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Title: Neotropical primates
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 Material Information
Title: Neotropical primates a newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCNSSC Primate Specialist Group
Abbreviated Title: Neotrop. primates
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
Conservation International
Center for Applied Biodiversity Science
Publisher: Conservation International
Place of Publication: Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Publication Date: April 2004
Frequency: quarterly
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Primates -- Periodicals -- Latin America   ( lcsh )
Primates -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Wildlife conservation -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: review   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Brazil
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Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Language: English, Portuguese, and Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Mar. 1993)-
Issuing Body: Issued jointly with Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, <Dec. 2004->
General Note: Published in Washington, D.C., Dec. 1999-Apr. 2005 , Arlington, VA, Aug. 2005-
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 13, no. 1 (Apr. 2005).
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098814
Volume ID: VID00045
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28561619
lccn - 96648813
issn - 1413-4705

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Main
        Page 1
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        Page 3
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    Back Matter
        Back Matter
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text
ISSN 1413-4703


NEOTROPICAL


'34 PRIMATES


A Journal of the Neotropical Section of the
e IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group


Volume
Number
April


1
2004


Editors
Anthony B. Rylands
Ernesto Rodriguez-Luna
Assistant Editors
John M. Aguiar
Liliana Cort6s-Ortiz
PSG Chairman
Russell A. Mittermeier
PSG Deputy Chairman
Anthony B. Rylands


CONSERVATION
INTERNATIONAL


SPECIES SURVIVAL
COMMISSION


CENTER
FOR APPLIED
BIODIVERSITY
SCIENCE
AT CONSERVATION
INTERNATIONAL








Neotropical Primates
A Journal of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group


Center for Applied Biodiversity Science
Conservation International
1919 M St. NW, Suite 600, Washington, DC 20036, USA

ISSN 1413-4703 Abbreviation: Neotrop. Primates

Editors
Anthony B. Rylands, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International, Washington, DC
Ernesto Rodriguez-Luna, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Mexico

Assistant Editors
John M. Aguiar, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International, Washington, DC
Liliana Cortds-Ortiz, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Mexico

Editorial Board
Hannah M. Buchanan-Smith, University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland, UK
Adelmar F Coimbra-Filho, Academia Brasileira de Ciancias, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Liliana Cortds-Ortiz, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Mdxico
Carolyn M. Crockett, Regional Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
Stephen F. Ferrari, Universidade Federal do Para, Beldm, Brazil
Eckhard W. Heymann, Deutsches Primatenzentrum, Gottingen, Germany
William R. Konstant, Conservation International, Washington, DC
Russell A. Mittermeier, Conservation International, Washington, DC
Marta D. Mudry, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina
Hor.cio Schneider, Universidade Federal do Para, Belem, Brazil
Karen B. Strier, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
Maria Emilia Yamamoto, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Brazil

Primate Specialist Group
Chairman Russell A. Mittermeier
Deputy Chair Anthony B. Rylands
Co-Vice Chairs for the Neotropical Region Anthony B. Rylands & Ernesto Rodrfguez-Luna
Vice Chair for Asia Ardith A. Eudey
Vice Chair for Africa Thomas M. Butynski
Vice Chair for Madagascar Jorg U. Ganzhorn

Design and Layout: Glenda P. Fibregas and Kim Meek, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science,
Conservation International, Washington, DC

Editorial Assistance:
Mariella Superina, University of New Orleans, Department of Biological Sciences, New Orleans, LA

IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group logo courtesy of Stephen D. Nash, 2002.

Front Cover:
A female golden-faced saki, Pitheciapithecia chrysocephala, from the Central Amazon. Photo by Russell A. Mittermeier.

This issue of Neotropical Primateswas kindly sponsored by the Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation, 432 Walker Road, Great Falls, Virginia 22066,
USA, the Houston Zoological Gardens Conservation Program, General Manager Rick Barongi, 1513 North MacGregor, Houston, Texas 77030, USA,
and the Los Angeles Zoo, Director John R. Lewis, 5333 Zoo Drive, Los Angeles, California 90027, USA.


AMiiMrineHouMon
PFad aeS-emieas nnet





Neotropical Primates 12(1), April 2004





PLANTS TILES EN LA ALIMENTACION DE PRIMATES
EN LA CUENCA DEL Rio SAMIRIA, AMAZONIA
PERUANA

Rolando Aquino
Richard E. Bodmer

Introducci6n

La Reserva Nacional Pacaya Samiria, con una extension de
2,150,770 ha (Rodriguez et al., 1995) y enclavada entire los
rfos Maran6n y Ucayali, estA dominada por bosques inun-
dables de agua blanca, lo que dio origen a un ecosistema
complejo con diversos tipos de habitat, entire los que se
encuentran los aguajales (asociaci6n de Mauritia fiexuosa),
restingas y llanuras. En estos tipos de bosques habitan di-
versas species de mamfferos entire arb6reos, semi-arb6reos
o excelentes nadadores (Peres, 1997). Entre los mamfferos
arb6reos se encuentran 12 species de primates que para so-
brevivir se alimentan de las plants adaptadas a los cambios
estacionales de inundaci6n y estiaje. Los bosques inundables
o de vArzea, sujetos a grandes inundaciones, tienen menos
diversidad de plants que los bosques de altura o de tierra
firme, pero no por ello son menos importantes. Al respect,
se conoce muy poco sobre la diversidad de plants de cuyos
frutos y otros 6rganos se alimentan los primates que habi-
tan en la citada reserve. Hasta ahora, el 6nico studio sobre
dieta alimentaria de primates fue llevado a cabo por Soini
(1986, 1995) en bosques de llanura de la Estaci6n Biol6-
gica de Cahuana, ubicada en el curso medio del rfo Pacaya
de la Reserva Nacional Pacaya Samiria (RNPS). La escasa
informaci6n disponible nos motiv6 a la conducci6n del pre-
sente studio, el cual se llev6 a cabo en paralelo a los censos
por transecto de mamfferos en la cuenca del rio Samiria y
bosques afines de la RNPS, pr6ximos al limited con el rio
Maran6n. Aquf presentamos un advance sobre los resultados
obtenidos de junio de 1997 a enero del 2001.

Areas de Estudio

Los registros de plants alimenticias fueron llevados a cabo
en restingas Altaa y baja), llanuras y aguajales del bosque de
virzea y en terraza baja del bosque de altura de los prin-
cipales tributaries del rio Samiria, desde muy cerca de la
confluencia con el rio Maran6n, aguas arriba hasta la que-
brada Cauchillo (Fig. 1). Como parte del studio tambikn
se incluyeron los bosques circundantes al curso medio de
la quebrada Yanayacu de Pucate, cuyas aguas son vertidas
directamente al rio Maran6n, aguas abajo de la boca del rfo
Samiria y los bosques circundantes de la quebrada de Pari-
nari, cuyas aguas son igualmente vertidas directamente al
Maran6n, aguas arriba de la boca del rfo Samiria (Fig. 1).
En t&rminos generals, los bosques de las areas de studio
presentaron alteraciones que variaron desde ligeras a mo-
deradas por la existencia de trochas y senderos para la caza,


pesca y/o la extracci6n de los frutos de Mauritiaflexuosa y el
palmito de Euterpe oleracea.

M6todos

Los censos de monos se realizaron durante 15 dfas de cada
mes. Desde el inicio de los censos en junio de 1997, cadavez
que un grupo de primates fue avistado en plena actividad
alimenticia procedimos de manera simultanea al registro de
los frutos y de otros 6rganos de las plants. Cuando se tra-
taba de frutos, los restos cafdos en el piso del bosque fueron
colectados en bolsas de polietileno con anotaci6n del tipo
de plant, estado de madurez y la parte comida. Las bolsas
con el contenido fueron numeradas y etiquetadas indicando
el lugar y la fecha de colecta, luego se anadi6 alcohol ab-
soluto como preservante. La identificaci6n de las muestras
se hizo por comparaci6n con el material de referencia del
Centro de Reproducci6n y Conservaci6n de Primates no
Humanos de la Estaci6n Experimental del Instituto Veteri-
nario de Investigaciones Tropicales y de Altura con sede en
Iquitos, Loreto. Tambidn hicimos uso de las descripciones
de Roosmalen (1985) y de las claves y descripciones de Spi-
chiger y colaboradores (1989, 1990).

Resultados y Discusi6n

Plantas alimentarias
Durante los censos, 10 de las 12 species de primates que
habitan en la Reserva Nacional Pacaya Samiria fueron ob-
servadas en 275 oportunidades comiendo frutos y otros 6r-
ganos de 52 species de plants pertenecientes a 22 families.
De ellas, las families Arecaceae, Moraceae, Leguminosae
y Lecythidaceae, destacaron por agrupar la mayor diversi-
dad de species (Tabla 1). Entre las plants alimentarias,
Mauritia flexuosa probablemente es el recurso alimenticio
mas important para los primates en la RNPS. Los registros
nos indican que los frutos de esta especie en comparaci6n
a las demas fueron proporcionalmente los mas consumidos
por seite de las 12 species de primates que habitan en la
cuenca del rio Samiria. Nuestros registros tambidn indican
a esta especie como una de las pocas plants con prolon-
gada disponibilidad y abundancia de frutos en este tipo
de bosques (Tabla 2). Le siguen en importancia Scheelea
cephalotes y Clarisia bifora; los frutos de la primera consti-
tuyeron recurso alimenticio casi exclusive para Cebus, j,d/l 1
y Cebus albifrons, mientras que la segunda para Lagothrix
lagotricha y Alouatta seniculus (Tablas 1 y 2). Los resultados
obtenidos fueron similares a los reportados por Terborgh
(1983) para la Estaci6n Biol6gica de Cocha Cashu en el
Parque Nacional del Mand y por Soini (1986, 1995) para
la cuenca del rio Pacaya, con excepci6n de las palmeras, las
cuales estaban ausentes en esa localidad. Nuestros resultados
conjuntamente con los de Soini (1986, 1995), demuestran
que en el bosque inundable el mayor ndmero de species de
plants que aportan en la alimentaci6n de los primates perte-
nece alas families Arecaceae, Moraceae y Leguminosae. Estos
hallazgos tambidn fueron muy similares a los obtenidos en
bosques de alturaparalos primates de tamano pequeno (Nor-
conk, 1986; Castro, 1991; Smith, 1997), pero difieren de los





2 Neotropical Primates 12(1), April 2004


Fig. 1. Mapa de la Reserva Nacional Pacaya Samiria mostrando las areas de studio en la cuenca del rio Samiria y tributarios: 1) Ungurahui,
2) Pithecia, 3) Quebrada Pinche, 4) Quebrada Cauchillo, 5) Santa Elena, 6) Bolivar, 7) Tacsha Cocha, 8) Quebrada Guanaico, 9) Quebrada
Armana, 10) Quebrada Wishto Yanayacu, 11) Quebrada Yanayacu de Pucate y 12) Quebrada Parinari.



Tabla 1. Lista preliminary de plants consumidas por primates en la cuenca del rio Samiria, Reserva Nacional Pacaya Samiria.
M: mesocarpio, S: semilla, A: arilo, H: hoja, F: flor, Ab: Ateles belzebuth, Ach: Ateles chamek, LI: Lagothrix lagotricha, As: Alouatta seniculus,
Ca: Cebus apella, Cal: Cebus n/,'j o, Pm: Pithecia monachus, Sb: Saimiri boliviensis, Sf: Saguinus fuscicollis y An: Aotus nancymae.
Parte comida
Species M -- A H F Frecuencia Primates consumidores

Anacardiaceae
Spondias mombin X 11 LI, Sb, Ca
Annonaceae
Annona duckei X X 5 Sf, Sb, An
Xylopia sp. X X 2 Sb, Pm
Arecaceae
Astrocaryum chambira X X 3 Ca, Cal
Astrocaryum murumuru X X 2 Ca
Bactris sp. 3 Cal
Geonoma sp. X 1 An
Euterpe oleracea X 2 Pm
Iriartea exorrhiza X 3 LI, Ca, An
Mauritiaflexuosa X 35 Ab, Ach, LI, As, Ca, Cal, Pm
Mauritiella peruviana X 3 LI, Cal
Scheelea cephalotes X 26 LI, Ca, Cal
Scheelea sp. X 1 Ca
Bombacaceae
Ceiba pentandra X 2 As

continue






Neotropical Primates 12(1), April 2004


Tabla 1, continuado


Parte comida
Species -- S H Frecuencia Primates consumidores

Cecropiaceae
Cecropia sp. X 1 As
Pouroumasp. X 2 LI, Sb
Chrysobalanaceae
Couepia subcordata X 3 Ca, Pm
Euphorbiaceae
Alchornea latifolia (?) X 1 Pm
Fabaceae
Copaifera sp. X 4 Ca
Flacourtiaceae
Laetia corymbulosa X 2 Pm, An
Lauraceae
Ocotea sp. X 2 LI, Ca
Leguminosae
Erythrina glauca X 3 An
Ingapunctata X 9 LI, Ca, Cal, Sf, Sb
Ingasp. 1 X 7 LI, Ca, Cal, Pm, Sb
Inga sp. 2 X 7 LI, Ca, Cal, Sf
Macrolobium sp. X 3 Sf
Parkia sp. 2 Sf
Lecythidaceae
Couroupita subsessilis X X 6 LI, Ca, Cal
Eschweilera sp. X 16 LI, Ca, Pm
Griasperuviana X 2 Ca
Gustavia sp. X 2 Ca
Gnetaceae
Gnetum sp. 1 X 2 Pm, Sf
Gnetum sp. 2 X 2 Ca, Sb
Guttiferae
Rheedia acuminata X 4 Ca, Pm, Sb
Tovomita sp. X 3 Ca, Sb, Sf
Menispermaceae
Abuta sp. X 2 Ll, Ca
Moraceae
Brosimum rubescens X 3 LI, Sf
Clarisia biflora X 21 LI, As
Coussapoa sp. X X 5 LI, Ca, Sb, Sf
Ficus insipida X X 7 As, Ca
Ficus sp. 1 X X 11 LI, As, Ca, Sb
Ficus sp. 2 X X 6 As, Ca, Sb, Sf
Ficus sp. 3 X X 4 Ll, As, Sb, Sf
Myristicaceae
Iryanthera sp. X 1 Pm
Virola surinamensis X X 5 Ab, LI, Pm, Sf
Virolapavonis (?) X X 2 Pm, Sf
Myrtaceae
Calycorectes sp. X 5 LI, Ca, Pm
Olacaceae
Minquartia guyanensis X X 11 Pm
Passifloraceae
Passifora sp. X X 5 Ca, Sf
Sapindaceae
Paullinia sp. X 5 LI, Pm
Sapotaceae
Achras zapota X 6 Ab, Ca, LI
Pouteriasp. X 4 LI, Ca, Pm





4 Neotropical Primates 12(1), April 2004

reportados para primates de tamafio median y grande, ceae y Apocynaceae (Aquino, 1999; Aquino, obs. pers.),
cuyos principles components alimenticios correspondie- las mismas que estuvieron escasamente representadas en el
ron mas bien a los representantes de las families Sapota- bosque de virzea 6 inundable de la cuenca del rfo Samiria.



Tabla 2. Perfodo de consumo de frutos y semillas por los primates en la cuenca del rio Samiria, Reserva Nacional Pacaya Samiria.

Meses
p eE F M A M J J A S 0 N D

Abutasp. X X X
Achras zapota X X X
Alchornea latifolia (?)
Annona duckei X
Astrocaryum chambira X X X
Bactris sp. X
Brosimum rubescens X X X
Calycorectes sp. X X
Clarisia biflora X X X X X
Couepia subcordata X
Copaifera sp. X
Couroupita amazonica X X
Coussapoa sp. X X
Eschweilerasp. X X X X X X
Euterpe oleracea X
Ficus insipida X X X X X
Ficus sp. 1 X X X X X X
Ficus sp. 2 X X X X X
Ficus sp. 3 X X X X
Gnetum spp. X X
Grias peruviana X X
Gustavia sp. X
Inga punctata (?) X X X
Inga spp. X X X X
Iriartea exorrhiza X X X
Iryanthera sp. X
Laetia corymbulosa X X
Macrolobium sp. X X
Mauritiaflexuosa X X X X X X X X X X
Mauritiella peruviana X
Minquartia guyanensis X X
Parkia sp. X
Passiflora sp. X X
Paullinia sp. X X
Pourouma sp. X
Pouteriasp. X X X
Rheedia acuminata X X
Scheelea cephalotes X X X X X
Scheelea sp. X
Spondlias mombin X X X X X
Ocotea sp. X X
Tovomita sp. X
Virola surinamensis X X X
Xylopia sp. X X





Neotropical Primates 12(1), April 2004


Partes consumidas
Las parties mas utilizadas por los primates fueron el meso-
carpio y las semillas de frutos maduros e inmaduros. En re-
ferencia a las hojas, solamente observamos haciendo uso de
este recurso a Alouatta seniculus y Cebus ,'i//i; la primera
comiendo hojas tiernas de Ceiba pentandra, Cecropia sp. y
Couroupita subsessilis, y la segunda de Astrocaryum muru-
muru, cuyo Apice previamente era forzado con ambas manos
hasta lograr desprenderlo. En comparaci6n con nuestras ob-
servaciones, en la cuenca del rio Pacaya Soini (1995) observ6
a A. seniculus alimentandose de hojas de al menos 13 species
de plants, a Pithecia monachus de tres species y a Lagothrix
lagotricha de siete species. Finalmente, en tres oportunida-
des se observ6 el consumo de flores de Laetia corymbulosa y
Erythrinaglauca, plants arb6reas que tienen como principal
habitat las orillas de rfos y canos de los bosques inundables
de agua blanca. Pithecia monachus y Aotus nancymae fueron
las dnicas species a quienes sorprendimos haciendo uso de
estos recursos. Alouatta seniculus y Ateles belzebuth fueron en-
contrados en repetidas oportunidades comiendo el corcho de
la corteza en descomposici6n. Esta conduct poco usual en
otras species de primates podria tener relaci6n con las sales
minerales, suplemento que en los bosques de altura lo consi-
guen ingiriendo tierra en las denominadas "colpas", lugares
que acostumbran visitar con cierta frecuencia. Una conduct
muy similar ha sido observada en Saguinus tripartitus en la
cuenca del rio Napo (R. Aquino, obs. pers.).

Variacidn estacional en el consumo
De acuerdo con nuestros registros, la producci6n de frutos
en la cuenca del rio Samiria y sus tributaries ocurri6 durante
todo el ano. Sin embargo, la mayor diversidad de species fue
consumida entire enero y abril y entire junio y julio; es decir,
desde el inicio hasta el final de la estaci6n lluviosa y comienzo
de la estaci6n seca, exceptuando mayo (Tabla 2). Mauritia
flexuosa fue practicamente la dnica especie con producci6n
de frutos durante casi todo el ano, al menos asf lo indican los
respectivos registros de consumo. Otras species con periodi-
cidad mas o menos prolongada de fructificaci6n fueron Ficus
spp., Clarisia bifora, Eschweilera sp., Scheelea cephalotes, Inga
spp. y Spondias mombin. Estas species fueron consumidas
durante cinco a seis meses (Tabla 2). Finalmente, observacio-
nes in situ tambidn nos indican que en la cuenca del rio Sa-
miria la mayor disponibilidad de frutos ocurri6 entire enero y
julio y una marcada escasez entire agosto y septiembre.

Otros components en la dieta alimentaria
Durante el perfodo de estiaje coincidente con la escasez de
frutos, Cebus, ',c//.y C. f LI I.... observados comien-
do moluscos acuAticos de los generos Pomacea y Marisa;
ambos eran buscados activamente en el lecho de peque-
fos arroyos. Asimismo, C. 7,/'1'/, fue observado comiendo
huevos de aves y de tortuga terrestre (Geochelone denticulata),
asf como pequenos saurios (lagartijas, camaleones y otros)
capturados entire las brActeas de palmeras durante las activi-
dades de forrajeo en los aguajales.

Agradecimientos: Nuestro reconocimiento a Junglevagt for
Amazonas AIF-WWF/DK, Programa Integral de Desarrollo


y Conservaci6n Pacaya Samiria que financi6 el Proyecto
"Manejo de la caza en las zonas de amortiguamiento de la
Reserva Nacional Pacaya Samiria" y el studio de "Evalua-
ci6n de la fauna silvestre en San Miguel y Parinari con miras
al manejo sostenible con participaci6n comunitaria", de los
cuales aprovechamos para la colecta de frutos y otros 6rga-
nos utilizados en la dieta de los primates. Al Instituto Na-
cional de Recursos Naturales (INRENA) y a la Jefatura del
Pacaya Samiria por facilitarnos el permiso para el ingreso a
la mencionada reserve. A los gufas de campo de las comuni-
dades de Yarina asentada en la quebrada Yanayacu de Pucate
y Parinari en la quebrada del mismo nombre por su active
participaci6n durante la apertura de trochas, los censos y la
colecta de frutos. Finalmente, nuestra gratitud y reconoci-
miento al incansable e infatigable Ram6n Noa, con quien
compartimos gratas experiencias de campo durante nuestra
larga participaci6n en la cuenca del rio Samiria.

Rolando Aquino, Instituto de Ciencias Biol6gicas Antonio
Raimondi (ICBAR), Universidad Nacional Mayor de San
Marcos, Lima, Perd, y Richard E. Bodmer, Durrell Insti-
tute of Conservation and Ecology, University of Kent, Can-
terbury, England. Toda correspondencia remitir a: Rolando
Aquino, P.O. Box 575, Iquitos, Perd, correo electr6nico:
.

Referencias

Aquino, R. 1999. Observaciones preliminares sobre la dieta
de Cacajao calvus ucayalii en el nor-oriente peruano. Neo-
trop. Primates 7(1): 1-5.
Castro, R. 1991. Behavioral ecology of two coexisting
tamarin species (Saguinus fuscicollis nigrifrons and
Saguinus mystax mystax, Callitrichidae, Primates) in
Amazonian Peru. Tesis doctoral, Washington University,
Saint Louis.
Norconk, M. A. 1986. Interaction between primate species
in a neotropical forest: Mixed-species troops of Saguinus
mystax and Saguinus fuscicollis (Callitrichidae). Tesis doc-
toral, University of California, Los Angeles.
Peres, C. A. 1997. Effects of hunting on western Amazo-
nian primate communities. Biol. Conserv. 54: 47-59.
Rodrfguez, F, Rodrfguez, M. y Vsquez, P. 1995. Realidad
y Perspectivas: La Reserva Nacional Pacaya Samiria. Pro-
Naturaleza, Lima, Perl.
Smith, A. C. 1997. Comparative ecology of saddleback
(Saguinus fuscicollis) and moustached (Saguinus mystax)
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UK.
Soini, P. 1986. A synecological study of a primate commu-
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(7): 63-71.
Soini, P. 1995. Report Pacaya-Samiria: Investigaciones en la
Estacidn Bioldgica Cahuana 1979 1994. Fundaci6n para
la Conservaci6n de la Naturaleza, Iquitos, Perl.
Spichiger, R., M&roz, J., Loizeau, P y Stutz de Ortega, L.
1989. Contribucidn a la Flora de la Amazonia Peruana:
Los Arboles del Arboretum de Jenaro Herrera, Vol. 1.
Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques, Geneve.





6 Neotropical Primates 12(1), April 2004


Spichiger, R., M&roz, J., Loizeau, P. y Stutz de Ortega, L.
1990. Contribucidn a la Flora de la Amazonia Peruana:
Los Arboles del Arboretum de Jenaro Herrera, Vol. 2.
Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques, Geneve.
Terborgh, J. 1983. Five New World Primates: A Study
in Comparative Ecology. Princeton University Press,
Princeton, NJ.
Van Roosmalen, M. G. M. 1985. Fruits of the Guianan
Flora. Utrecht University, The Netherlands.


HABITAT USE BY THE WHITE-FOOTED TAMARIN,
SAGUINUS LEUCOPUS: A COMPARISON BETWEEN A
FOREST-DWELLING GROUP AND AN URBAN GROUP
IN MARIQUITA, COLOMBIA

Katja Poveda
Pedro Sdnchez-Palomino

Introduction

The white-footed tamarin (Saguinus leucopus) is endemic to
Colombia. Its geographic distribution, between the eastern
banks of the lower Rio Cauca and the western part of the
middle Rio Magdalena in the north of the country, has been
dramatically reduced in recent years, largely due to defores-
tation (BIO, 1998; Pach6n and Bohorquez, 1991; Defler,
2004). Habitat loss has resulted in S. leucopusbeing classified
as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List (Hilton-Taylor, 2003)
and it is also listed on Appendix I of CITES. Information
available on this species is limited to some considerations
on captive breeding (Alveario etal., 1985), behavior and vo-
calization in captivity (Blumer and Epple, undated) and the
results of some censuses in different regions of Colombia
(Calle, 1992; Bernstein et al., 1976; Green, 1978; Vargas,


1994; Vargas and Solano, 1996). No ecological studies have
been conducted to date.

We found a group of white-footed tamarins living in the
backyards of some houses in the small town of Mariquita in
central Colombia. According to the residents, the group had
lived there since at least 1997 and had not been introduced.
A second group of S. leucopuswas found in a remnant forest
patch close to the town. We studied the home range, daily
path length and diet of the two groups in order to compare
their use of these two distinct habitats. To our knowledge
this is the first study presenting data on the ecology of the
white-footed tamarin.

Methods

Study site and subjects
Mariquita is in the north of the Department of Tolima,
Colombia (5012'N, 74055'W) at an altitude of 690 m
(Fig. 1). Mean annual temperature is 260C and mean annual
rainfall is 2237 mm (records of IDEAM Instituto de Es-
tudios Ambientales, Colombia). A secondary forest patch of
120 ha abuts the western side ofMariquita. We identified seven
groups (of two to 12 tamarins each) within the forest remnant,
on farms near the forest and in the backyards of the residen-
tial area of Mariquita (Table 1). We selected one forest and
one backyard group based on the accessibility of their ranges.
We studied them from July to December 1999. The forest
group was composed of 11 individuals and was observed for
101.0 hours. Five individuals made up the urban group,
which was observed for 229.8 hours. One female in each of
the two groups produced twins in September, 1999.

The urban gardens and backyards in Mariquita have many
fruiting trees such as mango (Mangifera indica), banana


Figure 1. Location of Mariquita, Colombia (upper left), and the home ranges of a forest-dwelling group (white arrow) and an urbanized
group (black arrow) of Saguinus leucopus (aerial photo taken by IGAC, 1996).





Neotropical Primates 12(1), April 2004 7


(Musa sapientum), papaya (Carica papaya) and guava
(Psidium '* 'i- The urban group ranged through the
backyards of 10 houses, separated by fences and surrounded


Table 1. Number of individuals of Saguinus leucopus in groups
observed in a forest fragment, in urban backyards and on a farm.
Asterisks (*) indicate the groups studied for habitat use.
Group Nr. Location No. of Individuals
1 Forest 11
2 Forest 7
3 Forest 10-12
4 Forest 2
5 Backyards 5
6 Backyards 4
7 Farm 6


Table 2. Plant species consumed by Saguinus leucopus in a) a forest
group and b) an urban group, and percentage of total foraging
time, from July to December 1999. FR = fruit; FL = flower;
B = bark; Not ID = not identified.
a) Forest group
.Part % Time
Family Species eaten eating

Cecropiaceae Cecropia peltata FR 35
Sapindaceae Talisiasp. FR 24.2
Burseraceae Protiumsp. FR 15.8
Moraceae Sorocea spruce FR 12.5
Annonaceae Rollinia edulis FR 5
Tiliaceae Trichospermum FL 1.7
mexicanum
Euphrbi Tetrorchidium aff. FR 1.7
Euphorbiaceae echeverianum FR 1.7
Euphorbiaceae Pera arborea FR 0.8
Araliaceae Didymopanax morototoni B 0.8
Malpighiaceae Byrsonima spicata FR 0.8
Melastomatacae Tococa sp. Not ID 0.8
Rutaceae Zanthoxylum sp. B 0.8

b) Urban group
Part % Time
Family Species
eaten eating
Anacardiaceae Mangifera indica FR 49.35
Bombacaceae Matisia cordata FR 16.17
Caricaceae Carica papaya FR 8.22
Myrtaceae Psidium guajaba FR 5.01
Moraceae Ficussp. FR 4.86
Annonaceae Annona muricata FR 4.55
Lauraceae Persea gratissima FL, B 2.41
Musaceae Musa sapientum FR 2.26
Myrtaceae Eugeniajambos FL, FR 2.10
Rutaceae Citrus aurantium B 1.49
Oxalidaceae Averrhoa carambola FL, FR 1.19
Arecaceae Cocos nucifera FL 1.19
Malvaceae Hibiscus sp. FL 1.19


on all sides by other houses. The area of all the backyards
together was approximately 1.5 ha. The tamarins moved
around through the crowns of the trees, while occasionally
descending to the roofs of the houses or fences. Although
we never witnessed the study group crossing streets on the
ground, other groups were seen doing so, indicating that
they are not a serious obstacle. Vegetation in the forest rem-
nant is represented by the families Lauraceae, Rubiaceae,
Guttiferaceae, Anacardiaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Mimosa-
ceae, Musaceae, Polypodiaceae and Araceae. Abundant spe-
cies include Cassia moschata, Myrcia sp., Byrsonima spicata,
Cupania latifolia, Nectandra sp. and Vochysia ferruginea
(Cortolima, 1997; Pach6n and Bohorquez, 1991).

Data Collection

From July to December, 1999, we estimated fruit abun-
dance (dry mass of fruit/ha) at one-month intervals in the
areas of the forest and urban groups. We counted the fruits
from all of the fruiting trees in five backyards, and after-
wards 20 fruits per tree species were collected, oven-dried
and weighed. We estimated the total fruit weight by species
in a given area by multiplying the mean fruit weight by the
number of fruits counted. In the forest, fruit counts were
made within eight randomly established 8 x 100 m plots,
and vouchers of each fruit species were collected for species
identification. As in the town, 20 fruits of each species were
sampled, dried and weighed to estimate forest fruit weight.
Once the diet composition of each group was known, only
the species they consumed were used for calculating fruit
abundance in each habitat.

Each study group was observed for five days per month
(July to December, 1999). The position of the group was
determined every 30 minutes using a Global Positioning
System (GPS) and maps. The urban group's home range
was estimated using the minimum convex polygon method
(White and Garrott, 1990) and the Home Range program
of Ackerman et al. (1989). Due to the irregular form of the
forest margin, using the same method in the forest would
have included pasture never used by the tamarins in the
home range calculation. To estimate the home range of
the forest group, we divided it into 50 x 50 m quadrates
and summed all those which were entered. The daily path
length of each group was calculated by summing the dis-
tances between all the 30-minute location points during the
day (Ackerman et al., 1989). Because the forest group usu-
ally could not be followed for complete days, we used the
distance traveled on the single complete day of observation
each month. Even so, the daily path length is undoubtedly
underestimated because of periods when we lost contact.

We quantified diet composition by calculating the percent-
age of time spent eating different food items (fruits, inverte-
brates, flowers, bark, etc.). Trees from which tamarins gath-
ered food were marked, and leaf and fruit samples were then
collected for subsequent identification at the Herbarium of
the Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional
de Colombia (COL).





8 Neotropical Primates 12(1), April 2004


Results

We recorded 82 fruiting plant species in the forest, but only
eight of them were exploited by Saguinus leucopus as a fruit
source. Average monthly dry mass of the fruits included
in the forest group's diet was 8.2 5.9 kg/ha (mean SD,
n = 6). In the urban area, 12 species of plants produced fruits,
nine of which were eaten by tamarins. Average monthly dry
mass of the fruits of plant species consumed by S. leucopus in
the backyards was 444.4 355 kg/ha (mean SD, n = 6).

In addition to fruits, the tamarins ate flowers, bark, leaves
and a number of items we were unable to identify. Thir-
teen plant species provided food in the backyards and 12 in
the forest (Table 2). Both groups invested 82-84% of their
feeding time to consuming fruits, between 8 to 15% eating
invertebrates and less than 8% eating bark, flowers and
other foods which we could not identify (Table 3).

The tamarins' home range in the forest was 17.7 ha, where-
as the urban group used about 0.73 ha (Fig. 1). Daily path
lengths varied in the forest from 783 to 2387 m, with the
only two dawn-to-dusk measures being 1848 and 1851 m.
The mean daily path of the urban group was 496 m with a
range of 224 to 612 m.

Discussion

Urban tamarins had a shorter daily path length and a
substantially smaller home range than the group living in
the forest fragment, apparently because they were able to
sustain themselves on the densely planted fruiting trees in
backyards. The differences could also have been due to the
different group sizes (Schoener, 1968; Davies and Houston,
1984; Dunbar, 1988; Barton etal., 1992). The urban group
of five individuals used 0.73 ha, or 0.14 ha per individual.
The forest group, on the other hand, was composed of
11 individuals living in an area of 17.7 ha, or 1.6 ha per
individual, indicating that the number of individuals in a
group cannot be the only cause for the difference in home
range size. The area used per individual in the forest was
over 11 times that used by the urban individuals.

The quality of the habitat is another factor that affects home
range size and path length (Rylands, 1996). The small home
range size and path length of the urban group is likely a re-
flection of high fruit density. Davies and Houston (1984)


Table 3. Percentages of food items in the diet of an urban and a
forest-dwelling group of Saguinus leucopus.
Forest Backyards
Invertebrates 15 8
Fruit (pulp+seeds) 82 84
Bark 1 1
Flowers 1 2
Not Identified 1 5
Exudate 0 0


and Altmann (1974) proposed that the lower limit of the
home-range size is determined by the distribution of im-
portant resources that fulfill life requirements. The impact
of the closely packed fruit trees, providing food throughout
the study period in the backyards of the town of Mariquita,
was marked both in terms of diet (Table 2b) and the fruit
biomass available.

Fruit was the most common food item eaten by both study
groups, followed by invertebrates, flowers and bark. This is
in line with findings for other callitrichids (Snowdon and
Soini, 1988; Egler, 1992; Peres, 1993; Valladares-PAdua,
1993; Dietz et al., 1997; Knogge, 1998). The plant spe-
cies exploited by the two groups were completely different,
which is likely due to the presence of different resources in
the two environments (Table 2).

Our findings suggest that Saguinus leucopus is flexible in
its diet and behavior. This offers some hope for its future
conservation status, as it appears able to adapt to a variety
of environments, even an urban setting. Surveys and effec-
tive protection in parks and reserves, however, are still vital
measures for the conservation of this little-known species,
which is confined to a range dominated by intensive coloni-
zation and forest destruction (Defler et al., 2003).

Acknowledgements: We thank the Universidad Nacional
de Colombia and the Instituto de Ciencias Naturales for
their logistical support. We are grateful to Professor Alberto
Cadena for his help, and to Jorge Jacome, Ivan Gil, Dafna
Angel, Javier Castiblanco, Oscar Laverde and Don Teofilo
for skilled field assistance. Financial assistance was provided
by IdeaWild and The Explorers Club. We are grateful to
Olga Montenegro, Scott Walter and especially to Eckhard
Heymann for commenting on the manuscript.

Katja Poveda and Pedro Sinchez, Instituto de Ciencias
Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Ciudad
Universitaria, Bogota, Colombia. Correspondence to: Katja
Poveda, A- ........ ._, Gbttingen University, Waldweg 26,
D-37073 Gdttingen, Germany, e-mail: gwdg.de>.

References

Ackerman, B., Lesban, F., Samuel, M. and Garton, E. 1989.
User's Manual for Program Home Range. Second edition.
University of Idaho, Moscow, USA.
Altmann, S. 1974. Baboons, space, time and energy. Am.
Zool. 14: 221-248.
Alveario, M. C., Belcher, A., Caldwell, C., Henry, R. T. and
Epple, G. 1985. Caesarean delivery and handrearing of
Saguinus leucopus triplets in the laboratory a case report.
Prim. Rep. 13: 57-68.
Barton, R., White, A., Strum, S., Byrne, R. and Simpson,
A. 1992. Habitat use and resource availability in baboons.
Anim. Behav. 43: 831-844.
Bernstein, I., Balcaen, P., Dresdale, L., Gouzoules, H.,
Kavanagh, M., Patterson, T. and Neyman, P 1976.





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Differential effects of forest degradation on primate
populations. Primates 17(3): 401-411.
BIO. 1998. Boletin Informativo, Instituto Alexander von
Humboldt, Febrero Abril 1998.
Blumer, E. S. and Epple, G. Undated. Saguinus leucopus:
Notes on its behavior and vocal repertoires. Department
of Psychology, State University of New York, Stony Brook,
NY. Unpublished manuscript.
Calle, Z. 1992. Informe de actividades y resultados:
Censo preliminary y recomendaciones para el manejo de
un poblaci6n natural de Saguinus leucopus en la zona
de influencia del proyecto hidroeldctrico, La Miel II.
Unpublished manuscript.
Cortolima. 1997. Caracterizacidn Ambiental del Municipio
de Mariquita. Subdirecci6n de Ordenamiento Territorial,
CORTOLIMA, Colombia.
Davies, N. and Houston, A. 1984. Territory economics.
In: Behavioral Ecology: An Evolutionary Approach, J. Krebs
and N. Davies (eds.), pp.148-169. Second edition. Black-
well Scientific Publications, Oxford.
Defler, T. R. 2004. Primates of Colombia. Conservation In-
ternational, Washington, DC.
Defler, T. R., Rodrfguez-M., J. V. and Hernandez-Camacho,
J. I. 2003. Conservation priorities for Colombian pri-
mates. Primate Conserv. (19): 1-18.
Dietz, J. M., Peres, C. A. and Pinder, L. 1997. Foraging
ecology and use of space in wild golden lion tamarins
(Leontopithecus rosalia). Am. J. Primatol. 41: 289-305.
Dunbar, R. 1988. Primate Social Systems. Chapman and
Hall, London.
Egler, S. 1992. Feeding ecology of Saguinus bicolor
(Callitrichidae: Primates) in a relict forest in Manaus,
Brazilian Amazonia. Folia Primatol. 59: 61-76.
Green, K. 1978. Primate censusing in northern Colombia: A
comparison of two techniques. Primates 19(3): 537-550.
Hilton-Taylor, C. 2003. 2003 IUCNList of Threatened Spe-
cies. IUCN, Species Survival Commission (SSC), Gland,
Switzerland, and Cambridge, UK. Website: redlist.org>.
Knogge, C. 1999. Tier-Pflanze-Interaktionen im Amazo-
nas-Regenwald: Samenausbreitung durch die sympat-
rischen Tamarinenarten Saguinus mystax und Saguinus
fuscicollis (Callitrichidae, Primates). Doctoral thesis, Uni-
versitat Bielefeld, Bielefeld, Germany.
Pach6n, G. and Bohorquez, A. 1991. Ecologia Bdsica del
Bosque Municipal de Mariquita, Tolima. Fundaci6n Se-
gunda Expedici6n Botanica, Bogota, Colombia.
Peres, C. 1993. Diet and feeding ecology of saddle-back
(Saguinus fuscicollis) and moustached (S. mystax) tamarins
in an Amazonian terra firme forest. J. Zool. Lond., Ser. B
230: 567-592.
Rylands, A. B. 1996. Habitat and the evolution of social
and reproductive behavior in Callitrichidae. Am. J. Pri-
matol. 38: 5-18.
Schoener, T. 1968. Sizes of feeding territories among birds.
Ecology 49(1): 123-141.
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Filho and G. A. B. da Fonseca (eds.), pp.223-298. World
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Tracking Data. Academic Press, London.


NEW RECORDS OF MARTINS' BARE-FACE TAMARIN,
SAGUINUS MARTINSI (PRIMATES: CALLITRICHIDAE)

Leonardo de C., il',/,o Oliveira, Sylvia Miscow Mendel
Josi de Sousa e Silva Jr., Geraldo Wilson Fernandes

Introduction

Martins' bare-face tamarin, Saguinus martinsi, was described
by Thomas (1912) as Leontocebus martinsi, based on materi-
al collected in the locality of Faro, left bank of the Rio Nha-
munda, Para, Brazil. The new species was named in honor
of the collector of the holotype, Oscar Martins. Hershko-
vitz (1966) considered Martins' bare-face tamarin to be a
subspecies of S. bicolor, reaffirming this taxonomic status in
subsequent studies (Hershkovitz, 1970, 1977). Hershkovitz
(1977) considered all bare-face tamarins as conspecifics and
recognized three subspecies in this group: S. b. bicolor (Spix,
1823), S. b. martinsi and S. b. ochraceus Hershkovitz, 1966.
Groves (2001, p.146) found this tamarin to be "extremely
distinct" from S. bicolor and listed it as a full species and,
although not having examined any specimens, provisionally
placed ochraceus as a subspecies. Martins' bare-face tamarin
is one of the least-studied taxa among the Neotropical pri-
mates, with just six localities of occurrence recorded and
few specimens in museums (Thomas, 1912; Cruz Lima,
1945; Hershkovitz, 1977).

Most studies on the biology of bare-face tamarins refer
to the pied tamarin, S. bicolor (Egler, 1986; Snowdon
and Soini, 1988), while information on the biology of
S. martinsiis restricted to its geographical occurrence. Bare-
face tamarins are endemic to the Amazon rainforest, and all
three taxa have very restricted distributions (Hershkovitz,
1977). As far as is known, S. martinsi is confined to the
north of the Rio Amazonas, between the Rio Erepecurd
and the Rio Nhamunda (Hershkovitz, 1977). Its northern
limits are unknown. According to Hershkovitz (1977), the





Neotropical Primates 12(1), April 2004


northernmost record for S. martinsi is Cachoeira Porteira,
based on a specimen from the Museu Paraense Emflio
Goeldi (MPEG 420). Rylands (1985) indicated that the Rio
Trombetas Biological Reserve, situated on the left bank of
the Rio Trombetas, would be the only protected area where
S. martinsi may occur.

The diet of Saguinus bicolor is largely composed of insects
and fruits (Hershkovitz, 1977; Snowdon and Soini, 1988).
Although there are few records of group sizes, it would seem
that S. bicolor, as is typical of the genus, lives in groups of
generally seven to nine individuals (Snowdon and Soini,
1988). It can be found in a great diversity of habitats,
usually using lowland areas and evergreen humid forests
(Mittermeier etal., 1977). S. bicolor was the first callitrichid
from the Brazilian Amazon to be listed as Critically Endan-
gered, largely due to its minute range, which is centered on
Manaus and is rapidly being deforested for both urban and
rural development. In addition, S. bicolor is being replaced
by the golden-handed tamarin, Saguinus midas, which has
been expanding into the periphery of the pied tamarin's
remaining habitat (Ayres et al., 1980, 1982; Egler, 1983;
Subir4, 1998a, 1998b; Rylands et al., 2003). Although not
facing equivalent threats from deforestation, very little is
known of the status of S. martinsi, which would also seem
to have a very restricted range and is quite possibly suffer-
ing a similar diminution in its range with its replacement
by S. midas.

Here we provide an update on the geographic distribution
of S. martinsi, describing 10 new records in the region of


the Rio Trombetas. In addition, we present data on the
sizes of a number of groups observed in the Saraci-Taquera
National Forest, west of the lower Rio Trombetas.

Methodology

Study area
Fieldwork was carried out in the Saraca-Taquera National
Forest (429,600 ha), an area rich in bauxite, located in the
district of Porto Trombetas (01o40'S, 5600'W), munici-
pality of Oriximin4, western Pard, Brazil. The study site is
100 km to the west of the confluence of the Rios Trombetas
and Amazonas. The bauxite deposits are associated with a
series ofTertiary boundaries, and are found under plateaux at
altitudes varying from 150 to 200 m.

The extraction of bauxite requires the removal of the vege-
tation and of the first layer of soil. Bauxite is usually found
at depths of 4 to 15 m, requiring heavy machinery to mine
it. Noisy trucks and tractors work full time in three shifts a
day. After extraction, the holes are filled with a mixture of
soil and vegetational remains, and the area is reforested.

Our study concentrated on two of these plateaux: Almei-
das and Bela Cruz. The vegetation there is classified as dense
tropical forest in the sub-region of the lower plateaux of
the Amazonian rainforest. The canopy is generally dense,
reaching 30 to 40 m, with a sparse understorey, except in
some areas where it is dense in shrubs and small trees reach-
ing heights of 15 to 20 m. Common emergent tree species
include Dinisia excelsa, Bertholletia excelsa and Cedrelinga


Figure 1. The Rio Trombetas Biological Reserve (385,000 ha) and the Saraci-Taquera National Forest (429,600 ha), indicating the plateaux
where Saguinus martinsi groups were observed. Localities for Saguinus martinsi are included from the literature and from the present study
(see Table 2).


I ofstm





Neotropical Primates 12(1), April 2004


catanaeformis (Brazil, MME-DNPM, Projeto RADAM,
1976). The Almeidas and Bela Cruz plateaux are 867
and 1500 ha, respectively. The deforestation of the Almeidas
plateau started in August 2002, and will be completed by
2006. The deforestation of Bela Cruz plateau will start in
2008.

Field techniques
Fieldwork was carried out from July to November 2003
by two teams, each composed of one researcher and one
field assistant. The censuses, restricted to locating primate
groups, began at 06:00 and ended at 11:00 hrs. Sightings of
monkeys were recorded ad libitum (Altmann, 1974). Geo-
graphic coordinates were taken using a Garmin eTrex GPS
unit. On encountering a group, each survey team recorded
the group size, time of the record, geographic coordinates
and the stratum height occupied by the animals.



Table 1. Geographic coordinates and group size of Saguinus
martins in the Saracl-Taquera National Forest, Parl, Brazil.

Date Plateaus Coordinates Group
__________ ________ _______ size
29 July 2003 Plateau Almeidas 0144'29"S, 6
56,22'40"W
2 August 2003 Plateau Almeidas 562244'3"W 4
01o48'06"S,
29 August 2003 Plateau Bela Cruz ,5630'24"SW 3

21 November 2003 Plateau Almeidas 01562345'186"WS' 4
5623'06"W
22 November 2003 Plateau Almeidas 56 22' 5
56,22'12"W
23 November 2003 Plateau Almeidas 01o4536"S, 8
56022'19"W
24 November 2003 Plateau Almeidas 01o45'15"S, 1
56023'16"W


Secondary data
Supporting data on occurrences of bare-face tamarins were
acquired from the literature (Cruz Lima, 1945; Hershko-
vitz, 1966, 1977; Thomas, 1912) and an examination of
the mammal collections of the Museu de Zoologia da Uni-
versidade de Sao Paulo (MZUSP), the Museu Nacional,
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ) and the
Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi (MPEG). An interview with
Manoel Santa Brigida, a technician at MPEG, also provided
useful information on three new records of this taxon.

Results

A group of Saguinus martinsiwas observed for the first time
on 29 July 2003. Another six records were later made by
direct observations, five on the Almeidas plateau and one
on the Bela Cruz plateau (Table 1, Figure 1). Group sizes
varied from four to eight individuals (Table 1) and at least
four different groups were found in the study area. All
records occurred between 06:30 and 10:10 hrs. In all
observations, the animals were using the middle strata of
the forest, up to 20 m high.

M. S. Brigida also observed a number of S. martinsi groups
in three areas in the Rio Trombetas region between 1997 and
2003 (Table 2). Figure 2 indicates the results of the review of
the literature and of the scientific collections, in addition to
the records produced in the present study. These data allow
an update of the geographic distribution of S. martins.

Discussion and Conclusions

Although this study has doubled the number of recorded
localities for S. martinsi, much more data is needed to better
understand its geographical distribution. Although known
to occur in the region of the Rio Trombetas (Hershkov-


Table 2. Geographic records of the occurrence of Saguinus martins.
Localities References
Cruz Lima (1945), Hershkovitz (1966, 1977),
1. Faro, left bank of the Rio Nhamundi (type locality), 02o1 S, 56o44'W Cruz Lima (1912), Hershkovitz (1966, 1977),
Thomas (1912), MNRJ 2844, MPEG 185
2. Fazenda Paraiso em Palha, municipality of Faro, near 0211'S, 56'44'W Hershkovitz (1977), MPEG 184
3. Sio Josa, Rio Nhamunda, near 0211 'S, 5644'W Hershkovitz (1977)
4. lacarana, Rio Nhamundi, near 0211'S, 5644'W Hershkovitz (1977)
5. Rio Erepecuri (=Rio Cumini), right tributary of the Rio Paru d'Oeste, 0130'S, 5600o'W Cruz Lima (1945), Hershkovitz (1977)
6. Cachoeira Porteira, Rio Mapuera, municipality of Oriximina, 0105'S, 5704'W Hershkovitz (1977), MPEG 420
7. Plateau Bela Cruz, 0 1o48'S, 56o30'W Present study
8. Plateau Almeidas, 01 44'S, 56o22'W Present study
9. Plateau Almeidas, 0 1'44'S, 56o22'W Present study
10. Plateau Almeidas, 0145'S, 5623'W Present study
11. Plateau Almeidas, 0145'S, 5622'W Present study
12. Plateau Almeidas, 0145'S, 56o22'W Present study
13. Plateau Almeidas, 0145'S, 56o23'W Present study
14. Bacaba Plateau, 0145'S, 56o22'W M. S. Brigida, pers. comm.
15. Reforestation area, 01 41'S, 56o23'W M. S. Brigida, pers. comm.
16. Lowland forest, 0119'S, 56o22'W M. S. Brigida, pers. comm.





Neotropical Primates 12(1), April 2004


itz, 1977), there are few field records from there. Its dis-
tribution includes only one strictly protected area, the Rio
Trombetas Biological Reserve of 385,000 ha; we presume it
occurs east of this river to the Rio Paru do Oeste (Erepecurd),
but this remains to be confirmed (Rylands, 1985; Rylands
and Bernardes, 1989). The correct delimitation of its range
is of fundamental importance for its conservation. Although
this is an area protected by the Brazilian Institute for the
Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA),
the two plateaux censused (and others) will be deforested in
the coming years. Cachoeira Porteira remains the northern-
most record of S. martinsi, albeit from a museum specimen,
but it may occur further north. There are no doubts that
its range is restricted, however, and potential threats include
urbanization and the expansion of bauxite mining activities,
besides the establishment of soybean plantations. Further
studies are urgently needed to assess the status of S. martinsi,
besides long-term research on its ecology and behavior.

Acknowledgements: We thank the Brazilian Institute of En-
vironment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA),
Porto de Trombetas, Para, for permission to work in Saraci-
Taquera National Forest, our colleagues from the Horto
Florestal, Mineraqao Rio do Norte for their help, especially
Alexandre Castilho, the coordinator of the project. Robert
Young kindly helped with the English version of the text.
We also thank Maria Socorro and Andre Hirsch for pre-
paring the maps, and Diogo Loretto and Rodrigo Cam-
bara Printes for their help in the field. We are indebted to
Manoel Santa Brigida for information on the occurrences of
S. martinsi. The Mineraqao Rio do Norte (MRN) and
Planta Ltda. funded the study.

Leonardo de Carvalho Oliveira, Departamento de Ciencias
Biol6gicas e Museu de Ciencias Naturais, Pontificia Uni-
versidade Cat61lica de Minas Gerais, Rua Dom Jose Gaspar
500, Coracao Eucarfstico, Belo Horizonte 30535-610,
Minas Gerais, Brazil, e-mail: ,
Sylvia Miscow Mendel, P6s-Graduacao em Ecologia, Con-
servacao e Manejo daVida Silvestre, ICB, Universidade Fe-
deral de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos 6627, Pampulha,
Belo Horizonte 30270-901, Minas Gerais, Brazil, e-mail:
, Jos6 de Sousa e Silva J6nior,
Setor de Mastozoologia, Coordenaqao de Zoologia, Museu
Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Caixa Postal 399, Belkm 66040-
170, Para, Brazil, e-mail: , and
G. Wilson Fernandes, Planta Ltda. e Laborat6rio de Eco-
logia Evolutiva de Herbfvoros Tropicais, Departamento de
Ecologia, Instituto de Ciencias Biol6gicas, Universidade Fe-
deral de Minas Gerais, Avenida Antonio Carlos 6627, Pam-
pulha, Belo Horizonte 30270-901, Minas Gerais, Brazil,
e-mail: .

References

Altmann, J. 1974. Observational study of behaviour:
Sampling methods. Behaviour 49: 227-267.
Ayres, J. M. R., Mittermeier, R. A. and Constable, I. D.
1980. A distribuicao geografica e situacao atual dos


sagdis-de-cara-nua (Saguinus bicolor). Bol. FBCN, Rio de
Janeiro 16: 62-68.
Ayres, J. M. R., Mittermeier, R. A. and Constable, I. D.
1982. Brazilian tamarins on the way to exinction? Oryx
16(4): 329-333.
Brazil, MME-DNPM, Projeto RADAM. 1976. Projeto
RADAM. Folha SA.21 Santarem, Levantamento de Recursos
Naturais. 10. Minist&rio de Minas e Energia (MME),
Departamento Nacional de Produgao Mineral (DNPM),
Rio de Janeiro.
Cruz Lima, E. 1945. Mammals of Amazonia. I General
Introduction and Primates. Contrib. Mus. Paraense Emilio
Goeldi Hist. Nat., Ethnogr., Belkm do Para, Rio de Janeiro.
274pp.
Egler, S. G. 1983. Current status of the pied tamarin in
Brazilian Amazonia. IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group
Newsl. (3): 20.
Egler, S. G. 1986. Estudos bionOmicos de Saguinus
bicolor (Spix, 1823) (Callithricidae, Primates) em
uma mata alterada em Manaus, AM. Master's thesis,
Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas.
Hershkovitz, P 1966. Taxonomic notes on tamarins, genus
Saguinus (Callithricidae, Primates) with descriptions of
four new forms. Folia Primatol. 4(5): 381-395.
Hershkovitz, P. 1970. Dental and periodontal diseases
and abnormalities in wild-caught marmosets (Primates-
Callitrichidae). Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 32(3): 377-394.
Hershkovitz, P 1977. Living New World Monkeys
(P,/.t,: I.) With an Introduction to Primates, Vol. 1. The
University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Mittermeier, R. A., Bailey, R. C. and Coimbra-Filho,
A. F 1977. Conservation status of the Callitrichidae
in Brazilian Amazonia, Surinam, and French Guiana.
In: The Biology and Conservation of the Callitrichidae,
D. G. Kleiman (ed.), pp.137-146. Smithsonian Institution
Press, Washington, DC.
Rylands, A. B. 1985. Conservation areas protecting primates
in Brazilian Amazonia. Primate Conserv. (5): 24-27.
Rylands, A. B. and Bernardes, A. T. 1989. Two priority
regions for primate conservation in the Brazilian Amazon.
Primate Conserv. (10): 56-62.
Rylands, A. B., Bampi, M. I., Chiarello, A. G., Fonseca,
G. A. B. da, Mendes, S. L. and Marcelino, M. 2003.
Saguinus bicolor. In: 2003 IUCN Red List of Threatened
Species. Website: . Downloaded 6 March
2004.
Snowdon, C. T. and Soini, P. 1988. The tamarins, genus
Saguinus. In: Ecology and Behavior .j '.. .- 'Primates,
Vol. 2, R. A. Mittermeier, A. B. Rylands, A. F Coimbra-
Filho and G. A. B. da Fonseca (eds.), pp. 223-298. World
Wildlife Fund, Washington, DC.
Subira, R. J. 1998a. Avaliaqao da situaqao atual das
populacoes selvagens do sauim-de-coleira, Saguinus
bicolor bicolor (Spix, 1823). Master's thesis, Universidade
de Brasilia, Brasilia.
Subira, R. J. 1998b. The status of the pied tamarin, Saguinus
bicolor. Neotrop. Primates 6: 128.
Thomas, 0. 1912. On small mammals from the lower
Amazon. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. Ser. 8, 9: 84-90.





Neotropical Primates 12(1), April 2004


BEHAVIORAL CHANGES IN RESPONSE TO AN
INJURED GROUP MEMBER IN A GROUP OF WILD
MOUSTACHED TAMARINS (SAGUINUS MYSTAX)

Emerita R. Tirado Herrera
Eckhard W Heymann

Introduction

Injury and disease can be major sources of death in wild
primates (Dunbar, 1988). However, healed injuries indi-
cate the potential for recovery (Schultz, 1939; Zihilman
et al., 1990; Lovell, 1991), but whether or not an individual
recovers and survives may depend not only on the severity
of the injury or disease, but also on whether it can remain
in contact with its group. This may be important in terms
of reduced predation risk, access to food resources, thermo-
regulation, and compensatory care (Chapman and Chap-
man, 1987; Dittus and Ratnayeke, 1989; Gould, 1997). If
locomotion is impaired, an individual's capability to keep
up with a travelling group will depend on the behaviour
of the rest of the group. Kin structure and/or the level of
within-group co-operation probably influence how far
single animals or a whole group will modify their behaviour
in favour of a disabled individual. In this paper, we exam-
ine behavioral modifications in a group of a co-operatively
breeding primate, Saguinus mystax, after one individual
was hurt during a raptor attack and remained temporarily
handicapped. Specifically, we look at changes in patterns
of resource use and retirement to sleeping sites as measures
of potential behavioral and ecological costs. The event
reported here was unforeseen, and no a priori predictions
could be made; thus our analyses are post hoc examinations
of factors that we perceived as having been modified.

Methods

The observation was made during a field study of mous-
tached tamarins, S. mystax, and sympatric saddle-back
tamarins, 5 r ... at the Estaci6n Biol6gica Que-
brada Blanco (EBQB) in north-eastern Peruvian Amazonia
(04o21'S, 7309'W; for details of the study site see Hey-
mann, 1995). A well-habituated group of eight S. mystax
living in association with five S. fuscicollis has been followed
by the first author (ERTH) for 4-7 days per month since
March 1997. Periods of observation ("observation blocks")
of each species are alternated. At the time of the event de-
scribed here, the S. mystax group consisted of an adult male,
two subadult males, one adult female, two subadult fe-
males, a juvenile male and juvenile female (hereafter called
F-j). Routine data collection included instantaneous scan-
sampling at 10-minute intervals, recording the activity and
height of each visible group member of the focal species, the
time of leaving and retiring to sleeping sites, and the time of
entering and leaving feeding trees.

Since our impression was that the group modified its pat-
tern of feeding site use after F-j was injured, we calculated


the number of feeding trees visited per day and the percent-
age of feeding tree visits represented by repeated visits to the
same feeding tree per day. We compared the means of these
parameters between the period before the attack, during the
three days immediately after, and in the period following.
We also calculated the time lag between the first and the last
animal entering a sleeping site, and compared this between
the different periods. Percentages were Arcsine-transformed
before analyses. Comparisons were made with a one-way
ANOVA, followed by the Tukey HSD test for unequal
sample size using Statistica 5.0.

Results

Raptor attack
When observations of the S. mystax group began on 1 July,
1997, all group members were apparently healthy and none
showed any problems with locomotion. On 5 July the
S. fuscicollis group became the focal species. The S. mystax
were associated with the S. fuscicollis from the early morn-
ing on, and stayed with them for the whole day. In the af-
ternoon of 5 July, the S. mystax were spread out and resting
on open branches exposed to sunlight about 15 m above the
ground, in a tree approximately 18 m in height.

At 1514 h, two alarm calls were given almost simultaneous-
ly, and all the tamarins dropped from their resting places. At
this moment, a medium-sized raptor flew rapidly through
the canopy, coming from above and diving into the sub-
canopy. A loud scream was heard from a S. mystax, and the
raptor was seen turning around and flying towards the place
where the tamarins had dropped to the forest floor. Another
scream was heard and several tamarins were seen running
on the floor. The raptor turned around again and perched
on a branch, looking towards the tamarins. The raptor was
dark-brown on the upper parts and light-brown with white
spots on the belly, and had a total length of about 40 cm -
perhaps a Micrastur semitorquatus or related species. When
the observer approached to take a closer look the raptor flew
away. His three flights had taken a total of 25 seconds; the
entire event, from the first alarm call to the raptor flying
away, lasted approximately one minute 20 seconds.

None of the tamarins were missing after the attack, but
F-j was injured, with her left leg hanging down as she sat.
She tried without success to lift it onto the branch with her
left hand and screamed when starting to walk. No external
wound was apparent, but she limped heavily when walking.
When the group moved off from the place where they were
attacked, F-j had problems keeping up, particularly since
the others were moving low down in the vegetation, where
she was unable to leap between vertical supports. From the
site of the attack the group moved towards a sleeping tree
about 250 m away. F-j followed behind, but eventually lost
contact with the group. At 1627 h the group entered a new
sleeping tree. F-j gave contact calls several times but did not
receive a reply. She passed by the sleeping tree, still giving
contact calls. At this time, her calls were answered, and F-j
returned and entered the sleeping tree at 1645 h.





Neotropical Primates 12(1), April 2004


Behaviourl changes after the anack
Modification of the group's activity was most notable
on the first day after the attack. During progression, F-j
lagged behind and frequently gave contact calls. Whenever
the distance between F-j and the group exceeded about
25 m, the group stopped and waited for F-j to catch up. F-j
stayed for over four hours in a feeding tree, to which the
rest of the group returned a total of seven times that day.
During the next two days, F-j also remained in feeding trees
for prolonged periods, while the group foraged and made
repeated visits to other feeding trees in the surroundings.
On one occasion when the distance between F-j and the
group exceeded 70 m, contact between F-j and the group
was maintained through long calling.

On the days after the attack, the group visited fewer feeding
trees per day compared to previous and later observation
blocks, but the differences were not significant (Fig. la).
However, the percentage of visits to feeding trees represent-
ed by repeated visits to the same tree(s) varied significantly
between periods and was higher in the days following the
attack (Fig. Ib).

On the three days following the attack, F-j was always the
last animal to leave and to enter sleeping sites. The mean
time lag between the first and last animal to enter a sleep-
ing site was significantly higher on the day of and the three
days following the attack in comparison to periods before
and after this event (F2,1= 21.704, p <0.0001; Table 1). F-j
recovered and survived into adulthood, but slight limping
always remained notable.

Discussion

Given the highly co-operative nature of tamarin societies
(Caine, 1993; Goldizen, 1987; Shahuano Tello etal, 2002),
one would predict some response to the injury by other group
members or the group as a whole. In the present case, pat-
terns of resource use were modified on the days following the
attack (compared to previous and later observation periods).
This allowed F-j to remain in contact with the group despite
being strongly impaired. It is unlikely that the modification
resulted from seasonal variation in resource availability, as
the period covered by the analyses includes the middle-late


rainy season (March-May), a transitional month (June), and
the early-middle "dry" season (July-August). Given a decline
of fruit availability from the rainy towards the "dry" season
at our study site (Tirado Herrera and Heymann, unpubl.



a)



10 M .'1





t-
0 ;





a 30
4 --




b)



-o


Figure 1. Comparison of parameter values between the period
before, immediately after, and following the attack. (a) Number
of feeding trees visited per day (F,7 = 1.3727, p = 0.27). (b)
Percentage of visits to the feeding trees per day accounted for
by repeated visits to the same tree (F,, = 5.994, p < 0.01). Dots
represent means, and vertical bars 95% confidence intervals.


Table 1. Time lag (min) between first and last animal entering sleeping tree and comparison with other groups.
Study group Group Men SD Maximum n days
This study 8
a) 21 Mar-4 Jul 1997 1:24 0:41 3:00 29
b) 5 Jul 1997 (day ofanack)* 18:00 I
c) 6 8 Jul 1997* 5:40 4:36 11:00 3
d) 30 Jul- 11 Aug 1997' 1:47 0:40 3:00 9
EBQB 1985/86' 3 0:24 0:17 1:00 5
EBQB 1990' 4-5 1:01 0:45 2:45 15
EBQB 1995$ 7 <2:00 <124 5:57 13
'last animal always F-j Heymann (1995)
* F-j last animal on 2 days 5 Heymann, unpublished data
Tukey HSD est: a vs. d: n.s.; a vs (b+c): p < 0.0005; d vs. (b+c): p < 0.0005


21 Mar-4 Jd


8-Jd 3 Jd -1 IAug





Neoropical Primates 12(1), April 2004


data), a seasonal effect should have resulted in a constant in-
crease or decrease, respectively, of the parameters examined
here, rather than in the observed fluctuation.

Modification of resource use (increased number of repeated
visits to the same feeding site) may incur costs in terms of
increased risk of cueing-in a predator and reduced dietary
variability. Since the genetic relationships of the group mem-
bers are not known (although F-j most likely is the daughter
of the adult pair and the sister of the subadult and juvenile
group members), it is not dear whether benefits obtained
through kin selection or other benefits balanced these costs.
An additional cost factor may have been represented by
F-j lagging behind the group when entering a sleeping
site. Rapid retirement to a sleeping site within 1-2 min is
highly consistent between different groups (Table 1), and
probably represents an anti-predator strategy (Caine, 1987;
Heymann, 1995). Lagging behind could potentially increase
the risk of being detected by, or cueing-in, a predator.

Whether or not F-j would have survived without the modi-
fication in the group's behaviour cannot be answered. Our
observations provide evidence that wild tamarins modify
their behaviour in response to an injured member.

Acknowledgement. We thank Petra Lattker and Maren
Huck for critically reading the manuscript. ERTH was par-
tially supported by a grant from the Deutsche Akademische
Austauschdienst (DAAD A/99/02924).

Emnrita R. Tirado Herrera, Universidad Nacional de
la Amazonia Peruana (UNAP), Facultad de Ciencias
Biol6gicas, Iquitos, Peru, and Eckhard W. Heymann,
Abteilung Verhaltensforschung & Okologie, Deutsches
Primatenrzenrum, Gattingen, Germany, e-mail: gwdg.de>.

References

Caine, N. G. 1987. Vigilance, vocalizations, and
cryptic behavior at retirement in captive groups of
red-bellied tamarins Saguinus labiatus. Am. J. PrimatoL
12: 241-250.
Caine, N. G. 1993. Flexibility and co-operation as unifying
themes in Saguinussocial organization and behaviour: The
role of predation pressure. In: Marmosets and Tamarins:
Systematics, Behaviour, and Ecology, A. B. Rylands (ed.),
pp. 200-219. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Chapman, C. A. and Chapman, L. J. 1987. Social responses
to the traumatic injury of a juvenile spider monkey (Ateles
groffiyi). Primatrs 28: 271-275.
Dittus, W. P J. and Ranmayeke, S. M. 1989. Individual
and social behavioral responses to injury in wild toque
macaques (Macaca sinica). Int. J. PrimatoL 10: 215-234.
Dunbar, R. I. M. 1988. Primate Social Systems. Croom
Helm, London.
Goldizen, A. W. 1987.Tamarins and marmosets: Communal
care of offspring. In: Primate Societies, B. B. Smuts,
D. L Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham and


T. T. Struhsaker (eds.), pp. 34-43. The University of
Chicago Press, Chicago.
Gould, L 1997. Intermale affiliative behavior in ringtailed
lemurs (Lemur catta) at the Beza-Mahafaly Reserve,
Madagascar. Primates 38:15-30.
Heymann, E. W. 1995. Sleeping habits of tamarins,
Saguinus mystax and Saguinus fuscicollis (Mammalia;
Primates; Callitrichidae), in north-eastern Peru. J. ZooL,
Lond 237: 211-226.
Lovell, N. C. 1991. An evolutionary framework for assess-
ing illness and injury in nonhuman primates. Yearb. Phys.
Anthropol 34:117-155.
Schultz, A. H. 1939. Notes on diseases and healed fractures
of wild apes. Bull Hist. Med 7: 571-782.
Shahuano Tello, N., Huck, M. and Heymann, E. W.
2002. Boa constrictor attack and group defense in
moustached tamarins (Saguinus mystax). Folia Primatol
73: 146-148.
Zihlman, A. L, Morbeck, M. E. and Goodall, J. 1990.
Skeletal biology and individual life history of Gombe
chimpanzees. Zool, Lond 221: 37-61.


DIuRNAL BIRTH OF A Wn.D RED TTI MONEY,
CALLICEBUS CUPREUS, AT THE ESTACION BIOLOGICA
QUEBRADA BLANCO

Wagner Ivdn Terrones Rutz. Dilys Malvina Vela Diaz
Camilo Flores Amasifun, Eckhard W Heymann

In most diurnal primates, births take place during the night
(Jolly, 1972, 1973), which may relate to ecological, behav-
ioural or physiological factors (Timmermans et at, 1998).
The circumstances surrounding a birth are therefore usu-
ally not observed. Such observations might be particularly
interesting in species where offspring are carried mostly by
individuals other then the mother such as in titi monkeys,
night monkeys, the marmosets and tamarins to see how
soon the newborn may be transferred to a helper. Here we
report unusual circumstances surrounding the birth of a
red dri monkey, Callicebus cuprrus, observed at the Estaci6n
Biol6gica Quebrada Blanco (EBQB) in north-eastemrn
Peruvian Amazonia (04*21'S, 73*09'W; for details of
EBQB see Heymann, 1995).

The titi monkey group was composed of the adult pair, a
subadult male and an as-yet unsexed juvenile. This well-
habituated group had been under regular monthly observa-
tion between October 2002 and September 2003 as part of
a thesis project (Perez Yamacita, in prep.). The group was
monitored by two of us (CFA and EWH) on 10-13 Octo-
ber 2003, and quantitative data were collected by the first
two authors with the help of CFA on 16-18 October 2003
as part of a field course. Instantaneous scan sampling at
10-minute intervals was employed for data collection
(Martin and Bateson, 1993). While monitoring the group,
we noted the swollen abdomen of the female riti monkey,
suggesting that she might be pregnant. She copulated with
her mate on 11 October 2002.





Neotropical Primates 12(1), April 2004


On 18 October the group left its sleeping tree at 0530 h
and moved into a neighboring tree, where the titis rested
until 0600 h. They then moved, fed, and rested intermit-
tently until 0940 h. During this period, all were in the lower
forest levels and clearly visible for much of the time. No
infant was present. At 0950 h the group moved into a vine
tangle at a height of about 22 m. The two adults remained
there for the next two hours, while the subadult and the
juvenile foraged and fed nearby, occasionally approaching
the adults.

At 1300 h, we saw the neonate for the first time. It was
carried by the juvenile, who had climbed down and was
moving at a height of about 7 m. The neonate had dark
grey skin and was very sparsely haired. Head-body length
was estimated to be about 12-13 cm. The juvenile was not
moving particularly slowly or carefully, and at one point
the juvenile rubbed his back, and the neonate, against
a trunk. When the neonate screamed, the other group
members looked towards the juvenile and the neonate, butdid
not interfere.

The juvenile continued to carry the neonate until between
1440 h and 1450 h. We did not notice the transfer, but
from 1450 h it was carried by the adult male, who stayed
mostly in the upper canopy, while the others used different
levels of the forest during foraging, moving and resting. At
1530 h, the adult male climbed down and approached the
female. They rested together at a height of 4 m. We heard
the neonate vocalizing, and at 1600 h it moved from the
male's back to his ventrum. At 1610 h the female climbed
up into the canopy, followed by the male with the neonate.
They remained out of sight until 1640 h, when the male,
still with the neonate, entered a sleeping site, immediately
followed by the female. The subadult and the juvenile en-
tered at 1650 h and 1659 h, respectively.

The quantitative data collected during a 3-day observation
period do not allow for a statistical comparison of activity
budgets. However, it may be no coincidence that the time
spent resting by the female on the day of the birth was 41%,
compared to 24% on the two days preceding the birth. Fur-
thermore, she was much more vigilant (12% of time) com-
pared to 6% and 3%, respectively, the two days before.

While we could not determine the exact time of birth, it is
clear that it took place after 0950 h, most likely during the
prolonged resting period of the male and the female. In cap-
tivity, birth in titi monkeys occurs during the night (Meritt,
1980), but no information is available from the field. In
wild New World monkeys, diurnal births have been re-
ported from Saguinus labiatus and S. imperator (Nacimento
Bezerra and Porter, 1999; Windfelder, 2000). It is difficult
to estimate how common diurnal births may be as opposed
to nocturnal, due to the rarity of any reports on births in
the wild.

In titi monkeys, the father is the principal infant carrier
from the first week of life (Jantschke et al., 1995; Wright,


1984), and it would seem to be quite unusual that this
newborn was carried by the juvenile for some time after its
birth. The juvenile was born in November 2002 and had,
therefore, never seen a younger sibling before. It was inex-
perienced in this sense, and showed inappropriate behav-
iours, such as trying to rub off the neonate. The parents did
not interfere, and the newborn was apparently unharmed.
When the group was followed again on 21 and 23 October,
the male was carrying the infant. By September 2004, it had
become a juvenile.

Wagner Ivin Terrones Ruiz, Facultad de Cidncias Biol6gi-
cas, Universidad Nacional de la Amazonia Peruana, Iqui-
tos, Peru, e-mail: , Dilys Malvina
Vela Diaz, Facultad de Cidncias Biol6gicas, Universidad
Nacional de la Amazonia Peruana, Iquitos, Peru, e-mail:
, Camilo Flores Amasifuln,
Estaci6n Biol6gica Quebrada Blanco, Rio Tahuayo, Loreto,
Peru, e-mail: , and Eckhard W
Heymann, Abteilung Soziobiologie, Deutsches Primaten-
zentrum, Kellnerweg 4, D-37077 Gbttingen, Germany,
e-mail: .

References

Heymann, E. W. 1995. Sleeping habits of tamarins, Sagui-
nus mystax and Saguinus fuscicollis (Mammalia; Primates;
Callitrichidae), in northeastern Peru. J. Zool., Lond. 237:
211-226.
Jantschke, B., Welker, C. and Klaiber-Schuh, A. 1995.
Notes on breeding of the titi monkey Callicebus cupreus.
Folia Primatol. 65: 210-213.
Jolly, A. 1972. Hour of birth in primates and man. Folia
Primatol. 18: 108-121.
Jolly, A. 1973. Primate birth hour. Int. Zoo Yearb. 13:
391-397.
Martin, P. and Bateson, P 1993. Measuring Behaviour.
Second edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Meritt Jr., D. A. 1980. Captive reproduction and
husbandry of the douroucouli Aotus trivirgatus
and the titi monkey (.Ci .... spp. Int. Zoo Yearb.
20: 52-59.
Nacimento Bezerra, E. and Porter, L. M. 1999. Birth of
Saguinus labiatus twins observed in their natural habitat.
Neotrop. Primates 7: 27-28.
Timmermans, P. J. A., van Beersum, A. C. and Vossen,
J. H. M. 1998. Giving birth in primates: Connec-
tion between ecological, behavioral and organismic
variables and time and place of delivery? Folia Primatol.
69: 223.
Windfelder, T. L. 2000. Observations on the birth and
subsequent care of twin offspring by a lone pair of wild
emperor tamarins (Saguinus imperator). Am. J. Primatol.
52: 107-113.
Wright, P. 1984. Biparental care in Aotus trivirgatus and
Callicebus moloch. In: Female Primates: Studies by Women
Primatologists, M. Small (ed.), pp. 59-75. Alan R. Liss,
New York.





Neotropical Primates 12(1), April 2004


OCCURRENCE AND DIET OF THE BLACK
BEARDED SAKI (CHIROPOTES SATANAS SATANAS)
IN THE FRAGMENTED LANDSCAPE OF WESTERN
MARANHAO, BRAZIL

Mdrcio Port-Carvalho
Stephen E Ferrari

Introduction

The bearded sakis, Chiropotes, are medium-sized platyr-
rhine frugivores, morphologically specialised for seed pre-
dation (Kinzey and Norconk, 1993; Peetz, 2001). Like
most Amazonian primates, relatively few detailed field data
are available, especially considering the dimensions of the
genus' geographic distribution, which extends from the
southeastern extreme of the Hylaea as far north and west
as the right bank of the Orinoco (Silva Jr. and Figueiredo,
2002). As is also so often the case, the taxa most threatened
with extinction are the least well-known.

The black bearded saki, Chiropotes satanas satanas, is the
only Amazonian pitheciid found east of the Rio Tocantins
(Ferrari and Lopes, 1996) one of the biome's most dense-
ly populated areas and has been classified as Endangered
for some time (IUCN, 1994; Rylands et. al., 1997; MMA,
2003). Johns and Ayres (1987) proposed that the subspe-
cies could be extinct by the end of the twentieth century,
although fortunately this prediction proved unfounded.
Several recent studies (Carvalho Jr. et al, 1999; Lopes and
Ferrari, 2000; Pereira, 2002) have identified a growing
number of remnant populations, often in relatively small
forest fragments.

While these studies have shown that the black bearded saki
is more tolerant of habitat fragmentation than was previ-
ously thought, the ecology of the subspecies is still poorly
known, and more detailed field data are necessary for the
development of effective conservation strategies. With
this in mind, five remnants of the original forest cover -
including two of less than 100 ha were surveyed in west-
ern Maranhao in order to identify surviving populations of
bearded sakis and collect preliminary data on their feeding
behaviour. Sakis were found in all fragments, where they
were observed feeding mainly on immature seeds. This ap-
parent ability of C. s. satanas to survive extremes of habitat
fragmentation will be an important asset for its conserva-
tion over the long term.

Methods

This study took place on the Celmar plantation complex
in the western extreme of the Brazilian state of Maranhao,
northwest of the city of Imperatriz. This part of the state
is known locally as the Tocantina region, and represents
the easternmost extreme of the Amazon forest, or Hylaea.
Present-day forest cover consists of a series of frag-
ments that vary in size and degree of habitat disturbance,


totalling 40,000 ha, separated by pastures and Eucalyptus
plantations covering 31,000 ha (Almeida, 2001). Approxi-
mately 11,600 ha of primary terra firma forest remain, dis-
tributed in 12 fragments of different sizes. Bearded sakis
were found in all, and data were collected in five fragments,
ranging in size from eight to over 2,000 ha (Table 1).

The fragments were visited regularly throughout 2001
(see Carvalho, 2002). In the four larger fragments, in ad-
dition to informal observations, standard line-transect sur-
veys were carried out, with a total of between 100 km and
133 km walked per site (Port-Carvalho and Ferrari, 2002;
Port-Carvalho and Ferrari, in prep.). Estimates of popula-
tion density for the three largest fragments were calculated
using a Fourier series expansion (Ayres et al., 2000). When-
ever sakis were observed feeding during either type of data
collection, all relevant details were recorded, including the
item (flower, fruit, seed), and the species of plant exploited.
Feeding sites were marked, and specimens collected for
identification at the EMBRAPA herbarium in Belkm. The
proportion of secondary forest cover in the larger fragments
(Table 1) was estimated by recording the forest type ob-
served at 50-m intervals along the respective trail system
(2.5-5.2 km total length, depending on the site).

Complementary behavioral data were collected in the
Primavera fragment between December 2001 and February
2002, where a study group with 17 members was moni-
tored using a scan-sampling schedule in which one-minute
scans were conducted at intervals of five minutes (see Ferrari
and Rylands, 1994). Records were assigned to four princi-
pal behaviour categories (Feeding, Locomotion, Rest and
Miscellaneous, which includes social interactions and alarm
vocalisations and postures).

Results

Bearded sakis were observed in all five fragments (Table 2),
including Martirinho, where there was a group of at least
four individuals. Given the reduced size of this fragment,
it seems likely that the sakis may range into surrounding
areas, or even visit neighboring fragments by crossing
open ground although no evidence of such behaviour was
collected, either from direct observation or reports from
local residents. Sakis were relatively abundant in all but the
largest fragment (Esplanada), especially in comparison with
Chiropotes populations inhabiting continuous forest (for


Table 1. Characteristics of the forest fragments surveyed.
Area Estimated %
Fragment Location (ha) of secondary
_____forest
Martirinho 0500'S, 4808'W 8 100.0
Primavera 0509'S, 4817'W 63 61.1
Corayao do Brasil 0500'S, 4812'W 306 56.3
Santa Rosa 05005'S, 48015'W 653 57.5
Esplanada 0458'S, 4808'W >2000 64.9





Neotropical Primates 12(1), April 2004


Table 2. Known (Martirinho and Primavera) or estimated abundance of bearded sakis at the five study sites.
Martirinho Primavera Coraqao do Brasil Santa Rosa Esplanada
Individuals per km2 62.5 27.0 11.4 10.1 2.5
Total population 4 17 35 66 49


example, Ayres, 1981; Van Roosmalen et al., 1988; Ferrari
etal., 1999).

The behavioral data for the study group from the
Primavera fragment are limited in terms of both sample
size and period, but confirm the general pattern record-
ed for bearded sakis from other sites as active animals
(Table 3). The proportion of time spent feeding was re-
duced in comparison with some previous studies, such
as those of Ayres (1981) and Peetz (2001), although it
remains unclear to what extent this represents a real dif-
ference in behaviour patterns, as opposed to differences in
sampling procedures.

Despite the limited number of records, feeding behaviour
was typical of Chiropotes, characterized by the exploitation
of a wide variety of species, a large proportion of immature
seeds (Table 4), and the predominance of the Sapotaceae,
Lecythidaceae and Leguminosae (Table 5). The total of
48 different species, belonging to 19 families, was recorded
in only 75 feeding events although of course data were
collected over a relatively wide area, which may have con-
tributed (at least in part) to increased diversity in compari-
son with previous studies. However, no fewer than 37 of
these species were recorded at Primavera, which suggests
that high diversity is a characteristic of the forest in the
study area. A majority of the species were exploited for their
immature seeds (Table 4), although the sakis also dispersed
the seeds of nine families, all of which have relatively small
seeds, varying in length between 1-20 mm. With one ex-
ception, the species recorded in the diet at more than one
site or on more than two occasions were all exploited for
their immature seeds, further reinforcing the importance
of this item in the sakis' diet. The ingestion of flowers was
recorded only once, and no evidence was found of insec-
tivory. However, we emphasize that while data were col-
lected throughout the year, a majority of the records were
collected between December and February, which corre-
sponds with the onset of the wet season at the study site.
It is thus possible that there may be a certain degree of
seasonal bias (see Norconk, 1996).

Discussion

Two aspects of the results of this study of Chiropotes s.
satanas are especially relevant to the conservation of this
endangered primate. The occurrence of a sizeable metapop-
ulation this far east and south is an extremely important
finding, and the possibility of the existence of other isolated
populations in the region's fragmented landscape surely de-
mands further investigation. In addition, remnant popula-
tions were found in all the fragments surveyed, including


those smaller than 100 ha, and all disturbed to a greater or
lesser degree (Table 1). This is considerably smaller than
the original estimates of home range size for bearded sakis
in continuous forest (Ayres, 1981; Van Roosmalen et al.,
1988), although recent studies (Peetz, 2001; Santos, 2002;
Silva, 2003) have also recorded much smaller ranges in frag-
mented habitat. Even so, it seems unlikely that the group
in the Martirinho fragment will be able to survive over the
long term without access to neighboring habitat (Rylands
and Keuroghlian, 1988).

In addition to tolerating extremes of habitat fragmenta-
tion, the results indicate that the diet and activity regime
of C. s. satanas in the study area is similar to that of bearded
sakis at other sites. In other words, toleration of fragmented
habitat appears not to have been dependent on significant
changes in behavioral patterns, such as the exploitation
of alternative resources, although it must be remembered
that the data presented here are preliminary in nature.
The characteristics of the process of habitat fragmentation
may also be important, however. Many members of the
Sapotaceae, Lecythidaceae and Leguminosae are valued
hardwoods (Johns and Ayres, 1987), so shifts in feed-
ing patterns might be expected where fragmentation has
been accompanied by selective logging. Silva (2003) did
find evidence of such a shift in the feeding ecology of C. s.
satanas in a fragment similar in size to that of Martirinho
but, as mentioned above, data from the latter site are far
from comprehensive.


Table 3. Activity budget of the C. s. satanas study group between
December 2001 and February 2002.
Category Records % Total
Locomotion 245 58.5
Feeding 83 19.8
Rest 58 13.8
Miscellaneous 33 7.9
N 419 100.0


Table 4. Composition of the diet of C. s. satanas according to the
different items ingested.
Number of Number of
Item species events
(% of total) (% of total)
Immature seeds 28 (58.3) 47 (62.7)
Mesocarp or aril (seeds spat out) 10 (20.8) 14 (18.7)
Mesocarp (seeds ingested) 9 (18.8) 13 (17.3)
Flowers 1 (2.1) 1 (1.3)
Total 48 (100.0) 75 (100.0)





Neotropical Primates 12(1), April 2004


Table 5. Food sources exploited by bearded sakis in western Maranhao.

Family Species Habitus Item Events Site
Annonaceae Xylopiasp. Tree 25 m Immature seed 1 PRI
Apocynaceae Apisdosperma multiflorum Tree 20 m Mesocarp 1 PRI
Not identified Liana Mesocarp 2 ESP
Arecaceae Euterpe oleracea Tree 15 m Mesocarp 1 MAR
Boraginaceae Cordia scrabifolia Tree 15 m Mesocarp 2 PRI
Burseraceae Protium apiculatum Tree 25 m Mesocarp 1 PRI
Protium puncticulatum Tree 20 m Mesocarp 2 MAR
Tetragastris altissima Tree 15 m Mesocarp 3 PRI/MAR
Tetragastris paraensis Tree 30 m Mesocarp 1 PRI
Caesalpinaceae Dialium guianense Tree 25 m Immature seed 1 CBR
Cecropiaceae Cecropia sp. Tree 15 m Mesocarp 1 PRI
Chrysobalanaceae Licania kunthiana Tree 20 m Mesocarp 2 PRI
Clusiaceae Caraipa sp. Tree 25 m Seed 1 MAR
Combretaceae Buchenavia sp. Tree 20 m Mesocarp 1 PRI
Dilleniaceae Tetracera wildnoviana Tree 25 m Mesocarp 1 CBR
Flacourtiaceae Laetia procera Tree 30 m Mesocarp 1 MAR
Laetia suaveolonus Tree 15 m Mesocarp 1 PRI
Hippocrateaceae < Liana Mesocarp 2 PRI
Lecythidaceae Cariniana sp. Tree 25 m Seed 1 MAR
Eschweilera coriaceae Tree 25 m Immature seed 3 PRI/CBR
Eschweilera ovata Tree 25 m Immature seed 1 PRI
Eschweilera pedicillata Tree 20 m Immature seed 1 CBR
Eschweilera sp. Tree 20 m Immature seed 2 PRI
Lecythis lurida Tree 25 m Immature seed 2 PRI
Leguminosae Hymenaea parvifolia Tree 20 m Immature seed 1 PRI
Inga alba Tree 25 m Mesocarp 2 PRI
Inga nobilis Tree 10 m Mesocarp 1 PRI
/, 'i ,, venosa Tree 20 m Immature seed 2 PRI
Pterocarpus rohrii Tree 15 m Immature seed 1 PRI
Moraceae Brosimum guianense Tree 05 m Immature seed 1 PRI
Brosimum parinarioides Tree 35 m Immature seed 1 MAR
Ficus pertusa Hemiepiphyte Mesocarp 1 PRI
Pseudolmedia laevigata Tree 15 m Mesocarp 1 PRI
Myrtaceae Eugenia patrisii Tree- 15 m Immature seed 7 PRI
Eugenia sp. Tree 15 m Flower 1 PRI
Quinaceae Lacunaria crenata Tree 15 m Immature seed 1 PRI
Lacunaria oppositifolia Tree 15 m Immature seed 1 SRO
Sapotaceae Franchetella anibifolia Tree 15 m Immature seed 1 PRI
Manilkara amazonica Tree 15 m Immature seed 1 PRI
Micropholis egensis Tree 20 m Immature seed 1 PRI
Micropholis guyanensis Tree 20 m Immature seed 1 PRI
Neoxythece sp. Tree 20 m Immature seed 1 PRI
Panchonella guianensis Tree 20 m Immature seed 1 PRI
Pouteria caimito Tree 20 m Immature seed 2 SRO
Pouteria lasiocarpa Tree 25 m Immature seed 5 PRI
Pouteria hispida Tree 10 m Immature seed 1 PRI
Priurella prieuri Tree 20 m Immature seed 1 PRI
Vochysiaceae Qualea dinizii Tree 30 m Immature seed 2 PRI
Qualeagridonia Tree 20 m Immature seed 3 PRI/CBR





Neotropical Primates 12(1), April 2004


While the similarities with previous studies of bearded sakis
have been emphasised here, an alternative interpretation of
the results may be relevant to an understanding of the ecol-
ogy of the genus. Early ecological studies of bearded sakis
(Ayres, 1981; Van Roosmalen et al., 1988; Frazao, 1992)
were conducted at sites located well within the main body
of the genus' distribution, and supported what came to be
a "standard" dogma, that these primates were intolerant of
habitat disturbance and dependent on large areas of con-
tinuous forest (for example, Johns and Ayres, 1987). All
recent studies, however, have contradicted this idea (Bo-
badilla and Ferrari, 1999; Lopes and Ferrari, 2002; Peetz,
2001; Pereira, 2002; Santos, 2002; Silva, 2003; present
study). A common aspect of these studies is that they were
conducted at relatively marginal sites, close to the transition
of the continuous forest with the Venezuelan Llanos to the
northwest (Peetz, 2001) and the Brazilian Cerrado to the
southeast (all other studies).

This suggests that these sakis may be naturally more toler-
ant of habitat disturbance than those found at more central
sites, although it remains unclear whether this reflects phy-
logenetic differences, or variation at the local population
level. More detailed data will obviously be required before
such conclusions can be evaluated definitively. In the mean-
time, whatever the factors involved, the results presented
here, together with those of other recent studies, indicate
that C. s. satanas is able to survive in the fragmented land-
scape of eastern Amazonia, although the long-term conser-
vation of this primate will depend on adequate metapopu-
lation management.

Acknowledgments: This study was supported by Celmar
S. A. Companhia de Celulose e Papel, the Brazilian Higher
Education Authority (CAPES), the World Wide Fund for
Nature (WWF) Brasil (CSR 187-2000) USAID, the
Brazil Science Council (CNPq) and the Kapok Foundation.
Botanical specimens were identified by Manoel Cordeiro
at EMBRAPA Amazonia Oriental, Belkm, Para. We also
thank Paulo Lobo for logistical support, and FAbio Rohe
and Mayson Peterson for field assistance.

Marcio Port-Carvalho1,2 and Stephen E Ferrari13,
'Departamento de Psicologia Experimental, Universidade
Federal do Para, Belkm 66075-110, Para, Brazil, 2Instituto
Florestal do Estado de Sao Paulo, Rua do Horto 931,
Horto Florestal, Sao Paulo 02377-000, Sao Paulo, Brazil,
e-mail: and 3Departamento de
Gen&tica, Universidade Federal do Para, Belkm 66075-110,
Para, Brazil.

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INFECCI6N POR LARVAS DE ALOUATTAMYIA BAERI
(DIPTERA: CUTEREBRIDAE) EN MONOS AULLADORES,
ALOUATTA PALLIATA (PRIMATES: CEBIDAE) DE LA
COSTA CARIBE DE COSTA RICA

Olger Calderdn-Arguedas, Adriana Troyo
Mayra E Solano, Ronald Sdnchez
Misael Chinchilla, Gustavo A. Gutierrez-Espeleta

Introducci6n

Alouattamyia baeri es una especie de cuterebrido cuya larva
se asocia con el parasitismo en primates del Nuevo Mundo
(Catts, 1982). La descripci6n de la morfologfa fue realizada
por Shannon y Greene (1926) con ejemplares procedentes
de la Guayana Inglesa y de la Regi6n del Darien en Panami.
Zeled6n y colaboradores (1957) describieron el caso de una
miasis furuncular en un mono aullador procedente de La
Hacienda Lombardia en Tilarin (Guanacaste, Costa Rica)
en la que el agent etiol6gico identificado correspondi6 a
Cuterebra (=Alouattamyia) baeri. Este fue el primer informed
acerca de la presencia de este dfptero en el territorio national.

A pesar de que el parasitismo por esta mosca se ha informa-
do en primates como Aotus trivirgatus (Guimaraes, 1971)
y el ser human (Guimaraes y Coimbra, 1982; Fraiha
et al., 1984), se ha observado que las relaciones parasitarias
mris frecuentes se establecen con monos del genero Alouatta
(A. palliata y A. belzebul) (Catts, 1982), por lo que
podrian constituir un important agent patogenico
para estas species.

En el present trabajo se analizaron las caracteristicas
de la infestaci6n que present este diptero en una mues-
tra de monos aulladores procedentes de la Costa Caribe de
Costa Rica.

Metodos

Se estudi6 la presencia de A. baeri en monos aulladores pro-
cedentes de la Costa Caribe de Costa Rica. El manejo de los
mismos se hizo de acuerdo con los protocolos descritos por
Troyo y colaboradores (2002). Brevemente, los animals
fueron anestesiados con dardos que contenfan los sedantes
Telazol o una mezcla de ketamina y xylosin (aproximada-
mente 0.2 mg/kg). El primate fue capturado en una red y
una vez en el suelo, se realize su inspecci6n fisica, ubicando
la presencia o ausencia de lesiones miisicas. Esta evaluaci6n
se realize en el marco de una investigaci6n multidisciplina-
ria en la cual se estudian diferentes aspects de las poblacio-
nes de primates de Costa Rica.

El diagn6stico del agent etiol6gico fue realizado mediante
anilisis de las larvas que fueron extraidas mecinicamente de
las lesiones. Estas fueron colocadas en alcohol al 70% para
su fijaci6n y transport al laboratorio. Dichas larvas fueron
observadas macrosc6picamente y posteriormente se aclara-
ron en lactofenol por un perfodo de 20 dfas, luego del cual





Neotropical Primates 12(1), April 2004


se realize la disecci6n y montaje de las estructuras diagn6s-
ticas (esqueleto cefalofaringeo, espiraculos posteriores y piel
larval). Estas fueron montadas entire porta y crubreobjetos
en medio Hoyer para su posterior analisis microsc6pico y
comparadas con las observaciones descritas por Shannon y
Greene (1926) y Zeled6n y colaboradores (1957).

Las caracterfsticas de la infestaci6n fueron expresadas de
acuerdo con las definiciones propuestas por Margolis y cola-
boradores (1982). Los valores correspondientes a prevalen-
cia y densidad relative en monos machos y hembras fueron
evaluados mediante pruebas de hip6tesis para la compara-
ci6n de proporciones, en tanto que los valores concernientes
a la intensidad promedio se analizaron mediante pruebas de
t-student para comparaci6n de medias (Daniel, 1988).

Resultados

Se capturaron 28 monos aulladores correspondientes a la
especie Alouatta palliata, en cinco localidades ubicadas en
la Costa Caribe de Costa Rica. Ocho de los monos, pro-
cedentes de tres localidades diferentes, mostraron lesiones
miasicas (Tabla 1), cuyas larvas presentaron las caracterfs-
ticas tipicas de A. baeri (Figura 1). Las lesiones observadas
fueron de tipo furuncular (Figura 2) y se localizaron en
las parties superiores del cuerpo, principalmente a nivel de
cuello (Figura 2, Tabla 2).

Las diferencias en las caracterfsticas de la infecci6n en
monos macho y hembra fueron estadfsticamente significati-
vas en lo referente a prevalencia y densidad relative, en tanto
que la intensidad promedio fue similar entire los animals de
ambos sexos (Tabla 3).

Discusi6n

La presencia de A. baeri en primates del territorio costarri-
cense fue informado por primer vez durante la decada de
los afios 50 cuando, casi como una curiosidad, se present
el caso de un mono de la especie Alouatta palliata palliata
que sufria una miasis en la cual el agent causal fue A. baeri.
Este mono procedfa de la provincia de Guanacaste, ubicada
en el Pacifico Seco de Costa Rica (Zeled6n et al., 1957).
En la present investigaci6n se evidencia la presencia de
A. baeri en la Costa Caribe del pafs (Tabla 1). Al igual que
en studios previous (Shannon y Greene, 1926; Zeled6n
et al., 1957; Milton, 1996), el tipo de miasis observado fue
furuncular, con una localizaci6n de preferencia en la peri-
feria del cuello del animal (Figura 2, Tabla 2). La presencia
de lesiones en hombro, flanco derecho, pecho y axila fue
tambidn evidence (Tabla 2). Estas lesiones podrfan obedecer
a migraciones end6genas erraticas por parte de las larvas, las
cuales han podido completar su ciclo larval exponidndose a
nivel dermico en sitios an6malos.

La prevalencia total de la infecci6n fue del 28.6%, siendo
significativamente mayor en machos que en hembras (Tabla
3). Las diferencias asociadas al sexo del hospedador podrian
estar relacionadas con los bajos porcentajes de infecci6n por


Tabla 1. Infestaci6n por larvas de Alouattamyia baeri en los
primates estudiados. Se present el ndmero de monos infectados
seguido de diagonal y el ndmero de monos capturados.
Procedencia Hembras Machos Total
Puerto Vargas 2/2 2/2 4/4
Bambti 0/6 0/1 0/7
Albi Lodge 1/6 2/3 3/9
Rio Jurez 0/4 1/3 1/7
Cacaotal 0/0 0/1 0/1
Total 3/18 5/10 8/28



Figura 1. Vista macrosc6pica de larvas de Alouattamyia baeri
obtenidas en la Costa Caribe de Costa Rica.


Tabla 2. Carga parasitaria y localizaci6n de las lesiones en los
monos infectados por larvas de Alouattamyia baeri.
Ejemplar Sexo* Localizacin arga Topografia
No Sexo* Localizacin parasitaria de la lesi6n
Puerto Hombro
Vargas izquierdo
Puerto Cuello/flanco
Vargas derecho
3 M Puerto 3 Cuello/pecho/
Vargas abdomen
Puerto
4 H ur 1 Cuello
Vargas
Cuello/hombro/
5 M Albi Lodge 3 l eho
flanco derecho
Hombro/axila
6 M Albi Lodge 3 Hombroaxila
derecha
7 H Albi Lodge 7 Cuello
8 M Rio Juirez 1 Cuello
Total 22
M = macho, H = hembra


,4





Neotropical Primates 12(1), April 2004


Figura 2. Lesiones furunculares por Alouattamyia baeri en monos aulladores de la Costa Caribe de Costa Rica: a. Detalle de la lesi6n
furuncular; b. Ubicaci6n tipica del furtnculo; = sitio de la lesi6n.


parte de A. palliata en los monos estudiados. En otros estu-
dios, como los realizados por Milton (1996) y Baron y cola-
boradores (1996) en la Isla de Barro Colorado (Panama), se
observaron prevalencias totales mayores a las evidenciadas
en el present studio (60.0 y 83.0% respectivamente) y no
se observaron diferencias en la prevalencia entire machos y
hembras. En el primero de estos studios (Milton, 1996)
se demostr6 que la incidencia de la parasitosis muestra una
clara estacionalidad con picos de incidencia en la mitad y fi-
nales de la estaci6n lluviosa. En Costa Rica, la Zona Caribe,
no tiene una estacionalidad marcada, por lo que se espera-
rfa que la prevalencia fuera mas o menos la misma durante
todo el afio.

En el present studio se pudo evidenciar una distribu-
ci6n asim&trica de la infecci6n observada en las localida-
des estudiadas cuyas caracterfsticas biol6gicas y ambienta-
les practicamente son iguales (Tabla 1), lo que plantea la
posibilidad de que la capacidad de dispersi6n de A. baeri
sea realmente limitada. Tal y como lo demostraron Colwell
y Milton (1998), la tasa de oviposici6n de las hembras es
de alrededor de 262 149.4 huevos, con una oviposici6n
total de 1.399 243 huevos, lo que permitirfa suponer la


Tabla 3. Caracterizaci6n de la infestaci6n por Alouattamyia baeri
en los monos estudiados.
Parimetro Hembras Machos Total
Prevalencia1 16.6 50.0 28.6
Intensidad promedio2 3.6 3.05 2.2 1.09 2.75 1.98
Densidad relative3 0.61 1.1 0.78
'Monos infectados por sexo/Total de monos analizados (infectados y no
infectados) por sexo
'No. de larvas/No. de monos infectados por sexo
'No. de larvas/No. total de monos analizados por sexo
D iferencias . i .. ........ .... ..,, ,, (p < 0.1),*(p < 0.05)


ocurrencia de mas o menos cinco oviposiciones a lo largo
de la vida del diptero. Si las densidades de moscas no son
muy altas, el event de infecci6n ocurrirfa de una manera
eventual en las poblaciones de monos, afectando solamente
a pequefias fracciones de las tropas. A pesar de lo anterior,
se puede observer que la intensidad promedio de la infec-
ci6n (Tabla 3) fue similar en los monos infectados, sin que
hubiese diferencia entire machos y hembras. El valor de In-
tensidad Promedio Total observado en este studio (2.75)
fue similar a los descritos por Milton (1996) en la Isla de
Barro Colorado. Lo anterior podria reflejar el ingreso de
una carga infectante similar en el moment de la infecci6n.
Este comportamiento es compatible con la hip6tesis de que
los sitios de oviposici6n podrian estar dados por las hojas de
las plants que sirven de alimento a los monos, por lo que
la infecci6n tendria lugar por via oral. En relaci6n con lo
anterior Colwell y Milton (1998), en un modelo animal con
conejos, demostraron que la infecci6n por via d&rmica prAc-
ticamente no se da, en tanto que la penetraci6n via mucosas
es much mas permisiva. La intensidad promedio podria
ser regulada tambikn por medio de mecanismos inmunes.
En este sentido se ha podido evidenciar que en los monos
aulladores existe una respuesta tipo IgG especifica, dirigida
primordialmente contra larvas de primer y tercer estadio de
A. baeri (Baron et al., 1996).

El impact de la infecci6n por A. baerien las poblaciones de
monos aulladores puede verse reflejado en la mortalidad de
los miembros de las tropas. En este sentido Milton (1996)
demostr6 una correlaci6n entire incidencia de infecci6n y
mortalidad. Dicha mortalidad puede estar relacionada con
cuadros septicos secundarios o infestaci6n con otras larvas
de dfpteros como Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Calli-
phoridae). El papel que juega el parasitismo errAtico, donde
se da el compromise de 6rganos y tejidos vitales, debe ser
evaluado posteriormente.





Neotropical Primates 12(1), April 2004


La profundizaci6n en el conocimiento biol6gico sobre
A. baeri se plantea como una necesidad para el desarrollo
de alternatives de control contra este dfptero, el cual podria
constituir un agent causal de miasis frecuente en las pobla-
ciones de monos aulladores de pafses tropicales.

Agradecimientos: Los autores desean agradecer a la Vicerrec-
toria de Investigaci6n por el soporte econ6mico al proyecto
VI 111-Al-015.

Olger Calder6n-Arguedas, Adriana Troyo, Mayra E.
Solano, Centro de Investigaci6n en Enfermedades Tropi-
cales (CIET), Departamento de Parasitologfa, Facultad de
Microbiologfa, Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR), San Jose,
Costa Rica, Ronald Sinchez, Departamento de Biologfa,
Sede de Occidente, UCR, Alajuela, Costa Rica, Misael
Chinchilla, CIET, Departamento de Parasitologfa, Facul-
tad de Microbiologfa (UCR) y Laboratorio de Investiga-
ci6n, Universidad de Ciencias Medicas "Dr. Andres Vesalio
GuzmAn", San Jose, Costa Rica y Gustavo A. Guti6rrez-
Espeleta, Escuela de Biologfa, UCR, San Jose, Costa Rica.
E-mail: .

Referencias

Baron, R., Colwell, D. y Milton, K. 1996. Antibody
immunoglobulin (IgG) response to Alouattamyia baeri
(Diptera: Cuterebridae) parasitism of howler monkeys,
Alouatta palliata, in Panama. J. Med. Entomol. 33:
946-951.
Catts, E. P 1982. Biology of New World bot flies:
Cuterebridae. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 27: 313-338.
Colwell, D. y Milton, K. 1998. Development of
Alouattamyia baeri (Diptera: Oestridae) from howler
monkeys (Primates: Cebidae) on Barro Colorado Island,
Panama. J. Med. Entomol. 35: 674-680.
Daniel, W. 1988. Pruebas de hip6tesis. En: Bioestadistica:
Base para el Andlisis de las Ciencias de la Salud, pp. 221-
282. Editorial Limusa, Mexico, DE
Fraiha, H., Chaves, L., Borges, I. y de Freitas, R. 1984.
Miiases humans da Amazonia. III. Miiase pulmonar por
Alouattamyia baeri (Shannon & Greene, 1926) (Diptera,
Cuterebridae). Sep. Rev. Fund. Sesp. 29: 63-68.
Guimaraes, J. 1971. Notes on the hosts of Neotropical
Cuterebrini (Diptera, Cuterebridae), with new records
from Brazil. Pap. Avulsos Zool. 25: 89-94.
Guimaraes, J. y Coimbra, C. 1982. Miase humana por
Alouattamyia baeri (Shannon & Greene) (Diptera,
Cuterebridae). Rev. Bras. Zool. 1: 35-39.
Margolis, L., Esch, W., Holmes, J., Kuris, A. y Shad, G.
1982. The use of ecological terms in parasitology. J.
Parasitol. 68: 131-133.
Milton, K. 1996. Effects of bot fly (Alouattamyia baeri)
parasitism on a free-ranging howler monkey (Alouatta
palliata) population in Panami.J. Zool., Lond. 239: 39-63.
Shannon, R. y Greene, C. 1926. A bot-fly parasitic in
monkeys. Zoopathologica 1: 285-290.
Troyo, A., Solano, M., Calder6n-Arguedas, 0., Chinchilla,
M., Sanchez, R. y Guti&rrez-Espeleta, G. A. 2002. Fur


mite, Listrocarpus alouattae Fain (Acari: Atopomelidae),
from Alouattapalliata Gray (Primates: Cebidae) in Costa
Rica. Int.J. Acarol. 28: 251-255.
Zeled6n, R., Jiminez, R. y Brenes, R. 1957. Cuterebra baeri
Shannon y Greene, 1926, en el mono aullador de Costa
Rica. Rev. Biol. Trop. 5: 129-134.


FLORA BACTERIAL ORAL Y SU PERFIL DE SENSIBILIDAD
A ANTIBIOTICOS EN MONOS DE COSTA RICA
(ALOUATTA PALLIATA Y ATELES GEOFFROYI)

Maria del Mar Gamboa-Coronado
Evelyn Rodriguez-C(.til.//,., Galia Rojas-Contreras
Ronald Sdnchez-Porras, Gustavo Gutierrez-Espeleta

Introducci6n

Costa Rica es considerada como la region de mayor diver-
sidad biol6gica en Centro Am&rica; en 51 000 km2 tiene al
menos de 500 000 diferentes species (Reid et al., 1994) y
entire los mamiferos presents, se identifican cuatro species
de monos distribuidas por todo el pafs, dos de las cuales son
Alouatta palliata, conocido como congo, y Ateles, ..rr.., o
mono colorado. Los A. palliata se encuentran distribuidos
en todo el pafs; son arboricolas, aunque en ocasiones se ven
obligados a cruzar areas abiertas sobre suelo para alimentar-
se de Arboles aislados y ocasionalmente, cuando el recurso
alimenticio es escaso, migran del parche boscoso hacia los
cafetales (Sanchez, 1991). En Costa Rica, A. ...rr ., es
considerada en peligro de extinci6n, debido a la defores-
taci6n y a la caza para aprovechar su care. Los individuos
de esta especie se encuentran en todo el pafs y se les conoce
por su especializaci6n extrema a la forma de vida arb6rea;
son principalmente frugivoros, alimentAndose muy selecti-
vamente en el bosque maduro, en alturas de moderadas a
extremes (Elizondo, 1999).

Con el tiempo los monos han aumentado su contact con
los humans, ya sea por la siembra de cafe dentro de zonas
boscosas o por la eliminaci6n de Arboles (Sanchez, 1991),
lo que ha afectado su comportamiento y habitos alimen-
ticios (Vergeest, 1992) y por ende, posiblemente su flora
bacteriana normal. En el ser human, las bacteria aero-
bias y anaerobias constituyen los components principles
de la microflora que coloniza las superficies mucosas y la
piel; las bacteria anaerobias superan en ndmero a las bac-
terias aerobias, pudidndose encontrar una relaci6n de 10:1
en la cavidad oral (Engelkirk y Duben-Engelkirk, 2000).
Se conoce poco acerca de la flora bacteriana normal de los
monos, incluyendo la oral, ya que la mayoria de studios
se enfocan principalmente en su biologfa, comportamiento,
habitat y alimentaci6n. En este trabajo se pretend describir
la flora bacteriana (aerobia y anaerobia) de la cavidad oral
de monos de las species A. palliata y A. -rr . .. determi-
nar su patr6n de sensibilidad a los antibi6ticos. Esto con el
prop6sito de evaluar el riesgo potential de contraer alguna
enfermedad por la cercanfa humana con los monos y tratar
de establecer si la interacci6n del hombre en ambientes pro-





Neotropical Primates 12(1), April 2004


pios de estos animals ha influenciado dicho patr6n de sen-
sibilidad antimicrobiana.

M6todos

Se estudiaron 27 muestras de la cavidad oral de monos de
las species A. palliatay A...rr.. en las regions de Costa
Rica de: Chomes (10 02' 35" N, 84 54' 50" 0), Lim6n
(09 59' 34" N, 83 01' 51" 0), San Ram6n (10 05' 05"
N, 84 28' 48" 0), Cahuita (09 44' 06" N, 82 48' 39" 0)
y Palo Verde (10 20' 47" N, 85 20' 44" 0); s6lo estas dos
6ltimas constituyen habitat continue, a partir de los cuales
se analizaron 13 muestras.

Con una torunda est&ril, se rasp6 los dientes y la cavidad
de la boca del mono (previamente sedado) y se resuspen-
di6 en un tubo con 2 ml de soluci6n salina (SS) est&ril.
Con jeringa y a traves del tap6n de hule, se inocul6 0.5 ml
de la suspension en un tubo con medio de care cocida
(CC) prerreducido, que se mantuvo a temperature ambien-
te antes de ser procesado en el laboratorio; los tubos con
el resto de la suspension en SS se mantuvieron en frifo. A
cada una de las suspensions, se les agreg6 2 ml de caldo
tripticasa soya (CTS) y se incubaron a 35C por 24 hr; los
tubos con medio de CC prerreducidos se incubaron a 35C
por 48 hr. A partir de cada tubo de CTS, se rayaron places
de agar sangre (AS), chocolate, MacConkey y manitol sal,
que se incubaron a 35C por 24 hr para el aislamiento de
bacteria aerobias. A partir de cada tubo con medio de CC
prerreducido, para el aislamiento de bacteria anaerobias,
se ray6 una placa de AS que se incub6 en anaerobiosis a
35C por 48 hr. Se seleccionaron los diferentes morfotipos
coloniales en cada placa, anotando sus caracteristicas, se les
hizo tinci6n de Gram y se rayaron en AS para obtener cul-
tivos puros. Se determine la tolerancia al oxfgeno de cada
morfotipo colonial (incubaci6n en atm6sfera incrementada
de CO2 y en jarra de anaerobiosis) y se seleccionaron como
bacteria anaerobias aquellas cuyo crecimiento fue exclusive
o mejor bajo condiciones anaerobias.

A las bacteria aerobias se les realizaron pruebas de Gram,
oxidasa y catalasa y con base en ello, se escogi6 la correspon-
diente galerfa miniaturizada de pruebas bioqufmicas (API);
las bacteria anaerobias se inocularon en Rapid ID 32A o API
20A. Todas las galerfas se incubaron y se leyeron de acuerdo
con las recomendaciones de la casa fabricante y se identifica-
ron utilizando el program API-Plus. Se realizaron pruebas
adicionales, seg6n el caso, cuando la identificaci6n no fue
precisa. Para determinar la sensibilidad a los antibi6ticos se
utilizaron galerfas comerciales (ATB), de acuerdo con el
tipo de bacteria aerobia: ATB G-5, ATB-Staph yATB-Strep;
para bacteria anaerobias se us6 ATB-ANA y se siguieron las
recomendaciones de la casa fabricante.

Resultados

A partir de las 27 muestras de la cavidad oral de los monos,
se aislaron 109 cepas de bacteria (promedio de cuatro cepas
por muestra); 56 eran de monos de habitat continue y


53 de monos en fragments de bosque, cerca de poblacio-
nes humans. No se encontraron diferencias en las species
bacterianas aisladas en ambos habitats ni en los patrons de
resistencia antimicrobiana. De las 109 cepas, 70 correspon-
dieron a bacteria aerobias (64%) y 39 a bacteria anaero-
bias (36%), lo que equivale a 2.6 aerobics y 1.4 anaerobios
por muestra. Respecto a las bacteria aerobias, predomina-
ron los bacilos Gram negativos (49 de las 70 cepas), siendo
Enterobacter el genero mas frecuente, ya que se aisl6 en el
67% de las muestras (Cuadro 1) e incluy6 las species de
E. agglomerans, E. cloacae y E amnigenus. Fue possible aislar
otros 10 generos de bacilos Gram negativos aerobics, cuya
frecuencia en las muestras vari6 del 26% (Escherichia) al
4% (Achromobactery Chryseomonas, Cuadro 1). Se aislaron
21 cepas de cocos Gram positivos aerobics, siendo Staphylo-
coccus el genero mAs frecuente (en 67% de las muestras)
e incluy6 las species de S. aureus, S. hominis, S. lentus,
S. sciuri y S. simulans, otros generos aislados fueron
Streptococcus, Aerococcus y Leuconostoc con una frecuencia
de 4% cada uno.

Referente a las bacteria anaerobias, se aislaron 39 cepas: 17
bacilos Gram positivos, 12 bacilos Gram negativos, 6 cocos
Gram negativos y 4 cocos Gram positivos. Clostridium, el
genero mAs frecuente, se encontr6 en el 48% de las mues-
tras (Cuadro 2), correspondiendo a las species de C. beije-
rinckii, C. bifermentans, C. cadaveris, C. clostridioforme, C.
histolyticum, C. septicum, C. sordellii y C. sporogenes. Otros
siete generos de bacteria anaerobias tambikn estuvieron
presents, con una frecuencia que vari6 desde un 26% (Bac-
teroides) al 4% (Actinomyces y Peptostreptococcus, Cuadro 2).

Con respect a las pruebas de sensibilidad a los antibi6ticos,
el 71% de los bacilos Gram negativos aerobics fue resistente
a la amoxicilina y el 45% a la amoxicilina mas Acido clavu-
lInico. El 63% fue resistente a cefalotina, cefalosporina de
primera generaci6n, pero s6lo el 8, 4 y 4% a cefotaxime,
ceftriaxone y ceftazidime (8-16 mg/L), respectivamente,
cefalosporinas de tercera generaci6n (Figura 1); hubo re-
sistencia moderada a otros antibi6ticos como ticarcilina,
ceftazidime (1 mg/L), cotrimoxazol y aztreonam (Figura
1). Ocho de los 18 antibi6ticos (44%) evaluados fueron
efectivos contra todas las cepas aisladas (piperacilina, pipe-
racilina + tazobactam, imipenem, tobramicina, amikacina,
gentamicina, netilmicina y ciprofloxacina). Las cepas de
Staphylococcus mostraron una menor resistencia, pues 10 de
los 15 antibi6ticos probados (67%) fueron efectivos contra
todas las cepas aisladas (cefalotina, gentamicina, netilmici-
na, clindamicina, ciprofloxacina, tetraciclina, nitrourantof-
na, rifampicina, vancomicina y teicoplanina). Sin embargo,
el 89% de los aislamientos fue resistente a penicilina G y
el 28% a ampicilina mas sulbactam, 11% a eritromicina
y 6% a cotrimoxazol y a pefloxacina. Las dnicas cepas de
Streptococcus y Aerococcus aisladas fueron resistentes, entire
otros, a ciprofloxacina, quinolona de amplio espectro y de
uso relativamente reciente.

En cuanto a las cepas anaerobias, la resistencia a various anti-
bi6ticos tambien fue manifiesta, siendo el mayor porcentaje





Neotropical Primates 12(1), April 2004


Cuadro 1. Bacilos Gram negatives aerobios aislados de la cavidad
oral de 27 monos (Alouatta palliata y Ateles ."

nr Total de cepas Frecuencia (%)
_______ n=49 n=27
Enterobacter 18 67
Escherichia 7 26
Klebsiella 5 19
Acinetobacter 5 19
Serratia 3 11
Pseudomonas 3 11
Citrobacter 2 7
Chromobacterium 2 7
Aeromonas 2 7
Achromobacter 1 4
Chryseomonas 1 4


Cuadro 2. Bacterias anaerobias aisladas de la cavidad oral de
27 monos (Alouatta palliata y Ateles I, .,

ner Total de cepas Frecuencia (%)
_______n=39 n=27
Clostridium 13 48
Bacteroides 7 26
Veillonella 6 22
Prevotella 5 19
Gemella 3 11
Eubacterium 3 11
Actinomyces 1 4
Peptostreptococcus 1 4



l -










10

7.I Z













Figura 1. Resistencia a los antimicrobianos de 49 bacilos Gram
negativos aerobios aislados de la cavidad oral de 27 monos
(Alouatta palliata y Ateles, '. ..


de resistencia hacia el metronidazole, de un 49 a 44% segdn
su concentraci6n, seguido por la penicilina, la clindamicina
y cloranfenicol (31, 28 y 26%, respectivamente); hubo un
bajo porcentaje de resistencia a antibi6ticos como amoxici-
lina, cefotetan, imipenem y ticarcilina (Figura 2). Cinco de
los 15 antibi6ticos evaluados (33%) fueron efectivos contra
todas las cepas aisladas (amoxiclina + acido clavulanico, pi-
peracilina, piperacilina + tazobactam, cefoxitina, ticarcilina
+ acido clavulanico).

La presencia de cepas multirresistentes (resistencia a dos o
mas antimicrobianos) se dio tanto en las bacteria aerobias
como en las anaerobias. De las bacteria aerobias, el 80% de
las cepas mostr6 resistencia multiple, desde resistencia a dos
(25%) hasta resistencia a nueve antibi6ticos (4%), aunque
la mayoria (41%) fue resistente a tres o cuatro antibi6ticos
y un 10% a cinco o seis. La resistencia multiple en las cepas
de Staphylococcus fue menor, pues s6lo un bajo porcentaje
(6%) fue resistente a tres antibi6ticos y 33% a dos; la mayo-
rfa (61%) mostr6 resistencia solamente a uno o a ninguno
de los antibi6ticos evaluados. En las cepas anaerobias la re-
sistencia multiple fue moderada, el 49% mostr6 multirre-
sistencia: 20% a dos antimicrobianos, 11% a tres o cuatro
y 18% a cinco o seis.

Discussion

El conocimiento actual sobre la flora bacteriana oral de
monos es muy escaso y este studio permit sefialar resul-
tados interesantes que revelan semejanzas y diferencias con
la flora bacteriana humana. Aunque se logr6 el aislamiento
de cuatro cepas diferentes por muestra de cavidad oral de
monos, se encontr6 mayor cantidad de bacteria aerobias
(2.6 por muestra) que de anaerobias (1.4 por muestra),


Figura 2. Resistencia a los antimicrobianos de 39 bacteria
anaerobias aisladas de la cavidad oral de 27 monos (Alouatta
palliata y Ateles ., ., i.


so

40

S30

20

S10

0





Neotropical Primates 12(1), April 2004


contrario a lo que es de esperar en la cavidad oral humana.
Esto pudo ser el resultado de various aspects, desde proble-
mas metodol6gicos inevitable a la hora de tomar la mues-
tra para anaerobios en el campo, hasta dificultades para su
transport al laboratorio. En este sentido, para recoger el
material, optamos por utilizar una torunda que se resuspen-
di6 rapidamente en soluci6n salina y se inocul6 con aguja,
en un tubo con atm6sfera libre de oxfgeno; aquellos anaero-
bios muy sensibles al oxfgeno podrian haber muerto antes
de ser inoculados en el medio prerreducido. Dado que el
muestreo se realize en zonas alejadas al laboratorio, debi6
transcurrir entire 24 y 48 hr antes de que las muestras fueran
procesadas en el laboratorio. Como la solubilidad del oxf-
geno aumenta en refrigeraci6n, los tubos se mantuvieron
a temperature ambiente, temperature que puede haber fa-
vorecido s6lo a unas pocas species, perjudicando aquellas
cuyo imbito de temperature 6ptima de crecimiento fuera
mas estrecho y muy cercano a los 37 C. Estos inconve-
nientes no se presentan con las bacteria aerobias, que se
conservaron en la soluci6n salina mantenida en hielo hasta
su procesamiento en el laboratorio.

No fue possible demostrar la influencia de poblaciones hu-
manas adyacentes a las areas de muestreo, dado que los
gdneros bacterianos que se aislaron de monos provenien-
tes de habitat continues y de fragments de bosque fueron
similares. Lo mismo se observ6 con los patrons de resis-
tencia y multirresistencia antimicrobiana. Sin embargo, esta
observaci6n deberfa corroborarse ampliando el ndmero de
animals estudiados, pues 13 de una zona y 14 de la otra
podrian ser insuficientes.

Los generos de Enterobacter, Klebsiella y Escherichia estan
descritos entire los mAs frecuentes de la cavidad oral humana
(Isenberg y D'Amato, 1995) y fueron las bacteria aerobias
Gram negatives predominantes en este studio (Cuadro 1).
Los generos Staphylococcus y Streptococcus son los Gram po-
sitivos mis frecuentes en la cavidad oral humana (Isenberg
y D'Amato, 1995); en este studio se encontr6 un predo-
minio de Staphylococcus, quizA debido a condiciones meto-
dol6gicas que pueden haber permitido su sobrecrecimiento,
ya que es un genero nutricional y fisiol6gicamente menos
exigente que Streptococcus.

Se encontraron algunas species aerobias que no estan des-
critas como habitantes normales de la flora oral humana,
como Acinetobacter, quinto genero en frecuencia entire los
aerobics, y Serratia, present en el 11% de las muestras;
sin embargo, estan descritos como frecuentes en suelos y
aguas (Grimont y Grimont, 1984; Juni, 1984), por lo que
fAcilmente se explica su aislamiento de la cavidad oral de
los monos. El genero Pseudomonas, tambidn present en el
11% de las muestras, incluye muchas species ubicuas, que
se han aislado de aguas de rfos, suelos y plants, entire otros,
asf como de animals (Palleroni, 1984).

Otros gdneros menos frecuentes en este studio y no des-
critos como pertenecientes a la cavidad oral humana fueron
Citrobacter, Chromobacterium y Aeromonas (7% cada uno)


y Achromobacter y Leuconostoc (4% cada uno). Estos se en-
cuentran presents en suelos, aguas, plants, alimentos e
incluso algunos se mencionan como habitantes comunes
del ambiente en pauses tropicales (Popoff, 1984; Sakazadi,
1984; Sneath, 1984; Garvie, 1986). La literature cientifica
no refiere el habitat natural de Chryseomonas y Aerococcus,
pero sefiala algunos casos de importancia clinica veterina-
ria y humana (Evans, 1986; Hall, 2000); su hallazgo en los
monos parece indicar que es parte de la flora normal o que
se encuentra en suelos, aguas o plants, tal y como los otros
gdneros. Debido a que Aerococcus require de various factors
de crecimiento para su 6ptimo desarrollo (Acido pantotini-
co, acido nicotinico, biotina, purinas y algunos aminoici-
dos; Evans, 1986) podrfa ser que su frecuencia en la cavidad
oral de los monos fuera mayor que la encontrada en este
studio (4%).

Por otra parte, dentro del grupo de los aerobics, no se ais-
laron los generos Corynebacterium y Lactobacillus, descritos
como habitantes de la cavidad oral humana (Isenberg y
D'Amato, 1995). Podria ser que estin ausentes en la cavi-
dad oral de monos o bien, que no se hayan aislado por la
exigencia nutricional de ambos gdneros, ya que requieren
aminoAcidos especificos, purinas y pirimidinas, vitamins,
entire otros (Collin y Cummins, 1986; Kandler y Weiss,
1986). Aunque Moraxella tambidn es habitante usual de la
boca de humans (Isenberg y D'Amato, 1995), descono-
cemos las razones por las cuales no se aisl6 en este studio;
sin embargo, en animals s6lo se han aislado unas pocas
species (Bovre, 1984).

Los generos de bacteria anaerobias usuales en la cavidad
oral humana incluyen Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Pepto-
streptococcus, Veillonella, Prevotella y bacilos Gram positi-
vos no esporulados: Actinomyces y Eubacterium (Isenberg y
D'Amato, 1995; Engelkirk y Duben-Engelkirk, 2000). De
ellos, en este studio se aislaron con mayor frecuencia Bac-
teroides, Veillonella y Prevotella y en menor grado Eubacte-
rium, Actinomyces y Peptostreptococcus (Cuadro 2). Respecto
a (G',c'//ia, que se aisl6 en un 11% de las muestras, no estA
claro su hAbitat natural, pero algunos studios sugieren que
se encuentra en la cavidad orofaringea humana (Engelkirk
y Duben-Engelkirk, 2000); el hallazgo en la boca de los
monos parece apoyar esta posibilidad. Otro habitante de
la cavidad oral humana, Fusobacterium, no se aisl6 en este
studio, aunque es sabido que s6lo unas pocas species (E
necrophorum y F naviforme; Moore et al., 1984) se han ais-
lado con frecuencia.

Por otro lado, el genero de anaerobios mas frecuente en
esta investigaci6n fue Clostridium, present en el 48% de
las muestras (Cuadro 2). Aunque este genero no esta des-
crito como habitante usual de la boca del hombre (Enge-
lkirk y Duben-Engelkirk, 2000), es fAcil explicar que una
bacteria frecuente en suelos, como lo es Clostridium, pueda
llegar hasta la boca de los monos, a traves de la ingesti6n
de plants o aguas contaminadas con las esporas de estas
bacteria. Todas las species que se encontraron C. bei-
jerinckii, C. bifermentans, C. cadaveris, C. clostridioforme,





Neotropical Primates 12(1), April 2004


C. histolyticum, C. septicum, C. sordelliiy C. sporogenes-han
sido aisladas de suelos costarricenses en una frecuencia que
vari6 desde un 50 hasta un 5% (Rodriguez et al., 1993;
Gamboa et al., en prep.).

Muchas de las cepas bacterianas aisladas de los monos pre-
sentaron resistencia antimicrobiana y algunos de estos re-
sultados podrian ser alarmantes, principalmente para los
bacilos Gram negativos aerobics: 71% de las cepas resisten-
tes a amoxicilina y 63% a cefalotina (Figura 1). Ya ha sido
descrito que bacilos Gram negativos aislados de animals
salvajes presentan resistencia a antibi6ticos, a pesar de que
no est&n en contact con humans. Routman et al. (1985)
encontraron que un 10.7% de las cepas de Escherichia coli
aisladas de mandriles africanos no asociados con humans
eran resistentes al menos a un antibi6tico. Por otra parte,
Rolland et al. (1985) encontraron que el 47.5% y el 36%
de los coliformes aislados de dos poblaciones de mandriles
sin contact frecuente con humans presentaban resistencia
antimicrobiana, mientras que cuando habia contact con
el hombre, el 94.1% de las cepas de esos animals eran
resistentes. Estudios con roedores silvestres no expues-
tos a antibi6ticos han demostrado que la mayoria de los
coliformes eran resistentes a various antibi6ticos (Gilliver
et al., 1999).

Los cocos Gram positivos, que en su mayoria fueron del
gcnero Staphylococcus, mostraron una menor resistencia,
pues 10 de los 15 antibi6ticos probados (67%) fueron efec-
tivos contra todas las cepas aisladas. Sin embargo, el 89%
fue resistente a la penicilina G y el 28% a la ampicilina mais
sulbactam. El amplio uso de penicilina en el tratamiento
de infecciones humans, ademas del uso en elevadas con-
centraciones en ganaderfa y agriculture, pudo contribuir a
general esta alta resistencia, debida no s6lo a la producci6n
de beta lactamasas, sino a otros mecanismos, pues el 28%
de las cepas adn contindan comportandose como resistentes
con el empleo de sulbactam, inhibidor de dicha enzima.

Numerosos studios han demostrado que la resistencia anti-
bacteriana en los anaerobios ocurre en diversos generos (En-
gelkirk y Duben-Engelkirk, 2000), no s6lo por mutaci6n
sino ademas por transmisi6n horizontal entire microorga-
nismos de suelos y aguas (Shoemaker et al., 2001). En este
studio, las cepas anaerobias tambi&n mostraron resisten-
cia hacia various de los antibi6ticos probados, siendo mayor
hacia el metronidazole (49%, Figura 1), medicamento anti-
protozoario que ademas ha demostrado ser efectivo contra
infecciones por bacteria anaerobias. Sin embargo, debido a
su amplio uso, han surgido cepas resistentes tanto de ani-
males como de humans (Diniz et al., 2000). Un 44% de
las bacteria Gram negatives y un 43% de las Gram positi-
vas fueron resistentes, acorde con el patr6n que se ha venido
observando, pero contrario a Boyanova y colaboradores
(2000) quienes encontraron s6lo un 3% de cepas Gram
negatives resistentes a este agent. En general, la resisten-
cia de todas las cepas anaerobias hacia la penicilina fue de
31% (Figura 2), aunque esta fue mayor en Gram negatives
(39%) que en Gram positivas (24%), lo que es esperable de


acuerdo con su mecanismo de acci6n y su amplio uso. La
resistencia a la penicilina en algunos grupos de anaerobios
ha ido aumentando, asf el 16-26% de Clostridium (Engel-
kirk et al., 1992), el 50% de Prevotella (Hecht, 1999) y el
65% de Bacteroides (Engelkirk et al., 1992) son resistentes
a este antibi6tico, especialmente por la producci6n de beta
lactamasas. Otros grupos, como bacilos Gram positivos no
esporulados y Peptostreptococcus, contindan siendo altamen-
te sensibles (Hecht, 1999).

El 28% de las cepas aisladas fueron resistentes hacia la clin-
damicina (Figura 2), lo cual es preocupante dado que este
antibi6tico es ampliamente utilizado para el tratamiento de
infecciones clinics por anaerobios. Aunque Boyanova y co-
laboradores (2000) informan que ninguna bacteria Gram
negative anaerobia es resistente a clindamicina, Engelkirk
y colaboradores (1992) informan que menos del 10% de
los Gram negativos y el 19.6% de los Gram positivos son
resistentes. Otros studios confirman esta observaci6n: un
6% de bacilos Gram positivos no esporulados y un 16% de
Peptostreptococcus son resistentes a la clindamicina (Rodloff
et al., 1999). En nuestro studio tres de los bacilos Gram
negativos fueron resistentes a este antibi6tico, lo que acen-
tda adn mas la preocupaci6n de que cepas dificiles de tratar
provenientes de animals silvestres, puedan llegar a causar
infecciones clinics en humans.

Al analizar los datos de resistencia multiple, se observ6 que
cepas de todos los grupos bacterianos la presentaron; adn asf
la mayoria de las bacteria fueron resistentes s6lo a dos, tres
o cuatro antibi6ticos y pocas a mas de cuatro. Con respect
a los Gram negativos aerobics se pudo notar que el 80%
de las cepas mostr6 resistencia multiple, que incluy6 desde
resistencia s6lo a dos antibi6ticos hasta nueve; la mayoria
de las cepas (41%) fue resistente s6lo a tres o cuatro. Por
el contrario, s6lo el 39% de los estafilococos mostr6 resis-
tencia multiple y ademas las cepas fueron resistentes a un
miximo de tres antibi6ticos. La multirresistencia en bacte-
rias anaerobias fue intermedia entire estos dos grupos, pues
el 49% de las cepas de bacteria anaerobias mostr6 multirre-
sistencia, encontrandose cepas resistentes hasta seis drogas.
Estos resultados son alarmantes, pues tradicionalmente se
ha crefdo que la resistencia multiple no es un problema
comin en bacteria anaerobias.

El uso indiscriminado de antibi6ticos no s6lo en medicine
humana, sino tambikn en la agriculture y ganaderfa, facility
el desarrollo de resistencia a los antibi6ticos (Sosa, 2000;
Thompson y Kla, 2000); los aerosoles pueden desplazarse
grandes distancias y alcanzar Arboles o plants que sirven de
alimento a animals silvestres como los monos. Son bien co-
nocidas las limitaciones de los entes reguladores en Am&rica
Latina y el Caribe respect al uso de medicamentos (Fefer,
2000); Costa Rica no es la excepci6n y no cuenta con le-
gislaci6n que control el uso no medico de los antibi6ticos,
por lo que suponemos que en nuestro medio las cepas bac-
terianas de los animals estan sometidos a una presi6n de
selecci6n que favorece el desarrollo y persistencia de resis-
tencia. El agua tambien puede ser un vehfculo facilitador de





Neotropical Primates 12(1), April 2004


la resistencia, pues se han encontrado genes bacterianos de
resistencia en aguas subterrineas cercanas a sitios donde se
usan antibi6ticos en la crianza de cerdos como promotores
de crecimiento. Algunos de los sitios de muestreo de este es-
tudio estuvieron cerca de criaderos de cerdos de este tipo, lo
que contribute a explicar el frecuente aislamiento de cepas
resistentes. Ademis, actualmente en Costa Rica ninguno de
los hospitals del sector pdblico cuenta con sistemas de tra-
tamiento de aguas residuales, las cuales son vertidas direc-
tamente en el alcantarillado sanitario o en cuerpos de aguas
superficiales; en ambos casos, estas aguas llegar~n a afluen-
tes mayores sin ningin tratamiento (Tzoc, 2002). Aunque
regularmente los monos no bajan a tomar agua a los rfos,
otros animals que conviven con ellos sf lo hacen, lo que
puede contribuir a extender el fen6meno de la resistencia
antimicrobiana; los resultados de esta investigaci6n apoyan
esta hip6tesis.

Este studio constitute el primer informed sobre la flora bac-
teriana oral de monos en Costa Rica y es una contribuci6n
important para el conocimiento y preservaci6n de estos
animals. Ademis, es una evidencia de que el uso indiscri-
minado de antimicrobianos y el desarrollo de resistencia no
se limita a la clinic humana, sino que compromete todo
su entorno.

Agradecimientos: Agradecemos a Pablo Vargas y Martin
Quesada por su valiosa ayuda ticnica y a la Vicerrectoria de
Investigaci6n de la Universidad de Costa Rica por el apoyo
econ6mico.

Maria del Mar Gamboa-Coronado, Evelyn Rodriguez-
Cavallini, Galia Rojas-Contreras, Laboratorio de
Investigaci6n en Bacteriologfa Anaerobia y Centro de
Investigaci6n en Enfermedades Tropicales, Facultad de
Microbiologfa, Universidad de Costa Rica, Ronald Sinchez-
Porras, Programa de Investigaciones del Bosque Premontano
(PIBP), Sede de Occidente, Universidad de Costa Rica
y Gustavo Gutierrez-Espeleta, Escuela de Biologfa e
Institute de Investigaciones en Salud, Universidad de
Costa Rica. Correspondencia: Laboratorio de Investigaci6n
en Bacteriologfa Anaerobia y Centro de Investigaci6n
en Enfermedades Tropicales, Facultad de Microbiologfa,
Ciudad Universitaria Rodrigo Facio, Universidad de Costa
Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica, Centro Am&rica.

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Wageningen.


ADDITIONAL RECORDS OF PRIMATES IN THE SERRA
DOS ORGAOS NATIONAL PARK

In early 2003, I reported on the primates of the Serra
dos Orgaos National Park (Cunha, 2003). Here I record
some further observations I have made in the park on
muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides), capuchin monkeys
(Cebus nigritus), and the buffy-tufted-ear marmoset
(C .- aurita).

At 07:30 on 19 September, 2003, I saw a group of at least
16 adults and subadults of Brachyteles arachnoides (not in-
cluding infants carried by females) crossing the same valley
where I observed three individuals in August 2003 (Cunha,
2003). The valley ranges from 1600 m to 1800 m a.s.l.,
and is thus the highest altitude recorded for the species
(see Grelle, 2000). Garcia and Andrade Filho (2002) saw
muriquis walking along a rocky outcrop in the park, and
indicated that it was in the high-altitude grassland (campos
de altitude) above 2000 m, although they were unable to be
precise. Rocky outcrops as they described are common from
700 m to above 2200 m, and they may have been mistaken.
The group I observed would appear to be what Garcia and
Andrade Filho (2002) reported as two separate groups of 6
and 9 individuals. When their field team made its survey,
the group may have been temporarily divided; it is the only
one recorded to date in the park. Researchers from the IPE
- Institute de Pesquisas Ecol6gicas ( br>) are studying this group. According to local residents,
another group ofmuriquis may exist in the region ofVargem
Grande, in or near the recently created Tres Picos State Park
(see Table 1 in Cunha, 2003). Every effort should be made
to locate this group and establish if they are connected with
the Serra dos Org~os group. I suspect they are not, due to
the BR-116 highway which runs between these two almost
contiguous protected areas.

At 10:20 on 8 February, 2004, I observed a group of at least
five ( .-' aurita, including one juvenile, around a small
cultivated plot near the park's administrative headquarters
(22027'04" S, 42059'03" W; 950 m a.s.1.). The marmo-
sets had a reddish-chestnut coloration on their backs, as
described by Auricchio (1995). I noted the pre-auricular
white tufts in only one individual. C. aurita is naturally rare
throughout its range, as noted even by Schirch (1931) more
than 70 years ago. Its occurrence in the park is significant,
and implies that it may occur in other protected areas in the
Serra dos Orgaos. C. penicillata has been seen in the park
(Cunha, 2003), and C. jacchus also occurs in the region.
Given their potential to hybridize (see Coimbra-Filho et al.,
1993), more detailed studies should be conducted to know
if and how the buffy-tufted-ear marmosets, which are listed
as Vulnerable (Bergallo et al., 2000; Rylands and Chiarello,
2003) are ecologically and/or genetically threatened by their
introduced congeners.





Neotropical Primates 12(1), April 2004


Cebus nigritus is the most common of the primates in the
park; I have encountered them on more than a dozen oc-
casions. Once three of them were in a small shrub (4-6 m
high), in the treeline at 1890 m, perhaps the highest re-
corded altitude for the species. Titi monkeys (( .... ni-
grifrons) and howling monkeys (Alouattaguariba) also occur
in the Serra dos Orgaos, although they are evidently at very
low densities; I have never seen them, and have only heard
them there.

Andr6 Almeida Cunha, Programa de P6s-Graduacao em
Ecologia, Laborat6rio de Vertebrados, Departamento de
Ecologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa
Postal 68020, Rio de Janeiro 21941-590, Rio de Janeiro,
Brazil. E-mail: .

References

Bergallo, H. G., Geise, L., Bonvicino, C. R., Cerqueira,
R., D'Andrea, P., Esberard, C. E., Fernandez, E, Grelle,
C. E., Peracchi, A., Siciliano, S. and Vaz, S. M. 2000.
Mamfferos. In: A Fauna Ameafada de Extinfdo do Estado
do Rio deJaneiro, H. G. Bergallo, C. E D. Rocha, M. A.
S. Alves and M. Van Sluys (eds.), pp. 125-135. Editora
da Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de
Janeiro.
Coimbra-Filho, A. F, Pissinatti, A. and Rylands, A. B.
1993. Experimental multiple hybridism and natural
hybrids among ( .-' species from eastern Brazil.
In: Marmosets and Tamarins: Systematics, Behaviour, and
Ecology, A. B. Rylands (ed.), pp. 95-120. Oxford Science
Publications, New York.
Cunha, A. A. 2003. Primates in the Serra dos Orgaos
National Park: New records. Neotrop. Primates 11(1): 49-
51.
Garcia, V. L. A. and Andrade Filho, J. M. de. 2002.
Muriquis no Parque Nacional da Serra dos Orgaos.
Neotrop. Primates 10(2): 97.
Grelle, C. E. 2000. Aereografia dos primatas endemicos da
Mata Atlantica. Doctoral thesis, Universidade Federal do
Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro.
Rylands, A. B. and Chiarello, A. G. 2003. Official List
of Brazilian Fauna Threatened with Extinction 2003.
Neotrop. Primates 11(1): 43-49.
Schirch, P. E 1931. Contribuigao ao conhecimento da
fauna de Therez6polis, 960 m. Bol. Mus. Nacional, Rio de
Janeiro 8: 77-86.


CONSERVATION GENETICS OF THE GOLDEN LION
TAMARIN

On 9 December, 2003, Adriana Grativol defended her doc-
toral thesis on ancient DNA and the population genetics of
the golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia), examining
genetic structure at two moments in time and its relation to
the fragmentation of the Atlantic Forest. The thesis was pre-
sented to the Postgraduate Course in Biosciences and Bio-
technology (specialization in Environmental Sciences) at


the Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF),
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Her supervisors were Fernando
Antonio dos Santos Fernandez (Universidade Federal do
Rio de Janeiro UFRJ) and Alan Cooper (University of
Oxford, UK). Adriana Grativol's studies and thesis research
were supported by UENF; the Conselho Nacional de De-
senvolvimento Cientffico e Tecnol6gico (CNPq); the Pro-
jeto de Conservagao e Utilizagao Sustentavel de Diversidade
Biol6gica Brasileira (PROBIO) of the Programa Nacional
da Diversidade Biol6gica (PRONABIO), Ministerio do
Meio Ambiente (MMA); the Lion Tamarins of Brazil Fund;
the Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation; the World
Wide Fund for Nature Brazil (WWF-BR); the Associa-
cao Mico-Leao-Dourado AMLD; the Henry Wellcome
Ancient Biomolecules Centre; the Laborat6rio de Ciencias
Ambientais (LCA) of the Centro de Biociencias e Biotecno-
logia (CBB), Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense
(UENF); and the Laborat6rio de Melhoramento Gen&tico
Vegetal (LMGV) of the Centro de Ciencias Tecnol6gicas e
Agrarias (CCTA), Universidade Estadual do Norte Flumi-
nense (UENF). The following is an abstract of the thesis.

One of the common characteristics of threatened popula-
tions is their low genetic diversity, usually interpreted as the
result of a population bottleneck caused by habitat fragmen-
tation. Until recently, the association of habitat fragmenta-
tion and loss of genetic diversity was made through indirect
comparisons, which are limited, because the unthreatened
reference populations do not necessarily reflect the evolu-
tionary history of the threatened populations. With the de-
velopment of ancient DNA techniques, direct comparisons
can now be made by analyzing historical samples that were
collected before forest fragmentation. The purpose of this
study was to elucidate the effects of the recent fragmenta-
tion of the Atlantic Forest on the genetic diversity of golden
lion tamarins through ancient DNA techniques and mito-
chondrial DNA molecular markers. Fifty-seven historical
samples (toepads) were compared with 138 modern samples
of golden lion tamarins, including wild and captive popula-
tions. Eighteen haplotypes were identified among the sam-
ples, but only six were present in the extant populations,
indicating a 67% loss of genetic diversity. The distribution
of haplotypes from the historical samples suggests that this
species was panmictic (randomly mating) in the past. The
results obtained in this study suggest that the recent frag-
mentation of the Atlantic Forest has had a strong impact on
the gene pool of the species, not only by the loss of genetic
diversity, but also by the interruption of gene flow. Conser-
vation strategies for the golden lion tamarin should favor
the interchange of individuals among the extant popula-
tions, which should be managed as a metapopulation.

Uma das caracteristicas comuns em populao6es ameagadas e
a baixa diversidade gen&tica encontrada. Essa baixa diversi-
dade e geralmente interpretada como sendo o resultado do
estrangulamento demogrifico ocasionado pela fragmentadao
de habitats. Entretanto, ate recentemente, a associacao entire
fragmentacao de habitats e perda de diversidade gen&tica era
feita a partir de comparao6es indiretas. Essas comparao6es





Neotropical Primates 12(1), April 2004


ternm limitaq6es, porque as popula6oes nao-vulnerAveis usadas
como referencia, nem sempre refletem a hist6ria evolutiva das
populao6es ameagadas. Corn o desenvolvimento de ticnicas
de DNA antigo, as comparao6es podem ser feitas diretamen-
te, atraves da analise de amostras hist6ricas obtidas antes da
fragmentacao. Este estudo teve como objetivo principal elu-
cidar os efeitos da recent fragmentacao antr6pica da Mata
Atlantica na diversidade gen&tica do mico-ledo-dourado,
atraves da ticnica de DNA antigo e de marcadores de DNA
mitocondrial. Cinqiienta e sete amostras (almofada digital)
hist6ricas foram comparadas corn 138 amostras atuais de
mico-ledo-dourado, incluindo populao6es selvagens e de ca-
tiveiro. Dezoito hapl6tipos foram identificados entire todas
as amostras. Entretanto, somente seis hapl6tipos foram en-
contrados nas populao6es remanescentes, indicando uma
perda de diversidade gen&tica de 67%. A distribuicao dos
hapl6tipos das amostras hist6ricas sugere que o mico-ledo-
dourado distribuia-se panmiticamente. Os resultados obti-
dos sugerem que a recent fragmentacao da Mata Atlantica
teve um forte impact no pool genico da especie, nao s6 pela
alta perda de diversidade, mas tambdm pela interrupcao de
seu fluxo genico. Estrategias de conservacao para o mico-
ledo-dourado devem favorecer o intercambio de individuos
entire as populao6es remanescentes. Essas populao6es devemrn
ser manejadas como uma metapopulacao.

Adriana Daudt Grativol, Laborat6rio de Ciencias Ambien-
tais, Centro de Biocicncias e Biotecnologia, Universidade
Estadual do Norte Fluminense, Avenida Alberto Lamego
2000, Campos dos Goitacazes, Rio de Janeiro 28015-620,
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. E-mail: .

Reference

Grativol, A. D. 2003. DNA antigo e gen&tica da conservacao
do Mico-Leao-Dourado (Leontopithecus rosalia): Estrutura
gen&tica em duas escalas de tempo e sua relacao corn
a fragmentanio da Mata Atlantica. Tese de doutorado,
Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Rio
de Janeiro. 64pp.


THE MARGOT MARSH BIODIVERSITY FOUNDATION
/ CONSERVATION INTERNATIONAL PRIMATE ACTION
FUND 2003-2004

i-mvii ui The Primate Action Fund (PAF) con-
I t tributes to global biodiversity conserva-
tion by providing strategically targeted,
catalytic support for the conservation
of endangered nonhuman primates
and their natural habitats. In June
2003, William R. Konstant transferred
n ia rp i',,' the management of the Primate Action
Fund to Anthony Rylands, Center for
Applied Biodiversity Science at Conservation International.
Ella Outlaw, Executive Assistant to Russell A. Mittermeier,
is responsible for drawing up grant agreements, disburse-
ment of funds and the financial accounting.


Thirty-three projects were supported during the period
March 2003 March 2004. Eleven were distribution surveys
and population estimates, key aspects for the evaluation of
conservation status, and in some cases resulting in taxonom-
ic rearrangements and even the discovery of new species. A
further nine projects involved studies emphasizing the ecol-
ogy and behavioral ecology of primate groups. Other topics
included environmental education, conservation workshops,
research on specific conservation problems, genetics and the
Neotropical database of primate localities. The average grant
was $3630 (the maximum award is $5000). Neotropical pri-
mates benefited from 13 awards as follows.

* Post-dispersal process of seeds in golden lion tamarin
(Leontopithecus rosalia) faeces, in Uniao Biological
Reserve, Rio das Ostras, Rio de Janeiro Marina Janz-
antti Lapenta, Associaqao Mico-Leao-Dourado, Rio de
Janeiro, Brazil.
* A survey of primate populations in northeastern Ven-
ezuelan Guayana Bernardo Urbani, Department of
Anthropology, University of Illinois, Urbana, USA.
* Distribution and density of Callimico goeldii in north-
ern Bolivia: A survey of the Departamento Pando -
Leila Porter, Department of Anthropology, University
of Washington, Seattle, USA.
* Spider monkey conservation and reduced impact log-
ging: The potential co-dependence of black spider
monkeys (Ateles chamek) and timber tree species
in a lowland rainforest in Bolivia Annika Felton,
The Australian National University, Centre for
Resource Management and Environmental Science,
Canberra, Australia.
* Diet and digestive efficiency of southern muriquis
(Brachyteles arachnoides) in Carlos Botelho State Park,
south-eastern Atlantic Forest of Brazil and Curitiba
Zoological Park Mauricio Talebi Gomes, Depart-
ment of Biological Anthropology, University of Cam-
bridge / NGO Pr6Muriqui Carlos Botelho State
Park, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
* Conservation of the yellow-breasted (or buff-headed)
capuchin monkey Cebus xanthosternos in the state of
Bahia, Brazil Jean-Marc Lernould, CEPA Con-
servation des Especes et des Populations Animales,
Schlierbach, France.
* Behavioral ecology of uakari monkeys (Cacajao calvus)
and woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagothricha) and envi-
ronmental education in Parque Nacional da Serra
do Divisor, Cruzeiro do Sul, Acre, Brazil Maria
Aparecida de Oliveira Azevedo Lopes, Associaqao SOS
Amazonia, Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil.
* Distribution and status of ( .... barbarabrownae
in the Brazilian Caatinga Rodrigo CambarA Printes,
Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte,
Minas Gerais, Brazil.
* Distribution and conservation of the populations of
( .... coimbraiin the state of Sergipe and northern
coastal Bahia- Marcelo Cardoso de Sousa, Laborat6rio
de Zoologia do Instituto de Tecnologia e Pesquisa,
Universidade Tiradentes, Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil.





Neotropical Primates 12(1), April 2004


* Census and distribution of the robust tufted capuchin
(Cebus robustus) in the Atlantic forest in Minas Gerais,
Brazil Waldney Pereira Martins, Federal University of
Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
* Environmental Education: A tool for the conservation
of pygmy marmosets Cebuella pygmaea in the Ecua-
dorian Amazon Stella de la Torre, Universidad San
Francisco de Quito, Ecuador.
* Database of georeferenced occurrence localities of
Neotropical primates (BDGEOPRIM) Phase 2
Andrd Hirsch, Department of Zoology, Federal
University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas
Gerais, Brazil.
* "Ecology of Neotropical Primates" Field Course at the
Universidad Nacional de laAmazonia Peruana, Iquitos,
in September/October 2003 Eckhard W. Heymann,
Deutsches Primatenzentrum, Gbttingen, Germany.

Having been directly involved in this fund for the first time
over this year, I have been able to witness at first hand its
immense usefulness and the enormous benefits it has in
terms of primate conservation and research. Besides their
direct impact on conservation and our understanding of
conservation issues, small grants such as these enable the
maintenance, and I would say the growth, of a conserva-
tion competence in the habitat countries, both in terms of
expertise as well as active personnel students, technicians,
researchers and administrators. The conservation benefits
of these small grants are considerable in many countries
the money goes a very long way and far beyond the results
seen in the final report, in terms of their catalytic effect and
the seed effect on the development of larger and longer-
term conservation efforts.

The Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation has awarded a
further grant to Conservation International for a new cycle
of Primate Action Fund grants: March 2004 March 2005.
Funding will be available as from June 2004. For applica-
tion guidelines, please write to Anthony B. Rylands (ad-
dress below).

Projects submitted to the Foundation are considered if they
have one or more of the following characteristics:

* a focus on critically endangered and endangered non-
human primates living in their natural habitats;
* location in areas of high overall biodiversity and under
great threat (for example, biodiversity hotspots, mega-
diversity countries) to ensure maximum multiplier
effect for each project;
* direction and management by nationals from the tropi-
cal countries, to help increase local capacity for imple-
menting biodiversity conservation;
* the ability to strengthen international networks of field-
based primate specialists and enhance their capacity to
be successful conservationists; and
* projects that result in publication of information on
endangered primate species in a format that is useful
both to experts and the general public.


Projects should contribute to at least one, and preferably
more, of the following themes:

* enhancement of scientific understanding/knowledge of
the target species/ecosystem;
* improved protection of a key species, habitat, or
reserved area;
* demonstration of economic benefit achieved through
conservation of a species and its habitat, as compared
to loss thereof;
* increased public awareness or educational impact
resulting from the project in question;
* improved local capacity to carry out future conserva-
tion efforts through training or practical experience
obtained through project participation; and
* modification of inappropriate policies or legislation
that previously led to species or habitat decline.

Anthony B. Rylands, MMBF/CI Primate Action Fund,
Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation
International, 1919 M Street NW, Suite 600, Washington,
DC 20036, USA. E-mail: .


2003 IUCN RED LIST NEOTROPICAL PRIMATES

The IUCN/SSC 2003 Red List of Threatened Species was
released in November 2003. The IUCN Red List now in-
cludes 12,259 species threatened with extinction (falling
into the Critically Endangered, Endangered or Vulnerable
categories). A total of 762 plant and animal species are now
recorded as Extinct with a further 58 known only in culti-
vation or captivity. Of the 4789 mammals assessed, 1,130
or 24% were ranked as threatened. Some notable new ad-
ditions to the Red List include 1,164 Ecuadorian plants,
125 Hawaiian plants, 303 cycads and 35 Galapagos Islands
snails. All known conifer species have now been assessed,
including a new discovery in Viet Nam and a rediscovered
species in China. See the website for the IUCN Red List at
.

Of the 295 primate species assessed, more than one-third
(114 or 37%) are ranked as threatened (20 Critically En-
dangered, 47 Endangered and 47 Vulnerable). The threat-
ened New World primates are listed in Table 1. Thirty-four
species are threatened (9 Critically Endangered, 10 Endan-
gered, 15 Vulnerable), a further six are Near Threatened
and five are Data Deficient. Sixty-four taxa are threatened
(21 Critically Endangered, 15 Endangered and 28 Vulner-
able). A further 12 taxa are Near Threatened and 13 are
Data Deficient. Sixty-nine of the taxa were assessed against
the IUCN 2001 Criteria (IUCN, 2001). The remainder
are still listed under the assessment using the 1994 criteria
(IUCN, 1994).

The following people contributed to the assessment against
the 2001 criteria: Maria lolita Bampi, Julio Cesar Bicca-
Marques, Adriano G. Chiarello, Bras Cozenza, Alfredo
D. Cuar6n, Thomas R. Defler, Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca,





Neotropical Primates 12(1), April 2004


Humberto Giraldo, Marcelo Gordo, Paloma C. de Gram-
mont, Carlos Eduardo Grelle, Marcelo Marcelino, Ana
Alice Biedzicki de Marques, Rosana Vera Marques, Fa-
biano Rodrigues de Melo, S&rgio Lucena Mendes, Rus-
sell A. Mittermeier, Raquel Moura, Fabio Olmos, Liliana
Cortis-Ortiz, Fernando de Camargo Passos, Rog&rio Cunha
de Paula, Kimberley A. Phillips, Antonio Rossano Mendes
Pontes, Josd Vicente Rodriguez M., Anthony B. Rylands,
Anne Savage, Juan Carlos Serio Silva, Josd de Sousa e Silva
Jr., Rosana Subira, Grace Wong and Diego Tirira, S. The
assessment of the Ecuadorian endemics was based on Tirira
S. (2001).

Craig Hilton-Taylor, Red List Programme Officer, Species
Survival Programme, 219c Huntingdon Road, Cambridge
CB3 ODL, UK, Anthony B. Rylands and John M. Aguiar,
Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation In-


ternational, 1919 M Street NW, Suite 600, Washington,
DC 20036, USA.

References

IUCN. 2001. IUCN RedList Categories and Criteria: Version
3.1. IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN, Gland,
Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
IUCN. 1994. IUCN Red List Categories. Prepared by the
IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN, Gland,
Switzerland.
Tirira S., D. (ed.). 2001. Libro Rojo de Los 11 j. .. de
Ecuador. Sociedad para la Investigaci6n y Monitoreo de
la Biodiversidad Ecuatorania (SIMBIOE) / Ecociencias
/ Ministerio del Ambiente / UICN. Serie Libros Rojos
del Ecuador, Tomo 1. Publicaci6n Especial sobre los
Mamfferos del Ecuador, Quito.


Table 1. 2003 IUCN/SSC Red List of Threatened Species Summary for Neotropical Primates. Numbers indicate assessments of full
species.
Species and Subspecies Common Name Threat Category/Criteria Version
Alouatta belzebul ululata Red-handed howler CR Cl+2a(i) 2001
1. Alouatta Brown howler NT 2001
Alouatta Southern brown howler NT 2001
Alouatta Northern brown howler CR B2ab(i,ii,iii); C2a(i); D 2001
Alouatta coibensis coibensis Coiba Island howler VU D2 2001
Alouatta coibensis trabeata Azuero howler CR Bl+2abcde, C2a 1994
Alouattapalliata mexicana Mexican howler CRA4c; Blab(i,ii,iii) 2001
2. Alouattapigra Black howler EN A4c 2001
Alouatta seiculus insulanus Trinidad howler VU Blab(iii); D1 2001
Alouatta seniculus juara Jurua red howler DD 1994
3. Aotus lemurinus Colombian night monkey VU C2a(i) 2001
Aotus lemurinus brumbacki Brumback's night monkey VU B1+2c 1994
Aotus lemurinus griseimembra Grey-legged night monkey EN Bl+2abcde 1994
Aotus lemurinus lemurinus Colombian night monkey VU Bl+2c, C2a 1994
Aotus lemurinus zonalis Panamanian night monkey DD 1994
4. Aotus miconax Andean night monkey VUA2cd 2001
5. Ateles belzebuth Long-haired spider monkey VU A2acd 2001
Ateles geojfroyi azuerensis Azuero spider monkey CR Bl+2abcde, C2a 1994
Ateles geoffroyifusciceps Brown-headed spider monkey CR Bl+2abcde, C2a 1994
Ateles geoffroyi grisescens Hooded spider monkey EN Bl+2abcde, C2a 1994
Ateles geoffroyi ornatus Ornate spider monkey EN A4c 2001
Ateles geoffroyi panamensis Panama spider monkey EN Bl+2abcde, C2a 1994
Ateles geoffroyi rufiventris Colombian spider monkey VU Alc, B1+2c 1994
Ateles geoffroyi vellerosus Mexican spider monkey CR A4c 2001
Ateles geoffroyi yucatanensis Yucatan spider monkey VU A4c 2001
6. Ateles hybridus Variegated spider monkey CR A3cd 2001
Ateles hybridus brunneus Brown spider monkey CR A3cd 2001
Ateles hybridus hybridus Hybrid spider monkey CR A3cd 2001
7 Ateles marginatus White-whiskered spider monkey EN A4c 2001
8. Brachytelesarachnoides Muriqui EN C2a(i) 2001
9. Brachyteles hypoxanthus Northern muriqui CR Blab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v) 2001
10. Cacajao calvus Bald uakari NT 2001
Cacajao ca/vus calvus White bald-headed uakari VU Blab(iii); C1 2001
Cacajao calvus novaesi Novaes' bald-headed uakari VU Blab(iii); C1 2001
Cacajao calvus rubicundus Red bald-headed uakari VU Blab(iii); C1 2001
Cacajao calvus ucayalii Ucayali bald-headed uakari VU A2cd 2001
continued on next page





Neotropical Primates 12(1), April 2004


Table 1, continued from previous page

Species and Subspecies Common Name Threat Category/Criteria Version
11. Callicebus barbarabrownae Barbara Brown's titi CR B2ab(i,ii,iii); C2a(i); D 2001
12. Callicebus coimbrai Coimbra-Filho's titi CR Blab(i,ii,iii); C2a(i); D 2001
13. Callicebus melanochir Southern Bahian masked titi VUA3c; Blab(i,ii,iii,iv,v); C2a(i) 2001
14. Callicebus modestus Bolivian titi VU Blab(i,ii) 2001
15. ( Black-fronted titi NT 2001
16. Callicebus oenanthe Andean titi VU Blab(iii)+2ab(iii) 2001
17 Callicebus olallae Beni titi VU Blab(i,ii) 2001
18. Callicebus ornatus Ornate titi VU Blab(iii) 2001
19. Callicebuspersonatus Northern masked titi VUA3c; Blab(i,ii,iii,iv,v); C2a(i); D1 2001
20. Callimico " Goeldi's monkey NT 2001
21. Callithrix aurita Buffy-tufted-ear marmoset EN Bl+2abcde, C2a 1994
22. Callithrixflaviceps Buffy-headed marmoset EN C2a(i) 2001
23. Callithrix Geoffroys marmoset VU Bl+2b, C2a 1994
Cebus albifrons aequatorialis Ecuadorian capuchin NT 2001
Cebus albifrons cesarae Cesar Valley capuchin NT 2001
Cebus albifrons malitiosus Santa Marta capuchin NT 2001
Cebus albifrons trinitatis Trinidad white-fronted capuchin CR B l+2abcde, C2a 1994
Cebus albifrons versicolor Varied capuchin DD 1994
Cebus albifronsyuracus Andean white-fronted capuchin DD 1994
Cebus apella margarita Margarita Island capuchin CR B l+2abcde, C2a 1994
Cebus capucinus curtus Gorgona capuchin VU D2 2001
Cebus olivaceus kaapori Ka'apor capuchin VU Alc, B1+2c 1994
24. Cebus robustus Crested capuchin VU B2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v); C2a(i) 2001
25. Cebus xanthosternos Yellow-breasted or buffy-headed capuchin CR A2cd; C2a(i) 2001
26. Chiropotes satanas Bearded saki ENA2cd; B2ab(i,ii,iii); C2a(i) 2001
27 Chiropotes utahickae Uta Hick's bearded saki VU A3cd 2001
28. Lagothrix cana Geoffroys woolly monkey NT 2001
Lagothrix cana cana Geoffroys woolly monkey NT 2001
Lagothrix cana tschudii Tschud's woolly monkey NT 2001
29. Lagothrix lugens Colombian woolly monkey VU A2acd 2001
30. I woolly monkey NT 2001
31. Leontopithecus caissara Black-faced lion tamarin CR C2a(i) 2001
32. Leontopithecus chrysomelas Golden-headed lion tamarin EN B2ab(i-v); C2a(i) 2001
33. Leontopithecus chrysopygus Black lion tamarin CR C2a(ii) 2001
34. Leontopithecus rosalia Golden lion tamarin EN C2a(i) 2001
35. Mico chrysoleucus Golden-white tassel-eared marmoset DD 2001
36. Mico leucippe Golden-white bare-eared marmoset DD 2001
37 Mico marcai Marcas marmoset DD 2001
38. Mico nigriceps Black-headed marmoset DD 2001
39. Mico saterei Satere marmoset DD 2001
40. Oreonaxflavicauda Yellow-tailed woolly monkey CR Bl+2abcde, C2a 1994
Pithecia monachus miller Miller's monk saki VU A2c 2001
Pithecia monachus napensis Napo monk saki DD 2001
41. Saguinus bicolor Pied tamarin CRA2acde 2001
Saguinusfuscicollis crandalli Crandall's saddle-back tamarin DD 2001
Saguinusfuscicollis cruzlimai Cruz Limas saddle-back tamarin DD 2001
Saguinus imperator imperator Black-chinned emperor tamarin DD 2001
42. Saguinus leucopus White-footed tamarin VU A2c 2001
43. Saguinus oedipus Cotton-top tamarin EN Bl+2abcde, C2a 1994
44. Saimiri oerstedii Central American squirrel monkey EN Blab(i,ii,iii) 2001
Saimiri oerstedii citrinellus Grey-crowned Central American squirrel monkey CR Blab(i,ii,iii) 2001
Saimiri oerstedii oerstedi Black-crowned Central American squirrel monkey EN Blab(i,ii,iii) 2001
45. Saimiri vanzolinii Black squirrel monkey VUA3ce; Blab(i,ii,v) 2001





Neotropical Primates 12(1), April 2004


CAPUCHIN MONKEYS IN FOREST FRAGMENTS IN
SAO PAULO, BRAZIL

On 19 May, 2003, Carlos Henrique de Freitas defended
his Master's thesis for the Postgraduate Course in Biological
Sciences (Zoology) at the Instituto de Biociencias of the
Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, Sio
Paulo, Brazil. The thesis was on the feeding ecology and
behavior of two groups of tufted capuchins, Cebus apella
nigritus, in the Maggion and Santa Gemma farms, in the
municipality of Franca, in the state of Sao Paulo. His su-
pervisors were Nivar Gobbi and Eleonore Z. E Setz. The
study was supported by the UNESP. The following is a
summary.

Disturbed areas provide information about the ecology
and adaptive capacity of species, and as such contribute
significantly to plans for management and conservation.
The tufted capuchins are highly adaptable species, able to
live in a wide variety of habitats throughout Brazil. This
study investigated the use of time and space in two groups
of the black-horned capuchin, Cebus c//ll. nigritus, in a
forest fragment spread across two farms in the municipal-
ity of Franca, Sao Paulo, Brazil (20o30'S, 4718'W). Data
on diet, behavior and home range use were obtained on
two groups, one of nine individuals (S group) and an-
other of 23 (L group). They were observed for a total of
78 days (58 for S and 20 for L). Behavioral observations
were recorded by scan sampling at 10-minute intervals,
noting: movement (travel included), no movement, rest,
foraging for animal matter, feeding and miscellaneous
(such as social behavior, manipulative behavior, scratch-
ing, vocalizations, and maintenance activities, including
defecation, urination, autogrooming). Of 23,367 records
obtained, 37.1% were of movement, 29.1% foraging,
16.8% feeding, 7.6% miscellaneous, 6.8% no movement,
and 2.6% for resting. The main items of the diet includ-
ed fruit (47.5% of the feeding records and accentuated
in the wet season), seeds (26%, of which 80% was corn
from raiding crops; predominant in the dry season), plant
matter (13%; shoots, leaf stems and nectar, eaten more
often in the dry season), animal prey (9.5%), unidentified
(4%) and drinking water (0.5%). Home range size was
31.75 ha for group S, with a seasonal difference in range
use between the dry and wet seasons the group used
the eucalyptus plantation more in the wet season, and the
areas near sugar cane and maize crops more often in the
dry. The home range size for group L was 67.5 ha, which
did not vary between seasons. The home range of group S
was entirely within that of group L. Behaviors recorded (n
= 1679) included: 48.8% manipulation, 20.5% groom-
ing, 17.6% playing, 4.5% scratching, 2.1% aggression,
3.7% parental care and 2.8% other. A greater proportion
of social behaviors, such as playing and grooming, were
registered in the wet season. Seasonal variation in the ac-
tivities, diet, home range size and use, and behaviors show
that a fragmented forest strongly affects the lives of the
groups. Habitat fragmentation does not represent an ob-


stacle to the survival of these adaptable monkeys, however,
and the conservation of forest fragments is vital.

Carlos Henrique de Freitas, P6s-Graduaqao em Ciencias
Biol6gicas, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade
Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Campus de Rio Claro, Bela
Vista, Rio Claro 13506-900, Sao Paulo, Brazil. E-mail:
.

Reference

Freitas, C. H. 2003. Ecologia alimentar e comportamento
de macacos-prego Cebus apella (Primates, Cebidae) nas
fazendas Maggion e Santa Gemma, municipio de Franca
SE Dissertagio de mestrado, Instituto de Bioci&ncias,
UNESP, Rio Claro Sao Paulo, Brazil. 97pp.


CALL FOR CONTACT ADDRESSES OF NON-HUMAN
PRIMATE COLONIES

Franziska Schuerch, a Ph.D. student with Dr. Paul Mc-
Greevy at the University of Sydney, is asking to receive con-
tact addresses for non-human primate colonies worldwide.
Based in the Faculty of Veterinary Science, their primary
project explores the influence which management practices
have on social behavior in a research colony of hamadryas
baboons (Papio hamadryas). In order to provide a broader
context for their research, they would like to ask opera-
tors of all non-human primate colonies to participate in an
anonymous survey of management practices.

If you are involved in the operation of a non-human pri-
mate colony whether as manager, veterinarian or in
any other capacity Ms. Schuerch and Dr. McGreevy
would be most grateful if you would contact them to re-
ceive their questionnaire. Their principal aim with the
survey is to estimate the numbers of primates in research
colonies, and to provide an overview of common manage-
ment techniques.

If you work with a non-human primate colony and would
like to help their project, please contact them at the Fac-
ulty of Veterinary Science (B19), University of Sydney,
NSW 2006, Australia, phone +61 2 9351 7608 (Schuerch)
or +61 2 9351 2810 (McGreevy), fax +61 2 9351 3957,
e-mail or usyd.edu.au>, website about/staff/pmcgreevy.shtml>.


THE TAHUAMANU BIOLOGICAL STATION

The Tahuamanu Biological Station of the Amazonian Uni-
versity of Pando (Pando, Bolivia) is sited in an area of pri-
mary and secondary terra firma forest, typical of Western
Amazonia in both flora and fauna, but with a remarkable
diversity of primate species (Table 1). River floodplains and
bamboo forests provide additional habitat for specialized





Neotropical Primates 12(1), April 2004


Table 1. Primate species observed at the Tahuamanu Biological
Station, Pando, Bolivia.
Alouatta sara Cebus apella
Aotus nigriceps Lagothrix lagothrica
Ateles chamek Pithecia irrorata
Callicebus brunneus Saguinus fuscicollis
Callimico goeldii Saguinus imperator
Cebuella pygmaea Saguinus labiatus
Cebus albifrons Saimiri boliviensis

taxa. The fauna is representative of the region and includes
endemic species such as the endangered Callimico goeldii.
Aquatic biodiversity is especially rich in this region, one of
the most diverse of the Amazon Basin.

A number of studies have been conducted at the site over
the last decade, including long-term field projects on
Callimico goeldii, Pithecia irrorata, Cebuella pygmaea,
Saguinus labiatus and S. fuscicollis. Census data have also
been collected for large mammals, birds, fish, reptiles and
amphibians as well as local flora. The station is well-suited
for teaching field courses, and prior topics include primate
conservation and ecology, herpetology, field methods, den-
drology and more.

The Tahuamanu Biological Station is one kilometer from
the north bank of the Rio Tahuamanu and 60 km south-
west of Cobija, the capital city of Pando; the station is three
hours by road from Cobija's international airport. Locat-
ed within a trinational frontier, the Biological Station is
only a short distance from both the Brazilian and Peruvian
borders.

Researchers intending to carry out fieldwork and sampling
protocols will require permits from the Bolivian Depart-
ment of National Biodiversity Management (DGB), which
also provides CITES permits. To obtain a permit, scien-
tists must sign a research agreement with a local institu-
tion, which the Centro de Investigaci6n y Preservaci6n
de la Amazonia (CIPA) can easily provide, in addition to
assistance with processing permit applications. CIPA also
offers academic and logistical assistance to researchers, in-
cluding the arrangement of transportation to and from the
field site.

The Station has shared and private cabins, a partially
equipped kitchen, a dining area, and teaching and storage
facilities. The presence of local guides and a full-time care-
taker ensures safe and comfortable living and working con-
ditions for researchers and the presentation of field courses.
Over 25 km of trails in an extensive grid system allows for
easy viewing of animals. With advance notice, road and
river transportation can also be provided through CIPA
at the University of Pando. For more information about
the Biological Station, please contact Sandra Suarez at
or: Centro de Investigaci6n y Preser-
vaci6n de la Amazonia (CIPA), Universidad Amaz6nica de
Pando, Avenida Crnl. Cornejo, Cobija, Depto. de Pando,


Bolivia, Tel.: 591-3-842-2135 ext. 112, com> or .

The Tahuamanu Biological Station is operated through
the cooperation of the Universidad Amaz6nica de Pando,
CIPA, the Field Museum and the Gordon and Betty
Moore Foundation.


10TH EUROPEAN STUDBOOK FOR SAGUINUS
IMPERATOR

With the help of Orlando Silva and the staff of the Lisbon
Zoo, Eric Bairrao Ruivo, Collections Coordinator of the
Lisbon Zoo, Portugal, has released the 10' European Stud-
book for the emperor tamarin, Saguinus imperator. The data
are current to 31 December, 2003, and record 206 (99.99.8)
S. i. subgrisescens, and seven (non-breeding) hybrids. As
noted by Ruivo in his introduction, 2003 was an excellent
breeding year with 60 births. Although only 31 survived,
neonatal mortality is gradually improving, and the many
births were the principal reason for the population increase
over the last three years. Forty-nine institutions participated
in the studbook (46 with S. i. subgrisescens, two with hy-
brids, and one with separate colonies of S. i. subgrisescens
and hybrids): 11 in the UK, 10 in France, 9 in Germany,
3 in Denmark, 3 in the Netherlands, 2 in Australia, 2 in
Portugal, and one each in Belgium, Czech Republic, China,
Croatia, Finland, Singapore, South Africa, Spain and Swit-
zerland. Three institutions received emperor tamarins for
the first time: Blackpool (UK), La Fleche (France), and
Induna Park (South Africa). The studbook includes a report
on the EEP activities and the status and development of the
population for 2003, a full historical listing, the registers of
births, deaths and transfers for 2003, a listing of the living
population by location, a full studbook analysis, manage-
ment and husbandry recommendations for 2004, and the
addresses of the holding institutions and those waiting to
participate in the programme.

Besides the Coordinator, Eric Bairrao Ruivo, as of 2004
the Species Committee for this EEP includes: Bruno van
Puijenbroeck (Antwerp), Warner Jens (Apeldoorn), Gary
Batters (Banham), Teresa Abell6 (Barcelona), Mark Challis
(Belfast), Ilona Schappert (Dortmund), Ruediger Dmoch
(Frankfurt), Dominic Wormell (Jersey), David Field
(London), Pierre Moisson (Mulhouse), John Ray (Twycross)
and Samuel Furrer (Ziirich).

Eric Bairrao Ruivo, EEP Coordinator for Emperor Tama-
rin, Jardim Zool6gico de Lisboa, Estrada de Benfica 158,
1549-004 Lisboa, Portugal.

Reference

Ruivo, E. B. 2003. European 'udlbook, for the Emperor
Tamarin Saguinus imperator ssp. 10' Edition, 2003.
Lisbon Zoological Garden, Lisboa, Portugal. 114pp.
(Data current through 31 December, 2003.)





Neotropical Primates 12(1), April 2004


A EUROPEAN STUDBOOK FOR THE RED TITI
(CALLICEBUS CUPREUS)

Darren Webster of the Blackpool Zoo, UK, has compiled
the first studbook for the red, or coppery, titi, Callicebus
cupreus. Produced in 2003, the data are current through
31 December, 2002. The stimulus for setting up this stud-
book was the importation, by several European zoos, of
a number of titi monkeys from the California Regional
Primate Research Center, Davis, USA. There were some
initial complications regarding the exact identity of the
titi species. Although coming from the Peruvian Amazon,
individual variation led to the suspicion that some might
be C. brunneus (known from northern Bolivia and the
southwestern Brazilian Amazon). The California Regional
Primate Research Center confirmed that all the titis origi-
nating from them had come from the Rio Manitf, Peru.
Researchers familiar with the species in the wild were con-
sulted and a number of individuals were karyotyped. The
results confirmed that all should be classified as Callicebus
cupreus according to the information we have today regard-
ing its range and pelage coloration, and the fact that all the
animals tested had a diploid number of 46 rather than the
48 chromosomes owned by C. brunneus. Darren Webster
concluded that "although we still need to do more research
in the future into the karyotyping and the true pureness of
some of the specimens currently held in the population, it
is felt that we have established enough information to suc-
cessfully proceed with this programme." (p.5).

Eighty-nine individuals (41.38.10) are included in the
historical listing. On 31 December, 2002, there were
34 (16.17.1) titis living in the following six European col-
lections: Apenheul Primate Park, The Netherlands (1.3);
Zoologischer Garten Basel, Switzerland (2.0); Zoologisch-
er Garten Berlin, Germany (2.3.1); Blackpool Zoo Park,
UK (7.5); Bristol Zoo Gardens, UK (1.1); La Vallee des
Singes, Romagne, France (3.5). All of these except for
seven (the six in Berlin and one of the titis in the Vallee des
Singes) were from the California Regional Primate Research
Center, Davis.

The studbook includes: recommendations for transfers;
suggestions regarding karyotyping, and a protocol for the
preservation of material (skins, skeleton, etc.) from dead
animals; a karyotype summary for Callicebus; individual
collections inventory; listings of births, deaths and transfers
(1 January, 2000 to 31 December, 2002); reports on the age
pyramid and inbreeding coefficient (living population); a
census graph; historical listing; and a location glossary.

Webster recommends that a photographic record be made of
the EEP animals (to be archived at the National Museums of
Scotland, Edinburgh), and that dead specimens be given a
post-mortem as soon as possible, and preserved (sealed poly-
thene bags with appropriate identification numbers, in 70%
ethanol or deep frozen) (methylated ethanol is inappropri-
ate because it prevents the extraction of DNA). A suggested


contact regarding the destination and analysis of dead speci-
mens is Dr Andrew Kitchener, Curator of Mammals and
Birds, National Museums of Scotland, Chambers Street, Ed-
inburgh EH1 1JF, Scotland, UK, Tel: +44 (0)131 247 4240,
Fax: +44 (0)131 220 4819, e-mail: ac.uk>.

Darren Webster, Blackpool Zoo, East Park Drive,
Blackpool FY3 8PP, England, UK, e-mail: webster@blackpoolzoo.org.uk>.

Reference

Webster, D. 2003. European Studbook for Red Titi Monkeys
(Callicebus cupreus). No. 1, 2003. Blackpool Zoo Park,
Blackpool, UK. 32pp.


A MASTER'S DEGREE IN PRIMATE CONSERVATION
- OXFORD BROOKS UNIVERSITY

Oxford Brookes University offers the only postgraduate
programme in the UK directly linking the study of primates
with conservation. Although traditional studies of primate
behaviour and ecology are possible, students are also
encouraged to undertake less traditional approaches to the
realisation of in situ and ex situ primate conservation.

Several facilities are available for students including the
Tess Lemmon Memorial Library of the Primate Society
of Great Britain, the Nocturnal Primate Research Group,
an equipment lending service for fieldwork, a collection of
primate skeletal material, and a developing sound laboratory.
There is a seminar series in Primate Conservation each
semester, featuring internationally renowned figures as well
as several field trips (including attendance at the Primate
Society of Great Britain meetings), and there is an in-house
newsletter, Canopy, with contributions from staff, students
and speakers about their research.

Course content. Students develop a broad overview and
understanding of the main areas of research on the
conservation of primates and their habitats. Each student
is encouraged to build on their own strengths and interests
through the choice of practical assignment and co-
authorship of a relevant chapter of Canopy. In addition,
there are opportunities to specialize in appropriate research
methods by selection from a range of options, backed by
training (fieldwork, zoo-based and museum studies).

The course can be taken in full-time, part-time or distance-
learning mode. Students take any three taught modules
for a postgraduate certificate, all six taught modules for a
postgraduate diploma and complete all modules and a final
project for the award of an MSc. The modules include:

* Primate Diversity and Biogeography (e.g., threats to
primates, taxonomy, systematics, speciation, ecology,
behaviour, biodiversity, habitat protection);





Neotropical Primates 12(1), April 2004 39


* H,:inan-,/d//,f,' Conflict Issues (e.g., hunting, pest
control, eco-tourism, economic pressures on forests,
design and management of reserves and parks);
* Environmental Education (e.g., philosophy the
relationship of awareness to action, planning and prac-
tice);
* Primate Conservation Genetics (e.g., DNA sequencing,
studbooks, minimal viable populations);
* Research Methods in Primate Conservation (e.g., behav-
ioural sampling, surveys, statistics, generating funding,
museum studies);
* Captive Management (e.g., enclosures design, breeding,
display, rehabilitation);
* FinalProject, in the form of a traditional dissertation or
innovative end-product relevant to primate conserva-
tion (e.g., video, website).

The course aims to provide a high-quality postgraduate
qualification relevant to the careers of anthropologists,
conservation biologists, captive care givers, managers, and
educators who have a particular interest in primates and
their habitats, and practical solutions to their continuing
survival. It is also geared towards those wishing to gain
more knowledge of primate conservation before pursuing
higher-level study. Special arrangements are also made for
people from primate-habitat countries wishing to take
the course.

Entry requirements. A first or second class honours degree in
anthropology, biology or an appropriate related discipline,
or an academic equivalent to an honours degree such as
a conversion course is required. In extraordinary cases,
admission will still be considered if occupational or life
experience have provided the applicant with demonstrable
graduate-level knowledge, abilities and skills (e.g., strong
publication record in a related field). In the case of students
whose first language is not English, proof of language skills
must be presented (English Language GCSE or O-level,
TOEFL, IELTS).

Career prospects. Students completing the MSc in Primate
Conservation have gone on to work for a variety of
institutions including: the British Sound Archives, the
IUCN, the BBC Natural History Unit, and zoos in the UK
and North America as keepers or education officers. Others
are now working as paid researchers in Vietnam, Indonesia,
Congo and the DRC. Others have embarked upon research
degrees or are working as research assistants at institutes of
higher education.

Teaching staff. Staff expertise is matched to each aspect of
the course, with regular input from visiting speakers with
firsthand experience in primate conservation. There are five
permanent members of staff: Dr. K. A.-I. Nekaris (Course
Leader), Prof. S. K. Bearder (Chair, Course Planning
Committee), Dr. C. M. Hill (Final Project Leader), and Dr.
A. Lack and Dr. D. Thurling (Tutors). In addition there
are three visiting lecturers: Dr. M. K. Bayes (Conservation
Genetics), Mr. S. Woollard (Environmental Education), and


Dr. M. Prescott (Captive Care). The course is supported by
a Course Co-ordinator and an Admissions Administrator,
together with experienced postgraduate researchers who
help with part-time teaching. The external advisors are Dr.
C. S. Harcourt (Chester) and Dr. J. Fa (Durrell Wildlife
Conservation Trust, Jersey).

Further information: Postgraduate Administrator, School of
Sciences and Law, Oxford Brookes University, Headington
Campus, Oxford, OX3 OBP, UK, Tel: +44 (0)1865 483750,
Fax: +44 (0) 1865 483937, e-mail: ac.uk>. Website: anthropology.html>.


CONSERVATION GRANTS FROM THE NORTHWEST
PRIMATE CONSERVATION SOCIETY

The Northwest Primate Conservation Society (NWPCS)
is proud to announce the start of its conservation grant
program. In memory of Daniel E. Fischer, a healer and
community leader, the NWPCS will support the primate
research and conservation activities of graduate and under-
graduate students.

Please visit the website of the NWPCS ( uoregon.edu/-nwpcs>) and click on "Grant" for fur-
ther details and complete application guidelines. The
deadline for submission is January 15, 2005. Although
offered by a regional society, the competition is open to
all students currently enrolled in an accredited academic
institution.

Nicholas Malone, Founder, Northwest Primate
Conservation Society, Department of Anthropology,
University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403-1218, USA,
e-mail .


MURIQUI HOME PAGE

A "Muriqui Home Page" voltou ao ar ( promuriqui.org.br>), apos a versao anterior ter sido
destruida pelo antigo provedor gratuito. Ainda estA em fase
experimental, mas uma olhada rapida pelos links ja da uma
ideia inicial. Um click no mapa da Mata Atlantica ( www.promuriqui.org.br/ingles/homeing.htm>) mostra na
seqtiincia o mapa do Estado de Sao Paulo e, posteriormente,
a localizacAo das areas de estudo no Parque Estadual Carlos
Botelho. 0 projeto para a pagina alem de ser o veiculo de
informacao sobre as atividades da Associacao Pro-Muriqui,
ser uma referencia em documents como mapas, e
bibliografia com Brachyteles inicialmente.

Mauricio Talebi Gomes, Associacao Pr6-Muriqui, Parque
Estadual Carlos Botelho, Sao Paulo, Brasil. Enderefo para
correspondencia: Rua Frei Gaspar 88/603, SIo Vicente
11320-440, Sao Paulo, Brasil, e-mail: hormail.com>.





40 Neotropical Primates 12(1), April 2004


AMERICAN SOCIETY OF PRIMATOLOGISTS (ASP)
- GRANT APPLICATION DEADLINE

P The ASP Research and De-
velopment and Conservation
Committees announce that the
application deadline for the
2005 grants (both "Research
and Development" and "Conservation") is 16 January,
2005; much earlier than in previous years (April). This is
to facilitate getting conservation grant money to the win-
ners in time for the summer months when many of the
projects get underway. We regret any inconvenience this
may cause, but we are sure it will help more than hinder
most applicants.

Conservation Grants will be awarded by late March, 2005,
and Research and Development Grants will be awarded
at the 28th Annual Meeting of the American Society of
Primatologists, 17-20 August, 2005, in Portland, Oregon
(see Meetings, p.51). During November 2004, we will
upgrade the web site to provide full details of the revised
grant application process. This information will also
appear in the December 2004 ASP Bulletin and various
e-mail announcements. Any questions, please contact the
Chairs of the two committees: Research and Development
- Karen Bales, Dept. of Psychology, University of Califor-
nia, One Shields Ave, Davis, CA 95616, edu> or Lynn Fairbanks at ;
and Conservation Janette Wallis, Dept. of Anthropol-
ogy, Dale Hall Rm 521, 455 W. Lindsey, University of
Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019-0535, sbcglobal.net>. For further information on the procedures
to apply for these grants (and other awards), please go to
the ASP website: . Although we en-
courage electronic submission, if necessary grants may be
mailed to:

Nancy L. Capitanio, University of California, Davis, Cali-
fornia National Primate Research Center, One Shields
Avenue, Davis, CA 95616-8686, USA.


IPS CONSERVATION SMALL GRANTS AWARDED

The IPS Conservation Committee has recently awarded
over $6300 in Conservation Small Grants. Seven appli-
cations were received from primatologists studying in all
of the continents in which primates naturally occur, and
four awards were made. The following individuals received
grants for their excellent projects:

* Dilip Chetry (India) for a project titled "Non-human
primate survey in Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary,
Meghalaya, India".


* Entang Iskandar (Indonesia) for a project titled "Pop-
ulation survey of the Javan gibbon (Hylobates moloch)
at the Gunung Halimun National Park, West Java,
Indonesia".
* Pierre Kakule (Congo) for a project titled "Environ-
mental education for the conservation of primates at
the Tayna Centre for Conservation Biology".
* Karenina Morales (El Salvador) for a project
titled "Survey and census of spider monkeys in El
Salvador".

Congratulations to Dilip, Entang, Pierre, and Karenina
for their outstanding proposals and good luck with the
projects. These grants were made possible by generous
contributions to the IPS Conservation Fund from many
IPS members. We are planning on awarding another set
of grants over the next year, so keep your eyes open for the
announcement and keep those contributions coming. You
can make a contribution to the IPS Conservation Fund
(or General Fund) at any time at the IPS website: www.asp.org/IPS/MembersOnly/selectloginoptions.cfm>.

Grant applications were evaluated by the members of the
IPS Conservation Committee and I would like to thank
Tom Struhsaker, Alcides Pissinatti, Anne Savage, Anthony
Rylands, Bill Konstant, Russ Mittermeier, David Chivers,
John Oates, Ken Glander, and Pat Wright for their work.

Cliudio Valladares-Pidua, IPS VP for Conservation,
IPtl Instituto de Pesquisas Ecol6gicas, Caixa Postal 47,
12960-000 Nazard Paulista, Sao Paulo, Brazil. E-mail:
.






A MAP OF THE BRAZILIAN AMAZON

The Instituto Sociambiental (ISA), Sao Paulo, have
published a new map of the Brazilian Amazon (Amazdnia
Legal) covering 500.6 million ha in the states ofAmazonas,
Pari, Acre, Roraima, Rond6nia, Mato Grosso, Tocantins,
Amapi, and part of Maranhdo. "Amaz6nia Brasileira
2004", at a scale of 1:4,000,000, is 100 x 70 cm, and maps
vegetation types, deforestation and human impacts in the
region. There is also a list of the 236 protected areas and
400 Indigenous lands, parks and reserves of the region, part
of a database maintained by the Instituto Socioambiental
which indicates a total of 60.5 million ha of the Brazilian
Amazon in protected areas, corresponding to 12% of
the region (excluding c.14 million ha overlapping with
Indigenous lands). Indigenous lands cover 104.3 million
ha, or about 20% of the region. The list includes the
name, category, area and the legal act which created each
park and reserve, and the juridical/administrative status of,
and names of the tribes in, each of the Indigenous lands.
The data come from the Protected Areas Monitoring




Neotropical Primates 12(1), April 2004


Programme (Programa deMonitoramento deAreas Protegidas)
of the Instituto Socioambiental, and have been plotted on
maps drawn up by the Brazilian Institute for Geography
and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de G... F e Estatistica
- IBGE), Rio de Janeiro. The database of the "Global Land
Cover 2000" of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the
European Commission was used to identify areas which
have been deforested and impacted. The map is available at
the Socioambiental website, org>, for R$15.00 + postage.

BOOKS

The Atlantic Forest of South America: Biodiversity Status,
Threats, and Outlook, edited by Carlos Galindo-Leal and
Ibsen de Gusmao Camara, 2003. Island Press, Washington
D.C. 488pp. ISBN 1-55963-988-1. Price: $70.00 (hard-
back), $35.00 (paperback). This book presents an authori-
tative account of one of the world's most threatened tropi-
cal forests by the biologists and conservationists who know
it best. Although the majority of the remaining Atlantic
Forest extends across southeastern Brazil, substantial por-
tions still exist in Paraguay and Argentina as well, and the
text considers the surviving forests of each nation in turn
before examining issues which affect the remnants of the
biome as a whole. Chapters specific to primates include
an overview of the conservation history of the golden lion
tamarin in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and an assessment of pri-
mate species in Misiones, Argentina. Contents: Foreword
- Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca, Russell A. Mittermeier &
Peter Seligmann, pp. xi-xiii; Preface Gordon E. Moore,
p.xv. Part I. Introduction. 1. Atlantic Forest hotspot status:
An overview C. Galindo-Leal & I. de Gusmao Camara,
pp.3-11; 2. State of the hotspots: The dynamics of biodi-
versity loss C. Galindo-Leal, T. R. Jacobsen, P. F Lang-
hammer & S. Olivieri, pp.12-23. II. Brazil. 3. Dynamics
of biodiversity loss in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: An in-
troduction L. P. Pinto & M. C. Wey de Brito, pp.27-30;
4. Brief history of conservation in the Atlantic Forest I.
de Gusmao Camara, pp.31-42; 5. Status of the biodiversity
of the Atlantic Forest of Brazil J. M. Cardoso da Silva &
C. H. M. Casteleti, pp.43-59; 6. Monitoring the Brazilian
Atlantic Forest cover M. M. Hirota, pp.60-65; 7. Con-
servation priorities and main causes of biodiversity loss of
marine ecosystems S. Jablonski, pp.66-85; 8. Endan-
gered species and conservation planning M. Tabarelli, L.
P. Pinto, J. M. Cardoso da Silva & C. M. R. Costa, pp.86-
94; 9. Past, present, and future of the golden lion tamarin
and its habitat M. C. M. Kierulff, D. M. Rambaldi & D.
G. Kleiman, pp.95-102; 10. Socioeconomic causes of de-
forestation in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil C. E. F Young,
pp.103-117; 11. The Central and Serra do Mar corridors
in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest A. P. Aguiar, A. G. Chi-
arello, S. L. Mendes & E. Neri de Matos, pp.118-132; 12.
Policy initiatives for the conservation of the Brazilian At-
lantic Forest- J. C. Carvalho, pp.133-136. Part III. Argen-
tina. 13. Dynamics of biodiversity loss in the Argentinean
Atlantic Forest: An introduction -A. R. Giraudo, pp. 139-
140; 14. Brief history of conservation in the Parana Forest


- J. C. Chebez & N. Hilgert, pp.141-159; 15. Biodiver-
sity status of the interior Atlantic Forest of Argentina A.
R. Giraudo, H. Povedano, M. J. Belgrano, E. Krauczuk,
U. Pardifias, A. Miquelarena, D. Ligier, D. Baldo & M.
Castelino, pp.160-180; 16. Threats of extinction to flag-
ship species in the Interior Atlantic Forest A. R. Giraudo
& H. Povedano, pp.181-193; 17. Outlook for primate
conservation in Misiones M. S. Di Bitetti, pp.194-199;
18. The loss of MbyA wisdom: Disappearance of a legacy
of sustainable management -A. Sanchez &A. R. Giraudo,
pp.200-206; 19. Socioeconomic roots of biodiversity loss
in Misiones S. Holz & G. Placci, pp.207-226; 20. Con-
servation capacity in the Parana Forest J. P. Cinto & M.
P. Bertolini, pp.227-244; 21. Critical analysis of protected
areas in the Atlantic Forest of Argentina A. R. Giraudo,
E. Krauczuk, V. Arzamendia & H. Povedano, pp.245-261;
22. Last opportunity for the Atlantic Forest L. A. Rey,
pp.262-264. Part IV. Paraguay. 23. Dynamics of biodiver-
sity loss in the Paraguayan Atlantic Forest: An introduction
-J. L. Cartes & A. Yanosky, pp.267-268; 24. Brief history
of conservation in the Interior Atlantic Forest- J. L. Cartes,
pp.269-287; 25. Biodiversity status of the Interior Atlantic
Forest of Paraguay- E Fragano & R. Clay, pp.288-309; 26.
Socioeconomic drivers in the Interior Atlantic Forest A.
M. Macedo & J. L. Cartes, pp.310-324; 27. The Guaranf
Aquifer: A regional environmental service J. F. Facetti,
pp.325-327; 28. Conservation capacity in the Interior
Atlantic Forest of Paraguay A. Yanosky & E. Cabrera,
pp.328-354. Part V. Trinational Issues. 29. Dynamics of
biodiversity loss: An introduction to trinational issues T.
R. Jacobsen, pp.357-359; 30. Species on the brink: Criti-
cally Endangered terrestrial vertebrates T. Brooks & A. B.
Rylands, pp.360-371; 31. Putting the pieces back together:
Fragmentation and landscape conservation C. Galindo-
Leal, pp.372-380; 32. Endangered forests, vanishing peo-
ples: Biocultural diversity and indigenous knowledge T.
R. Jacobsen, pp.381-391; 33. Unwanted guests: The inva-
sion of nonnative species -J. K. Reaser, C. Galindo-Leal &
S. R. Ziller, pp.392-405; 34. Harvesting and conservation
of heart palm S. E. Chediack & M. F Baqueiro, pp.406-
412; 35. The effects of dams on biodiversity in the Atlantic
Forest C. Fahey & P. F Langhammer, pp.413-425; 36.
Populating the environment: Human growth, density and
migration in the Atlantic Forest T. R. Jacobsen, pp. 426-
435; 37. Mercosur and the Atlantic Forest: An environ-
mental regulatory framework- M. Leichner, pp.436-443;
38. A challenge for conservation: Atlantic Forest protected
areas A.-V. Lairana, pp.444-457. Part VI. Conclusion.
39. Outlook for the Atlantic Forest C. Galindo-Leal, I.
de Gusmao Camara & P. J. Benson, pp.461-464. Avail-
able from: Publications Department, c/o Neil Lindeman,
Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation
International, 1919 M Street NW, Suite 600, Washington,
DC 20036, USA.

HI-edlboku of Primate Husbandry and 'l. j ., by Sarah
Wolfenson and Paul Honess. 2005 (forthcoming). 176pp.
Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK. ISBN 1405111585
(paperback), 34.99. Available in January 2005 (February





Neotropical Primates 12(1), April 2004


2005 in the USA). This book covers all aspects of
primate care and management, both in the laboratory
environment and in zoos. From the welfare and ethics of
primate captivity through housing and husbandry systems,
environmental enrichment, nutritional requirements,
breeding issues, primate diseases, and additional
information on transportation and quarantine proceedings,
this book provides a completely comprehensive guide to
good husbandry and management of primates. Designed
to be a practical field manual, the authors present the
material using lists, tables and illustrations to clarify
current opinion on best practice. Contents: 1. Primates:
Their characteristics and relationship with man; What
is a primate? Primate characteristics; Why are primates
special? Ethical considerations of animals in captivity;
Legal considerations; Further reading. 2. The physical
environment; Considerations in accommodation design;
Indoor/outdoor/combination facilities; Environmental
conditions; Waste management; Further research needed;
Further reading. 3. Staff, management and health and
safety; Selection of staff; Training of staff; Health and safety
issues; Lone working; Employee security; Further reading.
4. Nutrition; Natural feeding ecology; Diet formulation
and processing; Energy requirements; Carbohydrate,
protein and fat; Minerals and vitamins; Water;
Supplements; Different life stages; Hand rearing of infants;
Further reading. 5. Physical well-being; Assessment of
physical health; Quarantine programme; Health-screening
programme; Common infectious diseases; Husbandry-
related diseases; Sedation of primates; Further reading.
6. Psychological well-being; Strategy for psychological
well-being; Environmental enrichment; Assessment of
psychological health; Further reading. 7. Training of
primates; Why train primates? Sociality and psychological
well-being in primates; Primate behaviour; Modification
of behaviour; Further reading. 8. Breeding; Group systems
and sizes; Primate fertility; Natural suppression of fertility;
Reproductive cycles; Artificial control of reproduction;
Pregnancy diagnosis; Parturition; Lactation and
weaning; Breeding lifespan; Selection of breeding males;
Further reading. 9. Sourcing and transporting primates;
Background; Transportation; Provision during transport;
Post-move monitoring; Further reading. Available from:
Blackwell Publishing, c/o Marston Book Services, PO
Box 269, Abingdon, Oxford, UK, OX14 4YN, Tel.
+44(0) 1235 465 500, Fax +44(0) 1235 465 556, e-mail
, website blackwellpublishing.com/1405111585>.

The Complete Capuchin: The Biology of the Genus Cebus,
by Dorothy M. Fragaszy, Elisabetta Visalberghi and Linda
M. Fedigan, 2004. 339pp. Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge. ISBN 0521661161 (hardback, $100.00),
0521667682 (paperback, $50.00). This book explores our
understanding of capuchin monkeys in relation to their
lives in nature their physical, mental and social charac-
teristics in comparison to other monkeys. The first schol-
arly work devoted entirely to the genus Cebus, this book
summarizes their taxonomy, distribution, life history,


ecology, anatomy, development, perception, cognition,
motor skills, and social and sexual behavior. Contents: Part
I. Capuchins in Nature. 1. Taxonomy, distribution and
conservation. Where and what are they and how did they
get there? (with Anthony Rylands); 2. Behavioral ecology.
How do capuchins make a living?; 3. Community ecol-
ogy. How do capuchins interact with their local commu-
nities and influence their environments?; 4. Life history
and demography. Part II. Behavioral Biology. 5. The body;
6. Development; 7. Motor skills. Part III. Behavioral Psy-
chology. 8. Perceiving the world. Memory and perception;
9. Engaging the world. Exploration and problem-solving;
10. Fancy manipulators. Capuchins use objects as tools;
11. Living together. Social interactions, relationships and
social structure; 12. Erotic artists. Sexual behavior, forms
of courtship and mating; 13. Learning together. Socially
biased learning. Epilogue: The incompletee capuchin.
Also includes appendices on plants eaten by capuchins, the
sites of long-term field studies on capuchins, biochemi-
cal and hematological parameters, and literature resources
for the management of captive capuchins. Available from:
Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New
York, NY 10011-4221, USA, Fax: +1 212-691-3239.
General Address (Orders, Customer Service): Cambridge
University Press, 100 Brook Hill Drive, West Nyack, NY
10994-2133, USA, Tel: +1 845-353-7500, Fax: +1 845-
353-4141. Website: .

Kinship and Behavior in Primates, edited by Bernard
Chapais and Carol M. Berman. Oxford University Press,
2004. 520pp. ISBN: 0195148894 (hardcover). Price:
$89.50. A fundamental reference for students and profes-
sionals interested in primate behavior, ecology, and evolu-
tion, this book draws on the emergence of new molecular
data in recent years, making possible the direct assessment
of degrees of genetic relatedness and kinship relations be-
tween individuals. It explores a considerable body of data
on intergroup variation, and the experimental studies col-
lected here, on both free-ranging and captive groups, allow
for a full and satisfying consideration of this broad area
of research. Contents: 1. Introduction: The kinship black
box B. Chapais & C. M. Berman. Part I. Who Are Kin?
Methodological Advances in Determining Kin Relation-
ships. 2. Determination of genealogical relationships from
genetic data: A review of methods and applications P. A.
Morin & T. L. Goldberg; 3. Noninvasive genotyping and
field studies of free-ranging nonhuman primates D. S.
Woodruff. Part II. Kin Compositions: Ecological Determi-
nants, Population Genetics, and Demography. 4. Is there
no place like home? Ecological bases of female dispersal
and philopatry and their consequences for the formation
of kin groups L. A. Isbell; 5. Dispersal and the population
genetics of primate species G. A. Hoelzer, J. C. Morales
& D. J. Melnick; 6. The effects of demographic variation
on kinship structure and behavior in cercopithecines D.
A. Hill. Part III. Diversity of Effects of Kinship on Behav-
ior. 7. Matrilineal kinship and primate behavior E. Kap-
salis; 8. Patrilineal kinship and primate behavior K. B.
Strier; 9. Kinship and behavior among nongregarious noc-





Neotropical Primates 12(1), April 2004


turnal prosimians: What do we really know? L. T. Nash;
10. Kinship structure and reproductive skew in coopera-
tively breeding primates J. M. Dietz; 11. Kinship struc-
ture and its impact on behavior in multilevel societies F.
Colmenares; 12. The impact of kinship on mating and
reproduction A. Paul & J. Kuester. Part IV. Kin Bias:
Proximate and Functional Processes. 13. "Recognizing"
kin: Mechanisms, media, minds, modules, and muddles
- D. Rendall; 14. Developmental aspects of kin bias in
behavior C. M. Berman; 15. The recognition of other
individuals' kinship relationships D. L. Cheney & R.
M. Seyfarth; 16. Constraints on kin selection in primate
groups B. Chapais & P. Belisle. Part V. The Evolutionary
Origins of Human Kinship. 17. Human kinship: A con-
tinuation of politics by other means? L. Rodseth & R.
Wrangham; 18. Residence groups among hunter-gather-
ers: A view of the claims and evidence for patrilocal bands
- H. P. Alvarez; 19. Mating, parenting, and the evolution
of human pair bonds K. Hawkes. Conclusion. 20. Varia-
tion in nepotistic regimes and kin recognition: A major
area for future research B. Chapais & C. M. Berman.
Available from: Oxford University Press, 2001 Evans
Road, Cary, NC 27513, USA, Tel.: (800) 451-7556, e-
mail: , .

Primates: Evolucidn, Culturay Diversidad, editado por Jorge
Martinez Contreras y Joaqufn J. Vea. 2002. Centro de Es-
tudios Filos6ficos, Politicos y Sociales Vicente Lombardo
Toledano, Mexico, D.F. ISBN 968-5721-009. Este libro
aborda desde diversas perspectives cientfficas el complejo y
siempre intrigante mundo de nuestros mas cercanos pari-
entes evolutivos. Se han reunido aquf una series de ensayos
que, en tres secciones, ponen en relaci6n las pesquisas cada
vez mas cercanas entire primat6logos y paleoantrop6logos.
La primera, Evolucidn, propone articulos metacientfficos
(epistemol6gicos e hist6ricos) y cientfficos en ambas dis-
ciplinas. La segunda, Conservacidn y Diversidad, procura
poner de relieve la estrecha relaci6n que la conservaci6n
en general y la protecci6n de areas naturales, asf como la
conservaci6n del pool gen&tico de una especie, tiene con el
sustento de la diversidad, el fen6meno que mejor permit
a una especie sobrevivir, eventualmente, al cambio ecosis-
timico. Finalmente, Sociabilidady Cultura, pone de relieve
la importancia de la relaci6n, en los primates, de la socia-
bilidad con la cultural y la cognici6n. Introducci6n J. M.
Contreras y J. J. Vea, p.xi; Jordi Sabater Pf: Un naturalista
en Africa J. J. Vea y F.E Pelaez, p. xxv. I. Evoluci6n. Pro-
toculturas materials e industries elementales de los chim-
pances en la naturaleza J. S. Pf, p.1; El descubrimiento
europeo de los p6ngidos y sus repercusiones en la filosoffa
ilustrada -J. M. Contreras, p. 17; Cousins: What the great
apes tell us about human origins C. B. Stanford, p. 35;
Chimpanzees on the edge: The implications of chimpan-
zee ecology in "savanna" landscapes for hominid evolution
-J. M. Sept, p. 51; Estrategias alimentarias de los primeros
hominidos J. L. Vera Cortes, p. 69; Recapitulaci6n sobre
la importancia adaptativa de la capacidad manipuladora
e instrumental en la evoluci6n de los primates M. E.


Aliaga, p. 83; La etologfa de los p6ngidos y su interns en el
studio de los hominoideos J. M. Contreras, p. 101; El
adi6s a Eva, Adan y la manzana, y la bienvenida a una his-
toria de simios, Africa y series humans (y de c6mo Darwin
os6 teorizar sobre el origen biol6gico de nuestra especie) -J.
Serrallonga, p. 121. II. Conservaci6n y Diversidad. Estrate-
gias para la conservaci6n de primates neotropicales: El caso
del mono aullador (Alouatta palliata) E. Rodriguez-Luna
y L. E. Dominguez-Dominguez, p. 153; Socioecologfa de
Alouatta palliata en habitat fragmentado: Implicaciones
para la conservaci6n J. J. VeA y J. C. Azkarate, p. 175;
Los primates de Eritrea: Una expedici6n para el studio
de su hAbitat, distribuci6n y demograffa F PelAez y D.
Zinner, p. 197; El papel de los parques zool6gicos en la
conservaci6n de los primates: Un reto para la etologfa F.
Guillkn-Salazar, p. 227. III. Sociabilidad y Cultura. Influ-
encia ambiental en los sistemas sociales de primates C. G.
Burmann, p. 255; Socioecologfa y relaciones sociales F
Colmenares, p. 271; A traves del espejo: La b6squeda de
los origenes de la autoconciencia M. C. Mim6, p. 333.
Disponible por: Centro de Estudios Filos6ficos, Polfticos y
Sociales Vicente Lombardo Toledano, Calle V. Lombardo
Toledano num. 51, Exhda. de Guadelupe Chimalistac,
Mexico, D.F. c.p. 01050, Tel: 5661 46 79, Fax: 5661 17
87, E-mail .


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sp.).J. Med. Primatol. 33(2): 109-112.
Manson, J. H., Gros-Louis, J. and Perry, S. 2004. Three
apparent cases of infanticide by males in wild white-faced
capuchins (Cebus capucinus). Folia Primatol. 75(2): 104-
106.
Manson, J. H., Navarrete, C. D., Silk, J. B. and Perry,
S. 2004. Time-matched grooming in female primates?
New analyses from two species. Anim. Behav. 67(3):
493-500.
Marroig, G. and Cheverud, J. M. 2004. Did natural
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Marroig, G., Cropp, S. and Cheverud, J. M. 2004.
Systematics and evolution of the jacchus group of
marmosets (Platyrrhini). Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 123(1):
11-22.
Marroig, G., deVivo, M. and Cheverud, J. M. 2004. Cranial
evolution in sakis (Pithecia, Platyrrhini) II: Evolutionary


processes and morphological integration. J. Evol. Biol.
17(1): 144-155.
Mendes, N. and Huber, L. 2004. Object permanence in
common marmosets (C .-'. jacchus). J. Comp. Psychol.
118(1): 103-112.
Middleton, S. A., Anzenberger, G. and Knapp, L. A. 2004.
Identification of New World monkey MHC-DRB alleles
using PCR, DGGE and direct sequencing. Immunogenetics
55(11): 785-790.
Miller, C. T. and Hauser, M. D. 2004. Multiple acoustic
features underlie vocal signal recognition in tamarins:
Antiphonal calling experiments. J. Comp. Phys. A190(1):
7-19.
Miller, K. E. and Dietz, J. M. 2004. Fruit yield, not DBH
or fruit crown volume, correlates with time spent feeding
on fruits by wild Leontopithecus rosalia. Int. J. Primatol.
25(1): 27-39.
Neiworth, J. J., Parsons, R. R. and Hassett, J. M. 2004.
A test of the generality of perceptually based categories
found in infants: Attentional differences toward natural
kinds by New World monkeys. Developmental Science
7(2): 185-193.
Nobrega, M. A. and Pennacchio, L. A. 2004. Comparative
genomic analysis as a tool for biological discovery. J.
Physiol. 554(1): 31-39.
Norconk, M. A. and Conklin-Brittain, N. L. 2004. Variation
on frugivory: The diet of Venezuelan white-faced sakis.
Int. J. Primatol. 25(1): 1-26.
Paukner, A., Anderson, J. R. and Fujita, K. 2004. Reactions
of capuchin monkeys (Cebus ''l//1) to multiple mirrors.
Behavioural Processes 66(1): 1-6.
Pavelka, M. S. S. and Knopff, K. H. 2004. Diet and activity
in black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) in southern
Belize: Does degree of frugivory influence activity level?
Primates 45(2): 105-111.
Perry, S., Barrett, H. C. and Manson, J. H. 2004. White-
faced capuchin monkeys show triadic awareness in their
choice of allies. Anim. Behav. 67(1): 165-170.
Poux, C. and Douzery, E. J. P. 2004. Primate phylogeny,
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Prescott, M. J. and Buchanan-Smith, H. M. 2004. Cage
sizes for tamarins in the laboratory. Animal '., J 13(2):
151-158.
Qian, Y. P., Jin, L. and Su, B. 2004. Construction and
characterization of bacterial artificial chromosome library
of black-handed spider monkey (Ateles rr .., i Genome
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Raboy, B. E., Christman, M. C. and Dietz, J. M. 2004. The
use of degraded and shade cocoa forests by endangered
golden-headed lion tamarins Leontopithecus chrysomelas.
Oryx38(1): 75-83.
Ramos-Fernandez, G., Mateos, J. L., Miramontes, 0.,
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Levy walk patterns in the foraging movements of spider
monkeys (Ateles ...r ..i i Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 55(3):
223-230.





Neotropical Primates 12(1), April 2004


Reetz, J., Wiedemann, M., Aue, A., Wittstatt, U., Ochs,
A., Thomschke, A., Manke, H., Schwebs, M. and
Rinder, H. 2004. Disseminated lethal Encephalitozoon
cuniculi (genotype III) infections in cotton-top tamarins
(Oedipomidas oedipus) a case report. Parasitol. Int.
53(1): 29-34.
Righini, N. 2004. Germinaci6n de semillas de Ficus
r.- i, ,i..> pormonos aulladores (Alouattapalliata
mexicana) y monos arafa (Ateles ..wr ..i vellerosus). Lab.
Prim. Newsl. 43(1): 19-20.
Rodrigues, L. R. R., Barros, R. M. S., Pissinatti, A.,
Pieczarka, J. C. and Nagamachi, C. Y. 2004. A new
karyotype of an endangered primate species (( ...
personatus) from the Brazilian Atlantic forests. Hereditas
140(2): 87-91.
Ross, C. F., Henneberg, M., Ravosa, M. J. and Richard, S.
2004. Curvilinear, geometric and phylogenetic modeling
of basicranial flexion: Is it adaptive, is it constrained?
J. Hum. Evol. 46(2): 185-213.
Silva, F. M. da, Rodrigues, A. C., Campaner, M., Takata,
C. S. A., Brigido, M. C., Junqueira, A. C. V., Coura,
J. R., Takeda, G. E, Shaw, J. J. and Teixeira, M. M. G.
2004. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis
of Trypanosoma rangeli and allied species from human,
monkeys and other sylvatic mammals of the Brazilian
Amazon disclosed a new group and a species-specific
marker. Parasitol. 128(3): 283-294.
Saltzman, W., Prudom, S. L., Schultz-Darken, N.
J., Wittwer, D. J. and Abbott, D. H. 2004. Social
suppression ofcortisol in female marmoset monkeys: Role
of circulating ACTH levels and glucocorticoid negative
feedback. Psychoneuroendocrinology 29(2): 141-161.
Schmitt, D. and Hanna, J. B. 2004. Substrate alters
forelimb to hindlimb peak force ratios in primates. J.
Hum. Evol. 46(3): 237-252.
Schneiders, A., Sonksen, J. and Hodges, J. K. 2004.
Penile vibratory stimulation in the marmoset monkey:
A practical alternative to electro-ejaculation, yielding
ejaculates of enhanced quality. J. Med. Primatol. 33(2):
98-104.
Selmi, A. L., Mendes, G. M., Boere, V., Cozer, L. A.
S., Filho, E. S. and Silva, C. A. 2004. Assessment of
dexmedetomidine/ketamine anesthesia in golden-headed
lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas). Veterinary
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Silveira, L. C. de L. 2004. Comparative study of the
primate retina. In: The Primate Visual System, Kaas, J. H.
and Collins, C. E. (eds.), pp. 29-51. CRC Press, Boca
Raton.
Smith, A. C., Buchanan-Smith, H. M., Surridge, A. K.
and Mundy, N. I. 2003. Leaders of progressions in wild
mixed-species troops of saddleback (Saguinus fuscicollis)
and mustached tamarins (S. mystax), with emphasis on
color vision and sex. Am. J. Primatol. 61(4): 145-157.
Smith, T. D., Dennis, J. C., Bhatnagar, K. P., Bonar, C. J.,
Burrows, A. M. and Morrison, E. E. 2004. Ontogenetic
observations on the vomeronasal organ in two species of
tamarins using neuron-specific beta-tubulin III. Anat.
Rec. 278A(1): 409-418.


Spinelli, S., Pennanen, L., Dettling, A. C., Feldon, J.,
Higgins, G. A. and Pryce, C. R. 2004. Performance of
the marmoset monkey on computerized tasks of attention
and working memory. Cognitive Brain Res. 19(2):
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Stevens, J. R. 2004. The selfish nature of generosity:
Harassment and food sharing in primates. Proc. Royal Soc.
London, Ser. B271(1538): 451-456.
Stevenson, P. R. 2004. Fruit choice by woolly monkeys in
Tinigua National Park, Colombia. Int. J. Primatol. 25(2):
367-381.
Stoinski, T. S. and Beck, B. B. 2004. Changes in locomotor
and foraging skills in captive-born, reintroduced golden lion
tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia rosalia). Am. J. Primatol.
62(1): 1-13.
Tardif, S. D. and Bales, K. L. 2004. Relations among birth
condition, maternal condition, and postnatal growth in
captive common marmoset monkeys (C .- jacchus).
Am. J. Primatol. 62(2): 83-94.
Trivedi, M. R., Cornejo, E H. and Watkinson, A. R. 2004.
Seed predation on Brazil nuts (Bertholettia excelsa) by
macaws (Psittacidae) in Madre de Dios, Peru. Biotropica
36(1): 118-122.
Webb, D. M., Cortis-Ortiz, L. and Zhang, J. Z. 2004. Genetic
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Westergaard, G. C., Liv, C., Rocca, A. M., Cleveland, A. and
Suomi, S. J. 2004. Tufted capuchins (Cebus iJ'c'//,) attribute
value to foods and tools during voluntary exchanges with
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Williams, L. and Gibson, S. 2004. Sideburn size as a
measurement of sex and age in Saimiri sciureus sciureus.
Lab. Prim. Newsl. 43(1): 10-11.
Winkler, L. A., Zhang, X. C., Ferrell, R., Wagner, R., Dahl,
J., Peter, G. and Sohn, R. 2004. Geographic microsatellite
variability in Central American howling monkeys. Int. J.
Primatol. 25(1): 197-210.
Wynne, C. D. L. 2004. Fair refusal by capuchin monkeys.
Nature, Lond. 428(6979): 140.
Yamamoto, M. E. and Lopes, F. de A. 2004. Effect of removal
from the family group on feeding behavior by captive
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Youlatos, D. 2004. Multivariate analysis of organismal and
habitat parameters in two neotropical primate communities.
Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 123(2): 181-194.
Ziegler, T. E., Washabaugh, K. F and Snowdon, C. T. 2004.
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84-92.


ABSTRACTS

Kostrub, C. E. 2004. The social organization and behavior
of golden-mantled tamarins, Saguinus tripartitus, in eastern
Ecuador. Diss. Abst. Int. B64(7): 313.
Manciocco, A., Puopolo, M., Licata, E. & Vitale, A. 2004.
Biostatistic and ethological issues in animal welfare: The





Neotropical Primates 12(1), April 2004


case of the common marmoset (C .-'. jacchus). Animal
'I./ 13(Suppl.): S248.
Smith, D. A. 2004. Hunting, habitat, and indigenous
settlement patterns: A geographic analysis of Bugle wildlife
use in western Panama. Diss. Abst. Int. A64(8): 3026.

Selected abstracts from the 73rd Annual Meeting of the
AmericanAssociation of Physical Anthropologists, Tampa,
Florida, USA, 14-17 April 2004. In: American Journal of
PhysicalAnthropology 123(Suppl. 38): 1-225.

Arnedo, L. & Ahumada, J. Optimal size of feeding and
traveling subgroups of spider monkey (Ateles belzebuth),
pp.53-54.
Ascunce, M. S., Hasson, E., Zunino, G., Mulligan, C. J. &
Mudry, M. D. Pattern of mitochondrial genetic variability
of the black howler monkey (Alouatta caraya): An example
of post-glacial range expansion in South American fauna,
pp.54-55.
Bezanson, M. Ontogenetic influences on prehensile-tail use
in Cebus capucinus, p.63.
Boinski, S. Idiosyncratic social behaviors of brown
capuchins in an anthropogenic landscape are consistent
with prevalent socioecological theory, p.65.
Byron, C. D., Hamrick, M., Borke, J. & Yu, J. The
mechanobiology of primate cranial sutures, p.72.
Clarke, M. R. Group size resurgence in mantled howlers
(Alouatta palliata), pp.75-76.
Di Fiore, A. & Schwindt, D. M. A preliminary study
of social behavior and pair-bonding in wild titi
monkeys (C .... discolor) in Amazonian Ecuador,
p.87.
Dirks, W., Ramirez Rozzi, E V., Reid, D. J. & Anemone,
R. L. Thinking small: A comparative study of dental
microstructure in Cantius, Otolemur, Perodicticus, and
Saimiri, p.88.
Ehmke, E., Kauffman, L. & Boinski, S. Adult male relations
with juveniles among brown capuchins (Cebus i,'//,I) in
Suriname: Affiliation, antagonism or benign neglect?,
p.92.
Field, M. Y. Effect of human cohabitation on activity
budgets in white-fronted capuchin monkeys (Cebus
albifrons) in Ecuador: A pilot study, p.94.
Garber, P. A., Blomquist, G. E. & Anzenberger, G.
Kinematic analysis of trunk-to-trunk leaping in Goeldi's
monkey (Callimico goeldii), p.98.
Gilad, Y., Wiebe, V., Przeworski, M., Lancet, D. & Paabo,
S. Loss of olfactory receptor genes is coupled to the
acquisition of full trichromatic color vision, p.99.
Jack, K. & Fedigan, L. Resident male replacement in Cebus
capucinus groups, p. 119.
Kauffman, L., Ehmke, E. & Boinski, S. Increased male-
male cooperation among brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus
.'c'//i) in Suriname, p.123.
Kay, R. F., Rossie, J. B., Colbert, M. W. & Rowe, T. B.
Observations on the olfactory system of Tremacebus
harringtoni (Platyrrhini, early Miocene, Sacanana,
Argentina) based on high resolution X-ray CT scans,
pp.123-124.


Kirk, E. C. Effects of activity pattern on eye and orbit
morphology in primates, p.126.
Luecke, L. G. Howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) populations
in five Maya archaeological zones in southern Mexico and
northern Guatemala, p.138.
MacKinnon, K. C. Play patterns in small juvenile white-
faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) in Costa Rica,
p.139.
McKeon, M. & Winnor, K. Vocal communication within
a troop of mantled howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata),
p.146.
Robinson, A. M., Ford, S. M. & Garber, P. A. Attrition in the
dentition of a population of Peruvian tamarins (Saguinus
mystax mystax), p.168.
Sallenave, A. & Bravo, S. P. Seed dispersal by black howler
monkeys (Alouatta caraya) in a northeastern Argentinean
flooded forest, p.172.
Schwindt, D. M. & Ayres, J. M. Parapatric groups of black
and common squirrel monkeys (Saimiri vanzolinii and
Saimiri sciureus) in the central Amazon, p. 177.
Shaffer, C. A. Foraging, ranging, and spatial memory in the
mantled howler monkey (Alouatta palliata), p.179.
Smith, S. J. A preliminary study of seed dispersal by white-
faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) and mantled howlers
(Alouatta palliata) in Costa Rica, p.184.
Spehar, S. Acoustic variation in the long calls of wild spider
monkeys (Ateles belzebuth belzebuth), p.186.
Taylor, A. B. & Vinyard, C. J. Masseter muscle fiber
architecture in tree-gouging ((C .- jacchus) and non-
gouging (Saguinus oedipus) callitrichids, p. 193.
Urbani, B. & Garber, P. A. A stone in their hands...are
monkeys tool users?, p.199.
Vinyard, C. J., Lucas, P. W., Valenca-Montenegro, M. M.,
Melo, L. C. 0., Valle, Y. M. & Monteiro da Cruz, M. A.
0. Where the wild things are: Linking lab and field work
in studying tree gouging in common marmosets (C
jacchus), pp.200-201.
Walker, S. E. Intraspecific differences in positional behavior
of the white-faced saki, Pithecia pithecia, and the influence
of habitat characteristics, pp. 202-203.
Wright, B. W. Food mechanical properties and niche
partitioning in a community of Neotropical primates,
p.212.
Young, N. M. A comparative three-dimensional geometric
morphometric study of growth and similarity in the
primate scapula, p.214.

Selected abstracts from the 27th Annual Meeting of The
American Society of Primatologists, National Primate
Research Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI,
USA, 8-11 June, 2004. In: Am. J. Primatol 62(Suppl. 1),
2004.

Bales, K. L. Primates, prairie voles, and the physiology of
love and fear, pp.83-84.
Bezanson, M. Leap, bridge, or ride? Ontogenetic influences
on gap crossing in Cebus and Alouatta, pp.90-91.
Bolton, I. The veterinarian's role in behavioral management,
pp.45-46.





Neotropical Primates 12(1), April 2004


Brady, A. G. Medical primatology as applied ethology: The
importance of behavior in primate clinical medicine,
p.43.
Brosnan, S. F How shall I compare thee? Behavioral
similarities and differences between Cebus and Pan,
p.130.
Buzzell, C. A., Ulyan, M. J., Raghanti, M. A., Burrows,
A. E., Marcinkiewicz, J. L. and Phillips, K. A. Behavioral
and physiological consequences of feeding routines in
Cebus a../ll, p.84.
Callahan, R. Mammalian and avian species that visited two
human-introduced species of tree, the pejibaye (Bactris
gasipaes) and Mamon (Melicocca bijuga), in a Costa Rican
tropical lowland forest, pp.57-58.
Carnegie, S., Fedigan, L. M. and Ziegler, T. E. Behavioural
indicators of ovarian phase in white-faced capuchins
(Cebus capucinus), pp.120-121.
Clarke, M. R. & Glander, K. E. Adult migration patterns of
the mantled howlers ofLa Pacifica, p.87.
Cronin, K. A., Kurian, A. V. & Snowdon, C. T. Cooperative
problem solving in a cooperatively breeding primate:
Cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus), p.125.
Cummins-Sebree, S. & Fragaszy, D. Choosing tools based
on functionally relevant features: Capuchins use a different
metric than tamarins, p.108.
Estrada, A., Van Belle, S., Luecke, L. & Rosales, M.
Primate populations in the protected forests of Mayan
archaeological sites in southern Mexico, p.77.
Estrada, A., Garber, P., Pavelka, M. & Luecke, L. New
perspectives in Mesoamerican primatology: Conservation,
behavior and ecology, pp.74-75.
Evans, T. A. & Westergaard, G. C. Discrimination
of appropriate and inappropriate combinations of
vocalizations and mouth gestures by captive tufted
capuchin monkeys (Cebus .i'I//i), pp.124-125.
Fite, J., Ross, C. N., Rukstalis, M. & French, J. A. Elevated
testosterone excretion and decreased maternal effort in
female marmosets when postpartum conception occurs
during the period of infant dependence, pp.49-50.
Fragaszy, D. and Crast, J. Intrinsic movements of the hand
contribute to dexterity in capuchin monkeys, pp.108-
109.
Fragaszy, D. M., Izar, P., Visalberghi, E., Ottoni, E. B. &
Oliveira, M. G. de. Wild capuchin monkeys use anvils
and stone pounding tools, p. 118.
Garber, P. A. and Jelink, P. E. Travel patterns and spatial
mapping in Nicaraguan mantled howler monkeys
(Alouattapalliata), pp.89-90.
Gibson, S. V. Neotropical primates in biomedical research,
p.129.
Gibson, S. V., Williams, L. E. & Abee, C. R. Twinning in
squirrel monkeys, pp.114-115.
Ginther, A. J. & Snowdon, C. T. The Oedipal Conflict in
Saguinus oedipus (the cotton-top tamarin), p.113.
Glander, K. E. Is average good enough: How much do
mantled howling monkeys really weigh? p.90.
Hines, J. J. Size and composition of foraging groups of
black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles ...t ..r I in Parque
Nacional Pico Bonito, Atlantida, Honduras, p.89.


Hines, J. J. Taxonomic status of Ateles...n ..r in northern
Honduras, pp.79-80.
Hostetler, C. M., Hankerson, S. J., Raboy, B. E. & Dietz,
J. M. Exploratory study of morphological differences in
wild lion tamarin populations, p.55.
Hoy, E. A. & Fragaszy, D. M. The effects of experience and
presentation order on the ability of capuchin monkeys
(Cebus ''I//17) to plan their actions when solving two-
dimensional detour problems, p.109.
Jack, K. M. & Fedigan, L. M. How are male dispersal
patterns, dominance rank and reproductive success related
in wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) in Santa
Rosa National Park, Costa Rica? p.88.
Jones, B. M., Fix, H. C. & French, J. A. Urinary cortisol
responses to social isolation and short-term physical
restraint in the common marmoset (C .-'. jacchus),
pp.33-34.
Joyce, S. M. & Snowdon, C. T. Do adults understand
what infants know about food? Food transfers in captive
cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus), p.105.
Judge, P G., Paxton, R. L. & Talarico, L. R. Differential
matching of familiar and unfamiliar conspecific faces by
capuchin monkeys (Cebus .'I//,i), p.124.
Laszlo, K., Miller, K. E. & Suomi, S. J. Urine washing
in captive tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus ''I//,1),
pp.68-69.
Luecke, L. G. Distribution of the black howler monkey
(Alouatta pigra) in Mesoamerica: A GIS analysis,
pp.75-76.
Mackinnon, K. C. Infant-carrying by non-mothers in
wild white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus):
Do infants have preferential transportation partners,
pp.80-81.
Mandujano, S., Escobedo-Morales, L., Palacios, R. &
Rodriguez-Toledo, E. A metapopulation approach
to conservation of howler monkeys in highly altered
landscapes in Mexico: Increase patch size or set up
interpatch connectivity? pp.78-79.
McCutcheon, S. E., Snowdon, C. T. and Ziegler, T. E.
Prolactin levels predict relationship quality in cotton-top
tamarins (Saguinus oedipus), p.50.
Miller, K. E., Laszlo, K. & Suomi, S. J. The relationship
between social rank and food consumption, relative
to food accessibility in captive tufted capuchins (Cebus
a.f/,1), pp.40-41.
Milton, K. Do population parameters of two sympatric
monkey species (Alouatta palliata and Ateles ..n ..-
reflect fruit production estimates? The evidence from
Barro Colorado Island, Republic of Panama, p.75.
Morales-Hernandez, K. and Horwich, R. Spider monkey
(Ateles ... ..i I conservation in El Salvador in relation to
human communities, p.77.
Moscovice, L. R. & Snowdon, C. T. Social learning in
cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus): Costs and benefits
of following the leader, p.74.
Nash, S. D. Primates in art, p.32.
Norconk, M. and Funk, K. Congruency of activities affect
calling rates in wild white-faced sakis (Pithecia pithecia),
p.69.





Neotropical Primates 12(1), April 2004


Pavelka, M. Population structure of black howlers (Alouatta
pigra) in southern Belize, p. 78.
Porter, L. M. Distribution and density of Callimico goeldii
in the Department of Pando, Bolivia, pp.51-52.
Power, M. L., Oftedal, 0. T. & Tardif, S. D. How milk
composition does, and does not, vary with maternal
condition in the common marmosets (C .-'. jacchus),
p.98.
Puffer, A. M. & French, J. A. Paternal experience mediates
postpartum urinary hormone changes in marmoset fathers
(C .-.'. kuhlii), p.33.
Rakhovskaya, M. V., Soltis, J., Bernhards, D., Becker, M.
L., Sander, K. & Newman, J. D. Captive squirrel monkey
groups respond to isolation call playbacks with separation
calls, p.62.
Rosengart, C. R. & Fragaszy, D. M. Response latency and
accuracy in a spatial memory task in capuchin monkeys
(Cebus ',c//) pp.109-110.
Rukstalis, M. and French, J. A. Conspecific vocal signals
moderate urinary cortisol excretion in isolated marmosets
(C .- kuhlii), p.80.
Ruttenberg, A. S. Coordination of foraging and vigilance
between the sexes in free-ranging rufous-naped tamarin
monkeys (Saguinus ...rr.., p.40.
Savage, A., Sun, Y., Neiffer, D., Reburn, C., Giraldo, H.,
Jiang, B., Shukla, A. & Lasley, B. The use of injectable
LNG as an effective means of contracepting cotton-top
tamarins (Saguinus oedipus), p.114.
Short, K. A. & Caine, N. G. The function of mobbing
behavior in Geoffroy's marmosets (( .-' ..r.*. i.
p.126.
Siani, J. M., Bales, K. L., Baker, A. J. & Dietz, J. M.
Relationships between age, weight, and sex ratio in wild
golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia), pp.61-62.
Silk, J. The adaptive value of social bonds, p.32.
Smucny, D. A., Abbott, D. H., Mansfield, K. G., Schultz-
Darken, N., Yamamoto, M. E. and Tardif, S. D. Sources
of variation in reproductive output of captive common
marmosets (( .-'. jacchus), pp.115-116.
Sousa, M. B., Albuquerque, A. C., Albuquerque, E S., Araujo,
A., Yamamoto, M. E. & Arruda, M. de E Evaluation of
behavioral strategies and hormonal profile from wild
dominant and subordinate common marmoset ((
jacchus) females to achieve reproductive success, p.120.
Strier, K. B. & Ziegler, T. E. How hormones help:
Deciphering the reproductive patterns of wild northern
muriquis (Brachyteles hypoxanthus), p.121.
Tardif, S. Use of Neotropical primates in the study of
maternal behavior, p.128.
Taylor, L. and Owens, A. Enclosure use by aged squirrel
monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), p.8 5.
Van Belle, S. & Estrada, A. Demographic features of
Alouatta pigra populations in extensive and fragmented
forests, p.76.
Weed, J. L. Owl monkeys (Aotus spp.) in the laboratory:
Thinking outside the nest box, p.128.
Welker, B. J. Factors involved in variation in tree and
species use by mantled howler monkeys, Alouattapalliata,
pp.88-89.


Williams, L. Symposium: Research in Neotropical primates,
p.127.
Zahed, S. K., Scott, J. J. & Snowdon, C. T. Longitudinal
study of infant carrying by cotton-top tamarin family
members, p.67.
Ziegler, T. E. Methodologies for assessing fecal steroids:
Improvements in field processing and international
transport, p.123.
Ziegler, T. E. & Strier, K. B. Advances in field based studies
of primate behavioral endocrinology, p. 119.







2004

Second European Conference on Behavioural Biology,
28-31 August, 2004, Groningen, the Netherlands. The goal
of the conference is to provide a bi-annual overview of ongo-
ing European research in behavioral biology, and to stimu-
late contacts between the different research areas. Plenary
topics include Maternal Effects, Genomics Meets Behav-
iour, Phenotypic Plasticity, Cultural Evolution, Learning,
and Aging. Organized by Ton Groothuis, Department of
Animal Behaviour, University of Groningen, on behalf of the
joint European Societies for Behavioural Biology. For more
information contact or
see the website at .

II Simposio de Primates: Un Enfoque Multidiscipli-
nario, 26-29 October, 2004, Caracas, Venezuela. Hosted
by the Faculty of Economic and Social Sciences at the
Central University of Venezuela. The preliminary themes
of the congress include: Anatomy and Human Morphol-
ogy, Prehispanic Osteology, Forensic Anthropology and
Human Rights, Population Genetics, Physical Anthropol-
ogy and Health, Anthropology and Sport, Paleoanthro-
pology and Human Ecology, Biodemography, Epistemo-
logical Problems in Physical Anthropology, Professional
Formation of the Physical Anthropologists, and Bioeth-
ics. For more information contact Braulio Hernandez at
or Elisa Horta at 57@hotmail.com>, orsee the announcementat primate.wisc.edu/pin/venezuela_congress.doc>.

IUCN Conservation Breeding Specialist Group Annual
Meeting, 28 October 4 November, 2004, Taipei, Taiwan.
Hosted by the Taipei Zoo, the theme of this year's meeting
will be "The Evolving Role of Reintroduction as a Tool for
Conservation." Plenary presentations and working groups
will focus on various aspects of reintroduction, including
those reflected in the World Zoo and Aquarium Conser-
vation Strategy. Fred Launay, Chair of the IUCN/SSC
Reintroduction Specialist Group, will present the keynote
address. Other speakers include Hamish Currie of "Back
To Africa," who will discuss concepts resulting from their
experiences re-introducing Sable and Roan into Southern





50 Neotropical Primates 12(1), April 2004


Africa; and Mark Stanley Price, Executive Director of Dur-
rell Wildlife Conservation Trust, who will discuss reintro-
duction as defined by habitat/system restoration. Currently
proposed working group topics include: initial work on de-
veloping Guidelines on Captive Breeding for Conservation,
further work on developing training programs on CBSG
processes and zoo biology, and Action Planning as a next
step in the World Zoo and Aquarium Conservation Strat-
egy. For more information and registration for the CBSG
Annual Meeting, please email or
visit the conference website at cbsg&waza/index.htm>.

Congress Nacional de Conservaci6n de la Biodiversidad,
16-19 noviembre de 2004, Escobar, Argentina. Organizan:
Fundaci6n Temaiken, Fundaci6n de Historia Natural Felix
de Azara, y Departamento de Ciencias Biol6gicas de la Uni-
versidad CAECE. Sede: Temaiken, Ruta Provincial 25 Km.
0,700 (1625) Escobar, Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Pigina web: . Informes e ins-
cripci6n: . El Congreso tendrn
cuatro ejes temiticos: 1) Investigaci6n para la conservaci6n
de la biodiversidad; 2) Educaci6n ambiental para la conser-
vaci6n de la biodiversidad; 3) Gesti6n y manejo para la con-
servaci6n in situ de la biodiversidad, y 4) Gesti6n y manejo
para la conservaci6n ex situ de la biodiversidad. Los restime-
nes deben ser enviados por correo electr6nico antes del 10 de
setiembre de 2004 a: . Inscrip-
ci6n: Profesionales: $70, Estudiantes: $30. Los interesados
en participar como asistentes o expositores deberin enviar la
ficha de inscripci6n adjunta antes del 29 de octubre de 2004.
PAgina web: .

Primate Society of Great Britain 2004 Winter Meeting,
1 December 2004, Institute of Zoology, London. Theme:
"People, Primates and Conservation." Organized by Kate
Hill, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, UK, and Caro-
line Ross, University of Surrey Roehampton. The follow-
ing speakers have been confirmed: John Fa (Durrell Wild-
life Conservation Trust), Anna Feistner (AFP Conservation
Support), Alison Jolly (University of Sussex), Phyllis Lee
(University of Cambridge), France Maddine (Consultant in
Human-Wildlife Conflict), Anna Nekaris (Oxford Brookes
University), and Nancy Priston (University of Cambrdge).
The 2004 Osman Hill Lecture will be given by Carel van
Schaik. For more information contact: Kate Hill, e-mail:
or visit the website at www.psgb.org>.

2005

Biodiversity: Science and Governance: Today's Choice
for Tomorrow's Life, 24-28 January, 2005, Paris, France.
Hosted by the Ministry of Research, with additional co-
ordination by the Institut Frangais de la Biodiversit6, the
conference is part of the ongoing global effort to curb the
loss of biodiversity by 2010 and ensure the long term con-
servation and sustainable use of biological diversity. The
conference will focus on changes in biodiversity, assessment


tools and methodologies; the social impact of change, par-
ticularly concerning the exploitation of and trade in renew-
able resources, agriculture, fisheries, forestry; and biodiversity
governance in the context of the 2010 target and the Millen-
nium Development Goals, with an emphasis on legal, eco-
nomic and political aspects. For a comprehensive overview
of the meeting, visit the website at gouv.fr/biodiv2005paris/en/index.htm>.

Zoos & Aquariums: Committing to Conservation,
26-30 January, 2005, Cocoa Beach, Florida. The Brevard Zoo
will again be hosting the conference, which will continue to
examine and promote the role of zoos and aquaria in support-
ing in situ field research and conservation. Participants will
include representatives from zoological institutions, aquaria
and most importantly the field. Our intent is to facilitate net-
working amongst our colleagues and to focus on practical ap-
plications that support in situ conservation efforts. The reg-
istration fee is $185.00, which includes sessions, some meals
and social activities. Similar to the last conference in 2001,
we would like to encourage zoos and aquaria to sponsor their
colleagues from the field. Having such a strong presence of
field researchers greatly enhanced the positive interactions
and resulted in concrete commitments on the part of several
zoos towards field conservation. The conference will be held
at the Holiday Inn Beachfront Resort. The room rates are
$69.00 (plus tax) per night. The hotel address is 1300 N.
Atlantic Avenue, Cocoa Beach, Florida 32931, USA, phone:
1-800-206-2747. ZCC (Zoos Committed to Conservation)
is the group code to reference. For those of you looking for
roommates, we will compile a list of interested people and
will pass on to you at your individual requestss. Please con-
tact Beth Armstrong at for further de-
tails. For additional ZACC information, please contact: Beth
Armstrong, Field Conservation Coordinator, 1-321-454-
6285, or Cheri Purnell, 1-321-254-
9453 ext. 25, .

XXIII Annual Conference of the Australasian Primate
Society, 12-13 March, 2005, South Australian Museum,
Adelaide, South Australia. Twenty-minute sessions will be
reserved for each paper. Abstracts should be received before
1 February, 2005. Information: Graeme Crook, President,
Australasian Primate Society, PO Box 500, One Tree Hill, SA
5114,Australia, e-mail: . For further
details visit .

Primate Society of Great Britain 2005 Spring Meeting,
22-23 March, 2005. Chester College. For more information
contact: Paul Honess, PSGB Meeting Officer, Department
of Veterinary Services, University of Oxford, Parks Road,
Oxford OX1 3PT, UK, e-mail: or visit
the website at .

Student Conference on Conservation Science, 22-24
March 2005, Cambridge, England. The sixth in a series of
student-oriented conferences on conservation science will
be hosted by the Department of Zoology, University of
Cambridge. The conferences are aimed at people actively




Neotropical Primates 12(1), April 2004 51


engaged in research in conservation science in biological,
environmental and geography departments of universities
as well as in conservation and resource management
agencies. Conservation practitioners from leading UK
and international conservation bodies also attend and
contribute to discussions. Presentations of work in progress
from a broad range of countries, and from economic and
social as well as biological aspects of conservation, will all
be welcome. Besides the posters and talks, there will also
be workshops, presentations by conservation NGOs and
agencies and social events designed to give participants
the opportunity to make new contacts in their own and
related disciplines. Prizes are awarded to posters and talks
of outstanding quality and relevance to conservation. There
will be plenary lectures by four leading figures in the field:
Dr. Mohamed Bakarr (World Agroforestry Centre), Prof.
Daniel Pauly (University of British Columbia), Prof. Chris
Thomas (University of York), and Graham Wynne (Chief
Executive, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds). The
conference fee, including registration, tea and coffee and
three evening events, is 30. Accommodation and breakfast
will be available in a college near the conference venue at a
highly subsidized rate of10 per person per night. However,
if you can stay elsewhere, this will help us to keep the prices
low. To register, please fill in and return the application form
by 10 November 2004. You can get the form from ourwebsite
or from: Conservation
Biology Group, Department of Zoology, University of
Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK. You
are invited to submit a short abstract of your proposed talk
or poster, but it is not essential to present a talk or poster in
order to attend.

IX Simposio de Antropologia Fisica, 4-8 April, 2005,
Habana, Cuba. El Museo Antropol6gico "Montan"' y la
Citedra de Antropologia "Luis Montand" de la Facultad
de Biologia de la Universidad de La Habana, la Sociedad
Cubana de Antropologia Biol6gica, la Sociedad de Estu-
dios Primatol6gicos Eopithecus de Mexico, convocan al
IX Simposio de Antropologia Ffsica "Luis Montand", el
V Congress Primates como Patrimonio Nacional, el II
Coloquio Primates a travys del Caribe y el II Coloquio de
Antropologia "Manuel Rivero de la Calle", del 4 al 8 de
abril del 2005. Esta simultaneidad de events permitir4
realizar una extensa actividad tanto en el ambito cienti-
fico como en el de las relaciones humans que damos por
seguro contribuira al acercamiento de los profesionales y
al intercambio de experiencias. Correspondencia: Dr. Ar-
mando Rangel Rivero, Secretario, Museo Antropol6gico
Montand, Calle 25 #455, entire J e I. El Vedado, Facultad
de Biologia, Universidad de La Habana, Ciudad de La
Habana, Cuba, E-mail: , website:
ANTROPOLOGMA_FMSICA.doc>.

2005 Meeting of the Mexican Society of Primatologists,
4-7 May, 2005, Instituto de Ecologia, Xalapa, Veracruz,
Mdxico. For information: Juan Carlos Serio Silva, Presiden-
te, Asociaci6n Mexicana de Primatologia AC, Departamen-


to de Biodiversidad y Ecologia Animal, Instituto de Ecologia
AC, km 2.5 antigua carretera a Coatepec, No. 351 congre-
gaci6n El Haya, CP 91070, Apartado Postal 63, Xalapa, Ve-
racruz, M6xico, Tel: +52 (228) 8 42 18 00 ext 4109 /4110
(Fax: ext 4111), e-mail: .

19th Annual Meeting of the Society for Conservation Biol-
ogy, 15-19 July, 2005, Brasilia, Brazil. The meeting will be
held at the Universidade de Brasilia, Brasilia, Brazil, with
the central theme of "Conservation Biology: Capacitation
and Practice in a Globalized World." The chair of the meet-
ing will be Miguel Marini from the Zoology Department
of the Universidade de Brasilia. The organizing committee
will be composed of professors from the Zoology Depart-
ment, members of the Austral and Neotropical America
Section of SCB, and other researchers, mostly from Brazil
and other Latin American countries. Detailed information
about the meeting will be available later in 2004; for in-
quiries, please contact: SCB 2005 Local Organizing Com-
mittee, Departamento de Zoologia, IB, Universidade de
Brasilia, 70910-900 Brasilia, DF, Brasil, telefax: + 55 61
307-3366, e-mail: <2005@conbio.org>, website: www.conservationbiology.org/2005>.

Association of Tropical Biology and Conservation 2005
Annual Meeting, 23-29 July, 2005, Uberlandia, Brazil. The
venue will be the Uberlandia Convention Center. For more
information write to the Chair of the Organizing Commit-
tee, Kleber del-Claro, Laborat6rio de Ecologia Comporta-
mental e Interac6es, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia,
Caixa Postal 593, Uberlandia 38400-902, Minas Gerais,
Brazil, e-mail or ufu.br>.

IX International Mammalogical Congress, 31 July 5
August, 2005, Sapporo, Japan. Organizing Committee:
MAMMAL2005, c/o Field Science Center, Hokkaido
University, N11 W10, Sapporo 060-0811, Japan, e-mail:
. Website: www.imc9.jp>.

1t Congress of the European Federation of Primatology,
9-12 August, 2005, Gbttingen, Germany. The Congress will
be hosted by the German Society for Primatology (GfP) at
the German Primate Centre (DPZ), University of Gbttin-
gen. It will coincide with the 9th Congress of the German
Society. European students and researchers working on all
aspects of primatology are invited to attend. Registration
from 1 November 2004 to 30 March 2005. For more infor-
mation contact Peter M. Kappeler, President EFP, German
Primate Center (DPZ), Abteiling Verhaltensforschung &
Okologie, Kellnerweg 4, D-37077 Gbttingen, Germany,
e-mail: . Website: primatologie.de/EFP2005/index.htm>.

28th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatol-
ogists, 17-20 August, 2005, Portland, Oregon. The meeting
will be held at the Benson Hotel and hosted by the Oregon
National Primate Research Center. Call for abstracts and





Neotropical Primates 12(1), April 2004


the meeting announcement will be sent electronically
to all ASP members in mid-December 2004. Deadline
for proposals for symposia, roundtables or workshops is
17 January, 2005. Deadline for abstracts for contributed
papers, symposia speakers, workshops and roundtable
discussions is 14 February, 2005. If a paper version of the
meeting announcement is preferred, please contact Larry
Williams, Program Co-Chair, Tel: +1 251-460-6293, Fax:
+1 251-460-6286, e-mail: . For
more information, please contact: Dr. Kristine Coleman,
Chair of the local organizing committee of the ONPRC, at
.

29th International Ethological Conference, 20-27 August,
2005, Budapest, Hungary. The aim for this conference is
to encourage interdisciplinary discussion among represen-
tatives of all areas of behavioral biology. The conference will
be hosted at the Eitvis University Convention Center on
the banks of the Danube. Deadline for early registration
and abstract acceptance: 1 March 2005. Final deadline for
abstract acceptance: 1 May, 2005. Late registration until
1 June 2005. For more information, write to: IEC2005,
Department of Ethology, Eotv6s University, 1117 Bu-
dapest, Hungary, or subscribe to the e-mail newsletter at
.

Measuring Behavior 2005 5th International Conference
on Methods and Techniques in Behavioral Research,
30 August 2 September, 2005, Wageningen, The Neth-
erlands. Measuring Behavior will offer an attractive mix
of presentations, demonstrations, discussions, meetings
and much more (see

program/index.html> for details). Proceedings of the 2002
meeting are available at mb2002/index.html>. Deadline for proposals of Symposia
and SIGs: 1 December 2004. All presentations will deal
with innovative methods and techniques in behavioral
research. Topics include: behavior recording in the labo-
ratory and field; automatic behavior recognition and pat-
tern classification; sensor technology and biotelemetry; be-
havior and physiology; vocalizations, speech, gestures and
facial expressions; analyzing behavior and movement; new
animal models and measurement methodologies; measur-
ing human-system interaction; innovation in teaching be-
havior research methods. For more information, contact
Prof. Dr. Louise E. M. Vet, Program Chair, Measuring Be-
havior 2005, Conference Secretariat, P. 0. Box 268, 6700
AG Wageningen, The Netherlands, Tel: +31-317-497677,
Fax: +31-317-424496, e-mail: .
Website: .

2006


21st Congress of the International
Primatological Society, 26-30 June,
2006, Imperial Resort Beach Hotel,
Entebbe, Uganda. Theme: "Primate
Conservation in Action". Preliminary
contact details: Dr. William Olupot,
Chair, Organizing Committee, IPS
2006 Congress, P. 0. Box 21669,
Kampala, Uganda, Tel: 077598134,
077947397, 041501020, e-mail


.


Lion Tamarins: Biology and Conservation
Devra G. Kleiman and Anthony B. Rylands
\ October 2002
384 pages; 6 x 9 inches; 20 b/w photographs; 42 line illustrations; 33 charts and graphs
S Hardcover: $45.00
A.,II 1-58834-072-4

From the Smithsonian Institution Press: Without the extraordinary efforts of the editors and authors of this
book, three of the four lion tamarin species (golden, golden-headed, black-faced, and black) would most likely
be extinct. The contributors' hard work set international standards and became the model for the preservation
of other endangered species. There is, of course, still much to be done, and this comprehensive assessment of research findings and
conservation efforts leads the way.
The first section of the book covers the history and framework of research and conservation for the four species, stressing the
importance of both group and individual efforts. Part II examines the principal research fields that have played an important role in
contributing to the management of the species in captivity and the wild; the authors maintain that there is no substitute for long-term
data and good science when developing recovery and conservation programs. Part III focuses on direct interventions to conserve wild
populations and their habitats as guided by scientific and educational principles.
Kleiman and Rylands close the book by noting the remarkable accomplishments of lion tamarin conservation, and look hopefully
toward future directions and challenges.
Devra G. Kleiman is a research associate at the Smithsonian's National Zoo and is coeditor of WildMammals in Captivity: Principles
and Techniques (1997). Anthony B. Rylands is senior director for conservation biology at the Center for Applied Biodiversity Science,
Conservation International in Washington D.C., and is editor of Marmosets and Tamarins: Systematics, Behaviour, and Ecology (1993).


L*


'000 1












Scope

The journal/newsletter aims to provide a basis for conservation
information relating to the primates of the Neotropics. We
welcome texts on any aspect of primate conservation, including
articles, thesis abstracts, news items, recent events, recent publica-
tions, primatological society information and suchlike.

Submissions

Please send all English and Portuguese contributions to:
John M. Aguiar, Conservation International, Center for Applied
Biodiversity Science, 1919 M St. NW, Suite 600, Washington,
DC 20036, Tel: 202 912-1000, Fax: 202 912-0772, e-mail:
, and all Spanish contributions to:
Ernesto Rodriguez-Luna, Instituto de Neuroetologia, Universi-
dad Veracruzana, Apartado Postal 566, Xalapa 91000, Veracruz,
Mexico, Tel: 281 8-77-30, Fax: 281 8-77-30, 8-63-52, e-mail:
.

Contributions

Manuscripts may be in English, Spanish or Portuguese, and should
be double-spaced and accompanied by the text on diskette for
PC compatible text-editors (MS-Word, WordPerfect, Excel, and
Access), and/or e-mailed to (English,
Portuguese) or (Spanish). Hard
copies should be supplied for all figures (illustrations and maps)
and tables. The full name and address for each author should be
included. Please avoid abbreviations and acronyms without the
name in full. Authors whose first language is not English should
please have texts carefully reviewed by a native English speaker.

Articles. Each issue of Neotropical Primates will include up to
three full articles, limited to the following topics: Taxonomy,
Systematics, Genetics (when relevant for systematics), Biogeogra-
phy, Ecology and Conservation. Texts for full articles should not
exceed about 20 pages in length (1.5 spaced, and including the
references). Please include an abstract in English, and (optional)
one in Portuguese or Spanish. Tables and illustrations should be
limited to six, excepting only the cases where they are fundamental
for the text (as in species descriptions, for example). Full articles
will be sent out for peer-review.

Short articles. These are usually reviewed only by the editors.
A broader range of topics is encouraged, including such as
behavioral research, in the interests of informing on general
research activities which contribute to our understanding of
platyrrhines. We encourage reports on projects and conservation
and research programs (who, what, where, when, why, etc.) and
most particularly information on geographical distributions,
locality records, and protected areas and the primates which
occur in them. Texts should not exceed 10 pages in length
(1.5 spaced, including the references).


Figures and maps. Articles may include small black-and-white
photographs, high-quality figures, and high-quality maps and
tables. Please keep these to a minimum. We stress the importance
of providing maps which are publishable.

News items. Please send us information on projects, field sites,
courses, recent publications, awards, events, activities of Primate
Societies, etc.

References. Examples of house style may be found throughout this
journal. Please refer to these examples when listing references:

Journal article
Stallings, J. D. and Mittermeier, R. A. 1983. The black-tailed
marmoset (( .. .. g .-. ur.. melanura) recorded from Paraguay.
Am.]. Primatol. 4: 159-163.

Chapter in book
Brockelman, W. Y. and Ali, R. 1987. Methods of surveying and
sampling forest primate populations. In: Primate Conservation
in the Tropical Rain Forest, C. W. Marsh and R. A. Mittermeier
(eds.), pp. 23-62. Alan R. Liss, New York.

Book
Napier, P H. 1976. Catalogue of Primates in the British Museum
(Natural History). Part 1: Families Callitrichidae and Cebidae.
British Museum (Natural History), London.

Thesis/Dissertation
Wallace, R. B. 1998. The behavioral ecology of black spider
monkeys in north-eastern Bolivia. Doctoral thesis, University of
Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.

Report
Muckenhirn, N. A., Mortensen, B. K., Vessey, S., Fraser,
C. E. 0. and Singh, B. 1975. Report on a primate survey in
Guyana. Unpublished report, Pan American Health Organization,
Washington, DC.




Neotropical Primates is produced in collaboration
with Conservation International, Center for Applied
Biodiversity Science, 1919 M St. NW, Suite 600,
Washington, DC 20036, USA.





Printed on New Leaf Reincarnation Matte 80# cover (100% recycled/50% post-
consumer waste, processed chlorine free) and New Leaf Reincarnation Matte 70#
text (50% recycled/30% post-consumer waste, elemental chlorine free). By using this
environmentally friendly paper, Conservation International saved the following resources:
6 fully-grown trees
621 gallons ofwater
4 million BTUs of energy
294 pounds of solid waste
357 pounds ofgreenhouse gases
Calculated based on research done by Environmental Defense another members of the Paper Task Force.
For more information about New Leaf aper, go to www. newleafpaper.com.







Neotropical Primates
A Journal and Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group
Vol. 12(1), April 2004


Contents

Short Articles

Plantas 1Utiles en la Alimentaci6n de Primates en la Cuenca del Rio Samiria, Amazonia Peruana
Rolando A quino y Richard E. Bodm er................................................................................ .................................... ...................... 1
Habitat Use by the White-Footed Tamarin, Saguinus leucopus: A Comparison Between a Forest-Dwelling Group and
an Urban Group in Mariquita, Colombia
Katja Poveda and Pedro Sdnchez-Palomino.............................................................................. ........................................... 6
New Records of Martins' Bare-Face Tamarin, Saguinus martinsi (Primates: Callitrichidae)
Leonardo de Carvalho Oliveira, Sylvia Miscow Mendel, Jose de Sousa e Silva Jr., and Geraldo Wilson Fernandes.................................9...
Behavioural Changes in Response to an Injured Group Member in a Group of Wild Moustached
Tamarins (Saguinus mystax)
Emirita R. Tirado Herrera and Eckhard W Heymann.............................................................. 13
Diurnal Birth of a Wild Red Titi Monkey, Callicebus cupreus, at the Estaci6n Biol6gica Quebrada Blanco
Wagner Ivdn Terrones Ruiz, Dilys Malvina Vela Diaz, Camilo Flores Amasifuen, and Eckhard W Heymann..................................... 15
Occurrence and Diet of the Black Bearded Saki (Chiropotes satanas satanas) in the Fragmented Landscape
of Western Maranhio, Brazil
M drcio Port-Carvalho and Stephen E Ferrari.............................................................................................................................. 17
Infecci6n por Larvas de Alouattamyia baeri (Diptera: Cuterebridae) en Monos Aulladores, Alouattapalliata
(Primates: Cebidae) de la Costa Caribe de Costa Rica
Olger Calderdn-Arguedas, Adriana Troyo, Mayra E. Solano, Ronald Sdnchez,
M isael (C /* .- . '... y Gustavo A Gutilrrez-Espeleta ......................................................... ............................ ........................21
Flora Bacterial Oral y su Perfil de Sensibilidad a Antibi6ticos en Monos de Costa Rica (Alouattapalliata
y Ateles geoffroyi)
Maria del Mar Gamboa-Coronado Evelyn Rodriguez-Cavallini, Galia Rojas-Contreras,
Ronald Sdnchez-Porras, y Gustavo Gutierrez-Espeleta.............................................................................. ........................24

N ew s ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 3 0

P rim ate S societies ........................................................................................................................................................................ 4 0

R ecen t P u blication s....................................................................................................................................................................40

M eetin g s ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4 9




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