em decorrncia pt-BR de infeces septicmicas como osteomielite, por exemplo. pt-BR A agressividade e as extenses das leses, assim como suas pt-BR caractersticas anatmicas e biomtricas, sugerem que pt-BR as agresses foram realizadas por diferentes indivduos pt-BR adultos do gnero pt-BRSapajuspt-BR. Sem a observao e registro da pt-BR interao que resultou no quadro do animal, no possvel pt-BR no presente estudo vericar os padres e caractersticas pt-BR do conito. Porm o estudo endossa o quadro geral pt-BR encontrado em macacos-prego e caiararas quanto a pt-BR importncia dos conitos agonsticos para a dinmica dos pt-BR grupos e sobrevivncia dos indivduos como um dos fatores pt-BR de grande presso para a espcie.pt-BR Cristiane Hollanda Rangel*pt-BR, pt-BR Jos Gustavo V. Adlerpt-BR, pt-BR Projeto de Conservao da Fauna, Instituto de Pesquisas pt-BR Jardim Botnico do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil. *E-mail: pt-BR , pt-BR Gabriela C. Heliodoropt-BR,pt-BR pt-BR Projeto pt-BR de Conservao da Fauna, Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim pt-BR Botnico do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil, e Clnica de pt-BR Reabilitao de Animais Silvestres (CRAS), Universidade pt-BR Estcio de S pt-BR campuspt-BR Vargem Grande, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, pt-BR Anderson Santos Jr. pt-BR,pt-BR pt-BR Projeto de Conservao da Fauna, pt-BR Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botnico do Rio de Janeiro, pt-BR RJ, Brasil, ept-BR pt-BR Carlos Eduardo Veronapt-BR, Universidade do pt-BR Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) e Instituto Brasileiro para pt-BR Medicina da Conservao Trade.pt-BRReferncias pt-BRBecker, J. D. e Berkson, G. 1979. Response to neighbors pt-BR and strangers by capuchin monkeys (pt-BR Cebus apellapt-BR). pt-BR Primatespt-BR 20(4): 547. pt-BR Campbell, C. J. 2006. Lethal intragroup aggression by pt-BR adult male spider monkeys (pt-BR Ateles georoyipt-BR). pt-BR Am. J. pt-BR Primatol.pt-BR 68: 1197.pt-BR Crofoot, M. C., Gilby, I. C., Wikelski, M. C., e Kays, R. pt-BR W. 2008. Interaction location outweighs the competitive pt-BR advantage of numerical superiority in pt-BR Cebus capucinuspt-BR

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52 pt-BRintergroup contests. pt-BRProc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA pt-BR 105: pt-BR 577.pt-BR Deer, T. R. 1982. A comparison of intergroup behavior pt-BR in pt-BR Cebus albifronspt-BR and pt-BRC. apellapt-BR. pt-BR Primatespt-BR 23: 385.pt-BR Di Bitetti, M. S. D. 2001. Home-range use by the tufted pt-BR capuchin monkeys (pt-BR Cebus apella nigrituspt-BR ) in a subtropical pt-BR rainforest of Argentina. pt-BRJournal of Zoologypt-BR 253:33-45.pt-BR Enquist, M. e Leimar, O. 1987. Evolution of ghting pt-BR behavior: the eect of variation in resource value. pt-BRJ. pt-BR eor. Biol.pt-BR 127: 187.pt-BR Gros-Louis, J., Perry, S. e Manson, J. H. 2003. Violent pt-BR coalitionary attacks and intraspecic killing in wild pt-BR white-faced capuchin monkeys (pt-BRCebus capucinuspt-BR). pt-BR Primatespt-BR 44(4): 341.pt-BR Harris, T. R. 2010. Multiple resource values and ghting pt-BR ability measures inuence intergroup conict in guerezas pt-BR (pt-BR Colobus guerezapt-BR). pt-BR Anim. Behav.pt-BR 79(1): 89.pt-BR Izar, P., Ramos-da-Silva, E. D., Resende, B. D., and Ottoni, pt-BR E. B. 2007. A case of infanticide in tufted capuchin pt-BR monkeys (pt-BRCebus nigrituspt-BR). pt-BR Mastozoologia Neotropicalpt-BR pt-BR 14(1): 73. pt-BR Lynch Alfaro, J. W., Silva Jr., J. S. S., and Rylands, A. B. pt-BR 2012. How dierent are robust and gracile capuchin pt-BR monkeys? An argument for the use of pt-BR Sapajuspt-BR and pt-BRCebuspt-BR. pt-BR Am. J. Primatol.pt-BR 74: 273.pt-BR Lynch, J. W. & Rmoli, J. 2000. Demography of a group pt-BR of tufted capuchin monkeys (pt-BR Cebus apella nigrituspt-BR ) at the pt-BR Estao Biolgica de Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brazil. pt-BR Neotrop. Primatespt-BR 8(1): 44. pt-BR Miller, L. 1998. Fatal attack among wedge-capped pt-BR capuchins. pt-BR Folia Primatol. pt-BR69: 89.pt-BR Perry, S. 1996. Intergroup encounters in wild white-faced pt-BR capuchins (pt-BRCebus capucinuspt-BR). pt-BR Int. J. Primatol.pt-BR 17(3): pt-BR 309.pt-BR Ramrez-Llorens, P., Di Bitetti, M.S., Baldovino, M.C.,e pt-BR Janson, C.H. 2008. Infanticide in black capuchin pt-BR monkeys (pt-BRCebus apella nigrituspt-BR) in Iguaz National Park, pt-BR Argentina. pt-BR Am. J. Primatol.pt-BR 70: 473.pt-BR Rangel, C. H. 2010. pt-BR Ecologia e comportamento de pt-BR Callitrichidae (Primates) no Jardim Botnico do Rio de pt-BR Janeiro.pt-BR Dissertao de Mestrado, Universidade Estadual pt-BR do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, BR.pt-BR Rose, L. 1994. Benets and costs of resident males to pt-BR females in white-faced capuchins, pt-BRCebus capucinuspt-BR. pt-BR Am. pt-BR J. Primatol.pt-BR 32: 235.pt-BR Rose, L. M. e Fedigan, L. M. 1995. Vigilance in white-pt-BR faced capuchins (pt-BR Cebus capucinuspt-BR) in Costa Rica. pt-BR Anim. pt-BR Behav.pt-BR 49: 63.pt-BR Sasaki, C. 1998. Aggressive intergroup encounters in two pt-BR populations of Japanese macaques (pt-BR Macaca fuscatapt-BR). pt-BR Primatespt-BR, 39(3): 303.pt-BR Scarry, C. e Tujague, P. 2012. Consequences of lethal pt-BR intragroup agression and alpha male replacement on pt-BR intergroup relations and home range use in tufted pt-BR capuchin monkeys (pt-BRCebus apella nigrituspt-BR ). pt-BR Am. J. pt-BR Primatol.pt-BR 74: 804. pt-BR Silva Jr., J. S. 2001.pt-BR Especiao nos macacos-prego e caiararas, pt-BR gnero pt-BR Cebuspt-BR Erxleben, 1777 (Primates, Cebidae).   Tese de pt-BRDoutorado, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio pt-BR de Janeiro, BR.pt-BR Starin, E. D. 1994. Philopatry and aliation among red pt-BR colobus. pt-BR Behaviourpt-BR 130:253.pt-BR Talebi, M. G., Beltro-Mendes, R. e Lee, P.C. 2009. pt-BR Intra-comunity coalitionary lethal attack of na adult pt-BR male southern muriqui (pt-BR Brachyteles arachnoidespt-BR). pt-BR Am. J. pt-BR Primatol.pt-BR 71: 860.pt-BR Vogel, E. R., Munc, S. B. H., e Son, C. H. J. A. N. 2007. pt-BR Understanding escalated aggression over food resources in pt-BR white-faced capuchin monkeys. pt-BRAnim. Behav.pt-BR 74: 71. pt-BR Watts, D. P. & Mitani, J. C. 2001. Boundary patrols and pt-BR intergroup encounters in wild chimpanzees. pt-BR Behaviourpt-BR pt-BR 138(3): 299.pt-BR Watts, D. P. 1989. Infanticide in mountain gorillas: new pt-BR cases and a reconsideration of the evidence. pt-BR Ethologypt-BR pt-BR 81:1.pt-BR Wrangham, R. W. 1999. Evolution of coalitionary killing. Yearb. Phys.   Anthrop. pt-BR 42:1.pt-BR USO DO CHO POR pt-BR BRACHYTELES pt-BR ARACHNOIDESpt-BR NO PARQUE NACIONAL SERRA pt-BR DOS RGOS, TERESPOLIS, BRASILpt-BR Paula Brevespt-BR Austem Stravs Andrade Diaspt-BR Alcides Pissinattipt-BR Jean Philippe Boublipt-BR O muriqui-do-sul, pt-BR Brachyteles arachnoidespt-BR, uma espcie pt-BR ameaada de extino (Brasil-IBAMA, 2008; IUCN, pt-BR 2008) endmica do bioma Mata Atlntica (Aguirre, 1971) pt-BR e o maior macaco da regio Neotropical juntamente com pt-BR o seu congnere, o muriqui-do-norte,pt-BR B. hypoxanthuspt-BR pt-BR (Nishimura et al., 1988). O muriqui-do-sul tem sua pt-BR distribuio restrita aos estados do Rio de Janeiro, So pt-BR Paulo e Paran no sudeste e extremo norte do sul do Brasil, pt-BR onde pode ser encontrado principalmente em unidades de pt-BR conservao (UCs) e alguns fragmentos orestais isolados. pt-BR No Rio de Janeiro, os muriquis-do-sul ocorrem em, pelo pt-BR menos, sete UCs: Parque Nacional da Serra dos rgos, pt-BR Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, Parque Estadual dos Trs pt-BR Picos, Parque Estadual do Desengano, Parque Estadual do pt-BR Cunhambebe, APA Federal de Guapiau e Reserva Estadual pt-BR Pico do Cairuu (Garcia, 2005; Breves et al., 2009; Cunha pt-BR et al.pt-BR,pt-BR 2009). pt-BR As maiores populaes do muriqui-do-sul no territrio pt-BR uminense ocorrem na regio da Serra dos rgos do pt-BR Rio de Janeiro, onde existem os maiores remanescentes de pt-BR Mata Atlntica primria (Brasil-ICMBIO, 2007). Com pt-BR uma populao estimada em 82 indivduos (Cunha et pt-BR al., 2009), o PARNA da Serra dos rgos (PARNASO) pt-BR abrange uma rea de 20,030 ha e se localiza entre os pt-BR municpios de Petrpolis, Terespolis, Guapimirim e pt-BR Mag (22pt-BRopt-BR23'28"-22pt-BRopt-BR35'02"S, 42'54"-43'47"O), pt-BR com altitudes que variam de 300 a 2,263 m (Castro,

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53 2008). O PARNASO considerado uma das seis reas pt-BRprioritrias para a conservao da espcie devido pt-BR sua posio central no Mosaico Central Fluminense pt-BR (Jerusalinsky et al., 2011).pt-BR Os primatas neotropicais so mamferos arborcolas pt-BR (Heymann, 1998), cujos eventos de uso do cho tm sido pt-BR relacionados, principalmente, a contextos de fragmentao pt-BR do habitat e explorao de recursos especcos (Schn-pt-BR Ybarra, 1984; Fragaszy, 1986; Mendes, 1989; Bicca-pt-BR Marques e Calegaro-Marques, 1995; Almeida-Silva et al., pt-BR 2005; Deer, 2009; Haugaasen e Peres, 2009; Spagnoletti pt-BR et al., 2011; Link et al., 2011; Barnett et al., 2012). pt-BR Mourth et al. (2007) propem que a perturbao do pt-BR habitat e a presena de pesquisadores parecem facilitar o pt-BR uso do cho por muriquis-do-norte habituados na Reserva pt-BR Particular do Patrimnio Natural Feliciano Miguel Abdala pt-BR em Caratinga (MG), enquanto Tabacow et al. (2009) pt-BR sugerem que o comportamento desta populao representa pt-BR uma expanso de nicho em um habitat fragmentado, onde pt-BR as oportunidades de disperso so limitadas, facilitada pt-BR por uma difuso da tradio entre os indivduos. Ao pt-BR redescobrirem o muriqui no PARNASO, Garcia e pt-BR Andrade Filho (2002) relataram um comportamento de pt-BR enfrentamento" dos animais presena dos pesquisadores, pt-BR o que corrobora a ideia de que os primatas no estavam pt-BR habituados a encontros com seres humanos nesta rea pt-BR altamente conservada (Castro, 2008). Garcia e Andrade pt-BR Filho (2002) tambm relatam a observao de muriquis pt-BR correndo pelo cho antes de entrarem em um mosaico pt-BR arbustivo de altura baixa na regio do Dedo de Deus a pt-BR 2,000 m de altitude (relato que amplia o limite altitudinal pt-BR da espcie em 200 m; limite proposto anteriormente por pt-BR Aguirre, 1971: 1,800 m). Recentemente, Dias et al. (2012) pt-BR adicionaram dois relatos de uso do cho por muriquis pt-BR na regio do Rancho Frio no PARNASO a 1,600 m de pt-BR altitude.pt-BR Em setembro de 2012 um grupo de escaladores registrou pt-BR um muriqui no cho em uma formao rochosa na regio pt-BR do Dedo de Deus a cerca de 1,650 m de altitude (Fig. 1). pt-BR O indivduo, que estava acompanhado por sete muriquis pt-BR que permaneceram em rvores prximas, passou cerca pt-BR de duas horas se alimentando de vegetao no cho. Esta pt-BR observao corrobora relatos anteriores quanto ao uso do pt-BR cho pelos muriquis desta rea do PARNASO. Segundo pt-BR Dias et al. (2012), a ocorrncia deste comportamento em pt-BR muriquis-do-sul pode estar relacionada a uma necessidade pt-BR frequente destes macacos de atravessarem as reas pt-BR abertas com aoramentos rochosos e campos de altitude pt-BR caractersticas desta regio montanhosa (Castro, 2008). pt-BR A aplicao de modernas tcnicas de radiotelemetria pt-BR em estudos de monitoramento do muriqui-do-sul em pt-BR ambientes montanhosos possui grande potencial para testar pt-BR esta hiptese e fornecer subsdios para estratgias e aes de pt-BR conservao da espcie.pt-BRAgradecimentospt-BREspeciais agradecimentos ao Instituto Chico Mendes de pt-BR Conservao da Biodiversidade (ICMBIO) e ao Parque pt-BR Nacional Serra dos rgos (PARNASO) pelo apoio e pt-BR amparo pesquisa, aos funcionrios do PARNASO, pt-BR principalmente aos analistas ambientais (Leandro pt-BR Goulart, Cecilia Cronemberger de Faria, Raquel Batista pt-BR Junger) por no medirem esforos para nos apoiar com as pt-BR pesquisas. Ao Clube de Montanhistas Brasileiro (CEB) e pt-BR aos montanhistas Roberto om e Adilson Peanha que pt-BR gentilmente cederam as fotos e os dados. Conservation pt-BR International (CI) pela constante cooperao no programa pt-BR de reproduo de primatas do Neotrpico e conservao pt-BR da biodiversidade brasileira. Ao Centro de Primatologia do pt-BR Rio de Janeiro (CPRJ-INEA) e ao Instituto Estadual do pt-BR Ambiente (INEA) pela parceria e apoio nas pesquisas com pt-BR o muriqui. Ao Dr. Fabiano Melo pela parceria e reviso pt-BR desse trabalho.pt-BR Paula Brevespt-BR, Sociedade Ecoatlantica, Humait, RJ, Brasil, pt-BR E-mail: , pt-BR Austem Stravs pt-BR Andrade Diaspt-BR, Centro Universitrio Serra dos rgos pt-BR UNIFESO, Terespolis, RJ, Brasil, pt-BR Alcides Pissinattipt-BR, pt-BR Centro de Primatologia do Rio de Janeiro INEA, pt-BR Guapimirim, Brasil, E-mail: , pt-BR Jean Philippe Boublipt-BR, University of Salford, Salford M5 pt-BR 4WT, UK, E-mail: .pt-BRRefernciaspt-BRAguirre, A. C. 1971. O mono pt-BR Brachyteles arachnoides pt-BR (E. pt-BR Georoy).pt-BR pt-BR Situao atual da espcie no Brasilpt-BR .pt-BR Academia pt-BR Brasileira de Cincias, Rio de Janeiro. 53pp.pt-BR Almeida-Silva, B., Guedes, P. G., Boubli, J. P. e Strier, K. B. pt-BR 2005. Deslocamento terrestre e o comportamento de beber pt-BR em um grupo de barbados (pt-BR Alouatta guaribapt-BR pt-BR clamitanspt-BR) em pt-BR Minas Gerais, Brasil. pt-BRNeotrop. Primatespt-BR 13: 1.pt-BR Barnett, A. A., Boyle, S. A., Norconk, M. A., Palminteri, S., pt-BR Santos, R. R., Veiga, L. M., Alvim, T. H. G., Bowler, M., pt-BRFigura 1.pt-BR Muriqui-do-sul alimentando-se no cho na regio do pt-BR Dedo de Deus PARNASO. Foto: Roberto om.

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54 pt-BRChism, J., Di Fiore, A., Fernandez-Duque, E., Guimares, pt-BR A. C. P., Harrison-Levine, A., Haugaasen, T., Lehman, S., pt-BR MacKinnon, K. C., Melo, F. R., Moreira L. S., Moura, V. pt-BR S., Pinto, L. P., Port-Carvalho, M., Setz, E. Z. F., Shaer, pt-BR C., Silva L. R. Silva R. F. S. Silva, S. S. B. ompson, pt-BR C. L., Vieira, T. M., Vreedzaam, A., Walker-Pacheco, S. pt-BR E., Spironello,W. R., MacLarnon, A. e Ferrari, S. F. 2012. pt-BR Terrestrial activity in Pitheciins (pt-BR Cacajaopt-BR,pt-BR Chiropotespt-BR and pt-BR Pitheciapt-BR). pt-BR Am. J. Primatol. pt-BR74: 1106. pt-BR Bicca-Marques, J. C. e Calegaro-Marques, C. 1995. pt-BR Locomotion of black howlers in a habitat with pt-BR discontinuous canopy. pt-BRFolia Primatolpt-BR. 64: 55.pt-BR Brasil-IBAMA. 2008. Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e pt-BR dos Recursos Naturais Renovveis, Braslia. Website: pt-BR http://pt-BR www.ibama.gov.br/documentos/lista-de-especies-ameacadas-pt-BR de-extincaopt-BR Acessada em 18 de novembro de 2012.pt-BR Brasil-ICMBIO. 2007. Instituto Chico Mendes de pt-BR Conservao da Biodiversidade: Natureza localpt-BR .pt-BR Website:pt-BR pt-BR http://www.icmbio.gov.br/parnaso.pt-BR Acessada em 19 de pt-BR novembro de 2012.pt-BR Breves, P., Porto, M., Chame, M. e Pissinatti, A. 2009. pt-BR Ocorrncia histrica de pt-BR Brachyteles arachnoidespt-BR (E. pt-BR Georoy, 1806) (Primatas: Atelidae) no Estado do Rio pt-BR de Janeiro. Em:pt-BR XIII Congresso Brasileiro de Primatologiapt-BR pt-BR Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia, Blumenau.pt-BR Castro, E. B. V. 2008. pt-BR Plano de Manejo do Parque Nacional pt-BR da Serra dos rgospt-BR,pt-BR pt-BR ICMBIO, Terespolis.pt-BR Cunha, A. A., Grelle, C. E. V. e Boubli, J. P. 2009. pt-BR Distribution, population size and conservation of pt-BR muriquis, pt-BR Brachyteles arachnoidespt-BR in Rio de Janeiro State, pt-BR Brazil. pt-BR Oryx pt-BR 43: 254. pt-BR Deer, T. 2009. Some evolutionary tendencies of Neotropical pt-BR primates. pt-BR Acta Biol. Colombianapt-BR 14: 399.pt-BR Dias, A. S. A., Moura, R. C., Pereira, F. A., Cronemberger, pt-BR C., Breves, P. e Boubli, J. P. 2012. Relato de caso: uso de pt-BR solo por pt-BRBrachyteles arachnoidespt-BR, E. Georoy, 1806. Em: pt-BR 6 pt-BR Congresso Brasileiro de Mastozoologiapt-BR. Sociedade Brasileira pt-BR de Mastozoologia, Corumb. pt-BR Fragaszy, D. M. 1986. Time budgets and foraging behavior pt-BR in wedge-capped capuchins (pt-BR Cebus olivaceuspt-BR): age and pt-BR sex dierences. Em: pt-BRCurrent Perspectives in Primate Social pt-BR Dynamicspt-BR, D. M. Taub e F. A. King (eds.), pp. 159. pt-BR Van Nostrand, New York.pt-BR Garcia, V. L. A. 2005. Status of the muriqui (pt-BR Brachytelespt-BR) pt-BR populations remaining in the state of Rio de Janeiro, pt-BR Brazil: Projeto Muriqui-Rio. pt-BR Neotrop. Primatespt-BR 13 (suppl.): pt-BR 73. Garcia, V. L. A. e Andrade Filho, J. M.   2002. Muriquis no Parque pt-BRNacional da Serra dos rgos. pt-BRNeotrop. Primatespt-BR pt-BR 10: 97.pt-BR Haugaasen, T. e Peres, C. A. 2009. Interspecic primate pt-BR associations in Amazonian ooded and unooded forests. pt-BR Primatespt-BR 50: 239. pt-BR Heymann, E. W. 1998. Giant fossil New World primates: pt-BR arboreal or terrestrialpt-BR. J. Hum. Evol. pt-BR34: 99.pt-BR IUCN. 2008. IUCN Red List of reatened Species. pt-BR Website:pt-BR pt-BR http://www.redlist.org/pt-BR. Acessada em 13 de pt-BR novembro de 2012. pt-BRJerusalinsky, L., Talebi, M. e Mello, F. R. (Orgs.) 2011. pt-BR Plano de Ao Nacional para a Conservao dos Muriquispt-BR .pt-BR pt-BR ICMBIO, Braslia.pt-BR Link, A., Galvis, N., Fleming, E. e Di Fiore, A. 2011. pt-BR Patterns of mineral lick visitation by spider monkeys and pt-BR howler monkeys in Amazonia: are licks perceived as risky pt-BR areas? pt-BR Am. J. Primatol.pt-BR 73: 386.pt-BR Mendes, S. L. 1989. Estudo ecolgico de pt-BR Alouatta fuscapt-BR pt-BR (Primates: Cebidae) na Estao Biolgica de Caratinga, pt-BR MG. pt-BR Rev. Nordest. Biolpt-BR. 6: 71. Mourth, I. M. C., Guedes, D., Fidelis, J.,   Boubli, J. P., pt-BRMendes S. L. e Strier, K. B. 2007. Ground use by northern pt-BR muriquis (pt-BRBrachyteles hypoxanthuspt-BR). pt-BR Am. J. Primatolpt-BR. 69: pt-BR 706. pt-BR Nishimura, A., Fonseca, G. A. B., Mittermeier, R. A., Young, pt-BR A. L., Strier, K. B. e Valle, C. M. C. 1988. e muriqui, pt-BR genus pt-BR Brachytelespt-BR. Em: pt-BREcology and Behavior of Neotropical pt-BR Primates vol. 2pt-BR R. A. Mittermeier, A. B. Rylands, A. F. pt-BR Coimbra-Filho e G. A. B. Fonseca (eds.), pp. 557. pt-BR World Wildlife Fund-US, Washington, DC. pt-BR Schn-Ybarra, M. A. 1984. Locomotion and postures of pt-BR red howlers in a deciduous forest-savanna interface. pt-BR Am. pt-BR J. Phys. Anthropolpt-BR. 63: 65.pt-BR Spagnoletti, N., Visalberghi, E., Ottoni, E. B., Izar, P. pt-BR e Visalberghi, E. 2011. Stone tool use by adult wild pt-BR bearded capuchin monkey (pt-BRCebuspt-BR pt-BR libidinosuspt-BR): frequency, pt-BR eciency and tool selectivity. pt-BRJ. Hum. Evol.pt-BR 61: 97.pt-BR Tabacow, F. P., Mendes, S. L. e Strier K. B. 2009. Spread pt-BR of a terrestrial tradition in an arboreal primate.pt-BR Am. pt-BR Anthropolpt-BR. 111: 238. en ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN COMMON en MARMOSETS USING SPERM COLLECTED BY en PENILE VIBRATORY STIMULATION en Hidetoshi Ishibashien Hideyuki H. MotohashiIntroductionMany New World primate species are endangered in the wild by habitat destruction and hunting. Captive breeding programs are needed urgently to help rescue such species, as an adjunct to habitat conservation. Unfortunately, primates may not breed well in captivity, and assisted breeding techniques, such as articial insemination (AI), are needed to increase the number of individuals and facilitate their ef fective genetic management. AI oers the potential to ex change genetic material between colonies without the risk of disease transmission or injury inherent in moving animals. Although AI has been used in domestic animals for many years, attempts to transfer this technique to primates have met with limited success (reviewed in Wolf, 2009). Among members of the Callitrichidae, the common mar moset (Callithrix jacchus) has been an important model

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55 species in reproductive research (Hearn, 1986; Dukelow, 1993). Several approaches for marmoset sperm collection have been reported, as outlined below. Epididymal sperm can be collected from surgically dissected epididymis (Morrell et al., 1997). is approach is invasive and not repeatable. It is, therefore, a last resort when other methods cannot be used. Rectal probe electro-ejaculation has been extensively used in larger Old World species (Schaer et al. 1989), but not widely used in marmosets since it is inva sive and therefore requires anesthesia that may depress the neural responsiveness. e third approach, vaginal wash ing after natural copulation (Morrell et al., 1998), requires intensive observation and suers from contamination with mucus from the female genital tract. e forth approach, penile vibratory stimulation (PVS) has been described as a repeatable noninvasive method of sampling enhanced qual ity of semen (Schneiders et al. 2004). However marmoset ospring has not been produced by AI with sperm collect ed by PVS, and it is this approach we follow in this study.MethodsenAnimals We used common marmoset monkeys as subjects. Animal experiments were approved by the ethics committee for primate research of the National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Japan, and conducted in accordance with the institutional guidelines. e marmosets were caged in doors, with light on from 0700 to 1900 hours, temperature at 26 to 28 degree Celsius and humidity at 40 to 60%. e marmosets were fed monkey chow (CMS-1M, Clea Japan Inc.) at 50 gr per day, with a vitamin supplement, and fruit. Water was available ad libitum. Blood samples (0.1 mL) were taken from the femoral vein and plasma progester one concentrations were determined using an enzyme immunoassay (AIA-360, Tosoh Corp.). e day of ovulation (Day 0) was taken as the day preceding that in which the progesterone concentration had risen from basal levels to higher than 10 ng/mL (Harlow et al., 1983). en Artificial insemination We articially inseminated two female marmosets, once for each animal, on Day 0. On the day of articial insemina tion, we collected semen by vibratory stimulation of the penis as described previously (Kuederling et al., 2000) with minor modication as follows. Unsedated male mar moset was placed on a holding apparatus (CL-4532, Clea Japan Inc.) and its stand in a dimly-lighted room. Prior to and after semen collection, animals were given an edible reward. As a vibrator, we used an electric toothbrush with a frequency of 117 Hz (DB-3, Minimum Corp.) or 100 Hz (Clinica, Lion Corporation), tted with a 5.5 or 6.5 mm o.d. silicone tube. e ejaculated semen was collected into a tube containing 200 microliter of sperm washing medium (1012, SAGE In-Vitro Fertilization, Inc.) in the rst case, or a tube containing 50 microliter of test yolk buer (90128, IS Japan Co., Ltd.) in the second case, and was suspended by gentle pipetting. e sperm was checked for motility and was puried in the rst case: the suspen sion was centrifuged at 500 g for 5 minutes and pellet was subjected to swim-up purication. A female was sedated with an intramuscular administration of the mixture of 70 microgram of midazolam and 14 microgram of butorpha nol tartrate per kilogram of body weight and anesthesia was maintained by inhalation of isourane or sevourane. e animal was placed, dorsally recumbent, on the holding ap paratus with the pelvis slightly raised. An 8 cm long sterile catheter (NM-AIH10, Nipro) was attached to a 1 mL sy ringe, inserted into the vagina and the sperm suspension injected.ResultsWe have performed articial insemination twice and ob tained normal delivery in both cases. A lineage of mar mosets described in this study is shown in Fig. 1. A male marmoset Nukky was subjected to PVS and collected semen was puried and used for AI to a female marmoset Sunny, who conceived and delivered twin babies within the normal gestation period (Day 143). e ospring, Johnny and Jenny, were morphologically normal, raised by their mother, and developed normally (Fig. 2). To examine the sexual capacity of AI ospring, Johnny was subjected to PVS after the sexual maturation. Collected semen was used for AI. e inseminated female, Ayataka, conceived and delivered twin babies within the normal gestation period (Day 148). e ospring, Suzume and Tsubame, were morphologically normal, raised by their mother, and devel oped normally (Fig. 2). Figure 1. Lineage of marmosets used in this study. Square: male. Circle: female. Dotted line: articial insemination.

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56 A female marmoset Jenny, born by AI, has been a subject of embryo collection study, and oers normal embryos re peatedly (results will be described elsewhere). Other two ospring, Suzume and Tsubame, have not reached sexual maturity as of manuscript preparation and thus their fertil ity has not been conrmed. DiscussionIn this study we have shown, for the rst time, the produc tion of primate ospring by AI with sperm collected by PVS. Since conceptions occurred, the viability and fertiliz ing capacity of the sperm were not adversely aected by the preparation procedure. AI ospring developed normally, and have sexual capacity. erefore we conclude that AI can be successfully performed with PVS sperm. It is, at present, not clear whether this technique is applicable to wide range of primate species, since seminal uidity varies among primate species. It is correlated with the mating system of the species: coagulation rating is high in those genera where fe males mate with multiple partners and low in genera where females are monogamous (Dixson and Anderson, 2002). Chimpanzee and macaque monkeys, characterized by mul timale-multifemale social system, show high coagulation ratings. Meanwhile, monogamy is the modal social group ing of any callitrichid taxon (Anzenberger and Falk, 2012). us, although the physical characteristics of the other members of the family Callitrichidae are not well-known, it is expected to be rather common among family members. is technique is simple and all instruments except hor mone measurement apparatus are easily available. Semen collection by PVS required only one male unlike vaginal washing which requires a pair of animals. Although the subjects in this study are captive common marmosets, the simple features of the technique, i.e., simple procedure, relatively aordable apparatus, and least number of animals, are likely to apply to the breeding of endangered animals belonging to the family Callitrichidae. ReferencesAnzenberger, G. and Falk, B. 2012. Monogamy and family life in callitrichid monkeys: deviations, social dynamics and captive management. Int. Zoo Yb. 46: 109. Dixson, A. L. and Anderson, M. J. 2002. Sexual selection, seminal coagulation and copulatory plug formation in primates. Folia Primatol. 73: 63. Dukelow, R. W. 1993. Assisted reproduction in New World primates. In: In Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer in Primates. D. P. Wolf, R. L. Stouer and R. M. Brenner (eds.) pp.73. Springer-Verlag, New York. Harlow, C. R., Gems, S., Hodges, J. K. and Hearn, J. P. 1983. e relationship between plasma progesterone and the timing of ovulation and early embryonic development in the marmoset monkey ( Callithrix jacchus). J. Zool. Lond. 201: 273. Hearn, J. P. 1986. e embryo-maternal dialogue during early pregnancy in primates. J. Reprod. Fertil. 76: 809. Kuederling, I., Schneiders, A., Snksen, J., Nayudu, P. L. and Hodges, J. K. 2000. Non-invasive collection of ejaculates from the common marmoset ( Callithrix jacchus) using penile vibrostimulation. Am. J. Primatol. 52: 149. Leutenegger, W. 1980. Monogamy in callitrichids: A con sequence of phyletic dwarsm? Int. J. Primatol. 1: 95. Morrell, J. M., Nowshari, M., Rosenbusch, J., Nayudu, P. L. and Hodges, J. K. 1997. Birth of ospring following articial insemination in the common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus. Am. J. Primatol. 41: 37. Morrell, J. M., Nubbemeyer, R., Heistermann, M., Rosen busch, J., Kderling, I., Holt, W. and Hodges, J. K. 1998. Articial insemination in Callithrix jacchus using fresh or cryopreserved sperm. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 52: 165. Schaer, N., Craneld, M., Meehan, T. and Kempske, S. 1989. Semen collection and analysis in the conservation of endangered nonhuman primates. Zoo Biol. Supple. 1:   47. Schneiders, A., Sonksen, J. and Hodges, J. K. 2004. Penile vibratory stimulation in the marmoset monkey: a practi cal alternative to electro-ejaculation, yielding ejaculates of enhanced quality. J. Med. Primatol. 33: 98. Wolf, D. P. 2009. Articial insemination and the assisted reproductive technologies in non-human primates. eriogenology 71: 123.en Hidetoshi Ishibashi1 and Hideyuki H. Motohashi1 De partment of Neurophysiology, National Institute of Neu roscience, NCNP, Japan, 4-1-1 Ogawa-Higashi, Kodaira, Tokyo 187-8502, Japan. E--mail: Figure 2. Body weight of ospring born after articial insemina tion. Open symbols: average of the institute. Filled symbols: aver age of AI ospring. Error bar denotes standard deviation.

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57 enAGONISTIC COMPETITION FOR FRUIT AMONG en MEMBERS OF A TITI MONKEY (en CALLICEBUS en COIMBRAIen) GROUP DURING A SEVERE en DROUGHT pt-PT Fernanda B.A. Correiapt-PT Sirley A.A. Baioen Stephen F. Ferrari Titi monkeys ( Callicebus spp.) rarely exhibit overtly ago nistic behavior except in the context of intergroup encoun ters, possibly because social groups are almost invariably composed of a breeding pair and their immature ospring (Bicca-Marques and Heymann, 2013). Long-term data on Callicebus coimbrai from two sites in the Brazilian state of Sergipe indicate that the species is primarily frugivorousfolivorous (Souza-Alves et al., 2011; Santana, 2011), but that the composition of the diet uctuates consider ably between seasons and among years. During 2012, the long-term drought aecting northeastern Brazil appeared to have a marked eect on the diet of one study group, at the Fazenda Trapsa, in the municipality of Itaporanga d'Ajuda (11'S, 37'W), which became increasingly folivorous in comparison with previous years (Souza-Alves, 2013). e present study describes social interactions observed in the group during a three-day period in January 2013 (January 2nd-4th). e group consisted of an adult male, an adult female, and a juvenile male, all presumed to be siblings, based on the long-term monitoring of the group (Souza-Alves and Ferrari, 2012). For the present report, data on social interactions were collected by behav ioral sampling (cf. Martin and Bateson, 1993) during the monitoring of the group for the collection of feeding tree focal samples, as part of an ongoing study of seed dispersal (see Baio, 2013). During all-day follows, all events of sig nicant social interactions (aliative and agonistic) were recorded, with detailed data taken on the individuals in volved, and the sequence and timing of events. ResultsDuring the study period, the group members fed mainly on leaves which was typical of the group's diet during the same period (mid-dry season) in previous years (Souza-Alves et al., 2011). Unlike previous years, however, the consump tion of fruit was observed very rarely, on only three occa sions during the three days of monitoring. On all three of these occasions, the group member feeding on the fruit was approached and displaced agonistically by a second group member, which obtained and ingested the fruit. On Janu ary 2nd, at approximately 09:00 h, the adult male dropped a partially-eaten Passiora contracta (Passioraceae) fruit, which the juvenile retrieved from the ground. As the ju venile began to feed on a branch at a height of 2 m, the female approached immediately from a distance of 1m and displaced the juvenile, pushing him away approximately 0.5 m with both hands while taking the fruit, which she in gested. No vocalizations were emitted by either individual during this sequence of events. Fruit feeding was next observed on the third day of moni toring, January 4th. On the rst occasion, during fruit feeding in a Xylopia frutescens (Annonaceae) tree at around 08:30h, the adult male vocalized aggressively and grimaced, displaying his teeth, as he approached the female and displaced her without physical contact to gain access to an unripe fruit. e female lost her balance and almost fell as the male approached, and then she moved away ap proximately 5 m to an adjacent tree crown. At 10:20 h, the group visited a second fruiting tree of an unidentied spe cies, known locally as pau coceira", a small drupe, where the juvenile was feeding on a fruit. e adult male leapt silently onto the branch on which the juvenile was sitting and approached him rapidly and surreptitiously, making physical contact and pushing him away with his hands, although it is not clear whether the adult actually bit the juvenile. e juvenile squealed loudly when displaced and continued vocalizing in apparent distress as it moved im mediately to the adjacent tree crown. During the same three-day period, the study group visited 10 trees to feed on leaves, but on none of these occasions was any agonistic behavior observed. is suggests clearly that the agonistic behavior was motivated primarily by the perceived nutritional value of the food item. e local eld assistant, Adriano Rodrigues, reported that the adult male repeatedly displaced the juvenile during visits to fruiting trees in November 2012, although similar behavior was not observed during December, which was marked by a birth and atypical behavior patterns (see Correia et al., 2013). Overall, then, while the number of events was small, the adult male appeared to be the dominant member of the group, and the juvenile, the most subordinate. DiscussionWith a few exceptions (see e.g., Csar et al., 2008), agonis tic behavior in titi monkeys (including C. coimbrai) is generally limited to intergroup encounters or interactions be tween same-sex adults in the context of dispersal from the natal group (Fernandez-Duque et al., 2000; Bicca-Marques and Heymann, 2013). e present study group is unusual for a number of reasons, however, including the fact that all the members were probably siblings, rather than parents and their ospring (the female and juvenile were born into the study group to the same parents, and the adult male was present as a nonbreeding member when monitoring began). e group had been monitored more or less con tinuously since the second half of 2009, and a large body of data has been collected on the composition of its diet (Souza-Alves et al., 2011; Souza-Alves, 2013). While fruit is a major component, its contribution may decline considerably during some dry season months. 2012 represents the second of two consecutive La Nia years, during which

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58 severe droughts were recorded in northeastern Brazil and appeared to greatly reduce the availability of fruit at the study site, both in general, and during the dry season, in particular. Disputes for access to food items were never ob served during the rst two years of monitoring, when the composition of the group was more typical, i.e., a breeding pair and their ospring. While the sum of the evidence in dicates that resource scarcity during an atypical dry season was a primary factor determining the observed agonistic encounters, it remains unclear whether and to what extent the composition of the group may have contributed.AcknowledgmentsWe are grateful to Sr. Ary Ferreira for authorizing eld work on his property at Fazenda Trapsa, Adriano Ro drigues (Xinxinho") for eld assistance, and Joo Pedro Souza-Alves for his valuable input. Fieldwork at the site has been supported by CNPq, FAPITEC-SE, and CAPES. We would also like to thank Jessica Lynch Alfaro for her helpful comments on the original draft of the manuscript. Fernanda B. A. Correia, Sirley A. A. Baio, Graduate Pro gram in Development and Environment PRODEMA, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Av. Marechal Rondon s/n, Rosa Elze, 49.100-000 So CristvoSE, Brazil. E-mail: , and Stephen F. Ferrari, Department of Ecology, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, So CristvoSE, Brazil.ReferencesBaio, S. A. A. 2013. Macaco guig (Callicebus coimbrai): disperso de sementes e conhecimento ecolgico na Mata Atlntica de Sergipe. MSc thesis, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, So Cristovo, Brazil. Bicca-Marques, J. C. and Heymann, E. W. 2013. Ecol ogy and behavior of titi monkeys (genus Callicebus). In: Evolutionary Biology and Conservation of Titis, Sakis, and Uacaris, L.M. Veiga, A.A. Barnett, S.F. Ferrari and M.A.Norconk (eds.), pp. 196. Cambridge Univer sity Press, Cambridge. Csar, C., Franco, E. S., Soares, G. C. N. and Young, R. J. 2008. Observed case of maternal infanticide in a wild group of black-fronted titi monkeys ( Callicebus nigrifrons). Primates 49: 143. Correia, F. B. A., Baio, S. A. A. and Ferarri, S. F. 2013. Dysfunctional parenting behavior in a male titi ( Callicebus coimbrai). II Congresso Latino Americano de Prima tologia/XV Congresso Brasileiro de Primatologia, Recife, Brazil. Fernandez-Duque,   E., Valeggia, C. R. and Mason, W. A. 2000 Eects of pair-bond and social context on male female interactions in captive titi monkeys ( Callicebus moloch, Primates: Cebidae). Ethology 106: 1067. Martin, P. and Bateson, P. 1993 Measuring Behavior: an Introductory Guide Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Santana, M. M. 2012. Comportamento, dieta e uso de espao em um grupo de guig-de-Coimbra (Callicebus coimbrai Kobayashi &Langguth, 1999) no RVS Mata do Junco, Capela-SE. MSc thesis, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, So Cristvo, Brazil. Souza-Alves, J. P. 2013. Ecology and life-history of Co imbra-Filho's titi monkeys ( Callicebus coimbrai) in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Doctoral dissertation, Universidade Federal da Paraba, Joo Pessoa, Brazil. Souza-Alves, J. P.,   Fontes, I. P.,   Chagas, R. R. D.   and   Ferra ri, S. F.   2011. Seasonal versatility in the feeding ecology of a group of titis (Callicebus coimbrai) in the northern Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Am. J. Primatol. 73: 1199. Souza-Alves, J. P. and Ferrari, S. F.   2012. Unwanted home coming: an adult male titi ( Callicebus coimbrai) returns to its natal group. XXIV Congress of the International Primatological Society, Cancn, Mexico.en EXTRAGROUP COPULATION IN A SMALL AND en ISOLATED en ALOUATTA GUARIBA CLAMITANSen pt-PT POPULATIONen Elisa Brod Deckeren Jlio Csar Bicca-Marques Copulation solicitation and promiscuity appear to char acterize female mating behavior in all atelid genera so far studied (no data is available for Oreonax; Di Fiore et al., 2011). Extragroup copulations (EGCs), on the other hand, have been reported only in Brachyteles (Strier, 1997) and Al ouatta (Kowalewski and Garber, 2010). In the latter, EGCs have been described in ve taxa ( A. arctoidea, Agoramoorthy and Hsu, 2000; A. caraya, Kowalewski and Garber, 2010; A. guariba clamitans Fialho and Setz, 2007; Lopes and Bicca-Marques, 2011; A. palliata, Glander, 1992; A. pigra, Van Belle et al., 2009). Here we report an EGC in a brown howler monkey ( Al ouatta guariba clamitans ) population studied from Febru ary to August 2012 in a 10-ha fragment of semideciduous Atlantic forest (30'25.53"S, 51'59.87"W; ca. 75-115 m a.s.l.), Camaqu, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, near the southern limit of the species' distribution. is frag ment is immersed in a matrix of crops and pastures and is about 3.5 km distant from the nearest forest potentially inhabited by howler monkeys (information from local in habitants). is is the third report of EGC in this taxon.Resultsree howler groups (G1 and G3=5 individuals each, G2=3 individuals) live in the fragment. In February 2012 G1 was composed of two adult males (Barba Ruiva and Damasco), two adult females (Jane and Gorda), and one juvenile male (Dioniv), whereas G3 was composed of one adult male (Morfeu), two adult females (Caraya and

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59 Adela), one juvenile male (Feli), and one juvenile female (Amanda). An infant was born in each group during the study (G2 in April, and G1 and G3 in July), but those of G1 (mother: Jane) and G2 disappeared one month after birth due to unknown causes. e G3 infant (Bini; mother, Adela) was alive at the end of the research, increasing group size to six individuals. Each study group was followed from dawn to dusk during 4-5 days per month (27 days of data collection per group or a total sampling eort of 81 days). ere is no data on the degree of relatedness within and be tween groups. However, aimed at its small size and spatial isolation it is likely that the study population shows a level of inbreeding higher than that found in larger populations. A total of 19 intergroup encounters between G1 and G3 were observed during the study (February and June, n=5 each; March, April, and July/August, n=3 each). Most of them (n=18 or 95%) occurred at important food trees ( Ficus cestrifolia, Ficus luschnathiana or Scheera morototoni). During these encounters G1 often left the area before G3 (16 out of 18 cases or 89%; it was not possible to identify which group left rst in one encounter), although each group arrived rst at similar frequencies (G1: n=11 or 58%; G3: n=8 or 42%). Only in the last encounter oc curred the EGC between a G1 adult female and the G3 adult male reported here. Intergroup encounters between G1 and G2 were more frequent (n=33), but none EGC was recorded. Intragroup copulations were recorded only twice during the study, once in February (G3, Morfeu and Adela) and another in May (G1, Barba Ruiva and Gorda). Nine agonistic interactions were observed during the en counters between G1 and G3 (a rate of almost one interac tion every two encounters). Most of them (n=7) involved the G3 adult male (Morfeu) chasing both G1 adult males (Barba Ruiva and Damasco). In one situation the G1 male Damasco chased a G3 adult female whose identity could not be determined. e last intergroup agonistic interaction involved both G3 females (Adela and Caraya) chasing the G1 female Jane after her EGC with Morfeu (described below). On 2 August 2012 G1 arrived rst in a g ( Ficus cestrifolia) tree frequently used by G3 as a food source and sleeping site (the exact time of arrival is unknown because EBD was following G3). 12:30 G3 begins moving in the direction of the g tree. 12:55 All G1 individuals are resting when G3 members probably see the intruding group. G3 individuals stop moving and start to rest in another g (Ficus luschnathiana) tree in front of the F. cestrifolia tree where G1 continues resting. Morfeu, Caraya, and a juvenile (probably Amanda) stay about 4 m from G1, whereas Adela (carrying the infant in her belly) and the other juvenile (probably Feli) are fur ther away (2 m from their group mates). 13:20 Morfeu moves 2 m to a place closer to G1 than the other G3 members. 13:45 G1 members are feeding on leaves from both ( F. cestrifolia and F. luschnathiana) g trees. Morfeu, Adela (carrying the infant), and both juveniles move about 2 m toward them and they retreat about 3 m. 13:50 Morfeu starts barking. He barks for about 4 minutes. 13:55 G1 adult female Jane moves to the F. cestrifolia tree where Morfeu is barking and they copulate in a dorso-ven tral posture for about 4 minutes. e other G3 members witness the EGC and the G1 members (at least some of them) may also have witnessed it. Soon after mating Jane is chased by the G3 adult females, Adela and Caraya, and runs toward her group members. Morfeu, on the other hand, rubs his chin in a trunk of the tree where they mated and starts barking. 14:10 Morfeu is piloerected and starts howling. Adela, by his side, joins him a few seconds later. ey howl for 5 minutes. 14:16 Caraya joins the chorus and they howl until 14:30. 14:33 G1 is about 7 m distant from G3 and starts moving in its direction. 14:36 Morfeu chases Barba Ruiva, Damasco and an adult female running and the G1 group leaves the area. 15:00 G3 group members feed on ripe fruit from a mo rototo (Scheera morototonii) tree distant about 20 m from the encounter area and 15 m from the tree where the EGC took place.DiscussionIn sum, the EGC between Jane and Morfeu followed the pattern observed in previous studies, in which a female either took the initiative of leaving her group or moved with a male during intergroup encounters to a place outside the view of their respective group members to mate (for a review see Van Belle and Bicca-Marques, in press). Nevertheless, unlike Lopes and Bicca-Marques (2011), Jane was chased by the adult females of Morfeu's group. Within-group promiscuity and EGCs have been related to a female strategy of increasing paternity confusion to decrease the risk of infanticide following rank reversals or group takeovers, increasing the genetic diversity and quality of ospring, lowering the risk of male infertility or promoting sperm competition (see Van Belle and Bicca-Marques, in press). However, considering that female promiscuity probably is a primitive atelid trait and that howler monkeys tend to live in smaller groups (with less adult males) than the atelines (Di Fiore et al., 2011), it is also possible that Alouatta females seek EGCs to avoid within-group mating with kin males without incurring the

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60 risks of leaving their groups. Data on individual relatedness are needed to test this hypothesis.AcknowledgementsWe thank Profa. Ana Biondi, head of the Escola Munici pal de Ensino Fundamental Chequer Buchaim Unidade Agropecuria, and the biologist Amanda Piper Grupelli for her help in the eld. is study was approved by the Scien tic Committee of the Faculdade de Biocincias/Pontifcia Universidade Catlica do Rio Grande do Sul (#033/11). EBD was supported by a CAPES Masters Scholarship and JCBM by a CNPq PQ-1D grant (# 303154/2009-8). Elisa Brod Decker and Jlio Csar Bicca-Marques Laboratrio de Primatologia Faculdade de Biocincias, Pontif cia Universidade Catlica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS 90619-900, Brasil. E-mails: elisabroddecker@ gmail.com and < jcbicca@pucrs.br>.ReferencesAgoramoorthy, G. and Hsu, M. J. 2000. Extragroup cop ulation among wild red howler monkeys in Venezuela. Folia Primatol. 71: 147. Di Fiore, A., Link, A. and Campbell, C. J. 2011. e atelines: behavioral and socioecological diversity in a New World monkey radiation. In: Primates in Perspective C. J. Campbell, A. Fuentes, M. C. MacKinnon, S. K. Bearder and R. M. Stumpf (eds.), pp. 155. Oxford University Press, New York. Fialho, M. S. and Setz, E. Z. F. 2007. Extragroup copula tions among brown howler monkeys in southern Brazil. Neotrop. Primates 14: 28. Glander, K. E. 1992. Dispersal patterns in Costa Rican mantled howling monkeys. Int. J. Primatol. 13: 415. Kowalewski, M. M. and Garber, P. A. 2010. Mating pro miscuity and reproductive tactics in female black and gold howler monkeys ( Alouatta caraya) inhabiting an island in the Parana river, Argentina. Am. J. Primatol. 72: 734. Lopes, K. G. D. and Bicca-Marques, J. C. 2011. Extragroup copulations in Alouatta guariba clamitans. Neotrop. Primates 18: 52. Strier, K. B. 1997. Mate preferences in wild muriqui mon keys (Brachyteles arachnoides): reproductive and social correlates. Folia Primatol. 68: 120. Van Belle, S. and Bicca-Marques, J.C. In press. Insights into the reproductive strategies and sexual selection in howler monkeys. In: Howler Monkeys: Examining the Evolution, Physiology, Behavior, Ecology and Conservation of the Most Widely Distributed Neotropical Primate M. M. Kowalewski, P. A. Garber, L. Corts-Ortiz, B. Urbani and D. Youlatos (eds.). Springer, New York. Van Belle, S., Estrada, A., Ziegler, T. E. and Strier, K. B. 2009. Sexual behavior across ovarian cycles in wild black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra): male mate guarding and female mate choice. Am. J. Primatol. 71: 153. enA QUEBRA DE BARREIRAS NATURAIS POR en CONEXES ARTIFICIAIS: O RELATO DA en TRANSPOSIO DO RIO SO FRANCISCO POR en MACACOS-PREGO NO NORDESTE DO BRASILen Maria do Socorro da Silvaen Wallace Pinto Batistaen Mnica Mafra Valena-Montenegroen Amely Branquinho Martinsen Srgio Luiz Malta de Azevedoen Marcos de Souza Fialhopt-BR O uso de passagens articiais para a fauna silvestre pt-BR amplamente promovido como uma ferramenta pt-BR conservacionista que visa reduzir o isolamento de animais pt-BR e populaes por obstculos articiais, tais como estradas pt-BR (Jackson e Grin, 2000). Por outro lado, as barreiras pt-BR naturais impem limites distribuio dos txons (Cox e pt-BR Moore, 2010), promovendo o isolamento reprodutivo de pt-BR espcies paraptricas potencialmente hibridveis, como pt-BR proposto para diversos gneros de primatas na Amaznia pt-BR (Ayres e Clutton-Brock, 1992).pt-BR O rio So Francisco atua como barreira da distribuio da pt-BR maioria das espcies de primatas autctones do nordeste pt-BR brasileiro. Contudo, a partir da dcada de 1940 diversas pt-BR usinas hidroeltricas (UHEs) foram construdas ao longo pt-BR de seu curso, dentre as quais se destaca o complexo de Paulo pt-BR Afonso (9pt-BRopt-BR23'50''S, 38pt-BRopt-BR12'00''O) formado pelas UHEs de pt-BR Paulo Afonso I, II, III, IV e Apolnio Sales (Moxot) entre pt-BR os estados de Alagoas e Bahia. O complexo, administrado pt-BR pela Companhia Hidro Eltrica do So Francisco (CHESF) pt-BR e inserido na unidade de conservao federal Monumento pt-BR Natural do Rio So Francisco", gera 4,280 MW (Fig. pt-BR 1a). As estruturas construdas associadas a estas barragens pt-BR incluem trs pontes sobre o rio So Francisco: uma ponte pt-BR de alvenaria com 20 m de comprimento e duas pontes pt-BR metlicas estaiadas (suspensas por cabos) com 240 m de pt-BR comprimento cada (todas possuem 4 m de largura). Essas pt-BR pontes so utilizadas para o deslocamento de funcionrios pt-BR envolvidos na manuteno das UHEs e suas subestaes pt-BR entre os dois estados (Fig. 1b).pt-BR Esta pesquisa visou vericar a veracidade de relatos de pt-BR funcionrios da CHESF de que saguis (pt-BR Callithrix jacchuspt-BR) pt-BR e macacos-prego (pt-BRSapajus pt-BR sp.) usam as trs pontes para pt-BR se deslocar entre as margens do rio So Francisco. Foram pt-BR realizadas entrevistas com 15 trabalhadores/moradores das pt-BR proximidades das trs pontes, instaladas duas armadilhas pt-BR fotogrcas em uma ponte metlica, as quais caram pt-BR expostas ininterruptamente durante 3 dias em abril e pt-BR 8 dias em maio de 2013, e realizadas 50 campanhas de pt-BR monitoramento das pontes entre abril e agosto de 2013. pt-BR Dentre os entrevistados, 12 (80%) relataram terem pt-BR observado macacos-prego se deslocando por uma ponte pt-BR metlica, mas nenhum mencionou a travessia das pontes

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61 por saguis. Tambm no houve registro de travessia por pt-BRmeio das armadilhas fotogrcas. Um grupo de macacos-pt-BR prego (pt-BRSapajuspt-BR sppt-BR.pt-BR ) composto por 18 indivduos foi pt-BR observado utilizando uma ponte metlica para se deslocar pt-BR da Bahia para Alagoas por volta das 16:00 do dia 1 de pt-BR agosto de 2013 (Fig. 1c). Essa ponte encontra-se a pt-BR ca.pt-BR 80 m pt-BR acima do nvel do rio em frente a um vertedouro de gua pt-BR do complexo.pt-BR Este o primeiro relato conrmado de uso de uma ponte de pt-BR longa extenso para o deslocamento de macacos-prego, os pt-BR quais so conhecidos por sua elevada capacidade cognitiva pt-BR e exibilidade comportamental e ecolgica (Fragaszy et al., pt-BR 2004). Na regio amaznica h registros de indivduos de pt-BR Mico intermediuspt-BR e pt-BRCallicebuspt-BR pt-BR dubiuspt-BR atravessando pontes pt-BR de madeira com 15 e 30 m de extenso, respectivamente. pt-BR No caso de pt-BRC.pt-BR pt-BR dubiuspt-BR, a existncia da ponte proporcionou pt-BR o deslocamento dos zogue-zogues para a rea de ocorrncia pt-BR da congenrica pt-BRC. stephennashipt-BR (Rhe e Silva Jnior, 2009). pt-BR Alm de sua relevncia cientca, o uso destas estruturas pt-BR possui importantes implicaes para a concepo e pt-BR implantao deste tipo de obra de infraestrutura. A pt-BR possibilidade dos macacos utilizarem pontes para vencer pt-BR barreiras geogrcas particularmente crtica na regio pt-BR amaznica, onde a construo prevista de dezenas de novas pt-BR UHEs ameaar o isolamento e a integridade das assembleias pt-BR de primatas nicas de cada intervio. Desta forma, pt-BR urgente a necessidade de desenvolvimento de estruturas pt-BR que inibam ou inviabilizem este tipo de deslocamento da pt-BR fauna para garantir a integridade biolgica das espcies e pt-BR ecolgica de suas comunidades.pt-BRAgradecimentospt-BRAgradecemos o apoio da CHESF pelo fornecimento de pt-BR informaes e por permitir o acesso s dependncias do pt-BR complexo de UHEs de Paulo Afonso.pt-BR Maria do Socorro da Silvapt-BR pt-BR Srgio Luiz Malta de Azevedopt-BR pt-BR Programa de Ps-graduao em Ecologia Humana e Gesto pt-BR Socioambiental, Universidade do Estado da Bahia UNEB, pt-BR R. do Bom Conselho 179, Alves de Souza, CEP: 48608-pt-BR 240, Paulo Afonso, BA, Brasil., pt-BRWallace Pinto Batistapt-BR pt-BR Associao Nordesta Reorestamento e Educao, Rua pt-BR Arlindo Rodrigues de Miranda 458, CEP: 35588-000, pt-BR Cidade Nova, Arcos, MG, Brasil., pt-BR Mnica Mafra Valena-pt-BR Montenegropt-BR, pt-BR Amely Branquinho Martinspt-BR, pt-BR Marcos de pt-BR Souza Fialhopt-BR, Centro Nacional de Pesquisa e Conservao pt-BR de Primatas Brasileiros CPB, Instituto Chico Mendes de pt-BR Conservao da Biodiversidade ICMBio, Praa Antenor pt-BR Navarro 5, Varadouro, CEP: 58010-480, Joo Pessoa, PB, pt-BR Brasil, E-mail: .pt-BRRefernciaspt-BRAyres, J. M. e Clutton-Brock, T. H. 1992. River boundaries pt-BR and species range size in Amazonian primates. pt-BRAm. Nat.pt-BR pt-BR 140(3): 531.pt-BR Cox, C. B. e Moore, P. D. 2010. pt-BRBiogeography: an Ecological pt-BR and Evolutionary Approach. pt-BR8 ed. Wiley, Oxford.pt-BR Fragaszy, D. M.; Visalberghi, E. e Fedigan, L. M. 2004. pt-BR e Complete Capuchin: the Biology of the Genus Cebuspt-BR. pt-BR Cambridge University Press, Massachusetts. pt-BRFigura 1pt-BR.pt-BR a) Vista parcial de usinas do complexo Paulo Afonso, Estado da Bahia, Brasil; b) Ponte metlica estaiada utilizada pelos pt-BR macacos-prego; c) Macaco-prego (pt-BRSapajuspt-BR sp.) atravessando a ponte estaiada.

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62 pt-BRJackson, S. D. e Grin, C. R. 2000. A strategy for pt-BR mitigating highway impacts on wildlife. In: pt-BR Wildlife and pt-BR Highways: Seeking Solutions to an Ecological and Socio-pt-BR economic Dilemmapt-BR, T.A. Messmer e B. West (eds.), pp. pt-BR 143. e Wildlife Society, Nashville.pt-BR Rhe, F. e Silva Jnior, J.S. 2009. Conrmation of pt-BR Callicebus dubiuspt-BR (Pitheciidae) distribution and evidence pt-BR of invasion into the geographic range of pt-BR Callicebus pt-BR stephennashi. Neotrop. Primatespt-BR 16(2): 71. en OCCURRENCE OF enCALLICEBUS BERNHARDIen pt-PT IN pt-PT ROLIM DE MOURA, RONDNIA, BRAZILen Erika Patrcia Quintinoen Jlio Csar Bicca-Marques In their description of the Prince Bernhard's titi monkey, Callicebus bernhardi, van Roosmalen et al. (2002) suggested that it might occur on the west bank of the Rio Ji-Paran in the state of Rondnia, Brazil, based on the observation of an undetermined greyish titi monkey at the Pimenta Bueno Municipal Park in Pimenta Bueno by Ferrari et al. (1996; later identied as C. moloch by Ferrari et al., 2000). e presence of C. bernhardi in this region was conrmed by Mono et al. (2008) in Alto Alegre dos Parecis. Here we report its occurrence in forest fragments to the west of the Rio Ji-Paran in Rolim de Moura. Social groups of Prince Bernhard's titi monkeys were sight ed in the following forest fragments from January to Oc tober 2013: Stio Nossa Senhora Aparecida (11'59.87"S, 61'03.19"W; ca. 2.3 ha) group composed of four in dividuals (an adult male, an adult female, a juvenile, and an infant born in August 2013; Fig. 1). ese titi monkeys were observed ad libitum (Altmann, 1974) feeding on fruit of Oenocarpus distichus and Orbignya phalerata (Arecaceae) and fruit and young leaves of Inga sp. (Fabaceae) and un identied shrubs and lianas; Stio So Jos (11'38.54"S, 61'31.85"W; ca. 2.5 ha) group composed of, at least, ve individuals; Stio Nova Boa Esperana (11'07.52"S, 61'00.98"W; ca. 2 ha) group composed of, at least, two individuals.AcknowledgementsWe thank the owners of the study sites, Salete Bergamin Quintino, Osvaldo Pivolio and Reinaldo Prudente Ri beiro, for the permission to visit their ranches. Mrs. Salete B. Quintino also provided logistical and nancial support for this study. EPQ is supported by a Graduate (M.Sc.) fellowship from the Brazilian Higher Education Author ity/CAPES and JCBM is supported by a research fellow ship from the Brazilian National Research Council/CNPq (PQ 1D #303154/2009-8). is study was approved by the Scientic Committee of the Faculdade de Biocincias/ Pontifcia Universidade Catlica do Rio Grande do Sul (#033/11). Erika Patrcia Quintino and Jlio Csar Bicca-Marques, Laboratrio de Primatologia, Faculdade de Biocincias, Pontifcia Universidade Catlica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS 90619-900, Brasil. E-mails: < erika_es trela@yahoo.com.br> and .ReferencesAltmann, J. 1974. Observational study of behavior: sam pling methods. Behaviour 49: 227. Ferrari, S. F., Iwanaga, S. and Silva, J. L. 1996. Platyrrhines in Pimenta Bueno, Rondnia, Brazil. Neotrop. Primates 4: 151. Ferrari, S. F., Ivanaga, S., Messias, M. R., Ramos, E. M., Ramos, P. C. S., Cruz Neto, E. H. and Coutinho, P. E. G. 2000. Titi monkeys (Callicebus spp., Atelidae: Platyrrhini) in the Brazilian state of Rondnia. Primates 41: 229. Mono, G. R., Selhorst, V. and Soares-Filho, J. A. R. 2008. Expanso da distribuio geogrca de Callicebus bernhardi a oeste do rio Ji-Paran, Estado de Rondnia, Brasil. Neotrop. Primates 15: 67. Figure 1. Adult Prince Bernhard's titi monkey carrying the new born (see the tip of its tail above the adult's left leg). Photograph by E. P. Quintino.

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63 van Roosmalen, M. G. M., van Roosmalen, T. and Mit termeier, R. A. 2002. A taxonomic review of the titi monkeys, genus Callicebus omas, 1903, with the de scription of two new species, Callicebus bernhardi and Callicebus stephennashi, from Brazilian Amazonia. Neo trop. Primates 10 (suppl.): 1.es-ESNenNUEVA BIBLIOTECA PRIMATOLGICA es-ES La Red-Primatolgica de la Asociacin Primatolgica es-ES Colombiana inaugura la nueva Biblioteca Primatolgica es-ES (BiblioPrim), en dnde podrs acceder a cientos de es-ES artculos, libros y captulos de libros sobre primates. La es-ES BiblioPrim cuenta actualmente con enlaces a ms de es-ES 300 estudios realizados en el campo de la primatologa es-ES publicados en revistas especializadas como Neotropical es-ES Primates, International Journal of Primatology, American Journal of Primatology y Primates, entre otros.   V istala en es-EShttp://www.asoprimatologicacolombiana.org.en INFLUENCE OF FRUIT AVAILABILITY AND en PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF en FRUIT ON THE ECOLOGY OF PRIMATES IN A en NORTHERN AMAZONIAN FOREST On November 5th, 2012, talo Mourth defended his doc toral thesis for the Graduate Program in Ecology at Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amaznia (INPA), in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. e thesis was on the feeding ecology and frugivory of primates at Marac Ecological Station, a large riverine island in the Uraricuera River, state of Roraima, northern Brazil. His supervisor was Renato Cintra Soares (INPA). e study was funded by Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientco e Tecnolgico, Fundao Es tadual do Meio Ambiente e Recursos Hdricos de Roraima, Mohamed bin Zayed Species Conservation Fund, and Idea Wild. e following is a summary of his thesis. e uctuation of food resources limits plant and animal populations. Although well studied among small frugivores such as birds and rodents in temperate regions, the rela tionship among the uctuation of resources, quality, and their eects on the ecology of large tropical frugivores in seasonal forests remains largely unknown. e exuberance and high diversity of tropical forests give a false idea of con tinuous abundance of food resources, but as seen in other environments, these forests also go through relatively long periods of shortage, imposing limitations to frugivores. Here, I investigate the eects of fruit shortage on the ecol ogy of frugivorous primates at Marac Ecological Station (MES), a highly seasonal forest in northern Amazonia. e main focus of the study is on the feeding ecology of an en dangered primate, Ateles belzebuth. Surveys on primate and fruit density and frugivory were carried out concomitantly through line-transect method. Fruit samples were collected and assessed through morphological and nutritional assays. Additionally, I conducted a detailed study on the feeding ecology of a well-habituated group of A. belzebuth. Fruit supply, especially for Sapotaceae, positively inu enced A. belzebuth local density, which was concentrated in areas with high fruit density in particular, during fruit shortages. However, Alouatta macconnelli and Cebus olivaceus did not follow the same pattern During shortage periods, spider monkeys were more likely to eat fruit with a high lipid and high ash content. Although these nutrients inuenced fruit choices, a comparison of the nutritional prole of fruits consumed by spider monkeys and that of fruits available in the local plant pool indicated that nutri ents were consumed according to their local availability. A natural experiment concerning pulp variation in four fruits often consumed by several frugivores in the study site, in cluding A. belzebuth, showed that unusual droughts do not appear to aect the amount of pulp produced. Finally, a relatively large sampling eort is needed to reach mammal survey completeness in species-poor sites such as in the study site than required in other Amazonian sites, possibly due to the relatively large number of rare species in this as semblage. To survive periods of fruit shortage, A. belzebuth adopted foraging strategies of both energy maximization and time minimization. is highly frugivorous primate invests their foraging eort in areas with a high fruit supply of abundant species, and they consume high energy fruits in an opportunistic way. talo Martins da Costa Mourth, Instituto Nacional de Pes quisas da Amaznia,Ncleo de Pesquisas de Roraima, Rua Coronel Pinto, 315, Centro, 69.301-150, Boa Vista, RR, Brazil. E-mail: Reference Mourth, I. M. C. 2012. Inuncia das caractersticas fsi co-qumicas e disponibilidade dos frutos na ecologia dos primatas em uma oresta no norte da Amaznia. Tese de doutorado, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amaznia, Manaus. 133 p.en DEMOGRAPHY AND LIFE HISTORY OF OWL en MONKEYS (enAOTUS AZARAI AZARAIen) IN THE en HUMID ARGENTINEAN CHACO On September 14, 2012, Cecilia Paola Juarez defended her doctoral dissertation at the University of Tucumn, Argentina. Her research draws on work conducted at the Owl Monkey Project of the Argentinean National Coun cil of Research (CONICET) and also at the Centro de Ecologa Aplicada del Litoral (CECOAL), Argentina. Her

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64 supervisor was Professor Dr. Eduardo Fernandez-Duque of the Department of Anthropology of the University of Pennsylvania. Her research was funded by an education grant to C. Juarez (CONICET) and investigation grants (Conservation Small Grants-ASP-2010 and Conservation Grant-IPS-2010). e following is a summary of her thesis. In Argentina, owl monkeys (Aotus azarai azarai ) are re stricted to the Chaco and Formosa province. In the Argen tinean Humid Chaco, owl monkeys inhabit gallery forest, high canopy forest and low canopy scrub forest ( Prosopis sp.). Generally this two latter ambient to forest, more xeric, sometimes form islands of dierent sizes. e goal of this study was to investigate what is the demographic structure of owl monkey populations that inhabit the humid Chaco, how it changes in space and time, and what some of the factors that regulate these changes may be. e working hypothesis proposes that the demography and life history characteristics of owl monkeys will be strongly associated with spatial factors (environmental units dierent in gal lery forest and forest islands) and abiotic (precipitation and temperature). Two studies were conducted to evaluate the hypothesis. e aim of the rst study was to understand the demo graphic structure of the owl monkey population in the east of the humid Chaco of the Formosa province and how dif ferent the social groups when exposed to dierent spatial factors may be. is work describes and compares, with basic demographic parameter, social groups in gallery forest (continuous forest) and forest islands (naturally isolated en vironments) inhabiting two areas with similar characteristics: Pilcomayo National Park and Guaycolec Ranch. Since October 2006 to February 2011, I collected demographic data from 84 social groups inhabiting gallery forest (n=54) and forest islands (n=30). For each social group we record ed group size, age structure and estimated the population density (ecology and relative). Four variables were included in statistical models predicting the presence-absence in forest islands: sampling site and surface, forest structure and insolate degree of islands. e aim of the second study was to evaluate changes in demographics and life history in relation with abiotic factors. is work analyses demo graphic data from nine social groups (population system") studied between 1997 to 2010. Life history variables were birth rate, mortality rate, emigration and migration related with temperature and precipitation. Life table was con structed and population growth rate was calculated for the owl monkey population in Guaycolec Ranch. e rst study suggests that group size, age structure and birth rate were similar between sampling sites. Density was higher in Guaycolec Ranch than Pilcomayo National Park. e group size dierences between continuous forest and forest islands showed that group size and densities were higher in gallery forest than forest islands. Birth rate was higher in gallery forest compared to forest islands in Guaycolec Ranch, but not statistically dierent between environments in Pilcomayo National Park. Presence of owl monkeys in forest islands was strongly associated to the sur face of forest islands. ere is a 50% probability of nding owl monkeys in forest islands with an area of 5.6 ha and a 90% probability of nding owl monkeys in forest islands with an area of 11.4 ha. e second study showed that the owl monkey population in Guaycolec Ranch (population system") was uctuating between 11 and -18% with a growth rate (r) of -0.02 over 14 years. e years with higher rainfall were associated with larger group size. But there was no association between mortality rate and dispersals to rainfall or temperatures. Life table showed high mortality from birth to rst year of life. After-3-year survival decreases coinciding with the period of dispersal. In conclusion, low densities of A. azarai are found in Rio Pilcomayo National Park, the only nationally protected habitat of owl monkeys, shows that the species has a criti cal demographic state. e study results show how natu ral habitat fragmentation can inuence the structure of population and basic demographic parameters (such as birth rate, and group size and density). We do not know, however, how individuals survive in patches of forest and how dispersal occurs between patches of forest. is work is important in the conservation of owl monkeys in Argen tina as it is the rst time that we evaluate density in the only national park designated to their protection. Additionally, study groups of the same subspecies under dierent en vironmental conditions contributes to understanding the phenotypic plasticity of the subspecies, which can be used to assess potential eects on dierent populations under anthropic fragmentation along their distribution. Cecilia Paola Jurez Centro de Ecologa Aplicada del Lito ral (CECOAL, CONICET). Barrio General Jos de San Martn, casa 100, manzana 55. Cdigo Postal 3600. Pro vincia de Formosa, Argentina, E-mail: . Reference Jurez, C. P. 2012. Demographic and life history of owl monkeys (Aotus azarai) in the Argentinean humid Chaco. Doctoral dissertation. School of Natural Sciences and Miguel Lillo Institute (FCN e IML). University of Tucumn. Tucumn Province, Argentina, 182pp.en EFFECTS OF FOREST FRAGMENTATION ON en BROWN SPIDER MONKEYS (enATELES HYBRIDUSen) en AND RED HOWLER MONKEYS (en ALOUATTA en SENICULUSen) e increasing intensity of anthropogenic land use and conversion has immense impacts on ecosystems worldwide and often results in habitat fragmentation. Fragmentation and other anthropogenic disturbances (e.g. hunting and logging activities) pose major threats to numerous animal

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65 species. Species vary greatly in their resilience to these dis turbances and in their ability to survive in forest fragments. Animals might have to adjust their behavior, their group ing patters and/or dietary strategies to survive in anthro pogenically altered habitats. Human-induced alterations can also result in long-term elevations of glucocorticoids (cortisol or corticosterone), which can have deleterious ef fects on growth, reproduction and immune system activity of animals. To broaden our understanding of how animals cope physi ologically and behaviorally with anthropogenic disturbances I studied two Neotropical primate species, brown spider monkeys ( Ateles hybridus) and red howler monkeys ( Alouatta seniculus) for my doctoral thesis at the Univer sity of Gttingen, Germany (Rimbach, 2013). e specic aims of this thesis were to 1) validate an enzymeimmunoas say (EIA) for the analyses of fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGCM) levels of both study species, 2) to investigate the species-specic dierences in the physiological responsiveness to anthropogenic disturbances and 3) to examine how spider monkeys adjust their grouping patterns and social behavior when living in a small forest fragment. e validation of the EIA, for which I used the stress re sponse to anesthesia and reverse-phase high pressure liquid chromatography analysis (HPLC), was a crucial pre-requi site for the analyses of FGCM levels. e results demon strated that both species dier in terms of basic factors in uencing their adrenocortical activity (e.g. diurnal rhythm of GC excretion) (Rimbach et al., 2013). To investigate the physiological responsiveness to anthropogenic distur bances of both species I collected fecal samples in several forest fragments in Colombia that diered in size (4.21 ha 500 ha) as well as in the level of human impact (deter mined through the occurrence and/or absence of hunting and logging activities). Using the previously validated EIA I determined FGCM levels and examined species-specic dierences in the physiological responsiveness to both frag ment size and level of human impact. Fragment size did not inuence FGCM levels of either species. But spider monkeys showed elevated FGCM levels in fragments where both hunting and logging occurred, whereas howler monkeys did not show such a response. is suggests that hunting and logging activities can potentially create longterm elevations of GC levels in brown spider monkeys and emphasizes why they are at a higher extinction risk than red howler monkeys when living in anthropogenically altered habitats (Rimbach et al., in revision). To better understand how spider monkeys cope with frag mentation, I studied the exible grouping patterns and social behavior of two brown spider monkey groups living in a small forest fragment (65 ha) in Colombia. I collected data on subgroup sizes, aggressive interactions, habitat-wide fruit availability and collected fecal samples to determine FGCM levels. Both groups ranged in smaller subgroups and showed higher FGCM levels in periods of high fruit availability compared to periods of low availability. ese results were unexpected because (1) primates like spider monkeys and chimpanzees, that exhibit ssion-fusion dy namics, typically show the opposite grouping pattern and (2) a major function of glucocorticoids (GC) is the release of energy during the stress response. Consequently, GC levels typically increase in periods of low resource availabil ity. Spider monkeys are generally considered to be ripe fruit specialists. However, both study groups have a more folivo rous diet than has been reported for other spider monkey populations. is could be a strategy to reduce the level of competition for fruit, especially in periods of low availability. When fruit availability is high in this fragment it appears that the intra-group feeding competition for fruit is also high. is would also explain why FGCM levels were higher and subgroup size smaller in periods of high fruit availability. is is further reinforced by high rates of female-female aggression, which were higher in periods of high fruit availability than in periods of low availability. ese results illustrate how fragmentation can alter the grouping patterns and social behavior of this species and that the relationship between resource availability, grouping patterns, aggression rates and stress levels can be more complex than assumed so far. Population densities are often high in forest fragments and resource availability is frequently altered. Moreover, animals that live in fragments often have to reduce the size of their home range. ese conditions can potentially lead to high levels of intra-specic competition for resources and space. e connement to a small amount of space can furthermore result in inter-specic competition, especially between species that overlap in their ecological niches. I report several cases of severe aggression and two cases of interspecic infanticide from spider monkeys directed at infant howler monkeys and capuchins in a small fragment with high primate population densities. is behavior might be either pathological" or a strategy to eliminate potential future competitors for resources or space (Rim bach et al., 2012). In conclusion, this study demonstrates species-specic dierences in the ability to cope with anthropogenic disturbances and that these dierences might be, at least partly, due to dierent levels of physiological responsiveness. In addition, the results suggest that hunt ing and logging activities may create long-term stress for spider monkeys that could impair their long-term popula tion viability. Importantly, this thesis illustrates the use of GC measurements as a tool to monitor populations in dis turbed and fragmented areas, and to evaluate and improve conservation strategies. Rebecca Rimbach, Abt. Verhaltenskologie & Soziobi ologie, Deutsches Primatenzentrum, Kellnerweg 4, 37077 Gttingen, Germany, E-Mail:

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66 References Rimbach, R. 2013. Eects of forest fragmentation on brown spider monkeys ( Ateles hybridus) and red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus). Doctoral thesis. Uni versity of Gttingen. Available at: http://hdl.handle. net/11858/00-1735-0000-0001-BB7B-2 Rimbach, R., Heymann, E.W., Link, A., Heistermann, M. 2013. Validation of an enzyme immunoassay for as sessing adrenocortical activity and evaluation of factors that aect levels of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites in two New World primates. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 191: 13-23. Rimbach, R., Pardo-Martinez, A., Montes-Rojas, A., Di Fiore, A., Link, A. 2012. Interspecic infanticide and infant-directed aggression by spider monkeys ( Ateles hybridus) in a fragmented forest on Colombia. Am. J. Pri matol. 74: 990-997. Rimbach, R., Link, A., Heistermann, M., Gmez-Posada, C., Galvis, N., Heymann, E.W. Eects of human impact and forest fragment size on physiological stress levels of two   sympatric ateline primates in Colombia. Conserv. Physiol., in revision.es-ESR PrenBOOKS Primate ecology and conservation (Tecs): a handbook of tech niques, edited by Eleanor Sterling, Nora Bynum and Mary Blair. 2013. Oxford University Press. 448pp. ISBN:   9780199659449. is practical volume synthesizes eld, laboratory, and conservation management techniques for primate ecology and conservation. is book's particular focus is on innovative ways to study primates in a changing world, including emerging methods such as non-in vasive genetic techniques and advanced spatial modeling. Contents: 1. Introduction Sterling E, Bynum N & Blair M; 2. Primate census and survey techniques Plumptre AJ, Sterling E & Buckland S; 3. Darting, anesthesia and handling Glander K; 4. Health assessment and epidemiology Muehlenbein MP & Lewis CM; 5. Behavior within groups Kaplin BA & Willian A; 6. Habitat assess ment and species niche modeling Rode J, Stengel CJ & Nekaris AI; 7. Characterization of primate environments through assessment of plant phenology Marshall AJ & Wich S; 8. Methods in ethnoprimatology Riley EP & Ellwanger AL; 9. Social and spatial relationships between primate groups Brown M & Crofoot M; 10. Experiments in primatology Janson C & Brosnan SF; 11. Diet and nutrition Rothman JM, Vogel ER & Blumenthal SA; 12. Physiology and energetic Schmid J; 13. Primate behav ioral endocrinology Nguyen N; 14. Population genetics, molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography Blair ME & Morales-Jimenez AL; 15. Demography, life histories and population dynamics Montenegro OL; 16. Deter mining conservation status and contributing to conserva tion action Blair MA, Bynum N, Sterling E; 17. Captive breeding and ex-situ conservation Gibson D & McCann C; 18. Primates in trade Linder J, Sawyer S & Brashares J; 19. Conclusion Serling E, Bynum N, Blair ME. Primate sexuality: comparative studies of the prosimians, mon keys, apes, and humans, by Alan F. Dixon. 2013. Oxford University Press. 808pp. ISBN:   978-0199676613. is book provides an authoritative and comprehensive synthe sis of current research on the evolution and physiological control of sexual behaviour in the primates prosimians, monkeys, apes, and human beings. is new edition has been fully updated and greatly expanded throughout to in corporate a decade of new research ndings. It maintains the depth and scientic rigour of the rst edition, and in cludes a new chapter on human sexuality, written from a comparative perspective. Primates in fragments: complexity and resilience, edited by Laura K. Marsh & Colin Chapman. 2013. Springer. 500pp. ISBN: 978-1461488385. In this new volume we continue to address issues regarding primates within a frac tured landscape. e book is divided in seven sections. In the Introductory section, authors discuss the issues sur rounding primates in remnant habitats as well as encour age discussion about what we mean by fragmentation on a landscape scale. In the Long-Term and Regional Studies section, authors present information on changes that have occurred during longer studies as well as changes that have occurred over regions. In the Landscape, Metapopulations and the Matrix section, authors cover topics from dry to moist forests, and from metapopulations to single species use of multiple fragments locations. In Feeding and Behav ioral Ecology, authors take a closer look at the exibility and responsiveness of primates in fragments in terms of their food choices, resource use, and behavioral changes. In Endemic, Endangered, and Nocturnal Primates authors uncover details involving critical primates living in major city centers to the heights of the Himalayas. In Genetics, Disease and Parasites authors cover topics including population viability, disease and parasite transmission between primates in fragments and humans. Finally, in the Conservation and Ecology: reats and Management section, we synthesize information in this volume and make rec ommendations for the future of work in this eld and the survivability of primates in fragments. en Lessons from other mammals Review of: Bones, Clones, and Biomes. e History and Ge ography of Recent Neotropical Mammals edited by Bruce D. Patterson and Leonora P. Costa, 2012. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN-13: 978-0-226-64919-1 (cloth). Price: US-$ 65.00, 42.00

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67 Readers of this journal are familiar with the fact that New World primates are the most diverse radiation within the primate order. Similarly, the Neotropical mammalian fauna in general is extremely rich and diverse, accounting for almost one third of all mammalian species living on earth. Exploring the reasons for this diversity in terms of processes that date far back into the geological past (Meso zoic, Paleogene) or took place in the more recent geological periods (Neogene) is the central theme of this book. Apart from a general introduction to the history and geog raphy of Neotropical mammals by the editors, the book is divided into two large parts. Part 1, containing six chapters, deals mainly with the older times", i.e. the origin and evo lutionary history of Neotropical mammals, while the nine chapters of Part 2 focus primarily on determinants of the diversity and composition of more extant mammal assem blages in dierent regions of the Neotropics. Primates do not gure prominently in this book, but this is denitely not a taint. Rather, I think that Neotropical primatologists can learn dierent lessons from this book. One is the understanding of the larger setting into which the ancestors of New World primates arrived after having somehow crossed the Atlantic Ocean. Another one is the range of hypotheses that are deployed in this book to ex plain the current diversity and patterns of Neotropical mammal distribution. I found of particular interest chap ters dealing with speciation patterns in Amazonia (chapter 12), the role of fragmentation for the diversity in Atlantic forests (chapter 13), and the role of the Andes for diversity and distribution. E.g., obvious links between sub Andean/ western Amazonian and Atlantic forest mammals made me think about how Amazonian and Atlantic forest primates are interrelated and how they became separated from each other. While this question has already been addressed quite some time ago (e.g. Kinzey 1982), the issue is far from re solved. Furthermore, using the combination of dierent biogeographic hypotheses for analyzing the distribution of New World primates primates will likely provide a much better understanding than focusing only on refuges (e.g. Kinzey 1982) or riverine barriers (e.g. Peres et al. 1996). e main title of the book (Bones, Clones, and Biomes") nicely reects the variety of approaches and perspectives taken by the dierent chapter authors that range from classical" paleontology (bones") through molecular methods (clones") to biogeographic analyses of regional assemblages (biomes"). e overall quality of this book is high, although there is some variation between chapters. e writing style is generally accessible, even in relatively specialized chapters. Overall, I can recommend this book for everyone who wants to look beyond the primatological horizon and learn about historical and recent diversity and biogeography of Neotropical mammals. Eckhard W. Heymann, Abt. Verhaltenskologie & Sozio biologie, Deutsches Primatenzentrum, Kellnerweg 4, D-37077 Gttingen, e-mail: .ReferencesKinzey, W. G. 1982. Distribution of primates and forest refuges. In: Biological Diversication in the Tropics G. T. Prance (ed.), pp. 455, Columbia University Press, New York. Peres, C. A., J. L. Patton, and M. N. F. da Silva. 1996. Riv erine barriers and gene ow in Amazonian saddle-back tamarins. Folia Primatol. 67: 113.en ARTICLES Aquino   R, Cornejo   FM,   Pezo   E, Heymann   EW. 2013. Dis tribution and abundance of white-fronted spider mon keys,   Ateles belzebuth   (Atelidae), and threats to their sur vival in Peruvian Amazonia. Folia Primatol. 84(1):1 Arnold C, Einspanier A. 2013. Medical treatment im proves social behavior in a primate endometriosis model ( Callithrix jacchus). J. Med. Primatol. 42(3):   112 Barnett AA, Ronchi-Teles B, Almeida T, Deveny A, SchielBaracuhy V, Souza-Silva W, Spironello W, Ross C, McLarnon A. 2013. Arthropod predation by a specialist seed predator, the golden-backed Uacari ( Cacajao melanocephalus ouakary, Pitheciidae) in Brazilian Amazonia. Int J. Primatol. 34(3): 470 Bergstrom ML, Fedigan LM, 2013. Dominance style of female white-faced capuchins. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 150(4): 591 Blair ME, Gutirrez-Espeleta GA, Melnick DJ. 2013. Sub species of the central american squirrel monkey ( Saimiri oerstedii) as units for conservation. Int J. Primatol. 34(1) Bueno MG, Rohe F, Kirchgatter K, Di Santi SMF, Gui maraes LO, Witte CL, Cista-Nascimento MJ, Toniolo CRC, Catao-Dias JL. 2013. Survey of   Plasmodium   spp. in free-ranging Neotropical primates from the Brazilian Amazon region impacted by anthropogenic actions. Eco health. 10(1): 48 Bullinger AF, Burkart JM, Melis AP, Tomasello M. 2013. Bonobos,   Pan paniscus chimpanzees,   Pan troglodytes, and marmosets,   Callithrix jacchus, prefer to feed alone. Ani. Behav. 85(1): 51 Chaves OM, Bicca-Marques JC. 2013. Dietary exibility of the brown howler monkey throughout its geographic distribution. Am. J. Primatol. 75(1): 16 da Silva GA, Monteiro FOB, Dias HLT, Cavalcante RO, Sampajo AI, da Conceicao MEBAM, Takeshita RSC, de Castro PHG, Feij FMC, Rahal SC. 2013. Qualitative analysis of preputial and vaginal bacterial microbiota in owl monkeys (Aotus azarai infulatus) raised in captivity. J. Med. Primatol. 42(2):   71 Demes B, O'Neil MC. 2013. Ground reaction forces and center of mass mechanics of bipedal capuchin monkeys:

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68 Implications for the evolution of human bipedalism. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 150(1): 76 Duarte T, Beltrao-Mendes R, Ferrari SF. 2013. Use of alter native plant resources by common marmosets ( Callithrix jacchus) in the semi-arid Caatinga scrub forests of north eastern Brazil. Am. J. Primatol. 75(4):   333 Dunn JC, Cristobal-Azkarate J, Schulte-Herbruggen B, Chavira R, Vea JJ. 2013. Travel time predicts fecal glu cocorticoid levels in free-ranging howlers (Alouatta pal liata). Int J. Primatol. 34(2): 246 Fernandez VA, Kowalewski M, Zunino GE. 2013. Who is coordinating collective movements in black and gold howler monkeys? Primates 54(2). French JA. 2013. e Role of androgenic steroids in shaping social phenotypes across the lifespan in male marmo sets (Callithrix spp.). Am. J. Primatol. 75(3): 212 Iurck MF, Nowak MG, Costa LCM, Mendes SL, Ford SM, Strier KM. 2013. Feeding and resting postures of wild northern muriquis (Brachyteles hypoxanthus). Am. J. Primatol. 75(1):   74 Jarcho MR, Power ML, Layne-Colon DG, Tardif SD. 2013. Digestive eciency mediated by serum calcium predicts bone mineral density in the common marmoset ( Callithrix jacchus). Am. J. Primatol. 75(2): 153 Kelaita MA, Corts-Ortiz L. 2013. Morphological varia tion of genetically conrmed   Alouatta pigra     A. palliata   hybrids from a natural hybrid zone in Tabasco, Mexico. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 150(2): 223 Liborio RA, Martins MM. 2013. Body size in predator prey interactions: an investigation of Neotropical pri mates and their predators. Stud. Neotrop. Fauna E. 48(1): 81 Link A, Di Fiore A. 2013. Eects of predation risk on the grouping patterns of white-bellied spider monkeys ( Ateles belzebuth belzebuth) in Western Amazonia. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 150(4): 579 Mantilla-Meluk H. 2013. Subspecic variation: an alternative biogeographic hypothesis explaining variation in coat color and cranial morphology in Lagothrix lugens (Primates: Atelidae). Prim. Conserv. 26: 33 Mayor P, Bowler M, Lpez-Plana C. 2013. Functional morphology of the female genital organs in the peruvian red uakari monkey ( Cacajao Calvus Ucayalii ). Am. J. Pri matol. 75(6): 545 Mendez-Carvajal PG. 2013. Population size, distribution and conservation status of howler monkeys ( Alouatta coibensis trabeata) and spider monkeys (Ateles georoyi azuerensis) on the Azuero peninsula, Panama. Prim. Conserv. 26: 3 Meno W, Coss RG, Perry S. 2013. Development of snakedirected antipredator behavior by wild white-faced capuchin monkeys: I. Snake-species discrimination. Am. J. Primatol. 75(3): 281 Meno W, Coss RG, Perry S. 2013. Development of snakedirected antipredator behavior by wild white-faced capu chin monkeys: II. Inuence of the social environment. Am. J. Primatol. 75(3): 292 Oir A, Pinna MH, Estrela A, Junios DG, Liborio FA, Dorea FA, Oliveira AVD, Nogueira M, Requiao K. 2013. Exophthalmos due to odontogenic intraorbital abscess in   Cebus apella. J. Med. Primatol. 42(2):   101 Parr NA.   Fedigan   LM.   Kutz   SJ. 2013. A coprological survey of parasites in white-faced capuchins   ( Cebus capucinus )   from sector Santa Rosa, ACG, Costa Rica. Folia Primatol. 84: 102 Petracca MM, Caine NG. 2013. Alarm calls of marmosets ( Callithrix georoyi) to snakes and perched raptors. Int. J. Primatol. 34(2): 337 Phillips KA, ompson CR. 2013. Hand preference for tool-use in capuchin monkeys ( Cebus apella) is associated with asymmetry of the primary motor cortex. Am. J. Pri matol. 75(5):   435 Porter LM, Garber P. 2013. Foraging and spatial memory in wild Weddell's saddleback tamarins ( Saguinus fuscicollis weddelli) when moving between distant and out-ofsight goals. Int. J. Primatol. 34(1): 30 Raboy BE, Neves LG, Zeigler SL, Oliveira LC. 2013. Oc currences of the golden-headed lion tamarin ( Leontopithecus chrysomelas) above 500 meters in southern Bahia, Brazil and implications for conservation planning. Prim. Conserv. 26: 25 Rapaport LG, Kloc B, Warneke M, Mickelberg JL, Ballou JD. 2013. Do mothers prefer helpers? Birth sex-ratio adjustment in captive callitrichines. Anim. Behav. 85(6): 1295 Roudebush WE, Nethery RA, Helderth T. 2013. Presence of anti-mllerian hormone in the squirrel monkey ( Sai miri boliviensis): gender and seasonal dierences. J. Med. Primatol. 42(1): 15 Rovirosa-Hernandez MJ, Corts-Ortiz L, Garca-Ordua F, Guzmn-Gmez D, Lpez-Monteon A, Caba M, Ramos-Ligonio A. 2013. Seroprevalence of   Trypanosoma cruzi   and   Leishmania mexicana   in free-ranging howler monkeys in southeastern Mexico. Am. J. Primatol. 75(2):   161 Ruiz M, Vsquez C, Camargo E, Castellanos LF, Glvez H, Leguizamn N, Shostell M. 2013. Molecular genetics analysis of mtDNA COII gene sequences shows illegal trac of night monkeys ( Aotus, Platyrrhini, Primates) in Colombia. J. Prim. 2:107. Scarry CJ. 2013. Between-group contest competition among tufted capuchin monkeys, Sapajus nigritus, and the role of male resource defense. Anim. Behav. 85(5): 931 Schoof VAM, Jack KM, 2013. e association of inter group encounters, dominance status, and fecal andro gen and glucocorticoid proles in wild male white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus). Am. J. Primatol. 75(2): 107 Seidel V, Homann R, Braun A, Seehase S. knauf S, Kaup FJ, Bleyer M. 2013. Distribution and morphology of Clara cells in common marmosets ( Callithrix jacchus). J. Med. Primatol. 42(2):   79

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69 Shaer CA. 2013. Feeding Ecology of Northern Bearded Sakis (Chiropotes sagulatus) in Guyana. Am. J. Primatol. 75(6): 568 Shaer CA. 2013. GIS analysis of patch use and group co hesiveness of bearded sakis ( Chiropotes sagulatus) in the upper Essequibo conservation concession, Guyana. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 150(2): 235 Shanee S, Allgas N, Shanne N. 2013. Preliminary observa tions on the behavior and ecology of the Peruvian night monkey (Aotus miconax: Primates) in a remnant cloud forest patch, north eastern Peru. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 6(1): 138 Shanee S, Tello-Alvarado JC, Vermeer J, Bveda-Penalba AJ. 2013. GIS risk assessment and GAP analysis for the andean titi monkey (Callicebus oenanthe). Prim. Conserv. 26: 17 Sirianni G, Visalberghi E. 2013. Wild bearded capuchins process cashew nuts without contacting caustic com pounds. Am. J. Primatol. 75(4):   387 Spehar SN, Di Fiore A. 2013. Loud calls as a mechanism of social coordination in a ssionfusion taxon, the whitebellied spider monkey ( Ateles belzebuth). Behav. Ecol & Sociobiol. 67(6): 947 Teixeira MG, Ferreira A, Antunes A, Fernandes S, de Melo ME, Guedes FL. 2013. Hematologic and blood chem istry values of healthy   Cebus avius   kept in northeast of Brazil. J. Med. Primatol. 42(2):   51 ompson CL, Robl NJ, Melo LC, Valenca-Montene gro MM, Maranhao YB, Borstelmann MA, Vinyard CJ. 2013. Spatial distribution and exploitation of trees gouged by common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Int. J. Primatol. 34(1). Van Belle S, Estrada A, Garber P, 2013. Collective group movement and leadership in wild black howler monkeys ( Alouatta pigra). Behav. Ecol & Sociobiol. 67(1): 31 Verderane MP, Izar P, Visalberhi E, Fragaszy DM. 2013. Socioecology of wild bearded capuchin monkeys ( Sapajus libidinosus): an analysis of social relationships among female primates that use tools in feeding. Behavior. 150(6): 659 Ziegler TE, Colman RJ, Tardif SD, Sosa ME, Wegner FH, Wittwer DJ, Shrestha H. 2013. Development of meta bolic function biomarkers in the common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus. Am. J. Primatol. 75(5):   500 enABSTRACTS Selected abstracts relating with Neotropical primates from the XV Congress of Brazilian Primatology, 4-9 August 2013, Recife, Brazil. Sousa R, Bicca-Marques JC. 2013. Ecologia cognitiva de macacos-da-noite (Aotus infulatus e A. nigriceps) em cativeiro. Soares CS, Revredo L, Bicca-Marques JC. 2013. Memria espacial no forrageio do sagui-comum ( Callithrix jacchus) em uma parcela de alimentao articial. Delval IS, Presotto A, Tokuda M, Izar P. 2013. Efeito do clima sobre os padres de navegao de Sapajus nigritus no Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho, SP. Gomes H, Bicca-Maques JC. 2013. Informao espacial no forrageio de grupos selvagens de micos-lees-dourados ( Leontopithecus rosalia) e saguis hbridos ( C. penicillata x C. jacchus). Gonzalez L, Izar P. 2013. Percepo de risco de predao por um grupo de macacos-prego ( Sapajus nigritus) do Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho Marquez A, Santilln AM, Arenas RV, Ordoez JD, Aguilln MA. 2013. Vocalizaciones asociadas a la aliacin de monos araas (Ateles georoyi). Da Silva PK, Lessa AM, Araujo A. 2013. Relaes sociais de Callithrix jacchus machos: competio ou cooperao?. Souza JP, Chagas RRD, Ferrari SF. 2013. Single or multiple central place foraging? Behavioral strategies of Callicebus coimbrai in a fragment of Atlantic Forest in Northeastern Brazil. De Lima EM, Pessoa DMA, Sena LS, Melo AGC, Castro PHG, Oliveira AC, Pessoa VF, Schneider PC. 2013. Poli morsmo da viso de cores em Chiropotes tahickae hershkovitz, 1985 (Cuxi-Cinza) cativos. Suscke P, Izar P. 2013. Socioecologia de Sapajus xanthosternos na Reserva Biolgica de Una, sul da Bahia. Winandy MM, Verderane MP, Ferreira RG, Izar P. 2013. Mudanas na demograa afetam a hierarquia de fmeas em macacos-prego (Sapajus sp.). Spuza JP, Ferrari SF, Ross C. 2013. Aspects of the life his tory of Callicebus coimbrai in fragments of Atlantic Forest in the northeastern Brazilian state of Sergipe. Gonalves Jr, Bicca-Marques JC. 2013. Comportamento de um grupo suplementado de bugios-ruivos ( Alouatta guariba clamitans) em uma paisagem urbanizada. Monteiro J, Vleeschouwer K, dos Reis P, Grelle C, Oliveira LC. 2013. Comportamento anti-predao do micoleo da cara dourada em reas com diferentes riscos de predao. Bruno G, Ocampo F, Mudry MD. 2013. Social behavior of black howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) in semi-captivity, in an area outside its natural range. Paim F, Rabelo R, Queiroz H. 2013. Diferentes mtodos aplicados captura de espcies de Saimiri em uma rea de vrzea. Hilario RR, Ferrari SF. 2013. Environmental correlates of the density of Callicebus coimbrai populations in north eastern Brazil. Chavez OM, Camaratta D, Bicca-Marques JC. 2013. Frag ment size inuences the diet of Alouatta guariba clamitans in southern Brazil. Landis M, Pedroso R, Passamani M. 2013. Fragment size explains occupancy probabilities of Callicebus nigrifrons in southeastern Brazil. Centoducatte L, Crepaldi MOS, Santos BS, Paula CM, Martinelli FS, Mendes SL. 2013. Denio de corredores funcionais para o muriqui, Brachyteles hypoxanthus, com base em critrios econmicos e ecolgicos.

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70 Culot L, Boutefeu M, Galetti M. 2013. Post dispersal fate of seeds dispersed by the two last Neotropical megafrugi vores: the muriqui and the tapir. Suzini A, Back LP, Ciacchi A, Aguiar LM. 2013. Relaes entre humanos e macacos-prego em um bosque urbano em Foz do Iguau, Alto Rio Paran. Detogne N, Bergallo HG, Pereira DG. 2013. O sagui extico invasor ( Callithrix spp.) em um parque urbano na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Rabelo R, Silva F, Paim F, Valsecchi J. 2013. Novos registros e expanso da rea de distribuio geogrca de Ateles chamek. Coutinho K, Montenegro V, Castro CSS. 2013. Padro de atividades e dieta de um grupo de macaco-prego-galego ( Sapajus avius Schereber, 1774) na RPPN Engenho Garga, Paraba, Brasil. Guevara R, Gordo M, Lopes MA. 2013. Disperso de se mentes por sauins-de-coleira (Saguinus bicolor): Efeitos do padro de deslocamento na formao de sombra de sementes. Quintana P, Hernandez LT, Morales J, Rico V. 2013. Dinmica de interacciones intergrupales y explotacin de recursos por dos grupos de monos Alouatta palliata mexi cana en Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mxico. Arenas RV, Santilln A, Marquez A, Gasca M. 2013. Reha bilitacin de mono mexicanos de ser mascota. Fragoso A, Romero DC, Castro FJV, Quinglia GA, S LRM. 2013. A utilizao de Callithrix spp no monito ramento da poluio atmosfrica por chumbo em centro urbano: vivel ou no? Kowalewski M, Martinez R, Gillespie T. 2013. Patterns parasitism in howler monkeys across their distribution. Bezerra R, Henrique P, Ferreira RG. 2013. Ser Dominante estressante: estereotipia e comportamentos sociais em macacos-prego (Sapajus libidinosus) em condies de cativeiro. Ash H, Buchanan H. 2013. Breeding and rearing practices in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Menendez AC, Silva LMP, Shiramizu VKM, Ferreira RG, Galvao NL. 2013. Avaliao do bem-estar em machos e fmeas de sagui comum (Callithrix jacchus): estresse fsico e social no cativeiro. Ramos G, Pinacho B. 2013. Patrones de asociacin y proximidad espacial en monos araa ( Ateles georoyi yucatanensis). Biondi L, Wright K, Fragazy D, Izar P. 2013. Bipedalismo em macacos-prego ( Sapajus libidinosus) e a hiptese da postura de forrageamento. Peternelli L, Verderane M, Izar P. 2013. Qualidade da dieta e o uso de ferramentas: comparao de duas populaes de macacos-prego (Sapajus sp.). Hernndez LT, Rodrguez P, Morales J. 2013. Estrategia sensorial del mono araa (Ateles georoyi ) en la seleccin de alimento cultivado y silvestre. Hernndez LT, Espinosa C, Gmez S. 2013. Estrategias digestivas de monos aulladores mexicanos (Alouatta palliata y Alouatta pigra) ante variaciones en la calidad de su dieta. Verderane M, Sasaki R, Izar P. 2013. Uso de cavernas por macacos-prego (Sapajus libidinosus ) em rea de ectono Cerrado/Caatinga no Piau. Rezende GC, Knogge C, Valladares CB. 2013. e black lion tamarin conservation program: a model for primate species conservation. Silva FE. 2013. Sobre a redescoberta de Mico marcai e os desaos para o conhecimento da diversidade de primatas no mdio Aripuan, Amaznia, Brasil. Lanna A, Santos R, Mendes PS. 2013. Demograa de um pequeno grupo isolado de muriqui-do-norte (Brachyteles hypoxanthus). Mendes RB, Ferrari SF. 2013. Occurrence of Cebus xanthosternos in mangrove forests: habitat preference or last resort?. Mendes S, Santos R, Chaves PB, Fagundes V Strier KB. 2013. Os desaos para a conservao do muriqui-donorte (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) em uma paisagem altamente fragmentada: dez anos de experiencia. Hilario R, Jerusalinsky J, Santos SS, Mendes R, Ferrari SF. 2013. Coimbra's titi ( Callicebus coimbrai Kobayashi & Langguth 1999) at risk in northeastern Brazil: local extinctions recorded over the past 10 years. Silva VM, Neves MB, Azevedo WTR, Chvez OM, BiccaMarques JC. 2013. Inuncia do bolo fecal na germina o ex situ de sementes de Guapira opposita dispersadas por Alouatta guariba clamitans. ompson C, Montenegro MV, Oliveira L, Valle Y, Olivei ra M. 2013. Common marmosets ( Callithrix jacchus) more intensely exploit trees with the less mechanical resistance to fracture. Morales B, Souto A, Schiel N. 2013. Versatilidade no uso de pedras como ferramentas por Sapajus libidinosus. Baiao S, Aragao F, Souza JP, Ferrari SF. 2013. Fruit feeding and seed dispersal in Coimbra's titi (Callicebus coimbrai). Baiao S, Aragao F, Ferrari SF. 2013. A coprological study of free-ranging titis (Callicebus coimbrai). Silvestre SM, Dantas JO, Rocha PA, Mendes RB, Ferrari SF. 2013. Diet of the common marmoset ( Callithrix jacchus linnaeus, 1758) at the ufs campus in So Cristvo, Sergipe, based on fecal analysis. Sala E, Canela G, Talebi M. 2013. Dureza como determi nante de preferncias alimentares de A. clamitans (Cabrera, 1940) e B. arachnoides (Georoy, 1806) em natureza: dados preliminares. Fortes V, Maraga A, Veiga JB, Bicca-Marques JC. 2013. Composio e dinmica de grupos de bugios-ruivos ( Al ouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera, 1940) em rea impacta da por febre amarela no Rio Grande do Sul. Silva M, Soares T, Oliveira D, Talebi M. 2013. Percurso dirio e rea de vida do bugio-ruivo (Alouatta clamitans Cabrera, 1940) em fragmento urbano da cidade de So Paulo. Kaizer M, ypung R, Strier KB. 2013. Diferena de sexo no padro de atividade de jovens muriquis ( Brachyteles hypoxanthus). Abondano L, Palma A, Alvarez S, Link A, Di Fiore A. 2013. Self-anointing behavior in white-bellied spider monkeys

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71 ( Ateles belzebuth): insights for olfactory social communi cation in a Neotropical primate. Cardoso T, Silvestre SM, Hilario RR, Mendes RB, Ferrari SF. 2013. Comparative analysis of the habituation process to the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) in different habitats, Ibura National Forest, Brazil. De Carvalho RS, Loyola S, da Silva DA, Pereira DG, Brainer T, Bergallo HG. 2013. Podem marcadores mi tocondriais identicar grupos mistos de saguis da Mata Atlntica do sudeste brasileiro?. Ribeiro J, Oliveira MAB. 2013. Inuncia de fatores as sociados urbanizao no comportamento de Callithrix jacchus em uma rea de manguezal. Santana K, Holanda D, Camara M, Fontenele J. 2013. A new non-invasive device for studying locomotor activ ity and sleep-wake cycle in captive common marmosets ( Callitrhix jacchus). Vasconcelos J, Marinho Y, Castro S. 2013. Comparativo de repertorio comportamental de Callithrix jacchus antes e durante a reabilitao. Rangel A, Dias P, Chavira R, Canales D. 2013. Efectos de cambios en la composicin grupal en los niveles de corti sol de monos aulladores negros (Alouatta pigra). Rodrigues RS, Cortes L, Garca F, Guzman D, Lopez A, Caba M, Ramos A. 2013. Seroprevalencia de Trypanosoma cruzi y Leishmania mexicana en monos aulladores silvestres del sureste de Mxico. Garca F, Rovirosa MJ, Jagunes O, Guzman D, Lopez A, Caba M, Ramos A. 2013. Deteccin de Trypanosoma cruzi en grupos de mono araa mexicano en condiciones de cautiverio. Nieves M, Maraon D, Bailey S, Mudry MD. 2013. Stress biomarkers in Ateles (Atelidae, Platyrrhini) genus. Serrano J, Pacheco V. 2013. Morphological description and diagnosis of yellow-tailed woolly monkey: Lagothrix avicauda (Humboldt 1812) (Primates, Atelidae) Pereira NA, Aonso PR, Lemos RB, Carneiro JC, Sampaio MIC, 2013. Marcadores moleculares revelam mistura de espcies e indcios de hibridao entre macacos-prego (gneros Cebus e Sapajus) em cativeiro na Bahia. Garbino G. 2013. e taxonomic status of and a new syn onym for Marca's marmoset Mico marcai (Alperin, 1993) (Cebidae: Callitrichinae) Garbino G. 2013. How many genera of marmosets (Cebi dae: Callitrichinae) are there? e morphological phylo genetic evidence. Martins A, Gomes F, Carneiro J, Sampaio I, Schneider H. 2013. Uma ferramenta rpida e prtica para identicao molecular dos gneros Cebus (Cebidae) e Sapajus (Cebidae): o marcador molecular Alu Cebidae 5. Carneiro JC, Sampaio I, Schneider H. 2013. Uma fer ramenta molecular para demonstrar hibridizao em Saimiri. Avila R, Santos SHD, Galimberti VS, Muller CA, Tode schini F, Bicca-Marques JC, Fernandes FA, Chaves OM, Silva ACA, Oliveira GT. 2013. Anlise coprolgica de parasitos gastrointestinais de Alouatta guariba clamitans. es-ESMfenII SIMPOSIO DE PRIMATOLOGIA EN EL PER El Centro Alemn de Primates, Yunkawasi, la Universidad Nacional de la Amazona Peruana y la Sociedad Peruana de Mastozoologa se complacen en invitar al II Simpo sio de Primatologa en el Per, que se llevar a cabo en la ciudad de Iquitos del 7 al 10 de Noviembre del 2013. Para ms informacin visita http://www.monosperu.org/2dosimposio.htmlen 25enRDen CONGRESS OF THE INTERNATIONAL en PRIMATOLOGICAL SOCIETY e 25rd Congress of the   International Primatological Society is scheduled to take place in Vietnam on 11-16 August, 2014. e congress is to be held at Melia Hotel, Hanoi. e theme of the conference will be Meeting the Challenges of Conserving Primate Diversity. Abstract submission deadline: 31st of January, 2014. For more informa tion go to http://ips2014.vnforest.gov.vn/en 37enTHen MEETING OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF en PRIMATOLOGISTS e 37th meeting of the American Society of Primatolo gists (ASP) will be held in Decatur, GA from September 12-15, 2014. On-line conference registration and abstract submission will be available in the ASP website in January 2014. For more information go to www.asp.org/meetings/

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Monkeys of the Guianas Pocket Identification Guide Mail and Fax Order Form Monkeys of the Guianas: Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana Pocket Identification Guide by Russell A. Mittermeier, Anthony B. Rylands, Marc G. M. van Roosmalen, Marilyn A. Norconk, Wil liam R. Konstant and Lisa Famolare. ISBN: 978-193415119-8 First Edition. Price: $ 7.95 (includes UPS Ground shipping within the continental United States) For orders requiring faster service than UPS Ground, you will be responsible for paying all ship ping costs. Please call the phone number listed below for: overnight deliveries, wholesale orders, and international orders. Please complete the following form, print it out and mail or fax to: Jill Lucena Conservation International 2011 Crystal Driv e, Suite 500 Arlington, VA 22202 USA Tel (703) 3412536 Fax (703) 5534817 Email: j.lucena@conservation.org First Name Last Name Company Name Mailing Address City State Zip Code Telephone Fax EMail Address Order Form should include credit card information or be sent along with check or money order, in U.S. dollars, made payable to Conservation International. Please allow 2-3 weeks for delivery. Quantity _______ x $7.95 each Total: ____________ _____Payment Enclosed (check or money order in US $ only) Charge my credit card: _____VISA _____Mastercard Name (as it appears on card)_______________________________ Card Number _________________________________ Expiration Date ________________________________ Signature _____________________________________

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pt-BRScope e journal/newsletter aims to provide a basis for conservation information relating to the primates of the Neotropics. We welcome texts on any aspect of primate conservation, including articles, thesis abstracts, news items, recent events, recent publications, primatological society information and suchlike.pt-BR Submissions Please send all English and Spanish contributions to: Erwin Palacios, Conservacin Internacional Colombia, Carr era 13 # 71-41 Bogot D.C., Colombia, Tel: (571) 345-2852/54, Fax: (571) 3452852/54, e-mail: , and all Portuguese contributions to: Jlio Csar Bicca-Marques, Departamento de Biodiversidade e Ecologia, Pontifcia Universidade Catlica do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Ipiranga, 6681 Prdio 12A, Porto Alegre, RS 90619-900, Brasil, Tel: (55) (51) 3320-3545 ext. 4742, Fax: (55) (51) 3320-3612, e-mail: .pt-BR Contributions Manuscripts may be in English, Spanish or Portuguese, and should be double-spaced and accompanied by the text on CD for PC compatible text-editors (MS-Word, WordPerfect, Excel, and Access), and/or e-mailed to (English, Spanish) or (Portuguese). Hard copies should be supplied for all gures (illustrations and maps) and tables. e full name and address for each author should be included. Please avoid abbreviations and acronyms without the name in full. Authors whose rst language is not English should please have their English manuscripts carefully reviewed by a native English speaker.pt-BR Articles. Each issue of Neotropical Primates will include up to three full articles, limited to the following topics: Taxonomy, Systematics, Genetics (when relevant for systematics and conservation), Biogeography, Ecology and Conservation. Text for full articles should be typewritten, double-spaced with no less than 12 cpi font (preferably Times New Roman) and 3-cm margins throughout, and should not exceed 25 pages in length (including references). Please include an abstract in the same language as the rest of the text (English, Spanish or Portuguese) and (optional) one in Portuguese or Spanish (if the text is written in English) or English (if the text is written in Spanish or Portuguese). Tables and illustrations should be limited to six, except in cases where they are fundamental for the text (as in species descriptions, for example). Full articles will be sent out for peer-review. For articles that include protein or nucleic acid sequences, authors must deposit data in a publicly available database such as GenBank/EMBL/ DNA Data Bank of Japan, Brookhaven, or Swiss-Prot, and provide an accession number for inclusion in the published paper.pt-BR Short articles. ese manuscripts are usually reviewed only by the editors. A broader range of topics is encouraged, including such as behavioral research, in the interests of informing on general research activities that contribute to our understanding of platyrrhines. We encourage reports on projects and conservation and research programs (who, what, where, when, why, etc.) and most particularly information on geographical distributions, locality records, and protected areas and the primates that occur in them. Text should be typewritten, doublespaced with no less than 12 cpi (preferably Times New Roman) font and 3-cm margins throughout, and should not exceed 12 pages in length (including references).pt-BR Figures and maps. Articles may include small black-andwhite photographs, high-quality gures, and high-quality maps. (Resolution: 300 dpi. Column widths: one-column = 8-cm wide; two-columns = 17 -cm wide). Please keep these to a minimum. We stress the importance of providing maps that are publishable.pt-BR Tables. Tables should be double-spaced, using font size 10, and prepared with MS Word. Each table should have a brief title.pt-BR News items. Please send us information on projects, eld sites, courses, esis or Dissertations recently defended, recent publications, awards, events, activities of Primate Societies, etc.pt-BR References. Examples of house style may be found throughout this journal. In-text citations should be rst ordered chronologically and then in alphabetical order. For example, (Fritz, 1970; Albert, 1980, 2004; Oates, 1981; Roberts, 2000; Smith, 2000; Albert et al., 2001) In the list of references, the title of the article, name of the journal, and editorial should be written in the same language as they were published. All conjunctions and prepositions (i.e., and, In) should be written in the same language as rest of the manuscript (i.e., y or e, En or Em). is also applies for other text in references (such as PhD thesis, accessed see belo w). Please refer to these examples when listing references:pt-BR Journal article Stallings, J. D. and Mittermeier, R. A. 1983. e black-tailed marmoset ( Callithrix argentata melanura) recorded from Paraguay. Am. J. Primatol. 4: 159.pt-BR Chapter in book Brockelman, W. Y. and Ali, R. 1987. Methods of surveying and sampling forest primate populations. In: Primate Conservation in the Tropical Rain Forest, C. W. Marsh and R. A. Mittermeier (eds.), pp.23. Alan R. Liss, New York.pt-BR Book Napier, P. H. 1976. Catalogue of Primates in the British Museum (Natural History). Part 1: Families Callitrichidae and Cebidae. British Museum (Natural History), London.pt-BR esis/Dissertation Wallace, R. B. 1998. e behavioural ecology of black spider monkeys in north-eastern Bolivia. Doctoral thesis, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.pt-BR Report Muckenhirn, N. A., Mortensen, B. K., Vessey, S., Fraser, C. E. O. and Singh, B. 1975. Report on a primate survey in Guyana. Unpublished report, Pan American Health Organization, Washington, DC.pt-BR Website UNESCO. 2005. UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Programme. United Nations Educational, Scientic, and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO), Paris. Website: http://www.unesco.org/mab/index.htm. Accessed 25 April 2005. (Acessada em 25 de abril de 2005 and Consultado el 25 de abril de 2005 for articles in Portuguese and Spanish respectively).pt-BR For references in Portuguese and Spanish: and changes to e and y for articles in Portuguese and Spanish respectively. In changes to Em and En for articles in Portuguese and Spanish respectively. Doctoral thesis changes to Tese de Doutoramento and Tesis de Doctorado for articles in Portuguese and Spanish respectively. MSc esis changes to Dissertao de Mestrado and Tesis de Maestra for articles in Portuguese and Spanish respectively. Unpublished report changes to Relatrio Tcnico and Reporte no publicado for articles in Portuguese and Spanish respectively. Notes to Contributors

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Neotropical Primates A Journal and Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group Vol. 20(1), June 2013ContentsArticlesS ympatric D istribution of T wo S pecies of A louatta (A. seniculus and A. palliata: P rimates) in Choc, ColombiaSara A. Zuiga Leal and omas R. Deer ................................................................................................................................... 1A New Population of Red Uakaris ( C acajao calvus ssp.) in the Mountains of North-Eastern PeruJan Vermeer Julio C. Tello-Alvarado, Jos T. Villacis Del Castillo and Antonio J. Bveda-Penalba . ...................................................... 12Primer Reporte de Parsitos Intestinales en C allicebus modestus del Departamento de Beni, BoliviaJos Luis Mollericona, Jess Martnez, Rolando Limachi, Pamela Carvajal y Erika Alandia-Robles . .................................................... 18Variable Density Responses of Primate Communities to Hunting Pressure in a Western Amazonian River BasinCooper Rosin and Varun Swamy . ................................................................................................................................................. 25Atualizao do Conhecimento Sobre o Sauim-De-Cara-Suja, S aguinus weddelli (Primates, Callitrichinae), No Estado de RondniaAlmrio Cmara Gusmo, Marcella Alves Crispin, Sandro Leonardo Alves, Kurazo Mateus Okada Aguiar, Ricardo Sampaio e Jos de Sousa Silva Jnior . .......................................................................................................................................................... 32Short ArticlesTwo New Specimens for the Bolivian Endemic Titi Monkeys, C allicebus olallae and C allicebus modestus . .................................. 39 Jess Martnez, Robert B. Wallace, Heidy Lpez-Strauss, Paula De La Torre and Hugo Aranibar Almrio Cmara Gusmo Kurazo Mateus Okada Aguiar Marcella Alves Crispim, Ricardo Sampaio e Jos de Sousa e Silva Junior Variacin Mensual del Uso del Territorio por el Mono Choro Lagothrix cana en el Parque Nacional Yanachaga . ......................... 44 Deisi Vanessa Luna Celino Realto de Caso de Morte por Agressao Entre Macacos-Prego Sapajus nigritus (Primates: Cebidae) no Jardim Botnico en do Rio de Janeiro . ........................................................................................................................................................................ 48 Cristiane Hollanda Rangel, Jos Gustavo V. Adler Gabriela C. Heliodor Anderson Santos Jr e Carlos Eduardo Verona Uso do Cho por B rachyteles arachnoides no Parque Nacional Serra dos rgos, Terespolis, Brasil . .......................................... 52 Paula Breves, Austem Stravs Andrade Dias, Alcides Pissinatti e Jean Philippe Boubli Articial Insemination in Common Marmosets Using Sperm Collected by Penile Vibratory Stimulation . ................................. 54 Hidetoshi Ishibashi and Hideyuki H. Motohashi Agonistic Competition for Fruit Among Members of a Titi Monkey ( C allicebus coimbrai) Group During a Severe Drought . ......... 57 Fernanda B.A. Correia, Sirley A.A. Baio and Stephen F. Ferrari Extragroup Copulation in a Small and Isolated A louatta guariba clamitans pt-PTPopulation . .............................................................. pt-PT58 Elisa Brod Decker and Jlio Csar Bicca-Marques A Quebra de Barreiras Naturais por Conexes Articiais: O Relato da Transposio do Rio So Francisco por Macacos-Prego no Nordeste do Brasil . ............................................................................................................... ................... 60 Maria do Socorro da Silva, Wallace Pinto Batista, Mnica Mafra Valena-Montenegro Amely Branquinho Martins, Srgio Luiz Malta de Azevedo e Marcos de Souza Fialho Occurrence of C allicebus bernhardi pt-PTin Rolim de Moura, Rondnia, Brazil . ................................................................................. pt-PT62 Erika Patrcia Quintino and Jlio Csar Bicca-MarquesNews . ...................................................................................................................................................................... 63 Recent Publications . ................................................................................................................................................ 66 Meetings . ................................................................................................................................................................ 71