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Title: Neotropical primates
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 Material Information
Title: Neotropical primates a newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCNSSC Primate Specialist Group
Abbreviated Title: Neotrop. primates
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
Conservation International
Center for Applied Biodiversity Science
Publisher: Conservation International
Place of Publication: Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Publication Date: April 2005
Frequency: quarterly
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Primates -- Periodicals -- Latin America   ( lcsh )
Primates -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Wildlife conservation -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: review   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Brazil
 Notes
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Language: English, Portuguese, and Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Mar. 1993)-
Issuing Body: Issued jointly with Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, <Dec. 2004->
General Note: Published in Washington, D.C., Dec. 1999-Apr. 2005 , Arlington, VA, Aug. 2005-
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 13, no. 1 (Apr. 2005).
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098814
Volume ID: VID00048
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28561619
lccn - 96648813
issn - 1413-4705

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
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    Copyright
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    Main
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    Back Matter
        Back Matter
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text
ISSN 1413-4703


NEOTROPICAL


PRIMA TES


A Journal of the Neotropical Section of the
IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group


Volume
Number
April


13
1
2005


Editors
Anthony B. Rylands
Ernesto Rodriguez-Luna
Assistant Editors
John M. Aguiar
Liliana Cort6s-Ortiz
PSG Chairman
Russell A. Mittermeier
PSG Deputy Chairman
Anthony B. Rylands


CONSERVATION
INTERNATIONAL


SPECIES SURVIVAL
COMMISSION


CENTER
FOR APPLIED
BIODIVERSITY
SCIENCE
AT CONSERVATION
INTERNATIONAL










Neotropical Primates
A Journal of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group


Center for Applied Biodiversity Science
Conservation International
1919 M St. NW, Suite 600, Washington, DC 20036, USA

ISSN 1413-4703 Abbreviation: Neotrop. Primates
DOI: 10.1896/ci.cabs.2005.np.13.1

Editors
Anthony B. Rylands, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International, i 1...... DC
Ernesto I.",. -T ... UniversidadVeracruzana, Xalapa, Mexico

Assistant Editors
John M. Aguiar, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International, 1. .... .. DC
Liliana Cortes-Ortiz, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Mexico

Editorial Board
Hannah M. Buchanan-Smith, University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland, UK
Adelmar E Coimbra-Filho, Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Liliana Cortes-Ortiz, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Mexico
Carolyn M. Crockett, Regional Primate Research Center, University of 1.11. .. Seattle, WA, USA
Stephen E Ferrari, Universidade Federal do Para, Belem, Brazil
Eckhard W. Heymann, Deutsches Primatenzentrum, C .. Germany
Russell A. Mittermeier, Conservation International, 1.1.... .. DC
Marta D. Mudry, Universidad de
Horacio Schneider, Universidade Federal do Para, Belem, Brazil
Karen B. Strier, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA
Maria Emilia Yamamoto, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Brazil

Primate Specialist Group
Chairman Russell A. Mittermeier
Deputy Chair Anthony B. Rylands
Co-Vice Chairs for the Neotropical Region Anthony B. Rylands & Ernesto -T .
Vice Chair for Asia Ardith A. Eudey
Vice Chair for Africa Thomas M. Butynski
Vice Chair for Madagascar Jorg U. Ganzhorn

Layout: Kim Meek, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International, 1.1- ....- DC

Editorial Assistance:
Mariella Superina, University of New Orleans, Department of i _;. i Sciences, New Orleans, LA

IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group logo courtesy of Stephen D. Nash, 2002.

Front Cover: A wild bearded capuchin monkey (Cebus libidinosus) caring for and feeding a common marmoset (Callithrixjacchus) (see page 29).
Photo by Jeanne Shirley.


This issue of Neotropical Primates was kindly sponsored by the Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation, 432 Walker Road, Great Falls, Virginia 22066,
USA, and the Los Angeles Zoo, Director John R. Lewis, 5333 Zoo Drive, Los Angeles, California 90027, USA.





Neotropical Primates 13(1), April 2005


DESLOCAMENTO TERRESTRE E 0 COMPORTAMENTO
DE BEBER EM UM GRUPO DE BARBADOS (ALOUATTA
GUARIBA CLAMITANS CABRERA, 1940) EM MINAS
GERAIS, BRASIL

Bdrbara Almeida-Silva, Patricia G. Guedes
Jean P Boubli, Karen B. Strier

Introdufio

Dentre os diversos estudos envolvendo o genero Alouatta,
o comportamento locomotor tern sido bastante discutido
(Mendel, 1976; Youlatos, 1993; Cant, 1986; Prates et al.,
1990; Gebo, 1992; Bicca-Marques e Calegaro-Marques,
1995), embora sejam poucos os registros sobre o desloca-
mento terrestre. Um outro comportamento pouco docu-
mentado d o de beber igua, considerado nao muito comumrn
para o genero, jA que os barbados obtem Agua dos alimentos
consumidos; principalmente folhas novas e de frutos (Glan-
der, 1978; Bicca-Marques, 1992). 0 present estudo relata
a ocorrencia de events de uso do solo para locomogao e
obtencao de Agua em um grupo de Alouatta guariba clami-
tans e discute as possiveis causes para estes comportamentos
nos barbados da Reserva Particular do Patrim6nio Natural
(RPPN) Feliciano Miguel Abdala / Estagao Biol6gica de
Caratinga (EBC).

Metodologia e Grupo de Estudo

O estudo foi realizado corn um grupo de barbados (A.
guariba clamitans) na RPPN Feliciano Miguel Abdala, no
municipio de Caratinga, Minas Gerais. 0 local do estudo
foi um fragmento de 970 ha de Mata Atlantica, cercado
por pastos e dreas agricolas. As observag6es sobre desloca-


mento terrestre foram registradas atraves dos mrtodos de
scan sampling e ad libitum (Altmann, 1974) no decorrer de
cinco dias por mes, de maio a outubro de 2003. 0 grupo
de estudo era inicialmente composto por oito individuos
triess machos, sendo um adulto, um sub-adulto e um ju-
venil, tries femeas adults e dois infantss, acrescido de um
individuo ap6s o nascimento de um filhote no pendltimo
mes de estudo.

Resultados

Ao final do perfodo de estudo, foi registrado um total de
18 observagoes de uso do solo pelo grupo de A. guariba
clamitans. Destas, dez observagoes corresponderam ao uso
do solo para deslocamento e obtencao de Agua, e os demais
events corresponderam unicamente ao deslocamento ter-
restre. Nao houve uma seqiiencia de descida ao solo especf-
fica de acordo corn a classes sexo-etaria. Todos os integrantes
do grupo foram avistados fazendo uso do solo, e ora eram os
machos os primeiros a descerem, ora as femeas (Tabela 1).
Freqiientemente tambdm foi possivel observer apenas um
6nico individuo do grupo descendo ao solo. Nenhum caso
de geofagia foi notificado.

Uma important observagao sobre o deslocamento terres-
tre, foi o fato de que nos locals de travessia pelo solo, havia
a possibilidade de travessia tambdm pela copa das arvores.
Em todos os events observados a altura mddia do estrato
arb6reo no local em que os individuos desciam ao chao era
superior ou igual a 20 m, e sempre havia arvores pr6ximas
para que o grupo pudesse se locomover sem a necessidade
de descer ao solo.

0 tempo de permanencia no solo various bastante, compre-
endendo o intervalo de 1 a 10 minutes. E com relagao ao
comportamento exibido durante a descida, os individuos
demonstravam aparente tranqiiilidade quando precisavam
fazer uso deste ambiente, no havendo nenhum compor-


Tabela 1: Sumirio dos events didrios de descida e a quantidade de vezes que cada individuo desceu ao solo por dia. (*Presenga de
infante.)
Individuos / Descidas ao solo
Data No de Eventos
MAd MSub MJuv FAd 1 FAd 2 FAd 3
05/04/03 1 1
01/07/03 1 1 1 1 1*
02/07/03 1 1 1 1 1* 1* 1
03/07/03 2 2 1 2 2* 2* 1
04/07/03 1 1
05/08/03 1 1
06/08/03 3 1 1 1* 1
07/08/03 2 1 1 2
08/08/03 2 2 1 1
05/09/03 2 1 1 1* 1*
07/10/03 1 1
10/10/03 1 1*
Total 18 9 9 6 5 5 7





Neotropical Primates 13(1), April 2005


tamento de vigilIncia, corn excecao de uma femea gravida,
que se mostrava alerta e bastante receosa corn a presenca
do observador, mesmo ap6s o nascimento do infante. Con-
tudo, mesmo exibindo este tipo de comportamento, esta
femea fez uso do solo como os outros membros, inclusive
sozinha.

Durante o perfodo de estudo, a dnica forma de obtenqao
direta de Agua foi em um pequeno c6rrego que passa no
meio da reserve. Todas as observa6oes sobre o consumo de
igua foram realizadas nos meses de julho (N = 4), agosto (N
= 4) e infcio de setembro (N = 2), lembrando que este d o
perfodo seco de outono e inverno na regiao de Caratinga.

Discussio

A utilizacao do solo pelos primatas do genero Alouatta
tern sido citada por alguns pesquisadores ao long das 61-
timas d&cadas (e.g. Schbn-Ybarra, 1984; Bicca-Marques e
Calegaro-Marques, 1994, 1995; Mendes, 1989; Bernar-
di et al., 2004), pordm os registros ainda sao escassos, o
que dificulta a formulacao de hip6teses para este tipo de
comportamento.

Especificamente com relacao a Alouatta guariba clamitans,
Mendes (1989) observou tambdm na RPPN Feliciano
Miguel Abdala / EBC, raros events onde barbados des-
locaram-se pelo chao; nestas situa6ces, os machos estavamr
tentando evitar ou fugir de outro macho, o que nao ocorreu
em nenhuma das dezoito situao6es observadas no present
estudo. Bernardi et al. (2004) tambdm fizeram registros de
uso de solo para esta esp&cie no Parana, onde observaramrn
cinco events de deslocamento terrestre, dois deles de carter
accidental. Os demais events corresponderam a travessia de
uma clareira por uma femea adulta em busca de alimento e
nos dois outros seguintes um macho adulto foi avistado atra-
vessando a trilha em frente ao abrigo dos pesquisadores.

E cabfvel pensar que ambientes descontinuos poderiam
acarretar em uma maior freqiuncia de utilizacao do solo. No
trabalho realizado por Bicca-Marques e Calegaro-Marques
(1995) foi observado que a dnica forma destes animals se
locomoverem de um fragmento a outro na area de estudo era
a travessia pelo solo. No entanto, em todas as observa6oes
aqui apresentadas, a descida ao solo foi espontInea, pois os
individuos estavam em locals onde poderiam facilmente se
locomover usando a copa das Arvores. Um outro ponto a
ser considerado e que alterac6es no habitat poderiam afetar
nao somente a densidade dos grupos, mas tambdm acarretar
em mudancas comportamentais. 0 trabalho de Dib et al.
(1997) corrobora corn a hip6tese de que os events de des-
locamento terrestre de muriquis na RPPN Feliciano Miguel
Abdala / EBC aumentaram ao long dos 6ltimos anos, con-
forme os individuos tornaram-se mais habituados a presenca
de observadores.

Para o grupo de barbados em questao n6s sugerimos a exis-
tencia de um comportamento de deslocamento e utilizadao
de recursos mais flexivel, permitindo que esses possam ex-


plorar novos ambientes, incluindo aqueles considerados nao
tao ideals. Pode-se ainda sugerir que a presenca constant de
observadores interfira diretamente no comportamento do
grupo, ja que a reserve e local de diversos estudos, principal-
mente com primatas, e ainda pelo fato de a area de uso do
grupo de barbados ficar pr6xima ao local de acampamento
dos pesquisadores. Estes fatores levariam a uma maior "con-
fianca" na exploraqao de um novo ambiente, pois possiveis
ataques de predadores terrestres, assim como aqueles no-
tificados para a especie simpatrica Brachyteles hypoxanthus
(Kuhl, 1820) (Printes et al., 1996), ocorreriam corn menor
intensidade.

O uso do deslocamento terrestre, ainda, poderia ser tra-
duzido em economic energ&tica, ja que a anatomia destes
animals e tipicamente a de um quadrdpede e nao de um
braquiador (e.g., Hershkovitz, 1977; Rose, 1993; Llorens
et al., 2001), diferentemente do que ocorre em Brachyteles.
Assim, o deslocamento no solo seria um comportamento
possivel, pordm raro, ja que seria uma manifestagao mais
limitada por predadores do que por uma imposigao mds-
culo-esquelktica.

Os events registrados para o consumo de Agua no present
trabalho, estao relacionados ao perfodo de outono/inver-
no na localidade de Caratinga; a dpoca de seca da regiao,
havendo menor disponibilidade de frutos e folhas novas,
que sao os itens alimentares corn maiores concentrates de
igua. Aldm disso, ha uma menor disponibilidade de Agua
empossada em ocos de Arvore, galhos, etc., que poderia ser
utilizada como fonte alternative de Agua como observado
para o muriqui, que tambdm desce, durante esta dpoca, ao
solo para beber Agua nesta regiao (Mourthd et al., 2005).
A dieta dos barbados na RPPN Feliciano Miguel Abdala
/ EBC nesta dpoca do ano consiste basicamente de folhas
maduras (Mendes, 1989), o que acarreta em uma diminui-
dao no consumo de Agua de forma indireta. Assim, os resul-
tados aqui apresentados sobre o comportamento de beber
reforgam os resultados apresentados por Moro-Rios et al.
(2005), onde os barbados poderiam ter diversas estrategias
para obtencao de Agua quando esta nao estivesse disponfvel
nos itens alimentares.

Desta forma, torna-se de grande valia a realizagao de novos
estudos, principalmente corn barbados ainda nao habitua-
dos aos observadores, permitindo assim que o acdmulo de
informagoes ajude a interpreter os padres de comporta-
mento exibidos por esses primatas e o nfvel de interferencia
dos fatores externos sobre os mesmos, principalmente para
os grupos que vivem em ambientes fragmentados, a fim de
que pianos futures de manejo e conservagao possam ser im-
plementados corn maior adequacao e eficiencia.

Agradecimento: Ao Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento
Cientifico e Tecnol6gico (CNPq) pela concessao de finan-
ciamento para o projeto que abrange o present estudo.

Birbara Almeida-Silva, Departamento de Antropologia,
Museu Nacional / Universidade Federal do Rio de Janei-





Neotropical Primates 13(1), April 2005


ro (UFRJ), Quinta da Boa Vista s/no., Sao Crist6vao,
Rio de Janeiro 20940-040, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, e-mail:
, Patricia G. Guedes, De-
partamento de Vertebrados Mastozoologia, Museu Nacio-
nal / Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Quinta
da Boa Vista, s/no., Sao Crist6vao, Rio de Janeiro 20940-
040, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, Jean P. Boubli, Conservation and
Research for Endangered Species (CRES), Zoological Socie-
ty of San Diego, San Diego 92027-7000, California, USA,
e Karen B. Strier, Department of Anthropology, Universi-
ty of Wisconsin-Madison, 1180 Observatory Drive, 5440
Social Science Building, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA.

Referencias

Altmann, J. 1974. Observational study of behaviour:
Sampling methods. Behaviour 49: 227-267.
Bernardi, I. P., Miranda, J. M. D. e Passos, E C. 2004. Do
comportamento de Alouatta guariba clamitans (Primates,
Atelidae): Deslocamento pelo solo. In: Resumos, XXV
Congress Brasileiro de Zoologia, Brasilia, p.251, 8-13
February, 2004.
Bicca-Marques, J. C. 1992. Drinking behaviour in the
black howler monkey (Alouatta caraya). Folia Primatol.
58: 107-111.
Bicca-Marques, J. C. e Calegaro-Marques, C. 1994. A case
of geophagy in the black howling monkey Alouatta caraya.
Neotrop. Primates 2(1): 7-8.
Bicca-Marques, J. C. e Calegaro-Marques, C. 1995.
Locomotion of black howlers in a habitat with
discontinuous canopy. Folia Primatol. 64: 55-61.
Cant, J. G. H. 1986. Locomotion and feeding postures of
spider and howling monkeys: Field study and evolutionary
interpretation. Folia Primatol. 46: 301-314.
Dib, R. T., Oliva, A. S. e Strier, K. B. 1997. Terrestrial
travel in muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides) across a forest
clearing at the Estagao Biol6gica de Caratinga, Minas
Gerais, Brazil. Neotrop. Primates 5(1): 8-9.
Gebo, D. C. 1992. Locomotor and postural behavior in
Alouatta palliata and Cebus capucinus. Am. J. Primatol. 26:
277-290.
Glander, K. E. 1978. Drinking from arboreal water sources
by mantled howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata Gray).
Folia Primatol. 29: 206-217.
Hershkovitz, P. 1977. Living New WorldMonkeys (I'Pl.ir :,i'.)
with an Introduction to Primates, Vol. 1. The Chicago
University Press, Chicago.
Llorens, L., Casinos, A., Berge, C., Majoral, M. e Jouffroy,
F.-K. 2001. A biomechanical study of the long bones in
platyrrhines. Folia Primatol. 72: 201-216.
Mendel, F. 1976. Postural and locomotor behaviour of
Alouattapalliata on various substrates. Folia Primatol. 26:
36-53.
Mendes, S. L. 1989. Estudo ecol6gico de Alouatta fusca
(Primates: Cebidae) na Estagao Biol6gica de Caratinga,
MG. Revta. Nordest. Biol. 6(2): 71-104.
Moro-Rios, R. F, Bernardi, I. P., Miranda, J. M. D. e Passos,
F. C. 2005. Acerca do comportamento de beber igua em
Alouatta guariba clamitans em ambiente de floresta corn


Arauciria, Balsa Nova, PR, Brasil. Em: Programa e Livro
de Resumos: XI Congresso Brasileiro de Primatologia, p. 134.
Porto Alegre, 13-18 February 2005.
Mourthd, M. C., Boubli, J. P., Tokuda, M. e Strier, K. B.
2005. Free ranging muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) water
drinking behavior at RPPN Feliciano Miguel Abdala, a
semideciduous forest fragment. Em: Programa e Livro de
Resumes: XI Congresso Brasileiro de Primatologia, p.135.
Porto Alegre, 13-18 February, 2005.
Prates, J. C., KunzJr., L. F. e Buss, G. 1990. Comportamento
postural e locomotor de Alouattafusca clamitans (Cabrera,
1940) em floresta subtropical (Primates: Cebidae). Acta
Biol. Leopoldinense 12: 189-200.
Printes, R. C., Costa, C. G. e Strier, K. B. 1996. Possible
predation on two infant muriquis, Brachyteles arachnoides,
at Estagao Biol6gica de Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Neotrop. Primates 4(3): 85-86.
Rose, M. D. 1993. Functional anatomy of the elbow
and forearm in primates. Em: Postcranial Adaptations
in Nonhuman Primates, D. L. Gebo (ed.), pp.70-95.
Northern Illinois University Press, Illinois.
Schbn-Ybarra, M. A. 1984. Locomotion and postures of
red howlers in a deciduous forest-savanna interface. Am. J.
Phys. Anthropol. 63: 65-76.
Youlatos, D. 1993. Passages within a discontinuous canopy:
Bridging in the red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus).
Folia Primatol. 61: 144-147.


DISCRIMINATIVE FEEDING ON LEGUMES BY MANTLED
HOWLER MONKEYS (ALOUATTA PALLIATA) MAY
SELECT FOR PERSISTENCE

Clara B. Jones

Introduction

Although little is known about the nonrandom relationship
of primates to their plant food resources (but see Milton,
1979; Glander, 1981), some evidence suggests that primates
may select food for its palatability or digestibility, its caloric
or nutritional value, or its degree of toxicity (Clutton-Brock,
1977). Discriminative feeding may occur in response to
phenological patterns within seasons, habitats, species, and
individual trees that produce qualitative and quantitative
differences among plant parts over time and space. Because
an organism's feeding habits and choices may be subject to
selection (Schoener, 1971; Milton, 1979), understanding
discriminative feeding behavior in primates is an important
component to understanding their biology. Legumes are an
important food source for mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta
palliata) (Milton, 1979; Glander, 1981). Consistent with an
earlier study (Jones, 1983) showing that mantled howlers
were more likely to feed on Pithecolobium saman flowers at
flower-opening time, this study presents evidence suggesting
that these atelines also prefer to feed on flowers of Andira iner-
mis (Fig. 1) during flower-opening time, and that the costs
imposed on these animals as they wait for this possibly limit-
ing resource may select for persistence.





Neotropical Primates 13(1), April 2005


Figure 1. Andira inermis inflorescence. These trees prefer wetter
habitats and flower every two years (Daniel Janzen, pers. comm.,
1976). Different parts of an individual tree may exhibit different
stages of flower maturity (Daniel Janzen, pers. comm., 1976;
C. B. Jones, pers. obs.). ONational Park Service (used with
permission).


Methods

Three Andira inermis (Leguminosae) trees were observed
intermittently from 30 March to 12 April 1976 at Haci-
enda La Pacifica, Cafias, Costa Rica, using the "focal tree"
method described in Jones (1983). One tree (AI#1) in ripar-
ian habitat was sampled daily (total 52 h 12 min), providing
the data for the present report. According to Frankie et al.
(1976), flowers of A. inermis (Fig. 1) open between 0730
and 0830 (CST) with pollen release occurring about one
hour following anthesis. A peak in nectar flow occurs again
from 1100-1400 h, and each flower is functional for one
day. Frankie et al. (1976) collected approximately 70 species
of bees from anthesis to about 1700 h, with peak visiting pe-
riods occurring during the first and second periods of nectar
flow. All bees collected were solitary members of the families
Apidae, Anthophoridae, Halictidae, and Megachilidae.

Results

Figure 2 presents the results of the present study (x2 = 37.95,
p < 0.001, df= 10). Individuals of the riparian habitat Group
5 (3 adult males and 15 adult females: see Jones, 1980) were
more likely to feed during hours of peak flower-opening, in-
cluding peak pollen and nectar production. Monkeys were
most likely to be observed feeding in tree AI#1 at 1000 h
(n = 15 individuals) in association with a decline in bee
activity, as predicted by Frankie et al. (1976). A smaller
number of individuals fed in decreasing density throughout
the afternoon after 1100 h. It appears, then, that howlers
are most likely to avoid the morning peak in bee activity but


t 20-
-J
U..

10


Z 0600 0700 0800 0900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800
TIME

Figure 2. Distribution of mantled howlers from Group 5 observed
eating Andira inermis flowers. Distribution is shown by time of day
during the observation of tree AI#1 from 30 March to 12 April.


are not as likely to avoid the afternoon peak in bee activity,
a finding worthy of further investigation. It is possible that
feeding upon A. indira inflorescences in the morning im-
poses greater costs than feeding during afternoon hours.

It is important to note that this riparian group waited for
up to three hours to enter tree AI#1 to feed, a temporal
and, possibly, nutritional cost that may favor the evolution
of persistence. On the other hand, a complex pattern of
feeding was observed for some individuals who ate alternate
sources of food (both leaves and fruit) before, during, and
after the waiting period (e.g., Anacardium, Enterolobium,
Hymenaea, Tabebuia, -M I- W Although the presence of
alternate food sources confounds a straightforward analy-
sis of feeding on A. inermis, the apparent preference for
A. inermis (and other legume) flowers despite their apparent
foraging costs (e.g., bee activity) warrants explanation.

Discussion

What might be the biological significance of discrimina-
tive feeding on flowers of A. inermis? William Haber (pers.
comm., 1983) suggested that "the whole flower" is "prob-
ably the basic resource they are after" because the small
amounts of nectar and/or pollen would not be of significant
food value to the monkeys. The "food value" of the flower's
tissues for the howlers has not been assessed, nor the pos-
sible "food value" of the quantities of nectar and pollen that
might be consumed after an extended feeding period (Kath-
erine Milton, pers. comm., 1983). Until such analyses are
conducted and compared across flower samples collected
at different times of day, the hypothesis that howlers may
feed at flower opening time to maximize nutrient or energy
intake cannot be rejected. Discriminative feeding may indi-
cate a pattern of nutrient complementarity, whereby food
ingested before and after periods of feeding at flower open-
ing time should be analyzed chemically (K. Milton, pers.
comm., 1983). These and other ideas relevant to the pres-
ent results are discussed elsewhere (Jones, 1983).

Stevens et al. (2005; see also Fehr, 2002) have recently
shown that feeding ecology is correlated with "patience"
in callitrichids. Interspecific (plant:primate, Stevens et al.,
2005; bee:primate, this study) interactions, then, may





Neotropical Primates 13(1), April 2005


favor patience, persistence, or impulse control and may
be signatures of primates and other social mammals given
conditions in which local competition occurs for limited
resources (e.g., queuing for mates, taking turns at water
holes). A possible extension of these studies is that selec-
tion for persistence, patience, or impulse control may have
facilitated selection for large body size since small animals
may not be energetically capable of waiting for critical
food or water resources to become available. Where per-
sistence, patience, or impulse control increases the likeli-
hood of morbidity (e.g., desiccation) or mortality, these
studies can be linked to life history evolution and adap-
tations to minimize associated costs. Further analyses of
the fine-grained relationships between primates and their
plant prey are warranted.

Acknowledgments: I thank K. S. Bawa and J. R. Stevens for
their input. This paper will be presented as a poster (Jones,
2005) at the 28th Annual Meeting of the American Society
of Primatologists, 17-20 August 2005, Portland, Oregon.

Clara B. Jones, Department of Psychology, Fayetteville
State University, Fayetteville, NC 28301, USA, Theoreti-
cal Primatology Project, Fayetteville, NC, USA, and Com-
munity Conservation, Inc., Gays Mills, WI 54631, USA,
e-mail: .

References

Clutton-Brock, T. H. 1977. Some aspects of intraspecific
variation in feeding and ranging behavior in primates. In:
Primate Ecology: Studies of Feeding and Ranging Behavior
in Lemurs, Monkeys, and Apes, T. H. Clutton-Brock (ed.),
pp.539-556. Academic Press, New York.
Fehr, E. 2002. The economics of impatience. Nature, Lond.
415: 269-272.
Frankie, G. W., Opler, PE A. and Bawa, K. S. 1976. Foraging
behavior of solitary bees: Implications for outcrossing of a
neotropical forest tree species. J. Ecol. 64: 1049-1057.
Glander, K. E. 1981. Feeding patterns in mantled howling
monkeys. In: Foraging Behavior: Ecological, Ethological,
and Psychological Approaches, A. C. Kamil and T. D.
Sargent (eds.), pp.231-257. Garland Press, New York.
Jones, C. B. 1983. Do howler monkeys feed upon legume
flowers preferentially at flower opening time? Brenesia 2 1:
41-46.
Jones, C. B. 2005. Discriminative feeding on legumes by
mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) may select
for persistence. Am. J. Primatol. 66 (Suppl. 1) (Abstract).
In press.
Milton, K. 1979. Factors influencing leaf choices of howler
monkeys: A test of some hypotheses of food selection by
generalist herbivores. Am. Nat. 114: 362-378.
Schoener, T. W. 1971. Theory of feeding strategies. Ann.
Rev. Ecol. Syst. 2: 369-404.
Stevens, J. R., Hallinan, E. V. and Hauser, M. D. 2005,
June 22. The ecology and evolution of patience in two
New World monkeys. Biology Letters 1(2): 223-226.
doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2004.0285.


GETTING THE HANG OF IT: AGE DIFFERENCES
IN TAIL-USE BY MANTLED HOWLING MONKEYS
(ALOUATTA PALLIATA)

Samantha M. Russak

Introduction

Among primates, only the five genera of the family Ateli-
dae (Alouatta, Lagothrix, Oreonax, Brachyteles and Ateles)
have fully prehensile tails. Numerous studies (e.g., Mendel,
1976; Gebo, 1992; Bergeson, 1998; Lawler and Stamps,
2002) have shown that prehensile tails aid in locomotion,
help to maintain balance while resting or sleeping, especially
on smaller branches, and improve the efficiency of foraging
by enlarging the monkey's feeding sphere.

Howling monkeys use their fully prehensile tails from birth,
and infants often wrap their tails around the base of their
mothers' tails for extra security, especially while traveling
(Baldwin and Baldwin, 1978). Prehensile tail-use contin-
ues in older, more independent infants and juveniles, par-
ticularly during play and environmental exploration. Adult
howlers also use their tails in most activities, especially for-
aging and traveling. However, activity budgets differ greatly
between adults and immatures, with the latter being much
more active.

This study addresses the age-related differences in tail-use
by mantled howling monkeys (Alouattapalliata). Many pre-
vious studies have focused on the positional and postural
behavior of howling monkeys (e.g., Bicca-Marques and
Calegaro-Marques, 1993; Estrada et al., 1999; Gebo, 1992;
Lawler and Stamps, 2002), but none has focused on age
as an independent variable, and only one article (Wheeler
and Ungar, 2001) addressed sex differences. Many of these
studies have used the same independent variables, such as
the size and type of substrate, the monkeys' location in the
trees, and general activity, but the dependent variables differ
greatly across reports.

Methods

The study was carried out at the Ometepe Biological Field
Station, Isla de Ometepe, Nicaragua (1124'N, 8550'W) at
the beginning of the wet season, 4-22 July 2004. This tropi-
cal, semideciduous, dry forest has many groups of mantled
howling monkeys, Alouattapalliata, at three main sites: Beach
Forest, Spider Forest, and Volcano Forest. The latter two are
fragmented and crosscut by agricultural fields or trails, while
Beach Forest is an isolated fragment (about 1 ha) bounded
by Lake Nicaragua and the main road on the island. Howl-
ers come to the ground to cross this road, but were not seen
doing so during this study. For more details of the study site,
see Garber et al. (1999) and Winkler et al. (2004).

The study had two parts: an extensive nine-day period in
which six groups (five in Spider Forest, one in Volcano





Neotropical Primates 13(1), April 2005


Forest) were observed, and an intensive six-day period in
which the single group in Beach Forest was observed. This
yielded 10 data-collection days with over 53 contact hours
and over 22 hours of data. Seventy samples (700 minutes of
data) and 65 samples (650 minutes of data) were collected
in the first and second periods, respectively. The groups
varied in their composition but generally had 2-4 adult
males, 3-6 adult females, 1-4 juveniles, and 0-2 infants.

Instantaneous, focal-subject sampling at 15-second inter-
vals was used over 10-minute sampling periods. Individuals
were chosen at random, so that no subject was the focus of
two samples in a row. Data were collected on adults and
immatures, but only adults could be sexed. If the focal-
subject was lost from view for over a minute, the sample
was dropped; if the monkey was out of sight for less than
a minute, it was noted on the data sheet, and the behavior
recorded for that period was the last seen behavior for that
subject. All observations occurred when the monkeys were
in the trees, usually at 10-20 m; binoculars were occasion-
ally used.

For each sample, I recorded the starting time, one of the
four general behavioral contexts (Table 1), size of substrate,
and location in the canopy. Travel for dependant infants
was recorded when the mother carried them them dorsally
or ventrally while traveling herself. Data were analyzed as
rates (the frequency of scans per sample) for both imma-
tures and adults. These numbers were then compared using
a binomial test (two-tailed, a = 0.05).


Results

Adults used their tails most while feeding on terminal
branches and resting, and in both contexts used their tails
more than immatures did (Table 2). Immature howlers
used their tails most when playing, followed by resting and
feeding. Adults were not recorded playing.

Sixteen of 20 combinations of context and tail-use showed
differences between adults and immatures; of these, imma-
tures had greater rates than adults for 12 categories (n = 16,
x = 4, p = 0.038). Rates of tail-use for immatures did not
differ from adult rates for four of 20 combinations. Within
contexts and across tail-use categories, the only statistically
significant difference between immatures and adults was in
play (n = 5, x = 0, p = 0.31), for the simple reason that
adults never played.

Neither adults nor immatures rested by hanging by their
tails. Similarly, Tail-Forelimb Suspension was never seen in
adults and was seen only in juveniles during play. Both im-
matures and adults preferred to use Tail-Wrap during rest-
ing, feeding, and travel, and this is the most common use
of the tail.

Discussion

Howlers are habitual inhabitants of the uppermost canopy
and spend most of the day resting. This behavior likely
reflects the mostly folivorous diet of howlers that requires


Table 1. Behavior variables recorded.
Category Definition
General
Rest Little or no gross body movement; eyes opened or closed; posture variable
Feed Eat or forage
Travel Movement from one place to another
Play Active exploration or manipulation of environment; social or solitary
Tail-Use
Tail-Hang Body-weight fully supported by tail only
Tail-Wrap Tail flexed loosely or tightly around object
Tail-Hindlimb Suspension Body-weight supported by tail and one or both hindlimbs
Tail-Forelimb Suspension Body-weight supported by tail and one or both forelimbs
Tail Idle Tail not employed in any of above tail-use categories


Table 2. Rates (scans/sample) in four contexts of five behavioral categories.
Rest Feed Travel Play
Immature Adult Immature Adult Immature Adult Immature Adult
Tail Idle 4.71 2.78 0.02 0.00 0.40 0.20 0.19 0.00
Tail-Hang 0.00 0.00 0.52 0.43 0.24 0.17 3.02 0.00
Tail-Wrap 26.24 30.86 2.05 4.25 1.36 0.85 0.24 0.00
Tail-Hindlimb Suspension 0.02 0.00 0.41 0.45 0.00 0.02 0.50 0.00
Tail-Forelimb Suspension 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.07 0.00
Total 30.97 33.64 3.00 5.13 2.00 1.24 4.02 0.00





Neotropical Primates 13(1), April 2005


them to spend much time digesting large amounts of low-
quality plant material, making them more sedentary and
less socially active than many other species (Baldwin and
Baldwin, 1978). Our results show a clear difference in the
activity budget and tail-use of immatures and adults. While
playing, immatures exhibited a wide range of tail-use but
most often hung only by their tails. This confirms previ-
ous findings that as howler infants mature into more skillful
juveniles, they spend more time playing while hanging by
the tail, which allows them to grapple with a play partner
from any angle with less effort than a sitting animal expends
(Baldwin and Baldwin, 1978). Their play allows young
howlers to gain motor and behavioral experience that may
later be helpful for hanging from small branches while they
eat and for learning how to use their tails efficiently for
other purposes, such as locomotion, resting, or sleeping.

While feeding, juveniles hung by their tails more often than
adults, but showed less tail-use overall. The former result
agrees with findings by, for example, Bicca-Marques and
Calegaro-Marques (1993), who recorded that smaller in-
dividuals use an extended reach gained by hanging more
often, making them more competitive with larger individu-
als. On the other hand, immatures often failed to use their
tails more than adults, especially when traveling or resting.
One might think that inexperienced young howlers would
be cautious, and so use their tails for extra support and secu-
rity. Their low rate of tail-use may be because immatures are
uncertain as to what they can do with their tails, while still
acquiring behavioral experience and knowledge.

Acknowledgments: This study was funded by a Rebecca
Jeanne Andrew Memorial Award (Miami University).
Fieldwork was supported by the Ometepe Biological Field
Station and supervised by Katherine MacKinnon. William
McGrew provided mentorship during the analysis and the
manuscript drafting process.

Samantha M. Russak, Departments of Anthropology
and Zoology, Miami University, 215 Logan Lodge, 800
South Oak Street, Oxford, OH 45056, USA, e-mail:
.

References

Baldwin, J. D. and Baldwin, J. I. 1978. Exploration and
play in howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata). Primates 19:
411-422.
Bergeson, D. 1998. Patterns of suspensory feeding in Al-
ouatta palliata, Ateles ..-rr .., and Cebus capucinus.
In: Primate Locomotion: Recent Advances, E. Strasser, J.
G. F1, i, A. L. Rosenberger and H. McHenry (eds.),
pp.45-60. Plenum Press, New York.
Bicca-Marques, J. C. and Calegaro-Marques, C. 1993.
Feeding postures in the black howler monkey, Alouatta
caraya. Folia Primatol. 60: 169-172.
Estrada, A., Juan-Solano, S., Martinez, T. 0. and Coates-
Estrada, R. 1999. Feeding and general activity patterns
of a howler monkey (Alouatta palliata) troop living in a


forest fragment at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. Am. J. Primatol.
48: 167-183.
Garber, P. A., Pruetz, J. D., Lavallee, A. C. and Lavallee, S.
G. 1999. A preliminary study of mantled howling monkey
(Alouatta palliata) ecology and conservation on Isla de
Ometepe, Nicaragua. Neotrop. Primates 7: 113-117.
Gebo, D. L. 1992. Locomotor and postural behavior in Al-
ouatta palliata and Cebus capucinus. Am. J. Primatol. 26:
277-290.
Lawler, R. R. and Stamps, C. 2002. The relationship be-
tween tail use and positional behavior in Alouatta palliata.
Primates 43: 147-152.
Mendel, F 1976. Postural and locomotor behavior of Al-
ouatta palliata on various substrates. Folia Primatol. 26:
36-53.
Wheeler, B. and Ungar, P. 2001. Congruence of tail use be-
haviors between male and female mantled howling mon-
keys (Alouatta palliata). Folia Primatol. 72: 292-297.
Winkler, L. A., Zhang, X., Ferrell, R., Wagner, R., Dahl, J.,
Peter, G. and Sohn, R. 2004. Geographic microsatellite
variability in Central American howling monkeys. Int. J.
Primatol. 25: 197-210.


PREDATION OF A BEARDED SAKI (CHIROPOTES
UTAHICKI) BY A HARPY EAGLE (HARPIA HARPYJA)

Simone de Souza Martins
Eldianne Moreira de Lima
Josi de Sousa e Silva Jr.

The predation of primates is rarely observed in the wild
(Cheney and Wrangham, 1987; Stanford, 2002). The
main predators are birds of prey (Eason, 1989; Sherman,
1991; Julliot, 1994; Vasquez and Heymann, 2001), rep-
tiles (Correa and Coutinho, 1997; Burney, 2002; Gursky,
2002; Tello et al., 2002; Ferrari et al., 2003), and an array
of predatory mammals (Stanford, 1989; Peetz et al., 1992;
Tsukahara, 1993; Condit and Smith, 1994; Wright et al.,
1997). According to Stanford (2002), primate males tend
to be preyed upon more often than females. The preda-
tion of females and young has been recorded by Correa and
Coutinho (1997), Vasquez and Heymann (2001), Burney
(2002), and Ferrari etal. (2003). Here we report on the pre-
dation of an adult male bearded saki (Chiropotes utahicki)
by a harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja) in the eastern Amazon.
A necropsy was carried out, which provided additional in-
formation about the animal and clues as to the exact cause
of death.

The attack took place at the Estacao Cientffica Ferreira
Penna (ECFPn), Melgaco, Pard (0142'30"S, 5131'45"W),
an area of 33,000 ha in the Caxiuand National Forest. The
incident was observed during a mammal survey being
conducted by two researchers, each walking simultane-
ously on parallel paths 200 m apart in a 100-ha plot (#4)
(0145'13"S, 5131'15"W), one of the Tropical Ecology,
Assessment and Monitoring (TEAM) Initiative monitoring
sites at Caxiuand (Fig. 1).





Neotropical Primates 13(1), April 2005


Figure 1. The plots of the TEAM Initiative in the Estayao Cientffica Ferreira Penna. Plot 4 is where the harpy eagle attack occurred.


On 18 April 2004, at 14:50, one of the researchers (SSM)
located a group of more than twelve bearded sakis. Only
minutes later the group was attacked by a harpy eagle. The
group was moving away when it happened, and, as is the
case of most recorded attacks on primates, there was intense
long-calling by all of the group members, who subsequently
scattered over 200 m from the site of the attack. Minutes
after the start of the vocalizations, the second researcher
(EML) on the parallel trail saw two adults, one of them
female, move towards her in the canopy and then descend
a liana to the ground. The sakis ran silently about 30 m
straight towards her, bounding (synchronized movements of
the front and the back legs) with their tails held upright.
Their fur was fluffed up (piloerection), and even when they
saw the researcher about 10 m away, they ran on without
changing direction.

After the attack, the harpy eagle noticed the presence of
the first researcher (SSM), flew about 40 m with a saki
in its claws, but then dropped it from a height of about
10 m. The entire incident lasted about four minutes. The
saki, an adult male of 3.5 kg, was found dead on his back
beside a fallen tree, with his arms folded and hands tightly
fisted, clutching some feathers, which indicated that his
demise had not been instantaneous. The muscles of the
saki's mouth were contracted in a grimace, and its tongue
was forced between its left canines and premolars. Nearby
we found a bush about 2 m high with a broken branch and
some of the eagle's feathers, indicating a struggle.

The attack took place in a stretch of quite open primary
forest with a sparse, broken canopy at about 40 m. Spacing
between the uppermost branches enabled good light pen-


etration and visibility. Although it was the rainy season, the
temperature was approximately 30C, and it was dry. These
conditions, we believe, favored the eagle's attack.

Four other primates have been recorded in the area of this
TEAM site: the silvery marmoset (Mico argentatus), the
black-handed tamarin (Saguinus niger), the tufted capu-
chin (Cebus jc/l'oi), and the red-handed howling monkey
(Alouatta belzebul). While some have been the subject of
previous field research (Jardim, 1997; Veracini, 1997, 2002;
Bobadilla, 1998; Pinna, 1999; Souza, 1999; Tavares, 1999;
Martins et al., 2005), this is the first incidence of primate
predation recorded there.

The bearded saki was taken to the field station laboratory, its
biometric measurements were taken, and we tried to assess
the way it had been captured. A necropsy was performed in
order to ascertain the cause of death, and it was later taxider-
mized and placed in the collection of the Museu Paraense
Emflio Goeldi (MPEG 36084). The wounds consisted of
punctures and both superficial and deep cuts. The superfi-
cial wounds broke only the epidermis, the dermis, and the
hypodermis, but the deep ones affected the muscle tissue.
The superficial punctures were in the abdomen and on the
dorsum and right flank of the thorax. The deep perfora-
tions were in the left ventral thoracic region and abdomen
and had provoked internal hemorrhaging. Nine internal
organs were perforated. Superficial cuts were also found on
the right side of the braincase and on the back of the right
forearm. Deep cuts were found on the central crown of the
skull (between the cerebral hemispheres), which had caused
encephalic cranial traumatism with internal and external
hemorrhaging. As no other organs were affected and no


ESTAQAO CIENTIFICA FERREIRA PENNA
MELOAQO PARA BRASIL





Neotropical Primates 13(1), April 2005


Figure 2. The adult male bearded saki, Chiropotes utahicki, killed
by the harpy eagle. Note the feathers still in the hands.

bones of the postcranial skeleton were broken, the cerebral
wounds would seem to have been the cause of death and
were probably caused by the beak.

Apart from the recent wounds, we also observed old, dark-
ened scars resulting from perforations, along with a broken
articulation (held together only by skin) between the proxi-
mal and middle phalanges of the little finger on the left
hand. The distal phalanx of the indicator finger on the left
hand was missing. These findings may have been wounds
from fighting other males in the group.

According to Stanford (2002), adult males are preyed upon
more frequently than other sex-age classes, probably be-
cause they are generally larger and as such, are more obvi-
ous targets. In many species, adult males position them-
selves strategically to defend the group. During an attack,
they may try to distract or confront the predator so that the
rest of the group can disperse and escape; therefore, they
are more exposed and vulnerable (Cheney and Wrangham,
1987; Gursky, 2002; Tello et al., 2002).

Acknowledgments: This study was supported by the Tropi-
cal Ecology, Assessment, and Montoring (TEAM) Initia-
tive, Conservacao Internacional do Brasil, the Gordon and
Betty Moore Foundation, and the Museu Paraense Emflio
Goeldi. We are grateful to Alexandre Aleixo, Lufza Magalli
Henriques, and Lufs FAbio da Silveira for confirming the
identity of the harpy eagle and to Marcelo Thales for pre-
paring the map.

Simone de Souza Martins, Eldianne Moreira de Lima, and
Jos6 de Sousa e Silva Jr., Coordenaqao de Zoologia, Museu
Paraense Emflio Goeldi, Campus de Pesquisa, Av. Perim-
etral 1901, Terra Firma, Belkm 66.077-530, Para, Brasil,
e-mail: .

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B. Lisboa (org.), pp.719-734. Museu Paraense Emflio
Goeldi, Belkm.
Wright, P. C., Heckscher, S. K. and Dunham, A. E.
1997. Predation on Milne-Edward's sifaka (Propithecus
diadema edwardsi) by the fossa (Cryptoproctaferox) in the
rainforest of southeastern Madagascar. Folia Primatol.
68: 34-43.


THE NEAR EXTINCTION OF
OF NORTHERN MURIQUIS
HYPOXANTHUS) IN MINAS GERAIS,


A POPULATION
(BRACHYTELES
BRAZIL


Fabiano R. de Melo, Braz A. P Cosenza
Daniel S. Ferraz, Silvia L. E Souza
MUi1-,//l S. Nery, MariaJ. R. Rocha

Introduction

The muriqui (Brachyteles) is the largest Neotropical primate
and the largest mammal endemic to Brazil (Fonseca et al.,
1994). It is restricted to the southeastern Atlantic Forest
where forest destruction is widespread and human activities
inimical to wildlife are intense. Its populations are threatened
by habitat destruction and fragmentation and, despite prohi-
bitions, there is still hunting in this region of Brazil (Mitter-
meier et al., 1982, 1987, 1989; Mittermeier and Konstant,
1990; Auricchio, 1997; Cosenza and Melo, 1998).

Adult male and female muriquis can weigh up to 12-15
kg (Aguirre, 1971). Their original range extended from the
southern part of the state of Bahia to southern Sao Paulo
(25S), including the states of Espirito Santo, Minas Gerais,
and Rio de Janeiro (Aguirre, 1971; Strier, 1992; Strier and
Fonseca, 1996-1997). Muriquis also occur in northern
Parana (Martuscelli et al., 1994). Aguirre (1971), who con-
ducted the most complete survey of the muriqui's distribu-


tion, considered their preferred habitat to be primary and
secondary forests between 600-1,800 m above sea level.

Despite the well-documented growth of the muriqui popu-
lation at the Estacao Biol6gica de Caratinga in the Feliciano
Miguel Abdala Private Natural Heritage Reserve (RPPN-
FMA) (see Strier etal., 2002) and recent discoveries of some
new populations (see Melo et al., 2002; Chiarello et al.,
2005), the northern muriqui, B. hypoxanthus, is classified as
Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened
Species (IUCN, 2004). All known populations are small and
occur in isolated forest fragments. One of the smallest in-
habits the 42-ha forest at Fazenda Esmeralda (FE), in Rio
Casca, Minas Gerais.

In his visit to the Fazenda Esmeralda in 1964, Aguirre
(1971) estimated 7-8 individuals surviving there. Sub-
sequent studies of this population over a 20-year period,
from 1983 to 2003, recorded an increase to a maximum
of 18 individuals, followed by a subsequent and steady
decline (Fig. 1). As of June 2003, there were only three
muriquis remaining, two adult males and an adult female,
all three of them old. This population is not considered to
be viable over the long term. We report here on a survey
of primates in the forest fragments in and surrounding the
Fazenda Esmeralda.

Study Site and Methods

Study site
Fazenda Esmeralda (FE) is about 30 km north of the town of
Rio Casca, Minas Gerais, at 2004'16"S, 42~I- -2 .'(Fig.
2; Location number 1). The forest is seasonal semidecidu-
ous and surrounded by farmland and pasture. The climate
is tropical humid according to the classification of Kbppen
(Gilhaus, 1986, cited in Stallings and Robinson, 1991). The
peak rainy months are from November to February, and


Figure 1. Size and composition of the muriqui population at
Rio Casca, Minas Gerais. Sources are as follows: 1964 (Aguirre,
1971); 1983 (Fonseca, 1985); 1986/87 (Lemos de Sa, 1988);
1989 (Brozek, 1991); 1990/91 (Andrade, 1996); 2000/01 (S. L.
Mendes, pers. comm.); 2003 (this study). With kind permission
of Karen B. Strier.


Nunter d
hdividuals
20
18

14
12
10
8

4


a Urknown-min
a Infats
1 Immatres
o Adult females
0 Adult males


Yews





Neotropical Primates 13(1), April 2005


Figure 2. Map showing the location of the study site (Fazenda Esmeralda, Rio Casca, Minas Gerais), including the forest fragments visited.
1. Study site; 2. Forest fragment 01 (Fazenda Esmeralda); 3. Fazenda Esmeralda de Cima; 4. Fazenda C6rrego do Ouro; 5. Forest fragment
02 (Fazenda Esmeralda).


the peak dry months are from June to August. Data from
the Rio Doce State Park (about 35 km from the study area)
indicate average annual rainfall in the 1960s and 1970s to
be 1,480 mm, with an average annual temperature of 22C
(CETEC, 1981). Altitudes in the forests at FE range from
240-480 m. The forests in the area have a long history of dis-
turbance, through cycles of coffee, corn and, more recently,
sugarcane plantations, besides the harvesting of wood in the
1960s and 1970s for the production of charcoal. The small
forest fragments are today surrounded by pasture dominated
by "capim-coloniao" (Panicum maximum) and agricultural
crops. Local farmers reported that the muriquis were heavily
hunted during the 1960s and 1970s, when there were some
800 people living on the Fazenda Esmeralda working for a
mining company in the region.

The forest is in various stages of succession, and there are
abundant vines and lianas. Some species typical of tall pri-
mary forest, such as "bicufba" (Virola gardneri [A. DC.]
Ward), "garapa" (Apuleia leiocarpa MacBride), "jequitibi-
rosa" (Cariniana legalis [Mart.] Kuntze), and "peroba" (As-
pidosperma sp.) remain. There are few epiphytes due to the
successive cycles of selective logging. The terrain is steep
with slopes of 40-65.

Methods
We carried out four surveys to census the primates and assess
the muriqui population at FE: 1) 29 March to 4 April 2003;


2) 26 April to 1 May 2003; 3) 26 May to 31 May 2003;
and 4) 14 June to 19 June 2003. Each expedition involved
about 58 hours of fieldwork for a total of 234 hours. We
re-opened trails that were used by previous researchers and
cut new ones. Morning censuses were begun at 0700 h and
lasted approximately four hours. Afternoon censuses were
conducted from 1400-1800 h, such that we were able to
cover the entire area of forest accessible by the trail system,
including all areas used by muriquis, in one day. We used
binoculars and also playback recordings (portable Diskman,
a CD with vocalizations of B. hypoxanthus, Cebus nigritus,
( .... nigrifrons and ( .-'. aurita, and a Mini-twin
MT 10 Fender amplifier) to increase the likelihood of find-
ing the primates. Whenever possible, we took photographs
with a Sony Mavica FD75 digital camera.

We recorded all sightings of primates, all vocalizations
heard, and information obtained from interviews with local
inhabitants. Other forest fragments reported to have sup-
ported muriquis in the past were also surveyed to determine
whether they might still be present.

Results and Discussion

The forest fragment at FE continues to suffer strong anthro-
pogenic pressures. In the past, the main problem was selec-
tive logging for charcoal production. Logging has, without
doubt, considerably reduced the floristic species diversity.


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Neotropical Primates 13(1), April 2005


The remaining secondary forest has enormous numbers of
vines and patches of bamboo, with a canopy now reduced to
an average height of 6.8 m (Lemos de SA and Strier, 1992).
During the first expedition, we heard dogs barking in the
forest. Local residents told us that these dogs have been ha-
rassing the primates at FE for years.

Muriquis
We were in contact with the muriquis for an average of seven
hours in each of the expeditions. On the first expedition
only three trails were passable, and we had difficulty walk-
ing in the forest and locating the muriquis, partly due to
the steep terrain and dense vegetation typical of secondary
growth. Only on 30 March 2003 did we see an adult male
about 12 m from the observer, 10 m from the trail, and 9
m from the ground. At 1800 h on the same day, we heard
a second muriqui calling from the other side of the forest
in the area called "Porgao da Agua" (there is a small stream
there). On 2 April 2003 we saw another individual in the
"Porgao da Agua." This part of the forest is the only area that
has not been logged, as was evident from the well-developed
understorey and the presence of various large trees including
"jequitibi" (Cariniana legalis), "pau d'alho" (Gallesia inte-
grifolia), and "angico" (Anadenanthera sp.). Local residents
mentioned seeing a solitary muriqui in a neighboring forest
fragment (separated by an open field) on 31 March 2003.

For the second expedition, we cut nine new trails and
were consequently able to observe three adult muriquis (a
female and two males) on four consecutive and complete
days. We frequently found the muriquis in a part of the
forest with a high density of "leiteira" trees (Margaritaria
nobilis, Euphorbiaceae) that were in fruit. They fed in these
trees throughout the day as well as in other trees, including
"angelim-amargoso" (Andira sp.), "angico" (Anadenanthera
sp.), and "vinhatico" (Plathymeniafoliolosa). They fed espe-
cially on the mature leaves of "angelim-amargoso," and on
lianas and vines, including a species of Bignoniaceae.

We cut four new trails for the third expedition, and were
able to reach formerly inaccessible parts of the forest, making
us even more successful in contacting and observing the


muriquis. We were able to reconfirm the composition of the
group: just the three muriquis seen during the second expedi-
tion. Ad libitum data (Setz, 1991) indicated that the muriquis
spent 60% of the total observation time resting, 23% travel-
ing, and 17% feeding (Fig. 3). The time spent feeding could
have been low because of the low availability of food.

Local people informed us that muriquis had been heard
calling in another forest fragment in the past year (about
140 m from the study area; not shown in Fig. 2). In 2002,
R. Ribeiro (pers. comm.) also saw an adult male muriqui
crossing a pasture in the direction of this same forest. During
the final, fourth expedition, we visited four other forest frag-
ments near our study area but were unable to confirm the
presence of muriquis in any (Table 1; Fig. 2).

Other primates
While studying the muriquis at FE from 1986 to 1987,
Lemos de SA (1991) recorded the presence of single groups
of titi monkeys (( .... nigrifrons), capuchin monkeys
(Cebus nigritus), and buffy-tufted-ear marmosets ((
aurita) in the 42-ha forest of our study site. Our surveys
confirmed that all three primates still resided there. We also
saw two buffy-tufted-ear marmosets (( .-'. aurita), to-
gether with a group of ( .... nigrifrons (titi monkeys),
in a neighboring fragment separated from the study site by a
road, but considered here as part of the same area.

During the last expedition (14-19 June 2003) we recorded
the presence of titi monkeys, black-horned capuchins, and
buffy-tufted-ear marmosets in two other fragments (Fazenda
Esmeralda and Fazenda Esmeralda de Cima), and found
another group of capuchin monkeys in a third forest in the
Fazenda C6rrego do Ouro, all near our study site (Table 1;
Fig. 2).

The fate of the three muriquis
The situation of the muriquis at Rio Casca was discussed
at the Second Meeting of the Committee for the Conserva-
tion and Management of the Muriqui (ComitM Brasileiropara
Conservaado do Muriqui), recently created by the Instituto
Brasileiro de Desenvolvimento Sustentavel e dos Recursos


Table 1. Census results from study site and neighboring forest fragments.
Map Local Coordinates Area (ha) Species encountered Encounter type
Callithrix aurita Visual
20o04'16"S Callicebus nigrifrom Visual
1 Fazenda Esmeralda (study site) 20'04'16"S 42 icebus nigritos Visual
4244'22"W Cebus nigritus Visual
Brachyteles hypoxanthus Visual
20'03'21 0"S Callithrix aurita Vocal
2 Fazenda Esmeralda I 111 ..... 01) 42o44510.0W 85 Callicebus nigrifrons Vocal
Cebus nigritus Visual

320o07'03.0s Callithrix aurita Reported by local
3 Fazenda Esmeralda de Cima 42o44'11.0"W 177 Callicebus nigrifrons Vocal
Cebus nigritus Visual
4 F arrg do Oo 2001'21.0"S
4 Fazenda C6rrego do Ouro 42043'37.0"W 127 Cebus nigritus Reported by local
20o04'22.0 "S
5 Fazenda Esmeralda I ...... 02) 42o43'2255.0"W 22 Cebus nigritus Visual
14243'55.0"W 22CIsnt tsVsa





Neotropical Primates 13(1), April 2005


Figure 3. Percentage of time the muriquis were feeding, resting,
and traveling during 28 hours of observation in the Fazenda
Esmeralda (study area), Rio Casca, Minas Gerais.


Naturais Renovaveis (IBAMA). The meeting was held from
30 June to 1 July 2003 in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais.
Three alternatives were proposed:

- Continue to monitor the remaining individuals in this
population without interfering with them;
- Capture the three muriquis, and release them in another
forest with an extant muriqui population;
- Capture the three individuals and maintain them in
captivity.

If captured, they would be transported to a Triage Center
at the Universidade Federal de Vigosa. Following quaran-
tine and medical examinations (including analyses of para-
site loads, genetics, and reproductive status), the fate of
the muriquis (reintroduction or permanence in captivity)
would be determined in a special meeting of the Muriqui
Committee. We estimate that to capture and transport the
muriquis and to build them a suitable enclosure would cost
about R$12,000. The option to capture the three muriquis
was accepted by the Muriqui Committee at its meeting on
1 July 2003 and is awaiting final approval and permits from
IBAMA.

Acknowledgments: We are most grateful to Luiz Paulo S.
Pinto, Conservagao Internacional Brasil, for his sup-
port; S&rgio L. Mendes, Universidade Federal do Espirito
Santo (UFES) and Instituto de Pesquisas da Mata Atlantica
(IPEMA), for his initial encouragement and continuing
support in all aspects of this work; and Sr. Antonio Cu-
pertino, the owner of Fazenda Esmeralda. We also thank
Dr. Tarcfzio A. R. de Paula, Universidade Federal de Vigosa
(UFV), for his suggestions concerning live capture, the team
of the Coordenadoria de Monitoramento (DMC/IEF), and
especially Eng. Flores. Marcelo Moreira Costa, who pro-
vided the maps. We are grateful to our students at FAFILE,
especially Erika Rodes, Elaine E Barbosa, and Jaquelina
Alves, for their help with the data collection. We thank
Dr. Karen B. Strier, University of Wisconsin-Madison and
Coordinator of the Muriqui Project of Caratinga, for pro-
viding the graph documenting the decline in the muriqui


23%


- Feeding

Resting

- Traveling


60%


population at FE (Fig. 1), for sharing the original references,
and for her help with translation and her suggestions on an
earlier version of this manuscript.

Fabiano R. de Melo1'2, Braz A. P. Cosenzal 2, Daniel S.
Ferraz3, Silvia L. F Souza3, Marcello S. Nery3, and Maria
J. R. Rocha3, 'Professor de Ciencias Biol6gicas da FAFILE/
UEMG, Campus de Carangola, Praca dos Estudantes
23, Santa Emflia, Carangola 36800-000, Minas Gerais,
2Centro de Estudos Ecol6gicos e Educaqao Ambiental,
CECO, Rua Capara6, 122, Centro, Carangola 36800-000,
Minas Gerais, and 3Curso de Ciencias Biol6gicas FAFILE/
UEMG, Campus de Carangola, Minas Gerais, Brazil, e-mail:
.

References

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-rr .. Situadao atual da especie no Brasil. Academia Brasi-
leira de Ciencias, Rio de Janeiro. 53pp.
Andrade, P. S. 1996. 0 estudo da estrutura social dos monos
(Brachyteles arachnoides Geoffroy, 1806 Cebidae: Pri-
mates) de Rio Casca, MG, atraves da Teoria dos Grafos.
Master's thesis, Instituto de Psciologia, Universidade de Sao
Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo.
Auricchio, P. 1997. A new locality for Brachyteles arachnoi-
des and the urgency of finding new directions for muriqui
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Brozek, R. M. 1991. Observaoes sobre a ecologia alimentar
e a dispersao de sementes pelo muriqui (Brachyteles arach-
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Sao Paulo (UNESP), Rio Claro.
CETEC. 1981. Vegetacao do Parque Florestal do Rio Doce.
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dual do Rio Doce. Relat6rio Final, Vol. 2. Fundacao Centro
Tecnol6gico de Minas Gerais (CETEC), Belo Horizonte.
277pp.
Chiarello, A. G., Melo, E R., Faria, M. B., Lima, E S., Oli-
veira, P. A. and Freitas, R. L. A. 2005. Primatas confirmados
atraves de program de avaliacao rapida (RAP) nos vales dos
rios Mucuri (Minas Gerais) e Jequitinhonha (Minas Gerais
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sileiro de Primatologia, Porto Alegre, 13-18 February 2005,
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do Brigadeiro State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Neotrop. Pri-
mates 6: 18-20.
Fonseca, G. A. B. 1985. Observations on the ecology of
the muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides E. Geoffroy, 1806):
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R. B. and Leite, Y. L. R. 1994. Livro 1. *. ..dosl J. ..
Brasileiros Ameafados de Extinfdo. Fundacao Biodiversitas,
Belo Horizonte.
IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
IUCN-The World Conservation Union, Gland, Switzer-
land and Cambridge, UK. Website: .





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mono-carvoeiros, Brachyteles arachnoides ern um fragmen-
to de Mata Atlantica (M.G.), e suas implicaq6es para sua
conservacao. Master's thesis, Universidade de Brasilia,
Brasilia.
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chnoides (Primates: Cebidae) da Fazenda Esmeralda, Rio
Casca, Minas Gerais. In: A Primatologia no Brasil 3, A.
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Lemos de SA, R. M. and Strier, K. B. 1992. Comparative
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24: 455-459.
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Universidade Federal do Para, Belkm, 10-15 November,
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Rylands, A. B. and Valle, C. M. C. 1982. Conservation
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E. M., Constable, I. D., Paccagnella, S. G. and SA, R. M.
L. 1987. Current distribution of muriqui in the Atlan-
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tropical primate conservation. J. Hum. Evol. 8: 597-610.
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Bernardes (eds.), pp.411-435. Fundacao Biodiversitas,
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Primates 10(3): 115-119.


LIMITS CLIMATICOS E VEGETACIONAIS DAS
DISTRIBUIOES DE CEBUS NIGRITUS E CEBUS
ROBUSTUS (CEBINAE, PLATYRRHINI)

Rita Vilanova, Josi de Sousa e Silva Junior
Carlos Eduardo Viveiros Grelle, Gabriel Marroig
Rui Cerqueira

Introdugfio

Os primatas do genero Cebusapresentam ampla distribuigao
geogrAfica, estendendo-se por toda a regiao Neotropical. Os
macacos-prego (subgenero Sapajus) sao exclusivos da Am&-
rica do Sul, enquanto que os caiararas (subgenero Cebus)
ocorrem na Amaz6nia e Am&rica Central. Estes animals sao
notiveis por explorarem habitats diversos. A proposta taxo-
n6mica utilizada no present estudo foi desenvolvida por
Silva Jr. (2001), considerando Cebus nigritus e C. robustus
como especies vilidas, pertencentes ao subgenero Sapajus,
que compreende ainda C. q'I//l, C. macrocephalus, C. libi-
dinosus, C. caye C. xanthosternos.

A distribuigao ', -i,. i das diversas formas deste subgene-
ro nao e muito bem delineada, pois a determinacao da dis-
tribuigao geogrAfica de um tAxon tradicionalmente baseia-se
na ligagao dos pontos de registro empirico mais externos da
distribuigao. Isto pode gerar vArios errors, ja que os fatores
ambientais nao sao levados em consideraqao (Cerqueira,
1985, 1995; Cerqueira etal., 1998). Este d o caso de Cebus
e Sapajus.

A distribuicao geogrAfica pode ser avaliada mais precisa-
mente atraves do conceito de distribuicao potential, onde a
Area de distribuicao de um tAxon seria aquela corresponden-
te a distribuicao dos fatores ambientais ligados a ocorrencia
dos habitats e nicho de uma especie, determinando assim
os limits geogrAficos externos da distribuiiio (Cerqueira,
1985; Taylor e Taylor, 1979). Um mrtodo proposto para
a determinaqao de hip6teses de distribuio6es potenciais foi
delineado por Cerqueira (1985, 1995). De acordo corn este
mrtodo, para cada ponto de registro empirico devem ser
levantados dados sobre fatores ambientais considerados po-
tencialmente relevantes. Analises subseqiientes permitem
estimar quais fatores sao importantes para a distribuigao do
tAxon. Depois de mapeadas as distribuio6es destes fatores, as
Areas em comum obtidas atraves da sobreposicao dos mapas
indicam a distribuicao potential de uma especie, criando
uma hip6tese passivel de verificaqao.

Metodologia

Foram considerados os 141 registros de ocorrencia de
Cebus nigritus e 94 de C. robustus, levantados por Silva
Jr. (2001), a partir de dados de museus e literature. Para
cada localidade obtivemos dados referentes a vegetacao e
aos fatores climiticos. Os dados de vegetacao foram le-
vantados no mapa digital de ecorregi6es (Dinerstein et al.,
1995), sendo entao calculada a frequancia de ocorrencias





Neotropical Primates 13(1), April 2005


de cada taxon por ecorregiao. Note-se que neste mapa as
assim chamadas ecorregi6es correspondem ao mapa de
vegetacao do Brasil do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e
Estatistica (Brasil, IBGE, 1992, 1993). Dados referentes
aos fatores climaticos de cada ponto de registro empfrico
foram obtidos corn a utilizacao do program de busca de
dados climaticos do Laborat6rio de Vertebrados, Univer-
sidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). Este program
permit a obtenqao de dados de minuto a minuto em
qualquer localidade do Brasil. Os dados foram levantados
para todas as especies do subgenero Sapajus, para que se
pudessem determinar os fatores importantes para as duas
especies em questao. As mddias anuais de nove variaveis


Tabela 1. Freqiiencia de ocorrencias de Cebus nigritus por
ecorregido.
Localidades
Ecorregioes LAnaliads = 141 FreqUncia

Cerrado 12 0,09
Floresta costeira Bahia 38 0,27
Floresta costeira Serra do Mar 17 0,12
Floresta de interior Bahia 26 0,18
Floresta de interior Parand/ 37 0,26
Para ba 37 0,26
Paraiba
Floresta de araucarias 6 0,04
Campos rupestres 2 0,01
Savana Uruguaia 1 0,01
Mangue sudeste do Brasil 2 0,01


Tabela 2. Freqiiencia de ocorrencias de Cebus robustus por
ecorregiao.
Localidades
Ecorregioes Analiadas 94 FreqiiUncia

Cerrado 7 0,07
Floresta costeira Bahia 74 0,79
Floresta de interior 11 0,12
Bahia
Mangue nordeste do 2 0,02
Brasil


foram estimadas: temperature media (TM), temperatures
maxima media (TX) e minima media (TN), temperatures
maxima absolute (MX) e minima absolute (MN), preci-
pitacao total (PR), umidade relative (UR), nebulosidade
(NB) e dias de chuva (DC).

Foram feitas analises uni- e multivariadas (analise de varian-
cia unifatorial seguida do teste de Scheffk aposteriori, e ana-
lise linear discriminate) dos dados transformados em seus
logaritmos na base dez. As analises foram realizadas para
determinar se existem diferencas no clima entire as especies
de Cebus. As localidades de registro de Cebus nigritus e C.
robustus, cujo clima foi classificado como sendo de outras
especies de Cebus, foram identificadas na analise discrimi-
nante. Posteriormente, cada especie foi comparada corn as
demais agrupadas, determinando-se desta forma os fatores
que limitam a distribuicao.

Resultados

Os registros de ocorr&ncia referentes a Cebus nigritus dis-
tribuiram-se por nove formao6es vegetais, sendo mais
abundantes em florestas costeiras e de interior (Tabela 1).
C. robustus mostrou prefer&ncia por florestas costeiras
(Tabela 2), apesar de tambem ocorrer em outras tries forma-
coes distintas. As estatisticas basicas para os fatores climi-
ticos levantados para Cebus nigritus e C. robustus estao nas
Tabelas 3 e 4, respectivamente. Os coeficientes de variaqao
foram relativamente altos.

O resultado da analise de variIncia unifatorial demonstrou
que existem diferencas nas variaveis climaticas referentes
as especies do subgenero Sapajus (Tabela 5). A analise dis-
criminante teve uma boa probabilidade de discriminaqao
(k de Wilks corn p < 0,0001), corn 76,8% dos casos tendo
sido classificados corretamente. As localidades mal classifi-
cadas na analise discriminate dispuseram-se, de maneira
geral, na periferia das distribuiq6es (Figs. 1 e 2).

Os resultados das analises de variIncia unifatorial com-
parando C. nigritus e C. robustus corn o grupo formado
pelas demais especies sao apresentados nas Tabelas 6 e 7,
respectivamente. A analise linear discriminate classificou


Tabela 3. Estatfsticas bisicas dos fatores climiticos: Cebus nigritus.
Variaveis M6dia DP CV Minimo Miximo N
TM 20,66 1,81 8,76 16,10 23,60 141
TN 15,88 2,44 15,36 9,70 21,00 141
TX 27,32 1,82 6,66 22,10 30,70 141
MN 4,84 0,73 15,08 -9,5 10,90 141
MX 37,94 2,37 6,25 32,70 42,40 141
PR 1381,06 362,07 26,20 999,60 2800,80 141
NB 5,59 0,73 13,06 4,00 7,20 141
UR 19,19 4,65 24,23 69,80 86,80 141
DC 105,58 26,53 25,12 59,00 180,00 141

TM = temperature media; TN = temperature minima media; TX = temperature maxima media; MN = temperature minima absolute; MX = temperature
maxima absolute; PR = precipitagao total; NB = nebulosidade; UR= umidade relative; DC = dias de chuva.





Neotropical Primates 13(1), April 2005


corretamente 87,6% dos casos para C. nigritus (k de Wilks
corn p < 0,0001), corn cinco variaveis sendo importantes
na fungao (Tabela 8). Para C. robustus, foram classifica-
dos corretamente 76,4% dos casos (k de Wilks corn p <
0,0001), corn tries variaveis dominando a contribuigao para
a fungao (Tabela 9). As variaveis que apresentaram dife-
rengas significativas na analise de variIncia (Tabelas 6 e 7)
e foram importantes na analise discriminate (Tabelas 8 e
9) foram selecionadas para estimar os limits climiticos de
C. nigritus e C. robustus.


Figura 1. Distribuigao potential de Cebus nigritus.


Figura 2. Distribuigao potential de Cebus robustus.


As distribuigoes climiticas- obtidas pela area em comum
a todas as variaveis selecionadas colocadas em ma-
pas-foram sobrepostas aos mapas digitais contend as
ecorregi6es levantadas para cada especie. As distribuigoes
climiticas obtidas para ambas as especies foram bastante
grandes, ultrapassando em alguns graus os limits vegeta-
cionais. As intersec6es entire as distribuigoes climiticas e
vegetacionais indicaram uma primeira hip6tese para as dis-
tribuigoes potenciais de Cebus nigritus (Fig. 1) e C. robustus
(Fig. 2).


Cebus nigritus
Localidades mal classificades
A // Rios
' Distribuiqao potential


* Cebus robustus
* Localidades meal classilicades
,/ Rios
' DstribuiCbo pctencial


-60 -50





Neotropical Primates 13(1), April 2005


Figura 3. Registros de ocorrencia das especies de Cebus.


Tabela 4. Estatisticas bisicas dos fatores climiticos: Cebus robustus.

Variiveis Media DP CV Minimo Maximo N
TM 22,86 1,41 6,16 18,10 26,00 94
TN 18,93 1,40 7,39 14,40 20,90 94
TX 28,54 0,92 3,22 25,90 30,90 94
MN 8,90 2,77 31,12 -0,10 12,00 94
MX 36,98 2,32 6,27 32,00 40,40 94
PR 1222,94 221,76 18,13 859,00 1731,40 94
NB 5,99 0,51 8,51 5,00 7,10 94
UR 81,46 3,10 3,80 70,50 85,30 94
DC 148,20 38,42 25,92 60,00 212,00 94

TM: temperature media; TN: temperature minima media; TX: temperature maxima media; MN: temperature minima absolute; MX- temperature maxima
absolute; PR: precipitagao total; NB: nebulosidade; UR: umidade relative; DC: dias de chuva.




Tabela 5. Resultados da anilise de variancia entire espdcies do subgenero Sapajus. Letras diferentes denotam diferengas nos fatores ap6s o
teste de Scheff6.

Variiveis C. apella C. cay C. libidinosus C. macrocephalus C. nigritus C. robustus C. xanthosternos p
TM A B B C D B B 0,00
TN A B B A C B A 0,00
TX A A B A C D D 0,00
MN A B C D B D A 0,00
MX A A B A A C A 0,00
PR A B C D E F F 0,00
NB A B B C B D D 0,00
UR A B C D B A A 0,00
DC A B C A C D E 0,00

TM: temperature media; TN: temperature minima media; TX: temperature maxima media; MN: temperature minima absolute; MX- temperature maxima
absolute; PR: precipitagao total; NB: nebulosidade; UR: umidade relative; DC: dias de chuva.


a Cebus xanthosternos
* Cebus robustus
A Cebus nigritus
. Cebus macrocephalus
A Cebus libidinosus
* Cebus cay
o Cebus apella


-80 -70 .60 .50 40 -30





Neotropical Primates 13(1), April 2005


Discussfio

A hip6tese resultante das analises estimou uma distribuiiao
potential para Cebus nigritus maior do que a distribuidao
de seus pontos de registro empfrico (Fig. 1). Seus limits
efetivos coincide corn os de outras esp&cies de Sapajus.
Ao norte, a especie parece nao ocorrer alrm da margem
direita do rio Doce, onde e sucedida por C. robustus e, mais
a oeste, por C. libidinosus (Fig. 3). Este padrao de distri-
buigao ja havia sido relatado por Oliver e Santos (1991).
A oeste, a distribuicao e limitada pelo rio Parana, sendo
sucedida pela de C. cay a partir da margem oposta deste
rio (Fig. 3).

0 mesmo tipo de limitacao da distribuicao geografi-
ca ocorre com Cebus robustus, que parece restringir-se
ao norte pelo rio Jequitinhonha, e ao sul pelo rio Doce
(Oliver e Santos, 1991). A hip6tese de distribuicao poten-
cial tern tambem uma area maior do que a sugerida pelos
dados empfricos (Fig. 2). No entanto, a distribuicao efetiva


Tabela 6. Anilise de variancia entire Cebus nigritus e o conjunto
das demais espdcies do subgenero Sapajus (C. apella, C. cay,
C. libidinosus, C. macrocephalus, C. robustus e C. xanthosternos).

Varivel F p
TM 398,63 0,00
TN 325,57 0,00
TX 281,58 0,00
MN 212,20 0,00
MX 0,36 0,55
PR 37,78 0,00
NB 19,30 0,00
UR 21,53 0,00
DC 139,49 0,00
TM: temperature media; TN: temperature minima media; TX: temperature
maxima media; MN: temperature minima absolute; MX: temperature
maxima absolute; PR: precipitagao total; NB: nebulosidade; UR: umidade
relative; DC: dias de chuva.


Tabela 7. Anilise de variancia entire Cebus robustus e o conjunto
das demais espdcies do subgenero Sapajus (C. apella, C. cay,
C. libidinosus, C. macrocephalus, C. nigritus e C. xanthosternos).

Varivel F p
TM 5,09 0,02
TN 0,31 0,58
TX 21,17 0,00
MN 7,46 0,07
MX 15,89 0,00
PR 74,73 0,00
NB 3,99 0,05
UR 1,02 0,31
DC 1,63 0,20
TM: temperature media; TN: temperature minima media; TX: temperature
maxima media; MN: temperature minima absolute; MX: temperature
maxima absolute; PR: precipitacao total; NB: nebulosidade; UR: umidade
relative; DC: dias de chuva.


e sucedida ao norte pela de C. xanthosternos, ao sul pela de
C. nigritus, e a oeste pela de C. libidinosus (Fig. 3). A hip6-
tese de distribuigao potential (Fig. 2) sustenta a possibili-
dade de que esta forma chegue ao rio Sao Francisco, como
proposto anteriormente por Rylands et al. (1988).

A vegetacao parece ser o principal fator limitante da dis-
tribuicao de ambas as especies a oeste, bern como daque-
la de C. nigritus ao sul. C. nigritus e C. robustus sao, de
fato, especies endemicas da Mata Atlantica. Os pontos de
registro empfrico no Cerrado, para ambas as especies, lo-
calizaram-se em zonas de contato corn a Mata AtlIntica
ou muito pr6ximos a estas. A resolucao da distribuicao da
vegetacao nao permitiu uma identificaqao precisa destas


Tabela 8. Correlag6es entire variiveis discriminantes e fungoes
canonicas discriminantes entire C. nigritus e as demais espdcies
do subgenero Sapajus (C. apella, C. cay, C. libidinosus,
C. macrocephalus, C. robustus e C. xanthosternos). As variiveis mais
correlacionadas corn as funo6es discriminantes apresentam-se em
negrito.

Variavel Funcao 1
TM 0,78
TN 0,71
TX 0,66
MN 0,57
MX -0,02
PR 0,24
NB 0,24
UR 0,18
DC 0,46

TM: temperature media; TN: temperature minima media; TX:
temperature maxima media; MN: temperature minima absolute; MX:
temperature maxima absolute; PR: precipitagao total; NB: nebulosidade;
UR: umidade relative; DC: dias de chuva.



Tabela 9. Correlao6es entire variiveis discriminantes e funo6es
canonicas discriminantes entire C. robustus e as demais
especies do subgenero Sapajus (C. apella, C. cay, C. libidinosus,
C. macrocephalus, C. nigritus e C. xanthosternos). As variiveis mais
correlacionadas corn as funo6es discriminantes apresentam-se em
negrito.

Variavel Funcao 1
TM 0,18
TN -0,04
TX 0,36
MN -0,22
MX 0,31
PR 0,68
NB -0,16
UR -0,08
DC -0,10

TM: temperature media; TN: temperature minima media; TX:
temperature maxima media; MN: temperature minima absolute; MX-
temperatura maxima absolute; PR: precipitagao total; NB: nebulosidade;
UR: umidade relative; DC: dias de chuva.





Neotropical Primates 13(1), April 2005


zonas. Por isto, apesar de boa parte do Cerrado ter sido
inclufda na hip6tese de distribuigao potential, C. nigritus
e C. robustus estao provavelmente restritas aos entornos
da Mata Atlantica. 0 ponto empfrico situado na chama-
da "savana uruguaia" foi localizado numa regiao limftrofe
com a Mata Atlantica, por isso a freqiiencia de ocorr&ncias
ter sido muito baixa (Tabela 1). Claramente, primatas nao
ocorrem nesta regiao, a nao ser nas florestas de galeria e na
Mata Atlantica limftrofe.

E interessante notar que em ambas as especies analisadas,
a hip6tese initial de distribuigao potential, resultante das
analises dos fatores de clima e vegetagao, indica uma dis-
tribuigao maior do que a realizada. Isto sugere que estas
especies poderiam ocupar uma distribuigao mais ampla do
que a area de ocorr&ncia atual determinada pelos registros
de ocorr&ncia, e que fatores hist6ricos (cladogen&ticos) e
ecol6gicos (competigao interespecifica) podem ter atuado
para determinar o padrao de distribuigao observado hoje.
Desta maneira, podemos concluir que alum dos fatores
climAticos e de macrohabitat (aqui representados pelas
ecoregi6es), a presenga de outras especies de Sapajus
parece ser tambem um fator important, definindo os li-
mites norte e oeste de C. nigritus, e os limits norte, sul
e oeste de C. robustus, pois estas especies nao ocorrem em
simpatria. Portanto, tanto fatores independents como
dependents da densidade explicam os limits geograficos
destas espccies.

Rita Vilanova, Laborat6rio de Vertebrados, Departamen-
to de Ecologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Fede-
ral do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68020, Rio de Janei-
ro 21941-590, RJ, Brasil, e-mail: ,
Jos6 de Sousa e Silva J6nior, Coordenacao de Zoologia,
Museu Paraense Emflio Goeldi, Caixa Postal 399, Belkm
66040-170, Para, Brasil, e-mail: br>, Carlos Eduardo Viveiros Grelle, Laborat6rio de Ver-
tebrados, Departamento de Ecologia, Instituto de Biolo-
gia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal
68020, Rio de Janeiro 21941-590, RJ, Brasil, e-mail:
, Gabriel Marroig, Departa-
mento de Biologia, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade
de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 11.461, Sao Paulo 05422-970,
SP, Brasil, e Rui Cerqueira, Universidade Federal do Rio
de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia, Departamento de Ecolo-
gia, Laborat6rio de Vertebrados, Caixa Postal 68020, Rio
de Janeiro 21941-590, RJ, Brasil.

Referencias

Brasil, IBGE. 1992. Manual Tecnico da Vegetafdo Brasileira.
Minist&io do Planejamento, Instituto Brasileiro de Geo-
grafia e Estatistica (IBGE), Rio de Janeiro.
Brasil, IBGE. 1993. Mapa da Vegetafdo Brasileira. Minist&-
rio do Planejamento, Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e
Estatfstica (IBGE), Rio de Janeiro.
Cerqueira, R. 1985. The distribution of Didelphis
(Poliprotodontia, Didelphidae) in South America. J. Bio-
geog. 12: 135-145.


Cerqueira, R. 1995. Determinacao da distribuigao poten-
cial de espdcies. Em: Oecologia Brasileira, Vol. II, P. R.
Peres-Neto, J. L. Valentin, e F. A. S. Fernandez (eds.),
pp.141-161. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
(UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro.
Cerqueira, R., Marroig, G. e Pinder, L. 1998. Marmosets and
lion tamarins (Callitrichidae, Primates) in Rio de Janeiro
State, south-eastern Brazil. Mammalia 62: 213-226.
Dinerstein, E., Olson, D. M., Graham, D. J., Webster, A.
L., Primm, S. A., Bookbinder, M. P. e Ledec, G. 1995.
A Conservation Assessment of the Terrestrial Ecoregions of
Latin America and the Caribbean. World Wildlife Fund,
Washington, DC.
Oliver, W. L. R. e Santos, I. B. 1991. Threatened endem-
ic mammals of the Atlantic forest region of South-east
Brazil. Jersey '1 -, Preserv. Trust, Special Scientific Report
(4): 125pp.
Rylands, A. B., Spironello, W. R., Tornisielo, V. L., Lemos
de SA, R., Kierulff, M. C. M. e Santos, I. B. 1988. Prima-
tes of the Rio Jequitinhonha valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Primate Conserv. (9): 100-109.
Silva Jdnior, J. S. 2001. Especiacao nos macacos-prego e
caiararas, g&nero Cebus Erxleben, 1777 (Primates, Cebi-
dae). Tese de Doutoramento, Universidade Federal do
Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro.
Taylor, R. A. J. e Taylor, L. R. 1979. A behavioral model
for the evolution of spatial dynamics. Em: Population Dy-
namics, R. M. Anderson, B. D. Turner e L. R. Taylor (eds.),
pp.1-27. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.


STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION OF WILD BLACK
HOWLER TROOPS (ALOUATTA CARAYA) IN GALLERY
FORESTS OF THE ARGENTINEAN CHACO

Cecilia Paolajudrez, Rachel Dvoskin
Eduardo Ferndndez-Duque

Introduction

The genus Alouatta occurs from the south of Mexico to
northern Argentina and from the South American Pacific
Coast to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Defler, 2003). A.
caraya is the southernmost species, inhabiting central and
southern Brazil, eastern Bolivia, Paraguay, and northern
Argentina (Thorington et al., 1984). Although there are
adequate demographic data from populations in the forests
of the Rio Parana in Argentina (Pope, 1968; Thorington
et al., 1984; Rumiz, 1990; Arditi and Placci, 1994; Brown
and Zunino, 1994; Zunino etal., 1996, 2001), the data are
comparatively limited for populations in the Argentinean
Chaco (Arditi and Placci, 1990; Brown and Zunino, 1994;
Dvoskin et al., 2004).

In this preliminary study we describe the composition and
structure of wild troops of A. caraya that inhabit the gal-
lery forests along the Riacho Pilaga in Formosa Province
and compare them with data obtained from this area two
decades ago.





Neotropical Primates 13(1), April 2005


Methods

The A. caraya population we studied occupies forests on
the Guaycolec Ranch (5813'W, 25o54'S), a spread of
25,000 ha, 25 km northeast of the city of Formosa. The
ranch covers a mosaic of grasslands, savannas, dry forest,
and semideciduous gallery forests. Our study area consisted
of approximately 300 ha of gallery forest along the banks
of the Riacho Pilaga. We mapped the area using a transect
grid, marked every 50 m with colored tape.

In July and August 2001, two people surveyed the study
area for black howler troops from 07:30 h to 17:00 h work-
ing together for 11 days and independently for 13 days,
making a total of 24 days. Troops were found by following
the loud, characteristic vocalizations, or by spotting resting
individuals or moving branches. All visible individuals in
each troop were classified into age and sex categories as sug-
gested by Rumiz (1990):

* Adults: Females with blonde body color but darker and
grayish back, barely noticeable clitoris, and broad vulvar lips
with irregular pigmentation; if nursing, with swollen breasts
and long nipples. Males entirely black with orange testicles.
* Subadults: Females with narrow vulvar lips, shorter and
broader clitoris, and smaller body size than adults. Males
with whitish or yellowish testicles and an almost entirely
brownish-black coat, or black with golden highlights.
* Juveniles: We distinguished small, medium, and large
juveniles. Females had a long thin clitoris, thin vulvar lips,
body color usually paler than adult females but never red-


dish. Males were yellowish ventrally with a darker back,
dark stripe on forehead, testicles descended and visible.
* Infants: Females had a penniform clitoris and narrow
vulvar lips. Male testicles were broader than the female
vulvar lips.

Results

We made contact with troops on 19 occasions, for a total
observation time of 24.5 h; each troop was observed for an
average of 1.1 h. The two observers encountered monkeys
on nine occasions while surveying together and on ten oc-
casions while working independently.

We identified 111 individuals in thirteen mixed-gender
reproductive troops (Table 1). Two additional individuals
were found ranging alone, but we found no temporary as-
sociations of males or females in the area. The reproduc-
tive troops ranged in size from 5 to 15 individuals (mean
8.5, SD 3.4). The study population consisted of mixed-
gender troops with one or several adult males. Uni-male
troops were more common (n = 10) than multi-male troops
(n = 3). Uni-male troops were also smaller than multi-male
troops (mean of 7.5 2.7 vs. 12.0 3.6 individuals). There
were a relatively large number of infants (n = 22) compared
to adult females (n = 28).

Approximately 40% of the individuals were adults (Table
1), while juveniles-the second largest age-class-made
up slightly less than a third of the population (31%). Sub-
adults (7%) and infants (38%) comprised the rest. Overall,


Table 1. Size and composition of troops of Alouatta caraya in Formosa Province, Argentina.
Group AM AF SAM SAF LJM LJF MJM MJF MJU SJM SJF I Total
G1 3 4 1 2 3 13
G3 2 2 1 1 1 1 8
G9 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 3 15
G2 1 2 1 1 1 6
G4 1 2 1 1 1 6
G5 1 3 1 1 2 1 2 2 13
G6 1 2 1 1 1 2 8
G7 1 2 1 2 6
G8 1 1 1 1 1 5
G10 1 2 1 1 5
Gl1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6
G12 1 3 1 1 3 9
G13 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 11
Solitary 1 1
Solitary 1 1
Total 19 28 7 1 1 1 9 11 1 7 6 22 113
AM: Adult male; AF: Adult female; SAM: Subadult male; SAF: Subadult female; LJM: Large juvenile male; LJF: Large juvenile female; MJM: Medium
juvenile male; MJF: Medium juvenile female; SJM: Small juvenile male; SJF: Small juvenile female; LJU: Large juvenile unsexed; MJU: Medium juvenile
unsexed; SJU: Small juvenile unsexed; I: infant.





Neotropical Primates 13(1), April 2005


the numbers of females and males in the population were
very similar (48 and 45, Table 1). In the adult class, the sex
ratio was strongly biased in favor of females (28 and 17).
The numbers of female and male juveniles were very simi-
lar for all three juvenile categories as well as for all juvenile
categories combined (18 and 17). The small sample sizes of
subadults and infants prevented any statistical analysis.


Discussion


The average group size of A. caraya has apparently increased
during the last two decades: Brown and Zunino (1994) esti-
mated a mean group size of 6.3 individuals during censuses
conducted in 1981, and Arditi and Placci (1990) found no
groups with more than eight individuals during a one-year
study of the population in 1989-1990. Both estimates are
significantly smaller than ours (range: 5 to 15 individuals,
mean = 8.5). An increase in troop size may suggest that the
population is expanding, as has been observed in red howl-
ers in Venezuela (Rudran and Fernandez-Duque, 2003). In
our population, the three multi-male groups were signifi-
cantly larger than uni-male troops. The age structure of the
troops also suggests an expanding population, as indicated
by a relatively large number of juveniles and infants and by
the number of reproducing adult females.

Our estimates of sex ratio should be considered tentative
due to the small number of groups and the potential for age
misclassification. It would be necessary to determine the
sex of the large number of unsexed infants before any con-
clusions could be reached. Rudran and Fernandez-Duque
(2003) found that the ratio of male to female infants
changed in a linear association with density. In other words,
more females than males were born at low population den-
sities. If the observed trend of more male than female births
were to be confirmed, it might indicate that the population
is expanding. On the other hand, the strongly biased sex
ratio in the subadult category needs to be considered with
some caution. Although it is relatively easy to identify sub-
adult males because they have started to show signs of the
characteristic black coat of adult males, it is more difficult
to classify subadult females who cannot be differentiated
from adult females by coat color. The number of subadult
females may, therefore, have been underestimated.

In conclusion, our preliminary data suggest that the popu-
lation has expanded during the last two decades, in agree-
ment with a previous analysis of changes in population
density in the howler troops of this region (Dvoskin et al.,
2004). Our conclusion is mainly supported by the observed
increase in average troop size and by the relatively large
number of infants and juveniles. Other parameters of popu-
lation structure may confirm and detail this expansion, but
longer-term demographic records will be required to con-
struct the necessary dataset. For example, the proportion of
uni-male troops may also indicate the status of the popu-
lation, as in Venezuela, where the proportion of uni- and
multi-male troops changed dramatically over 30 years in a
population of red howler monkeys (Rudran and Fernandez-


Duque, 2003). Uni-male troops accounted for a relatively
larger proportion of the population when the population
was declining than when it was expanding. Although the
reasons for the change in the proportion of uni-male troops
were not clear, if confirmed this factor could become a con-
venient tool for population management, helping us antici-
pate, with relative accuracy, changes in population size that
would take decades to observe.

The vast amount of data on the population biology of
howler monkeys, spanning several decades of fieldwork, has
convincingly shown the limitations of short-term studies
(Rudran and Fernandez-Duque, 2003; Estrada et al., 1999;
Fedigan and Jack, 2001). Thus, although our preliminary
study offers a few solid results and several tentative find-
ings worth examining in the future, it is imperative that we
expand the database if we want to examine how social and
environmental factors may be shaping the observed demo-
graphic features.

Acknowledgments: Special thanks to the managers of Estan-
cia Guaycolec, Mr. Emilio Aradz and Mr. John Adams, for
their continuous support and to Marcelo Rotundo for his
assistance in the field. This research was supported by grants
to EFD from the Center for Reproduction of Endangered
Species of the Zoological Society (CRES) of San Diego.

Cecilia Paola Juirez, Fundaci6n Ecosistemas del Chaco Ori-
ental, Jose Maria Uriburu 374, Planta Baja, CP 3600, Pro-
vincia de Formosa, Argentina, e-mail: com.ar>, Rachel Dvoskin, Department of Anthropology,
New York University and New York Consortium in Evo-
lutionary Primatology (NYCEP), New York, and Eduardo
Fernindez-Duque, Center for Reproduction of Endangered
Species (CRES), San Diego, California, USA and Centro
de Ecologfa Aplicada del Litoral, Conicet, Argentina.

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from tree species dispersed by black howler monkeys (Al-
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THE PARASITE BEHAVIOR HYPOTHESIS AND THE USE
OF SLEEPING SITES BY BLACK HOWLER MONKEYS
(ALOUATTA CARAYA) IN A DISCONTINUOUS FOREST

Martin Kowalewski
GabrielE. Zunino

Introduction

Primates are particularly susceptible to parasitic infections
because they live in social groups that facilitate their trans-
mission (Stoner, 1996). The costs and benefits of living in
smaller and larger social groups have been examined in a
number of primate field studies (Struhsaker, 1969; Eisen-
berg et al., 1972; Clutton-Brock and Harvey, 1977; Van
Schaik, 1989; Janson, 1992; Sterck et al., 1997; Chapman
and Chapman, 2000; Kappeler and van Schaik, 2002). Sev-
eral factors influence social group living: 1) the availability,
abundance, and distribution of food resources-limiting


the number of animals that an area can support or influenc-
ing foraging efficiency in groups of different sizes (Wrang-
ham, 1980; Chapman, 1990); 2) historical and social traits,
including changes in group size or population size (Steven-
son et al., 1998); 3) life history traits such as birth rates,
sex ratios, mortality, and dispersal patterns (Altmann, 1980;
Dunbar, 1988; Crockett, 1996); 4) predation pressure
(Stanford, 2002); 5) cooperation and affiliation among in-
dividuals (Sussman and Garber, 2004); and 6) traits related
to social organization that are phylogenetically conserva-
tive and do not change in different environments (DiFiore
and Rendall, 1994). There are few studies that consider
parasite transmission as a factor in limiting group size or af-
fecting group structure in social primates (Freeland, 1976;
Janson, 2000).

Parasitism has density-dependent costs related to disease
transmission; therefore, it may play an important role in
increasing the fitness of individuals living in smaller social
groups, who benefit from an enhanced amount of groom-
ing. Because parasitic infections can cause a fitness decrease
in animals, some parasite-avoidance behaviors (e.g., mam-
mals licking their own fur, auto- and allogrooming, mud
wallows, and dust baths) can be expected (Alexander, 1974;
Pulliam and Caraco, 1984; Mooring and Hart, 1992;
Loehle, 1995). Parasites can directly affect host survival by
increasing predation risk or decreasing competitive abilities
(Scott, 1988). In addition, if parasite loads affect health and
physical appearance, they can influence patterns of female
mate choice or the ability of individuals to compete directly
for access to sexual partners (Freeland, 1981; Hamilton and
Zuk, 1982).

Due to their use and re-use of a limited ranging area, pri-
mates living in small forest patches with restricted home
ranges will be more exposed to infection and re-infection
(increasing the amount of the re-infecting dose) with para-
site ova and larvae (Freeland, 1976, 1980; Gilbert, 1997).
Behaviors that avoid and/or reduce parasite infections
(Freeland, 1980; Hausfater and Meade, 1982) constitute
an alternative to physiological immunity (Keymer and
Read, 1991) and may contribute to the survival of some
individuals. Howler monkeys (Alouatta) host a number of
intestinal parasites that are eliminated in their feces (Stuart
et al., 1998; Santa Cruz et al., 2000; Muller et al., 2000).
This study examines the black howler monkey's (Alouatta
caraya) use of defecation and night resting sites as a strategy
to avoid parasite re-infection in a forest fragment in north-
ern Argentina.

A number of hypotheses have been offered to explain the
selection of sleeping sites in primates (Anderson, 1984; Di
Bitetti et al., 2000): 1) Parasite hypothesis: different trees
are chosen every night to avoid recontamination with para-
sites; 2) Predation hypothesis: a) different and inaccessible
trees are used so that predators cannot predict the locations
of the sleeping sites, or b) contrariwise, the persistent use of
the same trees that provide the most effective escape routes
from predators; 3) Thermoregulatory hypothesis: energy





Neotropical Primates 13(1), April 2005


conservation associated with individuals huddling togeth-
er when it is cold; 4) Social hypothesis: monkeys choose
sleeping sites that allow social contact and social bonding;
5) Safety hypothesis: howlers select trees that offer secure
and sheltered platforms to sleep in relaxed positions or to
avoid severe weather; and 6) Feeding site hypothesis (von
Hippel, 1998): monkeys prefer to sleep near or in feeding
trees. If howlers select sleeping sites to reduce the chances of
parasitic infections then they will defecate in places different
from those where they sleep (avoiding the contamination
of sites they use often). They should also defecate from low
branches in order to avoid sullying supports used as poten-
tial traveling routes or sleeping sites.

Methods

Alouatta caraya is an arboreal folivore-frugivore. Its range in
northern Argentina marks the extreme southern distribu-
tion of the genus (Brown and Zunino, 1994). The study
was carried out in a fragment of semideciduous gallery forest
in northern Argentina (27o30'S and 5841'W) in the basin
of the Rio Riachuelo, a tributary of the Rio Parana (Fig.
1). The area is between 50 and 60 m above sea level. The
climate is subtropical, with an annual average temperature
of 21.7 C and annual average precipitation of 1230 mm
(Servicio Meteorol6gico Nacional, from 1901-1950). Rains
are frequent year-round, but decrease considerably in July
and August. The vegetation forms a mosaic of tall and low
forests, savannas with palms, grasslands and lowland zones
with lagoons and "esteros" (marshes). The primary forest has
been and is currently being logged intensively.

A group of black howlers was followed for 15 days in August
1994 (winter) and 15 days in February 1995 (summer) from
sunrise till sunset. There were 10 individuals in the group in
the winter period (1 adult male, 2 subadult males, 3 adult
females, 1 subadult female, 2 juveniles and 1 infant) and 9
individuals in the summer (1 adult male, 3 subadult males,
2 adult females, 1 subadult female, 1 juvenile and 1 infant).
The forest fragment of 8.5 ha was subdivided into 212
quadrates of 20 x 20 m. We recorded the quadrates where
the group defecated and slept at night, and then compared


PARAGUAY


t 30' 5


-Styy te


ARGENTINA


F 1s 4I' t w s



Figure 1. Location of the study site.


Paraguay F


the frequencies of quadrate use with a G-test (Sokal and
Rohlf, 1995). We also recorded the height and species of
trees in which the monkeys defecated and slept. The height
differences were analyzed with a Mann-Whitney test. The
floristic composition and vegetation structure were taken
from Zunino (1986) and Rumiz et al. (1986).

Results

Black howler monkeys defecate 2.63 times a day (sd = 0.49,
n = 205 [total number of defecations of all individuals, ex-
cluding infants]), generally after resting (when they wake
up in the morning and after an afternoon nap) and before
going to sleep at night. In 60% of the 205 defecations re-
corded, the entire group defecated at about the same time.
In 21%, all of the individuals but one defecated, and in
19% all but two defecated. The distribution and the fre-
quency of quadrates used for night resting showed that the
howlers were selective in the areas used for sleeping sites
(site fidelity). They used different quadrates and locations
in the forest to sleep and to defecate (G [,s = 112.36, df
=1, p < 0.001). The heights at which they defecated (8.33
+ 2.97 m) and at which they slept (18.07 4.88 m) were
significantly different (U = 189, N, = 110, N2 = 205, p <
0.001). They slept in the crowns of the trees and defecated
from the lower branches directly onto the ground. The
group used six trees as night resting sites: five Ficus monckii
trees (90.1%) and a Tabebuia ipe (9.9%). The troop def-
ecated in 23 trees of nine different species.

Ficus monckii trees were commonly used as both sleeping
(90.1%) and defecating sites (35.12%) (Table 1). These fig
trees are the largest in this semideciduous forest (Rumiz et
al., 1986). The importance of F monckii may also be its
asynchrony in leafing and fruiting phenology, as it thus
provides a year-round source of fruits and leaves (Zunino,
1987, 1989). The monkeys fed in these trees before going
to sleep at night and when they woke up in the morning. In
total, they used six different sleeping sites on the 20 nights
of our two study periods, suggesting site fidelity. All group
members slept together each night. Three times they used
the same tree for three consecutive nights, and three times
they used the same tree on two consecutive nights, again
indicating site fidelity.

Discussion

The differences in the frequency of quadrate use and the
heights at which the howlers defecated and slept may well
reflect their attempts to diminish contact with feces in areas
where they carry out much of their daily activity. Defecat-
ing in specific areas without understorey vegetation (low
heights) could diminish the individual's chance of infection
and re-infection by parasite ova or larvae on sullied branches
or the leaves they may later come to eat. Following the hy-
potheses proposed above, however, the choice of sleeping
trees did not appear to be related to parasite avoidance, at
least as stated (Hypothesis 1: they used the same trees on
consecutive nights), but instead could be related to behav-





Neotropical Primates 13(1), April 2005


Table 1. Use of different tree species by A. caraya for defecation, sleeping, and eating.
S% of use as % of use as % in diet (from DBH' Height
Species defecation sites sleeping sites Zunino 1989) m m
Tabebuia ipe 3.41 9.10 4.2 0.40 20.0
Ficus monckii 35.12 90.90 45.83 0.52 12.25
Allophylus edulis 3.90 0 0.1 0.14 4.0
Celtis sp. 5.85 0 6.8 0.16 6.33
Enterolobium contortisiliquum 6.34 0 1.04 0.5 15.17
Gleditsia amorphoides 28.29 0 5.26 0.17 6.42
Myrcianthespungens 4.39 0 0 0.23 6.46
Pithecelobium scalare 4.87 0 0.05 ? ?
Phytolacca dioica 7.80 0 4.06-10 0.3 13.0
Other 0 0 32.66-26.72
'DBH: diameter at breast height.


iors designed to decrease predation risk. Braza et al. (1981)
described a behavior in A. seniculus in which the monkeys
rubbed their anus on a tree branch after defecating, behavior
that could expose other group members to parasites. We ob-
served a similar behavior in A. caraya. These howler behav-
iors do not appear to be consistent with avoiding exposure
to parasites.

Sleeping high up in the trees is a common pattern in pri-
mates (Anderson, 1984). In this study howlers slept in tall
trees characterized by a closed crown. This may be related
to reducing predation risk from terrestrial predators while
the closed crown minimizes risk from aerial predators. Al-
though black howler monkeys do not have many predators
at this site, potential predators include the jaguarondi (Her-
pailurus yagouaroundi) and dogs (Canis domesticus). We did
not observe any predation or predator attacks, and reports
of predation on atelines are rare anyway (Di Fiore, 2002).
The relationship between the selection of sleeping trees and
predation avoidance remains unclear. Selectivity in the trees
used as sleeping sites was evident in that they were not the
most abundant trees in the forest. As such, the selection of
sleeping trees was consistent with a predator avoidance hy-
pothesis: Ficus and Tabeuia trees were the tallest in the forest
and possibly provided protection against predators.

We also found evidence in support of the thermoregula-
tion hypothesis: they always slept huddled as a group. The
social hypothesis was supported because the large crowns
of the trees allowed the group members to sleep together.
The safety hypothesis could not be discounted because the
selected trees offered large branches and crowns to accom-
modate the individuals (pers. obs.).

Lastly, the feeding site hypothesis fits because Ficus trees
were the major source of food in the howlers' diet (Table
1). Ficus monckiiwas the most frequent tree used as a sleep-
ing site and the most important species in the black howler
monkey diet (Zunino, 1987, 1989), representing 45.8% of
the feeding time (Zunino, 1989). The leaves and fruits of
E monckiiwere available during almost all the year owing to
the asynchronous phenology of this species (Zunino, 1986,


1987, 1989). During the winter when other species such as
Celtissp. and Tabebuia ipe(Zunino, 1987, 1989) increase in
dietary importance (depending on their phenology), these
species also were used as sleeping sites. Although we cannot
discount a social function for sleeping site selectivity, the
selection of large feeding trees as sleeping sites might best
represent a foraging strategy.

Although the selection of sleeping trees was consistent with
several alternative hypotheses, it was not consistent with
parasite avoidance in so far as they used the same trees for
defecating and sleeping on consecutive nights and only
six sites during the 20 days of the study. Their tendency
to move down in the forest to defecate, and do so in areas
with sparse understoreys, however, might well be adaptive
in terms of avoiding parasitism.

Other howler species such as Alouatta palliata (v. Dudley
and Milton, 1990; Stuart et al., 1990; Stoner, 1996), A.
seniculus (v. Braza et al., 1981; Gilbert, 1994, 1997) and A.
guariba (v. Stuart et al., 1993) have been recorded showing
similar behavior in terms of selectivity of sleeping trees and
defecation sites. Braza et al. (1981) reported that A. senicu-
lus defecated directly over the ground as a way to avoid con-
taminating possible foraging routes. Gilbert (1997) showed
that A. seniculus used specific trees to defecate from, def-
ecating from lower branches and avoiding contact with un-
derlying vegetation. Gilbert (1997) argued that defecation
site choice may represent a parasite avoidance behavior in
red howlers, and that this behavior could contribute to the
relatively low abundance of endoparasite infection in howl-
ers (Thatcher and Porter, 1968; Stuart et al., 1990; Gilbert,
1994). Finally, a number of howler species, including black
howlers, are reported to show behaviors associated with the
reduction of disease transmission, such as the selection of
defecation sites near the ground. Phylogeny may play an
important role in the evolution of this behavior.

Acknowledgments: We thank Paul A. Garber for thought-
ful discussions on the subject and valuable comments on
earlier drafts of the manuscript. We gratefully acknowledge
the support of the Argentine Museum of Natural Sciences





Neotropical Primates 13(1), April 2005


(MACN) and the Estaci6n Biol6gica Corrientes (EBCo).
We also thank Miguel Blanco and Ramon Romero for help-
ing us in the field.

Martin Kowalewskil12 and Gabriel E. Zunino2, 'Department
of Anthropology, University of Illinois, 109 Davenport Hall,
607 S. Mathews Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA; 2Es-
taci6n Biol6gica Corrientes Museo Argentino de Ciencias
Naturales (MACN), Av. Angel Gallardo 470, 1405, Buenos
Aires, Argentina. E-mail: .

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Scientific Publications, Oxford.
von Hippel, E A. 1998. Use of sleeping trees by black and
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Forest, Kenya. Am. J. Primatol. 43(3): 281-290.
Wrangham, R. W. 1980. An ecological model of female-
bonded primate groups. Behaviour 75: 262-300.
Zunino, G. E. 1986. Observaciones sobre el comportamien-
to territorial del mono aullador negro (Alouatta caraya).
Bol. Primatol. Arg. 4(1): 36-52.
Zunino, G. E. 1987. Nutrici6n en primates folfvoros: La
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Arg. 5(1-2): 78-90.
Zunino, G. E. 1989. Habitat, dieta y actividad del mono
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Neotropical Primates 13(1), April 2005





A RESERVE BIOL6GICA FEDERAL DA MATA
EsCURA E SUA IMPORTANCIA COMO UNIDADE DE
CONSERVACAO PARA OS PRIMATAS DO MEDIO RIO
JEQUITINHONHA, MINAS GERAIS

Fabiano R. Melo

Introduqio

Antes mesmo da chegada dos Bandeirantes no vale do Je-
quitinhonha, em pleno seculo XVII, criadores de gado jA
ocupavam a regiao (Mascarenhas et al., 1989). Entretanto,
somente corn a descoberta do ouro nas decadas finals de
1600 e da extraqao do diamante no seculo seguinte que,
de fato, esta regiao ganhou espaco na hist6ria econ6mica
brasileira e seu povoamento se deu de forma mais efetiva
(Mascarenhas et al., 1989). Este process ripido de urbani-
zacao alcangado promoveu dificuldades no abastecimento
de generos alimenticios para a regiao, o que favoreceu o sur-
gimento de uma fragil agriculture de subsistencia, associa-
da, quase sempre, a pecudria de corte (Mascarenhas et al.,
1989). Ainda assim, nos anos de 1840, a zona de ocupadao
native da Mata Atlantica em Minas Gerais se limitava a
regiao entire os rios Doce e Jequitinhonha, onde fndios Bo-
tocudos vagavam livremente, atacando intrusos corn certa
freqiiencia (Dean, 1997).

Ainda hoje, o indice de pobreza ostentado pela regiao e ele-
vado, ocasionando uma intense migraqao da zona rural para
os grandes centros urbanos e um esvaziamento demogr~fico
persistent (Brasil, IBGE, 2004). Corn mais de dois tercos
da populacao vivendo na zona rural, ela tem sido caracte-
rizada em virios estudos como "regiao deprimida", onde os
indices de pobreza, miseria, desnutri~io, mortalidade, anal-
fabetismo, desemprego e infra-estrutura s6cio-econ6mica
imperam desfavoravelmente em grande parte dos municf-
pios (Goncalves, 1997; Dias et al., 2002; Ribeiro e Galizo-
ni, 2003).

A media bacia do rio Jequitinhonha estende-se da foz do rio
Aracuaf ate a cidade de Salto da Divisa, no limited dos Esta-
dos de Minas Gerais e Bahia. Neste trecho, sao registradas
formaq6es vegetais adaptadas a baixos indices pluviomrtri-
cos e altas temperatures, destacando-se a caatinga de porte
arbustivo, indicando intervenqao antr6pica (Veloso et al.,
1991; SEI, 1997).

A floresta estacional semidecidual e decidual, especialmen-
te de terras baixas, de porte mais desenvolvido, intercala-se
a caatinga, que desaparece progressivamente enquanto se
avanca para leste, em direqao do litoral. Pelo menos em tries
municipios dentro de Minas Gerais hi presenca de floresta
ombr6fila densa sub-montana e montana: Bandeira, Santa
Maria do Salto e Salto da Divisa (Veloso et al., 1991; Silva
e Casteleti, 2003; Andrade, 2004). 0 antropismo adqui-





Neotropical Primates 13(1), April 2005


re maior proeminencia nos municipios mais pr6ximos do
baixo rio, o que se evidencia nas extensas pastagens que
dominam toda a area. Generaliza-se uma vegetacao secun-
diria envolvendo eventuais remanescentes da cobertura ve-
getal original insulados nos topos das elevao6es (Gongalves,
1997; Melo, 2004).

Exatamente em fungao dessas condiq6es ambientais e da
zona de tensao ecol6gica present na regiao que o Instituto
Brasileiro de Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturals Reno-
vaveis (IBAMA) decretou, em 05 de junho de 2003, a Re-
serva Biol6gica (REBIO) da Mata Escura. A reserve abrange
uma area aproximada de 51.000 ha, entire os municipios de
Jequitinhonha e Almenara (Fig. 1).

Breve Historico

Sua hist6ria de criaqao remonta o final da decada passada,
quando, em 1999, uma equipe do Instituto Estadual de
Florestas de Minas Gerais (IEF) e da Universidade Federal
de Minas Gerais (UFMG) visitou a regiao com o intuito
de identificar os principals remanescentes florestais de Mata
Atlantica, com base nas dreas prioritArias para conservadao
da biodiversidade indicadas pela Fundacao Biodiversitas
(1998). A regiao nordeste do estado foi priorizada pelo
IEF e pela UFMG exatamente por ser a dnica que contem
fragments florestais que possam abrigar uma das 6ltimas
popula6ces selvagens do mico-leao-da-cara-dourada (Leon-


topithecus chrysomelas) e do macaco-prego-do-peito-amarelo
(Cebus xanthosternos), alum de existirem poucos inventArios
faunisticos significativos para a regiao (Rylands et al., 1988,
1991-1992; Oliver e Santos, 1991; Pinto e Rylands, 1997;
Ribon e Maldonado-Coelho, 2000, 2001; Feio e Caramas-
chi, 2002; Melo et al., 2002; Ribon et al., 2002).

Na ocasiao, em funcao da descoberta de uma nova popula-
gao de muriquis-do-norte (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) na Area
(Melo et al., 2002), a Coordenadoria de Protegao da Vida
Silvestre, dentro da Diretoria de Pesca e Biodiversidade do
IEF, sugeriu a criaqao de uma Unidade de Conservadao
(UC) de proteqao integral corn 20.500 ha, que nao foi aca-
tada pela entao diretoria geral do referido 6rgao.

Em 2002, em funcao de uma compensagao ambiental exi-
gida pelo IBAMA corn a construcao do Aproveitamento
Hidrelktrico de Itapebi, em Itapebi (BA), consultores estive-
ram na regiao e fizeram um estudo tecnico mais detalhado
indicando a atual Area de criaqao da reserve na categoria de
Parque Nacional. 0 decreto saiu em 2003, mas considerou
a UC como uma REBIO corn o dobro do tamanho original
sugerido pelo IEE

O decreto de criaqao da REBIO foi muito comemorado pela
comunidade cientffica, pordm a populacao local se rebelou e
entrou corn diversos pedidos na justiga e acabou mobilizan-
do a equipe do Ministerio do Meio Ambiente, que estuda


Figura 1. Mapa de localizacao da REBIO Mata Escura, municipios de Almenara e Jequitinhonha, Minas Gerais.





Neotropical Primates 13(1), April 2005


meios de revogar o decreto. A situaqao e o future da REBIO
ainda sao incertos, porem, estudos recentes feitos na regiao
ternm enfatizado a importIncia crucial que a area possui para
a fauna, especialmente os primatas.

Importancia Biol6gica

Melo et al. (2005) encontraram tries especies de primatas
criticamente em perigo de extincao no Brasil nessa Area
protegida e a REBIO se configura como a dnica localida-
de no mundo corn essas condi6oes, pois foram confirmadas
popula6oes para o macaco-prego-do-peito-amarelo (Cebus
xanthosternos), o bugio-ruivo (Alouatta guariba guariba)
e o muriqui-do-norte (Brachyteles hypoxanthus). Aldm das
tries especies serem consideradas mundialmente ameagadas
(IUCN, 2004), duas delas se encontram listadas entire as 25
especies de primatas mais ameacadas do planet (Mitter-
meier et al., 2005). Melo et al. (2005) realizaram estudos
sobre a densidade populacional de primatas na regiao do
Jequitinhonha e os dados apontam para populao6es peque-
nas, isoladas e suscetiveis a caca (Fig. 2).

A REBIO abriga ecossistemas diversos, como os campos
encontrados na parte mais elevada sobre solo de cascalho
e areia quartzftica, onde as bromeliaceas sao abundantes
e as arvoretas term ate 3 m de altura. Musgos, lfquens, al-
gumas melastomataceas e arbustos como Erythroxylum sp.
tambdm estr o presents. A vegetagao e caracterfstica, dife-
rente de outros campos naturais encontrados no sul e Serra
do Espinhaco em Minas Gerais (Andrade, 2004). Como
estes campos ocupam pequena extensao, devem ser conside-
rados de alta relevincia para conservagao, pois apresentam
caracteristicas dnicas e podem desaparecer rapidamente sob
interferencia antr6pica. Aldm disso, a vegetacao de Mata
Atlantica encontra-se bern preservada em varios trechos da


Figura 2. Individuo de macaco-prego-do-peito-amarelo (Cebus
xanthosternos) encontrado em cativeiro na cidade de Jequitinhonha,
Minas Gerais.


REBIO, especialmente nos vales encaixados, que sao exten-
sos e continues.

Da avifauna registrada na Mata Escura, duas especies foram
consideradas ameacadas em nfvel global, quatro em nfvel
national e dez especies sao listadas como ameacadas no
estado, aldm de varias outras citadas como presumivelmen-
te ameacadas (Ribon e Maldonado-Coelho, 2000; Ribon et
al., 2002). 0 gaviao-pombo-grande (Leucopternis poliono-
ta), o gaviao-de-penacho (Spizaetus ornatus), o gaviao-pega-
macaco (S. tyrannus), a tiriba-de-orelha-branca (Pyrrhura
leucotis), o joao-baiano (Synallaxis cinerea) e o papagaio-
de-peito-roxo (Amazona vinacea) estao na categoria "em
perigo" (nfvel estadual) e essas trs 61ltimas sao tidas como
"vulneraveis" em nfvel national (Fundacao Biodiversitas,
2003). 0 papagaio chaua (A. rhodocorytha) e listado como
"criticamente em perigo" em Minas Gerais e "em perigo"
no Brasil (Machado et al., 1998; Fundacao Biodiversitas,
2003). Juntamente corn estas, o tropeiro-da-serra (Lipau-
gus lanioides) e considerado "vulnerAvel" globalmente e em
nfvel estadual. Como L. lanioides, a jandaia (Aratinga auri-
,i'.!//.) tern a mesma classificaqao em nfvel global, sendo,
entretanto, considerada "presumivelmente ameacada" em
nfvel estadual. 0 uru (Odontophorus capueira), o aracari-
banana (Baillonius ... i e a araponga (Procnias nudi-
collis) tambdm sao considerados "vulneraveis" pela lista
estadual (Machado et al., 1998).

Nao ha ddvidas quanto ao extremo valor biol6gico identi-
ficado na regiao, sua beleza cenica e seu conjunto de ecos-
sistemas, corn Areas de transicao significativas entire faunas
e floras distintas. E dever do Estado zelar pela manutenqao
desse acervo important e cabe a sociedade cientffica se ma-
nifestar urgentemente pela manutenqao do atual decreto e a
implementacao imediata da REBIO, uma vez que os recur-
sos previstos pela compensacao ambiental existed e necessi-
tam apenas de vontade polftica para serem utilizados.

Fabiano R. Melo, Departamento de Ciencias Biol6gicas,
Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Carango-
la, Campus da Universidade do Estado de Minas Gerais
(FAFILE/UEMG), Praca dos Estudantes 23, Santa Emflia,
Carangola 36800-000, Minas Gerais, Brasil, e-mail:
.

Referencias

Andrade, P. M. 2004. Refdgios ecol6gicos nas matas do Je-
quitinhonha. Journal do Bidlogo 37: 6-8.
Brasil, IBGE. 2004. Diagndstico Ambiental da Bacia do Rio
Jequitinhonha. Institute Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatis-
tica (IBGE), Rio de Janeiro. Web site: gov.br>.
Fundacao Biodiversitas. 1998. Biodiversidade em Minas
Gerais: Um Atlas para Sua Conservafdo. Fundacao Biodi-
versitas, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. 94pp.
Fundacao Biodiversitas. 2003. Revisdo da Lista das Especies
da Fauna Brasileira Ameafada de Extinado 2003. Website:
.





Neotropical Primates 13(1), April 2005


Dean, W. 1997. A Ferro e Fogo: A Histdria e a Devasta-
cdo da Mata Atldntica Brasileira. Companhia das Letras,
Sao Paulo.
Dias, E. C., Assuncao, A. A., Guerra, C. B. e Prais, H. A.
C. 2002. Process de trabalho e sadde dos trabalhadores
na producao artesanal de carvao vegetal em Minas Gerais.
Cad. SaudePablica 18(1): 269-277.
Feio, R. N. e Caramaschi, U. 2002. Contribuicao ao conhe-
cimento da herpetofauna do nordeste do estado de Minas
Gerais, Brasil. Melopsittacus Publicaqoes Cientificas 1(2):
105-111.
Goncalves, R. N. 1997. Diagn6stico Ambiental da Bacia
do Rio Jequitinhonha- Diretrizes Gerais para Ordenaqao
Territorial. Relat6rio Tecnico, Ministerio do Planejamen-
to e Orgamento, Fundacao Instituto Brasileiro de Geo-
grafia e Estatistica (IBGE), Diretoria de Geociencias 1a
Divisao de Geociencias do Nordeste DIGEO 1/NE.1.
Salvador.
IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
Website: .
Machado, A. B. M., Fonseca, G. A. B. da, Machado, R. B.,
Aguiar, L. M. S. e Lins, L. V. (eds.). 1998. Livro Verme-
lho das Esp&cies Ameaqadas de Extincdo da Fauna de Minas
Gerais. Fundagao Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte.
Mascarenhas, G. R., Teixeira, C. A. S., Vilela, J. M. C.,
Martinez, J. E. A. e F&res, M. C. 1989. Levantamento
de Areas critics de mineracao do Rio Jequitinhonha.
Relat6rio Tecnico, Departamento Nacional de Pro-
dugao Mineral DNPM, 3 distrito, Fundagao Esta-
dual de Meio Ambiente FEAM, Fundagao Centro
Tecnol6gico de Minas Gerais CETEC e Companhia
de Saneamento de Minas Gerais COPASA, Belo
Horizonte.
Melo, F. R. 2004. Primatas e Areas prioritArias para a con-
servagao da biodiversidade no vale do rio Jequitinhonha,
Minas Gerais. Tese de Doutorado, Universidade Federal
de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte.
Melo, E R., Fontes, D. F e Rylands, A. B. 2002. Prima-
tas do vale Jequitinhonha, Minas Gerais. Em: Resumos:
X Congress Brasileiro de Primatologia, p.56. Universidade
Federal do Pard, Belkm, 10 a 15 de novembro de 2002.
Melo, E R., Nery, M. S., Rodes, E. R., Ferraz, D. S. e
Souza, S. L. E 2005. Densidade populacional e status
de conservagao de tries especies de primatas criticamente
ameagadas de extingao nos vales dos rios Pardo e Jequiti-
nhonha, Minas Gerais e Bahia. Relat6rio Tecnico, Centro
de Estudos Ecol6gicos e Educacao Ambiental CECO,
Fundacao Biodiversitas e CEPAN, Carangola. 79pp.
Mittermeier, R. A., Valladares-Pidua, C., Rylands, A. B.,
Eudey, A. A., Butynski, T. M., Ganzhorn, J. U., Kormos,
R., Aguiar, J. M. e Walker, S. (eds.). 2005. Primates in
Peril: The World's 25 Most Endangered Primates 2004-
2006. Report to IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group
(PSG), International Primatological Society (IPS), and
Conservation International (CI), Washington, DC.
Oliver, W. L. R. e Santos, I. B. 1991. Threatened ende-
mic mammals of the Atlantic Forest region of south-east
Brazil. '1 -- Preserv. Trust, Special Scientific Report 4:
126pp.


Pinto, L. P. de S. e Rylands, A. B. 1997. Geographic distri-
bution of the golden-headed lion tamarin, Leontopithecus
chrysomelas: Implications for its management and conser-
vation. Folia Primatol. 68: 134-160.
Ribeiro, E. M. e Galizoni, E M. 2003. Agua, populagao
rural e polfticas de gestao: 0 caso do vale do Jequitinho-
nha, Minas Gerais. Ambiente e Sociedade 6(1): 129-146.
Ribon, R. e Maldonado-Coelho, M. 2000. Caracteriza-
cao Preliminar da Avifauna da Mata Escura, Municfpio
de Jequitinhonha, Nordeste de Minas Gerais. Relat6rio
Tecnico, Instituto Estadual de Florestas (IEF) e Universi-
dade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte.
20pp.
Ribon, R. e Maldonado-Coelho, M. 2001. Range extension
for Slender Antbird Rhopornis ardesiaca with comments
on external morphology of adults. Cotinga 16: 52-56.
Ribon, R., Whitney, B. M. e Pacheco, J. E 2002. Discovery
of Bahia Spinetail Synallaxis cinerea in north-east Minas
Gerais, Brazil, with additional records of some rare and
threatened montane Atlantic Forest birds. Cotinga 17:
46-50.
Rylands, A. B., Spironelo, W. R., Tornisielo, V. L., Sa, R. L.
de, Kierulff, M. C. M. e Santos, I. B. 1988. Primates of
the Rio Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Pri-
mate Conserv. (9): 100-109.
Rylands, A. B., Santos, I. B. e Mittermeier, R. A. 1991-
1992. Distribution and status of the golden-headed lion
tamarin, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, in the Atlantic Forest
of southern Bahia, Brazil. Primate Conserv. (12-13): 15-
23.
SEI. 1997. Anudrio Estatistico da Bahia. Vol. 11. Superinten-
dencia de Estudos Econ6micos e Sociais da Bahia (SEI),
Secretaria de Planejamento, Ciencia e Tecnologia, Salva-
dor, Bahia.
Silva, J. M. C. e Casteleti, C. H. M. 2003. Status of the
biodiversity of the Atlantic forest of Brazil. Em: State of the
Hotspots: The Atlantic Forest of South America: Biodiversity
Status, Threats, and Outlook, C. Galindo-Leal e I. de G.
Camara (eds.), pp.43-59. Island Press, Washington, DC.
Veloso, H. P., Rangel Filho, A. L. R. e Lima, J. C. A. 1991.
Classificaqdo da Vegetaqdo Brasileira Adaptada a um Sistema
Universal. Institute Brasileiro de Estatistica e Geografia
(IBGE), Rio de Janeiro.


EXTRAORDINARY OBSERVATION OF WILD CAPUCHIN
MONKEY MARMOSET ASSOCIATION

Jeanne Shirley

Wild bearded capuchin monkeys (Cebus libidinosus) living
in dry woodland habitat in the state of Piauf, in northeast-
ern Brazil, are currently being studied because of their abil-
ity to use tools. The study site is a Biological Reserve of
about 250 ha managed by the Fundagao BioBrasil. Dorothy
Fragaszy (University of Georgia), Elisabetta Visalberghi (Is-
tituto di Scienze e Tecnologie della Cognizione, Rome) and
their colleagues from Brazil-Patricia Izar and Eduardo
Ottoni (both of the University of Sao Paulo) and Marino





Neotropical Primates 13(1), April 2005


Figure 1. A wild bearded capuchin monkey (Cebus libidinosus)
caring for and feeding a common marmoset (Callithrixjacchus).



Gomes de Oliveira (Fundacao BioBrasil, Lauro de Freitas,
Bahia) -have documented the capuchins using stone ham-
mers and anvils to crack open palm nuts (Fragaszy et al.,
2004). In June 2004, while photographing this tool-using
behavior in a troop of approximately 10 capuchins, I ob-
served one of the monkeys apparently caring for and feed-
ing a common marmoset (( .- jacchus). The capuchin
held the marmoset in its arms and let the marmoset cling
to its chest and ride on its back (Fig. 1). At one point the
capuchin (with the marmoset on its back) cracked open a
palm nut using a stone hammer and anvil, repositioned the
marmoset into its arms and then took small pieces of the


cracked nut and gave these to the marmoset to eat. During
the two hours of observation the marmoset stayed with the
capuchin, either clinging to its chest or riding on its back,
both while the capuchin was on the ground and when the
capuchin climbed about 20 feet into the trees near where
the capuchins were feeding. There was, however, one in-
stance when the marmoset jumped off the capuchin and
scampered about on the ground among the other capuchins
in the troop. After about five minutes the caretaker capu-
chin went over to the marmoset and placed the marmoset
onto its back.

The local residents were questioned concerning the marmo-
set and its association with the capuchin. They said that the
marmoset suddenly appeared with the troop of capuchins
and was seen for the first time about when these photo-
graphs were taken. What is certain is that the marmoset
is not a pet or tame. It is also known that this species of
marmoset lives in the wild in the same habitat as the capu-
chins. In September 2004 the local residents reported that
the marmoset was still with the capuchin group, an associa-
tion lasting at least 15 weeks thus far. These observations
are believed to be unique (D. M. Fragaszy, pers. comm.).
While interspecies play is sometimes observed in captive
animals, interspecies carriage and feeding in wild popula-
tions is not.

Acknowledgment- Thank you to Mr. Cid Sim6es of Funda-
cao BioBrasil for kindly helping us to visit the reserve and
observe the monkeys there.

Jeanne Shirley, PO Box 6650, Orange, CA 92863, USA,
e-mail: .

Reference

Fragaszy, D. M., Izar, P., Visalberghi, E., Ottoni, E. B. and
Oliveira, M. G. de. 2004. Wild capuchin monkeys (Cebus
libidinosus) use anvils and stone pounding tools. Am. J.
Primatol. 64(4): 359-366.


AN OBSERVATION OF AGONISTIC BEHAVIOR IN
HOWLER MONKEYS (ALOUATTA PALLIATA) ON BARRO
COLORADO ISLAND, PANAMA

Pedro G. Mindez-Carvajal
Mario Santamaria
Ricardo A. Moreno

Barro Colorado Island (BCI) is a forested nature reserve of
1,500 ha in the Panama Canal. It has a well-marked five-
month dry season and a seven-month wet season (Leigh
Jr. et al., 1982). BCI harbors a large population of howler
monkeys (Alouattapalliata), which was the focus of the first
modern field study on wild primates (by C. R. Carpenter in
the 1930s) and which has been monitored and studied ever
since (Carpenter, 1934, 1965; Chivers, 1969; Mittermeier,
1973; Milton, 1980, 1982; Neville et al., 1988). Agonistic





Neotropical Primates 13(1), April 2005


behavior among howler monkeys is a mechanism to gain
access to food, space, and/or females in estrus (Clarke, 1982,
1983). Agonistic behavior includes infanticide (Galleti et
al., 1994) and fights between males, females, and satellite
males, as well as displacements, pushes, chases, and grabs
(Neville et al., 1988; Wang and Milton, 2003). Increases
in agonistic interactions can occur when food resources are
scarce (Cowlishaw and Dunbar, 2000).

Agonistic behavior is reported as "rare" at BCI (Carpenter,
1934, 1965; Altmann, 1959; Southwick, 1963; Chivers,
1969). Wang and Milton (2003) have suggested that the
low incidence of social interactions between males within
groups reflects the energy costs of social behavior and in-
dicates that relationships between males are "structured by
more subtle means than overt physical interactions, possi-
bly including vocal communication, relationships with in-
dividual group females, and kinship" (p.1227). Although
there are some reports of aggression between male and
female howler monkeys, it generally occurs during feeding
bouts and has never been fatal for one of the antagonists.
Carpenter (1934) described an incident on BCI that in-
volved an adult male biting the tail of a juvenile, but ag-
gressive interactions involving fights are otherwise rarely
seen (Milton, 1982).

In this report we describe an incident of extreme agonistic
behavior that occurred on 17 October 2003. Mario Sant-
amarfa, a wildlife ranger on BCI, observed an adult male
howler monkey pursue, catch, and kill a young female.
The male chased this younger female individual, repeatedly
biting her on the lower back just above her tail for some 20
minutes. Soon after, on the same day, the female was found
dead about 12 m from the tree where the attack occurred
(Fig. 1).

Howlers on BCI frequently have wounds and scarring be-
lieved to result from fights with conspecifics rather than just
from accidents or predator attacks. This is, however, the
first report of a fight of this sort having a fatal outcome, and
the first report of extreme agonistic behavior in the howler
monkey population on BCI in almost 70 years.


Figure 1. Dead body of the young female howler monkey attacked
and killed by an adult male. Fausto Trail, Barro Colorado Island,
Panama. Photo Tom Kursar.


Milton (1982) has argued that bot-fly parasitism is an im-
portant factor regulating the BCI howler monkey popu-
lation, along with nutritional issues and food availability.
This howler population has been considered to be peace-
ful, and males are thought to be well-received by females
in estrus. It is possible that agonistic behavior may play a
more important role in the dynamic and social interactions
of the population of howler monkeys on BCI than previ-
ously thought, even if this behavior appears to be relatively
uncommon. We suggest that aggressive behavior among
howler monkeys on BCI needs to be further considered in
other studies.

Pedro G. MVndez-Carvajal, Mario Santamaria, and Ri-
cardo A. Moreno, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute,
Box 0843-03092, Balboa, Ancon, Republica de Panama.
Current address of first author: Florida Museum of Natu-
ral History, Dickinson Hall, PO Box 117800, Univer-
sity of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-7800, USA, e-mail:
.

References

Altmann, S. A. 1959. Field observations on a howling
monkey society. J. Mammal. 40: 317-330.
Carpenter, C. R. 1934. A field study of behavior and social
relations of howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata). Comp.
Psychol. Monogr. 10: 1-168.
Carpenter, C. R. 1965. The howlers of Barro Colorado
Island. In: Primate Behavior: Field Studies .j 11. -', and
Apes, I. DeVore (ed.), pp.250-291. Holt, Rinehart and
Winston, New York.
Chivers, D. J. 1969. On the daily behavior and spacing of
howling monkey groups. Folia Primatol. 10: 48-102.
Clarke, M. R. 1982. Socialization, infant mortality and
infant nonmother interaction in howler monkeys
(Alouatta palliata) in Costa Rica. PhD thesis, University
of California, Davis.
Clarke, M. R. 1983. Infant-killing and infant disappear-
ance following male takeovers in a group of free-ranging
howling monkeys (Alouattapalliata) in Costa Rica. Am. J.
Primatol. 5: 241-247.
Cowlishaw, G. and Dunbar, R. M. 2000. Primate Conserva-
tion Biology. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Galleti, M., Pedroni, F and Paschoal, M. 1994. Infanticide
in the brown howler monkey Alouattafusca. Neotrop. Pri-
mates 2(4): 6-7.
Leigh Jr., E. G., Rand, A. S. and Windsor, D. M. (eds.).
1982. The Ecology of a Tropical Forest: Seasonal Rhythms
and Long-term Changes. Smithsonian Institution Press,
Washington, DC.
Milton, K. 1980. The Foraging S- ., of Howler Monkeys.
Columbia University Press, New York.
Milton, K. 1982. Dietary quality and population regu-
lation in a howler monkey population. In: The Ecol-
ogy of a Tropical Forest: Seasonal Rhythms and Long-term
Changes, E. G. Leigh Jr., A. S. Rand and D. M. Wind-
sor (eds.), pp.273-289. Smithsonian Institution Press,
Washington, DC.





Neotropical Primates 13(1), April 2005


Mittermeier, R. A. 1973. Group activity and population dy-
namics of the howler monkeys on Barro Colorado Island.
Primates 14: 1-19.
Neville, M. K., Glander, K., Braza, E and Rylands, A. B.
1988. The howling monkeys, genus Alouatta. In: Ecology
and Behavior of Neotropical Primates, Vol. 2, R. A. Mit-
termeier, A. B. Rylands, A. E Coimbra-Filho and G. A.
B. da Fonseca (eds.), pp.349-453. World Wildlife Fund,
Washington, DC.
Southwick, C. H. 1963. Challenging aspects of the be-
havioral ecology of howling monkeys. In: Primate Social
Behavior, C. H. Southwick (ed.), pp.185-191. Van Nos-
trand, Princeton, NJ.
Wang, E. and Milton, K. 2003. Intragroup social relation-
ships of male Alouatta palliata on Barro Colorado Island,
Republic of Panama. Int. J. Primatol. 24(6): 1227-1243.


MONITORING THE YELLOW-BREASTED CAPUCHIN
MONKEY (CEBUS XANTHOSTERNOS) WITH
RADIOTELEMETRY: CHOOSING THE BEST RADIO-
COLLAR

M. Cecilia M. I. rr
Gustavo Canale
Priscila Suscke Gouveia

The yellow-breasted capuchin monkey, Cebus xanthosternos,
is endemic to a restricted area of the Atlantic Forest of east-
ern Brazil. Because it is heavily hunted, much appreciated
as a pet, and its forests are largely destroyed, it is one of
the 25 most endangered primates in the world (Kierulff et
al., 2005). The remaining populations are fragmented and
isolated, and there is no forest within its range large enough
to support a viable population.

We began a research program on the ecology of the yellow-
breasted-capuchin monkey in the Atlantic Forest of south-
ern Bahia in 2003. It proved, however, extremely difficult
to find, never mind observe, these monkeys. Three people
censusing the forest five days a week were locating the ani-
mals at most once a week, and then for only a few minutes.
Radiotelemetry became the only option after a year had
passed without any progress in locating and habituating a
study group.

We first tested some different radio-collars on captive tufted
capuchins in two Brazilian zoos, Sao Paulo and Belo Hori-
zonte. Tufted capuchin monkeys are robust, intelligent, and
highly manipulative, and we needed to check the behav-
ior of the individuals fitted with a radio collar, as well as
the behavior of other capuchins towards them. Likewise
we needed to find a compromise between a collar tough
enough to resist possible biting or chewing, while at the
same time not being too hard or abrasive as to cause undue
rubbing and lesions on the neck or throat. Capuchin males
were captured, fitted with fake radio-transmitters, released
back into their groups, and monitored.


The capuchins that received the test radio-collars accepted
them very well, and although part of the antenna is ex-
ternal they did not chew it or break it. Other capuchins
did not interfere with them either. However, the first collar
was made of very hard neoprene (similar to the material
normally used for radio-collars on carnivores) and after 15
days caused lesions on the neck (the edges were evidently
rubbing the capuchin's neck), so it was removed. The abra-
sions were treated, and after three days were completely
cured.

A radio-collar made with soft fabric (tubular nylon) was
then attached to a subadult male from Belo Horizonte Zoo.
After one month we removed the collar and found a rash
and signs of irritation on the skin of his neck. With the hu-
midity and high temperatures, the friction of the fabric on
the skin was deemed to be the cause of the rash.

A third radio-collar made of a ball chain (similar to the
collar used for the radios on golden lion tamarins) was
tested on the alpha male of another capuchin group in Belo
Horizonte Zoo. The animal was monitored, and again after
one month the collar was removed. The radio-collar was
intact, with no signs of damage or interference from the
male, nor chewing or biting by other group members. No
marks or signs were found on the skin of the capuchin's
neck. We thus decided to use ball chains from Advanced
Telemetry Systems Inc., Isanti, MN, USA, com>, model M1940 (weight 42 g and battery capacity of
394-788 days).

The first capuchin monkeys were captured in a site in the
Capitao Private Reserve, owned by the NGO Instituto de
Estudos S6cio-Ambientais do Sul da Bahia (IESB), using
Tomahawk live traps baited with bananas. We began of-
fering bananas to the group in September 2004 and used
camera-traps to check if they were eating the bait inside the
Tomahawk traps (Kierulff et al., 2004). Since our objec-
tive was to capture just one or two individuals to attach the
radio, we used only six traps on the platform.

The monkeys ate the bananas for two months and then
stopped visiting the platform for almost nine months. In
September 2005, the animals began to eat the bait on the
platform again and entered the Tomahawk traps. In Octo-
ber 2005 we set the traps. After ten days we captured two
C. xanthosternos in the afternoon. The group remained near
to the traps and then slept in a tree close to the platform.
The cages were taken to our base, and the two males were
processed during the night.

We attached a radio-collar to one of the monkeys, an adult
male; the other was too young to carry a radio. The proce-
dure was accompanied at all times by veterinarians. Early
in the morning, the cages were taken back to the platform
in the forest. At sunrise, the group was heard nearby ap-
proaching and calling for the males. We opened the traps
and withdrew, and the two capuchins went back to their





Neotropical Primates 13(1), April 2005


group. Since then, it has been possible to monitor the
C. xanthosternos group daily using radiotelemetry.

Acknowledgments: We thank all those who helped us
during the test of the radio and the capture: Christopher
0. Kochanny (ATS), Katia Cassaro (Fundacao Parque
Zool6gico de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo), Val&ria do Socorro
Pereira (Fundacao Zoo-Botanica de Belo Horizonte, Minas
Gerais), Mariangela Lozano (veterinarian, Universidade
Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhdus, Bahia), Lilian Catenatti
(veterinarian, IESB, Ilhdus, Bahia), Leticia Castro
(veterinary student, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz),
Camila Cassano, Carlos Guidorizzi, Nayara Cardoso,
and Gabriel R. dos Santos (biologists, IESB), and Renato
Silveira B&rnils (Museu Nacional/UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro).
This research is supported by the Disney Foundation
and European zoos involved in the C. xanthosternos EEP
(breeding program): Apenheul Primate Park (Apeldoorn,
The Netherlands), Amersfoort Zoo (Amersfoort, The
Netherlands), Frankfurt Zoo (Frankfurt, Germany), The
North of England Zoological Society (Chester, UK),
Colchester Zoo (Colchester, UK), Shaldon Wildlife Trust
(Devon, UK), Parc Zoologique et Botanique and the Friends
of Mulhouse Zoo (Mulhouse, France), La Vallke des Singes
(Romagne, France), and Zirich Zoo (Zirich, Switzerland).
The study is also kindly supported by Conservation des
Especes et des Populations Animales (CEPA), Schlierbach,
France, and the Zoological Society for Conservation of
Species and Populations (ZGAP), Miinchen, Germany.
This study was carried out with the required permits from
the Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos
Naturais Renovaveis (IBAMA).

Maria Cecilia M. Kierulff1 2, Gustavo Canale2, and Priscila
S. Gouveia2, 'Conservation International Brasil, Avenida
Getilio Vargas, 1300, 7 Andar, Savassi, Belo Horizonte
30112-021, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 2IESB Instituto de
Estudos S6cio-Ambientais no Sul da Bahia, Rua Major
Homem Del Rey 147, Cidade Nova, Ilhdus 45650-000,
Bahia, Brazil.

References

Kierulff, M. C. M., Santos, G. R. dos, Canale, G., Guidorizzi,
C. E. and Cassano, C. 2004. The use of camera-traps in
a survey of the buff-headed capuchin monkey, Cebus
xanthosternos. Neotrop. Primates 12(2): 56-59.
Kierulff, M. C. M., Lernould, J.-M., Konstant, W. R.,
Canale, G., Santos, G. R. dos, Guidorizzi, C. E. and
Cassano, C. 2005. Cebus xanthosternos Wied, 1820.
Buff-headed capuchin or yellow-breasted capuchin. In:
Primates in Peril: The World's 25 Most Endangered Primates
2004-2006, R. A. Mittermeier, C. Valladares-PAdua, A.
B. Rylands, A. A. Eudey, T. M. Butynski, J. U. Ganzhorn,
R. Kormos, J. M. Aguiar, and S. Walker (eds.), pp.22-
23. Report to IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group
(PSG), International Primatological Society (IPS), and
Conservation International (CI), Washington, DC.


2006 SEED GRANTS FOR AMAZON CONSERVATION

The Amazon Conservation Association (ACA) and its Peru-
vian counterpart, the Asociaci6n para la Conservaci6n de la
Cuenca Amaz6nica (ACCA), together announce a seed and
matching grant program for established researchers at the
post-doctoral level and above. One-year seed grants of up to
$20,000 will fund the first year of multi-year research proj-
ects that have been submitted for, but have not yet received,
other funding. One-year matching grants of up to $10,000
will subsidize research costs for the first year of long-term
research projects that have already secured other funding.

Projects must be based at the Los Amigos Research Center
and Conservation Concession in Madre de Dios, Amazonian
Peru. Before preparing a proposal, applicants should famil-
iarize themselves with the information on ACA's research
priorities webpage, which describes a significant change from
previous grant cycles. Applicants should also browse the
CICRA research project page to ensure that their proposed
research will complement ongoing work at the station and
will fit with ACA's long-term goals in science and conserva-
tion. Both of these pages are available on the ACA website at
.

Applicants should send a one-page concept letter to the ACA
Science Director, Nigel Pitman, at ation.org>. Full proposals are by request only. The latest date
proposals will be received is March 30, 2006. Concept letters
and proposals received before that date will be processed as they
arrive; requests made early are more likely to lead to funding.


INTERNATIONAL STUDBOOK FOR THE PIED TAMARIN,
SAGUINUS BICOLOR

Andrew Baker (Philadelphia Zoological Garden), Alcides
Pissinatti (Centro de Primatologia do Rio de Janeiro), and
Andria Davis (Philadelphia Zoological Garden) have pro-
duced the 2004 studbook for the pied tamarin, Saguinus
bicolor, with data current through 31 December 2004. It in-
cludes a full historical listing as well as a separate listing by
institution. The text is in Portuguese and English.

At the beginning there is a brief discussion of taxonomy and
a description of the species and subspecies (bicolor, martins
and ochraceus; the studbook concerns only the nominate sub-
species) along with their distributions, habitats, diet, repro-
ductive parameters, social structure, behavior, and status in
the wild-all you ever wished to know about pied tamarins
and more: an excellent summary.

The current captive population of Saguinus b. bicolor is
derived largely from two colonies, both established in the
1980s: one at the Centro de Primatologia do Rio de Janeiro
(CPRJ) and the other at Universitat Bielefeld (Germany). In
1996, CPRJ acquired additional wild-caught founders, a step





Neotropical Primates 13(1), April 2005


forward in expanding the founder base. A number of these
new founders were sent to European institutions. As of
early 1997, all of the animals outside of Brazil are under the
ownership of the Brazilian government, through the Brazil-
ian Institute for the Environment and Renewable Natural
Resources (Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e Recursos
Naturais Renovdveis IBAMA). On 31 December 2004, the
number of living animals in the breeding program was 117
(50.51.16) in 19 institutions, including 11 founders with
living descendants. There were 33 births during 2004 and
28 deaths. The population as such has grown considerably
since the mid-1980s, and the age pyramid shows a healthy
number of young animals between 2-7 years old.

The zoos and breeding centers taking part in the program in-
clude Akron Zoological Park (Ohio, USA), Parque Ecol6gi-
co Municipal Americana (Sao Paulo, Brazil), Apenheul
Nature Park (Apeldoorn, The Netherlands), Zool6gico de
Bauru (Sao Paulo, Brazil), Belfast Zoo (Belfast, N. Ireland),
Paradise Wildlife Park (Broxbourn, UK), North of England
Zoological Society (Chester, UK), Cleveland Metroparks
Zoo (Ohio, USA), Granby Zoo (Quebec, Canada), Hous-
ton Zoological Gardens (Texas, USA), Jersey Wildlife Pres-
ervation Trust (Jersey, British Isles), Zool6gico Municipal de
Mogi Mirim (Sao Paulo, Brazil), Parc Zoologique et Bota-
nique (Mulhouse Zoo, France), The Wildlife Conservation
Society (Bronx Zoo, New York, USA), Philadelphia Zoo-
logical Gardens (Pennsylvania, USA), Jardin Zoologique du
Quebec (Quebec, Canada), Centro de Primatologia do Rio
de Janeiro (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Zool6gico Municipal
de Santos (Sao Paulo, Brazil), and Shaldon Wildlife Trust
(Shaldon, UK).

Andrew J. Baker (Studbook Keeper), Andria Davis
(Studbook Registrar), Philadelphia Zoo, 3400 W. Girard
Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19104-1196, USA, e-mail:
and Alcides Pissinatti (Stud-
book Keeper), Centro de Primatologia do Rio de Janeiro
- FEEMA, Rua Fonseca Teles, 121 Sala 1624, Sao
Cristovao, Rio de Janeiro 20940-200, RJ, Brazil, e-mail:
. Please address all correspon-
dence to Andrew Baker at the Philadelphia Zoo.

Reference

Baker, A. J., Pissinatti, A. and Davis, A. 2005. Pied Tamarin
Saguinus bicolor International Studbook. Philadelphia
Zoo, Philadelphia, USA, and Centro de Primatologia do
Rio de Janeiro (CPRJ/FEEMA), Rio de Janeiro. March
2005. Data current through 31 December 2004. In
English and Portuguese.


ULYSSES S. SEAL AWARD FOR INNOVATION IN
CONSERVATION

Ulie's great passion and talent was thinking creatively
about how new science could be most effectively ap-
plied to solving the problems of wildlife conservation.


His contributions were amplified many times by his abil-
ity to recognize, encourage, and collaborate with others
who also were making innovative contributions. Fittingly,
the IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group
(CBSG) has chosen to honor Ulie by creating the Ulysses
S. Seal Award for Innovation in Conservation. Each year,
the CBSG will consider nominations for this award. All
members of CBSG are invited to submit nominations to
the CBSG office by way of email or post. Nominations
should describe concisely how the person exemplifies inno-
vation in applying science to conservation. The nominee's
contributions need not have been through work connected
with the CBSG, but should reflect the CBSG's values of
creative thinking that improves conservation action. Nom-
inees must be living individuals. A committee appointed
by the CBSG Chair will review all nominations. Omaha's
Henry Doorly Zoo has developed a medal to recognize the
recipients of the Ulysses S. Seal award. The award will be
presented at the annual meeting of the CBSG. Funds will
be provided to sponsor the travel of the award recipient
to the meeting. For more information, see the following
website: .


CHICAGO ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY GRANTS TO SSC
SPECIALIST GROUPS

The Chicago Zoological Society makes annual grants to
SSC Specialist Groups from its Chicago Board of Trade
Endangered Species Fund for small projects identified in
Action Plans or other group priority-setting exercises. Any
proposal submitted on the Group's behalf must be endorsed
by the Group Chair (or other officer). Proposals for the
next grant cycle are due by e-mail no later than 1 March
2006. Contact Linda Reiter for more information, e-mail:
.








SOCIEDADE BRASILEIRA DE PRIMATOLOGIA -
DIRETORIA BIENIO 2005 2007

Em assembldia realizada durante o XIo Congresso Brasi-
leiro de Primatologia em Fevereiro de 2005, Porto Alegre,
Rio Grande do Sul, foi aprovada e nomeada a nova di-
retoria da SBPr. Ela e composta pelo Presidente Fabiano
Rodrigues de Melo (UEMG, ),
o Vice-Presidente Andr6 Hirsch (UFMG e PUC-Minas,
), Secretaria ClAudia Guima-
raes Costa (Unileste-MG, br>), 20 SecretArio Luiz Gustavo Dias (UFMG, muriqui@biodiversitas.org.br>), Tesoureiro Italo Martins
da Costa Mourthd (UFMG, ) e
Vice-Tesoureira Fernanda Tabacow ( com.br>).





Neotropical Primates 13(1), April 2005


Visite nossa homepage, primatologia>, e conhega o Estatuto da SBPr, obtenha
varias informao6es sobre oportunidades em primatologia,
financiamentos, orientadores de P6s-Graduaqao, publica-
o6es (incluindo o link para os 6ltimos fasciculos dos peri6-
dicos Laboratory Primate Newsletter e Neotropical Primates),
e ainda um novo link onde voce podera encontrar artigos
em PDF disponfveis para download.

A nova diretoria aproveita a oportunidade para convidar
os interessados a se associarem. Os valores da anuidade
sao os seguintes: Profissional R$ 80,00 (oitenta reais);
Estudantes de P6s-Graduacao R$ 60,00 (sessenta reais)
e Estudantes de Graduaqao R$ 40,00 (quarenta reais).
Para se associar ou pagar a sua anuidade de 2005 proce-
da da seguinte forma: efetue o dep6sito, de acordo com os
valores descritos acima, na c/c 9406-4, Agencia 1726-4,
do Bradesco (Banco 237), enviando uma c6pia do recibo
diretamente para o Tesoureiro pelo correio no seguinte
endereco: Italo Martins da Costa Mourthe, Universidade
Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Av. Antonio Carlos,
6627, Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, ICB,
Departamento de Zoologia, CP 486, CEP 31.270-901
ou como arquivo anexado para com.br>, incluindo no cabegalho de seu comprovante ou
mensagem eletronica o nome complete, o endereco para
correspondencia (incluindo e-mail) e a(s) anuidade(s) que
estai(o) send paga(s).

Aqueles que possuem anuidades em atraso e desejarem
quitA-las, podem efetuar o pagamento, juntamente corn
a anuidade atual (2005), bastando acrescentar o valor de
02 (duas) anuidades referente aos anos em atraso (inde-
pendente de quantas forem). Lembramos que o nao paga-
mento de 03 tries ) anuidades consecutivas pode incorrer
na exclusao do quadro de associados da SBPr, conform
estatuto. Estudantes de Graduaqao ou P6s-Graduaqao
devem anexar tambhm uma c6pia do comprovante de
matrfcula atual. Informao6es podem ser solicitadas pelo
. Vale a pena lembrar que
os s6cios da SBPr term direito a desconto na inscrigao do
Congress Brasileiro de Primatologia que acontece a cada
dois anos e acesso aos artigos em PDF disponfveis em
nossa homepage.

Uma sociedade professional s&ria e forte se faz com esforgo e
parceria de todos. Participe!

Fabiano Rodrigues de Melo, Presidente da Sociedade
Brasileira de Primatologia Bienio 2005-2007, Univer-
sidade do Estado de Minas Gerais, Campus Fundacional
de Carangola (FAFILE/UEMG), Praga dos Estudantes,
23, Santa Emflia, Carangola 36800-000, Minas Gerais,
e-mail: e Italo Martins da Costa
Mourth6, Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Ci-
encias Biologicas, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, Pampulha,
Belo Horizonte 31.270-901, Minas Gerais, Brasil, e-mail:
.


BooKs

Ecologia e Histdria Natural da Mata Atldntica, por Athay-
de Tonhasca Jr. 2005. Editora Interciencia, Rio de Janeiro,
Brasil. 198pp. ISBN 8571931305. R$50,00. Ap6s s&culos
de desmatamento, restam hoje menos de 10% do conjunto
de ecossistemas que constitui a MataAtlantica. A acentuada
reducao de area, aliada a sua imensa riqueza biol6gica e altos
nfveis de endemismo, fazem da Mata Atlantica uma das
prioridades mundiais para preservacao. Mais ainda, estes
ecossistemas tem valor inestimivel na prestacao de servi-
cos ecol6gicos tais como armazenamento de Agua, control
da erosao e ciclagem de minerals. Por estas raz6es, a Mata
Atlantica represent rico patrim6nio cultural, est&tico, bio-
16gico e econ6mico dos brasileiros. No entanto, apesar de
oficialmente protegida pela Constituigao, a Mata Atlantica
continue a ser devastada, vitima da especulacao imobilia-
ria, extraqao illegal de madeira, capture de animals, poluiiao
e atividade agropecuarias. Esta obra faz um apanhado das
informao6es cientificas sobre a fauna, flora, ecologia, con-
servacao e regeneraqao das florestas neotropicais e da Mata
Atlantica, reunindo estudos de caso e farta bibliografia.
Estas informao6es irao auxiliar professors e estudantes de
cursos em Ciencias Biol6gicas e Ambientais, assim como
pessoas interessadas em ecologia e conservacao, a conhecer
alguns components destes ecossistemas e suas intrinca-
das relao6es ecol6gicas. Para comprar: visit editorainterciencia.com.br> ou ligue para (21) 2581-9378 /
2241-6916.

P. ,i .' and Conservation, edited by Andy Purvis, John
L. Gittleman and Thomas Brooks. 2005. Conservation Bi-
ology Series #8, Cambridge University Press, New York.
431pp. ISBN 0521532000 (paperback, $60.00). Phyloge-
ny is a potentially powerful tool for conserving biodiversity.
This book explores how it can be used to tackle questions
of great practical importance and urgency for conservation.
Using case studies from many different taxa and regions of
the world, the volume evaluates how useful phylogeny is
in understanding the processes that have generated today's
diversity and the processes that now threaten it. This
book will be of great value to researchers, practitioners and
policy-makers alike. Contents: 1. Phylogeny and conserva-
tion A. Purvis, J. L. Gittleman, and T. M. Brooks, p.1.
Part 1: Units and currencies. 2. Molecular phylogenetics
for conservation biology E. A. Sinclair, M. P&rez-Losada,
and K. A. Crandall, p.19; 3. Species: Demarcation and di-
versity P. M. Agapow, p.57; 4. Phylogenetic units and
currencies above and below the species level J. C. Avise,
p.76; 5. Integrating phylogenetic diversity in the selection
of priority areas for conservation: Does it make a differ-
ence? -A. S. L. Rodrigues, T. M. Brooks, and K. J. Gaston,
p. 101; 6. Evolutionary heritage as a metric for conservation
- A. 0. Mooers, S. B. Heard, and E. Chrostowski, p.120.
Part 2: Inferring evolutionary processes. 7. Age and area





Neotropical Primates 13(1), April 2005


revisited: Identifying global patterns and implications for
conservation K. E. Jones, W. Sechrest, and J. L. Gittle-
man, p.141; 8. Putting process on the map: Why ecotones
are important for preserving biodiversity T. B. Smith,
S. Saatchi, C. Graham, H. Slabbekoorn, and G. Spicer,
p.166; 9. The oldest rainforests in Africa: Stability or resil-
ience for survival and diversity? J. C. Lovett, R. March-
ant, J. Taplin, and W. Kiiper, p.198; 10. Late Tertiary and
Quaternary climate change and centres of endemism in
the southern African flora G. F Midgley, G. Reeves, and
C. Klak, p.230; 11. Historical biogeography, diversity and
conservation of Australia's tropical rainforest herpetofauna
- C. Moritz, C. Hoskin, C. H. Graham, A. Hugall, and A.
Moussalli, p.243. Part 3: Effects of human processes. 12.
Conservation status and geographic distribution of avian
evolutionary history- T. M. Brooks, J. D. Pilgrim, A. S. L.
Rodrigues, and G. A. B. da Fonseca, p.267; 13. Correlates
of extinction risk: Phylogeny, biology, threat and scale -A.
Purvis, M. Cardillo, R. Grenyer, and B. Collen, p.295; 14.
Mechanisms of extinction in birds: Phylogeny, ecology
and threats P. M. Bennett, I. P. F Owens, D. Nussey,
S. T. Garnett, and G. M. Crowley, p.317; 15. Primate di-
versity patterns and their conservation in Amazonia J.
M. Cardoso da Silva, A. B. Rylands, J. S. Silva Jdnior, C.
Gascon, and G. A. B. da Fonseca, p.337; 16. Predicting
which species will become invasive: What's taxonomy got
to do with it? J. Lockwood, p.365. Part 4: Prognosis.
17. Phylogenetic futures after the latest mass extinction
- S. Nee, p.387; 18. Predicting future speciation T. G.
Barraclough and T. J. Davies, p.400. Available from: Cam-
bridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York,
NY 10011-4211, USA, Fax: 1-212-691-3239. General
Address (Orders & Customer Service): Cambridge Univer-
sity Press, 100 Brook Hill Drive, West Nyack, NY 10994-
2133, USA, Tel: 1-845-353-7500, Fax: 1-845-353-4141,
Website: .


ARTICLES

Aotidae
Ruiz-Herrera, A., Garcia, F, Aguilera, M., Garcia, M. and
Ponsa Fontanals, M. 2005. Comparative chromosome
painting in Aotus reveals a highly derived evolution. Am.
J. Primatol. 65(1): 73-85.

Atelidae
Behie, A. M. and Pavelka, M. S. M. 2005. The short-term
effects of a hurricane on the diet and activity of black
howlers (Alouatta pigra) in Monkey River, Belize. Folia
Primatol. 76(1): 1-9.
Chapman, C. A. and Pavelka, M. S. M. 2005. Group
size in folivorous primates: Ecological constraints and
the possible influence of social factors. Primates 46(1):
1-9.
Dias, P. A. D. 2005. Observation of parturition in the
Mexican mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) on
the Island of Agaltepec, Veracruz State, Mexico. Am. J.
Primatol. 65(1): 93-98.


Feeley, K. 2005. The role of clumped defecation in the
spatial distribution of soil nutrients and the availability of
nutrients for plant uptake. J. Trop. Ecol. 21(1): 99-102.
Ferguson-Smith, M. A., Yang, F, Rens, W. and O'Brien,
P. C. M. 2005. The impact of chromosome sorting and
painting on the comparative analysis of primate genomes.
Cytogenet. GenomeRes. 108(1-3): 112-121.
Miranda, J. M. D. and Passos, E C. 2005. Composi-
cao e dinamica de grupos de Alouatta guariba clamitans
Cabrera (Primates, Atelidae) em Floresta Ombr6fila
Mista no Estado do Parana, Brasil. Rev. Brasil. Zool. 22(1):
99-106.
Molleson, L. and Palomino, H. C. de. 2005. A new refuge
for woolly monkeys in the Peruvian Amazon. IPPL News
32(1): 18-19.
Nascimento, F E, Bonvicino, C. R., Silva, E C. D. da,
Schneider, M. P. C. and Seuanez, H. N. 2005. Cytochrome
b polymorphisms and population structure of two species
of Alouatta (Primates). Cytogenet. Genome Res. 108(1-3):
106-111.
Oliveira, E. H. C. de, Neusser, M., Pieczarka, J. C.,
Nagamachi, C., Sbalqueiro, I. J. and Mueller, S. 2005.
Phylogenetic inferences of Atelinae (Platyrrhini)
based on multi-directional chromosome painting in
Brachyteles arachnoides, Ateles paniscus paniscus and
Ateles b. marginatus. Cytogenet. Genome Res. 108(1-3):
183-190.
Pavelka, M. S. M. and Behie, A. M. 2005. The effect
of hurricane Iris on the food supply of black howlers
(Alouattapigra) in southern Belize. Biotropica 37(1): 102-
108.
Peker, S. 2005. The study of allogrooming and its possible
social role in black howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya).
Lab. Prim. Newsl. 44(2): 26. In Spanish.
Possamai, C. B., Young, R. J., de Oliveira, R. C. R., Mendes,
S. L. and Strier, K. B. 2005. Age-related variation in
copulations of male northern muriquis (Brachyteles
hypoxanthus). Folia Primatol. 76(1): 33-36.
Riba-Hernandez, P. and Stoner, K. E. 2005. Massive
destruction of Symphonia globulifera (Clusiaceae) flowers
by Central American spider monkeys (Ateles .. rr ..,
Biotropica 37(2): 274-278.
Rico-Hernandez, G. 2005. Endoparasites and forest
fragments: Implications for howler conservation. ASP
Bulletin 29(1): 9.
Ruiz-Garcia, M. 2005. The use of several microsatellite
loci applied to 13 neotropical primates revealed a strong
recent bottleneck event in the woolly monkey (Lagothrix
lagotricha) in Colombia. Prim. Rep. (71): 27-55.
Santamaria, M. 2005. The effect of home range reduction on
the ecology of red howler monkeys in Central Amazonia.
ASP Bulletin 29(1): 10.
Shimooka, Y. 2005. Sexual differences in ranging of Ateles
belzebuth belzebuth at La Macarena, Colombia. Int. J.
Primatol. 26(2): 385-406.
Solari, A. J. and Rahn, M. I. 2005. Fine structure and
meiotic behaviour of the male multiple sex chromosomes
in the genus Alouatta. Cytogenet. Genome Res. 108(1-3):
262-267.





Neotropical Primates 13(1), April 2005


Callitrichidae
Anonymous. 2005. Cotton top tamarins born at Museum
of Science in Boston. Communique (American Zoo er
Aquarium Association). March: 22.
Arruda, M. E, Araujo, A., Sousa, M. B. C., Albuquerque, E
S., Albuquerque, A. C. S. R. and Yamamoto, M. E. 2005.
Two breeding females within free-living groups may not
always indicate polygyny: Alternative subordinate female
strategies in common marmosets ((. .-' jacchus). Folia
Primatol. 76(1): 10-20.
Brown, G. R., Almond, R. E. and Bates, N. J. 2005.
Adult-infant food transfer in common marmosets: An
experimental study. Am. J. Primatol. 65(4): 301-312.
Castro, D. C. and Sousa, M. B. C. 2005. Fecal androgen
levels in common marmoset (( .-'. jacchus) males
living in captive family groups. Brazil. J. Med. Biol. Res.
38(1): 65-72.
Chamove, A. S. 2005. Environmental enrichment for
monkeys using plants. Lab. Prim. Newsl. 44(2): 1-5.
Chamove, A. S. and Scott, L. 2005. Forage box as enrichment
in single- and group-house callitrichid monkeys. Lab.
Prim. Newsl. 44(2): 13-17.
Chen, M. K. and Hauser, M. 2005. Modeling reciprocation
and cooperation in primates: Evidence for a punishing
strategy. J. Theoret. Biol. 235(1): 5-12.
Cronin, K. A., Kurian, A. V. and Snowdon, C. T. 2005.
Cooperative problem solving in a cooperatively breeding
primate (Saguinus oedipus). Anim. Behav. 69(1): 133-
142.
Garber, P. A., Blomquist, G. E. and Anzenberger, G. 2005.
Kinematic analysis of trunk-to-trunk leaping in Callimico
goeldii. Int. J. Primatol. 26(1): 223-240.
Huck, M., Loettker, P., Heymann, E. W. and Heistermann,
M. 2005. Characterization and social correlates of fecal
testosterone and cortisol excretion in wild male Saguinus
mystax. Int. J. Primatol. 26(1): 159-179.
Kralik, J. D. 2005. Inhibitory control and response selection
in problem solving: How cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus
oedipus) overcome a bias for selecting the larger quantity
of food. J. Comp. Psychol. 119(1): 78-89.
Mann, T. M., Williams, K. E., Pearce, P. C. and Scott, E. A.
M. 2005. A novel method for activity monitoring in small
non-human primates. Lab. Anim. 39(2): 169-177.
Mendes Pontes, A. R. and Scares, M. L. 2005. Sleeping sites
of common marmosets ((. .-'. jacchus) in defaunated
urban forest fragments: A strategy to maximize food
intake. J. Zool., Lond. 266(1): 55-63.
Neusser, M., Muench, M., Anzenberger, G. and Mueller,
S. 2005. Investigation of marmoset hybrids ((, ..
pygmaea x ( .-'. jacchus) and related Callitrichinae
(Platyrrhini) by cross-species chromosome painting and
comparative genomic hybridization. Cytogenet. Genome
Res. 108(1-3): 191-196.
Pessoa, D. M. A., Cunha, J. E, Tomaz, C. and Pessoa, V.
F. 2005. Colour discrimination in the black-tufted-ear
marmoset ((. .-.'. penicillata): Ecological implications.
Folia Primatol. 76(3): 125-134.
Prescott, M. J., Buchanan-Smith, H. M. and Smith, A. C.
2005. Social interaction with non-averse group-mates


modifies a learned food aversion in single- and mixed-
species groups of tamarins (Saguinus fuscicollis and S.
labiatus). Am. J. Primatol. 65(4): 313-326.
Saltzman, W. andAbbott, D. H. 2005. Diminished maternal
responsiveness during pregnancy in multiparous female
common marmosets. Horm. Behav. 47(2): 151-163.
Schaffner, C. M., Aureli, F and Caine, N. G. 2005.
Following the rules: Why small groups of tamarins do not
reconcile conflicts. Folia Primatol. 76(2): 67-76.
Schaffner, C. M. and Smith, T. E. 2005. Familiarity may
buffer the adverse effects of relocation on marmosets
(C kuhlii): Preliminary evidence. Zoo Biol. 24(1):
93-100.
Schroepel, M. 2005. Weight development of hand-reared
callitrichids (Callitrichidae). Zool. Garten. 75(1): 41-51.
In German.
Silva, M. M. A., Albuquerque, A. M. and Aradijo, J. F. 2005.
Light-dark cycle synchronization of circadian rhythm in
blind primates. J. Circad. Rhythms 3(1): 10.
Smith, A. C., Buchanan-Smith, H. M., Surridge, A. K. and
Mundy, N. I. 2005. Factors affecting group spread within
wild mixed-species troops of saddleback and mustached
tamarins. Int.J. Primatol. 26(2): 337-355.
Stevens, J. R., Hallinan, E. V. and Hauser, M. D. 2005.
The ecology and evolution of patience in two New World
monkeys. Biology Letters 1(2): 223-226.
Sussman, R. W., Garber, P. A. and Cheverud, J. M. 2005.
Importance of cooperation and affiliation in the evolution
of primate sociality. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 128(1):
84-97.
Tagliaro, C. H., Schneider, H., Sampaio, I., Schneider, M.
P. C., Vallinoto, M. and Stanhope, M. 2005. Molecular
phylogeny of the genus Saguinus (Platyrrhini, Primates)
based on the ND1 mitochondrial gene and implications
for conservation. Genet. Molec. Biol. 28(1): 46-53.
Tardif, S. D., Ziegler, T. E., Power, M. and Layne, D. G.
2005. Endocrine changes in full-term pregnancies and
pregnancy loss due to energy restriction in the common
marmoset (( .- .. i J. Clinic. Endocrinol. Metab.
90(1): 335-339.

Cebidae
Agostini, I. and Visalberghi, E. 2005. Social influences
on the acquisition of sex-typical foraging patterns by
juveniles in a group of wild tufted capuchin monkeys
(Cebus nigritus). Am. J. Primatol. 65(4): 335-351.
Akkoy, C. C. and Williams, L. E. 2005. Population
modeling for a captive squirrel monkey colony. Am. J.
Primatol. 65(3): 239-254.
Bicca-Marques, J. C. and Gomes, D. F. 2005. Birth
seasonality of Cebus ,jc//. (Platyrrhini, Cebidae) in
Brazilian zoos along a latitudinal gradient. Am. J. Primatol.
65(2): 141-147.
Cummins-Sebree, S. E. and Fragaszy, D. M. 2005. Choosing
and using tools: Capuchins (Cebus ,cI//La) use a different
metric than tamarins (Saguinus oedipus). J. Comp. Psychol.
119(2): 210-219.





Neotropical Primates 13(1), April 2005


Dubois, M. J., Gerard, J. E and Pontes, E 2005. Spatial
selectivity to manipulate portable objects in wedge-capped
capuchins (Cebus olivaceus). Primates 46(2): 127-133.
Fichtel, C., Perry, S. and Gros-Louis, J. 2005. Alarm calls
of white-faced capuchin monkeys: An acoustic analysis.
Anim. Behav. 70(1): 165-176.
Galloway, A. T., Addessi, E., Fragaszy, D. M. and
Visalberghi, E. 2005. Social facilitation of eating
familiar food in tufted capuchins (Cebus ,'c'//.I): Does it
involve behavioral coordination? Int. J. Primatol. 26(1):
181-189.
Galvao, 0. F., Barros, R. S., Santos, J. R. dos, Brino, A.
L. F, Brandao, S., Lavratti, C. M., Dube, W. V. and
McIlvane, W. J. 2005. Extent and limits of the matching
concept in (., .. A matter of experimental control?
Psychological Record 55(2): 219-232.
Garcia, J. L. et al. 2005. Sero-epidemiological survey for
toxoplasmosis in wild New World monkeys (Cebus spp.;
Alouatta caraya) at the Parand river basin, Parand state,
Brazil. Vet. Parasitol. 133(4): 307-311.
Manson, J. H., Perry, S. and Stahl, D. 2005. Reconciliation
in wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus). Am. J.
Primatol. 65(3): 205-219.
Perry, S. 2005. The Complete Capuchin", by D. M. Fragaszy,
et al. Cambridge, Cambridge Univ. Press, 2004, 339pp.
Int. J. Primatol. 26(2): 507-509. Book review.
Phillips, K. A. and Shauver Goodchild, L. M. 2005.
Reunion displays in captive male brown capuchins (Cebus
aj.c//I). Primates46(2): 121-125.
Rosengart, C. R. and Fragaszy, D. M. 2005. Experience
and materials affect combinatorial construction in tufted
capuchin monkeys (Cebus j,',c//,.). J. Comp. Psychol.
119(2): 166-178.
Ruiz, J. C. 2005. Relative humidity, ambient temperature,
and urine washing behavior in Bolivian squirrel monkeys,
Saimiri boliviensis boliviensis. Prim. Rep. (71): 57-61.
Ruiz-Herrera, A., Garcia, E, Aguilera, M., Garcia, M.
and Ponsa, M. 2005. New polymorphisms in a Cebus
(Platyrrhini, Primates) species: The case of Cebus
nigrivittatus. Caryologia 57(2): 206-209.
Ruiz-Herrera, A., Garcia, E, Giulotto, E., Attolini, C.,
Egozcue, J., Ponsa, M. and Garcia, M. 2005. Evolutionary
breakpoints are co-localized with fragile sites and
intrachromosomal telomeric sequences in primates.
Cytogenet. Genome Res. 108(1-3): 234-247.
Sato, H., Une, Y. and Takada, M. 2005. High incidence
of the gullet worm, Gongylonema pulchrum, in a squirrel
monkey colony in a zoological garden in Japan. Vet.
Parasitol. 127(2): 131-137.
Schmidt, M. 2005. Hind limb proportions and kinematics:
Are small primates different from other small mammals?
J. Exp. Biol. 208(17): 3367-3383.
Schmidt, M. 2005. Quadrupedal locomotion in squirrel
monkeys (Cebidae: Saimiri sciureus): A cineradiographic
study of limb kinematics and related substrate reaction
forces. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 128(2): 359-370.
Soltis, J., Wegner, E H. and Newman, J. D. 2005. Urinary
prolactin is correlated with mothering and allo-mothering
in squirrel monkeys. Physiol. Behav. 84(2): 295-301.


Sullivan, J. S., Bounngaseng, A., Stewart, A., Sullivan, J.
J., Galland, G. G., Henry, E and Collins, W. E. 2005.
Infection of Saimiri boliviensis monkeys with Plasmodium
coatneyi. J. Parasitol. 91(2): 479-481.
Wehncke, E. V. and Dalling, J. W. 2005. Post-dispersal seed
removal and germination of selected tree species dispersed
by Cebus capucinus on Barro Colorado Island, Panama.
Biotropica 37(1): 73-80.

Pitheciidae
Dumas, E, Bigoni, E, Stone, G., Sineo, L. and Stanyon, R.
2005. Mapping genomic rearrangements in titi monkeys
by chromosome flow sorting and multidirectional in situ
hybridization. Chromosome Res. 13(1): 85-96.
Sampaio, D. T. and Ferrari, S. F. 2005. Predation of an
infant titi monkey (( ... .... .i by a tufted capuchin
(Cebus ,ajI/I.). Folia Primatol. 76(2): 113-115.
Veiga, L. 2005. Ecology and social organization of the black
bearded saki (Chiropotes satanas): Potential for its survival
in the context of eastern Amazon habitat fragmentation.
Lab. Prim. Newsl. 44(2): 26-27. In Portuguese.

General
Cherem, J. J. 2005. Registros de mamfferos nao voadores
em estudos de avaliacao ambiental no sul do Brasil.
Biotemas 18(2): 169-202.
Feeley, K. J. and Terborgh, J. W. 2005. The effects of
herbivore density on soil nutrients and tree growth in
tropical forest fragments. Ecology 86(1): 116-124.
Guedes, P. G. and Salles, L. 0. 2005. New insights on the
phylogenetic relationships of the two giant extinct New
World monkeys (Primates, Platyrrhini). Arq. Mus. Nac.,
Rio de Janeiro 63(1): 147-159.
Haugaasen, T. and Peres, C. A. 2005. Mammal assemblage
structure in Amazonian flooded and unflooded forests. J.
Trop. Ecol. 21(2): 133-145.
Hosey, G. R. 2005. How does the zoo environment affect
the behaviour of captive primates? Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.
90(2): 107-129.
Kaumanns, W., Krebs, E., Schwitzer, C. and Singh, M.
2005. Primates in Europe. Zeit. Koelner Zoo 48(2): 85-
96.
Morand, S. and Ricklefs, R. E. 2005. Genome size is not
related to life-history traits in primates. Genome 48(2):
273-278.
Palacios, E. and Peres, C. A. 2005. Primate population
densities in three nutrient-poor Amazonian terra firme
forests of south-eastern Colombia. Folia Primatol. 76(3):
135-145.
Prychitko, T., Johnson, R. M., Wildman, D. E., Gumucio,
D. and Goodman, M. 2005. The phylogenetic history
of New World monkey beta globin reveals a platyrrhine
beta to delta gene conversion in the atelid ancestry. Molec.
.', ',.,- Evol. 35(1): 225-234.
Ray, D. A. et al. 2005. Alu insertion loci and platyrrhine
primate phylogeny. Molec. I', .i .- Evol. 35(1): 117-
126.
Ruiz-Herrera, A., Garcia, F., Mora, L., Egozcue, J., Ponsa,
M. and Garcia, M. 2005. Evolutionary conserved





Neotropical Primates 13(1), April 2005


chromosomal segments in the human karyotype are
bounded by unstable chromosome bands. Cytogenet.
GenomeRes. 108(1-3): 161-174.
Sarringhaus, L. A., McGrew, W. C. and Marchant, L. F.
2005. Misuse of anecdotes in primatology: Lessons from
citation analysis. Am. J. Primatol. 65(3): 283-288.
Schmitz, J., Roos, C. and Zischler, H. 2005. Primate
phylogeny: Molecular evidence from retroposons.
Cytogenet. GenomeRes. 108(1-3): 26-37.
Schmitz, J., Piskurek, 0. and Zischler, H. 2005. Forty
million years of independent evolution: A mitochondrial
gene and its corresponding nuclear pseudogene in
primates. J. Molec. Evol. 61(1): 1-11.
Tejedor, M. F 2005. New fossil platyrrhine from Argentina.
Folia Primatol. 76(3): 146-150.
Thoisy, B. de, Renoux, F and Julliot, C. 2005. Hunting
in northern French Guiana and its impact on primate
communities. Oryx39(2): 149-157.
Vaz, S. M. 2005. Mamfferos colecionados pelo Servigo de
Estudos e Pesquisas sobre a Febre Amarela nos municfpios
de Ilhdus e Buerarema, Estado da Bahia, Brasil. Arq. Mus.
Nac., Rio de Janeiro 63(1): 21-28.
Wienberg, J. 2005. Fluorescence in situ hybridization to
chromosomes as a tool to understand human and primate
genome evolution. Cytogenet. Genome Res. 108(1-3):
139-160.

Chapters
Martin, R. D. and Ross, C. E 2005. The evolutionary and
ecological context of primate vision. In: The Primate
Visual System: A Comparative Approach, J. Kremers (ed.),
pp.1-36. John Wiley, Chichester, UK.
Hunt, D. M., Jacobs, G. H. and Bowmaker, J. K. 2005.
The genetics and evolution of primate visual pig-
ments. In: The Primate Visual System: A Comparative
Approach, J. Kremers (ed.), pp. 73-97. John Wiley,
Chichester, UK.
Osorio, D., Vorobyev, M. and Jacobs, G. H. 2005. The
ecology of the primate eye: Retinal sampling and color
vision. In: The Primate Visual System: A Comparative
Approach, J. Kremers (ed.), pp.99-126. John Wiley,
Chichester, UK.
Silverman, I. and Bevc, I. 2005. Evolutionary origins
and ontogenetic development of incest avoidance. In:
Origins of the Social Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and
Child Development, B. J. Ellis and D. F Bjorklund (eds.),
pp.292-313. Gilford Press, New York.


ABSTRACTS

Almond, R. E. A., Brown, G. R. and Keverne, E. B. 2005.
The effect of lowering prolactin on the expression of
parental care in paternally experienced male common
marmosets (( .- jacchus). Horm. Behav. 48(1): 87.
Almond, R. E. A., Ziegler, T. E. and Snowdon, C. T. 2005.
What switches on pre-partum changes in cortisol and
prolactin in cotton top tamarin fathers: Cues from the
mate or cues from the infants? Horm. Behav. 48(1): 86.


Johnson, L. A. 2005. The behavioral effects of exposure
to free-ranging conditions on golden lion tamarins
(Leontopithecus rosalia rosalia) at the Houston Zoo (Texas).
Masters Abst. 43(2): 500.
Stone, A. 2005. Juvenile feeding ecology and life history in a
neotropical primate, the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus).
Diss. Abst. Int. B66(1): 62.
Wright, B.W. 2005. Ecological distinctions in diet, food
toughness, and masticatory anatomy in a community of
six neotropical primates in Guyana, South America. Diss.
Abst. Int. A66(1): 234.

Selected abstracts from the 5th Meeting of the Spanish
Primatological Society / V Congreso de la Asociaci6n Pri-
matol6gica Espaniola, Valencia, 16-20 September 2003, in
Folia Primatol. 76(1): 45-66, 2005.

Andres, 0., Guallar, B., Bisbal, F., Rocchi, M., Zichler, H.,
Crouau-Roy, B., Sylvainen, A. C., Bruford, M., Doxiadis,
G., Verschoor, E. and Domingo-Roura, X. INPRIMAT:
A research project to boost the molecular biology of
primates in Europe with applications in biomedicine and
conservation, p.46.
Dfas, P. A. D. and Rodriguez-Luna, E. Association patterns
and subgroup formation among mantled howler monkey
males (Alouatta palliata mexicana), p.49.
Bravo-Xicotencatl, M., Escobar-Aliaga, M. and Morales-
Mavil, J. Sexual differences in daily activity patterns
of mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata mexicana)
in patchy habitat in Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico,
p.47.
Crist6bal, J., Escobar, M., Rodrfguez-Luna, E. and Vex, J.
J. 2005. Habitat fragmentation effects on the Alouatta
palliata populations in the Reserva de la Biosfera de Los
Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico, p.48.
Domingo-Balcells, C., Rodriguez-Luna, E., Escobar-Aliaga,
M., Morales-Mivil, J. and Martinez-Morales, M. Social
interactions and dominance hierarchy in a captive group
of mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata mexicana),
p.50.
Escobar-Aliaga, M., Morales-Mavil, J., Canales-Espinosa,
D., Quintana-Morales, P. and Bravo-Xicotencatl, M. Use
of trees by mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata
mexicana) in a forest patch in Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz,
Mexico, p.51.
G6mara-Castafio, A., Rodriguez-Luna, E. and Vex, J. J.
Comparative study of male vocal repertoire of two howler
monkey species, Alouatta palliata and Alouattapigra, in the
states of Tabasco and Veracruz, Mexico, p.52.
Gonzilez-Zamora, A. and Manjuano Rodriguez, S. Use of
habitat by Ateles geofroyi inhabiting small forest fragments
in the southeast of Mexico, p.53.
Martinez-Contreras, J., Martinez-Pepin Lehalleur, I. and
Granier, N. Two conservation efforts: Bolivia and Guinea,
p.58.
Morcillo, A., Sanchez, S., Fidalgo, A., Gil-Burmann, C.
and Pelaez, F The effects of group size on weight loss in
cotton top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) after the birth of
infants, p.59.





Neotropical Primates 13(1), April 2005


Quintana-Morales, P. C., Escobar-Aliaga, M. and Morales-
Mivil, J. E. Home range of howler monkeys (Alouatta
palliata) in a forest patch in Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico,
p. 61.
Ruiz-Herrera, A., Garcia, F., Aguilera, M., Garcia, M. and
Ponsa, M. Heterochromatin polymorphisms in Cebus
nigrivittatus from Venezuela, p.63.
Sanchez-L6pez, S., Vea Bar6, J. and Rodriguez-Luna, E.
Social rehabilitation of spider monkeys (Ateles p..rr ..,
vellerosus) in captivity, pp.63-64.

In: Programa e Livro de Resumos: XI Congresso Brasileiro de
Primatologia, Porto Alegre, 13-18 February, 2005. Edited
by Jdlio CUsar Bicca-Marques. Sociedade Brasileira de
Primatologia (SBPr), Porto Alegre. Authors A-M.

Abbehusen, A., Silva, R. M. L. and Barreto, C. E. Ecologia
alimentar e area de uso do sagiii-da-cara-branca, ( .-'.
..rrn .., (Humboldt, 1812), na Estacao Vera-Cruz, Porto
Seguro BA, p.63.
Agostini, I. and Visalberghi, E. Social influences on juvenile
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Aguiar, L. M., Ludwig, G., Svoboda, W. K., Silva, L. R., Co-
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Aguilar-Cucurachi, M. S., Canales-Espinosa, D. and Garcia-
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monos aulladores (Alouattapalliata mexicana) en diferentes
condiciones ambientales (ambiente deteriorado, cautiverio
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Aguilar-Cucurachi, M. S., Canales-Espinosa, D. and Paez-
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Almeida-Silva, A., Boubli, J. P. and Mendes, S. L. Observa-
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Almeida-Silva, M. A. B., Santos, E., Torres, M. A. N. and
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Alonso, A. C., Cabral, J. N. H., Lokschin, L. X., Marsicano,
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Alves, E C. and Fortes, V. B. Germinacao de sementes de
banana-do-mato, Philodendron .. (Araliaceae), consu-
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Alves, S. L. and Zad, A. S. Comportamento alimentar de
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Alves, S. L. and Zad, A. S. Estimativas populacionais de Alou-
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Interesse Ecol6gico Floresta da Cicuta, RJ, p.68.


Amaral, J. M. J., Jong, D. D. and Sim6es, A. L. Caracte-
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(Cebidae, Primates), baseada em marcadores moleculares
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Amaral, J. M. J., Guerra-Neto, G., Hoppe, E. G. L., An-
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Primates) de vida livre que habitam a Mata Santa Teresa
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Amaral, J. V., Muniz, I. C. M., Avelar, A. A., Harada, M.
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Amaral, J. V., Muniz, I. C. M., Avelar, A. A., Harada, M.
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Amoedo, P. and Abbehusen, A. Influencia das alteraq6es
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Amorim, A. P S., Oliveira, E. M. S., Ruiz-Miranda, C. R.,
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Araudjo, J. F., Mendes, A., Cordeiro, B. and Valentinuzzi, V.
Condicionamento de lugar em sagiiis (C .- jacchus)
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Aradjo, J. F., Mytiz, M. and Matos, A. Sincronizaqao do
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Aradjo, R. M., Sabatini, V. and Ruiz-Miranda, C. R. Anili-
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Aradjo, R. M., Souza, M. B. and Ruiz-Miranda, C. R. Den-
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Aradjo, S. T., Chagas, W. N. and Pissinatti, A. Acidentes
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Azevedo, R. B. and Bicca-Marques, J. C. Posturas de ali-
mentacao e tipos de locomocao em bugios-ruivos (Alouat-
taguariba clamitans) em ambiente natural, p.76.





Neotropical Primates 13(1), April 2005


Baldovino, M. C. Los comportamientos aloparentales en
los monos cai (Cebus .'I//,i) silvestres del Parque Nacional
Iguazd, Argentina, p.55.
Barbosa, M. N. and Mota, M. T. S. Influencia do horario
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Barbosa, M. N. and Mota, M. T. S. Rotina de manejo versus
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Barino, G. T. M., Guerra, M. 0., Peters, V. M. and Aradjo,
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Bernardi, I. P., Miranda, J. M. D., Abreu, K. C. and Passos,
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Bezerra, B. M. and Souto, A. S. Uso preferential das maos
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Bonsenhor, T. P., Hirano, Z. M. B. and Oliveira, D. A. G.
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Boubli, J. P., Tokuda, M., Possamai, C. B., Fidelis, J.,
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Brumana, R. and Brandao, R. S. Padrao de atividade e com-
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Brumana, R. and Brandao, R. S. Percepyqo ambiental uti-
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Cabral, A., Fermoseli, A. F 0., Pereira, T. and Santos, W. F
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Canales-Espinosa, D. and Garcia-Ordufa, F Evaluaci6n de
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Canales-Espinosa, D., Garcia-Ordufa, F, Rodrfguez-Luna,
E., Hermida-Lagunes, J. and Aguilar-Cucurachi, M. S.


Translocaci6n de Alouatta palliata mexicana y Ateles geo-
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propiedades y reserves ecol6gicas privadas, p.83.
Cardoso, N. A. and Santos, B. S. Uso de recursos alimen-
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Carminati, M. 0. E and Setz, E. Z. E Desenvolvimento de
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Carrera-Sanchez, E., Cortes-Ortiz, L., Rodrfguez-Luna, E.
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Carvalho, A. N., Correa, H. K. M., Coutinho, P. E. G. and
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Cassano, C. R., Kierulff, M. C. M., Santos, G. R., Suscke,
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Cassimiro, I. G. Avaliacao do desempenho da mem6ria
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Chiarello, A. G., Melo, F. R., Faria, M. B., Lima, E S., Oli-
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Chiba, R. S., Simon, C. Y., Suganuma, E., Monge-Fuen-
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Codenotti, T. L., Betanin, L., Albuquerque, V. J., Ferrari, L.
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Codenotti, T. L., Betanin, L., Albuquerque, V. J. and Fer-
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Coelho, A. S., Ruiz-Miranda, C. R., Faria, G. V., Lia, C. A.
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Coelho, A. S., Ruiz-Miranda, C. R. and Kleiman, D. G. Es-
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le6es-dourados, Leontopithecus rosalia, selvagens, p.88.
Colombini, F R. X. Efeito do turismo sobre o comporta-
mento alimentar de Cebus nigritus (Primates: Cebidae) no
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Colombini, E R. X., Scoss, L. M. and Melo, E R. Tamanho
do grupo de Cebus nigritus (Primates, Cebidae) na Area
de uso intensive do Parque Estadual do Rio Doce, MG,
p.89.
Costa, C. G., Hirsch, A., Assungao, M. L. and Resende, S.
R. 0. Desenvolvimento urbano x conservagao de fauna:





Neotropical Primates 13(1), April 2005


Um estudo corn popula6oes de guig6s (C ..... nigri-
frons) na regiao metropolitan de Belo Horizonte, Minas
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Costa, G. M., Carvalho, A. F., Lima, A. G., Macanares, C.
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fol6gica das glIndulas cutIneas de cheiro esternais, pdbi-
cas e anais de ( .-' jacchus (cativeiro), p.90.
Costa, M. M., Mauerwerk, M. T., Moura, M. C., Pietro-
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Perfil de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos de Escherichia
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Coutinho, B. R. and Mendes, S. L. Uso do algoritmo GARP
para a criaqao da distribuicao potential de ( .-' geo-
rr .., e .- kuhlii, p.91.
Coutinho, J. V. E, Lima, I. D., Silva, A. M. T., Bonfim, W.
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Cunha, A. A. Estratificaqao vertical do macaco-prego (Cebus
sp.) e do sagiii-de-tufos-brancos ((. .- jacchus) no
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Cunha, M. S. and Sousa, M. B. C. Reatividade ao estresse
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Cunha, M. S. and Sousa, M. B. C. Variaqao dos nfveis de
cortisol plasmitico durante ontognese em C .- jac-
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Cunha, R. G. T. and Byrne, R. W. A functional analysis of
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Cunha, R. G. T. and Byrne, R. W. Functions of the moo
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Dame, D. V. and Souza, C. A. Autoecologia e biologia
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Delgado, A. Descripci6n de los sitios de defecaci6n en
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Dias, L. G., Mendes, C. L., Barbosa, E. E, Moreira, L. S.,
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Dias, L. G., Mendes, C. L., Barbosa, E. E, Moreira, L. S.,
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Domfnguez-Domfnguez, L. E. and Morales-Mavil, J. E.
Germinaci6n de semillas de dos species de Ficus defeca-
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con otras classes de vertebrados, p.97.
Erbesdobler, E. D. and Ruiz-Miranda, C. R. Composihao
qufmico-bromatol6gica e aspects morfol6gicos da dieta


do mico-ledo-dourado (Leontopithecus rosalia Linnaeus)
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Erbesdobler, E. D., Ruiz-Miranda, C. R. and Pissinatti, A.
Consumo e digestibilidade de grilos por Leontopithecus
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Estrada, A. Primates in agroecosystems: Conservation value
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Falotico, T. and Ottoni, E. B. Experimento de escolha de
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Fermoseli, A. E 0., Cabral, A., Tognon, E R., Pereira, T.
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Fernandez, V. A. and Kowalewski, M. M. Who is leading
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Ferraz, D. S., Moreira, L. S. and Melo, F R. Situaqao atual
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Ferreira, R. G. and Izar, P. Grooming as multifunctional
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Ferreira, R. G., Lee, P. and Izar, P. Brown capuchins, coatis
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Ferreira, R. S., Silva, N. S. S. and Souza, E L. Dieta de
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Fortes, V. B., Koch, F, Azevedo, R. B. and Bicca-Marques,
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tortisiliquum (Leguminosae: Mimosoidae), consumidas





Neotropical Primates 13(1), April 2005


pelo bugio-ruivo, Alouatta guariba clamitans (Platyrrhini:
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Garcia-Hernandez, J., Canales-Espinosa, D. and Escobar-
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Gaspar, D. A. Primatas da Regiao Sudeste: Orientando pes-
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Gomes, J. B. 0. and Melo, F R. Estimativa da densida-
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Gongalves, C. S. and Kindel, A. Distribuigao geografica do
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Gordo, M., Calleia, F 0., Moreira, A. L. B. and Leite, J.
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Imobilizagao qufmica de Cebus ,j/,c/a nigritus (Cebidae,
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de macaco-prego-do-peito-amarelo (Cebus xanthosternos)
nos estados de Sergipe, Bahia e Minas Gerais, p.108.
Guimaraes, V. 0., Chaves, P B., Leite, Y. L. R., Fagundes,
V. and Strier, K. B. Testando a validade de filogenia corn
base no comportamento social de primatas neotropicais,
p.109.
Hirano, Z. M. B. and Santos, W. E A cor do pelo de Alou-
atta guariba clamitans, p.109.
Hirano, Z. M. B., Silveira, R. M. M., Oliveira, D. A. G.,
Grippa, C. R., Tortato, E R., Ferreira, E. C., Koehler, E.,
Pereira, E. L. and Baade, R. Doze anos de analise da po-
pulagao de Alouatta guariba clamitans no Morro Geisler,
Indaial / SC, p.1 10.


Hirsch, A. Selegao de areas prioritarias para a conservadao
de primatas em paisagens fragmentados, p.36.
Hirsch, A. and Rylands, A. B. Analise da fragmentacao do
habitat de primatas com base no mapa de cobertura ve-
getal e uso do solo da Bacia do Rio Doce, Minas Gerais,
p.110.
Hirsch, A. and Rylands, A. B. Distribuicao geografica e grau
de ameaga das comunidades de primatas de Minas Gerais,
p.l11.
Ingberman, B. and Monteiro-Filho, E. L. A. Identificaqao
microsc6pica dos pelos das especies brasileiras de Alou-
atta (Lacdpede, 1799) (Primates, Atelidae, Alouattinae),
p.111.
Ingberman, B., Dudeque, C. M., Kasecker, T. P., Monteiro-
Filho, E. L. A. and Passos, F C. Padrao de atividade diurna
de um grupo de bugios (Alouatta guariba) em fragmen-
to de mata com araucaria em Sao Jose dos Pinhais, PR,
p.112.
lurck, M. E F E, Costa, L. C. M., Strier, K. B. and Gomes,
M. L. E Relato do comportamento materno de uma
femea muriqui primipara (Brachyteles arachnoides E. Ge-
offroy, 1806) (Primates, Atelidae), com um filhote morto
durante quatro dias no semi-cativeiro do Passeio Pdblico,
Curitiba, Parana, p.112.
Izar, P and Ferreira, R. G. Socioecologia de macacos-pregos
(Cebus ,,/'/,I) selvagens e aprovisionados: Uma analise
comparative, p.38.
Jardim, M. M. A. A primatologia no sul do Brasil: Situacao
atual, perspectives e prioridades para conservagao, p.60.
Jardim, M. M. A. and Setz, E. Z. E Programa Macacos Ur-
banos: Ecologia populacional de grupos de bugio-ruivos
(Alouatta guariba clamitans) em fragments florestais no
sul do Brasil, p. 113.
Jardim, M. M. A. and Setz, E. Z. F Imigracao de uma femea
adulta de bugio ruivo (Alouatta guariba) em um fragmen-
to florestal no sul do Brasil, p.113.
Jerusalinsky, L., Oliveira, M. M. and Ferreira, J. G. Entre-
vistas para levantamento de dados em pesquisas para con-
servagao de primatas, p.114.
Jerusalinsky, L., Oliveira, M. M., Santana, V., Pereira, R.
E, Sousa, M. C., Bastos, P C. and Ferrari, S. Mapeamen-
to das areas de ocorrencia do guig6, ( .... coimbrai
Kobayashi and Langguth, 1999, em Sergipe Resultados
preliminares, p.1 14.
Kamimura, K. H. and Setz, E. Z. F Alocatagao em grupos
de tries especies de Callitrichidae em cativeiro: Hygiene ou
alianyas, p.115.
Kasecker, T. P., Dudeque, C. M., Ingberman, B., Passos, E
C. and Monteiro-Filho, E. L. A. Formaqao de subgrupos
de bugios (Alouattaguariba, Humboldt, 1919) em floresta
com araucaria: Uma resposta a fragmentacao? p. 115.
Kierulff, M. C. M. Manejo e conservacao de primatas bra-
sileiros, p.47.
Koch, E and Bicca-Marques, J. C. Padrao de atividades e
dieta de Alouatta guariba clamitans: Uma analise sexo-
etaria, p. 116.
Kowaleski, M. M., Peker, S. M. and Zunino, G. E. Promis-
cuous howlers: Extra-group copulation in female Alouatta
caraya in northern Argentina, p. 116.





Neotropical Primates 13(1), April 2005


Langguth, A. and Cavalcanti, G. C. Porque a cara e diferen-
te em cada especie de sagiii? p.117.
Lapenta, M. J. and Proc6pio-de-Oliveira, P. Ambiente de
dispersao de sementes por micos-le6es-dourados (Leon-
topithecus rosalia) na Reserva Biol6gica Uniao, RJ: Uma
abordagem ecol6gica, p. 117.
Lapenta, M. J. and Proc6pio-de-Oliveira, P. Perfodo de ativi-
dade e locals de dormida de micos-le6es-dourados (Leonto-
pithecus rosalia) na Reserva Biol6gica Uniao, RJ, p. 118.
Leigh, S. Life history evolution in New World monkeys,
p.36.
Liesenfeld, M. V. A. Sera o bugio-ruivo (Alouatta guariba)
um eficiente dispersor dos sementes do caquizinho-do-
mato (Diospyros inconstans)? Um estudo in situ, p.118.
Lima, C. A. S., Ruiz-Miranda, C. R., Coelho, A. S., Faria,
G. V., Morais, M. M. and Beck, B. B. Interagoes ecol6-
gicas entire micos-le6es-dourados (Leontopithecus rosalia)
e sagiiis-de-tufo-branco (C .-' jacchus) e tufo-preto
(C .-' penicillata) em fragments de Mata Atlantica,
p.119.
Lima, E. M., Martins, S. S., Castor, P. M., Gongalves, E.
C., Ghilardi, R. and Ferrari, E. E Tecnica de capture,
biometria e ectoparasitas em populagoes fragmentadas de
guaribas-das-maos-ruivas (Alouatta belzebul) em Tucuruf,
Para, Brasil, p.119.
Lima, F S., Martins, C. S. and Valladares-Padua, C. B. Atu-
alizagoes sobre a distribuigao de mico-ledo-preto (Leonto-
pithecus chrysopygus Mikan, 1823) no interior do estado
de Sao Paulo, Brasil, p.120.
Lokschin, L. X., Paim, F P., Cabral, J. N. H., Rossato,
R. S., Setubal, R. B., Alonso, A. C., Silva, F E., Buss,
G. and Romanowski, H. P. Program Macacos Urba-
nos: Ocorrencia e distribuigao do bugio-ruivo (Alouatta
guariba clamitans Cabrera, 1940) em Porto Alegre, R. S.
Etapa 2 Resultados preliminares, p.120.
Lopes, F A. and Lacerda, D. F A influencia do aroma na
escolha alimentar de ( .- jacchus cativos, p.121.
Lopes, F A., Medeiros, R. T. P., Castro, F N. and Santos,
B. G. A. C. L. Diferengas na preferencia alimentar de
machos e femeas da sagiiis cativos (C .- jacchus),
p.121.
Lucena, L. U. and Lima, Y. C. C. Registro da ocorrencia de
guariba Alouatta belzebul ululata Elliot, 1912 (Primates:
Atelidae) no estado do Piauf, p. 122.
Ludwig, G., Aguiar, L. M., Rocha, V. J. and Miranda, J. M.
D. Obtencao e utilizagao de tub&rculos de Manihot escu-
lenta, mandioca, por Cebus nigritus na natureza (Goldfuss,
1809) atraves do ato de cavar, p.64.
Luz, M. S., Vidal, F D., Pissinatti, A. and Burity, C. H. F
Aspectos ultra-sonograficos da gestagao em tries especies
de Leontopithecus, p.122.
Mandujano, S. and Estrada, A. A landscape assessment of
forest fragmentation thresholds and probability of occu-
pation of forest fragments by howler monkeys (Alouatta
palliata) in Los Tuxtlas, Mexico, p.51.
Marsh, L. K. Making conservation count: Primates, frag-
mentation, and the future, p.33.
Martins, A. E, Beck, B. B., Castro, M. I., Rambaldi, D.
M., Dietz, J. M., Kleiman, D. G. and Rettberg-Beck, B.


Causas de perdas de micos-le6es-dourados (Leontopithecus
rosalia) reintroduzidos e seus descendentes, p.123.
Martins, C. S. and Valladares-Padua, C. B. Program de
manejo integrado do mico-ledo-preto (Leontopithecus chry-
sopygus), p.48.
Martins, C. S., Valladares-Padua, C. B. and Paranhos, K.
M. Monitoramento do uso do espago em dois grupos de
mico-ledo-preto (Leontopithecus chrysopygus) translocados,
p.123.
Martins, S. S., Silva Jr., J. S., Lima, E. M. and Santos, R.
R. Primatas da Estagao Cientifica Ferreira Penna, Floresta
Nacional de Caxiuana, Para, p.124.
Martins, W. P., Peixoto, E. L. and Rylands, A. B. Projeto
Robustus: Resultados preliminares sobre a distribuigao
geografica do macaco-prego-de-crista (Cebus robustus) em
Minas Gerais, p.124.
Matias, H. G., Roveda, A. L., Arins, E 0., Costa, E. L.,
Dornelles, S. S. and Melo Jr., J. C. Dieta de Alouatta gua-
riba clamitans, Cabrera (1940) (Primates, Atelidae), em
um fragmento de floresta Atlantica em Sao Francisco do
Sul, SC, p.125.
Medeiros, L. N. and Castro, C. S. S. Substituigao de indivi-
duos reprodutores em grupos de sagiiis (C .- jacchus)
em ambiente natural, p. 125.
Melo, F R. and Rylands, A. B. Primatas e areas prioritArias
para a conservagao da biodiversidade do vale do Rio Jequi-
tinhonha, Minas Gerais, p.126.
Melo, E R., Cosenza, B. P., Ferraz, D. S., Souza, S. L. E,
Nery, M. S. and Rocha, M. J. R. Declfnio de uma po-
pulacao de Brachyteles hypoxanthus (Atelidae: Primates) na
Fazenda Esmeralda, Rio Casca, Minas Gerais, p.126.
Melo, L. C. P., Monteiro-da-Cruz, M. A. 0., Souto, A.,
Randal, K., Xavier, H. and Pimentel, R. Metab61litos se-
cundArios e a selegao da dieta gomfvera em sagiiis-comuns
em ambiente selvagem, p. 127.
Melo, S. B. F and Mota, M. T. S. Esforgo fisico do compor-
tamento de carregar versus nfveis plasmAticos de prolactina
em machos de sagiiis, (C .- jacchus, cativos, p.127.
Mendes, C. L. S. and Melo, E R. Novos registros do sagiii-
da-serra ((C .- flaviceps) nos municipios de Manhua-
ju, Manhumirim e Simonesia, Minas Gerais, p.128.
Mendes, F D. C., Ottoni, E. B., Izar, P. and Rimoli, J.
Adaptabilidade em Cebus ',,'//,i, p.39.
Mendes, F D. C., Rocha, S. A. A., Balestra, R., Guima-
raes, Z. E S. and Portela, R. C. Padres comportamentais
de Cebus j,r,//,1 libidinosus em fragments de matas urba-
nas: Adaptabilidade, problems de convivencia e manejo,
p.39.
Mendes-Pontes, A. R. A dimensao da extingao local e re-
gional de primatas no centro de endemismo Pernambuco,
p.60.
Mendes-Pontes, A. R., Jordani, R. A., Rosas-Ribeiro, P. E,
Normande, I. C., Fernandes, A. C. A. and Soares, M. L.
Adaptive responses of common marmosets, ( .-' jac-
chus, to the fragmented landscape of the Pernambuco En-
demism Centre, p.128.
Mendes, S. L., Fagundes, V., Paula, A., Moiana, D. and An-
gonesi, P. 0 Projeto Muriqui no estado do Espfrito Santo,
p.42.





Neotropical Primates 13(1), April 2005


Mendes, S. L., Carmos, L. P., Santos, R. R. and Mangini, P.
Manejo populacional de muriquis: Solucao ou problema?
p.48.
Menezes, A. R. E. A. N. and Bonvicino, C. R. Estudos po-
pulacionais e filogeneticas em popula6oes do genero Aotus
(Primates), p.129.
Menezes, M. 0. T. Influencia da urbanizacao sobre uma
populagao de ( .-'. jacchus (Linnaeus, 1758) de vida
livre no PICI (UFC), Fortaleza, Ceara, p.129.
Menezes, M. 0. T. 0 uso de palmeiras Phoenix sp. (Areca-
ceae) como local de descanso e pernoite por um grupo de
( .-.'. jacchus (Linnaeus, 1758) de vida livre em am-
biente urbanizado, p. 130.
Messias, M. R., Gomes, I. B. S. R., Oliveira, M. A., Silva,
C. L., Marquez, D. T., Aradjo, G. P. and Afonso, I. Am-
pliacao da distribuigao geografica no estado de Rondonia
e aspects ecol6gicos de ( .-'. nigriceps-sagiii-de-
cabega-preta, p. 130.
Messias, M. R., Oliveira, M. A., Nascimento, M. C.,
Amorim, T. M., Ferronato, M. L. and Bonavigo, P. H. Co-
munidade singular de primatas do alto rio Madeira: Novas
formas do genero Saguinus e expansao da distribuicao ge-
ogrfica de (,.. pygmaea (mico-leaozinho) e Callimico
goeldii (macaco de Goeldi), p. 131.
Mikich, S. B. 0 macaco-prego, Cebus ,',c'//, nigritus, em
fragments da floresta estacional semidecidual do estado
do Parana, Brasil: Super-populagao e implicac6es para a
conserva(go dos remanescentes florestais, p.51.
Mikich, S. B. Danos causados por macaco-prego, Cebus
,j',c'//, nigritus, a plantios de Pinusspp. e lavouras de milho
no estado do Parana, Brasil: Avaliacao e propostas de
manejo, p.57.
Mikich, S. B., Dal'Maso, A. and Liebsch, D. Avaliacao da
populacao do macaco-prego, Cebus j,ll.,t nigritus, em
remanescentes da Floresta Ombr6fila Mista e em plan-
tios comerciais de Pinus spp. e sua relagao com os danos
causados a esta cultural na regiao centro-sul do Estado do
Parand, p. 131.
Miranda, J. M. D. and Passos, F C. Composigao e dinamica
de grupos de Alouatta guariba clamitans (Primates, Ateli-
dae) em um remanescente de Floresta Ombr6fila Mista no
Estado do Parana, sul do Brasil, p.132.
Miranda, J. M. D., Bernardi, I. P., Moro-Rios, R. F, Aguiar,
L. M., Ludwig, G. and Passos, F C. A respeito da estrutura
e hierarquia social de Alouatta guariba clamitans: B possi-
vel um grupo ser matriarchal, p. 132.
Montano, D. B., Prates, H. M. and Bicca-Marques, J. C.
Comportamento social em dois grupos de Cebus .j./ll em
cativeiro, p.133.
Morales-Mavil, J. E. and Sanchez-Marin, M. L. Comparaci-
6n de la germinaci6n de semillas de Spondias mombin con-
sumidas por el mono araia (Ateles ...rr.. el tucan (Ram-
phastos sulfuratus) e la iguana (Iguana iguana), p.133.
Morals Jr., M. M. Saguis do genero (C .-'- Especies inva-
soras no norte do estado do Rio de Janeiro, p.57.
Moreira, L. S., Barbosa, E. F, Alvim, T. G., Dias, L. G. and
Melo, E R. Utilizacao de Eucalyptus grandis por muriquis-
do-norte (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) no Parque Estadual
Serra do Brigadeiro, Minas Gerais, p.134.


Moro-Rios, R. F, Bernardi, I. P., Miranda, J. M. D. and
Passos, E C. Acerca do comportamento de beber agua em
Alouatta guariba clamitans em ambiente de Floresta com
Araucaria, Balsa Nova, PR, Brasil, p.134.
Mourth&, I. M. C., Boubli, J. P., Tokuda, M. and Strier, K.
B. Free-ranging muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) water
drinking behavior at RPPN Feliciano Miguel Abdala, a
semideciduous forest fragment, p.135.
Mourth&, I. M. C., Boubli, J. P, Couto-Santos, F R. and
Strier, K. B. The influence of food patch allometry on
free-ranging northern muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus)
in an Atlantic forest fragment, p.135.
Mota, M. T. S. Modulagao hormonal do comportamento
de cuidado a prole em calitriquideos, p.55.
Muhle, C. B. and Bicca-Marques, J. C. Comportamento
de termorregulagao em bugios-ruivos (Alouatta guariba
clamitans- Primates, Atelidae) no Parque Zool6gico de
Sapucaia do Sul, RS, p.136.








2005

2005 Meeting of the Mexican Society of Primatologists,
4-7 May 2005, Instituto de Ecologfa, Xalapa, Veracruz,
Mexico. For information: Juan Carlos Serio Silva, Presi-
dente, Asociaci6n Mexicana de Primatologfa AC, Depar-
tamento de Biodiversidad y Ecologfa Animal, Instituto de
Ecologfa AC, km 2.5 antigua carretera a Coatepec, No.
351 congregaci6n El Haya, CP 91070, Apartado Postal 63,
Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico, Tel: +52 (228) 8 42 18 00 ext.
4109/4110 (Fax: ext. 4111), e-mail: edu.mx>.

Fourth Annual Callitrichid Behavioral Husbandry and
Management Workshop, 21-22 May 2005, Washing-
ton, DC, USA. The Callitrichid Behavioral Husbandry
and Management Workshop will be presented by the
Cotton-top Tamarin SSP and hosted by the US Na-
tional Zoo in Washington, DC. For more information,
see the Workshop's website at edu/ConservationAndScience/EndangeredSpecies/
GLTProgram/CallitrichidWorkshop/default.cfm>.

19th Annual Meeting of the Society for Conservation
Biology, 15-19 July 2005, Universidade de Brasilia, Bra-
sflia, Brazil. Theme: "Conservation Biology: Capacitation
and Practice in a Globalized World." The chair is Miguel
Marini, Zoology Department, Universidade de Brasi-
lia. Contact: SCB 2005 Local Organizing Committee,
Departamento de Zoologia, IB, Universidade de Brasi-
lia, 70910-900 Brasflia, DF, Brasil, telefax: +55 61 307-
3366, e-mail: <2005@conbio.org>, website: conservationbiology.org/2005 >.





Neotropical Primates 13(1), April 2005


Association of Tropical Biology and Conservation 2005
Annual Meeting, 23-29 July 2005, Uberlandia, Brazil. The
venue will be the Uberlandia Convention Center. For more
information write to the Chair of the Organizing Commit-
tee, Kleber del-Claro, Laborat6rio de Ecologia Comporta-
mental e Interacoes, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia,
Caixa Postal 593, Uberlandia 38400-902, Minas Gerais,
Brazil, e-mail or ufu.br>.

IX International Mammalogical Congress, 31 July-5
August 2005, Sapporo, Japan. Organizing Committee:
MAMMAL2005, c/o Field Science Center, Hokkaido
University, N11 W10, Sapporo 060-0811, Japan, e-mail:
, website: www.imc9.jp>.

1t Congress of the European Federation of Primatology,
9-12 August 2005, Gbttingen, Germany. The Congress
will be hosted by the German Society for Primatology (GfP)
at the German Primate Centre (DPZ), University of Gat-
tingen. It will coincide with the 9h Congress of the German
Society. European students and researchers working on all
aspects of primatology are invited to attend. Registration is
from 1 November 2004 to 30 March 2005. For more infor-
mation contact Peter M. Kappeler, President EFP, German
Primate Center (DPZ), Abteiling Verhaltensforschung &
Okologie, Kellnerweg 4, D-37077 G6ttingen, Germa-
ny, e-mail: , website: gf-primatologie.de/EFP2005/index.htm>.

28th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Prima-
tologists, 17-20 August 2005, Portland, Oregon. The
meeting will be held at the Benson Hotel and hosted by
the Oregon National Primate Research Center. A call for
abstracts and the meeting announcement will be sent elec-
tronically to all ASP members in mid-December 2004.
Deadline for proposals for symposia, roundtables, or work-
shops is 17 January 2005. Deadline for abstracts for contrib-
uted papers, symposia speakers, workshops, and roundtable
discussions is 14 February 2005. If a paper version of the
meeting announcement is preferred, please contact Larry
Williams, Program Co-Chair, Tel: +1 251-460-6293, Fax:
+1 251-460-6286, e-mail: . For
more information, please contact Dr. Kristine Coleman,
chair of the local organizing committee of the ONPRC at
.

29th International Ethological Conference, 20-27 August
2005, Budapest, Hungary. For more information, write
to IEC2005, Department of Ethology, Ebtvis University,
1117 Budapest, Hungary, or subscribe to the e-mail news-
letter at .

COHAB 2005: First International Conference on Health
and Biodiversity, 23-25 August 2005, Galway, Ireland. This
important global event will provide an international forum
for scientists, professionals, policymakers, and stakeholders
to address the issues linking environmental health, human


health, biological diversity, and international develop-
ment. Full details of the conference may be found at http://
www.cohab2005.com. Enquiries should be directed
to Conor Kretsch, COHAB Director, e-mail: cohab2005.com>.

Measuring Behavior 2005 5th International Conference
on Methods and Techniques in Behavioral Research, 30
August 2 September 2005, Wageningen, The Nether-
lands. Measuring Behavior will offer an attractive mix of
presentations, demonstrations, discussions, meetings, and
much more (see gram/index.html> for details). Proceedings of the 2002
meeting are available at mb2002/index.html>. Deadline for proposals of symposia
and SIGs is 1 December 2004. For more information, con-
tact Prof. Dr. Louise E. M. Vet, Program Chair, Measuring
Behavior 2005, Conference Secretariat, P.EO. Box 268, 6700
AG Wageningen, The Netherlands, Tel: +31-317-497677,
Fax: +31-317-424496, e-mail: ,
website: .

Sixth Meeting of the Asociaci6n Primatol6gica Espaniola,
27-30 September 2005, Facultad de Psicologfa, Universi-
dad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain. Sponsored by
the Asociaci6n Primatol6gica Espafiola (A.P.E.), this Meet-
ing will focus on the themes of Child Ethology, Conserva-
tion, Great Apes and Humans: Similarities and Differences,
and Tool Use. For more information please see the website
at or contact Dr. Fernan-
do Colmenares () or Dra. Maria
Victoria Hernandez-Lloreda ().

2005 Annual Meeting of the Conservation Breeding
Specialist Group, 29 September 1 October 2005, Syr-
acuse, New York, USA. Regional network meetings will
take place on Tuesday, 27 September, and a Steering Com-
mittee meeting will take place on Wednesday, 28 Septem-
ber. Accommodations are at the Genesee Grande Hotel
(http://www.geneseegrande.com), which offers a vari-
ety of rooms and rates. The deadline for registration is 1
August 2005; for more information, email a request to
<2005cbsg@cbsg.org> or visit their website at www.cbsg.org>.

New World Primate Workshop (A Focus on Cebids), 30
September 1 October, 2005, Cleveland, Ohio, USA. The
Cleveland Metroparks Zoo announces a workshop on New
World Primates that will focus on the captive care of Cebids
in U.S. institutions. Informal roundtable discussions will in-
clude the following topics: diet and health, social groups and
mixed species, enrichment and training behaviors, and popu-
lation management. The workshop will begin at 10 a.m. on
Friday, 30 September, and end at 4 p.m. on Saturday, 1 Oc-
tober. Attendance is limited to 50 people and registrants will
be asked to complete a pre-meeting survey regarding their
experiences with Cebids. The workshop will be held on the
zoo grounds. Some meals will be provided and local lodging
suggestions are available. Registration fee is $25. For more





Neotropical Primates 13(1), April 2005


information and a registration form, contact Tad Schoffher at
216-635-3332 or .

8th World Wilderness Congress, 30 September- 6 October,
2005, Anchorage, Alaska, USA. Over a thousand delegates
from dozens of nations will attend the Eighth WWC, with
additional events in Kamchatka and the Russian Far East.
The WWC convenes every three to four years, with the
theme of this year's Congress being "Wilderness, Wildlands
and People-A Partnership for the Planet." This Congress
will generate accurate, up-to-date information on the ben-
efits of wilderness and wildlands to both contemporary
and traditional societies and will examine the best models
for balancing wilderness and wildlands conservation with
human needs. For more information, see the Congress
website at .

60th World Association of Zoos and Aquariums Annual
Conference, 2-6 October 2005, New York, New York,
USA. The 60' WAZA Annual Conference will be hosted by
the Wildlife Conservation Society and held at the Marriott
Marquis hotel. The theme of the meeting will be "Wildlife
Conservation: A Global Imperative for Zoos and Aquari-
ums." Additional information will be made available on the
conference website at .

III Congresso Brasileiro de Mastozoologia, 12 a 16 de ou-
tubro de 2005, realizado pela Sociedade Brasileira de Mas-
tozoologia (SBMz) e a Universidade Federal do Espfrito
Santo (UFES), no SESC Praia Formosa em Aracruz, Espf-
rito Santo. 0 event reunira pesquisadores, profissionais e
estudantes com o objetivo de apresentar, analisar e discutir
trabalhos cientificos, descobertas e tendencias no estudo dos
mamfferos. 0 tema dessa edicao e "Diversidade e Conserva-
cao de Mamfferos," que sera abordado sob diversos aspects
durante o event, que contara com a participacao de espe-
cialistas ligados a instituio6es de ensino e pesquisa nacionais
e estrangeiras, bem como outros profissionais que atuam em
6rgaos governamentais, na iniciativa privada e em organiza-
o6es nao-governamentais. Somente serao aceitas inscrio6es
pela internet. Podera ser realizada a inscrigao online do con-
gresso ate o dia 31 de maio, e o envio dos resumes podem
ser feitos ate o dia 30 de junho de 2005. Mais informac6es:
.

Counting Critters: Estimating Animal Abundance and
Distance Sampling, 17-21 October 2005, Disney's Animal
Kingdom, Orlando, Florida, USA. This five-day workshop
will introduce participants to the most important methods
of estimating animal abundance in a rigorous but acces-
sible way. For more details, please see st-and.ac.uk/counting.critters/> or contact Rhona Rodger,
Workshop Organizer, CREEM, University of St Andrews,
The Observatory, St Andrews, Scotland KY16 9LZ, tel: +44
1334 461842, fax: +44 1334 461800, e-mail: st-and.ac.uk>.

Primer Congreso Colombiano de Primatologia, Asocia-
ci6n Colombiana de Primatologfa, del 2 al 4 noviembre de


2005, Bogota, Colombia. El Primer Congreso Colombiano
de Primatologfa tendra tres Areas Tematicas para la presen-
taci6n de los trabajos: Biologiay Ecologia- studios en cien-
cias bAsicas que incluyen morfologfa, taxonomfa, sistemAti-
ca, gen&tica, biologfa molecular, evoluci6n, biodiversidad,
comportamiento y ecologf a; Medicina studios en anato-
mfa, fisiologfa, medicine, clinic, patologfa, epidemiologfa,
nutrici6n, y restricci6n de primates; y Conservacidny Manejo
(in situ / ex situ) investigaci6n aplicada y gesti6n multidis-
ciplinaria, herramientas conceptuales y tecnicas dirigidas a
la conservaci6n, uso y aprovechamiento, trabajo comuni-
tario, comercio, mantenimiento en cautiverio, reproduc-
ci6n, tecnicas de capture, manipulaci6n, registro y marcaje,
enriquecimiento ambiental, rehabilitaci6n, disposici6n de
primates decomisados, normatividad y legislaci6n. La po-
nencia debe incluir informaci6n nueva, se pueden enviar
resdmenes de temas presentados en reuniones anteriores
pero su aporte al Congreso debe ser clave, general discusi6n
constructive o representar temas emergentes. Para mayor
informaci6n del Congreso, puede visitar la siguiente pAgina
web: , o en
el correo electr6nico .

Primate Society of Great Britain (PSGB), Winter Meet-
ing 2005, 9 December 2005. Flett Theatre, The Natural
History Museum, London. The theme is "Primate Evo-
lution and the Environment." Guest speakers include R.
D. Martin (The Field Museum, Chicago), Erik Seiffert
(Oxford University), Peter Andrews (The Natural History
Museum), Jussi Eronen and Mikael Fortelius (University of
Helsinki), Susan Ant6n (New York University), Sarah Elton
(University of Hull), Christophe Soligo (The Natural His-
tory Museum), Jonathan Kingdon (Oxford University), Urs
Thalmann (University of Zirich) and Laurie Godfrey (Uni-
versity of Massachusetts). Organised by: Christophe Soligo,
The Natural History Museum, e-mail: ac.uk>. See website: Winter2005.html>.

VGdttinger Freilandtage "Primate Diversity- Past, Present
and Future," 13-16 December 2005. University of Gbttin-
gen and German Primate Center, Gbttingen, Germany. Or-
ganized by Peter M. Kappeler. Confirmed invited speakers:
Diversity in the Past- Extinct primate communities John
F1, Ji, (State University of New York, Stony Brook). Di-
versity Today: Diversity of Malagasy primates Anne Yoder
(Yale University); Diversity ofAmerican primates -Anthony
B. Rylands (Conservation International); Diversity of Asian
primates Jatna Supriatna (Conservation International
Indonesia); Diversity of African primates John F Oates
(Hunter College New York); Primate biogeography- Shawn
Lehman (University of Toronto); Speciation and taxonomy
- Colin P. Groves (Australian National University); Human
diversity- Mark Stoneking (Max Planck Institute, Leipzig).
Preserving Diversity for Tomorrow: Diversity and conserva-
tion hotspots Russell A. Mittermeier (Conservation In-
ternational); Extinction biology Carlos Peres (University
of East Anglia); Conservation genetics George Amato
(Wildlife Conservation Society); Conservation genetics





Neotropical Primates 13(1), April 2005


- Michael Bruford (Cardiff University); Reintroductions
- Carel P. van Schaik (University of Zarich). Comparative
Perspectives: Speciation in birds -Trevor Price (University of
Chicago); Bird taxonomy and conservation Robert Zink
(University of Minnesota). Contact: Prof. Dr. Peter M.
Kappeler, Deutsches Primatenzentrum (DPZ), Kellnerweg
4, D-37077 Gbttingen, Tel/Fax: +49-551-3851-284/291,
e-mail: , website: gwdg.de/sociobiology/GFT2005/index.htm>.

2006

Ecology in an Era of Globalization: Challenges and Op-
portunities for Environmental Scientists in the Ameri-
cas, 8-12 January 2006, Merida, Mexico. This conference
will be held at the Fiesta Americana Hotel in Merida and
is co-hosted by the Universidad Aut6noma de Yucatan
and the Centro de Investigaciones Cientfficas de Yucatan.
Abstracts should address one of the meeting's three sub-
themes: invasive species, human migration, and produc-
tion. The invasive species subtheme includes such topics
as dispersal of invasive plant and animal species, emerging
diseases, and resistance of local ecosystems to invasive spe-
cies and disease. The human migration subtheme includes
the environmental effects of international and local emi-
gration and immigration on recipient and source areas.
Potential topics include infrastructure development needs
and impacts, effects on land cover, and land-use impacts.
The production subtheme focuses on ecosystem transfor-
mations, including land-use change required to produce
goods and services for human use. Potential topics include
the effects of changes in forest and agricultural policy on
economies, biodiversity, and ecosystems throughout the
Americas, in terrestrial, marine, and freshwater systems.
We particularly welcome reports of projects that are inter-
disciplinary and that consider the need to communicate
with broad audiences. For more information or to submit
an abstract, visit . Deadline
for abstract submissions: 16 September 2005.

75th Annual Meeting of the American Association for
Physical Anthropology, 5-12 March 2006, Anchorage,
Alaska, USA. For program information, please contact
the Program Chair, Lyle W. Konigsberg, Department of
Anthropology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN
37996-0720, USA, Tel: (865) 974-4408, fax: (865) 974-
2686, e-mail . Local Arrangements
Committee Chair: Christine Hanson, Department of An-
thropology, University of Alaska Anchorage, Anchorage,
AK 99508, USA, tel: 907-786-6839, fax: 907-786-6850,
e-mail . Website at physanth.org/annmeet>.

Primate Society of Great Britain (PSGB), Spring Meeting
2006, 27-28 March 2006, University of Stirling, Stirling,
Scotland. The theme is "Primate Mentality and Wellbe-
ing." On the afternoon of 27 March invited speakers will
address the relationship between cognition and welfare in
primates. Other topics are welcomed for posters and oral


sessions. There will be a prize for the best postgraduate
presentation and poster. A provisional programme and
instructions for presenters can be found on the meeting
website at: PSGB2006.php>. For more information please contact:
Dr Sarah Vick (PSGB), Psychology Department, Univer-
sity of Stirling, FK9 4LA, Scotland. E-mail address for
enquiries: .

21st Congress of the International Primatological Society,
25-30 June 2006, Imperial Resort Beach Hotel, Enteb-
be, Uganda. Theme: "Primate Conservation in Action."
Preliminary contact details: Dr. William Olupot, Chair,
Organizing Committee, IPS 2006 Congress, P. 0. Box
21669, Kampala, Uganda, Tel: 077598134, 077947397,
041501020, e-mail .

29th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Prima-
tologists (ASP), 16-19 August 2006, San Antonio, Texas.
Sponsored by Southwest National Primate Research
Center. Tentative deadline dates are 5 December 2005 to
notify program chair of intent to offer a symposium or
workshop; 9 January 2006 to send symposia and work-
shop abstracts with confirmed list of participants to pro-
gram chair; and 6 February 2006 for all final abstracts for
symposia, oral, and poster presenters. See the ASP website
for updates and further information: org/meetings/index.html>.

1t European Congress of Conservation Biology, 22-26
August 2006, Eger, Hungary. The European Section of the
Society for Conservation Biology is determined to pro-
mote the development and use of science for the conserva-
tion of European species and ecosystems, and to make sure
that conservation policy is firmly underpinned by the best
available scientific evidence. This keystone congress will
bring together a wide array of academics, policymakers,
students, NGO representatives, and biodiversity managers
from throughout Europe and beyond. For more informa-
tion, see the Congress website at org> or contact Andras Baldi, Chair of the Local Organis-
ing Committee, at .











Scope

The journal/newsletter aims to provide a basis for conservation
information relating to the primates of the Neotropics. We
welcome texts on any aspect of primate conservation, including
articles, thesis abstracts, news items, recent events, recent publica-
tions, primatological society information and suchlike.

Submissions

Please send all English and Portuguese contributions to:
John M. Aguiar, Conservation International, Center for Applied
Biodiversity Science, 1919 M St. NW, Suite 600, Washington,
DC 20036, Tel: 202 912-1000, Fax: 202 912-0772, e-mail:
, and all Spanish contributions to:
Ernesto Rodrfguez-Luna, Instituto de Neuroetologfa, Universi-
dad Veracruzana, Apartado Postal 566, Xalapa 91000, Veracruz,
Mexico, Tel: 281 8-77-30, Fax: 281 8-77-30, 8-63-52, e-mail:
.

Contributions

Manuscripts may be in English, Spanish or Portuguese, and should
be double-spaced and accompanied by the text on diskette for
PC compatible text-editors (MS-Word, WordPerfect, Excel, and
Access), and/or e-mailed to (English,
Portuguese) or (Spanish). Hard
copies should be supplied for all figures (illustrations and maps)
and tables. The full name and address for each author should be
included. Please avoid abbreviations and acronyms without the
name in full. Authors whose first language is not English should
please have texts carefully reviewed by a native English speaker.

Articles. Each issue of Neotropical Primates will include up to
three full articles, limited to the following topics: Taxonomy,
Systematics, Genetics (when relevant for systematics), Biogeogra-
phy, Ecology and Conservation. Texts for full articles should not
exceed about 20 pages in length (1.5 spaced, and including the
references). Please include an abstract in English, and (optional)
one in Portuguese or Spanish. Tables and illustrations should be
limited to six, excepting only the cases where they are fundamental
for the text (as in species descriptions, for example). Full articles
will be sent out for peer-review.

Short articles. These are usually reviewed only by the editors.
A broader range of topics is encouraged, including such as
behavioral research, in the interests of informing on general
research activities which contribute to our understanding of
platyrrhines. We encourage reports on projects and conservation
and research programs (who, what, where, when, why, etc.) and
most particularly information on geographical distributions,
locality records, and protected areas and the primates which
occur in them. Texts should not exceed 10 pages in length
(1.5 spaced, including the references).


Figures and maps. Articles may include small black-and-white
photographs, high-quality figures, and high-quality maps and
tables. Please keep these to a minimum. We stress the importance
of providing maps which are publishable.

News items. Please send us information on projects, field sites,
courses, recent publications, awards, events, activities of Primate
Societies, etc.

References. Examples of house style may be found throughout this
journal. Please refer to these examples when listing references:

Journal article
Stallings, J. D. and Mittermeier, R. A. 1983. The black-tailed
marmoset (C( .- argentata melanura) recorded from Paraguay.
Am. J. Primatol. 4: 159-163.

Chapter in book
Brockelman, W. Y. and All, R. 1987. Methods of surveying and
sampling forest primate populations. In: Primate Conservation
in the Tropical Rain Forest, C. W. Marsh and R. A. Mittermeier
(eds.), pp. 23-62. Alan R. Liss, New York.

Book
Napier, P. H. 1976. Catalogue of Primates in the British Museum
(.'. .- History). Part 1: Families Callitrichidae and Cebidae.
British Museum (Natural History), London.

Thesis/Dissertation
Wallace, R. B. 1998. The behavioral ecology of black spider
monkeys in north-eastern Bolivia. Doctoral thesis, University of
Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.

Report
Muckenhirn, N. A., Mortensen, B. K., Vessey, S., Fraser,
C. E. 0. and Singh, B. 1975. Report on a primate survey in
Guyana. Unpublished report, Pan American Health Organization,
Washington, DC.




Neotropical Primates is produced in collaboration
with Conservation International, Center for Applied
Biodiversity Science, 1919 M St. NW, Suite 600,
Washington, DC 20036, USA.





Printed on New Leaf Reincarnation Matte 80# cover (100% recycled/50% post-
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Neotropical Primates
A Journal and Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group
Vol. 13(1), April 2005


Contents

Short Articles

Deslocamento Terrestre e o Comportamento de Beber em Urn Grupo de Barbados (Alouatta guariba clamitans
Cabrera, 1940) em Minas Gerais, Brasil
Bdrbara Almeida-Silva, Patricia G. Guedes, Jean P Boubli e Karen B. Strier..................................................................................... 1
Discriminative Feeding on Legumes by Mantled Howler Monkeys (Alouatta palliata) May Select for Persistence
Clara B. Jones............................................ ................................... ............... ........ .......... .................. ..3
Getting the Hang of It: Age Differences in Tail-Use by Mantled Howling Monkeys (Alouatta palliata)
Samantha M. Russak..................................................................................................... 5
Predation of a Bearded Saki (Chiropotes utahicki) by a Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja)
Simone de Souza Martins, Eldianne Moreira de Lima e Jose de Sousa e Silva Jr.................................................................................. 7
The Near Extinction of a Population of Northern Muriquis (Brachyteles ii,,p .i.-l '.' in Minas Gerais, Brazil
Fabiano R. de Melo, Braz A. P Cosenza, Daniel S. Ferraz, Silvia L. E Souza
M arcello S. N ery and M aria J. R R ocha............................................................................................................. .......................... 10
Limites Climiticos e Vegetacionais das Distribuio6es de Cebus nigritus e Cebus robustus (Cebinae, Platyrrhini)
Rita Vilanova, Jose de Sousa e Silva Jfnior, Carlos Eduardo Viveiros Grelle, Gabriel Marroig e Rui Cerqueira................................... 14
Structure and Composition of Wild Black Howler Troops (Alouatta caraya) in Gallery Forests of the
Argentinean Chaco
Cecilia Paolajudrez, Rachel Dvoskin and Eduardo Ferndndez-Duque.......................................................................................... 19
The Parasite Behavior Hypothesis and the Use of Sleeping Sites by Black Howler Monkeys (Alouatta caraya) in
a Discontinuous Forest
M martin Kowalewski and Gabriel E. Zunino................................. ............................................................... .................... 22

N ew s ......................... ........................ ... ..................................... ............... ..... ........................................................................ 2 6

P rim ate S o cities ........................................................................................................................................................................ 34

R recent Publications........................................ ............................. .........................................35

M eetin g s ............................. ................................................................. ....................................................................................... 45




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