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Title: Neotropical primates
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098814/00049
 Material Information
Title: Neotropical primates a newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCNSSC Primate Specialist Group
Abbreviated Title: Neotrop. primates
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
Conservation International
Center for Applied Biodiversity Science
Publisher: Conservation International
Place of Publication: Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Publication Date: August 2005
Frequency: quarterly
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Primates -- Periodicals -- Latin America   ( lcsh )
Primates -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Wildlife conservation -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: review   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Brazil
 Notes
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Language: English, Portuguese, and Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Mar. 1993)-
Issuing Body: Issued jointly with Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, <Dec. 2004->
General Note: Published in Washington, D.C., Dec. 1999-Apr. 2005 , Arlington, VA, Aug. 2005-
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 13, no. 1 (Apr. 2005).
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098814
Volume ID: VID00049
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28561619
lccn - 96648813
issn - 1413-4705

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
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    Back Matter
        Back Matter 1
        Back Matter 2
        Back Matter 3
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text
ISSN 1413-4703


NEOTROPICAL


PRIMATES



A journal of the Neotropical Section of the
IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group


Volume
Number
August


13
2
2005


Editors
Anthony B. Rylands
Ernesto Rodriguez-Luna
Assistant Editors
John M. Aguiar
Liliana Cort6s-Ortiz
PSG Chairman
Russell A. Mittermeier
PSG Deputy Chairman
Anthony B. Rylands


CONSERVATION
INTERNATIONAL


SPECIES SURVIVAL
COMMISSION


CENTER
FOR APPLIED
BIODIVERSITY
SCIENCE
AT CONSERVATION
INTERNATIONAL










Neotropical Primates
A Journal of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group


Center for Applied Biodiversity Science
Conservation International
2011 Crystal Drive, Suite 500, Arlington, VA 22202, USA

ISSN 1413-4703 Abbreviation: Neotrop. Primates
DOI: 10.1896/ci.cabs.2005.np.13.2

Editors
Anthony B. Rylands, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International, Arlington, VA, USA
Ernesto .1 ,,_. -T ..... UniversidadVeracruzana, Xalapa, Mexico

Assistant Editors
John M. Aguiar, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International, Arlington, VA, USA
Liliana Cortes-Ortiz, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Mexico

Editorial Board
Hannah M. Buchanan-Smith, University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland, UK
Adelmar E Coimbra-Filho, Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Liliana Cortes-Ortiz, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Mexico
Carolyn M. Crockett, Regional Primate Research Center, University of i ...... Seattle, WA, USA
Stephen E Ferrari, Universidade Federal do Para, Belem, Brazil
Eckhard W. Heymann, Deutsches Primatenzentrum, C -1...... Germany
Russell A. Mittermeier, Conservation International, Arlington, VA, USA
Marta D. Mudry, Universidad de .
Horacio Schneider, Universidade Federal do Para, Belem, Brazil
Karen B. Strier, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA
Maria Emilia Yamamoto, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Brazil

Primate Specialist Group
Chairman Russell A. Mittermeier
Deputy Chair Anthony B. Rylands
Co-Vice Chairs for the Neotropical Region Anthony B. Rylands & Ernesto - .
Vice Chair for Asia Ardith A. Eudey
Vice Chair for Africa Thomas M. Butynski
Vice Chair for Madagascar Jorg U. Ganzhorn

Layout: Kim Meek, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International, Arlington, VA, USA

Editorial Assistance:
Mariella Superina, University of New Orleans, Department of- I i Sciences, New Orleans, LA

IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group logo courtesy of Stephen D. Nash, 2002.

Front cover: A juvenile Alouatta from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Photo by Russell A. Mittermeier.


This issue of Neotropical Primates was kindly sponsored by the Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation, 432 Walker Road, Great Falls, Virginia 22066,
USA, and the Los Angeles Zoo, Director John R. Lewis, 5333 Zoo Drive, Los Angeles, California 90027, USA.





Neotropical Primates 13(2), August 2005


PRIMER CENSO DEL MONO AULLADOR NEGRO
(ALOUATTA PALLIATA AEQUATORIALIS) EN EL CHOC6
BIOGEOGRAFICO COLOMBIANO

Carolina Ramirez-Orjuela
Ivdn M. Sdnchez-Duefas

Introducci6n

Para Colombia, PanamA y Ecuador se ha reconocido la sub-
especie Alouatta palliata aequatorialis (Rylands et al., 2000).
Alouatta //.'I.ira7 c, probablemente la especie de primate mas
estudiada del Nuevo Mundo y las poblaciones mejor inves-
tigadas han sido las de la isla Barro Colorado en PanamA y
las de la Hacienda La Pacifica en Costa Rica (Fedigan et al.,
1998). En Colombia, el conocimiento del estado actual de
A. p. aequatorialis no ha tenido mayores avances desde que
su distribuci6n ', -i,. i y ecologfa fueron descritas por
HernAndez-Camacho y Cooper (1976). Entre 1995 y 1996
se realize el primer studio sobre la dieta de este primate en
la region del Choc6 Biogeografico Colombiano (Ramfrez-
Orjuela, 1997) con el apoyo de la Fundaci6n Natura, el
Proyecto Biopacifico y la Fundaci6n Ingued6.

El Choc6 Biogeografico es una de las zonas con mayor
biodiversidad y endemismo del planet (Mast et al.,
1993). Por esta raz6n y por su alto grado de amenaza, es
considerado como una de las 25 Ecorregiones Terrestres
Prioritarias (ETP) del mundo (Mittermeier et al., 1999).
Esta ETP comprende los bosques hdmedos y semihdmedos
tropicales de PanamA, Colombia, Ecuador y Perd, cuya
extension original fue estimada en 260 595 km2 pero
actualmente s6lo permanece el 24% de la vegetaci6n
native. Las amenazas actuales que pesan sobre esta region
son las mismas que se presentan en casi todas las ETP
del mundo; 6stas incluyen desde los cambios climAticos, el
advance de la colonizaci6n y el desarrollo infraestructural,
hasta la transformaci6n direct de la tierra en campos
agricolas. Adicionalmente, la caceria sigue siendo un
problema sobre todo hacia species mayores de aves y
mamfferos (Mittermeier et al., 1999).

La necesidad de obtener estimaciones precisas de las densi-
dades poblacionales de species amenazadas, es fundamen-
tal para establecer prioridades en la formulaci6n de planes
de manejo y conservaci6n (Defler y Pintor, 1985). En pri-
mates, el m&todo del transecto lineal ha sido ampliamente
usado durante las 6ltimas tres decadas porque permit ob-
tener indices confiables del estado de la poblaci6n (Peres,
1999; De Thoisy, 2000). Este m&todo ha sido recomen-
dado en studios cortos con requerimientos limitados y se
ha utilizado con diferentes objetivos: 1) para cuantificar la
abundancia poblacional de primates en bosques tropicales
(De Thoisy, 2000; Wallace et al., 2000); 2) para hacer com-
paraciones entire areas (Peres, 1997; Chapman y Balcomb,


1998); 3) para monitorear el estado poblacional a traves del
tiempo (Clarke y Zucker, 1994); 4) para investigar los efec-
tos de la cacerfa (Peres, 1990, 1997) y, mas recientemente,
5) para evaluar los efectos de la fragmentaci6n del hAbitat
(Chiarello y Melo, 2001; Gonzilez-Solfs et al., 2001).

Este studio tuvo como objetivo principal censar por pri-
mera vez una poblaci6n del mono aullador negro (Alouatta
palliata aequatorialis) en el Choc6 Colombiano, asf como
conocer en forma preliminary su abundancia poblacional en
la zona. Este trabajo tambikn aporta consideraciones que
deben tomarse en cuenta para reducir las amenazas sobre las
poblaciones locales de este primate. Pretendemos que este
studio sirva como base metodol6gica para studios poste-
riores que se deben realizar en otras localidades del Choc6
Biogeografico y con ello conocer el estado de conservaci6n
de esta subespecie en todo su rango de distribuci6n.

M6todos y Area de Estudio

Area de studio
El studio se realize en un bosque hdmedo tropical de la Es-
taci6n Biol6gica El Amargal (0534'25"N, 7730'22"W),
localizada sobre la region costera en el Area de Cabo Cor-
rientes, a cinco km de la poblaci6n de Arusf, Departa-
mento del Choc6, Colombia (Fig. 1). La topograffa de
esta Area se caracteriza por las montafias con pendientes
entire 10-50 que descienden hasta las playas, drenadas


Figura 1. Ubicaci6n de la Estaci6n Biol6gica El Amargal en la
Costa Pacifica, Departamento del Choc6, Colombia.





Neotropical Primates 13(2), August 2005


por quebradas y pequefios rfos (Galeano et al., 1998).
Con base en los registros climaticos de nueve afios (1993-
2001), los promedios anuales de precipitaci6n y tempera-
tura son de 7,735 mm y 24.5C respectivamente. El censo
se realize en el mes de marzo de 2002, correspondiente a
la dpoca de menor precipitaci6n durante el afio. De acuer-
do con el studio de vegetaci6n realizado en la Estaci6n
Biol6gica El Amargal por Galeano et al. (1998), el bosque
corresponde a un bosque maduro caracterizado por poseer
un gran ndmero de Arboles grandes, un dosel denso con
alturas entire 35-45 m y Arboles emergentes que alcanzan
59 m de altura.

La mayoria de los habitantes en esta region pertenecen
a la poblaci6n negra (80%), mientras que los indfgenas
Embera (5%) y los blancos (15%) son minoria. La econo-
mfa primaria se basa en la pesca, el cultivo (de arroz y pli-
tano) y la explotaci6n de maderas. El turismo constitute
una actividad de reciente implementaci6n (Jimeno et al.,
1995). Mdltiples factors tales como el dificil acceso por
la precariedad o inexistencia de las vias de comunicaci6n y
la ausencia del Estado, hacen que las condiciones de vida
y las capacidades de desarrollo sean muy limitadas para los
pobladores locales. Los indices de calidad de vida son los
mas bajos de Colombia y la desnutrici6n, el analfabetis-
mo y el desempleo, registran las tasas mas elevadas del pafs
(Diaz, 1993).

Censos
Para estimar la densidad poblacional de Alouatta palliata
aequatorialis, empleamos el m&todo del transecto lineal si-
guiendo los lineamientos propuestos por Peres (1999). Este
m&todo ha sido ampliamente aplicado durante las 6ltimas
tres d&cadas para cuantificar la abundancia poblacional de
primates en bosques tropicales (Peres, 1999). Trazamos dos
transectos de quatro km cada uno, aprovechando el previo
conocimiento de la presencia de algunos grupos de monos
aulladores en esta zona. El transecto No1 (T1) correspondi6
a un tramo del camino preexistente entire la Estaci6n Bio-
16gica El Amargal y el pueblo de Arusf. El transecto No2
(T2) sigui6 los cursos de algunas quebradas y caminos pre-
existentes (Fig. 2). En cada uno de los transectos estima-
mos la abundancia de algunos recursos alimenticios para los
monos aulladores con el objeto de conocer si la presencia o
ausencia de recursos condicionaria la probabilidad de tener
avistamientos durante los recorridos.

A partir del studio realizado por Ramfrez-Orjuela (1997)
e informaci6n de nuestro auxiliary de campo, obtuvimos un
listado preliminary de las species vegetables presents en los
transectos, que componen la dieta de los monos aulladores
en la zona. En 82 estaciones de muestreo que cubrieron un
Area total de 10.30 ha contamos el ndmero de Arboles (DAP
> 20 cm) e identificamos su estado fenol6gico. Para deter-
minar la abundancia de los recursos alimenticios en cada
transecto, agrupamos las species vegetables de acuerdo al
nombre coman dado en la region (morfotipo), de manera
que la abundancia fue registrada para cada uno de estos
grupos y no para cada especie en particular.


Realizamos los censos desde las 6:00-7:00 hasta las 12:00
horas, y desde las 13:00 hasta las 18:00 horas. Recorrimos
cada transecto a unavelocidad aproximada de 0.5-1.0 km/h,
con breves paradas cada 100 m para inspeccionar el Area y
minimizar el ruido. TI fue recorrido 24 veces acumulando
96 km, mientras que T2 lo recorrimos 18 veces acumulan-
do 72 km. El ancho del transecto fue estimado con base en
tres m&todos: Leopold, Green y Kelker (NRC, 1981). Una
vez establecido 6ste, calculamos la densidad grupal (Dg) a
partir de la siguiente formula (NRC, 1981):


Densidad (Dg)


Sumatoria de todos los avistamientos
2 (longitud x ancho del transecto)


Resultados

Reconocimos 15 morfotipos de plants que seghn Ramfrez-
Orjuela (1997) son consumidas por los monos aulladores
y correspondent aproximadamente a 35 species (Tabla 1).
El "lechero" (Brosimum utile, Moraceae) fue la especie mas
abundante en ambos transectos y en toda el Area evaluada.
La mayorfa de los drboles se encontraron en estado de fruc-
tificaci6n, otros estuvieron florecidos, en estado vegetativo
(con hojas maduras y j6venes), o habfan perdido completa-
mente las hojas.


CONVENCIONES:
Quebrada Poblaci6n *Avistamiento A. palliata
Curva de nivel .. Transecto

Figura 2. Ubicaci6n de los transectos (TI y T2) y de los
avistamientos de monos aulladores (A. p. aequatorialis) cerca a la
Estaci6n Biol6gica El Amargal.





Neotropical Primates 13(2), August 2005 3

Tabla 1. Abundancia absolute (arboles/hectirea) de los recursos disponibles para el mono aullador negro (Alouatta palliata aequatorialis)
en los transectos destinados al censo.

Abundancia
Familia Especie(s) Nombre Com-in
Transecto 1 Transecto 2 Promedio

Moraceae Brosimum utile Lechero 14.56 13.01 13.79
Cecropia insignis
Cecropiaceae Cecropia g Guarumo 4.27 10.10 7.18
Cecropia obtusifolia
Chrysophyllum sp.
Sapotaceae Pouteria aff. cuspidata
Caimito 6.60 6.80 6.70
Pouteria sp.
Rubiaceae Faramea occidentalis
Otoba latialata
Myristicaceae Vrola elongate Cuingare 2.52 5.83 4.17
Virola elongata
Castilla tunu
Moraceae Perebea xanthochyma Cauchillo 2.91 4.08 3.50
Pseudolmedia laevigata
Inga acrocephala
Inga coruscans
Inga macradenia
Inga mucuna
Fabaceae Inga mucuna Churimo 1.75 4.47 3.11
Inga panamensis
Inga quaternata
Inga sp.
Pterocarp us sp.
Pentaclethra macroloba Dormil6n 0.58 4.66 2.62
Fabaceae
Dipteris panamensis Choibi 2.33 2.14 2.23
Ficus cf. maxima
Moraceae Higueroncillo 1.17 3.30 2.23
Ficus tonduzii
Brosimum lactescens
Ficus americana
Moraceae Ficus hartwegii Matapalo 0.97 1.75 1.36
Ficus involuta urbaniana
Ficus pallida
Clusiaceae Symphonia globulifera Machare 0.00 1.36 0.68
Annonaceae Unonopsis sp. Aji 0.39 0.19 0.29
Dussia macrophyllata
Fabaceae Bagati 0.58 0.00 0.29
Lonchocarpus sp.
Anacardiaceae Anacardium excelsum Espav6 0.00 0.58 0.29
Tiliaceae Apeiba membranacea Peine de mono 0.00 0.39 0.19
Total 38.64 58.64 48.64


Tabla 2. Composici6n de los grupos de monos aulladores (Alouattapalliata aequatorialis) observados en la Estaci6n Biol6gica El Amargal.
Am = Adulto macho, Ah = Adulto hembra, J = Juvenil, I = Infante, NI = No Identificado.

Transecto Grupo Composici6n edad / sexo
Transecto Grupo --------------------------------
Am Ah J I NI Total
T1 Al 1 1 1 1 6 10
T2 A2 2 11 6 5 9 33
Total 2 3 12 7 6 15 43
Promedio 1.5 6 3.5 3 7.5 21.5





Neotropical Primates 13(2), August 2005


Tabla 3. Esfuerzo invertido en el censo y abundancia relative de
monos aulladores (Alouatta palliata aequatorialis) en la Estaci6n
Biol6gica El Amargal.

Esfuerzo Abundancia
Transecto Avistamientos relative
(ki) (grupos/10 km)
TI 96 1 0.10
T2 72 13 1.81
Total 168 14 0.83


Tabla 4. Parimetros empleados para estimar la densidad de monos
aulladores (Alouatta palliata aequatorialis) mediante tres metodos
(ver texto) en la Estaci6n Biol6gica El Amargal.
M6todo de M6todo de M6todo de
Leopold Green Kelker
Ancho del
0.03 0.06 0.04
transecto (km)
Longitud del 168 168 168
transecto (km)
Nutmero de
14 14 11
avistamientos
Densidad (grupos/ 1.5 0.7 0.8
km2)



Detectamos la presencia de dos grupos de monos aulladores
(Al y A2). El conteo y la identificaci6n de las diferentes
classes de edad y sexo no fueron fAciles. Dadas las condi-
ciones del terreno y la dispersi6n de los monos, en varias
ocasiones empleamos hasta una hora para obtener conteos
confiables (Tabla 2). El tamafio promedio del grupo fue de
21.5 individuos.

Recorrimos un total de 168 km y obtuvimos 14 avistamien-
tos lo que corresponde a una abundancia relative de 0.83
grupos/10 km (Tabla 3). Aunque el esfuerzo invertido en el
censo fue levemente mayor para T1, hubo una clara diferen-
cia en la cantidad de avistamientos entire ambos transectos. El
alto ndmero de avistamientos obtenido en T2 corresponde
a que el grupo A2 fue observado varias veces durante seis
dfas consecutivos en el mismo sector. En la Tabla 4, se pre-
sentan los valores del ancho del transecto y la densidad ob-
tenida a partir de los tres metodos empleados.

Discusi6n

La alta abundancia y los diferentes estados fenol6gicos
(hojas j6venes y maduras, flores y frutos) que presentaron
los recursos evaluados, pueden asegurar una alta dispo-
nibilidad de alimento para los monos durante esta 6poca
del afio. A pesar de ello y del alto esfuerzo invertido en los
censos (168 km recorridos), la cantidad de avistamientos en
los transectos fue relativamente baja (Tabla 3). Esto puede
estar siendo afectado, en parte, por la distribuci6n de los
recursos en el bosque. Si estAn dispuestos en forma agrega-
da, como normalmente sucede con los arboles en fructifica-
ci6n, la localizaci6n de los grupos estaria determinada por
la ubicaci6n de esos parchess." Esto se observ6 en T2 donde


ocasionalmente observamos a los aulladores alimentandose
(Fig. 2), sugiriendo que la concentraci6n de recursos ali-
menticios provoc6 la permanencia en ese sitio de uno de
los grupos de aulladores durante various dfas consecutivos.
El bajo ndmero de avistamientos en TI se puede explicar
en parte, por la menor abundancia de recursos y por ende
a una menor disponibilidad de alimento con respect a T2
(Tabla 1). La disponibilidad de recursos alimenticios ha
sido una de las variables determinantes en la abundancia de
primates, como lo estableci6 Mendes-Pontes (1999) en la
Amazonia brasilefia.

En la mayoria de los avistamientos fue dificil realizar con-
teos exactos del ndmero total de individuos, puesto que la
metodologfa del transecto lineal establece que el observador
no debe alejarse del transecto por mas de 10 minutes para
efectuar el conteo. Aunque algunas veces optamos por ale-
jarnos del transecto hasta por periods de una hora para ob-
tener conteos confiables, podrfamos estar subestimando el
tamafio poblacional mediante esta metodologfa como tam-
biWn lo experimentaron Defler y Pintor (1985) y Gonzalez-
Solfs et al. (2001) para A. seniculus y A. guariba respectiva-
mente. El tamafio promedio de grupo (21.5 individuos) es
muy alto comparado con los de studios hechos en Mexico,
Costa Ricay Ecuador (Fedigan etal., 1985; Clarke y Zucker,
1994; Estrada y Coates-Estrada, 1996; Charlat et al., 2000;
Estrada et al., 2001), donde se registraron tamafios grupales
promedio entire site y 14 individuos. Dado que nuestro
conteo de monos pudo estar subestimado, el tamafio pro-
medio grupal en El Amargal puede ser adn mayor.

Considerando que por lo menos 35 species vegetables pro-
porcionan recursos abundantes para los monos aulladores
durante la 6poca de menor precipitaci6n y otras suministran
alimento durante gran parte del afio en la Estaci6n Biol6-
gica El Amargal (Tuberquia et al., 1996), podemos sugerir
que la alta disponibilidad de recursos favorece la formaci6n
de grupos grandes en ese lugar, asf como lo proponen otros
autores para distintas localidades (Gaulin y Gaulin, 1982;
Chapman y Balcomb, 1998; Mendes-Pontes, 1999). Dife-
rentes caracteristicas poblacionales de los monos aullado-
res han sido estudiadas y se han identificado various factors
que determinan en gran parte la estructura poblacional de
cada localidad: la disponibilidad (distribuci6n y calidad)
del alimento, el parasitismo, la competencia intraespecf-
fica, el infanticidio, la depredaci6n, la aparici6n eventual
de enfermedades y la cacerfa (Freese et al., 1982; Milton,
1982; Peres, 1997; Gonzalez-Kirchner, 1998; Chiarello y
Melo, 2001). Para conocer la influencia de todos estos fac-
tores sobre el tamafio grupal de los monos aulladores en El
Amargal, es necesario realizar studios mas detallados y de
mayor duraci6n.

Gonzalez-Solfs et al. (2001) afirman que las estimaciones de
densidad obtenidas a partir de pocos avistamientos deben
ser interpretadas con cuidado. De Thoisy (2000) menciona
que las densidades obtenidas a partir de transectos linea-
les realizados en periods de tiempo relativamente cortos,
deben ser considerados como un Indice mas que como una




Neotropical Primates 13(2), August 2005


densidad absolute. A pesar de estas desventajas, el m&todo
del transecto lineal es prictico, eficiente, de bajo costo y
por ser ampliamente utilizado permit que los resultados
sean comparable entire diferentes studios (NRC, 1981;
Stevenson, 1996; Peres, 1999). Estas ventajas y la carencia
de informaci6n sobre las caracteristicas poblacionales de A.
palliata en Colombia, justificaron el uso del m&todo en la
Estaci6n Biol6gica El Amargal para obtener aportes preli-
minares al estado actual de la poblaci6n de A. palliata, como
lo hicieron Gonzilez-Solfs et al. (2001) para A. guariba cla-
mitans y Brachyteles arachnoides arachnoides en Brasil.

Una caracteristica poblacional de los aulladores en El Amar-
gal es la baja densidad grupal y el gran tamafio grupal pro-
medio, comparados con los resultados de otros studios. Es-
trada (1982) y Estrada y Coates-Estrada (1985) registraron
densidades (crudas y ecol6gicas) de aproximadamente 2.43
grupos/km2 en la region de Los Tuxtlas (Mexico). Esta den-
sidad grupal es mayor que la registrada en El Amargal (0.7-
1.5 grupos/km2). Aparentemente, en Los Tuxtlas existe un
alto ndmero de grupos pero de menor tamafio comparados
con los de El Amargal, lo que podria explicar en parte la
diferencia en las densidades de los dos sitios. En el Parque
YumkA (Mexico), Estrada et al. (2001) establecieron den-
sidades muy elevadas para A. palliata en un fragmento de
bosque completamente aislado (11.9 grupos/km2). Las
causes de esta inusual densidad de aulladores la desconocen
ellos, pero sugieren que la incapacidad de colonizar habitats
muy distantes hace que los aulladores permanezcan en el
fragmento durante various afios. En la Hacienda La Pacifica
(Costa Rica), Clarke y Zucker (1994) registraron valores de
densidad poblacional altos (8.2 grupos/km2) comparados
con los nuestros. De acuerdo con estos autores, existe evi-
dencia de cambios poblacionales a traves de la paulatina for-
maci6n de grupos transitorios (asociaciones alimenticias),
que aunque no llegan a ser grupos semipermanentes, expli-
carfa en parte la gran abundancia de grupos. En la isla Barro
Colorado (Panama), Milton (1982) encontr6 una densidad
ecol6gica de 92 ind./km2, y ella propone que al igual que en
la Hacienda La Pacifica, los bosques estan cerca de su capa-
cidad de carga y pueden estar saturados de aulladores. En
este caso, la alta densidad es caracteristica de una poblaci6n
que ha permanecido stable en el tiempo y la mortalidad,
como su principal regulador, ocurre por process naturales
tales como el parasitismo y la escasez peri6dica y con fre-
cuencia impredecible de alimento de buena calidad.

Al comparar la estructura poblacional encontrada en este
studio con la de otras localidades (Mexico, Costa Rica,
Panama y Ecuador), la mayorfa de ellas con gran influen-
cia de factors antr6picos, podemos sugerir que la pre-
sencia de grupos grandes y la baja densidad de estos en
El Amargal puede ser el estado "natural" de esta especie
bajo condiciones favorables que han perdurado desde hace
muchos afios; por ejemplo, la continuidad del habitat con
gran representatividad de bosques primarios conservados y
poca presi6n de caceria. Esta situaci6n se asemeja en parte,
a la descrita para la isla de Barro Colorado en Panama
(Milton, 1982).


La baja densidad grupal y el gran tamafio grupal promedio
de los monos aulladores en El Amargal, determinan que
sus areas de dominio vital sean extensas y nos puede hacer
pensar que los transectos de quatro km de longitud emplea-
dos no son suficientes para detectar a mAs de un grupo en
cada recorrido. Sin embargo, no creemos que esto sea un
factor limitante para obtener estimaciones de densidad con
el mdtodo del transecto lineal, siempre y cuando se obtenga
el ndmero de avistamientos necesario para emplear m&todos
estadfsticos robustos. Aunque Chapman y Balcomb (1998)
afirman que es muy dificil estimar las densidades poblacio-
nales de primates en Areas muy grandes (como sucederfa en
El Amargal), la NRC (1981) y Defler y Pintor (1985) pro-
ponen que el mdtodo mAs exacto para hacer estas estima-
ciones es el studio detallado de grupos especificos, porque
permit obtener calculos confiables de a) el Area utilizada
por los primates y b) del tamafio y la composici6n grupal.
Aplicando este mdtodo en El Amargal obtendriamos valo-
res de densidad ecol6gica, parAmetro que es muy cercano a
la densidad "real" y que result ser un mejor estimador de
la abundancia poblacional, como lo sefiala Mendes-Pontes
(1999).

Consideraciones para la Conservaci6n de A. p.
aequatorialis

Por various afios, la UICN ha clasificado a A. p. aequatorialis
como tax6n de "Preocupaci6n Menor" (Least Concern) en
su libro rojo de species amenazadas (IUCN, 2001, 2003).
En Colombia ha sido colocada como Vulnerable (VU) si-
guiendo los mismos criterios de la UICN (Defler, 2003).
Las poblaciones del mono aullador negro han sido afectadas
principalmente por grandes disturbios en su hAbitat, tales
como la deforestaci6n total, inundaciones por la construc-
ci6n de represas, y por su caceria indiscriminada (Crockett,
1998). En Mexico, la rApida desaparici6n de Areas bosco-
sas redujo la distribuci6n original de A. palliata (Estrada y
Coates-Estrada, 1984).

Algunas zonas de la Ecorregi6n PrioritariaTerrestre "Choc6-
Darien-Ecuador occidental," en particular el Choc6 y
Ecuador occidental, han figurado entire las mAximas prio-
ridades de conservaci6n del mundo desde hace unos 20
afios. Esto ha fomentado la realizaci6n de various proyectos
de conservaci6n por parte de los gobiernos nacionales, insti-
tuciones financieras y organizaciones de conservaci6n inter-
nacionales y nacionales (Mittermeier et al., 1999). A pesar
de estos esfuerzos institucionales, actualmente en Colombia
no existe un program de conservaci6n del mono aullador
negro como sf lo hay en Mexico (Crockett, 1998), lo que
merece ser considerado si se tiene en cuenta que las pobla-
ciones colombianas pueden representar cerca del 50% de la
poblaci6n total de esta subespecie (Defler, 1996). A media
que advance la colonizaci6n y la destrucci6n de los bosques
primaries del pacifico colombiano con fines de desarrollo,
podemos esperar que las poblaciones de monos aulladores
residents en los alrededores de la Estaci6n Biol6gica El
Amargal sufran un process similar al descrito para la Ha-
cienda La Pacifica en Costa Rica. En este sitio, Clarke y





Neotropical Primates 13(2), August 2005


Zucker (1994) han reportado que a media que aumenta
la alteraci6n de los bosques en el Area, los monos aulladores
experimental una reorganizaci6n poblacional mediante la
separaci6n de grupos grandes en grupos mas pequenos.

Las poblaciones humans de la costa Pacifica han sido
objeto de numerosas acciones de desarrollo que han demos-
trado ser incapaces de brindar oportunidades de vida mejor
y de preservar la integridad biol6gica y cultural de esos eco-
sistemas, porque ademas de los intereses de las comunidades
locales convergen otros de orden departmental, national y
mundial y por lo general, estos 6ltimos son los que priman
(Casas y Bosini, 1998). Bajo este panorama poco alentador,
la implementaci6n de grandes programs de conservaci6n
parece ser poco factible por el moment, sobre todo si em-
plean altas sumas de dinero. Dadas las condiciones actuales,
las comunidades locales esperan que cualquier apoyo exter-
no les sirva en primera instancia para suplir necesidades bi-
sicas de alimentaci6n, salud y educaci6n.

Consideramos que en la region de Cabo Corrientes en par-
ticular, se puede implementar un monitoreo a largo plazo de
la poblaci6n de aulladores. Este monitoreo se puede llevar a
cabo mediante la formulaci6n y ejecuci6n de proyectos de in-
vestigaci6n con enfoques biol6gicos, ecol6gicos, veterinarios
y culturales, con el fin de identificar la estructura poblacional,
su dinamica, los factors (bi6ticos y abi6ticos) que la regulan,
la magnitude de la relaci6n entire los monos y su habitat, y el
interns socio-econ6mico y cultural que tiene la comunidad
hacia estos animals. La continue recopilaci6n de esta infor-
maci6n, con la participaci6n active de los habitantes locales,
ira consolidando las bases conceptuales para estructurar pro-
gramas de conservaci6n de mayor envergadura.

Agradecimientos: Esta investigaci6n fue financiada parcial-
mente por el Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation. Agra-
decemos el apoyo de las entidades: Centro de Primatolo-
gfa Araguatos, Fundaci6n Inguede, Baterfas Varta y Kodak
Americas Ltd. A Jose Vicente Rodriguez (Conservation
International Colombia) por su ayuda en la gesti6n de los
recursos. A nuestro auxiliar de campo Juan de Dios Grueso
y a toda la comunidad de Arusf por su amabilidad e interns
en el censo de aulladores. A los bi6logos Erwin Palacios y
Pablo Stevenson por sus comentarios del manuscrito. A los
participants del I Curso de Biologfa de la Conservaci6n
de Primates, realizado en Formosa, Argentina, por la Fun-
daci6n Eco (junio 8 a 28 del 2003) por las sugerencias al
manuscrito. A Diego Builes y Adriana Ramirez, por su hos-
pitalidad en la ciudad de Medellin. Esta investigaci6n esta
dedicada a la memorial del Dr. Jorge Hernandez-Camacho
(q.e.p.d.), quien nos brind6 su valioso tiempo y conoci-
miento para guiar nuestros primeros studios en primates.
El siempre consider necesario realizar este primer censo de
Alouattapalliata aequatorialis en Colombia y apoy6 nuestra
intenci6n de hacerlo.

Carolina Ramirez-Orjuela y Ivan M. Sinchez-Duefias,
A. A. 33887, Bogota, D.C., Colombia. Correio electr6nico:
.


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24-28.


DIETA, FORRAJEO Y PRESUPUESTO DE TIEMPO EN
COTONCILLOS (CALLICEBUS DISCOLOR) DEL PARQUE
NATIONAL YASUNI EN LA AMAZONIA ECUATORIANA

Gabriel C( .- -1: .'
Anthony Di Fiore
Eduardo Ferndndez-Duque

Introducci6n

La subfamilia Callicebinae se encuentra representada por el
genero Callicebus, conocidos en Ecuador como cotoncillos
o songo-songos (Tirira, 1999). La sistematica del genero
ha recibido importantes revisiones 6ltimamente luego que
Hershkovitz (1990) realizara una revision taxon6mica en la
que llev6 el ndmero de species de tres a 13 (Kinzey, 1981;
de la Torre, 1998; Van Roosmalen et al., 2002). Actual-
mente, s61o dos species del genero se encuentran en Ecu-
ador (C. lucifery C. discolor, Van Roosmalen et al., 2002) y
las mismas habitan el bosque lluvioso tropical amaz6nico.

Todas las species de ( .... han sido siempre des-
criptas como socialmente mon6gamas, diurnas, arbori-
colas y territoriales (Kinzey, 1981; Wright, 1986; Robin-
son et al., 1987; Garcia y Tarifa, 1988, 1991; Stallings
y Robinson, 1991; Defler, 1994; Brooks, 1996; Miller,
1996a, 1996b; Tirira, 1999; Bossuyt, 2002; Van Roos-
malen et al., 2002; Norconk, en prensa). La alimentaci6n





Neotropical Primates 13(2), August 2005


Figura 1. Area de studio en el Parque Nacional Yasuni, Amazonia, Ecuador.


esta basada en el consume de hojas inmaduras, frutos, flores
e insects, prefiriendo los estratos medios y bajos del bosque
denso (Kinzey, 1977, 1981, 1997; Wright, 1985; Campos,
1991; de la Torre, 1998). Los grupos sociales tienen entire
dos y cinco individuos que se mantienen juntos la mayor
part del tiempo. La poca informaci6n disponible sugeriria
que los juveniles dejan el grupo a los dos o tres afios de edad
(Wright, 1985, 1986; Miller, 1996a; Bossuyt, 2002). La
dispersi6n del sub-adulto aparentemente es estimulada por
el nacimiento de la nueva cria. La hembra produce una crfa
al afio (de laTorre, 1998), luego de una gestaci6n de aproxi-
madamente 160 dias (Valeggia et al., 1995, 1999) y la cria
lacta aproximadamente durante ocho meses. El macho par-
ticipa activamente en el cuidado de la cria, siendo quien la
transport la mayor parte del tiempo (Wright, 1984; Men-
doza y Mason, 1986).

En el present trabajo resumimos los resultados de un estu-
dio realizado como parte de un proyecto de investigaci6n
a largo plazo de las species de primates mon6gamas del
Parque Nacional Yasunf (Schwindt et al., 2004; Hurst et
al., 2005; Di Fiore et al., sometido). El objetivo del studio
fue describir y cuantificar aspects generals de la ecologfa
y comportamiento de un grupo de ( .... discolor, in-
cluyendo estimaciones de su drea de vida, presupuesto de
tiempo, dieta y forrajeo.

M6todos

Area y grupo de studio
El studio se llev6 a cabo en La Reserva de la Bi6sfera Yasunf
(74.5W, 0.7S), en la amazonia ecuatoriana (Fig. 1). La
reserve se encuentra entire los 5 y 600 msnm en una zona
de bosque lluvioso tropical que registra una temperature
annual promedio que varia entire los 23 y 25.5C (Di Fiore,
2001). La zona se caracteriza por tener una 6poca lluviosa y
una seca durante el afio, con un promedio de precipitaci6n


annual de 2000 a 4000 mm. Las abundantes lluvias favore-
cen la existencia de various tipos de formaciones vegetables
como los bosques de tierra firme (90%), bosques de varzeas,
bosques de igap6 y bosques de pantano (Taco, 2001).

En Ecuador se registran un total de 19 species de primates,
de las cuales 15 se encuentran en los bosques tropicales de la
amazonia ecuatoriana (de la Torre, 1998). Especificamente
en la zona donde se realize este studio se registran hasta la
fecha 10 species de primates (Di Fiore, 2001).

El grupo estudiado estaba conformado por una hembra
adulta, dos individuos de similar tamafio ("adulto" y "sub-
adulto") y un individuo de tamafio menor juvenilel") Ocho
meses antes de comenzar el studio, se capture a la hembra
adult para colocarle un collar siguiendo los procedimientos
utilizados en monos nocturnos (Aotus spp.), una especie de
tamafio similar (Fernandez-Duque y Rotundo, 2003).

Coleccidn y andlisis de datos
La toma de datos se realize durante ocho meses entire agosto
del 2003 y marzo del 2004. Previamente se habfa imple-
mentado un sistema de transectas marcadas y mapeadas
que facility el seguimiento del grupo. Durante dicho pe-
riodo, se realizaron seguimientos del grupo desde las seis
de la mafiana hasta aproximadamente las cinco de la tarde,
cuando el grupo se aprestaba a dormir. Durante el tiempo
que se permanecia en contact con el grupo se tomaron
datos de uso del espacio, uso de los diferentes estratos del
bosque, dieta y comportamiento social.

Los datos sobre uso del espacio se tomaron cada20 minutes.
La posici6n del grupo fue determinada en base a la ubicaci6n
del individuo que se observaba durante un determinado
perfodo focal. Los datos sobre uso del estrato vertical (suelo,
sotobosque, subdosel, dosel bajo, dosel medio y dosel alto)
se colectaron de todos los individuos visible cada cinco


/
Estaci6n Cientifica
Yasuni





Neotropical Primates 13(2), August 2005


Tabla 1. Especies vegetables ingeridas por C .///. discolory parte
de la plant utilizada.
Familia Especie Parte utilizada
Arecaceae Iriartea deltoidea Hojas nuevas
Bignoniaceae Memora cladotricha Hojas nuevas
Bignoniaceae Siparuna sp. Fruto
Bombacaceae Matisia malacocalyx Fruto
Caesalpiniaceae Broumea grandiceps Hoja
Cecropiaceae Cecropiaficifolia Fruto
Cecropiaceae Cecropia sciadophylla Fruto
Cecropiaceae Pourouma bicolor Fruto
Cecropiaceae Pourouma minor Fruto
Euphorbiaceae Alchornea triplinervia Fruto
Fabaceae Bauhinia guianensis Fruto
Fabaceae Inga acreana Fruto
Fabaceae Inga auristellae Fruto
Fabaceae Inga capitata Fruto
Fabaceae Inga marginata Fruto
Fabaceae Inga thibaudiana Fruto
Fabaceae Inga umbratica Hoja
Fabaceae Zygia heteroneura Hoja
Tetrathylacium
Flacourtiaceae Tetrathylaum ver texto
macrophyllum
Lecithydaceae Gustavia longifolia Fruto
Melastomataceae Bellucia pentamera Fruto
Melastomataceae Blakea sp. Fruto
Melastomataceae Miconia napoana Hojas nuevas y floor
Melastomataceae Miconia sp. 1 Fruto
Melastomataceae Miconia sp. 2 Fruto
Melastomataceae Mouriri myrtilloides Hoja
Meliaceae Trichilia elegans Hojas nuevas
Phytolaccaceae Trichostigma octandra Hojas nuevas
Sapindaceae Paullinia simulans Tallo joven
Tiliaceae Apeiba membranacea Fruto y hoja nueva


minutes. Para registrar el estado comportamental se hicieron
muestreos focales de 20 minutes de todos los individuos en
el grupo. Durante cada perfodo de 20 minutes se realizaron
muestreos instantineos del individuo focal cada minuto y
muestros de barrido de todos los miembros observables del
grupo cada cinco minutes. Las categorfas que se utilizaron
para registrar el estado comportamental de los individuos en
cada muestreo instantineo fueron: forrajeo, alimentaci6n,
movimiento, descanso y comportamiento social.

El andlisis de los datos esti basado en informaci6n colecta-
da durante 260 horas de observaci6n distribuidas en 168
dfas durante los ocho meses de studio. Para el cilculo del
area de vida se determine el polfgono maximo utilizando los
puntos mis lejanos en donde se observ6 al grupo. Para esti-
mar el ndmero de species vegetables ingeridas, se colectaron
especfmenes de todas las species que fueron consumidas.


Los mismos fueron luego examinados y clasificados taxo-
n6micamente con la colaboraci6n del personal del herbario
que mantiene la Estaci6n Cientifica Yasunf.

El anilisis de los datos consisti6 en obtener el porcentaje de
muestreos instantineos y muestreos de barrido en los que se
registry cada una de las variables dependientes cuantificadas
(por ejemplo, forrajeo, estrato irboreo) en cada hora, obte-
niendo luego promedios para cada dfa y finalmente prome-
dios para toda la duraci6n del studio.

Resultados y Discusi6n

El grupo utiliz6 aproximadamente 3.3 hectireas como irea
de vida durante el perfodo de studio. El tamafio del Area
de vida se encuentra dentro de lo habitualmente descripto
para otras species de ( .... (Mason, 1966; Robinson,
1979, 1981; Easley y Kinzey, 1986; Robinson et al., 1987;
Norconk, en prensa). Nunca se observ6 otro grupo dentro
del Area utilizada por el grupo bajo studio, mientras que sf
se localizaron grupos en la periferia. Estas observaciones, si
bien en cierta manera preliminares, refuerzan la noci6n que
los ( son territoriales, entendidndose por ello que
hacen un uso relativamente exclusive de su drea de vida.

Con respect a la utilizaci6n vertical del espacio, los monos
utilizaron preferentemente los estratos medios del bosque.
Utilizaron mayormente el subdosel (46% de los registros),
seguido del sotobosque (34%), dosel bajo (14%), dosel
medio (5%) y dosel superior (1%). El grupo utiliz6 para
su dieta un total de 30 species vegetables, agrupadas en 21
generos pertenecientes a 14 families. La familiar Fabaceae fue
la mais utilizada con un total de ocho species consumidas,
seguida por las families Melastomataceae y Cecropiaceae
con seis species de la primera y cuatro de la segunda (Tabla
1). Dado que los generos Miconia y Cecropia, intensamente
utilizados por los monos, son generos asociados a bosques
perturbados, se podrfa suponer que esta especie podrfa
adaptarse a vivir en bosques no primarios.

La dieta vegetal del grupo incluy6 frutos, hojas, flores y
tallos. La dieta consisti6 principalmente de frutos (63%
de los registros), seguido por hojas (28%), flores (6%) y
tallos (3%). Los datos obtenidos indican un important rol
de ( .... como possible dispersor de semillas. Es inte-
resante destacar la utilizaci6n de Tetrathylacium, ya que las
hojas de esta plant fueron masticadas y luego frotadas por
el cuerpo de manera similar al comportamiento observado
en monos nocturnos en cautiverio (Evans et al., 2004). Esta
conduct tambien ha sido observada en ( .... cupreus
en el Parque Nacional Mand en Perd, en donde Bossyut
(pers. com.) observ6 aestos monos masticar hojas nuevas de
cinco species de la familiar Annonaceae y de una enredadera
(Bignoniaceae) y frotirselas por el abdomen.

Con respect al uso del tiempo, los individuos pasaron mais
de la mitad del tiempo forrageando (42% de los registros),
mientras que el resto del tiempo fue distribuido de una
manera relativamente similar entire socializar (15%), des-





Neotropical Primates 13(2), August 2005


cansar (8%), ingerir alimentos (8%) o moverse (10%). Los
animals estuvieron fuera de vista el resto del tiempo (17%)
lo que ilustra la naturaleza criptica de la especie.

La informaci6n aquf presentada y los analisis correspon-
dientes nos permiten concluir que el grupo de ( ....
discolor bajo studio es socialmente mon6gamo, diurno,
principalmente frugivoro y aparentemente territorial. El
alto porcentaje de registros fuera de vista y la preferencia
por estratos bajos de poca visibilidad tambikn sugieren una
probable estrategia de cripticidad para evitar predadores. Si
bien es necesario resaltar el caracter netamente preliminary
de este studio, los patrons observados sugieren que la eco-
logfa comportamental de ( ... discolor se ajustaria a los
patrons descriptos para otras species de cotoncillos. Los
studios en progress de otros grupos sociales de ( ....
discolor en la Estaci6n de Biodiversidad Tiputini en la ama-
zonia ecuatoriana permitiran evaluar la generalidad de los
resultados obtenidos en este studio.

Agradecimientos: Agradecemos a todo el personal de
la Estaci6n Cientifica Yasunf (ECY), a las autoridades
del Parque Nacional Yasunf, al Ministerio del Medio
Ambiente, y muy especialmente al Dr. Friedeman Koester,
Director Cientifico de la ECY, y las otras autoridades de
la Pontificia Universidad Cat61lica de Ecuador. EFD y
ADF agradecen especialmente a la Fundaci6n Wenner-
Gren por su apoyo para la implementaci6n del Proyecto
Primates Mon6gamos entire instituciones de Argentina,
Ecuador y EEUU, asf como el apoyo recibido de la
Fundaci6n Leakey, Idea Wild, New York University,
Primate Conservation, Inc. y el Zoological Society of
San Diego que hicieron possible el studio. Los autores
desean agradecer tambikn la inestimable colaboraci6n
de los estudiantes que hicieron possible este trabajo:
J. J. Bravo, S. Field, M. Moreano y D. Schwindt.
EFD condujo esta investigaci6n durante su estadfa
posdoctoral en el Zoological Society of San Diego y como
Investigador Adjunto del CECOAL-Conicet (Argentina).
La investigaci6n aquf descrita se realize en complete
acuerdo con la legislaci6n Ecuatoriana y fue aprovada por
el comity IACUC del New York University.

Gabriel Carrillo-Bilbao, Departamento de Biologfa, Uni-
versidad Central del Ecuador, Ecuador, Anthony Di Fiore,
Department of Anthropology, New York University y New
York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology (NYCEP),
New York, USA y Eduardo Fernindez-Duque, Centro de
EcologfaAplicada del Litoral, Conicet, Argentina y Depart-
ment of Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania, USA.
Dirigir correspondencia a: Eduardo Fernandez-Duque, 342
University Museum, 33rd and Spruce Streets, Philadelphia,
PA 19104, USA. E-mail: .

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University Press, New York.


VOCALIZAO6ES DE LONG ALCANCE COMO
COMUNICACAO INTRA-GRUPAL NOS BUGIOS
(ALOUATTA GUARIBA)

Sandra Steinmetz

Introdufio

Os primatas das florestas neotropicais, onde a visibilidade
e pequena, sao muito dependents de comunicacao vocal
(Marler, 1965; Seyfarth, 1987). Dentre estes primatas,
os bugios sao bem conhecidos por suas vocalizag6es
(Whitehead, 1987; Neville et al., 1988). 0 osso hi6ide
alargado dos adults, uma estrutura dnica entire os primatas,
atua como uma caixa de ressonancia, auxiliando a produzir
o rugido ou ronco (Altmann, 1959; Schbn Ybarra, 1988).

As vocalizao6es de long alcance nos bugios sao constitufdas
por rugidos (howls ou roars) e latidos (barks) que tem eleva-
da amplitude e podem ser ouvidas a centenas de metros de
distancia (Oliveira, 1997). 0 rugido tem sido bastante estu-
dado e d considerado um meio de comunicacio intergrupal
(Carpenter, 1934; Altmann, 1959; Chivers, 1969; Baldwin
e Baldwin, 1976).

Observag6es sobre as vocalizagoes de long alcance foram
coletadas em um estudo sobre o comportamento e ecologia
do bugio, Alouatta guariba, realizado no Parque Estadual
Intervales (Steinmetz, 2000, 2001).

M&todos

O Parque Estadual Intervales (PEI) abrange uma area de
49.888 ha de Mata Atlantica situada no Estado de Sao
Paulo, entire a Serra de Paranapiacaba e o Vale do Ribeira,
com sede no Municipio de Ribeirao Grande (24012' a
2425'S e 48003' a 4830'W).

O clima da regiao do Parque Intervales e temperado. A pre-
cipitagao annual e maior que 1.000 mm e nao existe estagao
seca. A temperature mddia do mes mais frio e de 18C e
do mes mais quente 22C (Petroni, 2000). Durante o ano
de estudo (novembro 1998 a outubro 1999) a temperature





Neotropical Primates 13(2), August 2005


media foi de 16,2C e a precipitagao total 1.707,82 mm
(dados obtidos na sede do Parque Estadual Intervales).

O padrao de atividades e dieta de um grupo de seis indi-
viduos-composto inicialmente por dois adults machos,
um sub-adulto macho, um jovem macho, uma femea adulta
e um infante-foram registrados atraves de amostragem in-
stantanea, mensalmente denovembro 1998 aoutubro 1999.
Durante o infcio do estudo, o sub-adulto saiu do grupo. As
observagoes diretas do grupo totalizaram 92 dias ou 918:30
horas (Steinmetz, 2000).

A quantificaqao do padrao de atividades sociais foi dividida
nas seguintes categories: Brincadeira, Catagao, Vocalizadao
e Outros (compreendendo as interagoes agonisticas e c6pu-
las). Todas as interagoes entire o grupo de estudo e outros
grupos de bugios, bem como as interagoes com outras esp&-
cies de animals, foram oportunamente registradas.

Durante o trabalho de campo foi observada a freqaiencia
das emiss6es de rugidos ao long do dia, sendo para tanto
anotado o ndmero de rugidos ouvidos dentro de intervalos
de uma hora. As emiss6es de rugidos dos diferentes grupos
avistados tambem constaram nesta amostra. Quando mais
de um grupo de bugios rugiu ao mesmo tempo (encontro
entire grupos), isto foi considerado como um dnico event
de emissao. Como a permanencia no campo nao foi igual ao
long dos meses, para se verificar variag6es mensais na emis-
sao de rugidos, o numero total de rugidos por mes foi divi-
dido pelo ndmero de horas que permanecemos no campo.
Quando o emissor estava sendo observado, foram anotados
a identidade deste e o possfvel motivo do rugido: encontro
de grupos, chamado, predagao e desconhecido. 0 chamado
ocorreu quando o individuo emissor estava perdido do resto
do grupo.

Para verificar diferencas mensais e sazonais foi utilizado o
teste estatistico de Mann-Whitney. 0 coeficiente de Spear-
man foi utilizado para correlacionar os dados de compor-
tamento do grupo corn a dieta, temperature e percursos
diarios. 0 teste de Friedman foi utilizado para verificar di-
ferengas entire os individuos do grupo quanto is atividades.
Todos esses testes possuem significancia p < 0,05.

Resultados e Discussio

Padrdo de atividades sociais
O grupo de bugios passou em media 3% do tempo inter-
agindo socialmente. As atividades socials mais representa-
tivas foram a brincadeira (34,23%), a catagao (33,98%) e
a vocalizacao (29,60%). Marques (1996) constatou que os
bugios, em sua Area de estudo, gastaram 4,24% do tempo
em interac6es socials, sendo 1,22% em vocalizac6es, 2,41%
em brincadeiras, 0,55% em catacao e 0,06% em agressao.

As vocalizac6es se mantiveram constantes entire as duas es-
tac6es (Mann-Whitney U = 23,000; p = 0,4318). Marques
(1996) tambem nao encontrou diferengas sazonais quanto
is vocalizao6es.


Interac6es agonisticas foram observadas nos encontros
entire o grupo de estudo e outros grupos de bugios.
Nestes encontros, geralmente os machos vocalizavam
e se perseguiam sem que ocorresse contato fisico entire
eles. Outros trabalhos confirmam esse comportamento
pacifico dos bugios (Carpenter, 1965; Neville et al., 1988;
Oliveira e Ades, 1993). Freeland (1976) discute que
confrontos fisicos em encontros de grupos sao raros na
maioria das especies de primatas, pois os grupos tendem a
manter um distanciamento fisico para evitar a propagagao
de doengas.

Todos os individuos do grupo vocalizaram. 0 macho 1 e
o infante foram os que mais vocalizaram e a femea a que
menos apresentou este comportamento (teste de Friedman
Fr = 20.812; p = 0,0003). 0 infante e o jovem, normal-
mente, vocalizavam quando nao conseguiam achar o grupo
ou quando estavam long da femea. Os machos vocaliza-
vam quando encontravam outro grupo de bugios ou, entao,
quando estavam long do seu grupo. A femea vocalizou
apenas quando estava perdida do resto do grupo.

Distanciamento intragrupal
Durante o descanso, geralmente os membros do grupo de
estudo ficavam pr6ximos uns dos outros na mesma arvore,
e durante o deslocamento e alimentagao o grupo se apre-
sentava mais disperso, como o grupo observado por Perez
(1997).

Pordm, em Intervales, aconteceu um fato peculiar, isto e,
os individuos do grupo se perderam uns dos outros em
varias ocasioes quando estavam forrageando. Quando isso
acontecia, os individuos "perdidos" ficavam se deslocando a
procura dos outros e em alguns casos vocalizavam. Esse fato
poderia ser particular do grupo de estudo, mas tambem foi
presenciado em dois outros grupos de bugios acompanha-
dos em Intervales.

Observamos os individuos do grupo de estudo se perde-
rem em 22 ocasi6es. Em dez destes epis6dios os bugios nao
conseguiram se encontrar ate o final do dia e dormiram se-
parados, sendo que por tries vezes dormiram mais de duas
noites separados. Os individuos envolvidos em cada divisao
do grupo, o ndmero de observagoes e as durag6es de cada
separaqao estao na Tabela 1.

Geralmente o que acontecia era que um ou mais individuos
safam forrageando na frente e os outros ficavam para
tras ou seguiam outro caminho e o grupo acabava se
separando. Ficavam entao dando voltas, procurando os
outros bugios e quase sempre vocalizavam, mas os outros
nunca respondiam. As vocalizac6es eram de "chamado" e,
em alguns casos, roncos. 0 jovem nao ficou muito tempo
sozinho, separado do grupo, indicando que os bugios dao
mais atengao aos imaturos. Os machos, quando perdidos,
eram os que mais se deslocavam atras do resto do grupo.
Em certas ocasi6es, os bugios "perdidos" chegavam a passar
ao lado dos outros membros do grupo, pordm sem enxergi-
los. Neville (1972) observou que em certas ocasi6es parte do





Neotropical Primates 13(2), August 2005


Tabela 1. Individuos agrupados em cada divisao do grupo de estudo, ndmero de ocorrencias e tempos de duraqao destas divis6es, no Parque
Estadual Intervales, Sao Paulo. Ml = Macho 1; M2 = Macho 2; F = Femea; J = Jovem; I = Infante.
Divis6es Ocorr&ncias Tempos de duraqao (horas) para cada ocorrencia
(F + I1) (Ml + M2 + J) 6 (3:50)(17:50)(> 4 dias)(7:00)(2:00)(29:00)
(J) (Ml + M2 + F + I) 3 (2:00)(2:20)(0:20)
(Ml + M2) (F + J + I) 3 (1:20)(16:50)(> 24:00)
(M2) (Ml + F +J + I) 3 (> 4 dias)(19:10)(3:00)
(Ml + J) (M2 + F + I) 2 (15:00)(13:40)
(Ml) (M2 + F +J + I) 2 (1:10)(47:30)
(J + I) (Ml + M2 + F) 1 (1:40)
(F +J) (Ml + M2 + I) 1 (2:00)
(F) (Ml + M2 +J + I) 1 (16:30)


grupo ficou separada por grandes distincias, provavelmente
porque alguns individuos nao perceberam que os outros ji
tinham safdo.

O grau de fragmentagao present em um grupo parece ser
determinado por uma combinacao de fatores ecol6gicos, so-
ciais, demograficos e filogen&ticos (Kinzey e Cunningham,
1994). Um fator que deve ter ajudado nesta maior dispersao
do grupo em Intervales d a extensao da sua Area de vida (33
ha), considerada grande para um grupo de apenas cinco a
seis bugios (Steinmetz, 2001).

Vocalizaroes de longa distdncia
A Tabela 2 mostra a variacao mensal e diaria dos rugidos
emitidos pelos diferentes grupos presents no Parque Esta-
dual Intervales.

A mddia de rugidos escutada em Intervales durante o ano
de estudo foi de 0,14 por hora. A mddia do total de rugidos
por hora de campo nao various entire as estaq6es chuvosa e
menos chuvosa (Mann-Whitney U = 23,000; p = 0,4318).
Nio houve correlao6es entire a variaqio mensal da tempe-
ratura e pluviosidade e a emissao de rugidos. A emissao
de rugidos foi comparada ao padrao de atividades, dieta e
tamanho dos percursos diarios do grupo de estudo. Apenas
houve uma correlacao entire o tamanho mddio mensal dos
percursos didrios e a emissao de rugidos (Spearman r =
0,5874; p = 0,0446), indicando que nos meses em que os
animals percorreram maiores distancias, os rugidos foram
mais frequentes. A Fig. 1 ilustra a emissao de rugidos ao
long do dia.

A emissao de rugidos ao long do dia foi comparada ao
padrao de atividades por horario do grupo de estudo. Houve
uma correlacao negative entire emissao de rugidos e descan-
so (Spearman r = -0,5675; p = 0,0431), mas os rugidos nao
estiveram correlacionados corn o deslocamento e a alimen-
tagao (Spearman r = 0,4353; p = 0,1371 e r = 0,5344; p
= 0,0599, respectivamente). As vocalizao6es foram mais
frequientes durante o perfodo de atividade dos bugios, das
07:00 is 17:00 horas, e apresentaram tries picos: um maior
entire 07:30 e 09:30, outro entire 11:30 e 12:30 e o iltimo
as 15:30 (Fig. 1).


,; I1V %V <5 %1 ;- %. 16 -
lloras

Figura 1. Frequencia de rugidos emitidos pelos bugios por hora
do dia no Parque Estadual Intervales.



Durante o acompanhamento do grupo de estudo, foi pos-
sfvel observer a identidade do emissor e avaliar o possivel
motivo do rugido; os dados estdo na Tabela 3.

Os individuos que mais emitiram rugidos foram os machos
adults. Foram encontrados tries motivos para a emissao de
rugidos pelos individuos do grupo de estudo. 0 mais fre-
quente foi o chamado, corn 17 observagoes. Como discu-
tido no item anterior, os individuos do grupo de estudo se
perderam em varias ocasi6es e, em alguns destes epis6dios,
os individuos emitiram rugidos. Nunca houve resposta
vocal por uma das parties do grupo quando a outra parte
emitiu rugidos. 0 indivfduo que vocaliza, neste caso, parece
estar querendo avisar ao resto do grupo a sua localizagao. 0
segundo motivo mais important para a emissao de rugi-
dos foi o encontro corn outros grupos. Em uma ocasiao, o
macho 1 vocalizou ap6s o grupo ter sofrido uma tentative
de predagao por gaviao. Em oito ocasi6es nao foi possivel
avaliar o motivo do rugido, mas os individuos podem ter
percebido a presenga de outro grupo ou predador.

Corn o aumento dos percursos didrios, as chances de encon-
tros corn outros grupos sao maiores, bern como as chances
dos individuos do grupo se perderem, e talvez isso explique


-*-Media
- Media Total





Neotropical Primates 13(2), August 2005


Tabela 2. Ndmero de rugidos por horirio e por mes emitidos por virios grupos de bugios no Parque Estadual Intervales.
% do
Hora Nov Dez Jan Fev Mar Abr Mai Jun Jul Ago Set Out Total Total

05:00 2 2 1,08
06:00 1 2 1 1 3 8 4,32
07:00 1 1 4 2 6 1 2 1 6 24 12,97
08:00 1 2 2 2 3 1 1 5 1 4 22 11,89
09:00 2 2 2 3 1 1 2 2 1 3 19 10,27
10:00 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 14 7,57
11:00 2 2 2 3 2 1 1 2 1 2 18 9,73
12:00 1 3 2 2 1 2 1 6 18 9,73
13:00 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 11 5,95
14:00 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 9 4,86
15:00 1 3 2 2 2 3 1 1 1 3 19 10,27
16:00 2 2 2 2 1 1 3 13 7,03
17:00 1 1 1 1 2 6 3,24
18:00 1 1 2 1,08
Total 18 6 21 18 26 13 9 4 6 15 10 39 185 100
Horas 173 98 133 113 102 113 79 97 87 94 103 117 1309
Total/
Total/ 0,10 0,06 0,16 0,16 0,25 0,11 0,11 0,04 0,07 0,16 0,10 0,33 0,14
Horas


Tabela 3. Ndmero de observagoes dos motivos e identidade do
emissor dos rugidos dos bugios do grupo de estudo no Parque
Estadual Intervales. Favor notar que a femea e o jovem vocalizaram
junto com os machos no encontro de grupos; nessa situacao, todos
do grupo vocalizam. No total foram 14 situagoes de encontro de
grupos.

Emissor Encontro Chamado Predacao Desconhecido Total
de grupos
Machos
14 14 1 8 37
adults
Femea 1 3 4
Jovem 2 2
Total 14 17 1 8 40


a correlagao
rugidos.


do tamanho dos percursos com a emissao de


Em A. palliata e A. seniculus, o rugido tem sido apontado
como um mecanismo important na manutencao do dis-
tanciamento entire os grupos (Carpenter, 1934; Chivers,
1969; Sekulic, 1982) e na regulagao dos territ6rios (Car-
penter, 1934; Altmann, 1959). Em A. palliata, A. seniculus
e A. belzebul, foi constatada a ocorr&ncia de uma alta fre-
qiiencia de rugidos ao alvorecer. Este coro matinal antecede
as outras atividades diarias desses animals e foi considerado
uma forma de cada grupo anunciar sua posigao aos grupos
vizinhos (Carpenter, 1934; Altmann, 1959; Chivers, 1969;
Baldwin e Baldwin, 1976; Bonvicino, 1989). Neste tra-
balho e em outros estudos realizados com A. guariba nao foi
constatada a presenga de um coro matinal (Mendes, 1989;
Chiarello, 1995; Marques, 1996; Oliveira, 1997). Foi ob-


servado que os rugidos em A. guariba eram emitidos, prin-
cipalmente, em encontros de grupos. Devido X aus&ncia de
coro matinal e aos rugidos serem quase restritos a encontros
entire grupos, Mendes (1989) sugere que, em A. guariba, a
principal funcao desta vocalizacao seja a defesa do espaco. JA
Chiarello (1995) sugere que a batalha vocal nos encontros
entire grupos seria uma forma de avaliacao dos oponentes,
enquanto Oliveira (1997, 2002) conclui que as vocalizao6es
de long alcance sao usadas para a defesa de recursos.

Foram observados 12 encontros do grupo de estudo com
outros grupos; dez aconteceram entire setembro e margo e
dois em agosto. A maioria dos encontros se deu em fontes
alimentares ou nas proximidades, indicando que os bugios
poderiam estar defendendo recursos especificos.

Alguns autores relatam a emissao de rugidos em interao6es
agonfsticas dentro do grupo (Sekulic, 1982; Drubbel e
Gautier, 1993; Chiarello, 1995), pordm sao as interagoes
intergrupais que t&m sido apontadas como o principal
motivo para a emissao de rugidos. Algo semelhante ao ob-
servado em Intervales foi relatado por Sekulic (1982): em
algumas ocasi6es um macho sub-adulto de um dos grupos
ficou long por horas ou dias, normalmente acompanhan-
do uma femea solitaria, e quando reencontrou o grupo, o
macho adulto comegou a rugir antes de ser acompanhado
pelo macho sub-adulto. Oliveira (2002) tambem observou
uma femea vocalizar durante a separacao entire membros de
um mesmo grupo, provavelmente para indicar sua locali-
zagao aos demais membros distantes. Parece que em Inter-
vales, onde os grupos se mant&m mais dispersos e a pressao
demografica e menor, os rugidos desempenham um impor-
tante papel na comunicacao intragrupal. Seriam necessarios





Neotropical Primates 13(2), August 2005


estudos em outros locals corn mata continue, onde as areas
de uso ocupadas pelos grupos de bugios fossem maiores,
para se averiguar a importancia dos rugidos na comunicadao
entire os membros do mesmo grupo.

Sandra Steinmetz, Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto
de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Cidade Universi-
taria, Sao Paulo 05508-900, Sao Paulo, Brasil. Endereco por
correios: Rua Hildrio Magro Jr., 44, Sao Paulo 05505-020,
Sao Paulo, Brasil. E-mail: com>.

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Neotropical Primates 13(2), August 2005


CYTOCHROME B SEQUENCES SHOW SUBDIVISION
BETWEEN POPULATIONS OF THE BROWN HOWLER
MONKEY (ALOUATTA GUARIBA) FROM RIO DE JANEIRO
AND SANTA CATARINA, BRAZIL

Eugene E. Harris, Cristiani G r -I ....-.-/
Zelinda Hirano Braga, Celia I. rr .

Introduction

The brown howler monkey (Alouattaguariba) is a medium-
sized and fully arboreal monkey that inhabits the Atlantic
Forest of South America. Its geographic distribution extends
from southern Bahia through the coastal Brazilian states
south to the province of Misiones in northernmost Argentina
(Kinzey, 1982; Di Bitetti et al., 1994; Rylands et al., 1988,
1996). Traditionally, two subspecies have been recognized,
A. guariba guariba in the north and A. guariba clamitans
in the south, although their exact distributions remain
unclear. Kinzey (1982) reported that the transition from one
subspecies to the other occurs in Espfrito Santo and Minas
Gerais, in regions flanking the Rio Doce, while Rylands etal.
(1988) found evidence suggesting that A. guariba clamitans
extends as far north as the Rio Jequitinhonha in northern
Minas Gerais, and that A. guariba guariba may be restricted
to southern Bahia (see Rylands et al., 1996).

In general, A. guariba has been little studied, although sev-
eral studies have described variation in pelage coloration
(Kinzey, 1982) and in cranial and hyoid dimensions (Gre-
gorin, 1996) that for the most part appear to be clinal in
nature. The southern populations tend to be larger in body
size, with larger cranial and hyoid dimensions, and display
greater sexual dichromatism (see Kinzey, 1982; Gregorin,
1996). Chromosomal variation is extensive in A. guariba:
Koiffmann (1977), Oliveira et al. (1995, 1996, 1998, 2000,
2001, 2002), and Gifalli (2003) have reported large dif-
ferences among populations, including chromosomal re-
arrangements and differences in diploid number (ranging
from 2N = 45 to 52). To date very little information exists
about genetic variation within A. guariba.

Here we present a preliminary assessment of levels of genet-
ic variation and inferred population structure in A. guariba,
based on mtDNA encoded cytochrome b (cyt-b) sequences
collected from populations in the Brazilian states of Rio de
Janeiro, Sao Paulo and Santa Catarina.

Materials and Methods

We analyzed a total of 19 DNA sequences from A. guariba;
details are provided in Appendix I. We collected cyt-b se-
quences from a total of 15 samples, including eight individ-
uals from Santa Catarina, five from Sao Paulo, and two from
Rio de Janeiro (Fig. 1). All samples from Santa Catarina
were collected from frozen specimens preserved by Projeto
Bugio at the Universidade Federal e Regional do Blumenau
(FURB). Projeto Bugio collected some of these monkeys


after they died in accidents (e.g., crossing the road); the proj-
ect also rescues monkeys that have been captured by local
residents. To sample these animals, a small (1 cm2) section of
frozen muscle was collected under the direction of one of the
authors (ZHB). The samples from Sao Paulo were collected
by another author (CG-I) and derive from animals held in
captivity at DEPAVE (Departamento de Parques e Areas
Verdes do Estado de Sao Paulo, Divisao T&cnica de Me-
dicina Veterindria e Manejo da Fauna Silvestre Sao Paulo,
SP, Brazil) or at CEMAS (Centro de Estudo e Manejo de
Animais Silvestres, Instituto Florestal, Fundagao Florestal,
Sao Paulo). Of the five sequences derived from samples from
Rio de Janeiro, three were downloaded from GenBank and
have been previously published (see Appendix I). Of these
samples, one was derived from a specimen at the Centro
de Primatologia do Rio de Janeiro (CPRJ), and two others
from the Universidade Federal do Para, Belkm (UFPA). An-
other sample from Rio de Janeiro was collected under the
auspices of CEMAS from an individual from Seropedica,
RJ. The final sample from Rio de Janeiro was from an indi-
vidual rescued from a fire by IBAMA in Pogo das Antas, RJ;
although the individual subsequently died, its body has been
frozen and is stored by Projeto Bugio at FURB.

Our analysis also included an additional four sequences of
cyt-b from A. guariba that were downloaded from GenBank
at the National Center for Biotechnology Information. One
sequence comes from the Sao Paulo Zoo (GenBank Acces-
sion No. AF289987; see Bonvicino et al., 2001) and three
sequences came from the Centro de Primatologia do Rio
de Janeiro (AY065898 and AY065899 from Cortis-Ortiz et


Figure 1. Map of southeastern Brazil showing the distribution
of A. guariba. = Localities of samples of A. guariba collected
and sequenced in this study: Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Sao Paulo (SP),
Parand (PR), Santa Catarina (SP). A = Additional sequences from
Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo downloaded from GenBank, Na-
tional Center for Biotechnology Information. In Appendix I we
list all individuals analyzed in this study.


0 500 km





Neotropical Primates 13(2), August 2005


al., 2003, and AF289986 from Bonvicino et al., 2001). Fig.
1 provides more detailed information on the geographical
origin of individual monkeys.

DNA was extracted either from frozen blood using a GFX
Mini Blood Kit (Amersham) or from frozen muscle samples
using a standard phenol-chloroform protocol (Maniatis et
al., 1982). An mtDNA region of nearly 1.2 kb, includ-
ing the cyt-b gene, was amplified by PCR and sequenced
using the oligonucleotide primers citbl, citb2, cit-alo (for
primer sequences see Bonvicino et al., 2001; Nascimento et
al., 2005) and CB1-5', CB2-3', CB-435L (see Cortes-Ortiz
et al., 2003). The sequences from our samples of Alouatta
guariba are available in GenBank under the accession num-
bers reported in Appendix 1.

We used BioEdit v.7.0.1.4 (Hall, 1999) to align the se-
quences. Phylogenetic analyses were performed in MEGA
v.3.1 (Kumar et al., 2004) and PAUP* (beta version 10)
(Swofford, 2000), while population genetic parameters
were estimated in SITES (Hey and Wakeley, 1997) and
ARLEQUIN v.2.0 (Schneider et al., 1997). Translations
of cyt-b nucleotides to amino acids were done using the
EMBOSS Transeq application (Rice et al., 2000). We used
ModelTest 3.06 (Posada and Crandall, 1998) to estimate
the best model of sequence evolution for our distance-based
estimates of divergence dates.

Results

The cyt-b DNA sequences show 28 polymorphic sites and
8 unique mtDNA sequences (haplotypes). Transitions out-
number transversions by a ratio of 2.5 to 1.0. There are
no indels in the sequences and the amino acid sequences
(determined in the EMBOSS Transeq application) are not
interrupted by premature stop codons, indicating they are
functional cyt-b sequences and confirming they are not
Numts (i.e., mitochondrial sequences inserted into the
nuclear genome; see Mundy et al., 2000).

Genealogical analysis and population genetics
Identical genealogical trees were generated using the Neigh-
bor-Joining algorithm based on either p-distances or NrT +
G (gamma = 0.2441) distances, selected by ModelTest 3.06
and rooted with published sequences from A. belzebul and
A. caraya (Bonvicino etal., 2001; Nascimento et al., 2005).
The deepest branch of the tree (Fig. 2) leads to two distinct
haplogroups, labeled Haplogroups 1 and 2. All individu-
als from Rio de Janeiro fall into Haplogroup 1, whereas all
individuals from Santa Catarina fall into Haplogroup 2. In-
dividuals from Sao Paulo have cyt-b haplotypes that fall into
either haplogroup. These same two haplogroups were found
in the strict consensus Maximum Parsimony Tree and in the
Maximum Likelihood Tree (-In likelihood = 1955.66419)
using the TrN + G model of sequence evolution (Posada
and Crandall, 1998). These trees include sequences from
A. belzebul(Ab-1001 and Ab-1088) and A. caraya (Ac-592
and Ac-X051). Each pair represents the two most divergent
haplotypes within each of these two species (see Bonvicino


et al., 2001; Nascimento et al., 2005). As can be seen, the
deepest branch in the A. guariba tree (occurring between
Haplogroup 1 and 2) is slightly older than the divergence
between the two A. belzebul haplotypes, and is nearly the
same age as the deepest branch between the two A. caraya
haplotypes. This presumably indicates that the divergence
between Haplogroups 1 and 2 in A. guariba took place earli-
er than the split between the two most divergent haplotypes
of A. belzebul, and appears to be as old as the split between
the two most divergent A. caraya haplotypes.

Since individuals from Rio de Janeiro and Santa Catarina
are found exclusively in either Haplogroups 1 or 2, respec-
tively, we describe parameters estimating their degree of
population differentiation as compared with estimates of
differentiation between other pairs of populations. First, we
note that there are nine fixed differences between individu-
als from Rio de Janeiro and Santa Catarina. Fixed nucleotide
differences are sites at which all samples from one popula-
tion show a different nucleotide compared to the nucleotide
at that site in all samples from another population. Such
differences are not expected if two populations are pan-
mictic (i.e. freely interbreeding). In contrast, there is only
one fixed difference between Sao Paulo and Santa Catarina,
and none between Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo. Second,
we found that Fst values, which measure population differ-
entiation, are notably high when comparing samples from
Santa Catarina and Rio de Janeiro (0.933, p < 0.05). This
is almost double the value found when comparing samples


Ag- M00 (SP)
01 Aa- x119 J) Haplo-
Ag-M MS(SP) group 1
96 Ag-X12(RJ)
A 14 IRJ)
64 Aga-M23(SP)
Ag- CS (sac)
Aa-scs(sc)
SAg SC2 (SC)
100 A M0 (SP)
Ag- SCS (SC)
63 Ag- SC2(C) Haplo-
Ag sc12 (SC)
Ag- sr (SC) group 2
r_ A-SC3 (Sc
82 _Ag-Uso(SC)
S-Aa- M309 (SP)
S Ag ma4 (SP)
Ab-10 D
0o -- Ab-108I
10 0 -A-XUI

0.005

Figure 2. Neighbor-Joining Tree based on p-distances with boot-
strap values from 1000 replications printed at nodes. RJ = Rio de
Janeiro, SP = Sao Paulo, and SC = Santa Catarina. All samples of
A. guariba in the gene tree are labeled beginning with the prefix
"Ag." More information on the specimens of Alouatta belzebul
and A. caraya is available via their sample numbers: Ab-1001 and
Ab-1088 (A. belzebul, Tucuruf, Pard, Brazil; see Nascimento etal.,
2005), Ac-592 (A. caraya, Rio Casca, Manso Dam Reservoir,
Chapada dos Guimaraes, Mato Grosso, Brazil; see Bonvicino et
al., 2001) and Ac-X051 (A. caraya, Bolivia; see Nascimento et al.,
2005). Scale units are percent nucleotide divergence.





Neotropical Primates 13(2), August 2005


from Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo (0.532) and four times
greater than the value when comparing Sao Paulo and Santa
Catarina (0.22 1).

Tajima's (1993) relative rate test (as employed in MEGA),
using Brachyteles as an outgroup, indicated no significant
departures from equal rates of evolution along ingroup lin-
eages. Since the Santa Catarina and Rio de Janeiro popula-
tions are exclusive to different haplogroups, we estimated
the divergence time between them using two different
calibration points: 12.9 Myrs (Goodman, 1996) and 16
Myrs (Cortis-Ortiz et al., 2003) for divergence between
Brachyteles and Alouatta. Distances were estimated using a
TrN + G (gamma = 0.2411) model of sequence evolution
(Posada and Crandall, 1998). We used these distances in-
stead of p-distances, since they correct for multiple hits and
among-site rate variation that, if left unconsidered, could
produce large overestimates of the actual dates of diver-
gence between haplotypes (Arbogast et al., 2002). We used
net distances in order to subtract the time it takes for the
coalescence of sequences within ancestral species. We solved
Formula 5.13 in Li and Graur (1991) using the distance
between Brachyteles and A. guariba from Rio de Janeiro
(0.36212), the distance between Brachyteles and A. guariba
from Santa Catarina (0.37158), and the distance between
A. guariba from Rio de Janeiro and A. guariba from Santa
Catarina (0.01254). This yielded divergence dates of -441
Kyrs and -532 Kyrs for the respective calibration points.
These dates were as old as the estimated dates between the
most divergent sequences within A. belzebul (-326 Kyrs)
and within A. caraya (-511 Kyrs).

Measures ofgenetic diversity
We compared the levels of variation in A. guariba in two
ways: by comparing A. guariba with the closely related
species A. belzebul and A. caraya, for which comparable
numbers of sequences are available (23 and 27 samples, re-
spectively; see Nascimento et al., 2005), and by comparing
levels of variation within the three geographic samples of A.
guariba (Fig. 2). While mean p-distances are very similar
in these three species, average pairwise diversity (a/bp) in
A. guariba (0.00778) is over twice the value in A. caraya
(0.0038) and about one-third greater than in A. belzebul
(0.00579).


The maximum p-distance in A. guariba (1.7%) was con-
siderably greater than the maximum p-distances in both A.
caraya and A. belzebul. Furthermore, p-distances compared
across Haplogroups 1 and 2 (ranging from 1.2% to 1.7%)
mostly exceed the largest within-species distances in A. bel-
zebul or A. caraya (1.0% and 1.3%, respectively). In fact,
the maximum p-distances within A. guariba (1.7%) are
nearly twice the genetic distances between A. caraya indi-
viduals from the geographically disparate localities of Santa
Cruz, Bolivia and Serra da Mesa in the state of Goids, Brazil
(-0.9%) (see Nascimento et al., 2005).

Within A. guariba, the Santa Catarina population is nota-
bly depauperate in mtDNA diversity. It is between 4 to 15
times less diverse in its i/bp and mean p-distance measures
compared with populations from Rio de Janeiro and Sao
Paulo. Conversely, the Sao Paulo population shows very
high levels of diversity in all measures, due to the fact that
it alone possesses haplotypes found in both Haplogroups 1
and 2.

Discussion

Our samples of cyt-b diversity in Alouatta guariba, drawn
from populations in Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and Santa
Catarina, are only representative of the southern portion
of the full distribution of A. guariba, which extends from
southern Bahia to northern Argentina (Rylands etal., 1994).
The region we sampled is usually ascribed to the southern
subspecies A. guariba clamitans, reported by Kinzey (1982)
to range as far north as the south bank of the Rio Doce in
Espfrito Santo, or, as more recent observations by Rylands
et al. (1988) indicate, as far north as the Rio Jequitinhonha
in Minas Gerais. The primary distinguishing feature of A.
guariba clamitans is its sexual dichromatism, in which the
male pelage is a dark rufous-red and the female is generally
dark to light brown, although considerable variation is rec-
ognized (Kinzey, 1982). Gregorin (1996), however, report-
ed a north-to-south cline in sexual dichromatism, as well
as in measurements of the cranium and hyoid, which are
generally larger in southern populations. Gregorin (1996)
found that these dines weakened the value of these charac-
ters for distinguishing the two subspecies.


Table 1. Population genetic parameters. V = number of variable sites; Hapl. = number of haplotypes; a = nucleotide diversity (average
proportion of nucleotide differences between all possible pairs of DNA sequences).
N Mean P- Range P- Hapl. iT/bp
Distance Distance
A. guariba 19 0.70% 0.0-1.7% 28 8 0.00778
Rio de Janeiro 5 0.02% 0.0-0.4% 5 5 0.00196
Sao Paulo 6 0.92% 0.0-1.7% 20 3 0.00876
Santa Catarina 8 0.05% 0.0-0.2% 2 2 0.00047
Between Haplogroups 1 & 2 1.40% 1.2-1.7% -
A. caraya 27 0.50% 0.0-1.3% 22 13 0.00338
A. belzebul 23 0.60% 0.0-1.1% 37 17 0.00579





Neotropical Primates 13(2), August 2005


Although we studied samples only from the range of the
southern subspecies, A. g. clamitans, we found evidence in
the cyt-b sequences suggesting a strong population sub-
division between A. g. clamitans from Rio de Janeiro and
those from Santa Catarina. This subdivision is evident in
several aspects of the data: (1) samples from the two states
fall exclusively into different haplogroups; (2) the samples
show a considerable number of fixed nucleotide differences
between them, which would not be expected if the popula-
tions were panmictic; and (3) the samples show statistically
significant Fst values, indicating differentiation.

Howler monkeys show the greatest degree of karyological
variation, both between and within species, of any platyr-
rhine genus (Koiffmann, 1977; Gifalli, 2003). Within
Alouatta, A. guariba shows a notable degree of geographic
chromosomal variation (Koiffmann, 1977; Oliveira et al.,
1995, 1998, 2000, 2002) that appears to be consistent with
our findings of geographic differentiation. Individuals of A.
guariba clamitans from the southern states of Santa Catarina
and Parana contrast with A. guariba clamitans from Rio de
Janeiro in their diploid number (2N = 45 [33] or 46 [9 9]
versus 2N = 49 [:3] or 50 [??]), as well as in several
Robertsonian rearrangements, pericentric inversions, and
chromosomal translocations (Oliveira et al., 1995, 2000,
2002). Our ongoing efforts to karyotype all individuals
in the preliminary cyt-b genealogy presented here should
help to clarify the association between chromosomal and
cyt-b results.

The population differentiation we observe within A. guar-
iba clamitans, along with the chromosomal differences
previously described by Koiffmann (1977), Oliveira et al.
(1995, 1996, 1998, 2000, 2001, 2002), and Gifalli (2003),
may indicate that A. g. clamitans is actually representative of
two distinct subspecies, or possibly even two separate spe-
cies. Oliveira (2000) suggested that the large chromosomal
differences characterizing these populations may indicate
they are reproductively isolated from each other.

This pattern of population subdivision may have arisen
during the late middle Pleistocene (over 400,000 years ago,
based on our estimate) following forest fragmentation, and/
or the formation of distinct ecoregions that became cen-
ters of endemism. One such region might have formed in
the southern Atlantic Forest, including Santa Catarina, and
another in the middle northern Atlantic Forest, including
Rio de Janeiro. Miller (1973) and Kinzey (1982) specu-
lated on refuges in the Atlantic Forest, but neither recog-
nized a distinct refuge in the southern Atlantic Forest that
would account for the differentiation of the Santa Cata-
rina population. A more recent study of possible centers of
endemism in the Atlantic Forest (Costa and Leite, 2000)
likewise did not identify a center of endemism as far south
as Santa Catarina. Nevertheless, the polymorphic Sao Paulo
population-which shares haplotypes with both the Rio de
Janeiro and Santa Catarina populations-may have formed
as the forests themselves expanded (in the case of refuges),
or as populations expanded from centers of endemism, and


animals carrying divergent haplotypes came into renewed
contact with each other.

Interestingly, we found that the maximum genetic distances
between individuals of A. guariba were considerably
greater than those found in either A. caraya or A. belzebul.
For example, even the distances between geographically
widespread individuals of A. caraya, from Bolivia and from
GoiAs in Brazil (see Nascimento et al., 2005), are only
half the maximum distances we found between A. guariba
in Rio de Janeiro and Santa Catarina. The reasons for
this are not clear, but may be related to the topographic
differences in habitat occupied by these three species. A.
guariba inhabits mountainous forests of the Serra do Mar
and Serra da Mantiquiera of the Atlantic Forest, while the
respective habitats of A. caraya (ranging across southern
Brazil, Paraguay and northern Argentina) and A. belzebul
(in the south-eastern Amazon and far northeastern Atlantic
Forest) are generally devoid of mountainous terrain.
Altitudinal variation has likewise been suggested to have
played a role in the population differentiation of the genus
Brachyteles, also endemic to the Atlantic Forest (see Rylands
etal., 1996).

Populations of A. guariba show remarkable variation in
mtDNA. Although these differences need to be confirmed
with other genetic markers, the Santa Catarina population
demonstrates 4 to 15 times less variation in cyt-b than the
populations in Rio de Janeiro or Sao Paulo, respectively,
while the Sao Paulo population shows extreme variability.
Apart from the insights it may allow into the evolution of
these populations, this information is also relevant for con-
servation efforts, as A. guariba has been listed as Vulnerable
(A. guariba clamitans) or Critically Endangered (A. guariba
guariba) (Rylands et al., 1994; Hilton-Taylor et al., 2004).

Acknowledgements: We would like to thank Felipe Martins
for helping us with DNA extractions from frozen muscle
samples (carried out in the laboratory of Dr. Joao Morgan-
te, Universidade de Sao Paulo) and for helpful discussions.
Thanks to Leonardo Pires Capelli, for helping with DNA
extractions from frozen blood samples. We would also like
to thank Regina Mingroni-Netto, Liliana Cortis-Ortiz,
Mariana Ascunce, and Dilmar Oliveira for general help
and advice. This research was supported by PSC-CUNY
Research Awards 67468-00-36 and 68625-00-37 to EEH,
and by FAPESP, CEPID-FAPESP to CPK.

Eugene E. Harris, Department of Biological Sciences and
Geology, Queensborough Community College, City Uni-
versity of New York, New York, USA, Cristiani Gifalli-
lughetti, Departamento de Gen&tica e Biologia Evolutiva,
Institute de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil,
Zelinda Hirano Braga, Fundagao Universidade Regional de
Blumenau, Santa Catarina, Brazil, and C6lia P. Koiffmann,
Departamento de Gen&tica e Biologia Evolutiva, Instituto
de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil. Corre-
sponding author: Eugene E. Harris, e-mail cuny.edu>.





Neotropical Primates 13(2), August 2005


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Neotropical Primates 13(2), August 2005


Appendix I. List of all Alouatta guariba samples analyzed in this study.
SGenBank Accession
Sample IDa Geographic Originb Numberc Organizationd Referencee

SC2 Blumenau, SC DQ679777 Projeto Bugio, FURB This study
SC3 Brusque, SC DQ679778 Projeto Bugio, FURB This study
SC4 Jaragui do Sul, SC DQ679779 Projeto Bugio, FURB This study
SC5 Indial, SC DQ679780 Projeto Bugio, FURB This study
SC6 Sao Bento de Sul, SC DQ679781 Projeto Bugio, FURB This study
SC7 Blumenau, SC DQ679782 Projeto Bugio, FURB This study
SC9 Indial, SC DQ679783 Projeto Bugio, FURB This study
SC12 Lages, SC DQ679784 Projeto Bugio, FURB This study
M273 Mairipora, SP DQ679776 DEPAVE This study
M300 Serra de Cantereira, SP DQ679773 CEMAS This study
M304 Serra de Cantereira, SP DQ679774 CEMAS This study

M305 ReservaFlorestalin DQ679772 CEMAS This study
Campinas, SP
M309 Serra de Cantereira, SP DQ679775 CEMAS This study
AF289987 SP AF289987 ZSP Bonvicino et al. (2001)
AF289986 RJ AF289986 CPRJ Bonvicino et al. (2001)
M306 Seropedica, RJ DQ679771 CEMAS This study
X119 RJ AY065898 UFPA Corts-Ortiz et al. (2003)
X120 RJ AY065899 UFPA Corts-Ortiz et al. (2003)
14 Pogo das Antas, RJ DQ679770 Projeto Bugio, FURB This study

a The sample ID is the code assigned to a specific animal and that is used to label the cyt-b gene tree in Figure 2. Exceptions are
AF289987 and AF 289986, which are also GenBank accession numbers.
b SC = Santa Catarina; SP = Sao Paulo; RJ = Rio de Janeiro.
c The GenBank database may be accessed at .
a Name of organization where the individual is kept, either as a living specimen or preserved. See Materials and Methods for more
information.
e References to consult for more detailed information about sample and sequence.


FORMAS NAO USUAIS PARA A OBTENCAO DE AGUA
POR ALOUATTA GUARIBA CLAMITANSEM AMBIENT DE
FLORESTA COM ARAUCARIA NO SUL DO BRASIL


Jodo M. D. Miranda, Rodrigo E Moro-Rios
Itibere P. Bernardi, Fernando C. Passos


Introduaio


O bugio-ruivo (Alouatta guariba clamitans) e endemico da
Floresta Atlantica sensu lato, e encontra-se distribufdo desde
o sul do Rio Doce no Espirito Santo ate o Rio Grande
do Sul e norte da Argentina, ocupando varias fisionomias
florestais como a Floresta Atlantica sensu strict, a Floresta
corn Araucaria e a Floresta Estacional Semidecidual (von
Ihering, 1914; Cabrera, 1957; Hirsch etal., 1991; Gregorin,
no prelo). Observag6es do comportamento de beber agua
por parte dos bugios I., n. Alouatta) sao incomuns em
animals de vida livre (Carpenter, 1934; Glander, 1978;
Terborgh, 1983; Neville et al., 1988; Bonvicino, 1989;
Bicca-Marques, 1992; Serio-Silva e Ricco-Gray, 2000;
Almeida-Silva, 2004). Acredita-se que estes animals
obtenham recursos hfdricos diretamente de seu alimento,
principalmente frutos e folhas novas (Glander, 1978;


Milton, 1980; Bicca-Marques, 1992, 2003; Steinmetz,
2001). 0 objetivo deste trabalho foi registrar e descrever as
diferentes formas observadas do comportamento de beber
igua em A. g. clamitans, fornecendo entao informao6es
sobre particularidades do comportamento do bugio-ruivo.

Area de Estudo e Metodos

0 estudo foi conduzido na Chacara Payquere: Centro de
Educacao Ambiental e Apoio a Pesquisa (propriedade parti-
cular, Ceramica Brasilia, Ltda.) (2529'52"S, 4939'24"W),
situada no Distrito do Bugre, Municipio de Balsa Nova,
Parana. 0 remanescente florestal do Bugre apresenta aprox-
imadamente 700 ha de Floresta corn Araucaria e esta inseri-
do na Area de Protecao Ambiental Estadual da Escarpa De-
voniana. 0 clima na regiao e "Cfb" segundo a classificadao
de Kbppen (IAPAR, 1978), apresentando uma mddia annual
de temperature de 18C e uma precipitagao annual de 1600
mm (Miranda e Passos, 2004).

Durante o perfodo de um ano (setembro de 2003 a agosto de
2004), no decorrer de estudos sobre aecologia e conservagao
da subespecie (Miranda, 2004; Miranda e Passos, 2004,





Neotropical Primates 13(2), August 2005


2005; Miranda etal., 2004, no prelo), foram acompanhados
dois grupos de A. g. clamitans. 0 grupo Patropf era composto
por quatro membros: um macho adulto, uma femea adulta,
um macho subadulto e um juvenile II. 0 grupo Forninho
possufa 10 individuos: um macho adulto, tries femeas
adults, um macho sub-adulto, dois juvenis II, dois juvenis
I e um infante. Esses dois grupos foram acompanhados por
393 horas nas quais foram observadas cinco ocorrencias do
comportamento de beber agua. A metodologia utilizada na
coleta dos dados que constam no present trabalho foi ad
libitum (Altmann, 1974).

Resultados e Discussio

Em umaprimeira ocasiao, umafemea adulta (grupo Patropf)
se utilizou da Agua contida entire as folhas de uma bromrlia,
removendo-as afim de conseguir espaco suficiente para
conduzir a Agua corn as maos ate a boca. Numa segunda
oportunidade uma outra femea adulta (grupo Forninho)
tentou beber a Agua que se encontrava em um oco natural
sobre um galho. 0 indivfduo procurou alcancar a seu
objetivo corn as maos e posteriormente diretamente corn
a boca. Pelo pequeno diametro da abertura do reservat6rio
em questao, esta nao obteve sucesso e foi seguida por dois
juvenis II que lograram exito bebendo diretamente corn a
boca. Por duas vezes foi observada a descida de uma outra
femea adulta do grupo Forninho, corn um infante agarrado
em seu dorso, ao solo se utilizando da Agua tanto de uma
poca a beira de um riacho quanto do seu pr6prio leito. Tanto
a femea quanto o infante beberam Agua nestas ocasi6es,
alcancando a Agua diretamente corn a boca. Esta femea
sempre teve a cauda presa a uma irvore, aparentemente
como uma forma de acelerar sua subida em algum caso de
emergencia. As descidas desta femea e seu filhote ao solo
para beber agua tiveram duraqao de aproximadamente um
minuto da primeira vez e um minuto e meio da segunda.

Houve apenas um registro do comportamento de beber para
machos adults quando, ap6s uma noite bastante 6mida,
um deles parece ter tido conseguido se aproveitar, direta-
mente corn a boca, da Agua acumulada em um "tapete" de
bri6fitas epifitas. Nesse estudo, aparentemente os bugios
beberam pouca Agua, o que tambdm e observado por outros
autores (Bicca-Marques, 1992; Steinmetz, 2001). As desci-
das ao chao podem ser inibidas pela presenca do observa-
dor, o que provavelmente nao ocorre com relacao is outras
formas de obtenqao de Agua.

Todas as formas de beber agua descritas pela literature para
Alouattaforam observadas no decorrer desse estudo, alem de
uma forma alternative: "agua acumulada em bri6fitas epffi-
tas" (Bonvicino, 1989; Bicca-Marques, 1992; Serio-Silva e
Ricco-Gray, 2000; Steinmetz, 2001). Na Floresta Atlanti-
ca sensu strict os bugios beberam somente em bromrlias,
devido a alta densidade em que essas se encontram nessa
fisionomia florestal (Steinmetz, 2001). JA outros autores res-
saltam que a descida ao solo e muito rara, podendo ocorrer
em situao6es de seca prolongada e outras ocasi6es especiais
(Gilbert e Stouffer, 1989; Serio-Silva e Ricco-Gray, 2000).


E vilido ressaltar que todas observa6oes deste comporta-
mento ocorreram durante o outono ou inverno, estaq6es do
ano nas quais os alimentos disponfveis sao principalmente
folhas maduras, as quais sao pobres em Agua e tern altas
concentrao6es de compostos secundarios de dificil diges-
tao (Milton, 1980; Chiarello, 1994). Tanto frutos quanto
folhas jovens-alimentos que figurariam entire as principals
fontes de hidratacao do organismo dos animais-sao escas-
sos durante este perfodo (Miranda e Passos, 2004). Outros
estudos tambdm mostram um maior consumo de Agua du-
rante as dpocas mais secas do ano (Glander, 1978; Bonvici-
no, 1989; Steinmetz, 2001). Isso e relacionado diretamente
corn o consumo de folhas maduras e inversamente corn o
consumo de frutos (Steinmetz, 2001).

No remanescente florestal do present estudo os bugios
podem ter dificuldade para encontrar agua em reservat6rios
arb6reos, pois a Floresta corn AraucAria nao possui uma
grande riqueza e densidade de bromrlias, principalmente
se comparada a Floresta Atlantica sensu strict, aldm de que
parte da area de estudo e formada por floresta secundaria,
o que diminui a quantidade de epffitas e de cavidades na-
turais, geralmente ligadas a grandes Arvores. A pouca dispo-
nibilidade de recursos hfdricos arb6reos pode ter impelido
os bugios a descerem ao solo e mesmo a utilizar formas al-
ternativas de obtenqao de Agua, como por exemplo a Agua
acumulada nas bri6fitas epffitas.

Joao M. D. Miranda, Universidade Federal do Parand,
Centro Polit&cnico, Caixa Postal 19020, Curitiba 81531-
990, Parana, e-mail: , Rodri-
go F. Moro-Rios, Biologia Universidade Federal do Parand,
Rua Wilson Valdivia Domingues 203, casa 6, Bairro
Jardim das Am&ricas, Curitiba 81540-170, Parana, e-mail:
, Itiber6 P. Bernardi, Biologia
Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das
Misses, Rua Guerino Cerutti 161, Frederico Westphalen
98400-000, Rio Grande do Sul, e-mail: yahoo.com.br> e Fernando C. Passos, Departamento de
Zoologia da Universidade Federal do Parana, Centro Poli-
tecnico, Caixa Postal 19020, Curitiba 81531-990, Parand,
e-mail: .

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Rev. Mus. Paulista 9: 231-256.


AN UPDATE ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF PRIMATES
OF THE TAPAJOS-XINGU INTERFLUVIUM, CENTRAL
AMAZONIA

Fldvio Eduardo Pimenta
Jose de Souza e Silva Junior

Introduction

The first records of the primate fauna in the Tapaj6s-Xingu
interfluvium date from the beginning of the 20th century.
Snethlage (1912) listed Chiropotes albinasus and Ateles mar-
ginatus as the most conspicuous species of the region, and
also cited the presence of Saimiri sciureus, Cebus sp., Calli-
cebus sp. and Alouatta sp. Almost a century later, this region
remains poorly studied, and our knowledge of the local pri-
mate species and their distribution is still incomplete. This
paper updates the list of primate species in the Tapaj6s-
Xingu interfluvium, and adds new records for the southern
part of this region. We emphasize the need to conserve the
primate fauna of this region, as this portion of Amazonia is
a target for development projects and is subject to strong
pressures from logging and ranching activities.

Methods

We compiled data on the occurrence of primates in the
Tapaj6s-Xingu interfluvium by literature review (Appendix
1), as well as from field observations and by the examina-
tion of specimens deposited at the Museu Nacional, Uni-
versidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ), the Museu
Paraense Emflio Goeldi (MPEG) and the Museu de Zoolo-
gia da Universidade de Sao Paulo (MZUSP). We calculated
geographic coordinates based on information in catalogues,
systematic revisions, faunistic surveys, maps (IBGE, 1972)
and gazetteers available on the Internet such as Species Link
- Geoloc (CRIA, 2005) and Global Gazetteer 2.1 (FRG,
2004). We plotted the points corresponding to these coordi-
nates (Fig. 1) using the program ArcView 3.3 (ESRI, 2002).
The species nomenclature follows Rylands et al. (2000).

Our fieldwork was carried out during two excursions to
the region of Serra do Cachimbo, southern Para State,





Neotropical Primates 13(2), August 2005


"tlo' (> .!,C i





e B* s* st* ss* -P aA ar or o
0





a 100 Wo So Wo O A KWromment


S Collection data and previous irnentoryworks records

SN aew record or Seria do Cachirnbo

Figure 1. Map of the Tapaj6s-Xingu interfluvium, showing the localities of primate records. 1. Mouth of the Rio Curua-Una (0223'S,
5405'W); 2. Cugari, between the lower reaches of the Rios Xingu and Tapaj6s (0225'S, 5355'W), Tamaruri (0225'S, 5352'W); 3.
Mouth of the Rio Curua do Sul (0240'S, 5410'W); 4. Os Patos (0231'S, 5418'W), Taperinha (02032'S, 5417'W), Maici (02033'S,
54o24'W); 5. Mararu (02032'S, 54038'W); 6. Santardm (02026'S, 54O43'W), Mojuf dos Campos (02026'S, 54042'W); 7. Curua-Una,
54 km S and 40 km E of Santardm (02055'S, 54028'W); 8. Belterra (02038'S, 54057'W), Cajutuba (02040'S, 55000'W), Aramanaf
(02043'S, 55000'W), Maguari (02047'S, 55001'W), Piquiatuba (02040'S, 54058'W); 9. Caxiricatuba (02050'S, 55008'W), Tapaidna
(02054'S, 55005'W), Itapoama (02057'S, 55002'W); 10. Tauari (03005'S, 55006'W); 11. Santardm-Cuiabi highway km 84 (03010'S,
54058'W); 12. Rio Curua-Tinga, tributary of the Rio Curua-Una (0300'S, 54045'W); 13. Aveiros (0315'S, 55010'W); 14. Tavio, Rio
Tapaj6s (03027'S, 55o11 'W); 15. Igarap&-Acd (03032'S, 5512'W); 16. Fordlandia (03040'S, 5518'W); 17. Rio Cupari, tributary of the
Rio Tapaj6s (03045'S, 55023'W); 18. FLONA Tapaj6s (03050'S, 55027'W), Rio Tapurucurazinho (3050'S, 55029'W), Araipi (03050'S,
55028'W); 19. Monte Cristo (04006'S, 55038'W), Pedreira, Rio Tapaj6s (04003'S, 55037'W); 20. Santardm-Cuiabi km 212 (04004'S,
55000'W); 21. Santardm-Cuiabi-Itaituba (0418'S, 55055'W); 22. Pimental (04037'S, 561 'W); 23. Rio Jamanxim (04043'S, 5618'W),
Estrada do Palhau km 5 (04040'S, 5617'W); 24. Santardm-Cuiabi highway km 446 (05015'S, 56003'W); 25. Bom Jardim (05031'S,
56052'W); 26. Cachoeira da Estiva (05029'S, 55047'W); 27. Missao Cururd (0616'S, 57039'W); 28. Prainha (06040'S, 57045'W); 29.
Upper Cururu (0712'S, 58004'W); 30. Sao Manoel, Rio Teles Pires (07021'S, 58003'W); 31. Rio Cururu (07045'S, 57030'W); 32. Rio
Arinos (10025'S, 58020'W); 33. Left margin of the Rio Santa Helena, tributary of the Rio Teles Pires (09034'S, 5619'W); 34. Fazenda Sao
Jose, Peixoto de Azevedo (10006'S, 55031'W); 35. Rio Arraios, upper Rio Xingu (11000'S, 53025'W); 36. Serra do Cachimbo (09022'S,
55000'W); 37. Cachimbo (08057'S, 54054'W); 38. Maloca, Rio Curua (07055'S, 54050'W); 39. Jamanxim-Curua (06030'S, 5515'W);
40. Upper Rio Curua (06025'S, 54050'W); 41. Mouth of the Rio Curua (05023'S, 54022'W); 42. Mundo Novo, right margin of the Rio
Irirf (04033'S, 53049'W); 43. Largo do Souza, Rio Irirf (04000'S, 53000'W); 44. Irirf-Xingu (03051'S, 52040'W), Cocal, Rio Irirf (03051'S,
5240'W); 45. Altamira (0312'S, 5212'W).





Neotropical Primates 13(2), August 2005


Brazil. The first excursion was during the rainy season
(1-28 March 2004) and the second in the dry season
(29 August- 17 September 2004). Serra do Cachimbo is lo-
cated in a transitional zone between the biomes of Amazonia
and the Cerrado; from this complex arise several tributaries
of the Rios Xingu and Tapaj6s. The landscape is dominated
by a mosaic of vegetation types, including cerrado forma-
tions, white sand vegetation, and typical Amazonian forest
formations such as terra firme forests and igapd (Lleras and
Kirkbride Jr., 1978).

FEP made direct observations of six primate species at
Serra do Cachimbo, following existing trails through all the
vegetation types in the study area. Those species directly
observed included Mico emiliae, ( .... moloch, Cebus
a.i/i//, Chiropotes albinasus, Alouatta belzebul discolor and
Ateles marginatus. FEP also collected specimens which were
later deposited in the MPEG mammal collection (MPEG
37806-37811). We identified the species we collected
and observed using illustrations and diagnostic characters
described in the literature (Kellogg and Goldman, 1944;
Hershkovitz, 1977, 1985, 1990; Jones and Anderson, 1978;
Vivo, 1991; Auricchio, 1995; Gregorin, 1996; Emmons
and Feer, 1997; Van Roosmalen et al., 1998, 2002; Silva
Junior, 2001), as well as by direct comparison with museum
specimens.

Results and Discussion

The majority of the records for primates in the Tapaj6s-
Xingu interfluvium are restricted to the regions close to the
lower Rio Tapaj6s and to the Rio Amazonas. By contrast,
there is virtually no information available on the primate
fauna in the central regions of the interfluvium.

We compiled a total of 45 localities in the Tapaj6s-Xingu
interfluvium where primates have been recorded, confirm-
ing the presence of 13 taxa in this region (Table 1). Five


of these taxa (Cebus ./.li, ( .... moloch, Chiropotes
albinasus, Ateles marginatus and Alouatta belzebul discolor)
have wide distributions in this region. Of the others, Cebus
-f... and Mico leucippe have been recorded only from
the east bank of the Rio Tapaj6s; Aotus azarae infulatus and
Mico argentatus from the north of the interfluvium, Saimiri
ustus from the north-central portion, Saimiri sciureus from
the central region, Mico emiliae only from the southern por-
tion and Alouatta seniculus from the south-central area.

Species distribution in the Tapajds-Xingu interfluvium
The distribution of A. marginatus, as defined by Kellogg
and Goldman (1944), includes the forests of the south
bank of the Amazon River between the Rios Tapaj6s and
Tocantins, in the Brazilian state of Para. However, al-
though Kellogg and Goldman (1944) designated its type
locality as Cameti-on the west bank of the lower Rio
Tocantins-no specimen has been observed in the Tocan-
tins-Xingu interfluvium since then, despite many surveys
of the mammals of the region. Its historical occurrence in
this region is doubtful at best, and the given type locality is
almost certainly incorrect (Martins et al., 1988). Thus, this
species is effectively known only from the Tapaj6s-Xingu
interfluvium. The southernmost records are restricted to
Snethlage's observations from 1912. Our observations in
Serra do Cachimbo agree with the hypothesis of Martins
et al. (1988), who gave the Rio Teles Pires as the southern
limit of A. marginatus.

The distribution of Chiropotes albinasus is restricted to the
south of the Amazon River, from the west bank of the Rio
Xingu-Irirf to the Rio Madeira (Hershkovitz, 1985). In the
Tapaj6s-Xingu interfluvium, the most southerly records
for this species are given by Hershkovitz (1985) and in this
paper.

According to Gregorin (1996), A. belzebuldiscolor(sensu Ry-
lands et al., 2000) is distributed to the south of the Amazon


Table 1. Species recorded from the Tapaj6s-Xingu interfluvium with their known localities of occurrence. The numbers follow the localities
in Fig. 1.
Species Locality
Mico i Linnaeus, 1766) 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 20, 23, 42, 45
Mico emiliae (Thomas, 1920) 34, 36, 38, 40
Mico leucippe (Thomas, 1922) 5, 14, 16, 18, 19, 22
Saimirisciureus (Linnaeus, 1758) 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 13, 14, 16, 18, 19, 25, 39
Saimiri ustus I. Geoffroy, 1843 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 12, 13, 15, 25, 29, 42
Cebus albifrons (Humboldt, 1812) 4
Cebus apella (Linnaeus, 1758) 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 13, 16, 18, 19, 24, 25, 27, 29, 36, 39, 41, 42, 43
2,4, 5,6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 25, 29, 30, 31, 32, 34, 35, 36,
Callicebus moloch (Hoffmannsegg, 1807) 37, 39, 41, 42

Chiropotes albinasus (I. Geoffroy & Deville, 1848) 6,8,9, 16, 18, 19,23,24,26,29,30,31,34,36,37,39,42,44,45
Ateles.... .....E.... Geoffroy, 1809) 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 13, 16, 17, 18, 27, 29, 36, 37, 39, 41, 42, 45
Alouatta belzebul discolor (Spix, 1823) 4, 6, 8, 9, 11, 13, 16, 18, 19, 25, 28, 29, 33, 36, 37, 39, 42, 43
Aotus azarae infulatus (Kuhl, 1820) 4, 8, 9, 13, 18, 19, 42, 43
Alouatta seniculus (Linnaeus, 1766) 33





Neotropical Primates 13(2), August 2005


River, from the east bank of the Rio Tapaj6s to the lower
Rio Tocantins and the island of Mexiana. The southernmost
records of this species' distribution include our observations
(Fig. 1, loc. 36) and those given by Pinto and Setz (2000)
for the west bank of the Rio Santa Helena, a tributary of the
Rio Teles Pires (Fig. 1, loc. 33). Pinto and Setz (2000) also
recorded A. seniculus in the same locality the only record
for this species in the Tapaj6s-Xingu interfluvium.

( .... moloch is distributed between the Rios Araguaia-
Tocantins and Tapaj6s (Hershkovitz, 1990; Van Roosmalen
et al., 2002), limited in the south to the region between the
headwaters of the Rios Xingu and Juruena (Fig. 1, loc. 32
and loc. 35).

The three species of Mico found in the interfluvium have
distributions which are restricted or poorly understood.
Mico leucippe seems to be endemic, with records only in
the Tapaj6s-Cupari interfluvium (Avila-Pires, 1969, 1986;
Napier, 1976; Hershkovitz, 1977; Branch, 1983; Vivo,
1985; George et al., 1988; Alperin, 1993). Mico argentatus
is recorded from the north (Fig. 1, Table 1), restricted to the
lower courses of the Rios Tapaj6s andTocantins (Ferrari and
Lopes, 1990). Hershkovitz (1977) extended its distribution
to include the Curum-Irirf interfluvium, as he considered
Mico emiliae to be a synonym of M. argentatus. M. emiliae
has a relatively wide distribution, apparently including
the Brazilian states of Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Para and
Rondonia (Vivo, 1985, 1991; Avila-Pires, 1986; Ferrari
and Lopes, 1992; Alperin, 1993; Roosmalen et al., 2000).
However, the details of this distribution are still not well
understood, because of its apparent discontinuity. Rylands
et al. (1993) suggest that the form of M. emiliae recorded
in Rondonia (Vivo, 1985, 1991) is distinct from that de-
scribed by Thomas (1904) in the Tapaj6s-Xingu interfluvi-
um. This was corroborated by Sena (1998) and Ferrari et al.
(1999), who demonstrated that the form of emiliae found
in the Tapaj6s-Xingu interfluvium is more similar in every
way to M. argentatus than to the form of emiliae" found in
Rondonia. Until now, M. emiliae had not been proven to
occur in the region of Serra do Cachimbo. Our observation
provides a significant range extension of M. emiliae to the
southwest, to at least the right bank of the Rio Teles Pires.

The possible presence of Cebus .. j in the Tapaj6s-
Xingu interfluvium is controversial. There is only one
record from the region, on the lower Tapaj6s (Napier,
1976), which we believe to be valid; but more observations
will be required to determine whether C. ... is wide-
spread in the interfluvium.

The records of Saimiri sciureus in this area are restricted to
the middle and lower Tapaj6s (Ayres and Milton, 1981;
Thorington, 1985; George et al., 1988; Silva Jdnior, 1992;
Vaz, 2001). The only record of this species beyond the right
bank of the Rio Tapaj6s is that of Snethlage (1912) from
the Jamanxim-CuruA interfluvium. In the area of the Rio
Xingu, this species has only been recorded from the east
bank (Voss and Emmons, 1996). Almost all the records of


Saimiri ustus are from the middle and lower Rio Tapaj6s,
but one record (Martins et al., 1988) is from outside of this
region (Fig. 1, loc. 42).

Recorded localities for Aotus azarae infulatus extend from
the Rios Tapaj6s and Juruena (Pieczarka et al., 1993) to the
Rio Paraguai in the south of Mato Grosso (Ford, 1994), and
throughout the reach of the Rio Tocantins (Schneider et al.,
1989). This taxon is known only from the northern portion
of the Tapaj6s-Xingu interfluvium (Vieira, 1955; Branch,
1983; Martins et al., 1988; Vaz, 2001).

Threats to the primates of the T. .' -. interfluvium
Ateles marginatus is listed as Endangered by the IUCN Red
List (IUCN, 2003) due to hunting pressure and environ-
mental degradation in the Tapaj6s-Xingu interfluvium.
This is due mainly to the exploitation of the region along
the Transamazonica (BR-230) and Cuiaba-Santardm (BR-
163) highways, primarily from logging and ranching. Fur-
thermore, its restricted distribution-as well as those of M.
emiliae and M. leucippe-is a contributing factor to threats
to these species.

Acknowledgements: Part of this research was financed by
grants from the Minist&rio do Meio Ambiente through the
PROBIO project. The authors wish to thank the staff of
the Museu Paraense Emflio Goeldi (MPEG), the Museu
Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ),
and the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo
(MZUSP). The authors would also like to thank Mike
Hopkins for his helpful comments on this manuscript.

Flivio Eduardo Pimenta and Jos6 de Souza e Silva J6nior,
Setor de Mastozoologia, Coordenacao de Zoologia, Museu
Paraense Emflio Goeldi, Belkm, Para, Brazil. E-mail:
.

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leben 1777 (Callitrichinae, Platyrrhini) baseada em se-
qiiencias do gene mitocondrial da Citocromo Oxidase
II (COII). Master's thesis, Universidade Federal do Para,
Belem.
Silva Jdnior, J. S. 1992. Revisao dos macacos-de-cheiro
(Saimiri Voigt, 1831) da Bacia Amazonica (Primates,
Cebidae). Master's thesis, Universidade Federal do Pard
and Museu Paraense Emflio Goeldi, Belkm.
Silva Jdnior, J. S. 2001. Especiaqao nos macacos-prego e cai-
araras, genero Cebus Erxleben, 1777 (Primates, Cebidae).
Doctoral dissertation, Universidade Federal do Rio de Ja-
neiro, Rio de Janeiro.
Snethlage, E. 1912. A travessia entire o Xing6 e o Tapaj6z.
Bol. Mus. Para. Emilio Goeldi7: 7-99.
Thomas, 0. 1904. New (C .- Midas, Felis, Rhipido-
mys, and Proechimys from Brazil and Ecuador. Ann. Mag.
Nat. Hist. 14(7): 188-196.
Thorington, R. W. 1985. The taxonomy and distribution
of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri). In: He 'dlook, of Squirrel
Monkey Research, L. A. Rosenblum and C. L. Coe (eds.),
pp.1-33. Plenum Press, New York.
Van Roosmalen, M. G. M., Van Roosmalen, T., Mitter-
meier, R. A. and Fonseca, G. A. B. da. 1998. A new and
distinctive species of marmoset (Callitrichidae, Primates)
from the lower Rio Aripuana, State of Amazonas, Central
Brazilian Amazonia. Goeldiana Zoologia 22: 1-27.
Van Roosmalen, M. G. M., Van Roosmalen, T., Mitter-
meier, R. A. and Rylands, A. B. 2000. Two new species of
marmoset, genus ( .- Erxleben, 1777 (Callitrichi-
dae, Primates), from the Tapaj6s/Madeira interfluvium,
South Central Amazonia, Brazil. Neotrop. Primates 8(1):
2-18.
Van Roosmalen, M. G. M., Van Roosmalen, T. and Mit-
termeier, R. A. 2002. A taxonomic review of the titi mon-
keys, genus ( .... Thomas, 1903, with the description





Neotropical Primates 13(2), August 2005


Appendix I. Gazetteer of catalogs, systematic reviews and inventories from the Tapaj6s-Xingu interfluvium, and localities obtained from
analysis of specimens deposited in scientific collections. The numbers follow those in Figure 1.
Source Locality
Alperin (1993) 2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 16, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 34, 38, 45
Avila-Pires (1969) 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 16, 22, 34, 38, 45
Avila-Pires (1986) 22, 34, 38
Branch (1983) 18
George etal. (1988) 18
Gregorin (1996) 4, 6, 8, 9, 16, 19, 25, 28, 29, 37
Hershkovitz (1977) 2, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, 13, 16, 18, 19, 22, 38, 45
Hershkovitz (1985) 8, 9, 16, 18, 19, 23, 26, 30, 31, 34, 37, 44, 45
Hershkovitz (1990) 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 19, 20, 21, 25, 30, 31, 32, 34, 35, 37, 41
Kellogg & Goldman (1944) 6, 8, 9, 10, 45
Martins et al. (1988) 42
Napier (1976) 2, 4, 5, 6, 17, 22, 38, 44
Pimenta & Silva Jtinior (this paper) 36
Pinto & Setz (2000) 33
Snethlage (1912) 39
Thorington (1985) 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 13, 14, 16, 19, 25
Vaz (2001) 8, 9
Vieira (1955) 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 13, 25, 28, 30, 40, 41, 45
Vivo (1985) 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 14, 16, 19, 22, 38, 45
Collection data (this paper) 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 18, 19, 24, 27, 29, 37, 41, 43, 44


of two new species, ( .... bernhardi and ( ....
stephennashi, from Brazilian Amazonia. Neotrop. Primates
10(Suppl.): 1-52.
Vaz, S. M. 2001. Primatas da regiao do Rio Tapaj6s, Para,
Brasil. Neotrop. Primates 9(2): 54-57.
Vieira, C. 1955. Lista remissiva dos mamfferos do Brasil.
Arq. Zool., Sdo Paulo 8: 341-474.
Vivo, M. de. 1985. On some monkeys from Rond6nia,
Brasil (Primates: Callitrichidae, Cebidae). Pap. Avuls.
Zool. Sdo Paulo 4: 1-31.
Vivo, M. de. 1991. Taxonomia de Callithrix Erxleben, 1777
(Callitrichidae, Primates). Fundacao Biodiversitas, Belo
Horizonte.
Voss, R. S. and Emmons, L. H. 1996. Appendix 8: Rain-
forest mammals of the lower Rio Xingu. In: Mammalian
Diversity in Neotropical Lowland Rainforests: A Preliminary
Assessment, R. S. Voss and L. H. Emmons (eds.), pp.101-
103. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 230.


Novos REGISTROS DE PRIMATAS NO PARQUE
NATIONAL DO ITATIAIA, COM ENFASE EM
BRACHYTELES ARACHNOIDES (PRIMATES, ATELIDAE)

Diogo Loretto
Henrique Rajdo
Introdufio

0 status atual do muriqui, Brachyteles arachnoides (E. Geof-
froy, 1806), de especie criticamente ameagada de extindao
no estado do Rio de Janeiro (MMA/SBF, 2002) 6 atribuido
principalmente a caca e aos intensos desmatamentos
sofridos pela Mata Atlantica (Strier e Fonseca, 1996/1997).
HA mais de 30 anos, no primeiro levantamento conhecido
das popula6oes de B. arachnoides, ja era evidence que
restavam poucos individuos nas serras do estado (Limeira,
1999). A ocorr&ncia de muriquis no Parque Nacional do
Itatiaia (PNI) foi registrada pela primeira vez em 1950 por
J. Lima (Marroig e Sant'Anna, 2001). Poucos anos depois,
Vieira (1955) ji cita o PNI como area de distribuihao
,> .- i *,. i do muriqui, informaqoes que foram confirmadas
pelos subseqiientes estudos de Aguirre (1971) e Avila-Pires
e Gouv&a (1977), corn exemplares coletados a 1300 m de
altitude na trilha Maromba-Lamego, e registros visuais entire
as cotas de 1000 e 1800 m de altitude.

Somente mais recentemente, outros dois registros desta es-
p6cie foram feitos no Parque, em 1992 por Camara (1995)
e em 1993 por Marroig e Sant'Anna (2001). No primeiro
deles, um esp6cime foi encontrado eletrocutado pr6ximo a





Neotropical Primates 13(2), August 2005


area da sede do PNI. 0 segundo registro foi feito na trilha
dos Tres Picos, entire 1100 e 1400 m de altitude. Nesta
iltima ocasiao, apenas um individuo foi avistado, cruzando
a trilha. Reportamos aqui novos registros do muriqui no
PNI, assim como os registros e consideraqoes sobre outras
quatro especies de primatas da regiao.

Metodos

Durante o perfodo de novembro de 2003 a marco de 2005,
fizemos sete excurs6es ao PNI. Foram 48 dias de trabalho de
campo (cerca de 580 horas de censo). Em todas as excurs6es
foram percorridas duas trilhas, geralmente em dias alterna-
dos: a Trilha dos Tres Picos (2225'S a 2226'S e 4435'S
a 4436'S), corn aproximadamente 6 km de extensao, e a
Trilha Maromba-Lamego (2225'S a 2226'S e 4433'W a
4437'W), corn aproximadamente 10 km. As trilhas foram
percorridas a uma velocidade aproximada de 1 km/h e as
observao6es iniciavam-se as 0600 h estendendo-se ate o
anoitecer. Essas trilhas, localizadas em duas vertentes dis-
tintas do macico do Itatiaia, sao pouco usadas por turistas e
apresentam variao6es altitudinais muito semelhantes, indo
de 1080 a 1662 m naTrilha dos Tr&s Picos e de 1100 a 1700
m na Trilha Maromba-Lamego. As altitudes foram medidas
em campo corn o uso de altimetro anal6gico Thommen,
corn escala de 10 m, e as coordenadas geogrificas obtidas
corn aparelho de navegacao portitil GPS II Garmin. As
gravaq6es foram feitas corn gravador Sony TCM 5000 EV
e microfone directional Senheiser ME66 e depositadas no
Arquivo Sonoro Elias Coelho (ASEC), do Laborat6rio de
Ornitologia e Bioacdstica, da Universidade Federal do Rio
de Janeiro.

Resultados e Discussio

Em duas ocasi6es registramos B. arachnoides na trilha dos
Tres Picos. Na primeira, em 10 de novembro de 2003, ob-
servamos durante 35 minutes (1555-1630 h), a cerca de
50 m da trilha, um grupo corn pelo menos seis individuos,
incluindo uma femea corn um filhote, a 1580 m de altitude
(2225'24"S, 4435'42"W). Os individuos foram fotogra-
fados e suas vocalizac6es gravadas durante cinco minutes.

O segundo registro ocorreuem 16 de junho de 2004, quando
observamos um grupo corn pelo menos 10 individuos for-
rageando na copa de irvores situadas a menos de 10 m da
trilha, a 1620 m de altitude (2225'38"S, 4434'59"W). As
observao6es se estenderam por 45 minutes (1500-1545 h).
Os animals foram fotografados e suas vocalizaq6es gravadas
durante 20 minutes, a uma distIncia de cerca de 30 m.

Em todas as situaqoes observamos os muriquis forrageando
em irvores de grande porte (ca. 20 m de altura e mais de
30 cm de DAP [diametro a altura do peito]). A prefer&ncia
por irvores de grande porte e corn galhos espessos esti de
acordo corn o observado para B. hypoxanthus por Lemos de
Sa e Strier (1992) na Estacao Biol6gica de Caratinga, Minas
Gerais, e corn o padrao geral para primatas neotropicais, no
qual a altura do estrato e o diametro dos suportes utiliza-


dos parece estar diretamente relacionada corn o tamanho de
corpo das especies (Cunha, 2005).

Nossos registros de B. arachnoides sao semelhantes, no que
diz respeito ao tamanho de grupos e altitude, aos feitos
por Garcia e Andrade Filho (2002) e Cunha (2003, 2004)
no Parque Nacional da Serra dos Orgaos, em Teres6polis,
Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Assim como citado acima, nossos
dois registros de B. arachnoides ocorreram em regi6es altas
e pouco visitadas do PNI, o que pode ser um reflexo da
pressao antr6pica excercida nos iltimos seculos, levando a
especie a se refugiar nas encostas mais remotas e pouco aces-
sfveis das serras.

Outras quatro especies de primatas foram registradas dentro
dos limits do PNI, nas mesmas trilhas usadas para o censo
de B. arachnoides. ( .... nigrifrons (Thomas, 1913), a
especie mais abundante em todas as sec6es de amostragem
(25 grupos), esteve present em praticamente todo o gra-
diente altitudinal das duas trilhas. 0 registro mais cedo foi
feito as 0540 h e o mais tarde as 1605 h, entire 1100 e 1600
m. Existem registros de pequenos grupos desta especie desde
700 ate 1720 m nesta regiao (Avila-Pires e Gouv&ea, 1977).
Em todas as observao6es C. nigrifrons formou pequenos
grupos, de ate quatro individuos, que se locomoviam pelo
estrato intermedidrio da floresta, entire 10 e 15 m de altura.

Cebus nigritus (Goldfuss, 1809) foi a segunda especie mais
abundante registrada (n = 12; grupos de ate oito indivfdu-
os). Esteve present somente nas dreas mais baixas das duas
trilhas, entire 1080 e 1300 m, quando estiveram ativos entire
0655 e 1730 h.

Alouatta guariba Humboldt, 1812 foi a especie menos
abundante neste perfodo, registrada somente a partir de vo-
caliza6bes e excrementos. (As fezes das especies de Alouatta
possuem cheiro e forma bem caracteristicos; o odor das fezes
e dificil de confundir corn odores de outros animals.) As vo-
calizao6es foram escutadas na trilha Maromba-Lamego no
dia 11 de novembro de 2003, as 0650 h a 1250 m e no dia
17 de dezembro de 2004, as 1500 h a 1150 m de altitude.
Nas duas ocasi6es os grupos estavam distantes da trilha, o
que nao permitiu o avistamento. Encontramos fezes e urina
de A. guariba na trilha dos Tres Picos a 1120 m, uma dnica
vez, no dia 19 de junho de 2004.

Alouattaguariba e uma especie pouco estudada nesta regiao
e em geral se distribui em populao6es pequenas e isoladas
(MMA/SBF, 2002). A maior parte dos registros desta esp&-
cie no PNI foi feita a mais de 20 anos (Avila-Pires e Gouv&a,
1977). De acordo corn esses autores a populacao de A. gua-
riba no PNI teria diminufdo muito a partir de 1939, em
decorr&ncia de uma epizootia.

Apenas ( .- aurita Geoffroy, 1812, encontrada anter-
iormente na regiao (Avila-Pires e Gouv&ea, 1977; Olmos,
1995), nao foi registrada por n6s no PNI. Coimbra-Filho
(1991) sugere que esta sempre foi uma especie rara em toda
a sua distribuicao. Outros estudos apoiam este status de





Neotropical Primates 13(2), August 2005


especie rara de C. aurita, como a recent revisao do genero
( .-' (Rylands etal., 1993), e em estudos feitos na Serra
dos Orgaos (Schirch, 1932; Cunha, 2004).

No entanto, dois guias turisticos do Parque nos infor-
maram sobre a presenga recent de "uma rara especie de
sagiii-preto-de-cara-branca" nas trilhas situadas pr6ximo a
entrada na parte baixa do PNI entiree 600 e 800 m). Este
registro se assemelha em altitude ao espdcime de C. aurita
coletado a 750 m de altitude reportado por Avila-Pires e
Gouvea (1977). Outro registro, feito por um funcionario
do PNI em outubro de 2004, ocorreu na trilha da Cacho-
eira Poranga, ca. 900 m de altitude, onde um grupo-pro-
vavelmente de C. aurita-foi avistado. A identificacao do
"sagiii-preto-de-cara-branca" foi confirmada quando o fun-
cionirio identificou rapidamente a especie no moment em
que apresentamos a Prancha II do guia de Primatas do Brasil
(Auricchio, 1995).

A confirmaqao da presenca no PNI das cinco especies de
primatas nativos registrados para a regiao (veja Geise et al.,
2004), reforga a importancia dessa unidade de conservadao
para a preservagao das especies de primatas da Mata
Atlantica.

Agradecimentos: Agradecemos a Leo Nascimento e Henri-
que Leao Zaluar, chefes do Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, pela
permissao para o desenvolvimento de pesquisas no Parque
e a Sergio Sarahyba pelo apoio logistico; aos Msc. Andrd
A. Cunha, Harley S. Silva e Leonardo C. Oliveira pelas su-
gest6es, critics e contribuio6es para este manuscrito; e aos
amigos e alunos do Laborat6rio de Vertebrados-UFRJ, que
nos ajudaram nas excurs6es.

Diogo Loretto e Henrique Rajao, Laborat6rio de Vertebra-
dos, Departamento de Ecologia, Universidade Federal do
Rio de Janeiro, CP 68020, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 21941-
590, Brasil. E-mail , biologia.ufrj.br>.

Referencias

Aguirre, A. C. 1971. 0 Mono Brachyteles arachnoides (E.
(r... rr-.. Situaqdo Atual da Especie no Brasil. Academia
Brasileira de Ciencias, Rio de Janeiro.
Auricchio, P 1995. Primatas do Brasil. Terra Brasilis Edi-
tora, Sao Paulo.
Avila-Pires, E D. e Gouvea, E. 1977. Mamfferos do Parque
Nacional do Itatiaia. Bol. Mus. Nac. 291: 1-29.
Camara, I. de G. 1995. Muriquis in the Itatiaia National
Park, Brazil. Neotrop. Primates 3(1): 19.
Coimbra-Filho, A. F. 1991. Apontamentos sobre C
aurita (E. Geoffroy, 1812), um sagiii pouco conhecido
(Callitrichidae, Primates). Em: A Primatologia no Brasil
3, A. B. Rylands e A. T. Bernardes (eds.), pp.145-158.
Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia e Fundacao Biodi-
versitas, Belo Horizonte.
Cunha, A. A. 2003. Primates in the Serra dos Orgaos Natio-
nal Park: New records. Neotrop. Primates 11(1): 49-51.


Cunha, A. A. 2004. Additional records of primates in the
Serra dos Orgaos National Park. Neotrop. Primates 12(1):
30-31.
Cunha, A. A. 2005. Estratificaqao vertical, abundancia e
tamanho populacional do macaco-prego (Cebus sp.) e
do mico-estrela (( .-' jacchus) no Maciso daTijuca,
Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil. Dissertagao de mestrado,
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro,
Brasil.
Garcia, V. L. A. e Andrade Filho, J. M. de. 2002. Muriquis
no Parque Nacional da Serra dos Orgaos. Neotrop. Prima-
tes 10(2): 97.
Geise, L., Pereira, L. G., Bossi, D. E. P. e Bergallo, H. G.
2004. Pattern of elevational distribution and richness of
non volant mammals in Itatiaia National Park and its sur-
roundings, in Southeastern Brazil. Braz. J. Biol. 64(3B):
599-612.
Lemos de Sa, R. M. L. e Strier, K. B. 1992. A prelimina-
ry comparison of forest structure and use by two isolated
groups of woolly spider monkeys, Brachyteles arachnoides.
Biotropica24(3): 455-459.
Limeira, V. 1999. Levantamento do muriqui (Brachyteles
arachnoides) no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Neotrop. Pri-
mates 7(1): 30-31.
Marroig, G. e Sant'Anna, A. B. C. 2001. The occurrence of
muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides) in the Itatiaia National
Park, Brazil. Neotrop. Primates 9(2): 75.
Ministerio do Meio Ambiente. 2002. Biodiversidade Brasi-
leira: Avaliaqdo e Identificaqdo de Areas e Acoes Prioritdrias
para a Conservacdo, Utilizaqdo Sustentdvel e Reparti4do dos
1; j. .. da Biodiversidade nos Biomas Brasileiros. MMA/
SBF, Brasflia, DF.
Olmos, F. 1995. Habitat and distribution of the buffy-
tufted-ear marmoset ( .-' aurita in Sao Paulo State,
Brazil, with notes on its natural history. Neotrop. Primates
3(3): 75-79.
Rylands, A. B., Coimbra-Filho, A. F. e Mittermeier, R. A.
1993. Systematics, geographic distribution, and some
notes on the conservation status of the Callitrichidae.
Em: Marmosets and Tamarins: Systematics, Behaviour, and
Ecology, A. B. Rylands (ed.), pp.95-120. Oxford Science
Publications, New York.
Schirch, P F. 1932. Contribuigao ao conhecimento da fauna
de Therez6polis, 960 m. Bol. Museu Nacional8: 77-86.
Strier, K. B. e Fonseca, G. A. B. da. 1996/1997. The endan-
gered muriqui in Brazil's Atlantic forest. Primate Conserv.
(17): 131-137.
Vieira, C. C. 1955. Lista remissiva dos mamfferos do Brasil.
Arq. Zool., Sao Paulo 8: 341-474.





Neotropical Primates 13(2), August 2005


CONSERVATION IMPLICATIONS OF PRIMATE HUNTING
PRACTICES AMONG THE MATSIGENKA OF MANU
NATIONAL PARK

Maria N. F da Silva
Glenn H. Shepard Jr.
Douglas W Yu

Introduction

Much ink has been spilled recently in the debate over whether
indigenous people are "ecologically noble savages"-natu-
ral-born conservationists- or whether they pose a threat to
biodiversity in the Amazon and other ecosystems (Redford,
1991; Alcorn, 1993; Alvard, 1993; Redford and Stearman,
1993; Robinson, 1993; Terborgh, 1999; Schwartzman et
al., 2000). Tropical biologists and ecological anthropolo-
gists alike have brought important empirical data and theo-
retical perspectives to the debate, including estimates of
game animal densities, rates of harvest and consumption
by indigenous and other hunting communities, alteration
in species composition and depletion or extinction of vul-
nerable species under different intensities of hunting, and
models to estimate sustainability of hunting practices and
catchment area sizes (Hames, 1980; Hames and Vickers,
1982; Bodmer etal., 1988; Peres, 1990; Mitchell and RAez-
Luna, 1991; Vickers, 1991; Bodmer et al., 1994; Robinson
and Redford, 1994; Raez-Luna, 1995; Alvard et al., 1997).

Though often overlooked, the sociocultural, economic and
political dimensions of hunting and resource use are also
critical for assessing sustainability and establishing man-
agement and conservation strategies (Campos et al., 2001;
Riez-Luna, 2001; Shepard, 2002). In this paper, we present
data on the species preferences and sex ratios of primates
taken by a sample of Matsigenka hunters during a one-
year period. We also note sociocultural beliefs and prac-
tices relevant to primate hunting among the Matsigenka
(see Shepard, 2002), and provide suggestions for long-term


monitoring and community-based management of game
animals in these and other native communities.

Research for this paper was carried out in the Matsigenka
native community of Yomybato, approximately 450 m
above sea level on a small tributary that joins the Rio Manu
some 30 km upriver from the Cocha Cashu Biological Sta-
tion (EBCC), located in Manu National Park, Department
of Madre de Dios, southeastern Peru (Terborgh, 1990). The
vegetation around Yomybato is mostly terra firme forest,
dissected by streams (Shepard et al., 2001).

The Matsigenka are an indigenous people numbering more
than 11,000, distributed among some three dozen small
communities settled throughout tributaries of the Rfos
Urubamba, Madre de Dios and Manu. During the 1960s,
an American Protestant missionary organization contacted
isolated populations throughout Madre de Dios and settled
them in the community of Tayakome on the upper Rio
Manu (d'Ans, 1981). After the creation of the Manu Na-
tional Park in 1973, the missionaries were expelled by the
Peruvian government, as their commercial activities (sale of
animal pelts to support operations) and provisioning (with
shotguns, ammunition, Western clothes and medicines)
among the Matsigenka were seen as contrary to the park's
goals of natural and cultural preservation. The small airstrip
and bilingual school at Tayakome were abandoned, while
shotguns, commercial extraction, and other market eco-
nomic activities were prohibited. About half of the approxi-
mately 200 Matsigenka in Tayakome at that time accom-
panied the missionaries on their exodus from Manu to the
adjacent Rio Camisea. Driven by internal social conflict, as
well as fear of attacks by the hostile Nahua (Yora) people of
the Manu headwaters, another segment of the population
left Tayakome around 1978 to establish the community of
Yomybato, some 30 km inland from Tayakome up the trib-
utary stream Quebrada Fierro or Yomuivaato (see Shepard
et al., in press, for a detailed history). The community of
Yomybato has grown from 92 inhabitants in 1986 to 218
in 2005, owing both to population increase and migration


Table 1. Non-human primate species of Manu; for more information see Pacheco et al. (1993).
English Common Name Matsigenka Name Latin Name Hunting Preference Weight (kg)
Spider monkey Osheto Ateles paniscus High 7.5 13.5
Woolly monkey A ...'. .'.... Lagothrix lagotricha High 3.6- 10.0
Red howler monkey Yaniri Alouatta seniculus Medium 3.6- 11.1
Brown capuchin Koshiri Cebus apella Medium 1.7 4.5
White-fronted capuchin Koakoaniro, Makere Cebus albifrons Medium 1.2 -3.6
Squirrel monkey Tsigeri Saimiri boliviensis Medium 0.6 -1.4
Owl monkey Pitoni Aotus nigriceps Medium 0.8 -1.2
Monk saki Maramponi Pithecia irrorata Low 2.2 -2.5
Dusky titi Togari Callicebus brunneus Low 0.9 1.4
Saddleback tamarin Potsitari tsigeri Saguinusfuscicollis Low 0.3 0.4
Emperor tamarin Tsintsipoti, Chovishishini Saguinus imperator Low 0.4
Goeldi's monkey (Marapito?) Callimico goeldii Low 0.5
Pygmy marmoset Tsigeriniro, Tampianiro, Tampiashitsa Cebuella pygmaea Low 0.1 0.2





Neotropical Primates 13(2), August 2005


from isolated Matsigenka settlements in the Manu head-
waters (Ohl, 2004).

Manu National Park hosts thirteen non-human primate
species (Terborgh, 1983; Emmons and Feer, 1990; Pacheco
et al., 1993; Shepard, 2002; see Table 1). Of these, spider
monkeys and woolly monkeys are preferred by Matsigenka
hunters. Howler monkeys and two species of capuchins are
also hunted, but less frequently, while the owl monkey is
considered a delicacy by some hunters. Other small primate
species such as squirrel monkeys, emperor and saddle-back
tamarins, dusky titis and monk sakis may be taken on occa-
sion, either as substitute prey on unsuccessful forays or by
younger or less skilled hunters. An unidentified primate spe-
cies known as marapito (possibly the rare Goeldi's monkey)
is also taken occasionally. The tiny pygmy marmoset has
never been observed to be hunted, and is attributed magical
powers by some hunters.

Due to the firearms prohibition, the Matsigenka hunt mostly
with palm-wood bows and bamboo-tipped arrows, using
visual and auditory cues to locate monkey troops. Hunters
also exchange information about recent sightings. Hunters
imitate woolly and spider monkey calls well enough to elicit
responses or even attract naive troops. Upon encountering
a monkey troop, hunters try to position themselves for a
nearly vertical shot as high as 30 m. Hunters try to pick
out the large adult males or kurakas (a Quechua loan word
meaning "leader") as targets for their first arrows. If the first
arrow does not hit the animal in the chest, or if the troop is
scared off, the hunter must pursue the fleeing animals, often
targeting the slower-moving females burdened by young.
Even fatally wounded monkeys are often able to climb into
a tall tree and get a firm grip on a branch, and hence do
not fall when they die. Hunters frequently recover their
prey by climbing high into the canopy, and falls causing
severe injuries or death are known to happen. Other noted
hunting accidents include being struck by a stray arrow and
snakebite (Shepard, 1999a; Izquierdo and Shepard, 2004).

Methods

This study uses a participatory methodology of hunting
returns that has been used with success elsewhere (Bodmer,
1994; Townsend, 1997). In December 1998, we asked three
Matsigenka bow hunters, living in two different settlements
in Yomybato (one near the central village area, one at a
distance of some 6 km), to store the skulls of all mammals
hunted and killed for the ensuing year. We returned to
the community in December 1999 to collect the data and
evaluate the success of the exercise. We did not pay the
informants on a per-skull basis or offer other incentives
that might distort hunter effort. However, upon our return,
we did give a nominal, unsolicited reward, a kitchen knife
or machete, in appreciation of the informants' efforts. Da
Silva examined and photographed each set of skulls and
carried out an interview with the hunters (translated from
the Matsigenka by Shepard) concerning the species, sex, age
class, and approximate kill date for each skull. The hunters


were frequently able to remember, in the case of female
animals, whether they were pregnant or burdened by young
when hunted.

We present here only the data on primate species preference.
We had initially planned, following Bodmer (1994),
to study species preferences for all large animals based
on skull collection data. However, this proved difficult
because of sociocultural beliefs and practices specific to
the Matsigenka. Matsigenka men do not eat meat from
the heads of animals they themselves have killed, believing
that they will "lose their aim" if they do so (see Shepard,
2002). For this reason the heads of large ungulate prey are
frequently gifted to close kin to "suck/finish off the meat
of the head" (tsogitotagantsi). This practice resulted in all
three hunters' ungulate skull collections being incomplete.
Because primate heads are relatively small, a hunter's
wife and children can easily "suck off the meat," and the
skull thus remained in the hunter's skull collection. Such
sociocultural considerations are of fundamental importance
in designing appropriate monitoring strategies in different
local communities (see Shepard et al., in press).

Results

Prey profiles
From the 1998-99 collection, we identified 17 woolly mon-
keys, 14 spider monkeys, three capuchins and one howler
monkey, a clear reflection of Matsigenka dietary preferences
(for an explanation of the low preference for howler mon-
keys, see the Discussion). One of the hunters continued col-
lecting skulls from 1999 to 2000, and his profile remained
similar, though there was a slight shift toward smaller spe-
cies: 11 woolly monkeys, six spider monkeys, and one each
of owl, dusky titi, and squirrel monkeys. Approximately ten
years earlier, Alvard and Kaplan (1991) found a similar prey
profile in a study by direct observation of a broader sample of
hunters throughout a full year (1988-89): 24 woolly mon-
keys, 17 spider monkeys, three capuchins and two howlers.
Following Rowcliffe et al. (2003), a simple way to detect
game depletion-and thus unsustainable hunting at the
local scale-is to assume that hunters are optimal foragers
who hunt additional species as their preferred prey becomes
scarce. Comparison of the two datasets reveals no significant
change in prey frequencies more than a decade later (Monte
Carlo RxC contingency table [Engels, 1988]: 1988-1999
data only, p = 0.975 0.001 s.e.; 1988-2000 data pooled, p
= 0.993 0.001 s.e.). This is despite the fact that the popula-
tion of Yomybato had grown by approximately 78% during
that time, due partly to immigration from isolated Matsi-
genka settlements in the Manu headwaters (Ohl, 2004).

Sex ratios
In addition to their detailed memory about hunting expe-
ditions, even months later, Matsigenka hunters also appear
able to differentiate between male and female skulls of pri-
mates and other species of game animals, using cranial fea-
tures such as canine size, robustness of the sagittal crest and
supraorbital margins, and overall skull size (cf. Ramirez,





Neotropical Primates 13(2), August 2005


1988; Corner and Richtsmeier, 1993). According to the
interviews with the hunters, conducted during da Silva's ex-
amination of the skulls (1998-99 data only), 13 of 14 spider
monkeys killed (93%) were female. Alvard and Kaplan
(1991) noted a similar pattern: females represented 15 of
17 (88%) spider monkeys taken during their observations.
The pooled dataset (n = 31) finds a significant female bias
(two-tailed binomial test, p = 0.026) when compared to the
spider monkeys' naturally female-biased sex ratio - '--.., as
registered nearby at Cocha Cashu Station on the Rio Manu
(McFarland Symington, 1987). For woolly monkeys, the
sex ratio in our dataset was close to parity: 8 of 17 (47%),
contrasting with Alvard and Kaplan's (1991) data showing
18 of 24 kills (75%) to be female. Woolly monkeys have not
been well studied in Manu, but populations in Venezuela
show roughly equal sex ratios varying from 80 to 120 males
per 100 females (Nishimura and Izawa, 1975; Izawa, 1976;
both cited in Alvard and Kaplan, 1991). Assuming an equal
sex ratio, there is a weak indication that woolly monkey kills
by Matsigenka hunters are female-biased (two-tailed bino-
mial: pooled, n = 41, p = 0.088; Alvard and Kaplan [1991]
data only: p = 0.015). Any female kill bias probably rep-
resents a balance between expressed hunter preference for
the larger adult males and easier access to females burdened
by young. We should note, however, that these sex ratios
represent only successfully retrieved kills; about half of the
large monkeys shot with arrows escape capture, although
many of them probably die afterwards (Ohl et al., in prepa-
ration). If we assume that males (larger and unburdened by
young) are more likely both to be shot and to escape, then
the female bias in the skull data could at least partially rep-
resent a post-shot retrieval bias, and the sex ratio of all killed
animals could be closer to parity.

Discussion

Prey profile data taken more than ten years apart suggest
that hunters experienced no primate prey depletion between
1988 and 2000. Following Rowcliffe etal. (2003), we infer
that primate hunting around Yomybato village was sustain-
able during this time, and continues to be sustainable in
2005 (Ohl et al., in prep.), despite a doubling of the Matsi-
genka population. In fact, large primates are still commonly
hunted within five km of the central village area. During
our 1999 stay, we encountered apparently naive and un-
afraid spider monkeys at a distance of only eight km from
the central village area, and less than two km from the near-
est household-garden compound. These observations sup-
port the suggestion that primate populations are sustained
by immigration from troops living in adjacent, non-hunted
areas (Alvard et al., 1997; Novaro et al., 2000; Peres, 2001;
Peres and Nascimento, in press; Shepard et al., in press). It
is well-established in ecological theory that predator-prey
dynamics are stabilized by prey refuges (May, 1978; Joshi
and Gadgil, 1991; Lewis and Murray, 1993), and much of
the rest of Manu Park appears to be such a refuge.

This conclusion contrasts with the results of calculating
sustainability via the standard method of estimating mini-


mum catchment areas (Robinson and Redford, 1991).
We calculate a catchment area estimate using Alvard and
Kaplan's (1991) data for a historical Matsigenka popula-
tion of approximately 105 people for Yomybato only, and
then extrapolate to the current total Matsigenka popula-
tion of 420 in the two settled communities of Manu Park,
Tayakome (not studied by Alvard and Kaplan) and Yomy-
bato. The catchment area is defined as the area needed to
sustain the per capital consumption rate reported in Alvard
and Kaplan (1991), assuming the maximum sustainable har-
vest rates from Robinson and Redford (1991). The measured
per capital consumption rate is doubled in order to count
wounded but escaped animals that eventually die (see Ohl
et al., in prep.).

According to these calculations, a Matsigenka population
of 105 people (Yomybato only) would have needed 7.0%
and 4.3% of Manu Park to support their offtake of woolly
and spider monkeys, respectively. (Note that the park covers
an area of 17,165 km2, larger than the U.S. state of Con-
necticut.) By linear extrapolation, the current population of
420 (Tayakome and Yomybato) should be using 28.0% and
17.2% of Manu Park, respectively. These are large numbers,
and they project that at least all of Manu Park would be
needed to sustain spider monkey offtake for a population of
merely 1500 human consumers. Given that several isolated
indigenous groups currently reside within park boundaries,
and that nine Westernized native communities are situated
around the park's borders (see Shepard et al., in press), the
number of human consumers currently exploiting the park's
game animal resources certainly approaches if not exceeds
1500. Thus, we might expect that spider monkeys, at least,
should already show signs of large-scale depletion. However,
the results presented here, as well as ongoing participatory
research with Matsigenka hunters (Shepard et al., in press;
Ohl et al., in prep.), provide no such evidence.

Clearly, a linear extrapolation does not take into account
the fact that human hunters are central-place foragers, typi-
cally traveling less than six km from their homes on hunt-
ing forays (Ohl et al., in prep.). An important implication
is that for each game species, the rate of mortality due to
hunting should scale up more slowly than does human
population growth, eventually stabilizing at a level equal to
the rate of immigration of animals from the "source" popu-
lations (non-hunted areas of the park) into the "sink" of the
hunting zone (see also Siren et al., 2004). Such source-sink
dynamics are credited with maintaining viable game animal
populations within the larger indigenous reserves across
the Amazon, despite local hunting pressure (Novaro et al.,
2000; Peres, 2001; Peres and Nascimento, in press). Manu
and other large parks in the Amazon almost certainly act as
game refuges, contributing to the food security of any native
inhabitants or neighboring human populations, though
this important benefit is rarely acknowledged by local peo-
ples (who tend to see parks as hindering their economic
interests) or conservation scientists and policy-makers (who
would rather not think about charismatic megafauna going
to the soup pot; see Shepard, 2002).





Neotropical Primates 13(2), August 2005


Certain native beliefs and practices reflect traditional socio-
environmental concepts that have conservation implications
(Posey, 1999). This is especially the case for primates, many
species of which have mythological or symbolic importance
and are subject to taboos, restrictions or dietary avoidance
among diverse Amazonian peoples (Shepard, 2002; Cormier,
in press). Matsigenka hunters mostly avoid taking woolly
and spider monkeys from the peak dry season (July-August)
through the early rainy season (November-December)
when fruits are scarce and monkey meat is lean and tough,
and thus likely to provoke disparaging comments by their
wives. Instead, monkey-hunting is concentrated in the
late rainy season and beginning of the dry season (March-
June) when monkeys are fat. The Matsigenka believe that
certain monkeys (especially large adult males) and other
game animals have vengeful spirits that can "take revenge"
on the hunter's family, causing illness to young children.
Matsigenka women use special fragrant herbs to protect
newborn babies from the musk-smelling, vengeful spirits of
monkeys and other game animals (Shepard, 2004). Hunters
may also practice sexual abstinence, behavioral taboos, and
ritual purification by purgative and hallucinogenic plants
in order to ensure "good aim" (kovintsari) and to maintain
good relations with the invisible spirits who guard and
multiply game animals (Shepard, 1998, 1999b).

Such beliefs imply a system of checks and balances between
humans and the natural world, implicit in many Amazonian
cosmologies (Reichel-Dolmatoff, 1976). A good example of
how culture impinges on hunter behavior is found in the case
of the howler monkey (see also Shepard, 2002). Based on a
specific mythical narrative, Matsigenka hunters often refer to
howler monkeys as shaman/sorcerers (seripigari). This repre-
sents a somewhat humorous reference to the howler's loud
"singing," but also implies a potential threat on the spiritual
level. Howler monkeys are also considered to be lazy; this
undesirable character trait could be passed on to children
who consume their meat. In more practical terms, howler
monkeys are also known to be infested with botfly larvae,
rendering their meat less attractive. Together, these beliefs
and attitudes result in a greatly reduced hunter preference for
howler monkeys, despite body weights comparable to spider
and woolly monkeys and high local abundance. (Authors'
personal observations: howler monkey troops can be heard
vocalizing near many Matsigenka settlements in Manu.)

In short, culturally mediated beliefs and practices affect
hunter behavior, sometimes in ways that run contrary to
"optimal foraging" analyses based solely on protein or ca-
loric profitability (e.g., Alvard and Kaplan, 1991; Alvard,
1993). Thus, traditional socio-environmental concepts
could provide the ideological framework for future con-
servation measures (Shepard, 2002). Still, long-term sus-
tainable management of game animals will require policy
intervention by the Manu Park administration as well as
commitment and participation by the Matsigenka them-
selves (Shepard et al., in press). An understanding of hunt-
ing practices, hunter preferences, and their sociocultural
underpinnings will be crucial in developing and maintain-


ing a productive dialogue on game management and pri-
mate conservation.

Maria N. F. da Silva, Colegao de Mamfferos, Instituto
Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), C. P. 478,
Manaus 69011-970, Brazil, Glenn H. Shepard Jr. and
Douglas W. Yu, School of Biological Sciences, University
of East Anglia, Norwich, Norfolk NR4 7TJ, United King-
dom. Corresponding author: Maria N. E da Silva, e-mail
.

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RECORDS OF PRIMATES AT ITATIAIA NATIONAL PARK,
BRAZIL

Itatiaia National Park (Parque Nacional do Itatiaia) is
located in the Serra da Mantiqueira, in the southwest of
the state of Rio de Janeiro and south of the state of Minas
Gerais in Brazil. Incorporating land from both states,
the park comprises an area of 30,000 ha; it is covered
primarily by Montane Atlantic Rainforest and Seasonal
Semideciduous Forest, at elevations ranging from 400 to
2790 m. Four main plant communities are found along
an altitudinal gradient: Sub-Montane Forest (from 400 to


499 m), Montane Forest (from 500 to 1499 m), High
Montane Forest (from 1500 to 1999 m) and High-Altitude
Grasslands (above 2000 m) (Ururahy et al., 1983; Geise
et al., 2004).

Six primates have been recorded from the Itatiaia National
Park: .- aurita, .- penicillata, Cebus nigritus
nigritus, ( ... nigrifrons, Alouatta guariba clamitans
and Brachyteles arachnoides. Most of these are older records,
however, published mainly in the 1970s (i.e., Aguirre, 1971;
Avila-Pires and Gouvea, 1977; see also Camara, 1995;
Marroig and Sant'Anna, 2001), and new surveys will be
necessary to update our knowledge of primate distributions
in this area.

During field surveys which I carried out in July 2004, I1 made
new records for three primate species belonging to three
genera and two families. All my observations were made on
a hiking trail known as Trilha dos Tres Picos (Three Peaks
Trail), which runs for six kilometers and culminates at an
elevation of 1662 m at the Serra do Palmital. The trail passes
through Montane and High Montane Forest communities.
In general, human traffic is infrequent on this trail; hunters
and poachers are not known from this area of the park, and
the only visitors are a very few tourists and researchers.

Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera, 1940
On 15 July 2004, at 0930 hours, I observed an adult male
and an adult female carrying an infant on its back at an
elevation of 1060 m, at 2226'07"S, 4436'30"W. They did
not respond to my presence and remained resting for a long
period, typical for Alouatta.

Cebus nigritus nigritus (Goldfuss, 1809)
Later on 15 July, at 1400 hours, I observed a group of 10
to 15 individuals at an elevation of 1600 m, at 2225'23"S,
4435'19"W. The individuals demonstrated aggressive
behaviors when I approached them, such as breaking of
branches, vocalizations, and threat displays (piloerection
and baring of teeth).

( .... nigrifrons(Spix, 1823)
On 20 July 2004, at 1500 hours, I recorded typical
vocalizations of this species at an elevation of 1620 m, at
2225'25"S and 4435'07"W. I heard the calls in a steep,
remote area of the park, and estimated the individuals were
approximately 500 m away.

The elevations at which Alouatta guariba clamitans and
( .... nigrifrons were recorded coincide with the rela-
tive frequency distribution of captures of primate species
presented by Geise et al. (2004) for elevational gradients at
Itatiaia National Park. These authors reported Cebus nigri-
tus nigritus from altitudes between 500 and 1500 m. My
observations of these taxa, however, were made outside this
range, at 1600 m.

These observations indicate that Itatiaia National Park still
supports a variety of primate taxa and is important for the





Neotropical Primates 13(2), August 2005


maintenance of primate diversity in the region. Most species
and subspecies present in this Park are on the Lista da Fauna
Ameacada de Extincdo do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Bergallo
et al., 2000): ( -.'. aurita (Vulnerable), ( .-.
nigrifrons (Vulnerable), Alouatta guariba clamitans (Possibly
Threatened), and Brachyteles arachnoides (Critically
Threatened). Additional field surveys will be necessary to
obtain new records, especially for the genus (

Sandro Leonardo Alves, Reserva Biol6gica do Guapor6,
Av. Limoeiro, s/n, Centro, Costa Marques 27320-690,
Rond6nia, Brazil. E-mail: .

References

Aguirre, A. C. 1971. 0 Mono Brachyteles arachnoides (E.
(,... rr-.. Situacdo Atual da Especie no Brasil. Academia
Brasileira de Ciencias, Rio de Janeiro.
Avila-Pires, F. D. and Gouvea, E. 1977. Mamfferos do
Parque Nacional do Itatiaia. Bol. Mus. Nac. 291: 1-29.
Bergallo, H. G., Rocha, C. E D., Alves, M. A. S. and Sluys,
M. 2000. A Fauna Ameacada de Extincdo do Estado do Rio
deJaneiro. Editora da Universidade do Estado do Rio de
Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro.
Camara, I. de G. 1995. Muriquis in the Itatiaia National
Park, Brazil. Neotrop. Primates 3(1): 19.
Geise, L., Pereira, L. G., Bossi, D. E. P. and Bergallo, H. G.
2004. Pattern of elevational distribution and richness of
non volant mammals in Itatiaia National Park and its sur-
roundings, in southeastern Brazil. Braz. J. Biol. 64(3B):
599-612.
Marroig, G. and Sant'Anna, A. B. C. 2001. The occurrence
of muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides) in the Itatiaia Na-
tional Park, Brazil. Neotrop. Primates 9(2): 75.
Ururahy, J. C. C., Collares, J. E. R., Santos, M. M. and
Barreto, R. A. A. 1983. Folhas SF 23/24 Rio de Janeiro/
Vit6ria; geologia, geomorfologia, pedologia, vegetacao e
uso potential da terra. In: Projeto RADAMBRASIL. As
regies fitoecoldgicas, sua natureza e seus recursos econdmicos.
Estudo f.-. ,. '"F-. (4 -Vegetacao). Rio de Janeiro.


BLACK HOWLER MONKEYS IN EL SALVADOR: A
RESULT OF THE PET TRADE

The geographical distribution of the black howler monkey,
Alouattapigra, is restricted to the south of Mexico (in the
state of Tabasco, the north of Chiapas, and the Yucatdin
peninsula), Guatemala (Petin), and Belize (Horwich
and Johnson, 1986; Horwich and Lyon, 1990; Rowe,
1996; Estrada and Mandujano, 2003). The only monkey
reported as native to El Salvador is the black-handed
spider monkey, Ateles geoffroyi, which is found mainly
in the forests of the Jiquilisco Bay in the Department
of Usulutin, in the southeast of the country (Morales
Hernindez, 2002).

The park guards of the San Diego Forest have been
reporting the presence of two monkeys there since 2004.


Figure 1. Female black howler monkey in San Diego Forest, El
Salvador, February 2005.


Figure 2. The two female black howler monkeys in San Diego
Forest, El Salvador, February 2005. (Photos courtesy of
CEPRODE.)


The San Diego Forest (SDF) is a dry tropical forest in the
department of Santa Ana (northern El Salvador) on the
border with Guatemala. It covers 1,842 ha, with altitudes
ranging from 440 to 780 m above sea level (CEPRODE-
FIAES, 2000). SDF is outside the known range of spider
monkeys in the country (Morales Hernindez, 2002), and
it was first thought that they were spider monkeys that had
been released there. I visited this area three times to verify
their presence.

The guards described these monkeys as "all black." Draw-
ings and pictures of different Mesoamerican monkeys were
shown to them in order to correctly identify the animals,
but they never recognized them as "spider monkeys" (Ateles
S..rr .., i The monkeys were eventually found during my
third visit to SDF, on 16 February 2005, and I was able to
verify that they were in fact two female howler monkeys,
Alouatta pigra.





Neotropical Primates 13(2), August 2005


According to the information I have to date, their pres-
ence is a result of the pet trade, but their origin remains
unknown. The authorities received recommendations from
expert primatologists who have studied howler monkeys in
the wild that they would best be left in the San Diego Forest
and monitored. Their relocation would be expensive, trau-
matic for the animals, and pointless. They are both females
and so will not reproduce. They are surviving well there,
eating leaves and fruits of vegetation such as Brosimum ali-
castrum, B. terrabanum and Ficus spp. (CEPRODE-FIAES,
2000). Howler monkeys are adaptable (Eisenberg, 1979),
although both A. palliata and A. pigra are seriously threat-
ened, because of forest destruction within their small geo-
graphic distributions (Crockett and Eisenberg, 1987). It
is important for us to know how these animals got there,
and why their presence has been ignored for so long. It is
urgent that national and international authorities along the
borders and within the countries reinforce their efforts to
protect endangered primates such as Alouatta pigra, as well
as other wildlife, from the pet trade.

Acknowledgments: My sincere thanks for the important
contribution by Ana Cecilia L6pez Pefia from the Ministry
of Environment and Natural Resources (MARN), who ac-
companied me during all my visits to San Diego Forest. I
am grateful also to MARN for providing logistical support
for the visits, and to the guards in San Diego Forest and the
conservation organisation CEPRODE; and also to Rodrigo
Samayoa, of the Working Mammal Group of El Salvador.
I also thank Robert H. Horwich, Kymberly Snarr, Shir-
ley McGreal, Juan Carlos Serio Silva and Gabriel Ramos
Fernandez for their advice and support.

Karenina Morales Hernmndez, Mammalogy Work-
ing Group El Salvador, Community Conservation, Inc.,
Apartado Postal 326, Santa Ana, El Salvador. Current ad-
dress: Department of Anthropology, School of Social Sci-
ence and Law, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford OX3
OBP, UK. E-mail: .

References

CEPRODE-FIAES. 2000. Estudio de Flora y Fauna Verte-
brada del Bosque San Diego y La Barra. Metapan, Santa
Ana, El Salvador.
Crockett, C. M. and Eisenberg, J. F 1987. Howlers: Varia-
tions in group size and demography. In: Primate Societies,
B. B. Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrang-
ham and T. T. Struhsaker (eds.), pp.54-68. The Univer-
sity of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Eisenberg, J. E 1979. Habitat, economy, and society: Some
correlations and hypotheses for the Neotropical primates.
In: Primate Ecology and Human Origins: Ecological Influ-
ences on Social Organization, I. S. Bernstein and E. 0.
Smith (eds.), pp.215-262. Garland STPM Press, New
York.
Estrada, A. and Mandujano, S. 2003. Investigaciones con
Alouatta y Ateles en Mexico. Neotrop. Primates 11(3):
145-154.


Horwich, R. H. and Johnson, E. D. 1986. Geographical
distribution of the black howler (Alouatta pigra) in Cen-
tral America. Primates 27(1): 53-62.
Horwich, R. H. and Lyon, J. 1990. A Belizean Rain Forest:
The Community Baboon Sanctuary. 3rd Edition. Orang-
utan Press, Gays Mills, Wisconsin.
Morales Hernandez, K. 2002. Wild populations of spider
monkeys (Ateles .. rr .., I in El Salvador, Central Ameri-
ca. Neotrop. Primates 10(3): 153-154.
Rowe, N. 1996. The Pictorial Guide to the Living Primates.
Pogonias Press, New York.


GROUP DYNAMICS AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE
MONOPOLIZATION IN THE MOUSTACHED TAMARIN
(SAGUINUS MYSTAX)

On 14 July 2005, Petra Lbttker defended her doctoral thesis
on aspects of group dynamics and reproductive monopoli-
zation by female moustached tamarins (Saguinus mystax) at
the University of Miinster, Germany. Her supervisors were
Prof. Dr. Norbert Sachser, Department of Behavioural Biol-
ogy, Institute of Neuro- and Behavioural Biology, Universi-
ty of Miinster, and Dr. Eckhard W. Heymann, Department
of Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, German Primate
Centre, Gbttingen. The study was supported by DFG (HE
1870/10-1,2). The following is a summary of the thesis.

Callitrichids are the only family of primates in which group
members are characterized by a cooperative breeding system
with only one, rarely two breeding females) per group,
often polyandrous matings, dizygotic twin offspring with
high neonatal body mass, delayed offspring dispersal, and
intensive helping behaviour shown by all group members.
To date, the factors shaping the evolution of cooperative
breeding in general, and the proximate mechanisms and
ultimate causes of female reproductive monopolization in
particular, remain largely unknown. A number of models
have been put forward to explain single-female breeding.
They incorporate various factors influencing the degree of
monopolization, including relatedness between dominant
and subordinate females, dispersal costs, the risk of inbreed-
ing depression, infanticide by dominant females, and avail-
ability of helpers. In general, two (non-exclusive) scenarios
are possible: dominant females can suppress reproduction
in subordinate females, or subordinate females can restrain
themselves from reproduction. Both dominant suppres-
sion and subordinate self-restraint can be manifested be-
haviourally and/or physiologically by preconception and/or
postconception mechanisms. Which mechanisms are actu-
ally involved seems to depend on a variety of factors such
as species, demographic and social context, reproductive/
physical status of the dominant female, age of subordinates,
and environment (captive versus wild).

Against this background, the aim of this study was to inves-
tigate different aspects of the cooperative breeding system,
focusing on female reproductive monopolization in a wild
tamarin species by investigating the demographic back-





Neotropical Primates 13(2), August 2005


ground as well as underlying physiological and behavioral
mechanisms. We studied eight wild groups of moustached
tamarins (Saguinus mystax) at the Estaci6n Biol6gica Que-
brada Blanco (EBQB) in north-eastern Peruvian Amazonia
over four years, using a combined approach of detailed,
long-term behavioral observations and modern non-
invasive techniques of genetic and endocrine analyses from
faecal samples.

The demographic and genetic data revealed that wild mous-
tached tamarins exhibit a clear monopolization of repro-
duction by one female per group (Lbttker et al., 2004a).
Despite the presence of up to three adult females per group,
in none of the groups did more than one female breed suc-
cessfully at any time. Relatedness within groups was gener-
ally high, and most non-breeding individuals were either
natal or closely related to the respective same-sex breeder.
Apart from members of breeding pairs that were never
closely related, only three groups in three group years out of
eight groups in 17 group years contained individuals unre-
lated to any of the group members. Hence, in the majority
of groups, non-breeding females were able to gain indirect
fitness benefits from helping to rear offspring of a closely
related female (mother or sister). Along with assumed low
chances for independent breeding in the study population,
this situation might induce subordinate females to restrain
themselves from reproduction.

Endocrine analyses on two breeding and two non-breed-
ing females from two study groups revealed that the mo-
nopolization of reproduction was apparently not caused
or maintained through ovarian inactivity in non-breeding
females (Lbttker et al., 2004b). Non-breeding females dem-
onstrated temporal fluctuations in hormone concentrations
and absolute hormone levels that were similar to ones in
the breeding females during their phases of ovarian activity.
Along with the absence of overt female-female aggression,
this questions the action of dominant suppression. Instead,
both non-breeding females were daughters of the actual
breeding pair and sexual interactions with their group males
were never observed. Hence, reproductive inactivity in them
is likely to be shaped by inbreeding avoidance. Along with
the general constraints of helpers on the successful rearing
of the young, this would suggest that females avoid repro-
ducing until prevailing conditions improve. Thus, overall,
subordinate self-restraint offers a more useful framework
than dominant suppression for understanding single-female
breeding in wild moustached tamarins.

Behavioural analyses of grooming relationships in two
study groups revealed that breeding females groomed most
intensely, and with the most reciprocity, with breeding
males and non-breeding offspring compared to potentially
breeding males (i.e., males that copulated with the female
but did not sire young; Lbttker et al., in prep.). Breeding
females groomed and were groomed by breeding males
more during the phases of ovarian activity, when concep-
tions were possible, and with potentially breeding males
(= individuals that invested highly in helping behaviour)


during pregnancies. These results suggest that breeding fe-
males might use grooming as an (additional) means of es-
tablishing and maintaining the cooperative breeding system
by inducing mate association with the breeding male and
encouraging helping behaviour in other group members.

By combining demographic, endocrinological and be-
havioural data, this study has contributed to a better un-
derstanding of the proximate mechanisms causing and
maintaining female reproductive monopolization and co-
operative breeding in wild moustached tamarins. However,
further studies-and most importantly, more long-term
studies on different callitrichid species, using a combina-
tion of methods as applied here-are needed to generalize
our understanding of the factors shaping the evolution of
the cooperative breeding system and female reproductive
monopolization in callitrichid primates.

Petra Ltttker, German Primate Centre, Department of
Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, Kellnerweg 4, D-
37077 Gbttingen, Germany. E-mail: com>.

References

Lbttker, P. 2005. Group dynamics and proximate mecha-
nisms of female reproductive monopolization in a co-
operatively breeding primate, the moustached tamarin
(Saguinus mystax). Doctoral dissertation, Cuvillier Verlag,
Gbttingen, Germany.
Lbttker, P., Huck, M. and Heymann, E. W. 2004a. Demo-
graphic parameters and events in wild moustached tama-
rins (Saguinus mystax). Am. J. Primatol. 64: 425-449.
Lbttker, P., Huck, M., Heymann, E. W. and Heistermann,
M. 2004b. Endocrine correlates of reproductive status
in breeding and non-breeding wild female moustached
tamarins. Int. J. Primatol. 25: 919-937.
LIttker, P, Huck, M., Zinner, D. P and Heymann, E. W.
In prep. Grooming relationships between breeding fe-
males and adult group members in a cooperatively breed-
ing primate.


ESTACION BIOLOGICA EL REFUGIO HUANCHACA,
BOLIVIA

El Refugio is a 50,000 ha private reserve and research sta-
tion operated by the Weeden Foundation, a philanthropic
organization based in the United States. El Refugio is lo-
cated in northeastern Bolivia (1445'S, 6100'W) adjacent
to and partially overlapping the Noel Kempff Mercado Na-
tional Park, a rarely studied area of South America. The sta-
tion is in a broad transition zone between moist Amazonian
forest and the dry forest and grasslands characteristic of the
Cerrado and Gran Pantanal.

Diverse habitats surround the biological station, including
forests, riparian vegetation associated with the Rio Para-
gua, seasonally-flooded grasslands, and forest islands. The





Neotropical Primates 13(2), August 2005


forests at El Refugio include a mixture of Amazonian and
non-Amazonian elements, with patches of semi-deciduous
terra firme forest, seasonally-flooded vine forest, riparian
forest, and dry forest on an isolated outcrop of the Brazil-
ian Shield. The grassland floods from 10 cm to two meters
during the rainy season, while fire is a regular phenomenon
during the dry season. Forest islands in the grassland range
in size from a few square meters to approximately 10 ha,
and include a mixture of woody, fire-tolerant shrubs and
trees as well as grasses. The Rio ParaguA is a small river,
10-30 m wide, much of which is covered by floating mats
of aquatic vegetation.

To date, relatively little research has taken place at El Refugio.
Species lists of prominent biotic groups (birds, mammals,
amphibians and reptiles, and butterflies) form a baseline for
further research, but are far from complete. In addition to
species-specific studies, or investigations of species diversity
across diverse habitat types, other research possibilities at
the site include fire ecology, climate change-because it is
located in a climate and habitat transition zone, the effects
of climate change may be seen at sites like El Refugio before
they become manifest in other areas-and wetland ecology,
among many others. Additionally, El Refugio has popula-
tions of many threatened vertebrate species, including the
black caiman (Melanosuchus niger), maned wolf (Chryso-
cyon brachyurus), giant river otter (Pteronura brasiliensis),
and marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus). Primate species
observed at El Refugio include Mico melanurus, Alouatta
caraya, Ateles chamek, Cebus, /'/,li, and Aotussp.

Facilities at El Refugio are basic but comfortable. Accom-
modations include cabins with single beds, hot showers,
kitchen, and common room with a lab and small library.
The station staff offers limited but very useful research as-
sistance that may include manual labor (i.e., trail clearing,
equipment construction and transport), the use of horses
and canoes, and light data collection/monitoring during re-
searcher absence. In addition, the station maintains a com-
plete record of rainfall, river level, and temperature flux.

For more information please visit org> and click on El Refugio Huanchaca. For specific ques-
tions or reservations, please contact the El Refugio adminis-
trators at .


A WEBSITE FOR THE PRIMATE SPECIALIST GROUP

A new website is being developed for the Primate Special-
ist Group to provide information for PSG members and
all others interested in primate conservation. In addition
to membership and background information on the PSG,
the website will present a running summary of currently
recognized primate diversity and the conservation status
of each species, plus a special section on primates listed as
Critically Endangered. The website will also contain guide-
lines for authors submitting to the PSG's regional publica-
tions-African Primates, Asian Primates, Lemur News and


Neotropical Primates-and to its overarching journal, Pri-
mate Conservation. Current issues of all these publications,
as well as Action Plans and the Top 25 Most Endangered
Primates report, will be available for free download in PDF
format. Also planned is an area devoted to the new Section
on Great Apes, with information on great ape taxonomy,
workshops and publications, and the Great Ape Emergency
Conservation Fund.

The PSG website will be developed and maintained by John
Aguiar, PSG General Coordinator, with oversight by PSG
Deputy Chair Anthony Rylands. Information on great apes
will be provided by Liz Williamson, Coordinator for the
Section on Great Apes. The new website will be available
at , and the PSG gratefully
acknowledges the support of Space2Burn.com for their
website hosting services. Questions and suggestions about
the PSG website may be sent to John Aguiar at conservation.org>.








BOOKS

Mammal Species of the World, Third Edition, by D. E.
Wilson and D. M. Reeder. 2005. The Johns Hopkins
University Press, Baltimore. 2000pp. ISBN 0801882214
(hardback, two volumes, $125.00). Wilson and Reeder's
Mammal Species of the Worldis the classic reference book on
the taxonomic classification and distribution of the more
than 5400 species of mammals that are known to exist
today. The third edition includes detailed information on
nomenclature and, for the first time, common names. Each
concise entry covers type locality, distribution, synonyms,
and major reference sources. The systematic arrangement of
information indicates evolutionary relationships at both the
ordinal and the family level. This indispensable reference
work belongs in public and academic libraries throughout
the world, and will be a valuable resource for every biolo-
gist who works with mammals. Available from: The Johns
Hopkins University Press, 2715 North Charles Street, Bal-
timore, Maryland 21218-4363, USA, Phone: (410) 516-
6900, Fax: (410) 516-6968. Orders: 1-800-537-5487, Fax:
(410) 516-6998. More information online at press.jhu.edu>.

Manualde Huellas de Algunos ..I Terrestres de Colom-
bia, por Jose Fernando Navarro y Javier Mufioz. 2000.
Edici6n de Campo, Medellin. 136pp. Este libro estA hecho
para brindar informaci6n basica sobre mamfferos neotro-
picales. Describe e ilustra 33 species de mamfferos de las
que se pueden encontrar con mayor probabilidad sus rastros
en el campo. Para cada una de ellas se incluyen ilustracio-
nes de sus huellas con medidas aproximadas y dimension
de la pisada, una descripci6n de la especie, su taxonomfa





Neotropical Primates 13(2), August 2005


y nombres vernaculos con los cuales se la conoce en Co-
lombia, datos ecol6gicos y de distribuci6n, entire otros. Este
libro esta hecho para ser llevado al campo; puede ser utili-
zado por profesionales, naturalistas aficionados, estudiantes
y el pdblico en general. Con esta publicaci6n se pretend
general el interns por el conocimiento y la conservaci6n de
nuestros mamiferos amenazados. Mas informaci6n: www.humboldt.org.co>.

Noninvasive Study of Mammalian Populations, by W. E.
Evans and A. V. Yablokov. 2004. Pensoft Publishers, Sofia,
Bulgaria. 142pp. ISBN 9546422045 (hardback, 637.80).
Although it is a tenet of particle physics that nothing can
be observed without its being altered by the observer, biolo-
gists have long sought to do precisely that. Apart from their
theoretical interest, noninvasive techniques have particular
value for the conservation of threatened and endangered
species. Written by two specialists in marine mammal re-
search, this book is an expanded English-language version
of an earlier monograph published in Russian. As such it
is written from a distinctly Russian perspective, in par-
ticular with its emphasis on phenetics-a Russian school
of evolutionary thought based on the "phene," which the
authors define as "any discreet [sic] phenotypic character"
which may be used to explore the frequencies of genotypes
in a population. Although their expertise in cetacean biol-
ogy inevitably inclines this book towards the ocean realm,
much of what they detail may be applied to terrestrial mam-
mals as well. Available from: Pensoft Publishers, Geo Milev
Str., No 13a, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria, Tel: +359-2-9674070,
Fax: +359-2-9674071, e-mail: .
More information available at .

Patterns ofBehavior: KonradLorenz, Niko Tinbergen, and the
Founding ofF.-' .. .. by Richard W. Burkhardt Jr. 2005.
The University of Chicago Press, Chicago. 648pp. ISBN
0226080900 (paperback, $29.00). This book traces the sci-
entific theories, practices, subjects, and settings integral to
the construction of a discipline pivotal to our understand-
ing of the diversity of life. Central to this tale are Konrad
Lorenz and Niko Tinbergen, 1973 Nobel laureates whose
research helped legitimize the field of ethology and bring
international attention to the culture of behavioral research.
Demonstrating how matters of practice, politics, and place
all shaped "ethology's ecologies," Burkhardt's book offers
a sensitive reading of the complex interplay of the field's
celebrated pioneers and a richly textured reconstruction
of ethology's transformation from a quiet backwater of
natural history to the forefront of the biological sciences.
Contents: Acknowledgments; Introduction; Theory, prac-
tice, and place in the study of animal behavior; 1. Charles
Otis Whitman, Wallace Craig, and the biological study of
animal behavior in America; 2. British field studies of be-
havior: Selous, Howard, Kirkman, and Huxley; 3. Konrad
Lorenz and the conceptual foundations of ethology; 4.
Niko Tinbergen and the Lorenzian program; 5. Lorenz and
National Socialism; 6. The Postwar reconstruction of ethol-
ogy; 7. Ethology's new settings; 8. Attracting attention; 9.
Tinbergen's vision for ethology; 10. Conclusion: Ethology's


ecologies. Available from: The University of Chicago Press,
1427 E. 60th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA, Tel.:
773.702.7700, Fax: 773.702.9756, and online at www.press.uchicago.edu>.

The Rise oJf i ..- 'Mammals: Origins and Relationships of
the Major Extant Clades, edited by Kenneth D. Rose and
J. David Archibald. 2005. The Johns Hopkins University
Press, Baltimore. 280pp. ISBN 080188022X (hardback,
$95.00). From shrews to blue whales, placental mammals
are among the most diverse and successful vertebrates on
Earth. Arising sometime near the Late Cretaceous, this
broad clade of mammals contains more than 1,000 genera
and approximately 4,400 extant species. Although much
studied, the origin and diversification of the placentals con-
tinue to be a source of debate. Here paleontologists Kenneth
D. Rose and J. David Archibald have assembled some of
the world's leading authorities to provide a comprehensive
and up-to-date evolutionary history of placental mammals.
Focusing on anatomical evidence, the contributors present
an unbiased scientific account of the initial radiation and
ordinal relationships of placental mammals, representing
both the consensus and significant minority viewpoints.
This book will be valuable to students and researchers in
mammalogy, paleontology and evolutionary biology. Avail-
able from: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2715 North
Charles Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21218-4363, USA,
Phone: (410) 516-6900, Fax: (410) 516-6968. Orders: 1-
800-537-5487, Fax: (410) 516-6998. More information
online at .

Shaping Primate Evolution: Form, Function and Behavior,
edited by Fred Anapol, Rebecca Z. German and Nina
G. Jablonski. 2004. Cambridge University Press, New
York. 442pp. ISBN 0521811074 (hardback, $130.00).
This book on how form is described in primate biology,
and its consequences for function and behavior, includes
contributions by internationally respected researchers
of quantitative primate evolutionary morphology. Each
chapter elaborates upon the analysis of the form-function-
behavior triad. The book is unique, therefore, not only in the
diversity of the topics discussed, but in the range of levels of
biological organization addressed-from cellular morpho-
metrics to the evolution of primate ecology. Contents.
Preface: Shaping primate evolution-F. Anapol, R. Z.
German and N. G. Jablonski; 1. Introduction- Charles
Oxnard: An appreciation-M. Cartmill. Part I.
Craniofacial Form and Variation. 2. The ontogeny of sexual
dimorphism-R. Z. German; 3. Advances in the analysis
of form and pattern-P. O'Higgins and R. L. Pan; 4.
Cranial variation among the Asian Colobines-R. L. Pan
and C. P. Groves; 5. Craniometric variation in early Homo
compared to modern gorillas-J. M. A. Miller, G. H.
Albrecht and B. Gelvin. Part II. Organ Structure, Function
and Behavior. 6. Fiber architecture, muscle function and
behavior-F. Anapol, N. Shahnoor and J. Patrick Gray;
7. Comparative fiber type composition and size in the
antigravity muscles of primate limbs -E K. Jouffroy and
M. E Medina; 8. On the nature of morphology-R. S.





Neotropical Primates 13(2), August 2005


Kidd; 9. Plant mechanics and primate dental adaptations-
P. W. Lucas; 10. Convergent evolution in brain 'shape' and
locomotion in primates-W. de Winter. Part III. In Vivo
Organismal Verification of Functional Models. 11. Jaw
adductor force and symphyseal fusion-W. L. Hylander,
C. J. Vinyard, M. J. Ravosa, C. F Ross, C. E. Wall and
K. R. Johnson; 12. Hind limb drive, hind limb steering?
Functional differences between fore and hind limbs in
chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) quadrupedalism-Y. Li, R.
H. Crompton, W. Wang, R. Savage and M. M. Giinther.
Part IV. Theoretical Models in Evolutionary Ecology. 13.
Becoming bipedal-N. G. Jablonski and G. Chaplin; 14.
Modelling human walking as an inverted pendulum of
varying length-J. T. Stern Jr., B. Demes and D. Casey
Kerrigan; 15. Estimating the line-of-action of posteriorly
inclined resultant jaw muscle forces in mammals using a
model that minimizes functionally important distances in
the skull-W. S. Greaves. Part V. Primate Diversity and
Evolution. 16. The evolution of primate ecology-J.
G. Fl, i,1 and K. E. Reed; 17. Charles Oxnard and the
aye-aye: Morphometrics, cladistics and two very special
primates C. P. Groves; 18. From 'Mathematical Dissection
of Anatomies' to morphometrics-E L. Bookstein and F
James Rohlf; 19. Design, level, interface and complexity:
Morphometric interpretation revisited-C. E. Oxnard;
20. Postscript and acknowledgements-C. E. Oxnard.
Available from: Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th
Street, New York, NY 10011-4211, USA, Fax: 1-212-
691-3239. General Address (Orders & Customer Service):
Cambridge University Press, 100 Brook Hill Drive, West
Nyack, NY 10994-2133, USA, Tel: 1-845-353-7500, Fax:
1-845-353-4141. Website: .

What Makes Biology Unique? Considerations on the Autonomy
ofA Scientific Discipline, by Ernst Mayr. 2004. Cambridge
University Press, New York. 246pp. ISBN 0521841143
(hardback, $30.00). This collection of new and revised
essays argues that biology is an autonomous science rather
than a branch of the physical sciences. Ernst Mayr, widely
considered the most eminent evolutionary biologist of the
20th century, offers insights on the history of evolutionary
thought, critiques the conditions of philosophy to the sci-
ence of biology, and comments on several of the major de-
velopments in evolutionary theory. Notably, Mayr explains
that Darwin's theory of evolution is actually five separate
theories, each with its own history, trajectory and impact.
Ernst Mayr, commonly referred to as the "Darwin of the
20th century" and listed as one of the top 100 scientists of
all time, was at the time of publication Professor Emeri-
tus at Harvard University. What Makes Biology Unique? is
the 25th book he wrote during his long and prolific career.
Contents: Preface: What is there at issue?; Introduction; 1.
Science and sciences; 2. The autonomy of biology; 3. Tele-
ology; 4. Analysis or reductionism; 5. Darwin's influence on
modern thought; 6. Darwin's five theories of evolution; 7.
Maturation of Darwinism; 8. Selection; 9. Kuhn's scientific
revolutions; 10. Another look at the species problem; 11.
The origin of man; 12. Are we alone in this vast universe?;
Glossary. Available from: Cambridge University Press, 40


West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-4211, USA, Fax: 1-
212-691-3239. General Address (Orders & Customer Ser-
vice): Cambridge University Press, 100 Brook Hill Drive,
West Nyack, NY 10994-2133, USA, Tel: 1-845-353-7500,
Fax: 1-845-353-4141. Website: .


ARTICLES

Alouatta
Aguiar, L. M., Ludwig, G., Hilst, C. L. S., Malanski, L.
S. and Passos, F C. 2005. Tentativa de infanticidio por
um macho dominant de Alouatta caraya (Humboldt)
(Primates, Atelidae) em um infante extra-grupo devido a
influencia do observador. Rev. Brasil. Zool. 22(4): 1201-
1203.
Brockett, R. C., Horwich, R. H. and Jones, C. B. 2005.
Hand-holding by Belizean black howler monkeys: Inten-
tional communication in a Neotropical primate. Folia
Primatol. 76(4): 227-230.
Chinchilla, M., Troyo, A., Guerrero, 0. M., Gutierrez-
Espeleta, G. A. and Sanchez, R. 2005. Presencia de Try-
panosoma minasense (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae)
en Alouatta palliata (Primates: Cebidae) de Costa Rica.
Parasitologia Latinoamericana 60(1-2): 90-92.
Cristobal-Azkarate, J., Vea, J. J., Asensio, N. and Rodriguez-
Luna, E. 2005. Biogeographical and floristic predictors of
the presence and abundance of mantled howlers (Alouatta
palliata mexicana) in rainforest fragments at Los Tuxtlas,
Mexico. Am. J. Primatol. 67(2): 209-222.
Feer, E and Hingrat, Y. 2005. Effects of forest fragmen-
tation on a dung beetle community in French Guiana.
Conserv. Biol. 19(4): 1103-1112.
Fontenot, D. K., Gregory, C. R. and Lamberski, N. 2004.
Retrospective evaluation of renal disease in captive black
howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya). J. Zoo Wild. Med.
35(3): 292-302.
Guedes, D. and Young, R. J. 2004. A case of pseudo-preg-
nancy in captive brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guar-
iba). Folia Primatol. 75(5): 335-338.
Hilpert, A. L. and Jones, C. B. 2005. Possible costs of radio-
tracking a young adult female mantled howler monkey
(Alouatta palliata) in deciduous habitat of Costa Rican
tropical dry forest. J. Appl. Anim. '~I./ Sci. 8(3): 227-
232.
Jones, C. B. 2005. A preliminary test of the Van Schaik
model of male coalitions for Costa Rican mantled howler
monkeys (Alouatta palliata). Lab. Prim. Newsl. 44(3):
3-5.
Koppe, T., Moormann, T., Wallner, C. P. and Roehrer-Ertl,
0. 2005. Extensive enlargement of the maxillary sinus in
Alouatta caraya (Mammalia, Primates, Cebidae): An allo-
metric approach to skull pneumatization in Atelinae. J.
Morphol. 263(2): 238-246.
Lopez, G. 0., Terborgh, J. and Ceballos, N. 2005. Food
selection by a hyperdense population of red howler mon-
keys (Alouatta seniculus). J. Trop. Ecol. 21(4): 445-450.
Miranda, J. M., Aguiar, L. M., Ludwig, G., Moro-Rios, R.
F and Passos, F C. 2005. The first seven months of an





Neotropical Primates 13(2), August 2005


infant of Alouatta guariba (Humboldt) (Primates, Ateli-
dae): Interactions and the development of behavioral pat-
terns. Rev. Brasil. Zool. 22(4): 1191-1195.
Miranda, J. M. D., Bernardi, I., Abreu, K. C. and Passos, F
C. 2005. Predation on Alouattaguariba clamitans Cabrera
(Primates, Atelidae) by Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus)
(Carnivora, Felidae). Rev. Brasil. Zool. 22(3): 793-795.
Miranda, J. M. D. and Passos, E C. 2004. Habito alimen-
tar de Alouatta guariba (Humboldt) (Primates, Atelidae)
em Floresta de Araucaria, Parand, Brasil. Rev. Brasil. Zool.
21(4): 821-826.

Aotus
Arevalo-Herrera, M., Castellanos, A., Yazdani, S. S., Shakri,
A. R., Chitnis, C. E., Dominik, R. and Herrera, S. 2005.
Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of recombinant
vaccine based on the receptor-binding domain of the Plas-
modium vivax Duffy binding protein in Aotus monkeys.
Am.J. Trop. Med. Hygiene 73(5): 25-31.
Arevalo-Herrera, M., Solarte, Y., Yasnot, M. F., Castellanos,
A., Rincon, A., Saul, A., Mu, J., Long, C., Miller, L. and
Herrera, S. 2005. Induction of transmission-blocking im-
munity in Aotus monkeys by vaccination with a Plasmo-
dium vivax clinical grade Pvs25 recombinant protein. Am.
J. Trop. Med. Hygiene73(5): 32-37.
Cardenas, P. P., Suarez, C. F., Martinez, P., Patarroyo, M.
E. and Patarroyo, M. A. 2005. MHC class I genes in the
owl monkey: Mosaic organisation, convergence and loci
diversity. Immunogenetics 56(11): 818-832.
Collins, W. E., Sullivan, J. S., Galland, G. G., Williams, A.,
Nace, D., Williams, T. and Barnwell, J. W. 2005. Obser-
vations on the Vietnam Palo Alto strain of Plasmodium
vivax in two species of Aotus monkeys. J. Parasitol. 91(2):
461-463.
Collins, C. E., Xu, X., Khaytin, I., Kaskan, P. M., Casa-
grande, V. A. and Kaas, J. H. 2005. Optical imaging of vi-
sually evoked responses in the middle temporal area after
deactivation of primary visual cortex in adult primates.
Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 102(15): 5594-5599.
Felt, S. A. and White, C. E. 2005. Evaluation of a timed
and repeated perianal tape test for the detection of pin-
worms (Trypanoxyuris microon) in owl monkeys (Aotus
nancymae). J. Med. Primatol. 34(4): 209-214.
Herrera, S., Bonelo, A., Perlaza, B. L., Valencia, A. Z.,
Cifuentes, C., Hurtado, S., Quintero, G., Lopez, J. A.,
Corradin, G. and Arevalo-Herrera, M. 2004. Use of long
synthetic peptides to study the antigenicity and immuno-
genicity of the Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite pro-
tein. Int. J. Parasitol. 34(13-14): 1535-1546.
Ho, H. J., Ray, D. A., Salem, A. H., Myers, J. S. and Batzer,
M. A. 2005. Straightening out the LINEs: LINE-1
orthologous loci. Genomics 8 5(2): 201-207.
Hylander, W. L., Wall, C. E., Vinyard, C. J., Ross, C.,
Ravosa, M. R., Williams, S. H. and Johnson, K. R. 2005.
Temporalis function in anthropoids and strepsirrhines:
An EMG study. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 128(1): 35-56.
Jordan-Villegas, A., Zapata, J. C., Perdomo, A. B., Quintero,
G. E., Solarte, Y, Arevalo-Herrera, M. and Herrera, S.
2005. Aotus lemurinus griseimembra monkeys: A suitable


model for Plasmodium vivax sporozoite infection. Am. J.
Trop. Med. Hygiene 73(5): 10-15.
Lau, J., Fernindez-Duque, E., Evans, S., Dixson, A. and
Ryder, 0. A. 2004. Heterologous amplification and di-
versity of microsatellite loci in three owl monkey spe-
cies (Aotus azarai, A. lemurinus, A. nancymaae). Conserv.
Genet. 5(5): 727-731.
Moncada, C. A., Guerrero, E., Cardenas, P., Suarez, C. E,
Patarroyo, M. E. and Patarroyo, M. A. 2005. The T-cell
receptor in primates: Identifying and sequencing new owl
monkey TRBV gene sub-groups. Immunogenetics 57(1-
2): 42-52.

Ateles
Campbell, C. J., Aureli, F., Chapman, C. A., Ramos-
Fernandez, G., Matthews, K., Russo, S. E., Suarez, S. and
Vick, L. 2005. Terrestrial behavior of Ateles spp. Int. J.
Primatol. 26(5): 1039-1051.
Dew, J. L. 2005. Foraging, food choice, and food process-
ing by sympatric ripe-fruit specialists: Lagothrix lagotricha
poeppigii and Ateles belzebuth belzebuth. Int. J. Primatol.
26(5): 1107-1135.
Hiramatsu, C., Tsutsui, T., Matsumoto, Y, Aureli, E,
Fedigan, L. M. and Kawamura, S. 2005. Color vision
polymorphism in wild capuchins (Cebus capucinus) and
spider monkeys (Ateles .. r .., I in Costa Rica. Am. J.
Primatol. 67(4): 447-461.
Laska, M. and Hernandez-Salazar, L. T. 2004. Gustatory
responsiveness to monosodium glutamate and sodium
chloride in four species of nonhuman primates. J. Exp.
Zool. 301A(11): 898-905.
Mufnoz-Delgado, J., Fuentes-Pardo, B., Baum, A. E., Lan-
zagorta, N., Arenas-Rosas, R., Santillan-Doherty, A. M.,
Guevara, M. A. and Corsi-Cabrera, M. 2005. Presence of
a circadian rhythm in the spider monkey's (Ateles ..,rr. ,
motor activity. Biol. Rhythm Res. 36(1-2): 115-121.

Cacajao
Barnett, A. A., Castilho, C. V. de, Shapley, R. L. and Ani-
cacio, A. 2005. Diet, habitat selection and natural history
of Cacajao melanocephalus ouakary in Jau National Park,
Brazil. Int.J. Primatol. 26(4): 949-969.

C .,
Bicca-Marques, J. C. 2005. The win-stay rule in foraging
decisions by free-ranging titi monkeys (( .... cupreus
cupreus) and tamarins (Saguinus imperator imperator and
Saguinus fuscicollis i'ddeII//.). J. Comp. Psychol. 119(3):
343-351.

Callimico
Dalton, R. and Buchanan-Smith, H. M. 2005. A mixed-
species exhibit for Goeldi's monkeys and pygmy marmo-
sets Callimico goeldii and ( pygmaea at Edinburgh
Zoo. Int. Zoo Ybk. 39: 176-184.


Arruda, M. E, Araujo, A., Sousa, M. B. C., Albuquerque, E
S., Albuquerque, A. C. S. R. and Yamamoto, M. E. 2005.





Neotropical Primates 13(2), August 2005


Two breeding females within free-living groups may not
always indicate polygyny: Alternative subordinate female
strategies in common marmosets (C .-' jacchus). Folia
Primatol. 76(1): 10-20.
Baldauf, Z. B. 2005. SMI-32 parcellates the visual corti-
cal areas of the marmoset. Neurosci. Lett. 383(1-2): 109-
114.
Boere, V., Pinheiro, E. C., de Oliveira e Silva, I., Paludo,
G. R., Pianta, T., Welker, A., Rocha-de-Moura, R. C. and
Canale, G. 2005. Comparison between sex and age class
on some physiological, thermal, and hematological indi-
ces of the cerrado's marmoset (C .-'. penicillata). J.
Med. Primatol. 34(3): 156-162.
Braesicke, K., Parkinson, J. A., Reekie, Y., Man, M.-S.,
Hopewell, L., Pears, A., Crofts, H., Schnell, C. R. and
Roberts, A. C. 2005. Autonomic arousal in an appetitive
context in primates: A behavioral and neural analysis.
EuropeanJ. Neurosci. 21(6): 1733-1740.
Brown, G. R., Almond, R. E. A. and Bates, N. J. 2005.
Adult-infant food transfer in common marmosets: An ex-
perimental study. Am. J. Primatol. 65(4): 301-312.
Cappe, C. and Barone, P. 2005. Heteromodal connec-
tions supporting multisensory integration at low levels of
cortical processing in the monkey. European J. Neurosci.
22(11): 2886-2902.
Cavalcante, J. S., Costa, M. S. M. 0., Santee, U. R. and
Britto, L. R. G. 2005. Retinal projections to the midline
and intralaminar thalamic nuclei in the common marmo-
set ((C .'. jacchus). Brain Res. 1043(1-2): 42-47.
Cheung, S. W., Nagarajan, S. S., Schreiner, C. E., Beden-
baugh, P. H. and Wong, A. 2005. Plasticity in primary au-
ditory cortex of monkeys with altered vocal production. J.
Neurosci. 25(10): 2490-2503.
Clarke, H. E, Walker, S. C., Crofts, H. S., Dalley, J. W.,
Robbins, T. W. and Roberts, A. C. 2005. Prefrontal se-
rotonin depletion affects reversal learning but not atten-
tional set shifting. J. Neurosci. 25(2): 532-538.
De Mello, M. E V., Monteiro, A. B. S., Fonseca, E. C., Pis-
sinatti, A. and Ferreira, A. M. R. 2005. Identification of
Helicobactersp. in gastric mucosa from captive marmosets
(C .-.'. sp.; Callitrichidae, Primates). Am. J. Primatol.
66(2): 111-118.
Fite, J. E., French, J. A., Patera, K. J., Hopkins, E. C., Ruk-
stalis, M. and Ross, C. N. 2005. Elevated urinary testos-
terone excretion and decreased maternal caregiving effort
in marmosets when conception occurs during the period
of infant dependence. Hormones and Behavior 47(1):
39-48.
Fite, J. E., Patera, K. J., French, J. A., Rukstalis, M., Hop-
kins, E. C. and Ross, C. N. 2005. Opportunistic mothers:
Female marmosets (( .-." kuhlii) reduce their invest-
ment in offspring when they have to, and when they can.
J. Hum. Evol. 49(1): 122-142.
Forte, J. D., Hashemi-Nezhad, M., Dobbie, W. J., Dreher,
B. and Martin, P R. 2005. Spatial coding and response
redundancy in parallel visual pathways of the marmoset
( .-.' jacchus. VisualNeurosci. 22(4): 479-491.
Hernandez-Lopez, L., Umland, N., Mondragon-Ceballos,
R. and Nayudu, P L. 2005. Comparison of the effects of


Percoll and PureSpermTM on the common marmoset (Cal-
lithrixjacchus) semen. J. Med. Primatol. 34(2): 86-90.
Hurley, M. J., Jackson, M. J., Smith, L. A., Rose, S. and
Jenner, P. 2005. Immunoautoradiographic analysis of
NMDA receptor subunits and associated postsynaptic
density proteins in the brain of dyskinetic MPTP-treated
common marmosets. EuropeanJ. Neurosci. 21(12): 3240-
3250.
Jenkins, A., Archer, S. N. and von Schantz, M. 2005. Ex-
pansion during primate radiation of a variable number
tandem repeat in the coding region of the circadian clock
gene Period3. J. Biol. Rhythms 20(5): 470-472.
Jusuf, P. R., Haverkamp, S. and Gruenert, U. 2005. Local-
ization of glycine receptor alpha subunits on bipolar and
amacrine cells in primate retina.J. Comp. Neurol. 488(2):
113-128.
Kaspareit, J., Friderichs-Gromoll, S., Buse, E. and Haber-
mann, G. 2005. Adenocarcinoma of the uterus in a
common marmoset (C .-'. jacchus). Primate Report
71: 63-66.
Kozorovitskiy, Y., Gross, C. G., Kopil, C., Battaglia, L.,
McBreen, M., Stranahan, A. M. and Gould, E. 2005.
Experience induces structural and biochemical changes
in the adult primate brain. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA
102(48): 17478-17482.
Lee, S. C. S., Telkes, I. and Gruenert, U. 2005. S-cones do
not contribute to the OFF-midget pathway in the retina
of the marmoset, C .-'. jacchus. European J. Neurosci.
22(2): 437-447.
Ludlage, E., Murphy, C. L., Davern, S. M., Solomon,
A., Weiss, D. T., Glenn-Smith, D., Dworkin, S. and
Mansfield, K. G. 2005. Systemic AA amyloidosis in the
common marmoset. Vet. Pathol. 42(2): 117-124.
Middleton, S. A., Anzenberger, G. and Knapp, L. A. 2004.
Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) screen-
ing of clones prior to sequencing. Molec. Ecol. Notes 4(4):
776-778.
Mueller, T., Simoni, M., Pekel, E., Luetjens, C. M., Chan-
dolia, R., Amato, F, Norman, R. J. and Gromoll, J. 2004.
Chorionic gonadotropin 3 subunit mRNA but not lu-
teinising hormone 3 subunit mRNA is expressed in the
pituitary of the common marmoset (C .-'. jacchus). J.
Molec. Endocrinol. 32(1): 115-128.

Cebus
Addessi, E., Stammati, M., Sabbatini, G. and Visalberghi,
E. 2005. How tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus ,'/'Ili)
rank monkey chow in relation to other foods. Anim. Wel-
fare 14(3): 215-222.
Alfaro, J. W. L. 2005. Male mating strategies and repro-
ductive constraints in a group of wild tufted capuchin
monkeys (Cebus 7,/','/ nigritus). Am. J. Primatol. 67(3):
313-328.
Anderson, J. R., Kuroshima, H., Hattori, Y. and Fujita, K.
2005. Attention to combined attention in New World
monkeys (Cebus ,I//la, Saimiri sciureus). J. Comp. Psychol.
119(4): 461-464.
Aversi-Ferreira, T. A., de Freitas Aversi-Ferreira, R. A., de
Freitas Aversi-Ferreira, G. M., Silva, Z., Gouvea e Silva,





Neotropical Primates 13(2), August 2005


L. E and Penha-Silva, N. 2005. Estudo anat6mico de
mdsculos profundos do antebrago de Cebus a,,c//. (Lin-
naeus, 1766). Acta Scientiarum, Biological Sciences 27(3):
297-301.
Aversi-Ferreira, T. A., de Souza Lima e Silva, M., Pereira de
Paula, J., Gouvea e Silva, L. F. and Penha-Silva, N. 2005.
Anatomia comparative dos nervous do brago de Cebus
ai//.i. Descrigao do mdsculo dorsoepitroclear. Acta Scien-
tiarum, Biological Sciences 27(3): 291-296.
Brosnan, S. F, Schiff, H. C. and de Waal, F. B. M. 2005.
Tolerance for inequity may increase with social close-
ness in chimpanzees. Proc. Royal Soc. Biol. Sci., Ser. B
272(1560): 253-258.
Carnegie, S. D., Fedigan, L. M. and Ziegler, T. E. 2005.
Behavioral indicators of ovarian phase in white-faced
capuchins (Cebus capucinus). Am. J. Primatol. 67(1):
51-68.
Di Bitetti, M. S. 2005. Food-associated calls and audience
effects in tufted capuchin monkeys, Cebus ,/'ci/. nigritus.
Anim. Behav. 69(4): 911-919.
Digweed, S. M., Fedigan, L. M. and Rendall, D. 2005.
Variable specificity in the anti-predator vocalizations and
behaviour of the white-faced capuchin, Cebus capucinus.
Behaviour 142(8): 997-1021.
Domingues, S. F. S., Diniz, L.V., Furtado, S. H. C., Ohashi,
0. M., Rondina, D. and Silva, L. D. M. 2004. Histologi-
cal study of capuchin monkey (Cebus ,a'i//i) ovarian fol-
licles. Acta Amazonica 34(3): 495-501.
Drapier, M., Chauvin, C., Dufour, V., Uhlrich, P. and Thi-
erry, B. 2005. Food-exchange with humans in brown ca-
puchin monkeys. Primates 46(4): 241-248.
Dum, R. P. and Strick, P. L. 2005. Frontal lobe inputs
to the digit representations of the motor areas on the
lateral surface of the hemisphere. J. Neurosci. 25(6):
1375-1386.
Evans, T. A., Howell, S. and Westergaard, G. C. 2005. Au-
ditory-visual cross-modal perception of communicative
stimuli in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus, ,'c//.). J. Exp.
Psychol. Anim. Behav. Processes 31(4): 399-406.
Ferreira, J. R., Pinto Junior, N., Kajita, D., Cirqueira, S.
de and Nogueira, D. J. 2005. Estudo de anatomia de-
scritiva e topogrifica do mdsculo digastrico em primatas
(Cebus ,ai//.i, Linnaeus, 1766). Brazil. J. Vet. Res. Anim.
Sci. 42(2): 113-121.
Fichtel, C., Perry, S. and Gros-Louis, J. 2005. Alarm calls
of white-faced capuchin monkeys: An acoustic analysis.
Anim. Behav. 70(1): 165-176.
Figueiredo, K. do V. de S., Teixeira, R. H. F., Amorim, M.,
Gazeta, G. S. and Serra-Freire, N. M. 2004. Relato de
larva de Sarcophagidae (Diptera) parasitando Cebus, J,c'i//
(L., 1758) (Primates: Cebidae) no Zool6gico de Sorocaba,
Estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil. Entomologiay Vectores 11(2):
317-321.
Fujita, K. and Giersch, A. 2005. What perceptual rules do
capuchin monkeys (Cebus a,'//.i) follow in completing
partly occluded figures? J. Exp. Psychol. Anim. Behav. Pro-
cesses 31(4): 387-398.
Fukuhara, R. and Kageyama, T. 2005. Structure, gene ex-
pression, and evolution of primate glutathione peroxi-


dases. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B: Biochem. Molec. Biol.
141(4): 428-436.
Gattass, R., Nascimento Silva, S., Scares, J. G. M., Lima,
B., Jansen, A. K., Diogo, A. C. M., Farias, M. F., Mar-
condes, M., Botelho, E. P., Mariani, 0. S., Azzi, J. and
Fiorani, M. 2005. Cortical visual areas in monkeys: Lo-
cation, topography, connections, columns, plasticity and
cortical dynamics. Royal Society Philosophical Transactions
Biological Sciences 360(1456): 709-731.
Gomes, U. R., Pessoa, D. M. A., Suganuma, E., Tomaz, C.
and Pessoa, V. E 2005. Influence of stimuli size on color
discrimination in capuchin monkeys. Am. J. Primatol.
67(4): 437-446.
Gonzalez, R. R. and Duran, F. J. 2004. Depredaci6n de
mono carablanca (Cebus capucinus, Primates: Cebidae)
por tolomuco (Eira barbara, Carnivora: Mustelidae).
Brenesia 62: 89-90.
Goulart, P. R. K., Mendonca, M. B., Barros, R. S., Galvao,
0. E and McIlvane, W. J. 2005. A note on select- and
reject-controlling relations in the simple discrimination
of capuchin monkeys (Cebus ,'L//.1). Behavioural Processes
69(3): 295-302.
Hattori, Y., Kuroshima, H. and Fujita, K. 2005. Coopera-
tive problem solving by tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus
j'ci//.i): Spontaneous division of labor, communication,
and reciprocal altruism. J. Comp. Psychol. 119(3): 335-
342.
Izar, P., Ferreira, R. G. and Sato, T. 2006. Describing the
organization of dominance relationships by dominance-
directed tree method. Am. J. Primatol. 68(2): 189-207.
Judge, P. G., Evans, T. A. and Vyas, D. K. 2005. Ordinal
representation of numeric quantities by brown capuchin
monkeys (Cebus a,i//,.). J. Exp. Psychol. Anim. Behav.
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ABSTRACTS

In: Programa e Livro de Resumos: XI Congresso
Brasileiro de Primatologia, Porto Alegre, 13-18 Febru-
ary, 2005. Edited by Julio C&sar Bicca-Marques. Socie-
dade Brasileira de Primatologia (SBPr), Porto Alegre.
Authors N-Z.

Nakage, A. P. M., Amaral, J. M. J., Jong, D. D., Barbante, P.,
Castro, M. P., Guerra-Neto, G., Andrade, T. M., Hoppe,
E. G. L., Gfrio, R. J. S. & Marinheiro, M. T. Avaliadao
bioqufmico-s&rica de macacos-pregos (Cebus a.,/'i/i, Lin-
naeus, 1758) em vida livre, p.136.
Nakage, A. P. M., Amaral, J. M. J., Jong, D. D., Barbante, P.,
Castro, M. P., Guerra-Neto, G., Andrade, T. M., Hoppe,
E. G. L., Gfrio, R. J. S. & Marinheiro, M. T. Avaliadao
hematol6gica de macacos-pregos (Cebus .'.c/l,, Linnaeus,
1758) em vida livre, p.137.
Nakai, E. S., Taira, J. T. & Izar, P. Interao6es de Cebus .ic/l'I
nigritus com competidores (Brachyteles arachnoides, Alou-
atta guariba e Nasua nasuta) na Mata Atlantica, Parque
Estadual Carlos Botelho, SP, p.137.
Nascimento, F. F., Bonvicino, C. R., Schneider, M. P. C.
& Seu~nez, H. N. Polimorfismo do citocromo b em tries
populagoes de Alouatta belzebul (Primates), p.138.
Nascimento, H. G., Salsanha, D. M., Barbosa, M. E. P. P. &
Sousa, M. B. C. Correlagao entire os niveis de horm6nios





Neotropical Primates 13(2), August 2005


esteroides e os comportamentos s6cio-sexuais do par re-
produtor de ( .- jacchus durante o perfodo gesta-
cional, p.138.
Neto, J. R. S., Pires, L. B., Amoedo, P., Valente, M. C.
M., Miranda, R. G. & Abbehussen, A. Influencia da dis-
ponibilidade de alimento na Area de uso do sagiii (Calli-
thrixjacchus) no Parque Metropolitano de Pituaqu Sal-
vador- Bahia, p.139.
Nicola, P. A., Tressi, A. R., Pereira, L. C. M., Koehler, A. &
Angelo, A. C. Dieta de mono-carvoeiro (Brachyteles arach-
noides- Atelinae, Primates) em um fragmento florestal no
Estado do ParanA, p.139.
Nienow, S. S., Gomes, I. B. S. R., Oliveira, M. A., Garcia,
J. R. & Messias, M. R. Dados preliminares da distribuidao
espacial dos avistamentos de primatas na margem esquer-
da do alto rio Madeira, p.140.
Nienow, S. S., Gomes, I. B. S. R., Oliveira, M. A., Garcia,
J. R. & Messias, M. R. Levantamento e estimativa de
abundancia de uma comunidade de primatas no alto rio
Madeira, p. 140.
Nieves, M., Laudicina, A., Miihlmann-Diaz, M. C. &
Mudry, M. D. Chromosome microdissection in Cebus
.q ,,/.i paraguayanus and homeologies among Ceboidea in
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Nunes, A. M. & Bicca-Marques, J. C. Regras individuals
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Odalia-Rimoli, A. 0 cuidado materno no muriqui
(Brachyteles arachnoides): AnAlise da sincronia entire a
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Biol6gica de Caratinga, Minas Gerais, BR, p.56.
Odalia-Rfmoli, A. & Rfmoli, J. Demografia e composihao
de um grupo de vida livre de ( .- penicillata em um
fragmento urbano de Cerrado, Campo Grande, Mato
Grosso do Sul, p.142.
Odalia-Rfmoli, A., Zago, L. & Rfmoli, J. Partilha de ali-
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Oklander, L. I., Zunino, G. E. & Corach, D. Molecular
genetics of Alouatta caraya: Isolation of short tandem re-
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Oliveira, D. A. G., Resende, B. D., Silva, E. D. R. &
Ottoni, E. B. Descrigao de vocalizacao de alarme especf-
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Oliveira, L. C., Loretto, D. M., Mendel, S. M., Silva Jr.,
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sos aspects envolvidos, p.58.
Oliveira, M. M., Ferreira, J. G., Mota, G. L. S. & Soares,
S. G. Mapeamento das Areas de ocorrencia de Alouatta
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Ottoni, E. B. Tradiqoes comportamentais e plasticidade ad-
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Paim, F P., lurck, M. F. F. E, Mendes, S. L. & Strier, K.
B. Observacao de fratura no membro inferior de muriqui
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Paranhos, K. M., Martins, C. S. & Valladares-PAdua, C.
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Passos, F C., Miranda, J. M. D., Aguiar, L. M., Ludwig, G.,
Bernardi, I. P & Moro-Rios, R. F Distribuicao e ocorren-
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Pauletti, C. M., Biedzicki-de-Marques, A. A. & Leal-
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Pereira, L. C. M., Angelo, A. C., Tressi, A. R., Koehler, A.
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Pereira, L. C. M., Nicola, P. A. & Valduga, M. Feeding on
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Pereira, T. S., Marne, 0. G., Minei, C. C., Fermoseli, A. E
0., Tognon, F R., Cabral, A., Hirano, Z. M. B. & Santos,
W. F Padrao de atividades diArias e comportamento ali-
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Humboldt, 1812) em um fragmento de mata remanes-
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Pereira, T. S., Marne, 0. G., Minei, C. C., Fermoselli, A. F
0., Tognon, F R., Cabral, A., Hirano, Z. M. B. & Santos,
W. F Uso de Area e utilizacao de rotas de locomocao por
um grupo de bugios pretos (Alouatta caraya Humboldt,
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Pessoa, D. M. A. Diferencas intersexuais de motivacao e
atencao em calitriqufdeos (( .-'. penicillata, Leonto-
pithecus chrysomelas e Saguinus midas niger) de cativeiro,
p.149.
Pimenta, F E., Nunes, A. & Silva-Jdnior, J. S. Primatas da
Serra do Cachimbo, Para, p.150.
Pinto, A. C. B., Azevedo-Ramos, C. & Carvalho Jr., 0. En-
contros intra- e interespecificos entire guaribas (Alouatta
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firme na Amaz6nia Oriental, p. 150.
Pinto, A. C. B., Azevedo-Ramos, C. & Carvalho Jr., 0.
Guaribas (Alouatta belzebul) e a exploracao madeireira na
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Pissinatti, A. Manejo reprodutivo de muriquis (Brachyteles
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logia de miocArdio em ( .-' kuhli cativos: Sadios vs.





Neotropical Primates 13(2), August 2005


afetados pelo Sfndrome de Emagrecimento Progressivo
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Podgaiski, L. R. & Biedzicki-de-Marques, A. A. Estudo da
interaqao mae-filhote em bugio ruivo Alouatta guariba
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lia) da Reserva Biol6gica Uniao, RJ, p.155.
Proc6pio-de-Oliveira, P, Pinto, S. J. R., Carvalho, M. M.
& Barbosa, T. C. D. Avaliaqao do status das populao6es
de micos-le6es-dourados (Leontopithecus rosalia) na region
litoranea de Baixa Costeira do estado do Rio de Janeiro,
p.156.
Queiroz, H. L. & Valsecchi, J. Efeito da variaqao do sistema
reprodutivo de guaribas vermelhos Alouatta seniculus, em
florestas alagadas e florestas de terra firme na Amazonia
Central, sobre a sustentabilidade de uso, com base em
simulagoes de models estocAsticos populacionais, p.156.
Quintana-Morales, P. C., Escobar-Aliaga, M., Morales-
MAvil, J. E., Silva-L6pez, G. & Martinez-Morales, M.
Traslape de Ambito hogarefino y distanciamiento intergru-
pal de dos tropes de mono aullador Alouatta palliata en un
fragment de selva, Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico, p. 157.
Ramfrez-Orjuela, C. C., Sanchez-Duefas, I. M. & Nassar-
Montoya, F Evaluaci6n de las poblaciones de monos aul-
ladores (Alouatta seniculus) en ambientes intervenidos por
actividades mineras, p. 157.
Rehg, J. Population density of Callimico goeldii (Goeldi's
monkey) in relationship to home range and habitat in a
forest fragment in Acre, Brazil, p. 158.
Ribeiro, I. P., Moreira, M. A. M., Pissinatti, A., Seuanez,
H. N., Tanuri, A. & Soares, M. A. Analise do fator de


restrigao TRIMCYP na infecao [sic] por HIV-1 em pri-
matas neotropicais do genero Aotus, p.158.
Rimoli, J. Vivendo no limited de habitat: Uma visao de
plasticidade comportamental de macacos-prego (Cebus
',7I//.i1 nigritus, Goldfuss, 1809 & Cebus .,I'I// cay Illiger,
1815, Primates, Cebinae) naMataAtlanticae no Cerrado
brasileiro, p.40.
Rimoli, J. Primatas do Centro-Oeste brasileiro: Patrim6nio
a se descobrir e preservar, p.61.
Rimoli, J., Costa, T. B. da, Correa-Neto, U. J. & Odalia-
Rimoli, A. Macacos-pregos-amarelos (Cebus i.c//fi cay
Illiger, 1815, Primates, Cebinae): Uma analise sazonal e
longitudinal do comportamento em um fragmento de flo-
resta de galeria em Terenos, Mato Grosso do Sul, p.159.
Rimoli, J., Fernandes-Jdnior, 0. & Odalia-Rfmoli, A. In-
teragoes socials em calitriqufneos: Uma analise da brinca-
deira em um grupo de sagais-de-tufo-preto ((
penicillata Geoffroy, 1812, Primates, Callitrichinae) em
um fragmento urbano de Cerrado, Campo Grande, Mato
Grosso do Sul, p.159.
Rivas-Bautista, R. M., Hernandez-Salazar, L. T., Laska, M.
& Rodrfguez-Luna, E. Sensibilidad olfativa del mono
arafa Ateles ..rr hacia sustancias asociadas a odores
corporales, p.160.
Romanini-de-Oliveira, R. C., Saraiva, N. A., Martins, C.
S. & Valladares-PAdua, C. B. Observagoes preliminares
do muriqui-do-sul (Brachyteles arachnoides E. Geoffroy,
1806) no Parque Nacional da Serra dos Orgaos, Rio de
Janeiro, p.43.
Rossi, M. J., Hirano, Z. M. B. & Oliveira, D. A. G. Estudo
preliminary da lateralidade na ingestao de alimentos em
Alouatta guariba clamitans cativos, p. 160.
Roveda, A. L, Arins, E 0., Matias, H. G. & Dornelles, S.
S. Estudo do comportamento de um grupo de bugios,
Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera, 1940 (Primates,
Atelidae) em um fragmento de Floresta Atlantica em Sao
Francisco do Sul, SC, p.161.
Ruiz-Miranda, C. R. Primatas invasoras: Oportunidade ou
problema? p.58.
Rylands, A. B. Primate conservation: Species, parks and
corridors, p.37.
Santos, C. V., Luiz, K. P & Sant'anna, F S. As tries especies
de primatas do genero C .- (C. jacchus, C. penicil-
lata e C. ..- r.., introduzidos na Ilha de Santa Cata-
rina SC: A importancia da pesquisa na implantacao do
manejo, p.59.
Santos, M. F M., Caldas, R. B., Zefereino, S. G., Vargas,
S. A. E, Alonso, A. C. & Cabral, J. N. H. A Reserva Bi-
ol6gica de Lami Porto Alegre RS/Brasil e os primatas,
p.161.
Santos, W. G., Farias, I. P., Hrbek, T. & Gordo, M. Estima-
tiva da variabilidade gen&tica das populagoes do sauim-
de-coleira (Saguinus bicolor) nos fragments de floresta da
cidade de Manaus: Implicaq6es para conservacao, p.162.
Schiel, N. & Huber, L. Aquisicao de informaq6es via me-
canismos socials em ( .- jacchus no campo, p.46.
Schmidlin, L. A. J., Amaral, A. T., Prado, E & Martins,
C. S. Estudo do habitat do mico-leao-da-cara-preta
(Leontopithecus caissara) na sua Area de distribuigao e





Neotropical Primates 13(2), August 2005


entorno utilizando geoprocessamento associado a estudos
de campo, p.162.
Schmidlin, L. A. J., Prado, E & Amaral, A. T. Catagao social
do mico-ledo-da-cara-preta (Leontopithecus caissara): Uma
abordagem das variag6es individuals e temporais para dois
grupos selvagens, p.163.
Silva, F E. & Bicca-Marques, J. C. Fatores determinantes
da occorencia de bugios ruivos (Alouatta guariba clami-
tans) em fragments florestais no municipio de Barra do
Ribeiro, RS, Brasil, p.52.
Strier, K. B. What New World primates contribute to pri-
matology, p.37.
Setz, E. Z. E, Leitao, G. G., Hirano, Z. M. B., Fialho, M. S.,
Gaspar, D. A. & Garcia, V. 0 bugio ruivo Alouattaguariba
clamitans e a fragmentagao da floresta Atlantica, p.52.
Shedden-Gonzilez, A. C. & Rodrfguez-Luna, E. Translo-
caci6n de mono aullador (Alouatta palliata mexicana) a
un fragmento de selva utilizado por el cultivo intensive de
palma camedor (Chamaedores elegans), p.163.
Silva, E. D. R., Resende, B. D. & Ottoni, E. B. T&cnicas
de manipulagao de alimentos utilizados pelo grupo livre
de macacos-prego (Cebus ,/'i/,l) do Parque Estadual do
JaraguA: Um estudo preliminary, p.164.
Silva, E C. D. & Bonvicino, C. R. Filogeografia de uma
populagao de ( .... lugens (Primates) da Amazonia,
p.164.
Silva, E Z., Amaral, A. T., Valladares-PAdua, C. B. & Mar-
tins, C. S. Uso do espago pelo saua (( .... nigrifrons)
em Area de protegao de mananciais do Estado de Sao
Paulo, p.165.
Silva, T. C. E, Jerusalinsky, L. & Oliveira, M. M. Prima-
tas endemicos do Brasil em unidades de conservagao de
protegao integral: Registros de ocorrencia e taxa despro-
tegidos, p.165.
Silva, V. M. & Codenotti, T. L. Mapeamento das areas de
ocorrencia e densidade populacional do bugio-preto, Alou-
atta caraya, em Tupancireta, RS, Brasil, p. 166.
Sousa, M. B. C. Sex differences in response to social changes
in captive common marmosets, (C .- jacchus, p.53.
Sousa, M. B. C., Leao, A. C., Neto, A. D. D., Coutinho, J.
F V. & Costa, M. P. 0. Estudo comparative de classifica-
gao de pesos e idade de uma colonia da sagiii comum (Cal-
lithrix jacchus), usando abordagem estatistica, algoritmo
de K-medias e redes auto-organizAveis, p. 166.
Souto, A., Schiel, N. & Bezerra, B. M. Um dia na vida do
sagiii-comum (C .- jacchus) em seu habitat natural,
p.61.
Souto, A. S., Bezerra, B. M. & Halsey, L. G. Performance do
sagiii-comum ((C .- jacchus) em seu ambiente natural
em solucionar o teste corn fios paralelos: Uma questao de
individualidade e aprendizado, p.46.
Souza, A. P. & Monteiro-da-Cruz, M. A. 0. Ecologia com-
portamental de uma populacao remanescente de Alouatta
belzebul, em um fragmento de Mata Atlantica no Estado
do Pernambuco, Brasil, p.167.
Souza, M. B., Ruiz-Miranda, C. R., Coelho, C. R. & Sa-
batini, V. Avaliacao da resposta de micos-le6es-dourados,
Leontopithecus rosalia, as reproduc6es sonoras de chama-
das longas na Rebio Uniao RJ, p. 167.


Souza, S. L. E, Rodes, E. R., Ferraz, D. S., Faria, M. B.,
Nery, M. S., Monteiro, R. F, Barbosa, E. F, Souza, S. M.,
Lima, F S., Cosenza, B. A. P. & Melo, F R. Densidade
populacional de primatas em dois fragments florestais na
regiao de Tombos, Minas Gerais, p.168.
Souza-Jdnior, J. C., Greinert, J. A., Baad, R., Riode, G.,
Heinig Jr., A. & Hirano, Z. M. B. Levantamento de
parasitas intestinais de bugios ruivos (Alouatta guariba
clamitans) mantidos em cativeiro no municipio de Indaial
SC, p.168.
Steinberg, E. R., Palermo, A. M., Nieves, M., Burna, A.,
Solis, G., Zunino, G. & Mudry, M. D. Sex determination
and sperm morphology in Cebidae, p.169.
Tabacow, F P., Santos, R. R. & Mendes, S. L. Novas lo-
calidades de ocorr&ncia de sagiii-da-serra ((C .- flavi-
ceps), em fragments florestais do estado de Minas Gerais
Brasil, p.169.
Taira, J. T. & Izar, P. Consumo do palmito Euterpe edulis
Martius por macacos-prego (Cebus ,/',cl') em area de
Mata AtlIntica, Sao Paulo, p.170.
Tognon, E R., Fermoseli, A. E 0., Pereira, T. S., Cabral,
A., Minei, C. C., Marne, 0. G., Hirano, Z. M. B. &
Santos, W. E Alguns aspects do comportamento alimen-
tar de um grupo de bugios pretos (Alouatta caraya Hum-
boldt, 1812) em um fragmento de mata no municipio de
Jardin6polis SP, p. 170.
Urbani, B. A survey of primate populations in northeastern
Venezuelan Guyana, p. 171.
Valenga-Montenegro, M. M., Laroque, P 0., Eloy, E. C.
C. & Oliveira, M. M. Monitoramento de ocorrencia de
doengas em populagoes cativas e selvagens de primatas
brasileiros, p.171.
Valenga-Montenegro, M. M., Monteiro-da-Cruz, M. A.
0., Neto, J. E. & Evencio, L. B. Afeco6es dentArias e peri-
odontais em sagiiis ((C .- jacchus Linnaeus, 1758) de
vida livre do campus da UFRPE, Recife PE, p.172.
Valle, Y. B. M., Monteiro-da-Cruz, M. A. 0., Melo, L. C.
O. & Valenga-Montenegro, M. M. Anilise comporta-
mental de femeas sexualmente maduras em ( .- jac-
chus de vida livre nos perfodos pr&- e p6s-parto, p.172.
Valladares-Padua, C. B. & Martins, C. S. Conservagao de
primatas em paisagens fragmentadas: Um estudo de caso
corn os micos-le6es-pretos (Leontopithecus chrysopygus),
p.38.
Vasconcelos, C. M. N. & SubirA, R. J. Participagao comu-
nitAria no program de protegao do sauim de coleira (Sa-
guinus bicolor), em Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil, p.173.
Vasconcelos, C. M., SubirA, R. J. & Kluczkovski Jr., A. Pro-
jeto piloto de reintegracao de grupos de sauim de coleira,
Saguinus bicolor, ao habitat natural em Manaus, Amazo-
nas, Brasil, p.173.
Veiga, L. M. & Silva, S. S. B. Relatives or just good friends?
Affiliative relationships among male southern bearded sakis
(Chiropotes satanas) in Tucuruf Reservoir, Brazil, p. 174.
Ventura, V. Foraging optimization strategies in the black-
and-gold howler monkey (Alouatta caraya) in northeast
Argentina, p.174.
Veracini, C. & Ruiz-Miranda, C. R. Os sagiiis do Rio de
Janeiro: Vitimas ou vil6es? p.62.





Neotropical Primates 13(2), August 2005


Verderane, M. P & Izar, P Ontogenese dos comportamen-
tos alimentar e locomotor de filhotes de macacos-prego
(Cebus .'c'//i) em um grupo em semi-liberdade, p.56.
Verderane, M. P., Neves, P. M. & Izar, P. 0 cuidado alo-
materno exibido por uma femea de macaco-prego (Cebus
.'"//,i) de um grupo semilivre do Parque Ecol6gico
do Tiete, SP, ap6s a morte da pr6pria cria: Um caso de
adocao? p. 175.
Vieira, P. R., Sousa, N. 0. M., Tavares, M. C. H. &Tomaz,
C. Mem6ria operacional em macacos-prego ((. -, ,
mantidos em cativeiro, utilizando aparato automatizado,
p.175.
Vilela, S. L., Dietz, J. M. & Ruiz-Miranda, C. R. Efeitos
dos predadores e competidores na selegao dos locals de
dormida pelos micos-le6es-dourados (Leontopithecus rosa-
lia), p.176.
Villar, D. N. A. & Mendes, E D. C. Fauna primatol6gi-
ca do Parque Estadual Altamiro de Moura Pacheco, em
regiao de Cerrado, Goiania- GO, p. 176.
Von Hohendorff, R., Carissimi, A. S., Guimaraes, M. A. B.
V., Berbare, P., Both, M. C., Giacomini, C., Furlaneto, D.
S. & Oliveira, M. A. S. Investigacao preliminary de proges-
terone e seus metab6litos fecais em bugios (Alouatta spp.)
mantidos em cativeiro em zool6gico, p.177.
Visalberghi, E., Fragaszy, D. M., Izar, P., Ottoni, E. B. &
Oliveira, M. G. Wild capuchin monkeys (Cebus libidino-
sus) use anvils and stone pounding tools, p.62.
Waga, I. C., Pinha, P. S., Dias, A. & Tavares, M. C. H.
Mem6ria espacial em um grupo silvestre de macacos-prego
(Cebus .'cll.i) do Parque Nacional de Brasilia, p.177.
Yamamoto, M. E., Domeniconi, C. & Box, H. 0. Sex dif-
ferences in common marmosets (( .-' jacchus) in re-
sponse to an unfamiliar food task, p.54.
Ziegler, T. E. & Snowdon, C. T. Sex differences in reproduc-
tive and parental hormones in cotton top tamarins, p.54.







2005

1" Congress of the European Federation of Primatology,
9-12 August 2005, Gbttingen, Germany. The Congress
will be hosted by the German Society for Primatology (GfP)
at the German Primate Centre (DPZ), University of Gat-
tingen. It will coincide with the 9' Congress of the German
Society. European students and researchers working on all
aspects of primatology are invited to attend. Registration is
from 1 November 2004 to 30 March 2005. For more infor-
mation contact Peter M. Kappeler, President EFP, German
Primate Center (DPZ), Abteiling Verhaltensforschung &
Okologie, Kellnerweg 4, D-37077 Gbttingen, Germany,
e-mail: , website: primatologie.de/EFP2005/index.htm>.

28'h Annual Meeting of the American Society of Pri-
matologists, 17-20 August 2005, Portland, Oregon. The


meeting will be held at the Benson Hotel and hosted by
the Oregon National Primate Research Center. A call for
abstracts and the meeting announcement will be sent elec-
tronically to all ASP members in mid-December 2004.
Deadline for proposals for symposia, roundtables, or work-
shops is 17 January 2005. Deadline for abstracts for contrib-
uted papers, symposia speakers, workshops, and roundtable
discussions is 14 February 2005. If a paper version of the
meeting announcement is preferred, please contact Larry
Williams, Program Co-Chair, Tel: +1 251-460-6293, Fax:
+1 251-460-6286, e-mail: . For
more information, please contact Dr. Kristine Coleman,
chair of the local organizing committee of the ONPRC at
.

29'h International Ethological Conference, 20-27 August
2005, Budapest, Hungary. For more information, write to
IEC2005, Department of Ethology, ELtvbs University,
1117 Budapest, Hungary, or subscribe to the e-mail news-
letter at .

COHAB 2005: First International Conference on
Health and Biodiversity, 23-25 August 2005, Galway,
Ireland. This important global event will provide an inter-
national forum for scientists, professionals, policymakers,
and stakeholders to address the issues linking environmen-
tal health, human health, biological diversity, and interna-
tional development. Full details of the conference may be
found at . Enquiries should
be directed to Conor Kretsch, COHAB Director, e-mail:
.

Measuring Behavior 2005-5'h International Confer-
ence on Methods and Techniques in Behavioral Re-
search, 30 August 2 September 2005, Wageningen, The
Netherlands. Measuring Behavior will offer an attractive
mix ofpresentations, demonstrations, discussions, meetings,
and much more (see program/index.html> for details). Proceedings of the 2002
meeting are available at mb2002/index.html>. Deadline for proposals of symposia
and SIGs is 1 December 2004. For more information, con-
tact Prof. Dr. Louise E. M. Vet, Program Chair, Measuring
Behavior 2005, Conference Secretariat, P.EO. Box 268, 6700
AG Wageningen, The Netherlands, Tel: +31-317-497677,
Fax: +31-317-424496, e-mail: ,
website: .

Sixth Meeting of the Asociaci6n Primatol6gica Espa-
fiola, 27-30 September 2005, Facultad de Psicologfa, Uni-
versidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain. Spon-
sored by the Asociaci6n Primatol6gica Espanola (A.PE.),
this Meeting will focus on the themes of Child Ethology,
Conservation, Great Apes, and Humans: Similarities and
Differences, and Tool Use. For more information please
see the website at or
contact Dr. Fernando Colmenares ( es>) or Dra. Maria Victoria HernAndez-Lloreda ( psi.ucm.es>).





Neotropical Primates 13(2), August 2005


2005 Annual Meeting of the Conservation Breeding
Specialist Group, 29 September 1 October 2005, Syra-
cuse, New York, USA. Regional network meetings will take
place on Tuesday, 27 September, and a Steering Committee
meeting will take place on Wednesday, 28 September. Ac-
commodations are at the Genesee Grande Hotel ( www.geneseegrande.com>), which offers a variety of rooms
and rates. The deadline for registration is 1 August 2005;
for more information, email a request to <2005cbsg@cbsg.
org> or visit their website at .

New World Primate Workshop (A Focus on Cebids),
30 September 1 October, 2005, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.
The Cleveland Metroparks Zoo announces a workshop on
New World Primates that will focus on the captive care of
Cebids in U.S. institutions. Informal roundtable discus-
sions will include the following topics: diet and health,
social groups and mixed species, enrichment and training
behaviors, and population management. The workshop
will begin at 10 a.m. on Friday, 30 September, and end at
4 p.m. on Saturday, 1 October. Attendance is limited to
50 people and registrants will be asked to complete a pre-
meeting survey regarding their experiences with Cebids.
The workshop will be held on the zoo grounds. Some meals
will be provided and local lodging suggestions are available.
Registration fee is $25. For more information and a reg-
istration form, contact Tad Schoffner at 216-635-3332 or
.

8th World Wilderness Congress, 30 September 6 Oc-
tober, 2005, Anchorage, Alaska, USA. Over a thousand
delegates from dozens of nations will attend the Eighth
WWC, with additional events in Kamchatka and the Rus-
sian Far East. The WWC convenes every three to four years,
with the theme of this year's Congress being "Wilderness,
Wildlands and People-A Partnership for the Planet." This
Congress will generate accurate, up-to-date information on
the benefits of wilderness and wildlands to both contem-
porary and traditional societies and will examine the best
models for balancing wilderness and wildlands conservation
with human needs. For more information, see the Congress
website at .

60'h World Association of Zoos and Aquariums Annual
Conference, 2-6 October 2005, New York, New York,
USA. The 60th WAZA Annual Conference will be hosted by
the Wildlife Conservation Society and held at the Marriott
Marquis hotel. The theme of the meeting will be "Wildlife
Conservation: A Global Imperative for Zoos and Aquari-
ums." Additional information will be made available on the
conference website at .

III Congresso Brasileiro de Mastozoologia, 12 a 16 de
outubro de 2005, realizado pela Sociedade Brasileira de
Mastozoologia (SBMz) e a Universidade Federal do Espfrito
Santo (UFES), no SESC Praia Formosa em Aracruz, Es-
pfrito Santo. 0 event reunirA pesquisadores, profissionais
e estudantes com o objetivo de apresentar, analisar e discutir
trabalhos cientfficos, descobertas e tendencias no estudo dos


mamfferos. 0 tema dessa edicao e "Diversidade e Conserva-
gao de Mamfferos," que sera abordado sob diversos aspects
durante o event, que contara com a participacao de espe-
cialistas ligados a instituio6es de ensino e pesquisa nacionais
e estrangeiras, bem como outros profissionais que atuam em
6rgaos governamentais, na iniciativa privada e em organiza-
o6es nao-governamentais. Somente serao aceitas inscricoes
pela internet. Podera ser realizada a inscrigao online do con-
gresso ate o dia 31 de maio, e o envio dos resumes podem
ser feitos ate o dia 30 de junho de 2005. Mais informaq6es:
.

Counting Critters: Estimating Animal Abundance and
Distance Sampling, 17-21 October 2005, Disney's Animal
Kingdom, Orlando, Florida, USA. This five-day workshop
will introduce participants to the most important methods
of estimating animal abundance in a rigorous but acces-
sible way. For more details, please see st-and.ac.uk/counting.critters/> or contact Rhona Rodger,
Workshop Organizer, CREEM, University of St Andrews,
The Observatory, St Andrews, Scotland KY16 9LZ, tel:
+44 1334 461842, fax: +44 1334 461800, e-mail: mcs.st-and.ac.uk>.

Primer Congreso Colombiano de Primatologia, Asoci-
aci6n Colombiana de Primatologf a, del 2 al 4 noviembre de
2005, Bogota, Colombia. El Primer Congreso Colombiano
de Primatologfa tendrA tres Areas Tematicas para la present-
aci6n de los trabajos: Biologiay Ecologia-estudios en cien-
cias basicas que incluyen morfologfa, taxonomfa, sistematica,
gen&tica, biologf a molecular, evoluci6n, biodiversidad, com-
portamiento y ecologfa; Medicina -estudios en anatomfa,
fisiologfa, medicine, clinic, patologfa, epidemiologfa, nu-
trici6n, y restricci6n de primates; y Conservacidn y Manejo
(in situ / ex situ)-investigaci6n aplicada y gesti6n multi-
disciplinaria, herramientas conceptuales y t&cnicas dirigidas
a la conservaci6n, uso y aprovechamiento, trabajo comu-
nitario, comercio, mantenimiento en cautiverio, reproduc-
ci6n, t&cnicas de capture, manipulaci6n, registro y marcaje,
enriquecimiento ambiental, rehabilitaci6n, disposici6n de
primates decomisados, normatividad y legislaci6n. La po-
nencia debe incluir informaci6n nueva, se pueden enviar
resdmenes de temas presentados en reuniones anteriores
pero su aporte al Congreso debe ser clave, general discusi6n
constructive o representar temas emergentes. Para mayor
informaci6n del Congreso, puede visitar la siguiente pAgina
web: , o en
el correo electr6nico .

Primate Society of Great Britain (PSGB) Winter Meet-
ing 2005, 9 December 2005. Flett Theatre, The Natural
History Museum, London. The theme is "Primate Evo-
lution and the Environment." Guest speakers include R.
D. Martin (The Field Museum, Chicago), Erik Seiffert
(Oxford University), Peter Andrews (The Natural History
Museum), Jussi Eronen and Mikael Fortelius (University
of Helsinki), Susan Ant6n (New York University), Sarah
Elton (University of Hull), Christophe Soligo (The Natural
History Museum), Jonathan Kingdon (Oxford University),





Neotropical Primates 13(2), August 2005


Urs Thalmann (University of Zirich) and Laurie Godfrey
(University of Massachusetts). Organised by: Christophe
Soligo, The Natural History Museum, e-mail: nhm.ac.uk>. See website: Winter2005.html>.

V Gbttinger Freilandtage "Primate Diversity-Past,
Present and Future," 13-16 December 2005. University
of Gbttingen and German Primate Center, Gbttingen, Ger-
many. Organized by Peter M. Kappeler. Confirmed invited
speakers: Diversity in the past: Extinct primate communities
-John Fl, I, (State University of New York, Stony Brook).
Diversity today: Diversity of Malagasy primates Anne
Yoder (Yale University); Diversity of American primates
-Anthony B. Rylands (Conservation International); Diver-
sity of Asian primates Jatna Supriatna (Conservation In-
ternational Indonesia); Diversity of African primates -John
F. Oates (Hunter College New York); Primate biogeography
- Shawn Lehman (University of Toronto); Speciation and
taxonomy Colin P. Groves (Australian National Univer-
sity); Human diversity Mark Stoneking (Max Planck In-
stitute, Leipzig). Preserving Diversity for Tomorrow: Diver-
sity and conservation hotspots Russell A. Mittermeier
(Conservation International); Extinction biology Carlos
Peres (University of East Anglia); Conservation genetics
- George Amato (Wildlife Conservation Society); Conser-
vation genetics Michael Bruford (Cardiff University); Re-
introductions Carel P. van Schaik (University of Zirich).
Comparative Perspectives: Speciation in birds Trevor Price
(University of Chicago); Bird taxonomy and conserva-
tion Robert Zink (University of Minnesota). Contact:
Prof. Dr. Peter M. Kappeler, Deutsches Primatenzentrum
(DPZ), Kellnerweg 4, D-37077 Gbttingen, Tel/Fax: +49-
551-3851-284/291, e-mail: , website:
htm>.

2006

Ecology in an Era of Globalization: Challenges and Op-
portunities for Environmental Scientists in the Ameri-
cas, 8-12 January 2006, Merida, Mexico. This conference
will be held at the Fiesta Americana Hotel in Merida and
is co-hosted by the Universidad Aut6noma de Yucatan and
the Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas de Yucatan. Ab-
stracts should address one of the meeting's three subthemes:
invasive species, human migration, and production. The
invasive species subtheme includes such topics as disper-
sal of invasive plant and animal species, emerging diseases,
and resistance of local ecosystems to invasive species and
disease. The human migration subtheme includes the envi-
ronmental effects of international and local emigration and
immigration on recipient and source areas. Potential topics
include infrastructure development needs and impacts, ef-
fects on land cover, and land-use impacts. The production
subtheme focuses on ecosystem transformations, including
land-use change required to produce goods and services for
human use. Potential topics include the effects of changes
in forest and agricultural policy on economies, biodiversity,


and ecosystems throughout the Americas, in terrestrial,
marine, and freshwater systems. We particularly welcome
reports of projects that are interdisciplinary and that con-
sider the need to communicate with broad audiences. For
more information or to submit an abstract, visit www.esa.org/mexico>. Deadline for abstract submissions:
16 September 2005.

75' Annual Meeting of the American Association for
Physical Anthropology, 5-12 March 2006, Anchorage,
Alaska, USA. For program information, please contact the
Program Chair, Lyle W. Konigsberg, Department of An-
thropology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-
0720, USA, Tel: (865) 974-4408, fax: (865) 974-2686, e-
mail . Local Arrangements Committee
Chair: Christine Hanson, Department of Anthropology,
University of Alaska Anchorage, Anchorage, AK 99508,
USA, tel: 907-786-6839, fax: 907-786-6850, e-mail
. Website at org/annmeet>.

Primate Society of Great Britain (PSGB) Spring Meet-
ing 2006, 27-28 March 2006, University of Stirling, Stir-
ling, Scotland. The theme is "Primate Mentality and Well-
being." On the afternoon of 27 March invited speakers will
address the relationship between cognition and welfare in
primates. Other topics are welcomed for posters and oral
sessions. There will be a prize for the best postgraduate
presentation and poster. A provisional programme and
instructions for presenters can be found on the meeting
web site at: PSGB2006.php>. For more information please contact: Dr.
Sarah Vick (PSGB), Psychology Department, University of
Stirling, FK9 4LA, Scotland. E-mail address for enquiries:
.

21" Congress of the International Primatological Soci-
ety, 25-30 June 2006, Imperial Resort Beach Hotel, En-
tebbe, Uganda. Theme: "Primate Conservation in Action."
Preliminary contact details: Dr. William Olupot, Chair,
Organizing Committee, IPS 2006 Congress, P 0. Box
21669, Kampala, Uganda, Tel: 077598134, 077947397,
041501020, e-mail .

29' Annual Meeting of the American Society of Prima-
tologists (ASP), 16-19 August 2006, San Antonio, Texas.
Sponsored by Southwest National Primate Research Center.
Tentative deadline dates are 5 December 2005 to notify pro-
gram chair of intent to offer a symposium or workshop; 9
January 2006 to send symposia and workshop abstracts with
confirmed list of participants to program chair; and 6 Febru-
ary 2006 for all final abstracts for symposia, oral, and poster
presenters. See the ASP website for updates and further in-
formation: .

1" European Congress of Conservation Biology, 22-26
August 2006, Eger, Hungary. The European Section of the
Society for Conservation Biology is determined to promote
the development and use of science for the conservation of





Neotropical Primates 13(2), August 2005


European species and ecosystems, and to make sure that
conservation policy is firmly underpinned by the best avail-
able scientific evidence. This keystone congress will bring
together a wide array of academics, policymakers, students,
NGO representatives, and biodiversity managers from
throughout Europe and beyond. For more information,
see the Congress website at or
contact AndrAs Bildi, Chair of the Local Organising Com-
mittee, at .

VII Congreso Internacional sobre Manejo de Fauna Sil-
vestre en la Amazonia y Am6rica Latina, del 3 al 7 de
septiembre de 2006, Ilheus, Bahia, Brasil. El VII Congreso
International sobre Manejo de Fauna Silvestre en la Ama-
zonf a y Am&rica Latina enfocara su atenci6n en los studios
y programs de manejo que actualmente estAn siendo eje-
cutados en la Amazonfay en Latinoam&rica, con el prop6si-
to de evaluar los resultados alcanzados y las limitaciones
encontradas en la conducci6n de los mismos. Una de sus
principles metas sera expandir el enfoque del event a los
mAs amplios aspects del manejo de fauna en toda Lati-
noam&rica. El VII Congreso Internacional sobre Manejo de
Fauna Silvestre en la Amazonfa y Am&rica Latina incluira
conferencias magistrales, mesas redondas, secciones temati-
cas con presentaciones orales libres, exposiciones en posters,
simposios, workshops, cursos durante y posteriores al con-
greso, y excursions pos-congreso. Las Areas tematicas que se
abordaran en este event seran: conservaci6n in situ y Areas
naturales protegidas, conservaci6n ex situ de fauna silvestre,
preservaci6n y recuperaci6n de hAbitats, metodologfas apli-
cadas para el manejo de fauna silvestre con comunidades,
criterios para el uso sustentable de fauna silvestre, indicado-
res de sustentabilidad, etologfa aplicada al manejo, medicine
veterinaria de la conservaci6n, fisiologfa y ecologfa, produc-
ci6n en criaderos, comercio, polftica y legislaci6n de fauna
silvestre. Estamos recibiendo propuestas para mini-cursos,
workshops y simposios hasta el 31/12/05. Apreciaremos el
apoyo de diversas instituciones. Existen posibilidades de in-
stalaci6n de stands institucionales para difusi6n y ventas. El
plazo para el envfo de resdmenes es hasta el 30/04/06. Para
mayor informaci6n: .

2007

6h Zoos & Aquariums Committing to Conservation
Conference, 26-31 January 2007, Houston, Texas. ZACC
is a bi-annual event that promotes the role of zoos and
aquariums in supporting conservation activities worldwide,
both at their institutions and in the field. Conference par-
ticipants include representatives from zoological institu-
tions, international conservation organizations, local non-
governmental organizations, government agencies, funding
agencies and, most importantly, field biologists and conser-
vationists. Presentations at the 2007 ZACC will highlight
both ongoing projects and new initiatives that offer op-
portunities for institutional support. There will be a major
focus on field-based initiatives that have already established
links to zoos and aquariums, as well as promising candidates
for such partnerships. In addition, the program will feature


presentations related to the organization, management,
and support of zoo-based and aquarium-based conserva-
tion programs. The full conference registration fee ($195)
will include icebreaker event, all sessions, breaks, lunches,
conference proceedings, zoo day transport, zoo day lunch
and dinner. All funds raised above conference costs will be
allocated to the conservation fund for this conference. The
deadline for submitting paper and poster abstracts is 1 Sep-
tember 2006. Abstracts submitted electronically should be
addressed to and to houstonzoo.org>. Abstracts submitted as hard copy should
be addressed to: 2007 ZACC Conference, Attn: Bill Kon-
stant, Director of Conservation and Science, Houston Zoo,
1513 North MacGregor, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. For
more information, see the conference website at www.houstonzoo.org/ZACC>.

XII Congresso Brasileiro de Primatologia, 22 a 27 de
julho de 2007, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil. 0
local escolhido e a PUC-BH, de excelente infra-estrutura
e localizada no bairro Coracao Eucarfstico, em Belo Hori-
zonte (MG), o que facilitara o acesso de quem vemn de fora.
O tema escolhido pela diretoria foi "Prioridades de pesquisa
para o estudo de primatas neotropicais" e, portanto, solicita-
mos a colaboracao e participagao de todos os interessados
na construgao da programacao deste event tao important
para todos n6s. Estaremos recebendo propostas de mesas-
redondas, palestras, mini-cursos e events paralelos, tudo
voltado ao tema citado acima, ate dia 30 de abril pr6ximo,
onde colocaremos a disposigao no site da SBPr ou na lista
de discusses dos primat6logos ( com/group/primatologia>) para votac6es finals e conclusao
de nossos trabalhos ainda neste semestre. Informagoes adi-
cionais: ou entrar
em contato com Prof. Dr. Fabiano R. de Melo, Presidente
da Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia, Coordenador do
curso de Ciencias Biol6gicas, UEMG/FAFILE, campus de
Carangola, Praga dos Estudantes, 23, Santa Emflia, Caran-
gola 36800-000, Minas Gerais, Brasil, (32) 3741-1969 /
(32) 8845-2904.







PRIMATES OF COLOMBIA
CONSERVATION INTERNATIONAL
TROPICAL FIELD GUIDE SERIES #5


C OLOMBIA IS ONE OF .F14
the most biologically
diverse countries in the world
due to its rich and varied flora
and fauna and is superseded
only by Brazil and Peru in
terms of primate diversity.
This field guide illustrates and
describes 28 primate species
comprising 43 different taxa,
15 of which are endemic to
Colombia. It is a compilation
of all primate field work done
on Colombian primates both
in and out of country and has
quickly become an important
tool for young primatologists to establish research
priorities for study. The field guide also includes
chapters on primate classification, fossil history,
zoogeography, conservation and phylogeny, and
is a first step towards the necessary conservation
of this beautiful group of animals.



About the author, Thomas Richard Defier:

Tom Defler is a primatologist who has spent the last
28 years in the Orinoco and Amazonian regions of Colom-
bia, focusing his studies on the ecology and conservation
of primate species in these two regions of the country. His
research began in 1976 with INDERENA of the Minis-
try of Agriculture (now superceded by the Ministry of the
Environment) studying Colombian flora and fauna. He
established two research stations, Capard Biological Sta-
tion and Ecological Station Om6. Defler has written more
than 60 publications on diverse aspects of ecology, primate
taxonomy and natural history. He is currently Professor at
the Instituto Amaz6nico de Investigaciones, at the National
University of Colombia in Leticia.


SOLOMBIA ES UNO DE LOS
Spafses con mayor diversi-
of Colombia dad biol6gica del mundo debido
a su rica y variada flora y fauna;
s6lo Brasil y Peri la superan en
terminos de diversidad de prima-
tes. Esta guia de campo ilustra y
describe 28 species de primates
conteniendo 43 distintos taxo-
nes, 15 de los cuales son end&-
micos de Colombia. Es una
recopilaci6n de todo el trabajo
de campo que fue realizado sobre
primates colombianos dentro y
fuera del pais, y se ha convertido
rdipidamente en una important
herramienta para j6venes prima-
t6logos que desean establecer prioridades de inves-
tigaci6n para sus studios. La guia de campo tam-
bien incluye capitulos sobre clasificaci6n de pri-
mates, historic f6sil, zoogeografia, conservaci6n y
filogenia, y es un primer paso hacia la conservaci6n
necesaria de este hermoso grupo de animals.




Thomas Richard Defier, biograffa del autor:

Tom Defler es un primat6logo que ha pasado los iltimos
28 afios en las regions del Orinoco y Amazonfa de Colom-
bia, enfocando sus studios en la ecologfay conservaci6n de
species de primates en estas dos regions del pafs. Inici6 sus
investigaciones en 1976 con el INDERENA del Ministerio
de Agriculture (ahora Ministerio del Ambiente), estudiando
la flora y fauna colombiana. Estableci6 dos estaciones de
investigaci6n, la Estaci6n Biol6gica Capard y la Estaci6n
Ecol6gica Om6. Defler ha escrito mias de 60 publicaciones
sobre distintos aspects de la ecologfa, taxonomfa e histo-
ria natural de primates. En la actualidad, es professor del
Institute Amaz6nico de Investigaciones, en la Universidad
Nacional de Colombia en Leticia.
I111






Primates of Colombia

Mail and Fax Order Form


Book Title: Primates of Colombia by Thomas Richard Defler. Illustrations by Stephen D. Nash,
Cesar Landazabal Mendoza and Margarita Nieto Diaz. Editor: Jose Vicente Rodriguez-Mahecha.

English ISBN: 1-881173-83-6. Softcover.
Spanish ISBN: 1-881173-73-9. Softcover.

Price: $40.00 (includes UPS Ground shipping within the continental United States). For orders
requiring faster service than UPS Ground, you will be responsible for paying all shipping costs.

Please email or call the phone number listed below for overnight deliveries and wholesale orders.


Please complete the following form, print it out and mail or fax to:

Jill Lucena
Conservation International
2011 Crystal Drive, Suite 500
Arlington, VA 22202 USA
Tel (703) 341-2536
Fax (703) 553-4817


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Order Form should include credit card information or be sent along with check or money order,
made payable to Conservation International. Please allow 2-3 weeks for delivery.
Title: Primates of Colombia
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Scope

The journal/newsletter aims to provide a basis for conservation
information relating to the primates of the Neotropics. We
welcome texts on any aspect of primate conservation, including
articles, thesis abstracts, news items, recent events, recent publica-
tions, primatological society information and suchlike.

Submissions

Please send all English and Portuguese contributions to:
John M. Aguiar, Conservation International, Center for Applied
Biodiversity Science, 2011 Crystal Drive, Suite 500, Arlington,
VA 22202, Tel: 703 341-2400, Fax: 703 979-0953, e-mail:
, and all Spanish contributions to:
Ernesto Rodrfguez-Luna, Instituto de Neuroetologfa, Universi-
dad Veracruzana, Apartado Postal 566, Xalapa 91000, Veracruz,
Mexico, Tel: 281 8-77-30, Fax: 281 8-77-30, 8-63-52, e-mail:
.

Contributions

Manuscripts may be in English, Spanish or Portuguese, and should
be double-spaced and accompanied by the text on diskette for
PC compatible text-editors (MS-Word, WordPerfect, Excel, and
Access), and/or e-mailed to (English,
Portuguese) or (Spanish). Hard
copies should be supplied for all figures (illustrations and maps)
and tables. The full name and address for each author should be
included. Please avoid abbreviations and acronyms without the
name in full. Authors whose first language is not English should
please have texts carefully reviewed by a native English speaker.

Articles. Each issue of Neotropical Primates will include up to
three full articles, limited to the following topics: Taxonomy,
Systematics, Genetics (when relevant for systematics), Biogeogra-
phy, Ecology and Conservation. Texts for full articles should not
exceed about 20 pages in length (1.5 spaced, and including the
references). Please include an abstract in English, and (optional)
one in Portuguese or Spanish. Tables and illustrations should be
limited to six, excepting only the cases where they are fundamental
for the text (as in species descriptions, for example). Full articles
will be sent out for peer-review.

Short articles. These are usually reviewed only by the editors.
A broader range of topics is encouraged, including such as
behavioral research, in the interests of informing on general
research activities which contribute to our understanding of
platyrrhines. We encourage reports on projects and conservation
and research programs (who, what, where, when, why, etc.) and
most particularly information on geographical distributions,
locality records, and protected areas and the primates which
occur in them. Texts should not exceed 10 pages in length
(1.5 spaced, including the references).


Figures and maps. Articles may include small black-and-white
photographs, high-quality figures, and high-quality maps and
tables. Please keep these to a minimum. We stress the importance
of providing maps which are publishable.

News items. Please send us information on projects, field sites,
courses, recent publications, awards, events, activities of Primate
Societies, etc.

References. Examples of house style may be found throughout this
journal. Please refer to these examples when listing references:

Journal article
Stallings, J. D. and Mittermeier, R. A. 1983. The black-tailed
marmoset (C( .- argentata melanura) recorded from Paraguay.
Am. J. Primatol. 4: 159-163.

Chapter in book
Brockelman, W. Y. and All, R. 1987. Methods of surveying and
sampling forest primate populations. In: Primate Conservation
in the Tropical Rain Forest, C. W. Marsh and R. A. Mittermeier
(eds.), pp. 23-62. Alan R. Liss, New York.

Book
Napier, P. H. 1976. Catalogue of Primates in the British Museum
(.'. .- History). Part 1: Families Callitrichidae and Cebidae.
British Museum (Natural History), London.

Thesis/Dissertation
Wallace, R. B. 1998. The behavioral ecology of black spider
monkeys in north-eastern Bolivia. Doctoral thesis, University of
Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.

Report
Muckenhirn, N. A., Mortensen, B. K., Vessey, S., Fraser,
C. E. 0. and Singh, B. 1975. Report on a primate survey in
Guyana. Unpublished report, Pan American Health Organization,
Washington, DC.




Neotropical Primates is produced in collaboration
with Conservation International, Center for Applied
Biodiversity Science, 2011 Crystal Drive, Suite 500,
Arlington, Virginia 22202, USA.


A^M~~~
\IIEmtm







Neotropical Primates
A Journal and Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group
Vol. 13(2), 2005


Contents

Short Articles

Primer Censo del Mono Aullador Negro (Alouattapalliata aequatorialis) en El Choc6 BiogeogrAfico Colombiano
Carolina Ramirez-Orjuela y Ivdn M Sdnchez-D uefas ............................................................ ........ ...........................1.......
Dieta, Forrajeo y Presupuesto de Tiempo en Cotoncillos (Callicebus discolor) del Parque Nacional Yasuni en la
Amazonia Ecuatoriana
Gabriel Carrillo-Bilbao, Anthony Di Fiore y Eduardo Ferndndez-Duque.................................................................... .................... 7
Vocalizao6es de Longo Alcance como Comunicacao Intra-grupal nos Bugios (Alouatta guariba)
Sandra Steinm etz.............................................................................. ..............................................11
Cytochrome b Sequences Show Subdivision between Populations of the Brown Howler Monkey (Alouatta guariba)
from Rio de Janeiro and Santa Catarina, Brazil
Eugene E. Harris, Cristiani Gifalli-Iughetti, Zelinda Hirano Braga and Cdlia P Koiffmann.......................................................... 16
Formas Nao Usuais para a Obtencao de Agua por Alouatta guariba clamitans em Ambiente de Floresta com Araucaria
no Sul do Brasil
Jodo M. D. Miranda, Rodrigo E Moro-Rios, Itiber P. Bernardi e Fernando C Passos...................................................................... 21
An Update on the Distribution of Primates of the Tapaj6s-Xingu Interfluvium, Central Amazonia
Fldvio Eduardo Pimenta and Jos de Souza e Silva Jf nior ........................... ........................... ..................................................... 23
Novos Registros de Primatas no Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, com tnfase em Brachyteles arachnoides
(Primates, Atelidae)
D iogo L oretto e H enrique R ajdo .......................................................................................................................................................28
Conservation Implications of Primate Hunting Practices Among the Matsigenka of Manu National Park
M aria N E da Silva, Glenn H Shepard Jr. and Douglas W Yu.............................................. .................................................... 31

N ew s ........ ..................................................................... ....................................................................................................... 3 6

R recent Publications........................................ ............................ .........................................40

M eetin g s ....................................................................... ....................................................................................................... 5 1




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