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Title: Neotropical primates
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Title: Neotropical primates a newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCNSSC Primate Specialist Group
Abbreviated Title: Neotrop. primates
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
Conservation International
Center for Applied Biodiversity Science
Publisher: Conservation International
Place of Publication: Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Publication Date: December 2001
Frequency: quarterly
regular
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Subject: Primates -- Periodicals -- Latin America   ( lcsh )
Primates -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Wildlife conservation -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: review   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Brazil
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Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Language: English, Portuguese, and Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Mar. 1993)-
Issuing Body: Issued jointly with Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, <Dec. 2004->
General Note: Published in Washington, D.C., Dec. 1999-Apr. 2005 , Arlington, VA, Aug. 2005-
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 13, no. 1 (Apr. 2005).
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    Copyright
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    Back Matter
        Back Matter
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text







TROPICAL


primate


s


VOLU I..E 9
NUMBER 3
DECEMBER 2001



A Iournal and ".eI a wsletter of the
Neotropical Section of the IUCN'I SSC(
Primate Specialist Group


CENTER
FOR AMPPUEO
BIODIVERSITY
SCIENCE


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Neotropical Primates
A Journal and Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group


Center for Applied Biodiversity Science
Conservation International
1919 M. St. NW, Suite 600, Washington, DC 20036, USA

ISSN 1413-4703 Abbreviation: Neotrop. Primates

Editors
Anthony B. Rylands, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International, Washington, DC
Ernesto RodrIguez-Luna, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Mexico

Assistant Editor
Jennifer Pervola, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International, Washington, DC

Editorial Board
Hannah M. Buchanan-Smith, University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland, UK
Adelmar E Coimbra-Filho, Academia Brasileira de Ciincias, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Liliana CortEs-Ortiz, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Mexico
Carolyn M. Crockett, Regional Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
Stephen E Ferrari, Universidade Federal do Par-, BelEm, Brazil
Eckhard W. Heymann, Deutsches Primatenzentrum, G ttingen, Germany
William R. Konstant, Conservation International, Washington, DC
Russell A. Mittermeier, Conservation International, Washington, DC
Marta D. Mudry, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina
Hor-cio Schneider, Universidade Federal do Par., BelEm, Brazil
Karen B. Strier, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
Maria Emilia Yamamoto, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Brazil

Primate Specialist Group
Chairman Russell A. Mittermeier
Deputy Chairs Anthony B. Rylands & William R. Konstant
Co-Vice Chairs for the Neotropical Region Anthony B. Rylands & Ernesto RodrIguez-Luna
Vice Chair for Asia Ardith A. Eudey
Vice Chair for Africa Thomas M. Butynski
Vice Chair for Madagascar J^rg U. Ganzhorn

Design:
Glenda P. F-bregas, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International, Washington, DC.
Production:
Kim Meek, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International, Washington, DC.
Editorial Assistance:
John M. Aguiar, Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, Texas A&M University, Texas.

Front Cover:
Photo, Atelesgeoffroyigeoffroyl, courtesy of Vince Sodaro, Primate Department, Brook~eld Zoo, Brookville, Illinois, 60513, USA.

This issue of NeotropicalPrimates was kindly sponsored by the Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation, 432 Walker Road, Great Falls, Virginia 22066, USA,
the Houston Zoological Gardens Conservation Program, General Manager Rick Barongi, 1513 North MacGregor, Houston, Texas 77030, USA, and the Los
Angeles Zoo, Director Manuel Mollinedo, 5333 Zoo Drive, Los Angeles, California 90027, USA.


111I:1.'. I N% 11







Neotropical Primates 9(3), December 2001 93


BODY WEIGHTS OF ADULT FEMALE ALOUATTA
PALLIATA IN COSTA RICA INCREASE WITH AGE

Evan L. Zucker
Margaet R. Clarke
Kennneth E. Glander
Introduction

Body weights are often used as correlates of general health,
as well as being predictive, perhaps, of future reproductive
success (Trivers and Willard, 1973; Bercovitch etal., 1998).
For female nonhuman primates, the long-term monitoring
of body weights constitutes an integral part of the study of
life histories (Harvey et al., 1987). With respect to female
mantled howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata), they emigrate
from their natal groups as juveniles (Glander, 1980, 1992;
Scott etal., 1978), as do males, later immigrating into other
social groups after a period of living alone. In order to stay in
these new social groups, immigrating females must become
dominant to all resident females, a process that can take up
to a year (Jones, 1980; Glander, 1992; Zucker and Clarke,
1998). As group membership is a competitive process, the
sizes (weights) of immigrant females might contribute to their
competitive abilities and eventual successful immigrations.
Newly immigrant females weigh less than resident females;
but after two years, this difference disappears (Zucker et al.,
submitted).

This process of juvenile emigration from natal groups, with
subsequent immigration into other groups as young adults,
results in reversed, age-graded hierarchies for each sex (Clarke
and Glander, 1984; Jones, 1980; Zucker and Clarke, 1998).
The most dominant individual of each sex is typically the
youngest, while the least dominant is the oldest, usually
having the longest tenure in the group (Clarke and Glander,
1984; Jones, 1980; Zucker and Clarke, 1998). Thus, age
and status are inversely (negatively) related, unlike the
positive relationship common in Old World genera, such as
Macaca and Papio; that have been more extensively studied
with respect to physical growth and development (Altmann
etal., 1977; Bercovitch, 1987; Bercovitch etal., 1998; Rawlins
etal., 1984; Small, 1981).

In this report, we present body weight data for adult females,
which have successfully immigrated and resided in one social
group at Hacienda La Pacifica, Guanacaste Province, Costa
Rica. These females were residents between 1985 and 1993,
during which time various age and sex classes were the
subjects of behavioral and physiological studies.

Methods

Study Site and Subjects
Hacienda La Pacifica, located 5 km northwest of Cafias,
in Guanacaste Province, Costa Rica, is a 1,980-ha ranch


(Glander, 1992) in the lowland tropical dry forest zone
(Holdridge, 1967). The majority of adult mantled howlers
on the ranch have been captured and marked for reliable
identification (Scott et al., 1976; Glander et al., 1991;
Glander, 1992). Upon capture, all monkeys were weighed,
measured, and tattooed, and adult females were palpated to
detect pregnancies (Glander, 1980, 1992). Adults are marked
with unique, color-coded leg chains (males) or collars and
tags (females). Individuals captured for the first time are
aged, based on dental characteristics (Pope, 1966). Monkeys
have usually been captured during the months of February
and July.

Study of Group 2 at La Pacifica began in 1985, after census
work in 1984 provided the group's demography (Clarke
etal., 1986). During the 9-year period covered in this report
(1985-1993), mean group size was 17.3 monkeys (sd = 3.8),
including an average of 8.4 adult females (sd = 1.6). This
group inhabits an L-shaped home range of upland forest (see
Fig. 1 in Glander, 1992, for a map of the ranch showing the
location of this group). Home range size was estimated to be
24 ha (Zucker et al., 1996), although this was decreased by
approximately 10% in 1991 following deforestation related
to the construction of a major canal system through La
Pacifica and other parts of Guanacaste Province (Clarke
etal., 2002).

Data Set

Six adult females were captured and marked in 1985.
In 1986, four more adult females were captured and marked,
including two females believed to be recent immigrants.
Two marked adult females from 1985 were not present in
1986. Thus, beginning in 1986, all adult female residents in
this group were marked and identifiable. In calculating the
mean weight of adult females in this group, the first weights
obtained for these 10 females (1985-1986) were used, in
addition to the first weights obtained for the subsequent six
immigrants. Only the body weights of nonpregnant females
are included.

Longitudinal assessment of body weights became possible
after all of the adult females in Group 2 were marked.
Weights for 12 females which were in the group for a
minimum of two years are presented here, with multiple
weights available for eight of them. As we have minimized
the number of times animals in this group are captured,
weights are not available for all individuals in all years of
study. After the initial two years, weights of some females
were obtained in 1989, 1991, 1992, and 1993. Animals
new to the group were captured for permanent marking, as
were residents which needed damaged or lost collars, tags, or
chains to be replaced.

The affiliative and agonistic interactions of the adult females
in Group 2 were studied systematically between 1988 and
1992 during portions of June, July, and/or August (Zucker
and Clarke, 1998). Thus, dominance relationships of the
7-9 females in the group during this period are also known,






94 Neotropical Primates 9(3), December 2001


and results generally fit the expected reversed, age-graded
hierarchy, although the hierarchies were variable over time.
Yearly dominance ranks are given in Zucker and Clarke
(1998, Table III).

Results

Taking into account only the first weights, the mean body
weight for the 16 females, which were residents in Group
2 at some time between 1985 and 1993, was 4.09 kg (sd =
0.49; range 3.18-5.10 kg). Using all body weights obtained
during the study period for these 16 females (n = 26), the
mean body weight of an adult female was 4.30 kg (sd = 0.53;
range 3.18-5.70 kg). Yearly means and standard deviations
are presented in Table 1.

Multiple body weight measurements were available for eight
Group 2 females. Seven of them increased their weight
over time. The last body weights of these females were, on
the average, 16.46% greater than their first weights, with
increases ranging from 4.65% to 40.67% (sd 14.98%).
The female who lost weight experienced a decrease of 3.92%
over two years. Weights over time for the older females in
the group are shown in Figure la, while weights for the
younger females are shown in Figure lb. It is evident that the
females' weights increased over the years, regardless of length
of tenure in the group. Taking into account the number of
years in the group, the mean increase per year was 3.64%
(sd 2.72%) for the seven females that showed increases.
For mantled howlers, status decreases with increased tenure
in the group (Clarke and Glander, 1984; Glander, 1980;
Jones, 1 80; Zucker and Clarke, 1998), so there would be an
inverse relationship between status and body weight.


Discussion

Adult female mantled howling monkeys increased their body
weights throughout their lives, although the proximate causes
of these changes have not yet been assessed in this sample
(or population). Increases could be due to increased bone
growth and overall size, decreased lean body mass, increased
amounts of fat, or changes in bone densities (see Schwartz
and Kemnitz, 1992).

During the latter portion of the study period, construction-
related deforestation produced some major changes in the
group's home range (Clarke et al., in press) and, despite
the loss of a major Spondias tree and a number of other
fruit trees, body weights of the adult females continued to
increase, regardless of their specific age or social status. Mean
daily path length increased following deforestation (Clarke
et al., 2002), so these weight increases occurred even with
increased activity, and were not due to decreased activity that
might accompany increased age.

The weight increases with age described for this one group of
howlers might not be found in groups consuming different
diets or living in different microhabitats, such as those
inhabiting the riverine forests at La Pacifica. Howlers in the
drier, upland forests spend more time feeding than do the
howlers living near the rivers (Teaford and Glander, 1996),
which could be compounded further by increased feeding
time per day during the dry season by the upland groups.
The volume of food consumed, which would contribute to
body weight, might not reflect the nutritional value of the
food, or alternatively, the relationship between volume and
nutritional value could vary seasonally. Intergroup differences


Table 1. Adult female Alouatta palliata at Hacienda La Pacifica, Guanacaste Province, Costa Rica. Ages, years weighed, yearly means,
and standard deviations.
Female 1985 1986 1989 1991 1992 1993
Burgundy 9-R'
Cherry 15-R
Goldenrod 12-R
Indigo 6-R 7-R 14-R
Marigold 9-R
Violet 18-R 22-R
Oregano 4-I
Pansy 12-R 15-R
RC 9-1 12-R 16-R
Tulip 19-R 25-R
Chicory 11-1 13-R
JQ 4-1
Sage 4-1 6-R
Wisteria 5-I 7-R
Azalea 4-I1
Bamboo 20-I
Mean (kg) 3.85 4.08 4.70 4.47 4.35 4.56
Sd 0.55 0.21 0.70 0.38 0.64 0.11
N 6 5 5 3 2 5
Numbers indicate estimated age, in years; "R" resident in group, "I" recent immigrant.






Neotropical Primates 9(3), December 2001






... . .


I M I
Yw W- -- -


CL

III..
I
Lb -


"C

J2 Am
*OH ~ n^


,N 1 r MW IS iN 1M 1,W i
Year WiphW.d


Figure 1. Weights over time of adult female howling monkeys in
Group 2 at Hacienda La Pacifica. Weights of older females are
shown in (a) and younger females in (b).



in the consumption of different food types were found even
within microhabitats (Teaford and Glander, 1996).

Studies of rhesus monkeys (Aacaca mulatta) provide some
comparable data relating body weight to status, although
differences in the life histories and social systems of these two
species produce different patterns. For rhesus females living
in an outdoor field cage, Small (1981) found a significant
positive correlation between rank and fat index (composite
fat score from skinfold measurements/body weight). Higher
fat indexes for high ranking females were attributed to
preferential access to food, resulting in them being more
healthy. For mantled howlers, immigration patterns produce
an inverse relationship between status and weight, although
this is clearly confounded by age. In Small's (1981) study, the
ages of the higher ranking females were not given, nor was
the upper age limit of the adult females studied, although no
significant relationship was found between fat index and age
(Small, 1981).

Cross-sectional data for provisioned rhesus monkeys on Cayo
Santiago, in Puerto Rico, indicated that age and weight
were positively related for adult females until they were
approximately 13 years old, then weight declined gradually
(Rawlins et al., 1984, Table II). In this study by Rawlins
et al., sample sizes were quite small for females over six years


old. With larger sample sizes, Schwartz and Kemnitz (1992)
corroborated this curvilinear pattern, finding that weight
increased over the first 14 years, then decreased. Females
over 20 years old were significantly lighter than other adult
females (Schwartz and Kemnitz, 1992). Thus, howlers and
rhesus differ during the latter portion of adulthood in
this relationship between age and weight. Rhesus females
decrease in weight as they approach their twenties, whereas
the weights of howler females continue to increase. The
sample of La Pacifica howlers included two females (Violet
and Tulip) over 20 years old (Table I), which continued to
increase in weight during their twenties. Testable hypotheses
about these species' differences during latter adulthood might
center on differences in activity levels, quality and types
of foods eaten, psychosocial stresses, and/or physical forces
associated with arboreal (howler) versus more terrestrial
(rhesus) ways of life.

Acknowledgments

This research was supported in part by NIH Grant RR0O 164
to the Tulane Regional Primate Research Center. Some of the
capturing and weighing of monkeys was done in conjunction
with dental microwear studies; see Teaford and Glander
(1996) for sources of support for that work. We thank
Jennifer Conkerton for assistance with data tabulation, the
management of La Pacifica for their continued support and
permission to work at this site, and the Hagnauer family for
all their assistance in numerous ways over the many years.
Some of these data were presented at the 1998 meeting of
the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, Salt
Lake City, UT (USA).

Evan L. Zucker, Department of Psychology, Loyola
University, New Orleans, LA 70118, USA, e-mail:
, Margaret R. Clarke, Department
of Anthropology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA
70118, USA, e-mail: , and Kenneth
E. Glander, Department of Biological Anthropology and
Anatomy, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA,
e-mail: .

References

Altmann, J., Altmann, S. A., Hausfater, G. and McCuskey,
S. A. 1977. Life history of yellow baboons: Physical
development, reproductive parameters, and infant mortality.
Primates 18: 315-330.
Bercovitch, F. B. 1987. Female weight and reproductive
condition in a population of olive baboons (Papio anubis).
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Bercovitch, E B., Lebron, M. R., Martinez, H. S. and Kessler,
M. J. 1998. Primigravidity, body weight, and costs of
rearing first offspring in rhesus macaques. Am. J Primatol.
46: 135-144.
Clark, M. R., Collins, D. A. and Zucker, E. L. 2002.
Responses to deforestation in a group of mantled howlers
(Alouatta palliata) in Costa Rica. Int. J Primatol. 23:
365-381.






96 Neotropical Primates 9(3), December 2001


Clarke, M. R. and Glander, K. E. 1984. Female reproductive
success in a group of free-ranging howling monkeys
(Alouattapalliata) in Costa Rica. In: Female Primates: Studies
by Women Primatologists, M. E Small (ed.), pp.111-126.
Alan R. Liss, New York.
Clarke, M. R. and Zucker, E. L. 1994. Survey of the howling
monkey population at La Pacifica: A seven-year follow-up.
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Glander, K. E. 1980. Reproduction and population growth
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C. 1991. Field methods for capture and measurement
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Holdridge, L. R. 1967. Life Zone Ecology. Tropical Sciences
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Jones, C. B. 1980. The functions of status in the mantled
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Neotropical primate. Primates 21: 389-405.
Pope, B. L. 1966. The population characteristics of howler
monkeys (Alouatta caraya) in northern Argentina. Am. J.
Phys. Anthropol. 24: 351-360.
Rawlins, R. G., Kessler, M. J. and Turnquist, J. E. 1984.
Reproductive performance, population dynamics and
anthropometrics of the free-ranging Cayo Santiago rhesus
macaques. J Med. Primatol. 13: 247-259.
Schwartz, S. M. and Kemnitz, J. W. 1992. Age- and gender-
related changes in body size, adiposity, and endocrine
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Grouping behavior and sex ratio in mantled howling
monkeys. In: Proceedings of the Sixth International Congress
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and W. Lane-Petter (eds.), pp.183-185. Academic Press,
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in a captive group of rhesus monkeys. Am. J Primatol.
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Neotropical Primates, M. A. Norconk, A. L. Rosenberger
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VARIATIONS IN GROUP SIZE IN WHITE-FACED SAKIS
(PITHECIA PITHEcI): EVIDENCE FOR MONOGAMY
OR SEASONAL CONGREGATIONS?

Shavwn M Lehman
Waldyke Prince
Mireya Mayor
Introduction

There are few longitudinal data on the social structure and
behavior of white-faced sakis (Pithecia pithecia pithecia).
Synecological studies have found that they tend to live
in small groups of 2-4 animals (Buchanan et al., 1981;
Mittermeier, 1977; also Oliveira et al., 1985, who studied
the golden-faced subspecies, P p. chrysocephala), which
have led some researchers to suggest that white-faced sakis
are monogamous (e.g., Napier and Napier, 1986; Robinson
etal., 1986; Dunbar, 1988). Besides group size, support for
monogamy in white-faced sakis comes from field studies in
which males and females responded in a territorial manner to
loud calls during vocal playback experiments (Rosenberger
etal., 1997).

Data from historic accounts and recent surveys indicate that
some groups of white-faced sakis contain more than four
individuals. There have been reports as early as the mid- 19th
century of groups with 6-10 members (Schomburgk, 1848;
Schomburgk, 1876). More recent field accounts confirm that
some groups have more than one adult member of each sex
(Buchanan, 1978; Oliveira etal., 1985; Kinzey and Norconk,
1993; Gleason and Norconk, 1995; Ryan, 1995; Norconk
etal., 1997; Norconk etal., 1998), leading to suppositions that
this species may not be monogamous. It has been suggested
that groups with more than four animals may represent
seasonal congregations of smaller groups (Buchanan, 1978;
Fleagle and Meldrum, 1988). Therefore, it is not surprising
that Rosenberger and coworkers (1997) recommended that






Neotropical Primates 9(3), December 2001


we reevaluate the white-faced saki as a "typical" monogamous
primate.

Although preliminary surveys have provided invaluable data
on the size and composition of white-faced saki groups (e.g.,
Mittermeier, 1977; Oliveira etal., 1985; Kessler, 1998), they
are difficult to interpret because the studies were typically
conducted during only one season, and few sightings were
made due to the shy and cryptic nature of the animals.
Moreover, there are few recent data for populations of white-
faced sakis in Guyana (Muckenhirn etal., 1975; Sussman and
Phillips-Conroy, 1995), where there are, surprisingly, some
of the earliest descriptions of large group sizes (Schomburgk,
1848; Schomburgk, 1876).

If there is a seasonal effect influencing group congregations
in white-faced sakis, then surveys conducted throughout the
year may provide important preliminary data on their social
structure. In this report we present longitudinal survey data
on group size for white-faced sakis in Guyana and summarize
results from previous surveys. We then suggest directions for
future studies.

Methods

The data analyzed in this paper are from a literature review
and 1,725 km of surveys we conducted at sixteen sites in
Guyana (Fig. 1). Guyana is a small country of 215,000
km2 situated on the northeastern coast of South America,
between 56020' and 6123'W and 110' and 8035'N. Mean
annual precipitation is between 2,000 and 3,400 mm (ter
Steege, 1993). There are generally two wet seasons (May
to August and December to January) and two dry seasons
(September to November and February to April).

Data were collected during three periods: (1) November
1994 to June 1995; (2) September 1995 to June 1996;
and (3) June to August, 1997. When surveying forests, we
used randomly selected and predetermined transect lines.
Although most studies of the distribution of animals use
only random selection of transects (e.g., Anderson et al.,
1979; Burnham et al., 1980; Krebs, 1989; Peres, 1997),
we also used predetermined transect lines to ensure that
biogeographic features, such as rivers that may be barriers
to dispersal, were included in the data set. Predetermined
transect lines often ran along paths in the forest to maximize
survey time in remote areas. Two types of surveys were
conducted: (1) unique and (2) repeat. Unique surveys were
made along transects, such as trails or riverbanks, where
one to two transits were made during a census. During
repeat surveys we conducted more than two transits of a
transect line. Repeat surveys were conducted along paths at
five locations: (1) Timehri; (2) Dubulay Ranch; (3) Kaieteur
Falls National Park; (4) Mabura Hill Ecological Reserve and
(5) Sebai River. We walked slowly along unique and repeat
transects lines at a rate of 1.0 km/h, stopping every ten
minutes to listen for the sounds of movement in the forest.


Figure 1. Locations of study sites.


We surveyed rivers by paddling slowly (1.5-2.0 km/h) along
riverbanks. During river surveys, randomly selected areas
were chosen on each bank for land surveys. Non-linear
transect lines in the forest were used because travel costs
are very high in Guyana. Thus, it was cost-prohibitive to
cut and mark trails when only 2-4 weeks were available
for data collection. Furthermore, in protected areas such as
Kaieteur Falls National Park, Mabura Hill Forest Reserve,
and Iwokrama Forest Reserve, it is illegal to cut trails. Hence,
established trails were used in these protected areas.

During surveys, data were recorded on: (1) primate species;
(2) time of day; (3) weather; (4) vegetation height; (5) general
height of group; (6) number of animals in group; (7) cue by
which animals were detected; (8) activity; (9) perpendicular
distance from the transect [meters]; (10) sighting angle;
and (11) habitat type. When a primate group was seen, a
standardized time of 10 minutes was spent observing the
behavior of individuals in the group (NRC, 1981). Adibitum
notes on behavior, obvious individual physical characteristics,
and vocalizations were also collected. The location of
primate groups seen during surveys was determined using
LANDSAT 5 satellite photographs, 1:50,000 topographic
maps of the region, and a Magellan NAV 5000D GPS. If
monkeys were observed feeding, then fruit and/or voucher
specimens were collected. Specimens were placed in plastic
zip-lock bags and preserved with 80% ethanol. They were
deposited for identification at the Center for the Study of
Biological Diversity at the University of Guyana. Habitat
descriptions were made using soil features, a vegetation map
(Huber etal., 1995), various monographs on Guyanese flora






98 Neotropical Primates 9(3), December 2001


(Van Roosmalen, 1985; de Granville, 1988; Mennega et al.,
1988; ter Steege, 1990, 1993), and LANDSAT 5 satellite
imagery of survey areas.

Group sizes are given as the mean + one standard deviation.
Nonparametric statistics were used because survey data
violate assumptions of normality (Ludwig and Reynolds,
1988). Spearman correlation coefficients (r) were computed
for monthly data on mean group size (dependent variable)
versus rainfall and fruiting records (independent variables)
in Guyana. Rainfall and fruiting records are based on
100 years of data collected in Guyana (ter Steege, 1993).
Data on group sizes from the three groups seen by Kinzey
(1988) and Norconk (1997) in Venezuela were combined
to facilitate comparisons. A Kruskal Wallis (H) test was
used to determine variations in group sizes between studies.
Mann-Whitney U (0) tests were run to document pair wise
differences in group sizes for each of the published studies.
Statistics were computed using SPSS 8.0 statistical software.
All statistical tests were two-tailed and the alpha level was set
at p<0.05.

Results

Table 1 shows the group size and composition of white-
faced sakis we sighted in Guyana. We observed a total of 21
groups. Group size ranged from 2-12, with a mean of 4.8
+ 2.4 animals. The total average sex ratio was 1.1:1. Of the


Table 1. Size and composition of Pithecia pithecia pithecia groups
censused in Guyana.
Group Number of Animals
Number Adult Adult Juvenile Juvenile Infants Total
males females males females
1 1 1 2
2 2 2 1 5
3 2 2 4
4 3 3 1 7
5 1 1 1 3
6 2 2 4
7 2 1 3
8 2 2 1 5
9 1 2 1 1 5
10 5 5 1 1 12
11 3 3 6
12 2 2 1 1 6
13 2 0 2
14 1 0 1 1 3
15 1 2 3
16 3 2 1 2 1 9
17 1 1 1 1 4
18 2 2 1 5
19 1 1 1 1 4
20 3 2 1 6
21 1 1 2
Total 41 37 9 4 9 100
Range 1-5 0-5 0-1 0-2 0-1 2-12
Mean 2.0 1.8 1.0 1.3 1.0 4.8
1 SD 1.0 1.1 0.0 0.6 0.0 2.4


21 groups censused, 52.3% (N = 11) contained more than
one adult of each sex. A total of 71.4% (N 15) groups
contained more than one adult male or adult female. Mean
monthly group size was not correlated with either rainfall (r
= -0.145, p = 0.78) or fruiting records (r,= 0.464, p = 0.35).

On April 17, 1996, a group of twelve white-faced sakis were
sighted by SML in riparian forest near the Madewini River
in northern Guyana (629'N, 5813'W). The animals were
not shy and were followed easily for one hour. The group was
composed of five adult males, five adult females, a juvenile
male, and a juvenile female. The animals were traveling
slowly as a cohesive group in the understorey at a height of 15
m. Two adult males foraged for ripe fruits in a kokerite palm
(Attalea maripa) within 1 m of each other. Each male bit into
and dropped fruits over a 45-second period before moving
off to join the rest of the group. No social interactions were
observed among any of the group members.

Average group size for all records of white-faced sakis was
3.8 + 2.1 animals (Table 2). There is significant variation in
group size for white-faced sakis across the study sites in NE
South America (Kruskal-Wallis H.= 12.650, p = 0.027).
This variation is driven by significantly larger group sizes in
Guyana compared to those reported by Mittermeier (1977)
in Suriname (Table 3).

Discussion

Some groups we surveyed in Guyana contained only one
adult of each sex, whereas others contained more than one
adult of each sex. We found no evidence of a seasonal effect
on group size. Our data on group size are comparable to
those collected by Kinzey et al. (1988) in eastern Venezuela
and Muckenhirn et al. (1975) in Guyana. This continuity
in grouping patterns for white-faced sakis in the western
Guiana shield (eastern Venezuela and Guyana) indicates that
the observations we made are not a phenomenon unique to
only our study sites and time period. Surprisingly, average
group size for white-faced sakis in Suriname, which is also
part of the Guiana Shield (Norconk et al., 1997), was
significantly smaller than that seen for conspecific groups
in Guyana. The reasons for these regional differences in
social structure are poorly documented, but may be due
to variations in plant species composition and diversity
(Terborgh and Andresen, 1998). Therefore, our data support
white-faced sakis as not being representative of a "typical"
monogamous primate (Rosenberger et al., 1997). However,
it must be noted that only limited interpretations of social
behavior can be made based on survey data. Detailed data
on the feeding ecology and behavior of habituated groups are
needed to determine the causal factors affecting intraspecific
variation in group structure.

It should not be assumed that white-faced sakis are alone
in challenging our views on primate monogamy. Fuentes
(1999) conducted a review of primate monogamy and found
that many supposed monogamous species exhibit a variety
of grouping types and mating patterns. A notable example






Neotropical Primates 9(3), December 2001


Table 2. Size and composition of Pitheciapithecia groups censused in South America.
Group Size Group Composition Sources
Mean + 1 SD Range N AM AF SA J I
Guyana 4.8 + 2.4 2-12 21 1-5 0-5 0-2 0-2 Present study
Guyana 3.3 1.7 1-5 10 Muckenhirn etal. (1975)
Venezuela 9.0 1 3 1 1-2 0 1 Norconk (1997)
Venezuela 5.5 2.5 3-8 2 Kinzey etal. (1988)
Suriname 2.7 0.8 2-4 9 1-2 1 0-1 Mittermeier (1977)
French Guiana 2.8 + 1.0 1-4 4 Kessler (1998)
Brazil 2.6 + 0.5 2-3 3 0-2 0-2 0-1 0-1 Oliveira etal. (1985)
Brazil 6 1 1 1-3 0-2 0-2 0-2 Setz and Gaspar (1997)
AM=adult male, AF-adult female, SA=subadult, J-juvenile, 1= Infant


Table 3. Mann-Whitney U scores for intersite differences in group size for Pithecia pithecia pithecia. Sites are expressed by country to
facilitate comparisons. Numbers above the diagonal refer to the U score. Numbers below the diagonal indicate the corresponding p
value for each test.
Country Venezuela Guyana" Guyanab Suriname French Guiana Brazil
Venezuela 25.5 6.0 48.0 1.5 2.0
Guyanaa 0.214 ~ 60.0 68.5 32.5 11.5
Guyana" 0.155 0.053 33.0 15.5 10.0
Suriname 0.042 0.019 0.310 17 12.5
French Guiana 0.105 0.119 0.509 0.865 6.0
Brazil 0.142 0.076 0.370 0.364 0.544
Present study, b Muckenhirn etal. (1975)


of this social diversity can be found among hylobatids.
Despite gibbons being described as invariably monogamous
(Leighton, 1986), recent field studies indicate that some
species are not exclusively monogamous and/or pair-bonded
(Jiang etal., 1999; Palombit, 1994; Palombit, 1999; Sommer
and Reichard, 2000). For example, Jiang and colleagues
(1999) report the coexistence of monogamy and polygyny
in black-crested gibbons (Hylobates concoloz). Therefore,
contrary to assumptions of obligate monogamy in gibbons,
the social system of these primates may be characterized
by flexible grouping and mating patterns (Sommer and
Reichard, 2000).

How then can we interpret a social system for white-faced
sakis that contrasts large group size, at least in some parts
of its range, and monogamy? Monogamy in primates has
been explained as: (1) an anti-infanticide strategy (Van
Schaik and Dunbar, 1990; Palombit, 1999); (2) a strategy
to elicit male parental care (Kleiman, 1977); (3) a means of
protecting resources that are scarce and uniformly dispersed
(Wittenberger and Tilson, 1980); and (4) a response to
human predation (Kinzey, 1987). Fuentes (1999) reviewed
these models and identified the following six characteristics
of monogamy: exclusive one-male/one-female groups; pair
bond and reinforcement behavior; sexual monomorphism;
exclusive mating; territoriality; and paternal care. White-
faced sakis do not meet the criteria for three of the six
monogamous characteristics: exclusive one-male/one-female
groups (present study; Kinzey etal., 1988; Norconk, 1997;
Rosenberger etal., 1997); pair bond/reinforcement behavior
(Gleason and Norconk, 1995); and paternal care (Ryan,


1995). Monomorphism is the only one of Fuentes' (1999)
criteria that Pp. pithecia meets. The lack of longitudinal data
on territoriality and the exclusivity of mating between two
adults highlight some of the directions to be undertaken in
future studies of this species. Social systems in white-faced
sakis will be better understood when longitudinal data are
also collected on: (1) demography and social behavior,
(2) population genetics and paternity, and (3) ecological
correlates to social structure.

Acknowledgments

We thank the Office of the President, University of Guyana,
Ministry of Amerindian Affairs, Ministry of Health, National
Parks Commission, Tropenbos Guyana, Demarara Timbers
Ltd., Iwokrama Rain Forest Reserve, and the Wildlife
Division of the Department of Health for permission to
conduct our study. We greatly appreciate the support of Dr.
Vicki Funk and Carol Kelloff of the Biological Diversity
of the Guianas Program at the Smithsonian Institution.
We gratefully acknowledge our many field guides. Pascale
Sicotte provided valuable comments on the manuscript. This
project was supported in part by the Lincoln Park Zoo Scott
Neotropic Fund, the Biological Diversity of the Guianas
Program of the Smithsonian Institution, USAID, GEF,
University of Miami Women's and Minorities Fellowship,
and a NSF predoctoral fellowship.

Shawn M. Lehman, Department of Anthropology,
University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S
3G3, Waldyke Prince, Iwokrama International Centre for






100 Neotropical Primates 9(3), December 2001


Rain Forest Conservation and Development, Georgetown,
Guyana, and Mireya Mayor, Interdepartmental Doctoral
Program in Anthropological Sciences, Department of
Anthropology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY
11794, USA.

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DIURNAL ACTIVITY BUDGETS OF BLACK SPIDER
MONKEYS, ATELES CHAMEK, IN A SOUTHERN
AMAZONIAN TROPICAL FOREST

RobertB. Wallace
Introduction

In the last twenty years an increasing number of field studies
have demonstrated the potential behavioral flexibility within
individual primate species. Until recently few published
studies existed for any one primate genus, and thus all
populations of a given species were inevitably 'tarred with
the same behavioral brush' of just one focal study group.
Whilst detailed behavioral studies of some primate genera
are still scarce, for example the incredibly wide ranging


Cacajao in the Neotropics (but see Ayres, 1989), today many
primate genera have been studied at a number of long-term
field sites. In this paper, I present data on diurnal variations
in black spider monkey activity budgets from a previously
unstudied focal study group in eastern Bolivia, and compare
these results with other long-term Ateles study sites.

Study Site

The study was conducted in the Noel Kempff Mercado
National Park of 15,300 km2 in the north-eastern corner
of Departmaento Santa Cruz, Bolivia (see Fig. 1). The
Rfo Itefiez defines the park's eastern and northern edges,
and represents the border with the neighboring Brazilian
states of Rond6nia and Mato Grosso. The region is situated
on the Brazilian Shield geological formation, which is
characterized by poor kaolinitic clay and podsol soils (PLUS-
CORDECRUZ, 1994; Peres, 1997). The region has been
characterized by a marked dry season in the austral winter,
a mean annual temperature of c.26C, and an annual
precipitation of c.1,600 mm (Wallace, 1998).

-









n Santa Cruz












Figure 1. Map showing the location of the Noel Kempff Mercado
National Park, Bolivia.

Research was based at Lago Caiman (1336'S, 6055'W),
a large oxbow lake at the base of the northern tip of the
Huanchaca escarpment, and approximately 21 km upstream
from an international tourist centre "Flor de Oro". A 400
ha study plot (2 x 2 km) with a grid system of trails spaced
every 100 m was set up approximately 3.5 km from camp.
Subsequently, trails were cut to include a further c.100 ha
to cover parts of the focal spider monkey community range
not encompassed by the 400-ha grid. The Lago Caiman
study plot contained a number of structurally and floristically
distinct habitats: tall forest, low vine forest, sartenejal or
swamp forest, piedmont forest and cerrado forest (Wallace,
1998).






Neotropical Primates 9(3), December 2001


Methods

Following habituation, data was collected on the behavioral
ecology of a focal spider monkey community for 11 months
between June 1996 and April 1997. The focal spider monkey
community was made up of approximately 55 individuals
at the beginning of data collection (June 1996). Subadults
were visibly smaller than adults and, following McFarland
Symington (1988a), were considered subadult until they
reached 80-90% the size of adults. All other young animals
were considered juveniles except infants that were carried
ventrally or laterally by their mothers.

Ateles has a fission-fusion social system and subgroup
size and composition change frequently throughout the
day (Chapman, 1990; McFarland Symington, 1988b; Van
Roosmalen, 1985). To control for this aspect of their
behavioral ecology I made individual monkeys the focus of
all-day follows. Thus, each month I attempted to follow four
adult females (F), four adult males (M), and one sub-adult
male (SAM) for a total of nine days during two temporally
distinct sessions of up to five days. Attempts were made to
randomize the data sampling regime; in the pre-dawn one of
five radio-collared males was randomly selected as the initial
spider monkey contact and a focal follow animal (FFA)
was selected from the animals present at the sleeping site.
Whenever possible the age/sex class of the FFA corresponded
with a randomly ordered list of the nine day standard
monthly sample.

FFAs were followed from dawn to dusk (approx. 0515-0615
to 1745-1845). If an FFA was lost I continued with another
individual of the same age/sex class from the same subgroup.
If this was not possible I made attempts to rapidly locate
another subgroup and continue. These two scenarios were
considered 'broken' all-day follows. Occasionally it was not
possible to continue, either because the subgroup climbed the
inaccessible escarpment and/or it was not possible to rapidly
locate a second subgroup. The day was then considered a
'half' or 'quarter' day. If necessary AM 'half' or 'quarter' days
were made up at a later stage with an afternoon follow on
the same age/sex class. Between January-March 1997 I was
unable to collect nine days of data due to illness and other
research commitments.

Point scan sampling (Altmann, 1974; Dunbar, 1976) at 15-
minute intervals was used to gather data on activity budgets,
diet and social behavior. Scans lasted five minutes and data
were collected on as many animals as possible. The total


number of animals included in any one scan depended on
subgroup size and ranged between 1-11 animals per scan. At
each scan, data on the following parameters were recorded:
climate, location and habitat type, subgroup size, spread,
and dominant activity, and the presence of other frugivorous
species, as well as the activity of each scanned individual
(Wallace, 1998).

Monthly activity budgets were calculated for each of
the following age/sex classes: adult and subadult females
combined, adult males, subadult males, and non-infant
juveniles. In order to provide information on diurnal activity
budgets each age/sex class sample was divided into hourly
intervals and calculated as follows:

(records for activity i) x 100
(records for all activities)

where i= feeding, resting, travelling or other behaviours. An
average activity budget for the spider monkey community
was established by averaging the activity budget of the four
age/sex classes, weighted by their proportion within the focal
community.

Unless otherwise specified the data presented was analysed
using non-parametric statistical tests (Siegal and Castellan,
1988). The standard probability level of p<0.05 was set,
although non-significant trends are also discussed.

Results and Discussion

Age/Sex Class Activity Budget Variations
Overall, at Lago Caiman spider monkeys spend on average
18.9% of daylight hours feeding, 29.7% moving, 45.5%
resting, and 5.9% engaged in other activities such as
social behavior, vocalization, defecation and urination. Thus,
approximately half of the day is spent either resting or
engaged in other activities, with the other half divided
between feeding and moving. The overall activity budget
displayed by the focal spider monkey community at Lago
Caiman appears to be fairly typical of previous long-term
studies of the genus (see Table 1).

Nevertheless, there were variations in activity budgets
between age/sex classes (see Fig. 2). Most strikingly, juveniles
spent over double the amount of time in 'other' activities than
other age/sex classes. Given that juveniles spent the majority
of the day in the same subgroup as their mother, I compared
juvenile and adult female time budgets. There were no


Table 1. Comparison of activity budgets for five Ateles long-term study populations.
Activity Bolivia1 Peru2 Colombia3 Brazil4 Venezuela5
% Feeding Time 18.9 29 22.2 18 50.5
% Moving Time 29.7 26 14.8 36 18.1
% Resting Time 45.5 45 63 45 23.7
% Other Timea 5.9 no data no data no data 7.7
1This study (Ateles chamek), 2McFarland Symington (1988b) (A. chamek), 3Klein & Klein (1977) (A. belzebuth), 4Nunes (1995)
(A. belzebuth), 'Castellanos (1995) (A. belzebuth). 'Includes social and physiological function behavioral categories.






Neotropical Primates 9(3), December 2001


Male


Activity


Subadult Male


6) C
Activity
Activity


Juveniles


At5viy
Activity


Figure 2. Age/sex class variations in overall activity budgets.


significant differences in monthly activity budget proportions
for feeding and moving, but resting and other behaviors
were significantly different (Rest Wilcoxon T = 0, p<0.005,
N = 11; Other Wilcoxon T = 0, p<0.005, N = 11). The
majority of juvenile 'other' time was spent in play behavior
(77.8 %), which usually consisted of wrestling and chasing
involving up to five individuals. Indeed, juveniles were most
frequently observed playing together whilst their mothers
slept towards the end of prolonged rest periods.

Subadult males were also frequently observed playing (45.9%
of 'other' activities) and this accounts for the relatively
high 'other' portion of the activity budget. When monthly
activity budget proportions were compared with adult males
(see Fig. 1), subadult males spent significantly more time
moving and feeding and significantly less time resting (Move
- Wilcoxon T 0, p<0.005, N 11; Feed Wilcoxon
T = 5, p<0.02, N = 11; Rest Wilcoxon T = 0, p<0.005,
N = 11). These results may reflect the subordinate status of
subadult individuals (Eisenberg and Kuehn, 1966). Subadult
males may have to spend more time feeding because they are
restricted to fringe areas of fruiting resources. Alternatively,
these increases may be linked to the energetic costs of growth
(Dunbar, 1988). The fact that they spend less time resting
than adult males is partly explained by the increases in
feeding and 'other' activities, but more so by the increase in
proportion of time spent moving. Subadult males and to a
lesser extent large juvenile males were frequently observed
in male-dominated subgroups which often appeared to be
patrolling the focal community home range extensively.
This feature of spider monkey behavior has been previously
reported (Eisenberg, 1976; McFarland Symington, 1990)
and may represent a form of sub-adult male recruitment in a
male philopatric primate society.

Males spent significantly more time resting than females
(Wilcoxon T 11, p<0.005, N 11) and significantly
less time moving (Wilcoxon T 7, p<0.05, N 11),
whilst females spent more time feeding, although this was
only approaching significance (Wilcoxon T = 12, p = 0.07,
N = 11). Males and females showed very similar levels
of 'other' behaviors and this similarity extended to the
overall breakdown of the miscellaneous activities within this
category (Wallace, 1998). The additional costs of lactation
and pregnancy offer the best explanation as to why females
spend more time feeding than adult males; however, an
explanation for the differences in resting and moving is
more problematical. One possibility is that females are forced
to travel at slower rates than adult males because of the
additional costs of carrying non-independent infants and
juveniles. Even in the case of females with independent
juveniles, the need to slow down and wait for these smaller
individuals may increase moving time, thereby cutting into
resting time.

Diurnal Activity Patterns
Diurnal variations in the spider monkey activity budget are
depicted in Figure 3. Spider monkeys show an initial early
morning peak in feeding, which then drops off, remaining






Neotropical Primates 9(3), December 2001


constant until mid-morning. Feeding behavior then falls
considerably until mid- to late afternoon when it increases
to a smaller peak. During this second period spider monkeys
are presumably attempting to maximize food ingestion prior
to the prolonged overnight fasting period (Chapman and
Chapman, 1991).

In a review of the genus, Van Roosmalen and Klein, 1988,
suggested that Ateles are selecting for dietary variability, with
subgroups consistently eating more than one fruit type per
follow day. In fact, patterns of diurnal dietary diversity
were apparent at Lago Caiman; spider monkeys appeared to
concentrate on one or two resources for most of the day and
then feed for brief periods on a greater variety of resources
towards the end of the day, especially on their way to the
sleeping site. This observation could be seen as a way of
opportunistically maintaining a full stomach right up until
retiring for the long night. Alternatively, once daily energy
intake has been maximized Ateles may select for some dietary
diversity in order to provide a more varied nutrient and
mineral intake.

In Costa Rica, spider monkeys ingested relatively more
leaves immediately prior to periods of prolonged rest. This
diurnal pattern of folivory has been attributed both to the


difficulty and added time involved in digesting folivorous
material, and of the need to maintain sufficient stomach
space for more energetically profitable fruit during foraging
sessions (Chapman and Chapman, 1991). The tendency
for spider monkeys to consume folivorous material later in
the afternoon was also noted by Van Roosmalen (1985) in
Suriname. At Lago Caiman a similar diurnal pattern emerges
(see Fig. 4), with spider monkeys clearly consuming more
leaves in the afternoon, although a very early morning peak
in leaf eating also occurs. Folivory is usually rare and the
pattern may be less clear because of the months where leaf
eating was more important. Thus, I examined the diurnal
distribution of the start times of all observed leaf feeding
sessions (see Fig. 5), and this shows a much more dramatic
pattern which concurs with the above hypothesis.

An alternative explanation regarding diurnal patterns of
leaf consumption by primates was suggested by Ganzhorn
and Wright (1994). Their results only partially supported
the hypothesis that temporal variations in folivory might
be linked to varying diurnal protein concentrations in leaf
material. However, species which are maximizing energy
intake (in the form of sugars) should apparently eat leaves
late in the day (Ganzhorn and Wright, 1994), as spider
monkeys seem to do. Most folivorous material consumed was


FEEDING OTHER


26 -
248- --------------------------- S- -------------------------------------------















RESTING MEI ;
o55 -........-..... .............- .- ---.


a0 -- -- --- --- ------ ------- ---------- - --
12




















10 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I IT
06:00 07:00 08:00 09:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 .auirle Ho.r
.armnnlo Il- ir
Figure 3. Diurnal variations in spider monkey activity budgets.






Neotropical Primates 9(3), December 2001


the younger leaves of several high canopy liana species, along
with young leaves of a few tree species (Wallace, 1998). This
pattern of leaf selection is similar to several primate species
including Ateles (Van Roosmalen, 1985; Chapman, 1987;
Castellanos, 1995). Young leaves are known to be easier to
digest than those more mature (Hladik, 1978), contain fewer
toxins (McKey et al., 1981), higher levels of protein and
energy (Milton, 1982), and may also be an important source
of minerals and nutrients such as potassium, magnesium,
phosphorus and nitrogen (Waterman, 1984).

Time spent moving shows two pronounced peaks, one in
the very early morning and another in mid to late afternoon
as spider monkeys are traveling from and to sleeping sites
respectively. From an energy conserving point of view these
two periods represent the coolest times of the day and
travel costs would thus be significantly reduced. Otherwise
time spent traveling remains fairly constant and the overall
pattern of moving is inversely related to the diurnal pattern
of resting. Resting time increases throughout the day
showing a first peak in the mid-morning (0900-1000) by
which time monkeys may well have filled their stomachs.
A second more pronounced resting peak occurs at midday
continuing into early afternoon (1200-1400), before
dropping off dramatically later in the day. This second
peak dominates the activity budget at this time of day and
is best explained by the corresponding peak in ambient
temperatures which, along with high humidity levels,



20

15 .......... . ....................- ...... .........
10 --------------------------

,, 1





0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1


Figure 4. Diurnal variations in degree of folivory in the spider
monkey diet.


Figure 5. Distribution of start times for folivory patch feeding
sessions.


presumably inhibits thermoregulation, thereby discouraging
strenuous activity such as travel. Overall these patterns are
fairly typical for diurnal primate species living in tropical
conditions (Clutton-Brock, 1977), and extremely similar
to those documented for Ateles paniscus in Suriname (Van
Roosmalen and Klein, 1988).

Climatic Effects on Activity Patterns
Extremes in the ambient temperature also affected diurnal
activity budgets, for example, during the mid-austral winter
cold southerly winds can occasionally lower temperatures
to as little as 6C. In such conditions spider monkeys
often remained resting in overnight sleeping sites or high
up in large emergents for 3-4 hours after day break, as if
waiting for the day to warm up and/or maximizing insolation
potential. On one extremely cold and wet morning (28 June
1996) the focal subgroup remained motionless until as late
as 13:00 hrs.

As has been demonstrated for other diurnal arboreal primate
species (Raemakers, 1980; Barrett, 1995), rainfall also affected
spider monkey behavior. Although during light drizzly rain
the spider monkeys continue apparently unaffected (unless
also particularly cold at the time), more typical heavy tropical
downpours result in the monkeys taking shelter and resting
motionless until the rain stops. In summary, the focal follow
animal's subgroup was dominated by resting individuals in
76% of those scan samples that occurred during rainfall.

Two other behaviors were directly associated with rain,
firstly, a 'bathing' form of autogrooming was often witnessed
during and immediately following rainfall, especially if the
rainfall was the first for several days. This behavior has
been previously reported for free-ranging spider monkeys
(Eisenberg and Kuehn, 1966) and is particularly notable
given the relatively low grooming frequencies displayed by
spider monkeys at Lago Caiman (1% of the overall activity
budget), and in general (Symington, 1988a; van Roosmalen
and Klein, 1988).

The second behavior was rare but extremely dramatic;
several pilo-erecting adult and subadult males would
repeatedly charge around particularly open and connected
emergent and upper canopy trees. This movement included
running but was dominated by brachiating and, along
with inter-community disputes, was the fastest that spider
monkeys were ever seen traveling during the study. On the
few occasions this behavior was witnessed it appeared to
correlate with the coming of rains, which often also brought
heavy winds. The fact that only males were observed in this
activity suggests the possibility that this behavior serves as
an intra-community male display. Intriguingly, an extremely
similar behavioral response to the arrival of rains has been
described for adult male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at
Gombe (Goodall, 1986) and termed a 'rain dance'. Spider
monkeys and chimpanzees have been frequently compared
in the past due to the fission-fusion nature of their social
systems (McFarland Symington, 1990, Chapman et al.,
1995).






Neotropical Primates 9(3), December 2001


Acknowledgements

This research was funded by the Wildlife Conservation
Society (WCS) through a grant from the Bolivian Sustainable
Forestry Project (BOLFOR), which is jointly financed
through USAID and the Bolivian Government. I would like
to thank the Bolivian National Secretariat for Protected Areas
for permission to work in Noel Kempff Mercado National
Park and the National Directorate for the Protection of
Biodiversity for help in acquiring necessary research permits.
Field work was also facilitated through logistical support
from the Fundaci6n Amigos de la Naturaleza (FA.N.). Many
thanks to the following individuals who helped during field
work: Lilian Painter, William Karesh, Damian Rumiz, Chris
Stromquist, Angel Saldania, Nicolas Tagua, Walter Perez,
Bonifacio Mostacedo. A special debt of gratitude to Jose
Chuvina, my research assistant.

Robert B. Wallace, Wildlife Conservation Society, 185th
Street and Southern Boulevard, Bronx, New York 10460,
USA. Address for correspondence: Wildlife Conservation
Society Madidi, 3-35181, San Miguel, La Paz, Bolivia,
e-mail: .

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London.



DISTRIBUTION PARCIAL DEL TITi GRIS (SAGUINUS
LEUCOPUS, CALLITRICHIDAE) EN EL DEPARTAMENTO
DE ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

Carlos A. Cuartas-Calle
Introducci6n

Saguinus leucopus fue descripto en la localidad tipo de
Medellin (Bella Villa) departamento de Antioquia por GOnter
(1877), la especie era muy numerosa en dicho poblado.
El crecimiento de la poblaci6n humana y la construcci6n de
vfas y sitios de vivienda fueron acabando con los remanentes
de bosque y aislando y desplazando a las poblaciones de titf
gris amenazando la permanencia del titf en dicho hAbitat.
Los iltimos grupos de S leucopus fueron observados en la
ciudad de Medellin en la d6cada del treinta (1930-1940), a
partir de dicha fecha no se volvi6 a saber de la especie, la cual
fue diezmada de su localidad tipo.

Saguinus leucopus es un primate end6mico de Colombia,
tiene como zona de distribuci6n el Norte del pais, entire la
parte baja del Rfo Cauca y el Valle Medio del Rfo Magdalena
(HernAndez-Camachoy Cooper, 1975, Hernindez-Camacho
y Defier, 1983). Segdn Cuervo et al., (1986) la especie
se distribuye desde el Oriente de Caldas, Norte del
Tolima, Antioquia (en el Bajo Cauca y Nechf, y la Hoya
del Magdalena). Eisenberg (1989) la ubica en el Valle
del Rfo Magdalena, centro y norte de Colombia, en la
margen izquierda del Rio Magdalena en el departamento
de Antioquia, y en los departamentos de Bolivar y Tolima.
Emmons y Feer (1998) la distribuyen al Oriente de los
Andes en el piedemonte de la Cordillera Central, entire la
margen Oriental del Rio Cauca (Bajo Cauca) y la margen
Occidental en la parte media del Rfo Magdalena. Tambidn se
distribuye en zonas poco anegadizas al Sur del departamento
de Bolfvar y sectors del Norte del Departamento de Caldas
en el corregimiento de Norcasia, y el corregimiento de
Guarino en la parte media y alta de la Quebrada la Burra
entire los municipios de Dorada y Honda (observaci6n
personal); como tambien en el sector "Arizona" municipio


de La Dorada, Departamento de Caldas, y el sector "San
Antonio" municipio de Samana, Departamento de Antioquia
(Vargas y Solano, 1996). Esta especie estA catalogada por
la UICN y US-ESA (1994) CITES como "En Peligro de
Extinci6n", debido a tres variables: Su marcado endemismo,
su rango de distribuci6n restringido (uno de los mias reducidos
entire los primates del mundo), y la several reduccion y
destrucci6n de su habitat.En el departamento de Antioquia,
ain se conservan bosques primaries, primario intervenido
y bosques secundarios, con Areas relativamente extensas que
albergan poblaciones de esta especie, pero lastimosamente a
la fecha no se han creado areas de reserve para la protecci6n
y conservaci6n de S. leucopus.

Area de Estudio

Durante el perfodo 1995-1998 se realizaron varies inventarios
de mamfferos en la margen Oriental del Rio Cauca, en las
subregiones del Bajo Cauca, Nordeste, Norte, Magdalena
Medio y Oriente del departamento de Antioquia, en Areas
con jurisdicci6n de CORNARE (Corporaci6n Autonoma
Regional de los Rios Negro y Nare) y CORANTIOQUIA
(Corporaci6n Aut6noma Regional del Centro de Antioquia).
Se visitaron 40 veredas pertenecientes a 17 municipios, con
alturas entire los 30 y 1600 msnm, y zonas de vida de bosque
hdmedo tropical (bh-T) hasta bosque pluvial premontano
(bp-PM) (Figura 1 y Tabla 1).

Resultados y Discusi6n

En este studio preliminary de la distribuci6n de S. leucopusen
el departamento de Antioquia, se observaron 95 grupos con
un total de 719 individuos (Tabla, 1). Tambidn se detect la
presencia de otros primates como: Cebus albifrons, Alouatta
seniculus, Ateles sp. y Aotus lemurinus.

Basado en las observaciones de campo, la distribucidn
geografica de S leucopus al Sur de Antioquia, corresponde
a la margen derecha del Rfo Cauca, en los lfmites con
el departamento de Caldas (Rfo SamanA, municipios de
Narifio, Argelia y Sonson), y a la margen izquierda del Rfo
Magdalena, en los lfmites con el departamento de Boyaca
(municipios de Puerto Triunfo). Al Norte se distribuye en
lifmites de los departamentos de Bolivar (municipios de
El Bagre y Nechf), y Sucre (municipio de Caucasia) en
la margen derecha de los Rios Cauca y Porce (Figura 1).
Los grupos de Titf, se observaron en bosques primaries,
primaries intervenidos, secundarios y rastrojos altos y en
bosques riberefios.

Los bosques primaries observados se caracterizan por la
presencia de un estrato emergente disperse formado por
grandes Arboles que superan los 30 m de altura y cobertura
total mayor del 90%. Los bosques primaries intervenidos
presentan coberturas mayores del 90% y alturas entire 7 y
30 m. Las lianas y trepadoras tienen densidades medias. Los
bosques secundarios con estados sucesionales medio y tardfo
presentan alturas entire 5 y 20 m y una cobertura total del
70%. Los estratos arbustivos muestran coberturas del 50% y






Neotropical Primates 9(3), December 2001


Tabla 1. Grupos y numero de individuos de Saguinus leucopus observados en los municipios y veredas visitadas en el departamento de
Antioquia, Colombia.
Municipio Vereda Coordenadas Altura Z. V. Bosque G N Ind.
Nechi Las Flores 86'N; 7444'0 30 bh-T Bpi, Bs, Ra 2 15
El Bagre Amaceri 745'N; 7440'0 50 bh-T Bpi, Bs, Ra 2 16
Zaragoza Dos Bocas 728'N; 7450'0 80 bh T Bpi, Bs, Ra 3 21
Anori Liberia 723'N; 7531'O 200 bh T Bp, Bpi 5 40
Santiago 710'N; 7513'0 1120 bp-MB Bp, Bpi, Bs 3 17
Las Juntas 7'12'N; 7511'O0 900 bp-PM Bp, Bpi 4 40
Amalfi El Jardin 725'N; 7445'0 850 bh-PM Bp, Bpi, Bs 3 20
La Vetilla 712'N; 74'53'0 540 bh T Bp, Bpi 3 26
Arenas Blancas 652'N; 7451'O0 1060 bh-PM Bpi, Bs, Ra 2 16
Los Toros 78'N; 753'0 400 bh-T Bpi, Bs, Ra 3 25
Yarumal El Cedro 713'N; 7518'0 800 bp-T Bs, Ra 1 8
Sto. Domingo Los Naranjos 640'N; 7512'0 1450 bp-MB Bs, Ra 1 5
San Roque San Jos6 del Nis 630'N; 74'45'0 400 bh T Bpi, Bs, Ra 2 14
La Trinidad 6o32'N; 7440'0 450 bh-T Bs, Ra 2 10
Concepci6n La Clara 620'N; 75010'0 1500 bp-MB Bs, Ra 1 7
LaSonadora 618'N; 759'0 1600 bp-MB Bs, Ra 1 5
San Rafael Jaguas 621'N; 7448'0 600 bh-T Bpi, Bs, Ra 3 23
San Carlos La Florida 615'N: 75'00 1400 bh-PM Bpi, Bs, Ra 1 6
Las Camelias 617'N; 753'0 1400 bh-PM Bpi, Bs, Ra 1 5
Miraflores 69'N; 7440'0 500 bh T Bp, Bpi, Bs 5 45
El Prado 610'N; 7442'0 450 bh T Bp, Bpi, Bs 6 50
La Aguada 616'N; 7455'0 700 bh-T Bp, Bpi, Bs 2 13
Cocalito 612'N; 74'58'0 1100 bh-PM Bs, Ra 1 7
San Jos6 611'N; 7445'0 970 bh-T Bpi, Bs, Ra 3 24
Santa Elena 612'N; 74'56'0 1100 bh-PM Bs, Ra 2 16
Granada La Gaviota 6o4'N; 754'0 1400 bh-PM Bs, Ra 1 5
San Francisco 63'N; 754'0 1200 bh-T Bs, Ra 1 7
La Maria 6'5'N; 755'0 900 bh T Bs, Ra 2 16
El Tablazo 61l'N; 756'0 700 bh-T Bpi, Bs, Ra 4 32
San Luis El Prodigio 67'N; 7445'0 470 bh T Bpi, Bs, Ra 1 6
Las Confusas 6o4'N; 7442'0 320 bh-T Bp, Bpi, Bs 4 30
Playa Rosa 62'N; 7440'0 360 bh-T Bpi, Bs, Ra 2 13
PuertoTriunfo Puerto Perales 60'N; 7439'0 200 bh T Bs, Ra 4 30
Las Mercedes 556'N; 7445'0 350 bh-T Bs, Ra 3 27
Rio Claro 558'N; 74'48'0 400 bh T Bpi, Bs, Ra 2 15
Sons6n La Soledad 545'N; 7515'0 1200 bp-PM Bs, Ra 1 5
El Arenal 543'N; 75'10'0 1000 bh T Bpi, Bs, Ra 2 14
Playa Rica 541'N; 759'0 950 bh T Bp, Bpi, Bs 3 24
Argelia San Pablo 5040' N; 750'0 800 bh-T Bpi, Bs, Ra 2 16
Narino Samana 5'32' N; 757'0 800 bh T Bpi, Bs, Ra 1 5
Total 95 719

Convenciones: Z.V: Zona de vida; G: Grupos observados; N ind: individuos observados; bh-T: Bosque humedo tropical; bp-MB:
Bosque pluvial montano bajo; bp-PM: Bosque pluvial premontano; bh-PM: Bosque humedo premontano; Bp: Bosque primario;
Bpi: Bosque primario intervenido; Bs: Bosque secundario; Ra: Rastrojo alto.






Neotropical Primates 9(3), December 2001


Figura 1. Saguinus leucopus (titi gris).


alturas entire 3 y 6 m. Finalmente el matorral alto tiene una
altura entire 1.5 y 7 m y sus copas se proyectan cubriendo el
60% del sustrato. En el trabajo de campo se pudo observer
algunas plants utilizadas por S. leucopus para alimento
(Tabla, 2).

Saguinus leucopus se observe utilizando diferentes tipos de
habitats, con preferencia por los bosques primaries, primaries
poco intervenidos y secundarios de sucesi6n tardia. En
estos habitats, de denso follaje y oquedades en los troncos,
encuentra alimento, buen refugio de sus predadores naturales
y sitios de anidaci6n y descanso. Tambin se lo observe
utilizando los bosques secundarios muy intervenidos y
rastrojos altos para alimentarse y para desplazarse a otros sitios
o parches de bosque mas densos donde se establecfa o buscaba
alimento. Se pudo observer un grupo conformado por siete
individuos en un palo de naranjo consumiendo dicho fruto
(vereda Cocalito) en un bosque muy intervenido.

En varias ocasiones se observe que para desplazarse de un
parche a otro el titi gris tenfa que atravesar potreros, poniendo
en mas riesgo su existencia. En una ocasi6n se pudo ver un
perro cazando y dandole muerte a un ejemplar ya que eran
presa facil en el suelo (El Cedro, quebrada Santa Barbara).
Esto hace pensar en la necesidad de recuperaci6n de franjas
de potreros y zonas boscosas degradadas para adecuarlas
como corredores naturales y sitios de alimento y paso a otros
parches mas densos.

Los bosques primaries y primarios intervenidos cubren areas
considerable en los municipios de Anori (sector de Liberia y


ier


Lwv9x ;


Jose Bernardo Barreiro Luna


Las Juntas por la quebrada La Trinidad) municipio de Amalfi
(veredas La Vetilla, Los Toros, rodeando la cuenca del Rfo
Tinita); municipio de San Carlos sector de Samana (veredas
Miraflores, El Prado y San Jos6); Municipio de San Rafael
(vereda Jaguas); Municipio de San Luis (Las Confusas). Las
caracterfsticas que presentan estos bosques son el tamafio, la
vegetaci6n, la oferta de alimento y refugios y corredores que
comunican con otros fragments facilitando el intercambio
de individuos entire poblaciones.

En las diferentes subregiones donde se detect la presencia de
S. leucopusse presentan diferentes actividades de explotaci6n
a saber:

Subregion del Bajo Cauca: Hasta el afio 1964 la region del
Bajo Cauca fue zona de reserve forestal y estaba cubierta casi
en su totalidad por bosques primaries, pero por solicitud
del INCORA (Instituto Colombiano de Reforma Agraria)
y en virtud de la Ley 019 de 1964 el sector desde el Rio
Nechi hasta el Rio Cauca fue declarado area de colonizaciOn,
dejando areas pequefias como reserve en los municipios
de Nechi, El Bagre y Zaragoza. En 1973 gran parte de
la vegetacion fue destruida y adecuadas las tierras para
ganaderfa. La ganaderfa fue reemplazada por la minerfa,
resultando en la destrucci6n de los potreros, principalmente
por la minerfa de aluvidn mecanizada en tierra y agua. A la
fecha, esta subregion solo present unos pocos remanentes de
bosque.

Subregidn del Nordeste: En el municipio de Anorf, sector de
Liberia, se practice la minerfa de aluvi6n mecanizada; es
preocupante el future de estos bosques ya que la region es
altamente minera y la penetraci6n a esta zona boscosa es
inminente. En Santiago, la actividad consiste en cultivos,
y ganado, asf como la extraccion y extraccion de madera.
Las Juntas present un bosque bien conservado, con poca
actividad de extracci6n y pocas areas para ganaderfa. En el
municipio de Amalfi se practice la minerfa mecanizada y
de veta. En la vereda Arenas Blancas hay gran explotaci6n
maderera. En la vereda los Toros se practice minerfa y
ganaderia intensive. En la vereda La Vetilla se present
explotaci6n minera y en la vereda El Jardfn explotaci6n
maderera. En los municipios de Santo Domingo y San
Roque, se presentan areas de ganaderia y cultivo, los bosques
mejor conservados en San Roque estan ubicados en las
margenes del rfo Ntis.

Subregidn del Norte: En el Municipio de Yarumal, vereda
El Cedro, los bosques se encuentran en la margen derecha
e izquierda de la quebrada Santa Barbara; esta zona se
caracteriza por la dominancia de potreros para ganaderia y
agriculture, y en el future seran inundados por un proyecto
hidroel6ctrico.

Subregidn del Magdalena Medio: El Municipio de Puerto
Triunfo, con la apertura de la autopista Medellin-Bogota,
ha sido muy intervenido, especialmente para extracci6n de
madera. Puerto Perales present explotaci6n petrolera, los
bosques estan conservados y cuidados, pero se consideran






Neotropical Primates 9(3), December 2001


Tabla 2. Plantas visitadas y parties consumidas por Saguinus leucopus.


Familia Especie
Anacardiaceae Anacardium excelsum
Spondias mombin
Mangifera indica
Tapirira guianensis
Apocynaceae Aspidosperma dugondi
Bombacaceae Bombacopsis aquinata
Ceiba pentandra
Ochroma lagopus
Burseraceae Bursera simaruba
Protium nodulosum
Caesalpinicidea Brownea macrophylla
Esterculiaceae Sterculia apetala
Flacourtiaceae Laetia procera
Leguminosae Uribea tamarindoides
Mimosoideae Inga spectabilis
Inga sp.
Ingasp. 1.
Melastomataceae Bellucia axinanthera
Moraceae Ficus americana
Ficus insipida
Myrtaceae Psidium guajava
Myrcia sp.
Eugenia sp.
Palmae Bactris minor
Sapotaceae Pouteria multiflora
Convenciones: F: fruto entero; Ht: hojas tiernas; Yf: yemas foliares;
Fl: flor.


islas ya que estin bordeados por potreros extensivos para
ganaderfa. En Las Mercedes el bosque lo tienen protegido y
lo conservan como protector de la microcuenca El Corozal.
En la vereda Rfo Claro various de los bosques son protegidos
y cuidados por sus propietarios; en areas aledafias a estos
bosques se present extracci6n de madera y explotaci6n de
minas karsticas (marmoles y calizas).

Subregidn del Oriente: Se caracteriza principalmente por la
extracci6n de madera. En Sons6n, vereda La Soledad, hay
destrucci6n de los bosques y se hacen cultivos de caf6, calna
y extracci6n de madera para cocina. Las veredas El Arenal y
Playa Rica presentan poca ganaderfa, se queman parches de
bosque para cultivo de mafz y cafia. El sector de La Danta es
protegido y se present poca extracci6n de madera, aunque
se observan pequefios dreas para ganado. Municipio de San
Carlos, veredas El Prado, Miraflores y San Jos6 presentan gran
explotaci6n maderera y potreros ganaderos. En el municipio
de San Luis se present gran explotaci6n maderera.

Es preocupante el future de S. leucopus, ya que el area de su
distribucion esta siendo alterada y fragmentada a un ritmo
acelerado. Estos habitats naturales han sido fuertemente
afectados por la actividad humana, ya que ofrecen
condiciones para la explotaci6n maderera, expansion
de tierras para cultivos y ganaderfa, apertura de vfas,
explotaci6n minera y construcci6n de embalses. La situaci6n
se agrava por no existir un control en el manejo y uso de la


tierra ni areas de reserve para la protecci6n y conservaci6n
de la especie.

La fragmentaci6n de los bosques tendra consecuencias
drAsticas sobre la distribuci6n de esta especie ya que
puede resultar en extinciones locales. La degradaci6n y
fragmentaci6n de los ecosistemas estan creando "islas" de
areas naturales en las que las poblaciones se estan aislando
de sus congeneres de otras parties. En parches de bosque
suficientemente grandes se puede mantener poblaciones con
una tasa baja de extinci6n; pero cuando los parches son muy
pequefios y aislados, estos mantienen poblaciones pequefias,
decrece la tasa de colonizaci6n y de intercambio genetico por
lo que la extinci6n puede llegar a ser alta.

Conectar habitats fragmentados seria una de las soluciones
a corto plazo, lo cual reducirfa las posibilidades de extinci6n
por efecto del aislamiento, por lo que se. Se propondrfan
corredores de habitat (Corredor a Escala de Mosaico de
Paisaje) que conectarian habitats aislados y promoverfan
process de movimiento y colonizaci6n entire fragments,
permitiendo un flujo de genes entire diferentes grupos y
poblaciones. Estos corredores deben ser amplios y grandes
para facilitar el movimiento de manera estacional o cotidiana.
Los corredores conectarfan parches separados a trav6s de
largas franjas de bosque, como bosque riberefio a lo largo
de rfos, quebradas y riachuelos o habitats de montafias. Para
establecer los corredores se deben tener en cuenta factors


N. Vulgar Consumen
Caracoli F, Ht, Yf, P
Jobo H, F(c p)
Mango F(c p)
Fresno Fruto entero
Carreto Frutos tiernos
Ceiba Hojas
Ceiba Hojas tiernas
Balso Fruto entero
Almdcigo F, Yf, P
Anime F (pulpa)
Arizal Hojas, Flores
Pin6n Hojas, Flores
Saino F, Fl, H
Tamarindo de mico F(arilos)
Guaimaro Hojas, Flores
Guamo de monte Fruto (pulpa)
Guamo bejuco Fruto (pulpa)
Guayabo de monte Fruto entero
Suan Hojas, Flores
Higuer6n Frutos, Flores
Guayaba Fruto entero
ArrayAn Fruto entero
Arrayan Fruto entero
Corozo de lata F(c p)
Caimito castano Fruto (pulpa)
P: peciolos; H: hojas; F(cp): del fruto consume la cascara y pulpa;






Neotropical Primates 9(3), December 2001


adicionales como la estructura del habitat, la existencia de
irboles con huecos para resguardo y forrajeo.

Es urgente que las corporaciones y entidades encargadas
creen areas de reserve para la protecci6n y conservaci6n de
la especie. Son various los bosques que pueden ser protegidos
para asegurar la supervivencia de esta especie, ya que existen
areas extensas de bosque primario, primario poco intervenido,
bosques secundarios de sucesidn media y tardfa, entire los
cuales estan los de Anorf, Liberia, SamanA, San Carlos, San
Luis, Sons6n y Amalfi.

Carlos A. Cuartas-Calle, Depto. de Biologia, Universidad
de Antioquia, A.A.1226, Medellin, Colombia.

Referencias

Cuervo, D. A., Hernindez-Camacho, J. y Cadena, A.
1986. Lista actualizada de los mamfferos de Colombia.
Anotaciones sobre su distribuci6n. Caldasia 15(71-75):
472-501.
Emmons, L. H. y Feer, E 1998. Neotropical Rainforest
Mammals, Second Edition. A Field Guide. University of
Chicago Press, Chicago.
Eisenberg, J. F. 1989. Mammals of the Neotropics the Northern
Neotropics, Volume 1. Panamg, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana,
Suriname, French Guiana. The University of Chicago Press.
Chicago and London.
Hernandez-Camacho, J. y Cooper, R. 1976. The non-
human primates of Colombia. In: Neotropical Primates.
Field Studies and Conservation, R. W. Thorington, Jr. y
P. G. Heltne (eds.), pp.35-69. National Academy of
Sciences, Washington, DC.
Hernandez-Camacho, J. y Defler, T. 1983. Algunos aspects
de la conservacion de primates no humans en Colombia.
In: La Primatologia en Latinoamerica, C. Saavedra, R. A.
Mittermeier y I. B. Santos (eds.), pp.67-97. World Wildlife
Fund, Washington, DC.
Vargas, T. N. y Solano, C. L. 1996. Evaluaci6n del estado
de dos poblaciones de Saguinus leucopus para determinar
areas potenciales de conservaci6n en un sector del valle
del Magdalena Medio, Colombia. Neotrop. Primates 4(1):
13-15.



DRINKING BY HOWLER MONKEYS (ALOUATTA FUSCA)
AND ITS SEASONALITY AT THE INTERVALES STATE
PARK, SAo PAULO, BRAZIL

Sandra Steinmetz
Introduction

Drinking is only infrequently observed in howler monkeys
(Bicca-Marques, 1992; Bonvicino, 1988; Carpenter, 1934;
Glander, 1975, 1978; Moynihan, 1976; Terborgh, 1983)
and it is argued that their diet provides the majority of fluids
they need (Glander, 1978). In this note I report on the
occurrence of drinking in a population of southern brown


howler monkeys, Alouatta fusca, observed during a study
of their behaviour and ecology carried out at the Intervales
State Park, SAo Paulo, from November, 1998 to October,
1999 (Steinmetz, 2000).

The Intervales State Park projects 49,888 ha of Atlantic
rain forest in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil (2412'-2425'S,
4803'-4830'W). The climate there is temperate, with an
annual precipitation above 1.000 mm and no dry season. The
average temperature is 18C in the coldest month and 22C
in the hottest month (Petroni, 2000). During the year of
study (November 98 to October 99) the average temperature
was 16.2C and the total precipitation was 1.707,82 mm
(data collected in the Intervales State Park) (Fig. 1).



mmPrecipitation -*- Temperature

400 25
S 300 20
200 -1
S 100 -5
0 0
N D J FMAM J J A S O
Months

Figure 1. Monthly average temperature and cumulative precipitation
registered at Intervales State Park, Sao Paulo, November and
December of 1998 and January to October of 1999.


Methods

The activity budget and diet of a group of six individuals,
composed of two adult males, one juvenile male, one female
and one infant, were registered by monthly scan sampling
from November, 1998 to October, 1999. Direct observations
of the group totalled 918:30 hours or 92 days, of which
65 were full days. All observations of the howlers drinking
water were noted. To verify differences between the light
rainy season (April to August) and the heavy rainy season
(September to March), the monthly percentages were
compared using the Mann-Whitney "U" test. The Spearman
coefficient was used for the correlations and significance was
set at the 0.05 level.

Results and Discussion

Drinking was observed 79 times (Table 1). In all instances the
howlers drank water accumulated in epiphytic bromeliads.
They were seen drinking more often in the lighter rainy
season (Mann-Whitney 'U' = 35.000; p = 0.0025) (Table
1). Occurrences of drinking were negatively correlated with
precipitation and temperature (r = -0.642; p = 0.0244
and r -0.6103; p 0.0351, respectively). Drinking was
positively correlated with the consumption of old leaves, and
they drank less often when more fruit was eaten (Pearson
correlation, r 0.7231; p 0.0079, r -0.6208; p 0.0312,
respectively) (Figs. 2 and 3).






112 Neotropical Primates 9(3), December 2001


Table 1. Total number of observations, mean of observations per
month and standard deviation (SD) of drinking of howler
monkeys, Alouatta fusca, in two seasons, and throughout the
study (November 1998 to October 1999) at the Intervales State
Park, Sao Paulo.
Number of
Season ero Mean SD
observations
Less rainy 69 13.80 9.36
Most rainy 10 1.43 1.13
Total 79 6.58 8.55




30 -
25 -
20
15 -
10 -
5
0 -
N D J F M A M J J A S 0
Months
Figure 2. Monthly variation of the number of observations of
drinking behaviour in howler monkeys, Alouatta fusca, between
November 1998 and October 1999, at Intervales State Park, Sao
Paulo.


Figure 3. Monthly percentile of old leaves and fruits in the diet
of howler monkeys, Alouatta fusca, between November 1998 and
October 1999, at Intervales State Park, Sao Paulo.



Glander (1978) also found a seasonal pattern in drinking
behaviour correlated with the consumption of old leaves.
Besides a reduced availability of water, old leaves have more
secondary compounds that, after the detoxification process,
produce metabolites that require water for their elimination
(Glander, 1978). At Intervales, the howlers have no difficulty
in finding water because of the abundance of bromeliads and
the absence of a defined dry season. Drinking seems to be
related to the kind of food consumed: fruits have more water
and less secondary compounds than old leaves. However, in
Alegrete, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, a place with drastic
dry seasons, Bicca-Marques (1992) noted that howlers
consumed more water in the rainy season, and that drinking
behaviour was not related to diet.

Sandra Steinmetz, Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto
de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Cidade
Universitaria, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.


Address for correspondence: Rua Marie Satzke 172, 04664-150
Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil, e-mail: or
.

References

Bicca-Marques, J. C. 1992. Drinking behavior in the
black howler monkey (A. caraya). Folia Primatol. 58(2):
107-111.
Bonvicino, C. R. 1988. Observaq6es sobre a ecologia e o
comportamento de Alouatta belzebul (Primates: Cebidae)
na Mata Atlantica. Dissertaao de Mestrado, Universidade
Federal da Parafba, JoAo Pessoa.
Carpenter, C. R. 1934. A field study of behavior and
social relations of howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata).
In: Naturalistic Behavior of Nonhuman Primates, C. R.
Carpenter (ed.), pp.3-92. Pennsylvania State Press, PA.
Glander, K. E. 1975. Habitat description and resource
utilization: A preliminary report on mantled howling
monkey ecology. In: Socioecology andPsychology of Primates,
R. Tuttle (ed.), pp.37-57. The Hague, Mouton.
Glander, K. E. 1978. Howling monkey feeding behavior
and plant secondary compounds: A study of strategies.
In: The Ecology of Arboreal Folivores, G. G. Montgomery
(ed.), pp.561-574. Smithsonian Institution Press,
Washington, DC.
Moynihan, M. 1976. The New World Primates.
Princeton University Press, Princeton.
Petroni, L. M. 2000. Caracterizacao da area de uso
e dieta do mono carvoeiro (Brachyteles arachnoides,
Cebidae-Primates) na Mata Atlantica, Serra de
Paranapiacaba, SP Tese de Doutorado, Universidade
de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo.
Steinmetz, S. 2000. Ecologia e o comportamento do
bugio (Alouatta fusca clamitans, Atelidae Primates)
no Parque Estadual Intervales SP. Dissertacao de
Mestrado, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo.
Terborgh, J. 1983. Five New World Primates: A Study
in Comparative Ecology. Princeton University Press,
Princeton, NJ.




USO DE PLANTS COMo ALIMENTO POR MONOS
AULLADORES, ALOUATTA PALLIATA, EN EL PARQUE
YUMKA, TABASCO, MEXICO

Yasminda Garcia del Valle
David Munoz
Miguel Magana Alejandro
Alejandro Estrada
Berenice Franco
Introducci6n

El estado de Tabasco en el sur de M6xico resguarda
poblaciones representantes de las tres species de primates
que existen en M6xico: Alouatta palliata, A. pigra y Ateles
geoffroyi (Smith; 1970, Horwich and Johnson 1986;
Rylands etal, 1995). Tabasco es el inico estado de M6xico,






Neotropical Primates 9(3), December 2001


y la unica zona de la region Mesoamericana, en donde
podemos encontrar representantes de las tres species de
primates y resguarda la zona de transici6n entire A. palliata
y A. pigra y en algunas localidades las dos species son
simpAtricas (Smith, 1970). Cerca del 60% de la superficie
del estado estaba originalmente cubierta por selvas, pero
como resultado de la actividad humana en Tabasco, cerca
del 80% de esta vegetaci6n ha desaparecido a una tasa de
600 km2 6 mas al al ano, siendo las tierras bajas en donde ha
ocurrido la mayor transformaci6n de la selva a pastizales y
otros agrosistemas (Masera, 1996 M6xico, SEMARNAP,
1999, INEGI, 1996).

Aunado a la desaparici6n de las selvas en Tabasco, hay una
falta de informaci6n acerca de la distribuci6n geografica
actual y tamafio de las poblaciones de las tres species de
primates. Igualmente faltante son datos sobre su historic
natural, ecologfa, conduct y estado de conservaci6n. Entre
estos studios, aquellos relacionados a la ecologia alimentaria
de los aulladores aportan informaci6n fundamental para
determinar los recursos que son capaces de utilizar estos
primates como fuente de alimento. Tales datos son
importantes no solo como aspects de la historic natural de
las species, pero tambi6n como indicadores de los conjuntos
de plants presents en las selvas que son aprovechables
por los primates. La ausencia de datos basicos acerca de las
preferencias alimentarias de A. palliata en Tabasco y como
varian estas en el tiempo dificulta el llevar a cabo proyectos
de conservaci6n y manejo de las poblaciones remanentes en
el estado.

Con el objeto de contribuir a este vacfo de informaci6n, en
este trabajo reportamos los resultados de un studio parcial
sobre el uso de plants como alimento por una tropa de
monos aulladores (Alouatta palliata) en el Parque Yumka
localizado en la parte central de Tabasco. Un trabajo anterior
report datos sobre el tamafio y aspects demogrAficos de la
poblaci6n de monos aulladores en este sitio (Estrada et al.,
2001).

Metodos

Sitio de studio
El Parque YumkA se localiza a 17o45" y 1800"N, 92o45" y
9300"W y a 15 km de la ciudad de Villahermosa, la capital
del estado. Yumka es un parque pUblico que comprende una
superficie de 101 ha, de las cuales, 33 ha presentan selva alta
perennifolia, 47 ha son sabanas y el resto lo conforma un
lago (Fig. 1). La altura sobre el nivel del mar es de 15 m. El
clima es cAlido-humedo con una precipitaci6n media annual
de 2159 mm y una temperature media annual de 29.4C.

Sujetos de studio
Nuestro studio se bas6 en observaciones del comportamiento
alimentario de una de las cuatro tropas de monos aulladores
que existen en el Parque (Estrada et al 2001). Esta tropa
estaba formada por 28 individuos: cinco macho adults,
once hembras adults, cinco juveniles, cuatro infants y tres
individuos cuyo sexo no pudo ser determinado.


Fig. 1. Localizaci6n del Parque Yumki en la parte central del estado
de Tabasco (punto negro en el mapa del sur de Me6xico). Las lines
paralelas y solida son una carretera pavimentada y otra de terraceria.
Las lines delgadas son veredas en el area de selva del Parque. El Area
sombreada en la parte inferior de la figure es parte de un lago.



Observaciones de los monos aulladores
Las observaciones del comportamiento de alimentaci6n de
los aulladores se llevaron a cabo durante siete dias de cada
mes entire Noviembre 2000 y Abril 2001. El m6todo de
muestreo empleado en las observaciones fue el de animal
focal (Altmann, 1974). El tiempo de duraci6n de la muestra
focal para cada sujeto fue de una hora, registrando el tiempo
dedicado al consume de hojas (j6venes y maduras), de
frutos (j6venes y maduros), de flores, de peciolos, de epifitas,
de hemiparasitas y de bejucos. Los Arboles utilizados por
los aulladores fueron marcados, medidos (altura maxima y
diametro a la altura del pecho) y identificados a nivel de
especie. Debido a que los datos para los meses de Diciembre
y Enero fueron escasos, ambos meses se combinaron como
un solo period.

La diversidad diet6tica mensual se express con el indice de
diversidad de Shannon (H ) y el indice de Sorencen fue
calculado para expresar la similitud intermensual en el uso
de species en la dieta de los aulladores. La dispersi6n en el
espacio de los Arboles que fueron fuentes de alimento para los
aulladores se determine por medio de la ubicaci6n de estos
en un mapa a escala. En este mapa, el Area de selva se dividio
en sectors de 1.0 ha en tamafio cada uno, resultando en
un total de 33 sectors mas 14 sectors adicionales, ya que
en algunos casos los aulladores salieron del Area de selva y
utilizaron arboles fuera de la propiedad del Parque. El patr6n
de dispersion espacial de los Arboles usados por los aulladores
como fuente de alimento se determine por medio del calculo
del indice de dispersion de Morisita (Franco, etal. 1995). Este
permiti6 discernir si la distribuci6n espacial de los arboles
utilizados por la tropa era al azar, uniform o agregada.

Resultados

Esfuerzo de muestreo
Durante el period de muestreo (Noviembre 2000-Abril
2001) se completaron mensualmente un promedio de 7.0
+ 2.1 dias de observaci6n de la conduct de los aulladores y


Jasrurdnhdh






114 Neotropical Primates 9(3), December 2001


acumulamos 727 muestras focales en 302 hrs de registro. El
promedio mensual fue de 43 hrs de observaci6n.

Recursos utilizados
Los aulladores utilizaron 21 species de plants (13 families
botanicas) como fuente de alimento. De estas, 19 species
estuvieron representadas por 113 arboles, una especie mas
estuvo representada por una plant epifita y otra mis por un
bejuco (Tabla 1). Los arboles utilizados por los aulladores
presentaron una altura promedio de 18 m (rango = 5 -24
m) y un d.a.p. promedio de 0.50 + 0.40 m (rango 0.1 1.8
m) y se encontr6 una correlaci6n positive entire el d.a.p. y la
altura de los arboles utilizados por los aulladores (r = 0.82, p
<0.001).

Tres species de arboles, (Brosimun alicastrum, Cynometra
retusay B. terrabanum) contribuyeron al 51% del tiempo de
alimentaci6n y al 49 % de los drboles utilizados como fuente
de alimento (Tabla 1). Tres species arb6reas adicionales
(Gliricidia sepium, SabalmauritiformisyLysiloma bahamensis)
contribuyeron a un 25% mas del tiempo de alimentaci6n y
contribuyeron al 29% de los Arboles utilizados. El resto de
las species registradas contribuyeron al 24% restante del
tiempo de alimentaci6n y al 22% de los arboles usados
(Tabla 1). El tiempo de alimentaci6n se encontr6 asociado
positivamente con el numero de species usadas como fuente


de alimento (r, = 0.76, P < 0.002) y una correlaci6n positive
se encontr6 entire el tiempo de alimentaci6n y el ntimero de
Arboles usados por especie (r = 0.78, P < 0.005).

Tres families botAnicas contribuyeron al 75% del tiempo
de alimentaci6n registrado. La familiar Moraceae con dos
species de plants contribuy6 al 32% del tiempo alimenticio.
Mientras que la Fabaceae con seis species de plants aport6
un 24% del tiempo de alimentaci6n (Tabla 1). El 19%
de tiempo alimenticio fue aportado por dos species de
la familiar Caesalpiniaceae. Una sola species de la Araceae
contribuy6 al 8% del tiempo de alimentaci6n. El restante
25% lo aportaron species en las otras 11 families botanicas
(Tabla 1).

Selectividad de las parties de las plants utilizadas como
alimento
El 72% del tiempo de alimentacidn registrado fue utilizado
por los aulladores en el consume de hojas. De este, el 38%
y 34% fue invertido en el consume de hojasj6venes y hojas
maduras respectivamente y los frutos maduros aportaron el
10% y los j6venes el 4%. El consume de flores contribuy6
al 13% del tiempo de alimentaci6n. La mayor diversidad
de species se encontr6 en el consume de hojas maduras
(17 species) y de hojas j6venes (12 speciess, mientras que


Tabla 1. Especies de plants utilizadas por los monos aulladores del Parque Yumka, Tabasco, M6xico, como fuente de alimento (Nov
2000 Abril 2001). Se muestra el porciento de tiempo de alimentaci6n que los aulladores pasaron alimentandose de cada parte de la
plant. Las species estan listadas de acuerdo al numero de individuos utilizados por los aulladores. Las letras entire par6ntesis indican la
familiar botinica: M Moraceae, C Caesalpiniaceae, F Fabaceae, A Araceae, R Rutaceae, B Boraginaceae, S Sapindaceae, M Meliaceae,
Si Simarubaceae, Bo Bombacaceae, Bu Burseraceae, U Ulmaceae y Fl Flacourtiaceae. Be bejuco, E epifita.

Especie Hojas Hojas Frutos Frutos Flores N nimero de
Espciej6venes maduras j6venes maduros individuos
Brosimum alicastrum (M) 23 20.9 53.0 5 20
Brosimum terrabanum (M) 15 9.3 46.0 18
Cynometra retusa (C) 31 14.6 15.0 18
Gliricidia sepium (F) 1 5.9 59 17
Sabalmauritiformis (A) 85.0 9
Lysiloma bahamensis (F) 1 27 7
Zanthoxylum microcarpum (R) 6 0.4 5
Cordia stellifera (B) 1 2.9 3
Piscidia communis (F) 5 3.9 7 3
Enterolobium cyclocarpum (F) 4.7 2
liricidia sp. (F) 5.3 2
Paullinia pinnata (S) Be 8 14.7 2
Ampelocera hottlei (U) 1.1 1.0 1
Bursera simaruba (Bu) 1.5 1
Casearia bartlettui ((Fl) 0.2 1
Ceiba pentandra (Bo) 1.0 2 1
Dialium guianense (C) 2 1
Guarea chichon (M) 4 11.0 1
Picramnia antidesma (Si) 3 1
Platymiscium yucatanensis (F) 2.5 1
Syngonium podophyllum (A) E 0.1 1






Neotropical Primates 9(3), December 2001


el nuimero de species utilizadas por los aulladores para
consume de frutos y flores vari6 de 2 a 5 species (Tabla 1).

Los aulladores utilizaron 12 species de plants como
fuentes de hojas j6venes, pero dos de ellas, B alicastrum y
B. terrabanum, contribuyeron al 38% del tiempo registrado
para alimentaci6n en hojas j6venes, otro 31% fue aportado
por C retusa (Tabla 1). El tiempo empleado por los aulladores
en el consume de hojas j6venes se encontr6 asociado
positivamente con el n6mero de Arboles usados por especie,
(r, 0.82, P < 0.008). En el caso de las hojas maduras
los aulladores utilizaron 17 species. De estas B. alicastrum
y B. terrabanum contribuyeron con un 30% del tiempo
de alimentaci6n. Las species C. retusa y Paullinia pinnata
contribuyeron, cada con una, con un 15% del tiempo de
alimentaci6n y la especie Guarea chichon contribuy6 con
un 11% del tiempo alimenticio (Tabla 1). El 29% restante
del tiempo registrado en alimentaci6n de hojas maduras se
distribuy6 en nueve species. El tiempo empleado por los
aulladores en el consume de hojas maduras se encontr6
asociado positivamente con el ntimero de arboles usados por
especie (r, = 0.50, P < 0.02).

Dos species de plants fueron utilizadas por los aulladores
como fuente de frutos j6venes. De estas, B alicastrum
contribuy6 al 54% del tiempo de alimentaci6n y
B. terrabanumal 46% (Tabla 1). En el caso de frutos maduros
los aulladores usaron dos species: S. mauritiformisy C retusa,
pertenecientes a las families Araceae y Caesalpiniaceae. Estas
species aportaron el 85% y 14% del tiempo de alimentaci6n,
respectivamente (Tabla 1). Cinco species de Arboles fueron
usadas como fuentes de flores, G. sepium, L. bahamensis,
Piscidia communis, B. alicastrum y Ceiba pentandra. De estas,
G. sepium fue la mas important, aportando el 60% del
tiempo total registrado en el consume de flores (Tabla 1). El
aporte de otras cuatro species fue 27% L. bahamensis, 7%
P communis, 5% B alicatrum y 2% C. pentandra.

Variacion mensual en la dieta de los aulladores
El 19% de las species de plants usadas como fuente
de alimento se registry en Noviembre, primer mes de
observaciones. La aparici6n de species nuevas en la dieta
de los aulladores en los meses posteriores, present dos
incrementos significativos en Dic/Ene con el 33% de las
species (n = 7) y otro en Febrero con el 38% (n = 8).
Despu6s de Febrero, los aulladores s6lo afnadieron una nueva
especie de plant a su dieta en el mes de Marzo y otra en
Abril. El fndice promedio mensual de diversidad diet6tica
fue de H'= 1.59 + 0.53, pero este vari6 de mes a mes,
presentando sus valores mis altos en el mes de Febrero y
los mas bajos en el mes de Noviembre (Fig. 2). El indice
promedio de similitud intermensual (indice de Sorensen
IS) a nivel de especie fue de IS = 0.49 + 0.07. Este vari6
de 0.42 entire Noviembre y Diciembre-Enero a 0.59 entire
Diciembre-Enero y Febrero (Fig. 2).

El consume de hojas y frutos fue variable durante los
meses que dur6 el studio, presentAndose una marcada
estacionalidad en el consume de flores, frutos y tambi6n de


3 T 0,7
S2,5 0,6
2 0,5 :01
-0,4

-0-Indice de diversidad de Shannon 0,2
0,5 -- Indice de similitud de Sorensen 0,1

Nov Dic-Ene Feb Mar Abr
Meses
Fig. 2. Diversidad mensual (indice de Shannon H') y el indice de
similitud intermensual (Indice de Sorensen) en el uso de species
de plants usadas por los aulladores como fuente de alimento en el
Parque Yumka (Noviembre 2000-Abril 2001).


hojas j6venes y maduras (Fig. 3). El consume de flores fue
important en los meses de Noviembre a Febrero, mientras
que el consume de frutos maduros se present en todos los
meses del period de studio. El consume de hojas j6venes
se concentr6 entire los meses de Febrero y Abril y este fue
precedido por una concentraci6n en el consume de hojas
maduras (Fig. 3).

Dispersidn espacial de los recursos
Los aulladores usaron 19 de los 47 sectors de 1.0 ha
en tamaflo cada uno en que fue dividido el area selvatica
del Parque YumkA 6 un 40% del espacio disponible. En
estos sectors se encontraron disperses los arboles que los
aulladores usaron como fuente de alimento. Las species
B. terrabanum, B. alicastrum, C retusa y S. mauritiformis
contribuyeron al 64% de los Arboles usados. Especies como
L. bahamensis, C. sepium, Dialium guianensis, P comunis,
Zantoxilum microcarpus, Gliricidia sp., Ampelocera hottlei y
Picramia antidesma aportaron el 28% de los arboles usados.
El 8% restante estuvo representado por species como
Bursera simaruba, Casearia bartleti, C pentandra, Cordia
stellifera, Enterolobium microcarpus, G. chichon y Patymicium
yucatenensis.




"i-* jIJ n ain



111 I



F"
.21, 4 I



Nm LcM -e ib W Or

Fig. 3. Variaci6n mensual en el porcentaje del tiempo de
alimentaci6n dedicado por los aulladores al consume de diferentes
parties de la plant en el Parque Yumka (Noviembre 2000-Abril
2001). Note la estacionalidad en el consumer de flores, mientras
el consumer de hojas j6venes estuvo concentrado entire Febrero y
Abril.






Neotropical Primates 9(3), December 2001


Los valores del findice de Morisita derivados del calculo del
patron de dispersi6n espacial de los Arboles usados por los
aulladores como fuente de alimento fueron > 1.0 en cuatro
calculos cubriendo sectors diferentes dentro de su area de
suministro (IdA= 1.35, Ida= 1.59, Idc= 1.02, IdD= 1.13),
lo que indica que los recursos utilizados por los aulladores
presentaron un patr6n agregado en el espacio (Muiioz, 2001).
La distancia promedio recorrida por dia por los aulladores en
la busqueda del alimento fue de 125.8 + 95.0 my la distancia
promedio recorrida por mes fue de 652 + 429 m, pero esta
vari6 de 229 m en Enero a 1243 m en Febrero.

Discusi6n

Nuestros results indicaron que el uso de arboles en el entorno
en el que existen los aulladores del Parque Yumka estuvo
directamente asociado a la utilizacion de estos como fuente
de alimento. Estos arboles que tienden a ser relativamente
grandes en tamafio y les sirven tambi6n como substrato fisico,
representaron a cerca de 21 species que les sirvieron como
fuente de alimento. Entre estas predomin6 la utilizaci6n de
species pertenecientes a las families Moraceae, Fabaceae y
Caesalpiniceae. Species en estas families han sido reportadas
como parte important en la dieta de monos aulladores en
otras localidades en M6xico como en Los Tuxtlas en Veracruz
(Estrada, 1984; Estrada et al., 1999; Juan et al., 1999) y
en Centro y Sud America, como en Belice (Silver et al.,
1998), Finca la Pacifica, Costa Rica (Glander, 1975), Isla de
Barro Colorado, PanamA (Milton, 1980) y Finca Meremberg,
Colombia ( Gaulin y Gaulin, 1982).

Como un dato sobresaliente fue la importancia de la palma
Sabal mauritiformis (Araceae) que sirvi6 de suministro de
frutos maduros a los aulladores durante cuatro de los cinco
meses de duraci6n del studio. Esta palma es la segunda
especie arb6rea mas important en el sitio presentAndose
en densidades de 26 ind/ha (Jim6nez, 1987). Es probable
que debido a la predominancia de esta especie y de aquellas
del genero Brosimum, los aulladores cuentan con una fuente
adecuada y mas 6 menos constant de alimento en forma
de hojas y de frutos a trav6s del afno. La asociaci6n existente
entire el porciento de tiempo de alimentaci6n y el ntimero
de Arboles usados por especie sugiere que los aulladores
persistentemente estAn buscando arboles de estas species en
su area de suministro.

Se ha sugerido que debido a la consistencia con que son
usadas las species de la familiar Moraceae como fuente de
hojas y frutos por monos aulladores, existe una tendencia en
61 genero Alouatta hacia la especializaci6n en el uso de species
de esta familiar (Milton, 1980; Estrada y Coates Estrada,
1995). La predominancia y consistencia en el uso (Arboles
y tiempo de alimentacion) de las species B. alicastrum y
B. terrabanum de la Moraceae por el grupo de aulladores en
el Parque YumkA es consistent con esta observaci6n. El uso
predominante de las Moraceas tambi6n ha sido asociado a la
alta densidad que caracteriza a las species de esta familiar en
hAbitats con elements de vegetaci6n primaria y secundaria
(Julliot y Sabatier, 1993). Por ejemplo, en el Parque Yumka


la densidad estimada de alicastrum es de 15 ind/ha, lo que
acoplado al aporte de su area basal, la coloca entire las cuatro
species arb6reas mas dominantes en este sitio (Jimenez,
1987).

El g6nero Alouatta ha sido clasificado como folfvoro-frugfvoro
(Crockett y Einsenberg 1987), dependiendo del hAbitat que
ocupen. En el Parque Yumka, durante el period de studio
los aulladores fueron mas folivoros que frugivoros ya que
pasaron el 76% del tiempo de alimentaci6n consumiendo
hojas. Las altas tasas de consumo de hojas observadas en
el Yumka son consistentes con aquellas reportadas para 61
genero Alouatta en otras localidades (Glander, 1975; Milton,
1980; Gaulin y Gaulin, 1982; Estrada, 1984, 1988; Julio
y Sabatier, 1993; Galetti et al, 1994; Bicca-Marques et al.,
1994; Silver etal., 1998, Juan etal., 1999).

Se ha reportado que en la dieta de los monos aulladores
predomina el consume de hojas jovenes (Braza et al.,
1983; Estrada, 1984; Glander, 1975; Julliot y Sabatier,
1993; Milton, 1980; Silver et al., 1998; Juan et al., 1999),
preferencia atribuida a una alta concentraci6n de protein
(33% mas que las hojas maduras), altos contenidos de
nutrients digeribles y menor contenido (36% menos que las
hojas maduras) de fibra que en las hojas maduras (Estrada,
1984; Glander, 1975; Milton, 1978, 1980). Las hojas
maduras, en contrast, contienen niveles altos de compuestos
secundarios (taninos, alcaloides, fenoles, etc.) y de fibra
(celulosa, hemicelulosa y lignina) (Glander, 1982; Hladik,
1978; Milton, 1978, 1979).

En general, estas observaciones son consistentes con los datos
obtenidos en el Parque YumkA, en donde los aulladores
mostraron una marcada preferencia por las hojas j6venes
cuando estas estuvieron disponibles (Marzo-Abril). En los
otros meses, predomin6 el uso de hojas maduras, lo que
indica una cierta estacionalidad en la disponibilidad de hojas
j6venes. Debido a la estacionalidad en la disponibilidad de
hoja j6venes, los aulladores consumieron hojas maduras en
una mayor proporci6n en esos meses en que las hojasj6venes
fueron escasas, pero el ndmero de species utilizadas fue
mayor, invirtiendo mas tiempo y recorriendo mas distancias
en su btsqueda (Mufioz, 2001). Los comportamientos arriba
indicados se dieron a pesar de la mayor predecibilidad de
las hojas maduras en la selva, lo que sugiere la necesidad
que tienen los aulladores de balancear su dieta y minimizar
la ingestion de fibra y compuestos t6xicos (Glander, 1975;
Milton, 1977, 1979, 1980; Gaulin y Gaulin, 1982; Braza et
al., 1983: Estrada, 1984, Estrada etal., 1999).

A pesar de la estacionalidad en la producci6n de frutos en
el sitio, el comportamiento asincr6nico y el largo period de
frutaci6n en la poblaci6n de Sabal mauritiformis, permiti6
que los aulladores consumieran frutos en todos los meses
que dur6 el period de studio. Especies como Balicastrum,
B. terrabanum, Cynometm retusa y Ampelocera hotleii
presentaron frutos durante dos de los cinco meses, pero la
dependencia de los aulladores de los frutos de S. mauritiformis
es enfatizada por el dato de que el 63% del tiempo registrado






Neotropical Primates 9(3), December 2001


en el consume de frutos por los aulladores, se registry en
esta especie. Es probable que la fuerte dominancia de esta
especie en la comunidad vegetal selvAtica del YumkA ha sido
un aspect favorable para el sostenimiento de la poblaci6n
de aulladores en este sitio. Otras species important en la
dieta de los aulladores fueron aquellas que les sirvieron como
fuente de flores, reforzando asi la ingestion de protein. Estas
species, C. sepium, L. bahamensis, P comunis, B. alicastrumn
y C pentandra, fueron utilizadas brevemente (1-2 meses)
enfatizando la marcada estacionalidad en la disponibilidad
de las flores consumidas por los aulladores.

Las variaciones mensuales observadas en la diversidad diet6tica
(indicado por H') de los aulladores, atestigua a las variaciones
estaci6nales en la disponibilidad de hojas, frutos y flores
discutidas arriba, pero resalta el hecho de que el mes en que
fue mayor el consume de hojas maduras tiene el indice de
diversidad mAs alto (H' 2.45 versus el promedio mensual
H' 1.59). Esto sugiere que cuando escasea el alimento de
mayor calidad (hojas j6venes, frutos maduros y flores) los
aulladores estan forzados a alimentarse de hojas maduras,
incrementando el numero de species y individuos de los
cuales cosechan estas parties de las plants. Esto ultimo debido,
posiblemente, al mayor contenido de fibra y compuestos
secundarios en estas parties de las plants (Estrada, 1984). Asf,
los monos aulladores logran adaptarse a las limitaciones de su
flexibilidad digestive por medio de respuestas conductuales en
el tiempo y espacio que les permiten enfrentarse a variaciones
en el comportamiento fenol6gico y propiedades qufmicas
del alimento, logrando optimizar la ingestion de nutrients
y minimizando la ingestion de fibra y compuestos t6xicos
(Milton, 1980; Estrada, 1984).

Se ha descrito que las distancias que recorren los aulladores
a trav6s de su area de suministro puede ser un buen
indicador de la dispersion espacial y temporal de los recursos
alimenticios (Estrada, 1984, Estrada, 1999). Los Arboles de
las species usadas por los aulladores del Parque Yumka como
fuente de alimento presentaron un patron de dispersi6n
espacial agregado, indicando una alta dispersion en el espacio
de los recursos preferidos. Los aulladores respondieron a estos
aspects de sus recursos viajando distancias variables cada
dia, que fueron de 190 m a 380 m. Estos recorridos los
llevaron a distintas secciones dentro de su Area de suministro.
Durante el period de studio la tropa estudiada utilize un
40% de la superficie selvatica disponible o 19 ha, pero este
uso vari6 mensualmente de 6 a 18 ha. Es claro que los monos
aulladores no utilizaron de modo uniform el Area selvAtica
disponible, algo que estuvo fuertemente condicionado por
el patron agregado de las fuentes de alimento, especialmente
de aquellas species arb6reas que tuvieron una marcada
presencia en su dieta, como fue el caso de S. mauritiformis,
C. retusa, B. alicastrum y B. terrabanum.

Aun cuando la presencia de otras tropas puede influir tambien
en las variaciones observadas en el uso del espacio, nuestros
datos sugieren que es muy probable que los comportamientos
observados fueron respuestas a aspects de los recursos
alimenticios como su dispersion en el espacio y tiempo y su


densidad y dominancia relative. Estas respuestas estan dadas
por la necesidad de los aulladores de balancear y diversificar
su dieta con la meta de optimizar su estrategia de forrajeo.

La importancia del studio de la pequefia poblaci6n de
monos aulladores en el Parque Yumka radica en la necesidad
de documentary, por un lado, aspects de la ecologia y historic
natural para las species primates del estado de Tabasco. Por
otro lado, estos studios son importantes para comprender
la flexibilidad adaptativa de miembros del g6nero Alouatta
a la fragmentaci6n, aislamiento y reducci6n en Area de sus
habitats. Los monos aulladores del Parque YumkA han tenido
6xito en esta direcci6n y una buena prueba de ellos es la
persistencia y crecimiento de la poblaci6n en una pequefia
Area de selva por ya cerca de cinco d6cadas (Estrada et al.,
2001). Por consiguiente, el studio del comportamiento de
los aulladores y la caracterizacion de los rasgos del entorno
ecol6gico en el que existen nos permitira comprender la
manera en que se adaptan a la disponibilidad de los recursos,
al espacio disponible y al crecimiento demografico. Esta
informacidn nos puede dar las herramientas metodol6gicas,
te6ricas y empfricas para crear models de manejo que
promuevan la conservaci6n de poblaciones aisladas de estos
primates en otras localid del estado de Tabasco y en el
Neotr6pico.

Agradecimientos

Se agradece el apoyo del Lincoln Zoo Scott Neotropic Fund
y de la Universidad Nacional Aut6noma de Mexico. Se
agradece tambien la autorizaci6n de los Directores del Parque
YumkA para llevar a cabo estos trabajos y el apoyo logfstico
aportado por la administraci6n y empleados del Parque.

Yasminda Garcia del Valle, Divisidn de Ciencias Biol6gicas,
Universidad Juarez Aut6noma de Tabasco, Villahermosa,
Tabasco, Mexico, e-mail: ,
David Mufioz, Divisi6n de Ciencias Bioldgicas, Universidad
Juarez Aut6noma de Tabasco, Villahermosa, Tabasco, M6xico,
e-mail: , Miguel Magafia-
Alejandro, Divisi6n de Ciencias Biol6gicas, Universidad
Juarez Aut6noma de Tabasco, Villahermosa, Tabasco, M6xico.
Alejandro Estrada, Estaci6n de Biologfa Los Tuxtlas,
IB-UNAM, Apartado 176, San Andres Tuxtla, Veracruz,
M6xico, e-mail: , y Berenice
Franco, Division de Ciencias Biol6gicas, Universidad Juarez
Aut6noma de Tabasco, Villahermosa, Tabasco, M6xico,
e-mail: .

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Juan, S., Ortiz-Martinez, T. J., Estrada, A. y Coates-Estrada,
R. 1999. Uso de plants como alimento por Alouatta
palliata en un fragmento de selva en los Tuxtlas, Mexico.
Neotrop. Primates. 7: 8-11.
Julliot, C. y Sabatier, D. 1993. Diet of the red howler
monkeys (Alouatta seniculus) in French Guiana. Int. J
Primatol. 14: 527-549.
Masera, 0. R. 1996. Deforestaci6n y degradaci6n forestal en
Mexico. Documento de Trabajo. Grupo interdisciplinario de
Trabajo de Tecnologfa Rural Apropiada 19: 1-15.
Milton, K. 1977. The foraging strategy of the howler monkey
in the tropical forest of Barro Colorado Island, Panama,
Ph. D dissertation, New York University.
Milton, K. 1978. Behavioral adaptations to leaf eating by
the mantled howler monkey (Alouatta palliata). En: The
Ecology of the Arboreal Folivores, G. G. Montgomery (ed.),
pp.535-549. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington,
DC.
Milton, K. 1979. Factors influencing leaf choice by howler
monkeys: A test of some hypotheses of food selection by
generalist herbivores. Amer Nat. 114: 362-378.
Milton, K. 1980. The Foraging Strategy of Howler Monkeys.
A Study in Primate Economics. Columbia University Press,
New York.
Munoz, D. 2001. Estudio preliminary del patr6n general
de actividades de monos aulladores (Alouatta palliata) en
semilibertad en el parque YumkA, Tabasco, M6xico. Tesis
Licenciatura. Universidad Jumrez Aut6noma de Tabasco,
Villahermosa Tabasco, M6xico.
SEMARNAP Webpage. 1999. .
Silver, S. C., Ostro, L. E. T., Yeager, C. P. y Hoorwich,
R. 1998. Feeding Ecology of the black howler monkey
(Alouatta pigra) in northern Belize. Am. J Primatol.
45: 263-279.
Smith, J. D. 1970. The systematic status of the black
howler monkeys, Alouatta pigra Lawrence. J Mammal.
51:358-369.



ALOUATTA GUARIBA CLAMITANS CABRERA, 1940:
A NEW SOUTHERN LIMIT FOR THE SPECIES AND FOR
NEOTROPICAL PRIMATES

Rodrigo C. Printes
Marcus V A. Liesenfeld
Leandro Jerusalinsky
Introduction

The state of Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil has a rich
biodiversity due to its geographic location and landscape.
Thirty-five percent of the Brazilian mammals, 141 species
in 34 families, have been recorded for the state (Silva, 1994).
Most of them occur in the Atlantic forest which extends
from Rio Grande do Norte in the northeast of Brazil. In Rio
Grande do Sul, this forest extends from the municipality of
Torres to the Rio Maquin6 in the northeast of the state, and
marks the southern limit for most tropical plants (Reitz etal.,
1988). Few tropical forest plant species reach the region of






Neotropical Primates 9(3), December 2001


Porto Alegre or the Rio Jacuf. Forest fragments are found on
the quaternary wet plains, and on the foothills of mountains
(up to 900 m, in the region called Serra Geral).

The genus Alouatta Lacepede, 1799 is the most widely
distributed of Neotropical primates (Neville et al., 1988).
Their northern limit is in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico
(20N) (Smith, 1970) and their southern limit, as defined
until now, was the Rio Jacuf (30S), Rio Grande do Sul,
Brazil (Hirsch et al., 1991). It was Cabrera (1940) who
suspected that the southern brown howler, Alouatta guarlba
clamitans, may occur south of the Rio Jacuf, but no concrete
evidence was available. Here we report on five expeditions to
the region in order to define more exactly the southernmost
limits to its range.

Methods

Five expeditions were carried out between December 1998
and September 2000. Our fieldwork began in the forests
along the Rios Camaqua and Piratini; along the middle
and southern portions of the south-eastern mountain ranges,
respectively, 30-31S, where the forests and original natural
vegetation are relatively well conserved. Further south the
forests give way to the grassland and bushy savannas of the
Rio Grande do Sul Shield (Rambo, 1956; Fernandes, 1998).
Geographic co-ordinates were taken using a GPS (Garmin
models 1 and 2).

Police stations and local people (mainly hunters and
fishermen) were contacted in the different localities to obtain
information on the possible occurrence of howlers. To avoid
false positive identifications of howlers, we asked questions
about the mammal fauna in general. Photographs were also
used to confirm howler monkey identification.

Positive information was selected for field verification
according to the location of the area indicated (latitude, if
near to forest, rivers or mountains), when the animals were
seen, the number of animals reported for each area, and a
general feeling for the veracity of the information from the
behaviour patterns of the primates described by the observer.


Once an area was sufficiently explored and there were no
new indications of the occurrence of howler monkeys, the
expedition moved north.

In the localities where the occurrence of A. guariba clamitans
was verified, we carried out a quick survey of the vegetation
using a 50 m transect with one sample point every 2 m.
Trees closest to the transect, in any direction, with a 7 cm
or greater circumference at breast height were identified.
Tree heights and their distance from the transect were also
recorded (Filgueiras etal., 1994).

Results

The 11 localities surveyed are shown in Table 1 and Figure
1. There was no evidence of A. guariba clamitans in the Rio
Piratini basin, but they were found at two sites along the Rio
Camaqua, south of the Rio Jacuf.

1) Cristal, municipality of Cristal, Rio Camaqua (31o00'S,
5204'W), locality 1 (Fig. 1 and Table 1). All reports on the
occurrence of A. guariba clamitans in upstream sites given
by the local population were confirmed. The forests become
progressively more fragmented inland, due to agriculture
(beans and corn). Along the Rio Camaqua, however, there
were good stretches of relatively continuous forest. We visited
a farm (5 km from the town of Cristal), where farmers
had reported the presence of at least three howler groups.
This was confirmed by new and old faeces collected on
31 December 1998, and we eventually saw the monkeys
on 5 March 1999.

The forest was between 16 and 18 m tall. "Angico-
vermelho" (Parapiptadenia rigida Mimosaceae) was the
predominant tree. Other common species found under the
canopy were: "camboatd" (Cupania vernalis and Matayba
elaegnoides- Sapindaceae), "agoita-cavalo" (Luehea divaricata
- Tiliaceae), and "batinga" (Eugenia rostrifolia Myrtaceae).
Eugenia hiemalis and Eugenia unifllora were common in the
understorey. Considering the size of the Parapiptadenia
rigida and Luehea divaricata trees, and judging from
information obtained from local people, the forest is


Table 1. Localities visited during the "Southern Limit Expedition", their respective co-ordinates, survey results (occurrence or
otherwise) and time spent in each site. See Figure 1.
Locality River Basin Coordinates Occurrence Time (days)
1. Cristal Camaqua 3100'S; 52'04'W Yes 4*
2. Cascavel Camaqua 31'05'S; 52'17'W No 1
3. Canta Galo Camaqua 3110'S; 52'19'W Yes 6*
4. Turugu Turuwu 31'21'S; 52'28'W No 1
5. Torrinhas Jaguarao 31 22'S; 53'33'W No 1
6. Hulha Negra Jaguarao 31 24'S; 53'21'W No 1
7. Cangugu Pelotas 3124'S; 52'40'W No 4*
8. 7- Distrito de Pelotas Pelotas 3126'S; 5227 W No 1
9. Candiota Jaguarao 31'38'S; 5344'W No 1
10. Pedro Os6rio Piratini 31'52'S; 52'46'W No 1
11. F. Capao Redondo Piratini 31'57'S; 52'33'W No 2
* non consecutive days






Neotropical Primates 9(3), December 2001


. .. ....... .: :

























Figure 1. Localities visited during the "Southern Limit Expedition" (the old limit for A. guariba clamitans is shaded dark; the new limit is
lighter): (1) Cristal, 3100'S; 5204'W; (2) Cascavel, 31005'S; 5217'W; (3) Canta Galo, 3110'S: 5219'W; (4) Turucu, 3121'S: 5228'W;
(5) Torrinhas, 31 22'S: 5333'W; (6) Hulha Negra, 31 24'S: 5321'W; (7) Cangucu, 31 24'S; 5240'W; (8) 7I Distrito de Pelotas, 31026'S;
5227'W; (9) Candiota, 3138'S: 5344'W; (10) Pedro Os6rio, 3152'S: 5246'W; (11) Faz. Capao Redondo, 3157'S: 5233'W.


relatively undisturbed and well conserved. The entire area
is occasionally inundated, and forests along the banks of
the Rio Camaqua are seasonally covered by water. Other
mammals recorded for this site were: paca (Agouti paca),
raccoon (Procyon cancrivorus), deer (Mazama sp.), nine-
banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), and jaguarundi
(Herpailurusjagouaroundt).

2) Canta Galo, municipality of SAo Lourenco, Rio Camaqua
basin (3110'S, 5219'W), Locality 3 (Fig. 1 and Table
1). Local people reported the occurrence of A. guariba
clamitans on the opposite bank of the Rio Camaqua to
Cristal. According to the reports, the howlers could be seen
there only during the summer, when the grapes are ripening,
which the howlers feed on. Old howler excrement was found
in a forest patch on a farm 8 km away from Canta Galo, on
2 February 2000.

The forest was humid, 40 ha in size, and surrounded by
corn crops. "Batinga" (Eugenia rostrifolia) was the most
common tree in the canopy, and its fruits, probably eaten
by the howlers, also mature during the summer (usually
in February). Some of the trees reach 16 m in height. The
understorey was well shaded, and the most common species


found were Sorocea bonplandii (Moraceae) and Trichilia
claussenii (Meliaceae).

Discussion

Being sub-tropical, the extreme south of Brazil is marked
by distinct seasonal patterns of spring, summer, autumn and
winter, and forests are semi-deciduous. This seasonality, and
even the occasional occurrence of snow, probably limits the
occurrence of primates to only the larger monkeys, Cebus
and Alouatta. The Rio Camaqua basin marks the transition
between the Atlantic Forest and the Pampas (Rambo, 1956)
with a gradual loss of forest and a reduced tree diversity,
which makes even folivory a difficult diet to maintain.

The Rio Jacuf was considered to be the southern limit for
Alouatta guariba clamitans until 1991 (Hirsch et al, 1991).
However, the results presented here show that this species
occurs on both margins of the Rios Jacuf and Camaqua (200
km south of the Rio Jacuf). It is probable that the howlers
of the Rio Camaqua have to move long distances during
times of flooding, and to exploit perhaps relatively few key
resources, such as cultivated grapes and the fruits of Eugenia
rostrifolia.






Neotropical Primates 9(3), December 2001


Villalba etal. (1995) indicated the possible natural occurrence
of Alouatta caraya in northern Uruguay (31o00'S, 5600'W)
which, although not yet confirmed, is just a little north of the
localities we have identified on the Rio CamaquA. The most
southerly record for this species is the town of Canta Galo
(3110'S, 5219'W), in the municipality of SAo Lourenco do
Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This locality is also the new
southern limit for all Neotropical primates.

We conclude that the key factors determining the
distributional limits of primates in the south of South
America are: 1) The seasonal inundation of rivers in the
Camaqua basin; 2) the reduction in tree species diversity;
3) the gradual predominance of deciduous trees; and 4) the
low temperatures during winter.

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the Military Police of the
state of Rio Grande do Sul; our fellow researchers Andr6
Hirsch, Anthony B. Rylands, Andrea Lamberts, Denise A.
Rosario, David Buss, Gerson Buss, Helena Romanowski,
Lais E Moraes, Liane B. Printes, Luiz Felipe Kunz Jr., Paulo
Oliveira, Shaula M. V. Sampaio, Thales Freitas, and Yanina
M. S. Dalessandro; as well as the photographer Adriano
Becker. Thanks also to all the local people who collaborated
with the interviews, especially to Ademar Brodt, Antonio
Gomes, Anita B. Madrid, Guilherme Brodt, Jair S. da Costa,
Joao C. de Souza, Lucas Brodt, Otto Leichtnow, Zelomar
Krolow and Zeno Koltz.

Rodrigo C. Printes, Marcus V. A. Liesenfeld, and Leandro
Jerusalinsky, Programa Macacos Urbanos, Departamento
de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul,
Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, Rio
Grande do Sul, Brasil. E-mail of first author: smam.prefpoa.com.br>.

References

Fernandes, A. 1998. Fitogeograla Brasileira. EditoraMultigraf.
Fortaleza. 340pp.
Filgueiras, T. S., Brochado, A. L., Nogueira, P. E. and Guala
II, G. T 1994. Caminhamento: Um m6todo expedite
para levantamentos floristicos qualitativos. Cadernos de
Geociencias, 12: 24 -43.
Hirsch, A., Landau, E. C., Tedeschi, A. C. de M. and
Meneghetti, J. 0. 1991. Estudo comparative das esp6cies
do genero Alouatta Lacep6de, 1799 (Plathyrrhini, Atelidae)
e sua distribuiao geogrofica na America do Sul. In: A
Primatologia no Brasil -3, A. B. Rylands and A. T. Bernardes
(eds.), pp.239-262. Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia,
Fundacao Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte.
Neville, M. K., Glander, K. E., Braza, F and Rylands,
A. B. 1988. The howling monkeys, genus Alouatta. In:
Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical Primates, Vol. 2, R. A.
Mittermeier, A. B. Rylands, A. F Coimbra-Filho and G. A.
B. da Fonseca (eds.), pp.349-453. World Wildlife Fund,
Washington, DC.


Rambo, B. 1956. A Fisionomia do Rio Grande do Sul. 3rd
edition. Ed. UNISINOS, Sao Leopoldo. 472pp.
Reitz, R., Klein, R. M. and Reis, A. 1988. Projeto Madeira
do Rio Grande do Sul. Companhia Rio-grandense de Artes
Graficas, Porto Alegre. 525pp.
Smith, J. D. 1970. The systematic status of the black
howler monkey, Alouatta pigra Lawrence. J Mammal. 51:
358-369.
Silva, F 1994. Mamiferos Silvestres do Rio Grande do Sul.
2nd edition. Fundado ZoobotAnica do Rio Grande do Sul,
Porto Alegre.
Villalba, J. S., Prigioni, C. M. and Sappa, A. C. 1995. Sobre
la possible presencia de Alouatta caraya en Uruguay. Neotrop.


Primates 3(4): 173-174.

Two TAXONOMIES OF THE NEW WORLD PRIMATES
- A COMPARISON OF RYLANDS METAL. (2000) AND
GROVES (2001)

Anthony B. Rylands

Two listings of the New World Primates were published
recently. The first by Rylands et al. (2000) arose from a
review of the species and subspecies during the workshop
"Primate Taxonomy for the New Millennium", organized
by the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group (PSG) at the
Disney Institute, Orlando, Florida, in February 2000. The
second was published by Colin P. Groves of the Australian
National University, Canberra, in his book Primate Taxonomy,
published in April 2001 by the Smithsonian Institution
Press, Washington, DC. Rylands etal. listed 110 species and
205 species and subspecies of New World primates. Groves
also listed 110 species, but only 177 species and subspecies.

In this note, I point out and comment on the (minor)
differences between these listings, the most significant
of which is in the names used for the families and
subfamilies. Rylands et al. opted for five families, using the
traditional names, as follows: Callitrichidae (the marmosets
and tamarins), Cebidae (capuchin monkeys and squirrel
monkeys), Aotidae (night monkeys), Pitheciidae (sakis,
uakaris and titi monkeys) and Atelidae (howling monkeys,
spider monkeys, muriquis, and woolly monkeys). Groves
followed a very similar arrangement, but defined the Cebidae
differently, with three subfamilies: the marmosets and
tamarins, the squirrel monkeys, and the capuchin monkeys
(as proposed by Rosenberger in 1981). However, regarding
the correct names of the family-groups, Groves, with the
International Code ofZoologicalNomenclature (2000) in hand,
winkled out some synonyms and has suggested changes in
some of the family and subfamily names (Table 1).

The first is his argument that the correct family-group
name for the marmosets and tamarins is not Callitrichidae
Thomas, 1903, but Hapalidae Gray 1821 (Hapalinae as
a subfamily of the Cebidae). I quote his reasoning here
verbatim (pp.126-127):






Neotropical Primates 9(3), December 2001


Table 1. Families and subfamilies of Platyrrhini according to
Groves (2001).
Family/Subfamily Genera
Cebidae Bonaparte, 1831
Hapalinae Gray, 1825 Cebuella, Mlico, Callithrix,
Callimico, Leontopithecus,
Saguinus
Chrysotrichinae Cabrera, 1900 Saimiri
Cebinae Bonaparte, 1831 Cebus
Nyctipithecidae Gray, 1870 Aotus
Pitheciidae Mivart, 1865
Pitheciinae Mivart, 1865 Pithecia, Cacajao,
Chiropotes
Callicebinae Pocock, 1925 Callicebus
Atelidae Gray, 1825
Atelinae Gray, 1825 Ateles, Lagothrix, Oreonax,
Brachyteles
Mycetinae Gray, 1825 Alouatta

"Callitrichinae Thomas, 1903, is a synonym. There are two
reasons why the name Callitrichinae (and its coordinate
Callitrichidae for those wishing to retain family-level status
for the marmosets and tamarins) cannot be used.

First: Priority in the family-group is accorded not to the
type genus but to the family-group name itself. The earliest
family-group name given to marmosets is Harpalidae [sic] by
Gray (1821), who misread Hapale Illiger, 1811, as Harpale.
The current (fourth) edition of the International Code of
Zoological Nomenclature (2000) states in Article 40:

(a) After 1960. When, after 1960, the generic name on
which a valid family-group is based on is rejected as a junior
synonym, that family-group name is to be replaced unless
the conditions of Subsection (i) apply.

(i) If the senior generic synonymy is itself the basis
of a family-group name, or if a reclassification also
involves other family group names, the Principle
of Priority applies to all the family group names
concerned.

(b) Before 1961. If a family group name has been replaced
before 1961 because of such synonymy, and the replacement
name has one general acceptance, it is to be maintained.

In this case Thomas (1903) discovered that the generic name
CallithrixErxleben, 1777, referred to marmosets, not to titis
as had been previously assumed, and took three actions: 1) he
replaced the commonly used name Hapale Illiger, 1811, with
Callithrix, 2) he replaced the family name Hapalidae with
Callithricidae (recte Callitrichidae), and 3) he gave the titis
a new generic name Callicebus. The first and third of these
actions were justified; the second, admittedly retroactively,
was not. But the Code must be followed. The provisions
of article 40(b) apply: the family-group name was replaced
before 1961, but the replacement name cannot be said
to have "won general acceptance," by virtue especially
of the continued use of Hapalidae in W. C. 0. Hill's
influential monograph series Primate: Comparative Anatomy
and Taxonomy.


Second: Because the name Callithrix was long used,
incorrectly, for the titis (as just discussed) family group
names for the marmoset/tamarin group were understandably
based on what was thought to be the correct name. Gray
(1821) misread the name as Callitrix and based the family
name Callitricidae on it. This might, at a pinch, be taken
as effectively a different name, but the same cannot be said
of Callitrichina Gray, 1825 (during the intervening four
years, he had corrected his misspelling). This means that
Callitrichinae/-idae Thomas 1903, for the marmosets and
tamarins is preoccupied by the same name of Gray, 1825,
for the titis.

The first point is difficult, but arguable. The second
point is fundamental, not arguable. The correct name
for the subfamily containing marmosets is therefore not
Callitrichinae Thomas, 1903, as listed by Simpson (1945, as
Callithricidae) or Napier and Napier (1967), or Hershkovitz
(1977)."

Groves also argued that: the subfamily name of the squirrel
monkeys, Saimiriinae Miller, 1924 (used by Hershkovitz,
1977) is a synonym of Chrysotrichinae Cabrera, 1900
(p. 156); the family-group name Aotidae/Aotinae Poche, 1908
(used by Hershkovitz, 1977 and Hill, 1960) is a synonym
of Nyctipithecidae Gray, 1870; and that the subfamily name
Alouattinae Elliot, 1904 (used by Hershkovitz, 1977 and
Hill, 1960) is a synonym of Mycetinae Gray, 1825. Groves
attributes the authorship of the family-group name Cebidae
to Bonaparte, 1831. The name was assigned to Swainson,
1835, by Hill (1960), but Groves argued that Bonaparte
clearly intended the name Cebina to be a family-group
suffix and is therefore the original author. Table 1 shows the
families/subfamily arrangement according to Groves (2001).

Regarding the list of species, those in the Callitrichidae/
Hapalinae, are identical except for the addition of three
marmosets by Rylands et al.: Mico saterei (Silva, Jr. and
Noronha, 1998), and Mico manicorensis and Mico acariensis,
both described (under the genus Callithrix) by Van Roosmalen
et al. (2000), the descriptions of which had not been
published when Groves' book was in press. Groves gave
subgeneric classifications to the marmosets, subgenus Mico
Lesson, 1840, for the Amazonian marmosets, and Callithrix
Erxleben, 1777, for the "Jacchus" group marmosets of eastern
and south-eastern Brazil. Rylands etal. went the whole hog in
assigning all the Amazonian marmosets to the genus Mico.

The genus Cebus presents some discrepancies in the
continued listing of numerous, often poorly defined,
subspecies by Rylands et al. In his research, however, Groves
whittled them down considerably. C. capucinus limitaneus
Hollister, 1914, C capucinus imitator Thomas, 1903, and
C capucinus curtus Bangs, 1905, listed by Rylands et al.,
are considered synonyms by Groves. They were listed by
Hershkovitz (1949) who, as pointed out by Groves, even
then doubted their validity, and Hernandez-Camacho
and Cooper (1976) also found that the pelage characters






Neotropical Primates 9(3), December 2001


used to distinguish them were too variable to allow for the
recognition of distinct subspecific forms.

Rylands et al. continued to follow Hershkovitz (1949) in
listing 11 poorly defined subspecies of Cebus albifrons, while
Groves reduced the number to six: C. albifrons albifrons
(Humboldt, 1812); C albifrons unicolor Spix, 1823; C


albifrons cuscinus Thomas, 1901, C. albifrons trinitatis Von
Pusch, 1941, C albifrons aequatorialis Allen, 1914, and C.
albifrons versicolor Pucheran, 1845 (see Table 2). Rylands et
al. did not list C albifrons unicolor on the advice of Thomas
Defler, whose investigations had led him to argue cogently
that it is a synonym of C albifrons albifrons (see Defler and
HernAndez-Camacho, in press). Rylands etal. also maintained


Table 2. A summary of the taxonomic differences between the listings of the Platyrrhini by Rylands etal. (2000) and Groves (2001).
Rylands et al. (2000) Groves (2001)
Mico saterei (Silva, Jr. & Noronha, 1998) Mentioned (p. 131), but description not published when Groves (2001)
was in press.
Micottermeieor& Risyl (Van Rodsmalen, Van Roosmalen, Description not published when Groves (2001) was in press.

Micttermeiesis (Rylan Roosmalen, Van Roosmalen, Description not published when Groves (2001) was in press.

Cebus capucinus capucinus (Linnaeus, 1758) Cebus capucinus monotypic
Cebus capucinus limitaneus Hollister, 1914 Synonym of Cebus capucinus
Cebus capucinus imitator Thomas, 1903 Synonym of Cebus capucinus
Cebus capucinus curtus Bangs, 1905 Synonym of Cebus capucinus
Synonym of C. albifrons albifrons (Humboldt, 1812) Cebusalbifrons unicolorSpix, 1823
(see Defier etal., in press)
Cebus albifrons cesarae Hershkovitz, 1949 Synonym of Cebus albifrons versicolor Pucheran, 1845
Cebus albifrons leucocephalus Gray, 1865 Synonym of Cebusalbifrons versicolorPucheran, 1845
Cebus albifrons yuracusHershkovitz, 1949 Synonym of Cebus albifrons cuscinus Thomas, 1901
Cebus albifrons adustus Hershkovitz, 1949 Synonym of Cebus albifrons versicolor Pucheran, 1845
Cebus albifrons malitiosus Elliot, 1909 Synonym of Cebus albifrons versicolor Pucheran, 1845
Cebus olivaceus olivaceus Schomburgk, 1848 Cebus olivaceus monotypic
Cebus olivaceus apiculatus Hershkovitz, 1949 Synonym of Cebus olivaceus
Cebus olivaceus brunneus Allen, 1914 Synonym of Cebus olivaceus
Cebus olivaceus castaneus I. Geoffroy, 1851 Synonym of Cebus olivaceus
Cebus olivaceus kaapori Queiroz, 1992 Listed as Cebus kaapori
SaimiriboliviensispluviaiisiL6nnberg, 1940 Synonym of Saimiri boliviensis boliviensis (I. Geoffroy & de Blainville, 1834)
Saimiriboliviensisjaburuensis L6nnberg, 1940 Synonym of Saimiri boliviensis boliviensis (I. Geoffroy & de Blainville, 1834)
Pithecia monachus napensisLonnberg, 1938 Not listed
Callicebus personatus (E. Geoffroy, 1812) Callicebus personatus with four subspecies
Callicebus nigrifrons (Spix, 1823) Subspecies of Callicebuspersonatus
Callicebus melanochir (Wied-Neuwied, 1820) Subspecies of Callicebus personatus
Callicebus barbarabrownae Hershkovitz, 1990 Subspecies of Callicebuspersonatus
Alouatta palliata palliata (Gray, 1849) Alouatta palliata monotypic
Alouatta palliata mexicana (Merriam 1902) Synonym of Alouatta paUllata
Alouatta palliata aequatorialis (Festa, 1903) Synonym of Alouatta paUllata
Alouatta coibensis coibensis Thomas, 1902 Alouatta coibensis monotypic
Alouatta coibensis trabeata Lawrence, 1933 Synonym of Alouatta coibensis
Alouatta seniculus ssp. (formerly straminea; see Rylands Alouatta macconnelli Elliot, 1910
and Brandon-Jones, 1998)
Alouatta seniculus amazonica Lonnberg, 1941 Synonym of Alouatta seniculusjuara Elliot 1910
Alouatta seniculus puruensisL6nnberg, 1941 Synonym of Alouatta seniculusjuara Elliot 1910
Alouatta seniculus insulanus Elliot, 1910 Synonym of Alouatta macconnelli
Alouatta belzebul belzebul (Linnaeus, 1766) Alouatta belzebul monotypic
Alouatta belzebul discolor (Spix, 1823) Synonym of Alouatta belzebul
Alouatta belzebul ululata Elliot, 1912 Synonym of Alouatta belzebul
Ateles hybridus hybridus (I. Geoffroy, 1829) Ateles hybrids monotypic
Ateles hybridus brunneus Gray, 1872 Synonym of Ateles hybridus
Ateles geoffroyi fusciceps Gray, 1866 Listed as Ateles fusciceps fusciceps Gray, 1866
Ateles geoftroyl rufiventris Allen, 1914 Listed as Ateles fusciceps rufiventris Allen, 1914
AtelesgeoffroyipanamensisKellogg & Goldman, 1944 Synonym of Atelesgeoffroyi ornatus Gray, 1870
Ateles geoffroyi azuerensis (Bole, 1937) Synonym of Atelesgeoffroyi ornatus Gray, 1870
Ateles geoffroyi frontatus (Gray, 1842) Synonym of Ateles geoffroyi geoffroyi Kuhl, 1820






Neotropical Primates 9(3), December 2001


the subspecies of Cebus olivaceus recognized by Hershkovitz
(1949) under the species name of nigrivittatus Wagner, 1848
(see Rylands, 1999). Groves placed them all as synonyms of
C. olivaceus. Rylands et al. listed the form kaapori Queiroz,
1992, as a subspecies of C olivaceus, whereas Groves (2001)
maintained it as a distinct species as described by the author.
Rylands et al. adopted Groves' taxonomy for the tufted
capuchin monkeys of the Cebus apella group.

The taxonomies of Saimiri are the same except that Rylands
et al. listed the two forms, pluvialis L6nnberg, 1940 and
jaburuensis L6nnberg, 1940, mentioned in a footnote by
Hershkovitz (1987). Groves listed them both as synonyms of
S. boliviensis boliviensis.

Rylands et al. followed Groves on the taxonomy of the
Pitheciidae except in giving all the Atlantic forest titis
the status of species, as recommended by Kobayashi and
Langguth (1999) in their description of Callicebus coimbrai.
Rylands et al. also listed a third subspecies of Pithecia
monachus. Based on his examination of specimens in the
British Museum (Natural History), Peter Grubb argued that
P monachus napensis Lonnberg, 1938, is a distinct and valid
subspecies (pers. comm., February, 2000).

The final two genera which present discrepancies are Alouatta
and Ateles. Groves did not recognize the subspecies of Alouatta
palliata, A. coibensis and A. belzebul listed by Rylands et al.
(see Table 2). Whereas Rylands et al., were not prepared
to designate a subspecific name to the Guianan red howler
(see Rylands and Brandon-Jones, 1998), Groves listed it
as Alouatta macconnelli Elliot 1910. Groves synonymized
Alouatta seniculus amazonica L6nnberg, 1941 and Alouatta
seniculus puruensis L6nnberg, 1941, with Alouatta seniculus
juara Elliot 1910, and the Trinidad howling monkey, Alouatta
seniculus insulanus Elliot, 1910 with A. macconnelli.

Rylands etal. followed Collins and Dubach (2000) in placing
the brown-headed spider monkey, and the Colombian black
spider monkey, as subspecies of A. geoffroyl A. geoffroyi
fusciceps Gray, 1866 and A. geoffroyi ruiventris Allen, 1914,
respectively, whereas Groves maintained them as subspecies of
A. fusciceps. Groves did not recognize Ateleshybridus brunneus
Gray, 1872, and also synonymized Atelesgeoffroyipanamensis
Kellogg and Goldman, 1944 and Ateles geoffroyi azuerensis
(Bole, 1937) with Ateles geoffroyi ornatus Gray, 1870. Lastly,
he considered Ateles geoffroyi frontatus (Gray, 1842) to be a
synonym of Atelesgeoffroyi geoffroyi Kuhl, 1820.

Anthony B. Rylands, Center for Applied Biodiversity
Science, Conservation International, 1919 M Street NW,
Washington, DC 20036, USA. E-mail: conservation.org>.

References

Collins, A. C. and Dubach, J. 2000. Phylogenetic relationships
of spider monkeys (Ateles) based on mitochondrial DNA
variation. Int. J Primatol. 21(3): 381-420.


Defler, T. R. and Hernandez-Camacho, J. I. In press. The true
identity and characteristics of Simia albifrons Humboldt,
1812: Description of neotype. Neotrop. Primates.
Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate Taxonomy. Smithsonian
Institution Press, Washington, DC.
Hernandez-Camacho, J. and Cooper, R. W. 1976. The non-
human primates of Colombia. In: Neotropical Primates. Field
Studies and Conservation, R. W. Thorington Jr. and P. G.
Heltne (eds.), pp.35-69. National Academy of Sciences,
Washington, DC.
Hershkovitz, P 1949. Mammals of northern Colombia.
Preliminary report No. 4: Monkeys (Primates), with
taxonomic revisions of some forms. Proc. U S. Nat. Mus.
98:323-427.
Hershkovitz, P. 1977. Living New WorldMonkeys (Platyrrhini)
with an Introduction to Primates, Vol. 1. Chicago University
Press, Chicago.
Hershkovitz, P 1987. Uacaries, New World monkeys of
the genus Cacajao (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): A preliminary
taxonomic review with the description of a new subspecies.
Am. J Primatol. 12: 1-53.
Hill, W. C. 0. 1957. Primates. Comparative Anatomy
and Taxonomy III Pithecoidea Platyrrhini (Families
HapalidaeandCallimiconidae). Edinburgh University Press,
Edinburgh.
Hill, W. C. 0. 1960. Primates. Comparative Anatomy and
Taxonomy IV Cebidae Part A. Edinburgh University Press,
Edinburgh.
Hill, W C. 0. 1962. Primates. Comparative Anatomy and
Taxonomy V Cebidae Part B. Edinburgh University Press,
Edinburgh.
Kobayashi, S. and Langguth, A. 1999. A new species of
titi monkey, Callicebus Thomas, from north-eastern Brazil
(Primates, Cebidae). Rev. Bras. Zool. 16(2): 531-551.
Rosenberger, A. L. 1981. Systematics: the higher taxa.
In: Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical Primates, Vol. 1,
A. E Coimbra-Filho and R. A. Mittermeier (eds.), pp.9-27.
Academia Brasileira de Ciincias, Rio de Janeiro.
Rylands, A. B. 1999. The name of the weeper or wedge-
capped capuchin in the Guianas. Neotrop. Primates 7(3):
89-91.
Rylands, A. B. and Brandon Jones, D. 1998. The scientific
nomenclature of the red howlers from the northeastern
Amazon in Brazil, Venezuela and the Guianas. Int. J.
Primatol. 19(5): 879-905.
Rylands, A. B., Schneider, H., Langguth, A., Mittermeier,
R. A., Groves, C. P. and Rodrfguez-Luna, E. 2000. An
assessment of the diversity of New World primates. Neotrop.
Primates 8(2): 61-93.
Silva Jr., J. S. and Noronha, M. de A. 1998. On a new species
of bare-eared marmoset, genus Callithrix Erxleben, 1777,
from central Amazonia, Brazil (Primates: Callitrichidae).
Goeldiana Zoologia (21): 1-28.
Van Roosmalen, M. G. M., Van Roosmalen, T., Mittermeier,
R. A. and Rylands, A. B. 2000. Two new species of
marmoset, genus CallithrixErxleben, 1777 (Callitrichidae,
Primates), from the Tapaj6s/Madeira interfluvium, south
central Amazonia, Brazil. Neotrop. Primates 8(1): 2-18.






Neotropical Primates 9(3), December 2001


JORGE IGNACIO HERNANDEZ-CAMACHO
JANUARY 17, 1935 SEPTEMBER 15, 2001

Jorge Ignacio Hernandez-
Camacho, "Mono Hernmndez,"
was a remarkable naturalist. His
4 complete dedication and his
genius allowed him to maintain
an encyclopedic knowledge of
many aspects of the paleontology,
taxonomy, ecology, and dis-
tributions of the Colombian
fauna and flora. He was a mentor
for an entire generation of
Colombian biologists, not to mention the many foreigners
who profited from information that he would always most
willingly provide.

I first heard of Mono in 1975 when Heliodoro Sanchez, then
of Parques Nacionales-INDERENA, suggested that I write
to him about a project I was proposing in the Serrania La
Macarena to study woolly monkeys. I was still finishing my
Ph.D. I knew nothing about woolly monkeys, and even
less about Colombia, but I did know what I was going
to do with the rest of my life, that is, dedicate myself to
the tropical forest and its conservation. Jorge Hernandez,
evidently understanding the passion I must have put into
the letter, answered me in a typewritten three-page missive.
I was not disappointed. The letter was a tour de force of
the status of the woolly monkey in Colombia up to that
point, filled with detailed facts of their natural history, and
providing such an extraordinary amount of information that
I was completely astonished that he should have taken so
much time to answer me in such depth. I began planning a
move to Colombia, using Mono's advice to get in touch with
the local Peace Corps program, through another Colombian
biologist, Ernesto Barriga, in charge at the time.

Because Jorge was advisor to so many people, he was not easy
to pin down to a meeting in Bogota, and my first attempts
involved days of waiting outside his office. In those days he
was head of terrestrial fauna at INDERENA, a government
natural resource agency that he had helped to organize and
which was the precursor to the present day Ministry of the
Environment. His days were always filled with people asking
his opinion, his advice, his help, and a young foreigner had to
wait. But our first meetings were like his letters, only better as
they ranged through many themes with inevitable taxonomic
stops along the way. Unfortunately American universities
prepare students very poorly in taxonomy, and in my early
Colombian days it was wholly alien to my interests. It must
have been difficult for him to talk to me about Colombian
geography, the basis for grasping the details of primate
distributions, since I knew so little then. I found that I
was ignorant of much, but Mono's extraordinary patience


and personal diplomacy meant that my understanding of the
many taxonomic problems grew painlessly, not only in my
area of primatology, but for other groups as well, and I began
to grasp the complexity of Colombian geography and species'
distributions, and the reasons why Colombia is considered
truly a "megadiverse" country. One of his insistent lessons was
that the study of Neotropical taxonomy was essential to our
understanding of the full extent of Neotropical biodiversity.
While helping me to prepare for my first field experience,
Jorge Hernandez was gently educating this new Ph.D. who
knew essentially nothing about Colombia and very little
about Colombian monkeys.

Usually a late office meeting with him ended with the
invitation "Vamos a tomar un traguito" ("let's go have a little
drink") and we would put our coats on and walk up to
one of his favorite watering holes to continue a conversation
that easily might have begun 2-3 hours before. In those
years, Mono's "after hours" spot was just a block up from
INDERENA, beside 26th Avenue, but after the place became
known to so many, I think he decided to change it a bit
to the north to the now (among the Mono's friends and
admirers) famous Casa Mendoza, his informal Bogota office
into the night. These meetings inevitably went on until
midnight when the place would attempt to close, not easy
for the owners, since their best client often ignored their
admonitions and continued to hold forth on some biological
topic that had been chosen for the night. The extended
conversations about the Colombian biota were usually in
the form of a monologue from Jorge, which in later years
I finally learned to write down, encouraged by him; since
normal person that I am, I could not hope to remember the
rich detail that he provided. This was the "University of the
Mono" and this was where I continued my education, right
up until he left us.

In later years he preferred to come to my Bogota apartment
for our meetings, but by then they required many books and
references and, at least talking about primates, I possessed
many of them. Always the meetings involved the ubiquitous
rum and coca-cola and voluminous clouds of cigarette smoke,
for Jorge was a chain smoker until the day he died, and a
meeting with the Mono would always last 4-6 hours. So
you had to have stamina. I usually did. You had to accept
the smoke and the late hours, and you had to drink rum
and coca-cola, because drinking beer that long just doesn't
work! There were times in our relationship when I could not
accept these terms, but I always weakened. The truth was, if
I wanted to enjoy his company I must also survive the smoke
and the booze.

Well, I learned to like the booze. I also got to the point where
it was worthwhile for Jorge to collaborate on some primate
papers, far too few for the time that we knew each other,
but by then I was spending most of my time in remote
corners of eastern Colombia and could not stay extended
periods in the city. A few years back, however, I realized that
I must concentrate on producing a few papers which we
had discussed, for his health was not so good, with so many






Neotropical Primates 9(3), December 2001


years of smoky meetings with Colombians and foreigners
and friends and I realized that he would probably not be with
us for too much longer. I am particularly relieved that we
both insisted on these projects, as they came to fruition just
before he left us and will form part of his legacy.

But research and writing papers were only a small part
of this great gentleman's repertoire. The present form and
content of Colombian National Parks is especially due
to his efforts. The complexity and comprehensiveness of
Colombian environmental legislation is in great part due
to him. The university degrees of many, many Colombians
have been successfully completed due to his often profound
intellectual support. The acceptance of the CITES treaty and
Colombia's international contribution during the early years
is mostly due to his efforts.

His inspiration touched many others besides myself. He was
one of the small circle of Colombian friends that I knew I
would lose touch with if I were to accept a tempting offer
in 1983 from Russell Mittermeier to work on Brachyteles in
Brazil. Even then, a consideration of what his professional
influence had meant to me was enough to make me realize
that I would continue to invest my future in this tragic yet
biologically fantastic country, Colombia. I owe him much,
both professionally and personally. I shall miss him dearly.

Thomas Defler, Instituto Amaz6nico de Investigaciones,
Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Apartado Akreo 215,
Leticia (Amazonas), Colombia.




JORGE IGNACIO HERNANDEZ-CAMACHO
ENERO 17 DE 1935 SEPTIEMBRE 15 DE 2001

In memorial

Jorge Ignacio HernAndez-Camacho, affectionately known as
"el Mono", was the true "Father of Colombian Primatology",
since it was under his leadership and advice that the first
studies were begun, and under his supervision and inspiration
that so many were carried out in subsequent years. His
first publication concerning this group of mammals was the
discovery of Goeldi's monkey, Callimico, in Colombia in
1966, but his most important and basic contribution was his
classic review of the status and distribution of Colombian
primates: J. Hernandez Camacho and R. W. Cooper 1976.
The nonhuman primates of Colombia, in NeotropicalPrimates:
Field Studies and Conservation, R. W. Thorington, Jr. and P.
G. Heltne (eds.), pp.35-69, National Academy of Sciences,
Washington, DC. During his life he was always interested in all
aspects relating to primatology, as much in terms of taxonomy
and systematics as from the viewpoint of the conservation and
sustainable-use of the rich Colombian primate fauna. A theme
of particular interest to him was biomedical research. I had the
opportunity to share his passion and co-author several papers
in various projects which we advanced together, especially


concerning the cotton-top tamarin, Saguinusoedipus, endemic
to the country.

Characterizing his contributions to primatology would be
incomplete without mentioning his role as maestro and
guide for innumerable Colombians and foreigners dedicated
to primates. His enormous knowledge and his holistic vision
of conservation problems were part of the justification for
pre-selection of the geographic areas which make up what is
today the national system of natural parks in Colombia.

It has been frequently recognized that his awesome capacity
to accumulate information and to comparatively analyze
it, helped to form the pillars of Colombian environmental
institutions. Also, it is important to recognize that the origins
of the legal structures and laws which are in force today and
the solidity of the National Code for Natural and Renewable
Resources and the Environment, including its various legal
decrees, are due to his genius and to his broad vision
and knowledge of national and international environmental
problems.

But more than all this, Jorge Ignacio HernAndez-Camacho
leaves us a legacy of professional honesty, personal decency
and love for nature which few people have left in this world. It
is certain that we have undoubtedly lost the "last Neotropical
naturalist" as he was once called by Phillip Hershkovitz,
but his recommendations, formed in the context of his
cultural heritage, his goodness and great selflessness, should
be examples to follow in order to secure a future for our
natural heritage.

Jos6 Vicente Rodriguez-Mahecha, Conservation Inter-
national, Carrera 13 # 71-41, Bogota, Colombia.


CONSERVATION INTERNATIONAL'S
AWARDED BRAZIL'S HIGHEST HONOR


PRESIDENT


In recognition of his years of
conservation work in Brazil, CI
President Russell Mittermeier

Order of the Southern Cross by
the Brazilian government. Dr.
Mittermeier received the award
on August 29 at the Brazilian
Ambassador's residence in
Washington, DC. The National
Order of the Southern Cross
was created in 1922 to recognize the merits of individuals
who have helped to strengthen Brazil's relations with the
international community. The award is the highest given to
a foreign national for service in Brazil.

For the past three decades, Mittermeier has been a leader
in promoting biodiversity conservation in Brazil and has
conducted numerous studies on primates and other fauna in






Neotropical Primates 9(3), December 2001


the country. During his time with the World Wildlife Fund
(1978-1989), he played a key role in putting Brazil's Atlantic
Forest, one of the planet's highest-priority hotspots, on the
international conservation agenda. He became well-known
throughout the country after, with Adelmar Coimbra-Filho
(then of the Rio de Janeiro Primate Center), successfully
mobilizing international support for the endangered lion
tamarins, and with Cl1io Valle (then Professor of Zoology
at the Federal University of Minas Gerais), creating similar
national and international attention for the muriquis;
campaigns that sparked a newfound pride in the country's
native animals. Mittermeier was also instrumental in the
creation of Conservation International-Brazil, which has
since become one of the country's leading conservation
advocates.

Patrick Johnston, Conservation International, 1919 M St.
NW, Suite 600, Washington, DC 20036, USA. E-mail:
.



PRIMIO VON MARTIUS 2001 CONCEDIDO AO
INSTITUTE FLORESTAL DE SAo PAULO

O Instituto Florestal de SAo Paulo teve o trabalho
"Geoprocessamento no Levantamento da Vegetacao e no
Suporte as Unidades de Conservacao" premiado pela
Camara de Comercio e Indtstria Brasil-Alemanha, na
categoriaTecnologia do Premio Ambientalvon Martius-2001,
patrocinado pelas empresas Henkel S/A, Deutsche Bank e
TetraPak S/A. Concorreramao referido premio 191 trabalhos,
sendo que foram premiados nove; tres para cada uma das
categories (humanidade, natureza e tecnologia). 0 trabalho
conduzido pelo Instituto Florestal relata as ages referentes
ao Levantamento da Vegeta4ao Natural, com abrangencia
estadual e aquelas referentes a estruturagao de base digital
das Unidades de Conservagao. Sao parceiros deste trabalho
a Universidade de Campinas (UNICAMP) e a Escola
Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queir6z" da Universidade
de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba. Na parte referente ao
reflorestamento, houve envolvimento das empresas do setor
de celulose, papel e chapas, com participaoao direta da
Sociedade Brasileira de Silvicultura (SBS). Fonte: Instituto
Florestal, 10 August 2001.



ECOLOGIA AUSTRAL

Ecologia Austral is the scientific journal of the Argentine
Ecological Society. It publishes original scientific articles on
any area of the environmental sciences. Articles may be (1)
Original research: results of field, experimental or theoretical
research, (2) Reviews: papers reviewing the present knowledge
of a topic, and (3) Short communications: short papers
reporting on a minor work representing an improvement in
general knowledge or a methodological development. Articles
are peer reviewed by at least two referees. Manuscripts are


accepted in Spanish, English or Portuguese. The Editor-in-
Chief is seeking the help of reviewers in any of the three
languages of the journal. To this end, a data base is being
developed (about 120 reviewers already entered), in order to
have a wide range of expertise available, and also to avoid
requesting reviews from the same expert too frequently.

For those interested in volunteering for the peer review
process please send a message to: Dr. Jorge Rabinovich,
Editor, Ecologia Austral, e-mail: .
From: NeoCons, 1(2), April 2001, Neotropical Conservation
Biology Bulletin: http://www.conservationbiology.org/SCB/
Publications/NeoCons/>.



QUATORZE RESERVASPARTICULARES (RPPNs) NOVAS
NO BRASEL

O president do Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente
e dos Recursos Naturais Renovaveis (Ibama), Hamilton
Casara, assinou portarias no dia 16 de outubro de 2001,
reconhecendo mais 14 propriedades privadas como Reservas
Particulares do Patrimonio Natural (RPPNs), em nove
estados: Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Ceara, Rondonia, Bahia,
MaranhAo, Santa Catarina, Minas Gerais, e Mato Grosso do
Sul. Ao transformar suas terras em RPPNs os proprietArios
terao varios beneffcios: incentives fiscais e assessoria t6cnica do
Ibama, podendo utiliza-las apenas para projetos ambientais,
como ecoturismo e educapao ambiental, desde que nao
alterem sua biodiversidade original.

Corn estas, sao 353 RPPNs no Brasil, protegendo
380.660,327 ha dos principals biomas. A maior, protege
87 mil hectares do Pantanal em Mato Grosso; e, a menor,
apenas 1 ha de cerrado, no Distrito Federal. As savanas da
regiao Centro-Oeste sao as mais bem protegidas por RPPNs:
sao 64, cobrindo 215,385 ha; 33 protegem 120,274 ha de
Floresta Amazonica, na regiao Norte; 82 estao no nordeste
protegendo 88,657 ha de Caatinga; 117 ficam no Sudeste
protegendo 39,280 ha de Mata Atlantica e da Zona Costeira;
e, 44 estAo no sul protegendo 15,614 ha de Mata Atlantica,
de Campos Sulinos, e, de Costa.

A maior das novas RPPNs 6 em Rondonia: 0 Parque Natural
Leonildo Ferreira, com 981 ha de Floresta Amazonica
no municfpio de Pimenta Bueno. A menor 6 o Parque
Arqueol6gico da Serra do Santo Antonio, corn apenas 9 ha
de Mata Atlantica no municfpio de Andrelandia. A segunda
maior, 6 em Mato Grosso do Sul. A Fazenda Floresta Negra
protegera 971 ha de Floresta Amaz6nica no municfpio de
Sete Quedas. As cinco novas RPPNs reconhecidas em Sao
Paulo protegerao 803,63 ha de Mata Atlantica. Incluem:
Palmira, com 242 ha no municfpio de Serra Azul; Meambros
II, com 145,20 ha, e Meambros III, com 72,60 ha, no
municfpio de Ibitna; Fazenda Serrinha, com 117,30 ha, no
municfpio de Braganga Paulista; e, Meambros, com 11,30 ha
no municipio de Ibidna. Por ordem de abrangencia, o Ibama
reconheceu como RRPNs: no Ceara (duas) totalizando






Neotropical Primates 9(3), December 2001


704,17 ha de Caatinga: Monte Alegre, com 263,17 ha
no municipio de Quixeramobim, com 441 ha; em Santa
Catarina, a Chacar Edith, corn 415,79 ha de Mata Atlaintica,
no municfpio de Brusque; no Rio de Janeiro, a Reserva
Ecol6gica Floresta Alta, com 380,90 ha de Mata Atlantica
no municfpio de Silva Jardim; no Maranhao, no municfpio
de Rosario, protegera 349 ha de Floresta Amazonica; na
Bahia, Pedra do Sabia, com 22 ha de Mata Atlintica no
municipio de Itacare; e, em Minas Gerais, a Reserva tern
apenas 9 ha de Mata Atlantica e de Cerrado no municipio
de Andrelandia.

Para obter o reconhecimento do Ibama como RPPN o
proprietArio precisa provar que o im6vel 6 important para a
conservacao da biodiversidade de determinado bioma (flora
e fauna), e/ou possui belezas cenicas. Criado em 1990, o
program RPPN 6 important para a conservagao da natureza
porque: contribui para uma rdpida ampliacao das areas
protegidas do pafs; atua como zonas tampao no entorno dos
parque e reserves, formando corredores ecol6gicos; apresenta
indices altamente positives na relacao custo/beneffcio; 6
facilmente regulamentada; permit a participacao da iniciativa
privada no esforgo national de conservagao; e, contribui para
a conservagao da biodiversidade dos biomas brasileiros.

Como beneffcios, os proprietarios de RPPNs asseguram:
preservagio do direito de propriedade; isengio do Imposto
sobre a Propriedade Territorial Rural (ITR) transformada
em RRPN; prioridades nas anAlises dos projetos pelo
Fundo Nacional do Meio Ambiente e na concessao de
cr6dito agricola junto as instituig6es oficiais; permissao para
implantar atividades de recreagao, lazer, educacao ambiental,
pesquisa, cultural, e ecoturismo na area reconhecida pelo
Ibama; e, cooperacAo corn entidades privadas e publicas na
protegao da RPPN.




DEVELOPMENTS IN PRIMATOLOGY: PROGRESS AND
PROSPECTS

Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers is pleased to introduce
Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects (formerly
Advances in Primatology), a new series under the direction
of the Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of
Primatology Dr. Russell H. Tuttle, University of Chicago,
Chicago, Illinois.

This peer-reviewed book series will meld the facts of
organic diversity with the continuity of the evolutionary
process. The volumes in this series will exemplify the
diversity of theoretical perspectives and methodological
approaches currently employed by primatologists and
physical anthropologists. Specific coverage includes: primate
behavior in natural habitats and captive settings; primate
ecology and conservation; functional morphology and
developmental biology of primates; primate systematics;
genetic and phenotypic differences among living primates;
and paleoprimatology.


Volume authors will be invited to participate based on their
expertise in a given area and overall approval by the series
editor. Volume authors and editors will receive generous
royalties, complimentary copies and full marketing and
editorial support. Contributors will receive complimentary
copies as opposed to royalties. All manuscripts will be "typeset
from disk" for the convenience of the author/editor. Volumes
will be approximately 300 printed pages (all page lengths are
negotiable) in a 6 1/2 x 9 7/8 format. For further information
on how to contribute an authored or edited volume to this
series please contact Andrea Macaluso at (212) 620-8007 or
via e-mail at .

Russell H. Tuttle, Department of Anthropology, The
University of Chicago, 1126 East 59th Street, Chicago,
Illinois 60637, USA.




RPPN FELICIANO MIGUEL ABDAIA A PROTECTED
AREA FOR THE NORTHERN MURIQUI

The Atlantic Forest region of Brazil is one of the richest
and most diverse forest systems in the world; it is also
one of the most threatened, ranking among the five top
biodiversity hotspots on Earth. Although it once covered
some 1.2 million km2, it has been reduced to about 7% of
its original extent. Needless to say, many of the animals and
plants living in this region are severely threatened, and a large
number are now at risk of extinction.

Primates have long been the most important symbols for the
Atlantic Forest, and their situation is indicative of what is
happening to the region as a whole. Some 24 species and
subspecies are found in the Atlantic Forest, many of them are
now considered endangered or critically endangered. One,
the northern muriqui, Brachyteles hypoxanthus, the largest
mammal endemic to Brazil and a species of great charm and
appeal, ranks high on the list of most endangered primates,
and has become a flagship species of enormous importance
to Brazil. Only about 300 individuals remain in the wild,
and half of those occur in a single forest, in the region of
Caratinga, in the state of Minas Gerais.

Like the northern muriquis, Caratinga is very special.
The area had been effectively protected by its owner, the
late Senhor Feliciano Miguel Abdala, since the 1950's. A
successful coffee farmer, Sr. Feliciano set aside about 2200
acres of relatively untouched Atlantic rainforest at the Montes
Claros farm in the mountainous reaches of the state of Minas
Gerais in southeastern Brazil to provide a sanctuary for the
fauna and flora for no other reason than that he thought
it was a good idea and the right thing to do. Abdala was
especially fond of the muriqui. For more than five decades,
he protected the forest at Caratinga, while his neighbors
dismissed him as a quack for "squandering" good farmland.

When Abdala reluctantly allowed researchers to study his
farm, Brazilian conservation pioneer, Alvaro Aguirre, visited






Neotropical Primates 9(3), December 2001


the site during a region-wide survey in the late 1960's,
introducing Caratinga's forest to the scientific community.
However, it received little attention, buried as it was in a list
of several areas still believed to harbor muriquis at the time.
By the mid-1970's, the situation of the Atlantic Forest had
deteriorated to such an extent that the muriqui was thought
to be extinct in the state.

In 1976, the Caratinga population was rediscovered by
Professor Celio Valle of the Federal University of Minas
Gerais. The first ever field study of Brachyteles in the wild,
was carried out there in 1977, by the Japanese primatologist
Akisato Nishimura. In late 1979, Russell Mittermeier, Celio
Valle and Adelmar F Coimbra Filho, the pioneer of Brazilian
primatology, visited Caratinga while surveying for primates
in the protected areas of the Atlantic Forest. There, they
found muriquis, as well as healthy populations of three
other primate species: the brown howler monkey (Alouatta
guariba), the tufted capuchin (Cebus nigritus), and the buff-
headed marmoset (Callithrix fIaviceps) never recorded in
Minas Gerais prior to this visit. Indeed, after a decade of
primate survey work that ended in the late 1980's, Caratinga
was seen as one of the single most important sites for primate
conservation in the entire Atlantic Forest and was made the
focus of an education campaign for Atlantic Forest primates,
using the muriqui as the obvious flagship species. Brazilian
and foreign researchers were enlisted to come and work at
Caratinga, in an attempt to stimulate further research on its
unique primate community.

Karen Strier began her groundbreaking muriqui research in
1982, and her 20-year study has now become one of the
classics of primatology. Many other researchers have also
worked there, including leaders in Brazilian conservation,
such as Gustavo Fonseca and S6rgio Mendes. These studies
convinced Abdala of the scientific importance of Caratinga,
and his mistrust gave way to enthusiastic support. He
responded by creating a field laboratory which, in 1983,
became the Biological Research Station at Caratinga. Since
then the Caratinga Biological Station has proven to be one
of the most productive sites for primate research in all South
America, resulting in more than 50 scientific publications
by national and international researchers. In addition, a
small-scale visitor program has been introduced, encouraging
ecotourism, and a small tree nursery has been established
for the purposes of reforestation and habitat enrichment. An
environmental education and awareness program has also
been started.

For the past 18 years, Eduardo Marcelino Veado, current
director of tha Caratinga Biological Station and Vice-
President of the local NGO, Associacao Pr6 -Estacao Biol6gica
de Caratinga, has managed these activities at the Station. He
has been working closely with the Abdala family to ensure
permanent protection of the Montes Claros Farm. After Sr.
Abdala's death last year (June 1, 2000), his family decided
to follow his wishes for continued protection of the forest,
and agreed to the creation of an official private reserve
under Brazilian law, to help preserve the muriquis, together


with the black-capped capuchin, brown howler monkey and
buffy-headed marmoset, the latter two currently listed by the
IUCN as Vulnerable and Endangered, respectively. Caratinga
is also home to a diverse fauna, including approximately 217
species of birds, 45 species of mammals and 16 species of
amphibians.

On the 3' September, 2001, the President of the Brazilian
Institute for the Environment (Instituto Brasileiro do Meio
Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renovaveis IBAMA) of
the Ministry of the Environment, signed Decree 116/2001
declaring the Fazenda Montes Claros forests a Private Natural
Heritage Reserve (Reserva Particular de Patrimdrio Natural
- RPPV). The private reserve, with 957 ha (or 2,365 acres
- equivalent to three times the size of New York's Central
Park), has been named "RPPN Feliciano Miguel Abdala", in
tribute to the man who, nearly 60 years ago, decided to save
this valuable legacy of our forest heritage.

On September 24, 2001, during a party in the town of
Caratinga to celebrate the creation of the Reserve, Federal
authorities presented the town with the Zero issue of a
Federal Lottery ticket bearing the Muriqui as its symbol. The
lottery ticket illustrated with the muriqui reached all corners
of Brazil.

Maria In6s Castro, Brazil Regional Program, Conservation
International, 1919 M Street NW, Suite 600, Washington,
DC 20036, USA. E-mail: .



VERSION 2.0 OF RAMAS RED LIST SOFTWARE
AVAILABLE

Version 2.0 of the RAMAS software used for assessing the
conservation status of species for possible inclusion in the
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, is now available. The
software incorporates the revised Red List Categories (2000)
(see below). To purchase a copy, please contact Isabelle
Weber, IUCN/SSC, Rue Mauverney 28 CH-1196 Gland,
Switzerland, Fax: +41-22-9990015; e-mail:
or Applied Biomathematics, 100 North Country Road,
Setauket, NY 11733, USA, Fax: +1 516-751-3435. Single-
user and site-licensed copies of the software are priced
US$295 and US$445 respectively. From: IUCN Species
Survival Commission (SSC) E-Bulletin May 2001. Anna
Knee, Communications Officer SSC/IUCN



REVISED RED LIST CRITERIA

The new improved categories and criteria used for listing
plants and animals on the IUCN Red List of Threatened
Species are now available after a four-year review which
was called for by IUCN members. The review, coordinated
by SSC, involving broad consultation with users and
organizations from around the world, has produced a clearer,






Neotropical Primates 9(3), December 2001


more open, and easy-to-use system for assessing species.
With particular attention paid to marine species, harvested
species, and population fluctuations, the review has refined
the effectiveness of the Red List categories and criteria
as indicators of extinction risk. See themes/ssc/redlists/RLcategories2000. html> for more details.
From: IUCN Species Survival Commission (SSC) E Bulletin
- March 2001. Anna Knee, Communications Officer SSC/
IUCN



A CD-RoM OF WILDLIFE SOUNDS IN THE ATLANTIC
FOREST

With support from the Margot Marsh Biodiversity
Foundation and Conservation International, the Caratinga
Biological Station produced 3,000 CDs (from EarthEar) with
the soundscapes of the Fazenda Montes Claros forest, now
the "RPPN Feliciano Miguel Abdala" in Minas Gerais, Brazil.
The "Caratinga" CD, produced pro-bono by Douglas Quin,
presents a day in Brazil's disappearing Atlantic rainforest,
starting with a stream and birds in the early morning,
followed by the sounds of howler (Alouatta guariba) and
capuchin monkeys (Cebus nigritus). Marmosets, Callithrix
flaviceps, call after their midday rest, and muriquis, Brachyteles
hypoxanthus- stars of this CD are recorded calling, moving
and feeding in trees near the biological station. The day
proceeds with an afternoon storm and closes with the sound
of frogs in the forest. The CD includes a 20-page booklet,
beautifully illustrated by Stephen Nash (State University
of New York Stony Brook). with detailed track notes
and essays in English and Portuguese. It will be used
to promote the conservation of Caratinga's forest at various
levels, from raising awareness in Caratinga schools and
other local community organizations, to introducing these
remarkable soundscapes to the general public in Brazil
and worldwide. Proceeds from the sale of the CD go to
support the conservation efforts of the Biological Station at
Caratinga. See http://www.dqmedia.com/caratinga/booklet
.pdf; ;
.

Maria Inas Castro, Brazil Regional Program, Conservation
International, 1919 M Street NW, Suite 600, Washington,
DC 20036, USA. E-mail: .



PRIMATELIT Now AVAILABLE FOR SEARCHING

The Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center is pleased
to announce that PrimateLit, the primary database for
searching the literature of primatology, is now available in
a new web format. The database includes over 170,000
citations and covers the literature from 1940 to date. Indexed
by the Primate Information Center in Seattle and managed
by the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center in
Madison, PrimateLit is being released in "test" mode. We


would very much appreciate feedback from members of
Primate-Science comments and suggestions on how it can
be modified and improved to meet your needs. Current
Primate References, formerly a print only publication, has
been recreated in the web environment to afford access to the
most recent literature. In this release the default is set at six
months. We will be gradually phasing in 1, 2 and 3 month
options.

The National Center for Research Resources is supporting
this service without fees or passwords for everyone in the
international scientific community who needs access to the
nonhuman primate research literature. Future enhancements
in development include: tailored display and print options;
enhanced navigational features and search functions; and
access to the PrimateLit Thesaurus of index terms.

Special thanks go to Nolan Pope, Sue Dentinger, Mark
Foster and Rose Smith of the University of Wisconsin-
Madison Libraries who have worked with Jackie Pritchard
and Chico Otsuka-Gooding of the Primate Information
Center to oversee the migration of PrimateLit to Madison
and to deal with the countless details that attend remounting
a large database. Please take a critical look we need
your feedback. Send your comments to me or Jackie
Pritchard, PIC Manager, e-mail: .
Supported through NCRR Grant RR15311, Coordinated
Information Services to Support Primate Research. URL:
.

Larry Jacobsen, Director, WRPRC Library and Information
Service, Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center,
University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1220 Capitol Court,
Madison, WI 53715-1299, USA. E-mail: primate.wisc.edu>.



PRESIDENT DA SPVS GANHA PREMIO
INTERNATIONAL

O president da SPVS Sociedade de
Pesquisa em Vida Selvagem, Clovis Ricardo
Schrappe Borges, recebeu o premio 2001
World Climate Technology and Leadership Award, que 6
concedido anualmente pela AlE Agencia Internacional de
Energia atrav6s do program ITC Iniciativa pela Tecnologia
Climatica, para individuos e organizac6es que alcancaram
avancos no uso de tecnologias que nao sejam nocivas ao clima.
A SPVS tem sede em Curitiba, Parana, e atua na protecao
de florestas brasileiras. A organizagao 6 pioneira em projetos
de seqtlestro de carbon no pais, atrav6s do program de
Agao Contra o Aquecimento Global, que pretend retirar da
atmosfera, em 40 anos, 2,5 milh6es de toneladas de carbon,
atrav6s de reflorestamento e desenvolvimento sustentado
no litoral do ParanA. Muito important, tamb6m tem sido
as ag6es da SPVS em favor da preservacao das florestas e
manguezais da regiao de Guaraquegaba, cubrindo a area onde
ocorre o mico-leao-de-cara-preta, Leontopithecus caissara. A






Neotropical Primates 9(3), December 2001


cerim6nia ocorreu no dia 6 de novembro no Marrocos,
durante a VII Conferencia das Partes da Convengao-Quadro
da Na6es Unidas sobre Mudanga do Clima (COP-7),
principal f6rum da ONU sobre mudanqa climatica.




PRIMATE BEHAVIOR AND ECOLOGY FIELD COURSE
POSITION AVAILABLE

El Zota Biological Field Station is offering a field course
in primate behavior and ecology taught at a new field site
in northeastern Costa Rica. The Field Station is home to
howler monkeys, capuchins, and spider monkeys, as well as
endangered fauna such as jaguars and tapir. Students attend
nightly lectures, learn various methods of field techniques
used for the study of primate behavior and ecology, and
conduct their own research project on one of the three
primate species at El Zota.

This course is included in the curriculum at Iowa State
University and is listed as Anthropology 445/545. Students
receive 4 credits for the course, but arrangements can be
made to receive 6 credits with the addition of 2 credits
of independent study. This would entail the inclusion of
additional library research and writing as well as other
requirements. Students are not required to enroll at Iowa
State University in order to take the course. Students should
have had a college-level course in basic Biology, Ecology, or
Anthropology and require a health check-up and medical
insurance before they are accepted into the course.

The cost of the course is approximately $1350. Support
provided for internship/volunteer positions (travel, meals,
lodging): A limited number of internships are available, but
students are required to be enrolled at an El Zota course in
order to be eligible. The Course will be taught from July 15
through August 11, 2002. Application Deadline: April 2002.

Other courses, such as Tropical Herpetology are also taught
at El Zota and students are also given the option of traveling
to other areas of Costa Rica during a short mid-course trip.
El Zota is sponsored by the non-profit organization DANTA:
Association for Conservation of the Tropics, which organizes
and accounts for course fees students pay to the station.

For further information contact: Jill D. Pruetz, Department
of Anthropology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011,
USA, Tel: (515) 294-5150, e-mail: .




FUNDACION ECOLOMBIA

Colombia is rich in plant and animal species, a number
of which are smuggled illegally out of the country every
day. Some zoos in Colombia serve as quarantine and
holding stations for wildlife confiscated by the environmental
authorities but, due to the high number of seizures,


programs and centers for rehabilitation, reproduction and
reintroduction are needed. Fundaci6n Ecolombia is a private
non-profit institution created in 1999 to promote sustainable
economic alternatives to illegal wildlife traffic of fauna and
flora, specifically for the communities that live off this
activity. Its goals also include, promoting and managing
rehabilitation and reproduction centers for native wildlife
particularly for those species at risk of extinction and
promoting educational programs that prevent the hunting,
capture and trade of wildlife.

Fundaci6n Ecolombia has recently leased 83 ha from the
government to establish a Rehabilitation Center. Dry forest
covers 46 ha, and the rest is cattle pasture which is currently
being restored with native species, permitting the natural
regeneration of the area. Eventually a further 100 ha adjacent
to the land will be integrated into the program. The project
is located in the town of La Pintada, an area heavily hunted
in the past. Current projects include: The rehabilitation and
reintroduction of confiscated primates presently caged in
the Santa F6 Zoo, 25 red howlers (Alouatta seniculus), 12
black spider monkeys (Ateles fusciceps) and 18 cotton-top
tamarins (Saguinus oedipus); development of captive breeding
programs for the blue-billed curassow (Crax alberti) and the
green macaw (Ara militaris), for later reintroduction in their
original habitats; development of conservation and population
studies for the white-footed tamarin (Saguinusleucopus); and
implementation of handicraft and environmental education
programs in communities neighboring the conservation
area.

For more information contact: Fundaci6n Ecolombia,
A.A. 75972, Medellin, Colombia, Tel: 57 4 281 40
97, e-mail: . Website:
.




MASTERS COURSE IN PRIMATE CONSERVATION

The Oxford Brookes University in Oxford, United Kingdom,
is offering a masters course in primate conservation aimed
at providing a high quality research qualification relevant to
the careers of anthropologists, conservation biologists and
educators. The course term is from October 2002-September
2003. Each student will be encouraged to build on their
own strengths and interests through a choice of a practical
assignment and co-authorship of a relevant chapter of the
housejournal. Eight major themes are covered in the course:
primate diversity and biogeography, socio-political aspects
of conservation, environmental education, molecular and
population genetics, fieldwork training and methods, captive
management, museum studies, habitat protection and the
future of rainforests. Qualifications include: Honors degree
in anthropology, biology or acceptable related discipline.
Undergraduate students will be considered if they can
demonstrate ability to work at an advanced level. Costs
for the course: 7350 for full time overseas students,
2988 for full time EU students and 1494 for part time






132 Neotropical Primates 9(3), December 2001


EU students. The application deadline is May 31, 2002.
Applications are available at: pgcourses/application/down.html>. For further information
contact: Simon Bearder, School of Social Sciences and
Law, Gypsy Lane Campus, Oxford, United Kingdom OX3
OBP, Tel: 01865 483 760, Fax: 01865 483 937, e-mail:
.








AMERICAN SOCIETY OFPRIMATOLOGISTS 25THANNUAL
MEETING

The ASP will host its 25t annual meeting, 1-4 June, 2002,
in Oklahoma City, OK. The meeting will be co-hosted by the
University of Oklahoma and the Oklahoma City Zoo. Prior
to the ASP meeting, the zoo will host meetings of several
of the American Zoological Association's Primate Taxon
Advisory Groups (TAGs), and the Bushmeat Crisis Task
Force will conduct a special primate bushmeat awareness
session. A schedule of events includes: 28-31 May, Prosimian,
New World Monkey and Old World Monkey TAG meetings;
1 June (am), Bushmeat Crisis Task Force Presentation; 1 June
(pm), ASP welcome reception; 2-4 June, American Society
of Primatologists' general sessions and poster presentations;
4 June (pm), ASP closing banquet; 5- 6 June, ASP Education
Committee's teachers workshop.

For program committee contact: Tammie Bettinger, Chair,
ASP Program Committee, Zoo Atlanta, 800 Cherokee
Avenue SE, Atlanta, Georgia 30315, USA, e-mail:
. For local arrangements contact:
Janette Wallis, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral
Sciences, University of Oklahoma, HSC, P.O. Box 26901,
Oklahoma City, OK, 73190, USA, e-mail: wallis@ouhsc.edu>.



2002 ASP CALL FOR AWARD NOMINATIONS AND
GRANT APPLICATIONS

The American Society of Primatologists is now seeking
nominations for Conservation Awards and Grants to
recognize colleagues and students working on conservation
related issues. The awards and grants include: Subscription
Award, Conservation Award and Conservation Small Grants.
All nominations must be submitted by 19 April, 2002 to:
the ASP Conservation Committee Chair: Randall C. Kyes,
Regional Primate Research Center, University of Washington,
Box 357330, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.

The Subscription Award gives the American Journal of
Primatology to individuals in habitat countries, usually for
a five-year period. Preference is given to those who will


make the journal available for other students or colleagues
to use. Recipients are requested to submit a brief report
every two years summarizing their use of the journal. A
nominating letter should describe the nominee's credentials,
his/her primate related activities, and should explain why the
nominee deserves to receive priority consideration.

The Conservation Award provides $750 of financial support
to students from habitat countries that demonstrate potential
for making significant and continuing contributions to
primate conservation. Eligible candidates include students,
researchers and educators from habitat countries who have
not been out of university for more than five years.
Nominators should provide the name, title and full mailing
address of the nominee, along with a statement about
the nominee's qualifications and a copy of the nominee's
curriculum vitae. Supporting letters from other colleagues
may be included.

Conservation Small Grants are solicited for conservation
research or related projects, including conservation education.
Small grants are given in amounts up to $1500. Grant
applications can be obtained from the ASP Conservation
Committee Chair Randall C. Kyes, Regional Primate
Research Center, University of Washington, Box 357330,
Seattle, WA 98195, USA, or from the ASP web site at:
. Recipients of grants must submit a brief
single-spaced 1-page report for publication in the ASP
Bulletin within six months of completion of the project.



AMERICAN SOCIETY OF PRIMATOLOGISTS' BOOK
SERIES, SPECIAL TOPICS IN PRIMATOLOGY

Volume 2 in the American Society of Primatologists'
book series, Special Topics in Primatology, Editor Janette
Wallis, has been published. The Care and Management of
Captive Chimpanzees was edited by Linda Brent, 2001.
ISBN 0-9658301-1-X (paperback). Price: $25.00 + shipping
(US$4.00, outside of US $9.00, priority mail). The
publication is a valuable resource for zoos, laboratories and
sanctuaries. It covers topics such as health care, contraceptives,
regulations, training, and forming and managing social
groups. Chapters include: Foreword E B. M. de Waal;
Preface L. Brent; A brief history of captive chimpanzees
in the United States L. Brent; What does a chimpanzee
need? Using behavior to guide the care and management of
captive populations J. D. E. Pruetz & W. C. McGrew;
Chimpanzee facility design J. C. Coe, R. Fulk & L. Brent;
Chimpanzee medicine and health care program D. R.
Lee & F. A. Guhad; Reproductive management of captive
chimpanzees: Contraceptive decisions T. L. Bettinger &
K. E. DeMatteo; Behavior and environmental enrichment
of individually housed chimpanzees L. Brent; Captive
chimpanzee social group formation J. Fritz & S. Howell;
Social management of captive chimpanzees M. A.
Bloomsmith & K. C. Baker; Training and cooperative
behaviors and enrichment G. Laule & M. Whittaker;






Neotropical Primates 9(3), December 2001


How much will it cost to keep our chimpanzees?- B. Dyke;
Laws, policies, and guidelines on the care and use of
captive chimpanzees in the United States S. W. Blangero &
J. L. Vandeberg. Available from: Steve Schapiro, ASP
Treasurer, American Society of Primatologists, UTMD
Anderson Science Park, Rt 2, Box 151-B1 Bastrop, TX
78602, USA, Tel: (512)-321-3991, Fax: (512)-332-5208,
e-mail: . Payment must be in US
funds and checks should be made payable to "American
Society of Primatologists". All profits from the sale of the
book will go to the American Society of Primatologists'
Conservation Fund.



ASP CALL FOR AWARD NOMINATIONS

The awards and recognition committee of the American
Society of Primatologists encourages members to nominate
fellow primatologists for The Distinguished Service Award
and The Senior Research Award. Nominations must be
received by 15 March, 2002. For further information
please see the ASP web site: or
contact: Gabriele R. Lubach, Chair, Awards and Recognition
Committee, Harlow Primate Laboratory, University of
Wisconsin, 22 North Charter St., Madison, WI 52715,
USA, Tel: (608) 263-3533, Fax: (608) 262-6020, e-mail:
.



ASP EDUCATION COMMITTEE HONORS STUDENTS

At the 2001 American Society
of Primatologists meeting held in
Savannah, Georgia, the Education
Committee honored three student
presentations. This year a team of
judges including, Sian Evans, Sue
Howell, Nancy Klepper-Kilgore,
Lynne Miller, Leanne Nash, Jaine
Corina Ross Perlman and Coleen Schaffner,
reviewed 22 papers and 17 posters.
The three winning presentations
were: Outstanding Paper Pre-
sentation: A concept of value in
brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus
apella), by Sarah Brosan and
Frans de Waal; Outstanding Poster
Presentation: Genetic mosaics
across tissues in callitrichids
(Callithrixkuhlii, black tufted ear
marmosets), by Corina Ross,
G. Orti and J. A. French; and
Sarah Brosnan Honorable Mention for an
Outstanding Presentation: Immi-
gration patterns and group stability in wild golden-headed
lion tamarins in southern Bahia, Brazil, by Becky Raboy and
James Dietz. Congratulations to the winners!


NOVA REVISTA CIENTIFICA DA UNIVERSIDADE
FEDERAL DE MINAS GERAIS, BELO HORIZONTE,
BRASIL

A Lundiana esta sendo relangada, nao como uma revista de
zoologia, mas como uma revista de Biodiversidade, propondo-
se a publicar artigos nas areas de Biogeografia, Conservavao,
Ecologia, EvolucAo e Taxonomia, corn enfase na biota
neotropical. 0 Comite para Coleo6es Taxonomicas (CCT)
do Institute de Ciencias Biol6gicas (ICB) da Universidade
Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG) estA resgatando a revista,
originalmente uma publicacao do Departamento de Zoologia
do ICB-UFMG, e que teve apenas dois numeros editados,
no inicio da d6cada de 1980. A revista deverA ser publicada
semestralmente (janeiro e julho). 0 primeiro ntomero dessa
nova fise da revista sera publicado em janeiro de 2002, e o
proximo emjulho de 2002. Instru6es para os autores podem
ser encontradas no sitio .
A revista tem como editors os professors Alan L. de
Melo (Departamento de Parasitologia Editor-chefe), Jaime
A. Bertoluci (Departamento de Zoologia editor de area,
Zoologia), Julio A. Lombardi (Departamento de Botanica,
editor de Area, Botanica) e Carlos A. Rosa (Departamento
de Microbiologia editor de area, Microbiologia). 0 CCT
esta empenhado em produzir uma revista de alta qualidade
cientffica e grAfica, e pede a colaboragao de toda a comunidade
cientffica atrav6s da submissao de manuscritos e divulgagao
da revista junto aos pares de outras instituigoes. Os artigos
deverAo ser preferencialmente em ingles, mas, no primeiro
moment, serio aceitos, tamb6m, artigos em portugues e
espanhol.

Eneida Eskinazi Sant'Anna, Assessora para Projetos,
Comite para Colegoes Taxonomicas (CCT), Instituto
de Ciencias Biol6gicas, Universidade Federal de Minas
Gerais Avenida Antonio Carlos 6627, Caixa Postal 486,
31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. E-mail:
.



THE FUTURE OF EVOLUTION

Volume 98 of 8 May 2001 of the Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences includes a series of papers presented
at a National Academy of Sciences Colloquium "The
Future of Evolution" held 16-20 March, 2000 at the Arnold
and Mabel Beckman Center in Irvine California. It was
organized by Norman Myers, of Green College, Oxford
University, who with Andrew Knoll (Harvard University)
wrote the first, overview paper on the effect of the extinction
crisis on the future of the evolution of the planet's biota.
Myers and Knoll give an eloquent and dramatic summary
of the biotic crisis that they, and the other authors, argue
cogently will disrupt and deplete certain basic processes






134 Neotropical Primates 9(3), December 2001


of evolution, with consequences likely to persist for millions
of years. The "first order effects" include 1) a major
extinction of species estimated to remove one-third to
two-thirds of all species; 2) a mega-mass extinction of
populations; 3) alien invasions and mixings of biota; 4)
progressive depletion and homogenization with potential
threshold effects on ecosystems; 5) general biotic
impoverishment and a decline in global biomass; and 6)
gross reduction and virtual elimination of entire sectors
of some biomes, notably tropical forests, coral reefs and
wetlands which have served as centers for diversification in
the past. Further evolutionary effects they discuss include:
1) fragmentation of species ranges with disruption of gene
flow; 2) decline in effective population sizes with depletion
in gene reservoirs; and 3) biotic interchanges introducing
species and even entire biotas into new areas, with multiple
founder effects and novel competitive and other ecological
interactions. The consequences they consider include an
outburst of speciation, proliferation of opportunistic species
("pest and weed" ecology), depletion of evolutionary
powerhouses; decline in biodisparity (the biota's manifest
morphological and physiological variety), an end to
speciation in large vertebrates, and emergent, difficult to
predict novelties.

Papers. The biotic crisis and the future of evolution -
N. Myers & A. H. Knoll, pp.5389-5392; Lessons from the
past: Evolutionary impacts of mass extinction D. Jablonski,
pp.5393-5398; Lessons from the past: Biotic recoveries from
mass extinctions D. H. Erwin, pp.5399-5403; Loss of
speciation rate will impoverish future diversity M. L.
Rosenzweig, pp.5404-5410; What was natural in the coastal
oceans? J. B. C. Jackson, pp.5411-5418; The future
of coral reefs N. Knowlton, pp.5419-5425; Disrupting
evolutionary processes: The effect of habitat fragmentation
on collared lizards in the Missouri Ozarks A. R. Templeton,
R. J. Robertson, J. Brisson, & J. Strasburg, pp.5426-5432;
Human-caused environmental change: Impacts on plant
diversity and evolution D. Tilman & C. Lehman,
pp.5433-5440; Plant biology in the future E A. Bazzaz,
pp.5441-5445; The evolutionary impact of invasive species
- H. A. Mooney & E. E. Cleland, pp.5446-5451; Rapid
plant diversification: Planning for an evolutionary future -
R. M. Cowling & R. L. Pressey, pp.5452-5457; Human-
modified ecosystems and future evolution D. Western,
pp.5458-5465; The current biodiversity extinction event:
Scenarios for mitigation and recovery M. J. Novacek &
E. E. Cleland, pp.5466-5470; Decline of biomes and biotas
and the future of evolution D. S. Woodruff, pp.5471-5476;
Intervening in evolution: Ethics and actions P. R. Ehrlich,
pp.5477-5480.

Papers from the National Academy of Sciences Colloquium
on The Future of Evolution are available for download
at . For
subscription information see: subscriptions/> or contact: the PNAS Circulation Office
USAphone: 1-202-334-2672, fax 1-202-334-2738 ore-mail:
subspnas@nas.edu.


SPECIAL ISSUE OF TREE- SPECIATION

A special issue of Trends in Ecology and Evolution, Vol. 16(7),
July 2001, Editor Catriona J. MacCallum, is dedicated to
"Speciation". The Guest Editor was Nicholas J. Barton,
Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology of the
University of Edinburgh, UK. The special issue aims to review
recent developments and to bring together all aspects of
speciation, from genetics through ecology to palaeontology.
Of particular interest for conservation is the first article
by Jody Hey, Rutgers University, NJ, who discusses the
confusion about exactly what a species is, arising from
conflict between intuitive classification and the complex
and continuous process of evolution. In his Introduction
(p.325), Barton rationalizes some of the subsequent series
of articles in the form of questions: "Why should there be
distinct 'species' at all rather than a continuous intergradation
of interbreeding organisms that reflects the continuity of
evolution (Turelli et al.)? Is the distribution of species'
abundance determined primarily by the distribution of
ecological niches, or does it also depend on how species form
(Godfray & Lawton)? To what extent does genetic exchange
impede divergence? In the extreme, can a single population
split into two species without any spatial separation at
all (Turelli et al., Via, and Riesenberg)? What processes
drive divergence random drift, natural selection, or sexual
selection (Panhuis etal. and Schluter)? What kinds of genetic
differences distinguish species, and what do these tell us
about the process of divergence (Turelli et al. and Orr)."
Further aspects treated include the role of selection as a
cause of divergence (Panhuis et al. and Schluter), the use of
molecular markers (Orr), the use of phylogenies for rigorous
comparative tests and inferences about the evolutionary
process (Barraclough & Nee), the use of "gene trees" to
measure evolutionary processes of selection, migration and
drift that are involved in speciation (Nichols), and how
palaeontology has allowed clear hypotheses about the relation
between speciation and morphological evolution (Benton &
Pearson).

Papers The mind of the species problem -J. Hey, pp.326-329;
Theory and Speciation M. Turelli, N. H. Barton & J. A.
Coyne, pp.330-343; The genetics of species differences -
H. A. Orr, pp.343-350; Chromosomal rearrangements and
speciation L. H. Riesenberg, pp.351-358; Gene trees and
species trees are not the same R. Nichols, pp.358-364;
Sexual selection and speciation T. M. Panhuis, R. Butlin,
M. Zuk & T. Treganza, pp.364-371; Ecology and the origin
of species D. Schluter, pp.372-380; Sympatric speciation in
animals: The ugly duckling grows up S. Via, pp.381-390;
Phylogenetics and speciation T. G. Barraclough & S. Nee,
pp.391-399; Scale and species numbers H. C. J. Godfray
& J. H. Lawton, pp.400-404; Speciation in the fossil record
- M. J. Benton & P. N. Pearson, pp.405-411. There is also
a pertinent review of Frogs, Flies andDandelions. The Making
of Species by Menno Schilthuizen, Oxford University Press,
Oxford, 2001, along with a glossary of speciation.






Neotropical Primates 9(3), December 2001


THE RED LIST CATEGORIES AND CRITERIA BOOKLET

The Red List Categories and Criteria booklet (in English,
French and Spanish) is now available on the SSC website in
pdf: 2000.htnml>. This is the only version that should be used
and distributed. The previous version in Word had an error
in the citation. The correct citation is: IUCN. (2001).
IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1. IUCN
Species Survival Commission. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland
and Cambridge, UK. ii+30 pp.



BOOKS

A Primatologia no Brasil 7, edited by Carmen Alonso
and Alfredo Langguth, 2000, 360pp. Editora Universit6ria,
Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Sociedade Brasileira de
Primatologia, Joao Pessoa, Parafba. Anais do VIII Congresso
Brasileiro de Primatologia, Joao Pessoa, 10-15 de agosto
de 1997. Proceedings of the VIII Brazilian Primatology
Congress. The publication of this book was supported by
the Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation. It contains 23
articles in Portuguese and English on the behavior, ecology
and physiology of Brazilian (and one Colombian) primates.
Contents: Comparacao do cuidado de uma prole de gemeos
corn uma prole de filhote unico de Callithrix jacchus no
ambiente natural F S. Albuquerque, E. Otta & M. de
E Arruda, pp.11-21; Social interactions in a Callithrix
kuhlii family (Primates: Callitrichidae) in captivity C.
Alonso, S. Porffrio & A. Langguth, pp.23-33; Uso do
espaQo e comportamento social em sagfiis do cerrado
(Callithrixpenicillata) selvagens, no Centro de Primatologia
da Universidade de Brasilia V. Boere, L. Tillman, M. C.
de Resende & C. Tomaz, pp.35-48; Distribuicao didria da
atividade locomotora e da catacao em uma f6mea reprodutora
de Callithrixjacchus durante a gestapo e apOs o parto -
C. S. Camillo et al., pp.49-63; Influencia da distribuigAo
e disponibilidade dos frutos, na dieta e uso do espavo em
sagfii-do-nordeste (Callithrixjacchus) C. S. S. de Castro, A.
Araujo, C. Alho & M. M. Dias Filho, pp.65-80; Ecologia
alimentar e sazonalidade em primatas neotropicais: Genero
Saguinus S. Egler, pp.81-95; A comparative study of hand
preference in three species of the genus Cebus- S. E Ferrari, T.
W. R. Lobato & M. S. Andrade, pp.97-105; Maes, filhotes
e uma analise dos custos do cuidado parental R. F Guerra,
pp.107-149; Aspectos ecol6gicos e do comportamento de
Alouatta fusca (Geoffroy, 1812) na Estacao Ecol6gica de
Aracuri, RS, Brasil M. M. de A. Jardim & L. F B. de
Oliveira, pp.151-169; Behaviour of free-ranging squirrel
monkeys Saimiri sciureus, (Platyrrhini: Cebidae) at the
fazenda Monte Verde, Peixe-Boi, Para E. M. Lima, A.
L. C. B. Pina & S. F. Ferrari, pp. 171-180; Uso do
espaQo por um grupo de Alouatta fusca clamitans em um
fragmento degradado de floresta Atlantica V. L. A. G.
Limeira, pp.181-196; Evolutionary history of the duplicated


gamma hemoglobin genes in New World monkeys (Primates:
Atelinae) C. M. Meireles, J. Czelusniak, M. P. C. Schneider
& M. Goodman, pp.197-214; Emissao de gritos longos
por grupos de Callicebus nigrifrons e suas reav6es a playbacks
- E R. de Melo & S. L. Mendes, pp.215-222; Sex and
age differences in foraging and vigilance behavior of captive
Saguinus midas midas (Primates: Callitrichidae) A. C. de
A. Moura & C. Alonso, pp.223-238; Influ6ncia de filhotes
dependents no padrao de atividades de um grupo silvestre de
Callithrixjacchus- M. C. L. Nascimento & M. de F Arruda,
pp.239-246; PercepQao de cores em Cebus apella (Primates:
Cebidae) V. F Pessoa et al., pp.247-264; Comunicacion
vocal y su relacion con las actividades, estructura social
y context comportamental en Callicebus cupreus ornatus
- M. Porras, pp.265-274; Aspectos de comportamento
social de Saguinus midas midas (Primates: Callitrichidae) em
cativeiro N. Schiel & A. Souto, pp.275-289; Resultados de
uma pequena expedicao primatol6gica A Amaz6nia Central
(Primates: Playtrrhini) J. de S. e Silva Jtinior & M. de A.
Noronha, pp.291-304; Consistencia no uso das maos em
atividades forcadas e espontaneas no sagfui, Callithrixjacchus
- M. B. C. de Sousa, N. S. Xavier & H. A. P. Peregrino,
pp.305-317; Influ6ncia da variacao diurna no sangue e do
estresse na excrecao fecal de esterdides em Callithrixjacchus
- M. B. C .de Sousa & T. Ziegler, pp.319-331; Mem6ria
operacional no macaco-prego (Cebus apella) C. Tomaz, M.
C. H. Tavares & A. L. R. Caldas, pp.333-347: A questao do
genero na producao cientifica em Primatologia no Brasil M.
E. Yamamoto & K. S. da Silva Diniz, pp.349-360. Available
from: Alfredo Langguth, Departamento de Sistematica e
Ecologia CCEN, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, 58059-900
Joao Pessoa, Parafba, Brazil. E-mail: .

Biodiversidade na Amazdnia Brasileira: Avaliacao e Acdes
Prioritarias para a Conservacao, Uso Sustentivel e Repartigo de
Beneficios, edited by Adalberto VWrissimo, Adriana Moreira,
Donald Sawyer, Iza dos Santos, Luis Paulo Pinto and Joao
Paulo Capobianco, 2001, 540pp. In Portuguese. Published
by the Instituto Socioambiental and Estacao Liberdade, Sdo
Paulo, Brazil. ISBN 85 7448 052 5 (EstacAo Liberdade), 85
85994 13 4 (Instituto Socioambiental). This is a remarkable
compilation of articles, facts, figures and maps on diverse
aspects of the Brazilian Amazon: its biodiversity, socio-
economy, conservation, development, and destruction. The
first part provides valuable overviews of its biodiversity. Maria
Nazareth E da Silva et al, give an overview of mammals.
They listed 311 mammal species as occurring in the Brazilian
Amazon- 22 marsupials, 11 edentates, 124 bats, 57 primates,
16 carnivores, two cetaceans, one sirenian, 72 rodents and
one rabbit. This book is the result of the priority setting
workshop, held in Macapa, Amapa, 20-25 September, 1999
- "Projeto Avaliagao e Identificaao de Agoes Prioritarias
para a Conservagao, Utilizavao Sustentavel e Reparticao dos
Beneffcios da Biodiversidade da Amaz6nia Brasileira", part
of the activities of the Programa Nacional de Diversidade
Biol6gica PRONABIO of the Ministry of the Environment.
Key organizations involved in coordinating the workshop
were: Instituto Socioambiental -ISA (Joao Paulo Capobianco,






136 Neotropical Primates 9(3), December 2001


Adriano Ramos & Geraldo Andrello), Instituto do Homem
e Meio Ambiente da Amazonia IMAZON (Adalberto
Verissimo & Eugenio Arima), Instituto de Pesquisa Ambiental
da Amazonia IPAM (Adriana Moreira & Paulo Moutinho),
Conservation International do Brasil (Luiz Paulo Pinto &
Roberto Cavalcanti) and Instituto Sociedade, PopulaAo e
Natureza ISPN (Donald Sawyer & Mauricio Pontes).
Contents. Part 1 Biodiversidade e funyqes ecol6gicas
dos ecossistemas: 0 peso dos invertebrados na balanca
de conservagco bioldgica da Amazonia W. L. Overal,
pp.50-59; Componente biota aquatica R. Barthem,
pp.60-78; Relat6rio tecnico sobre a diversidade de
anffbios na Amaz6nia brasileira C. Azevedo-Ramos &
U. Galatti, pp.79-88; Biodiversidade de r6pteis do bioma
floresta amazonica e ay6es prioritarias para sua conservagao
- R. C. Vogt, G. M. Moreira & A. C. de 0. C. Duarte,
pp.89-96; Biogeografia e conservacao de aves na regiao
amazonica D. C. Oren, pp.97-109; Biogeografia e
conservacao da mastofauna na floresta amazonica brasileira
- M. N. E da Silva, A. B. Rylands & J. L. Patton, pp.
110-131; Area botanica B. W. Nelson & A. A. de Oliveira,
pp.132-176; As funy6es ecol6gicas dos ecossistemas florestais:
implicagoes para a conservagao e uso da biodiversidade
amazonica P. Moutinho & D. Nepstad, pp.177-183.
Part 2 Sociodiversidade e etnoconhecimento: Populao6es
tradicionais e conservacao ambiental M. C. da Cunha &
M. W. B. Almeida, pp.184-193; A sociodiversidade
native contemporanea no Brasil e a biodiversidade na
Amaz6nia B. Ricardo, pp.194-204; "Populac6es
tradicionais" e biodiversidade na Amazonia: levantamento
bibliogrifico A. C. Diegues. G. Andrello & M. Nunes,
pp.205-224; Elementos de discussao sobre a conservagao
da agrobiodiversidade: o exemplo da mandioca (Manihot
esculenta Crant) na Amaz6nia brasileira L. Emperaire,
pp.225-234; Biodiversidade e conhecimentos tradicionais -
J. Santilli, pp.235-245. Part 3 Unidades de ConservaqAo
e terra indigenas: Unidades de Conservaao na Amazonia
Legal E Ricardo & J. P. R. Capobianco, pp.246-250; Terra
indigenas na Amazonia Legal E Ricardo, pp.251-258;
Sobreposio6es entire Unidades de Conservaoo (UCs)
federals, estaduais, terra indigenas, terras militares e reserves
garimpeiras na Amaz6nia Legal F Ricardo, pp.259-262;
Representatividade das Unidades de Conservacao e terras
indigenas em relagAo a fitofisionomias da Amaz6nia Legal
- J. P. R. Capobianco, pp.263-267; Identificaao de Areas
prioritarias para a conservacao de biodiversidade por meio
de representatividade das Unidades de Conservavao e tipos
de vegetaQao nas ecorregioes da Amaz6nia brasileira L. V.
Ferreira, R. Lemos de SA, R. Buschbacher, G. Batmanian, J.
M. C. da Silva, M. B. Arruda, E. Moretti, L. F. S. N. de
Sa, J. Falcomer & M. I. Bampi pp.268-286; Incidencia
de requerimentos e titulos minerarios nas Unidades de
Conservaao (UCs) federals e estaduais na Amazonia Legal
- E Ricardo, pp.287-289; Reservas indigenas de recursos
naturais M. Santilli, pp.290-291; Formas de acesso a
terra e a preservaqao da floresta amaz6nica: uma analise
jurfdica da regularizavao fundiAria das terras dos quilombolas
e seringueiros J. H. Benatti, pp.292-298; Presenca
humana em Unidade de Conservacao: um impasse cientifico,


juridico ou politico? J. H. Benatti, pp.299-305. Part 4.
Socieconomiae presses antropicas: Diagn6stico demogrifico,
socioeconOmico e de pressao antr6pica na regiao da Amazonia
Legal M. P. Monteiro & D. Sawyer, pp.308-320; Eixos
amaz6nicos de integraqAo e desenvolvimento obras e
empreendimentos M. Brito, pp.321-326; 0 diagn6stico do
uso da terra na Amaz6nia: exploracao madeireira, agriculture
e agropecuaria A. Verissimo, E. Arima & E. Lima,
pp.327-337; Esp6cies de arvores potencialmente ameacadas
pela atividade madeireira na Amazonia A. Martini, N. de
A. Rosa & C. Uhl, pp.338-347; Oportunidades de negocios
na Amazonia: alternatives sustentAveis A. Guimaraes,
pp.348-351. The remaining sections include workshop
methodology, texts, maps, tables and details of the base
maps used, the numerous priority area maps for the different
themes, and the final priority areas selected during the
workshop. Available from: Instituto Socioambiental, Av.
Higien6polis 901, 01238-001 Sio Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brasil,
Tel: +55 11 3825 5544, Fax: +55 11 3825 7861, e-mail:
. Web site: org>.

Biology, Medicine, and Surgery of South American Wild
Mammals, edited by Murray E. Fowler and Zalmir S. Cubas,
2001, 536pp. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa.
ISBN 0 8138 2846-5. Price US$89.65. A compilation of
continent specific coverage of amphibians, birds, reptiles and
all South American mammals arranged by order and genus.
Topics include conservation efforts, diseases in free-ranging
populations, and management of animals in captivity. Special
coverage is given to general health topics such as nutrition,
ophthalmology and dentistry. Pages 256 to 278 are dedicated
to the New World primates, with the following contributions:
Biology of the Cebidae Anthony B. Rylands, pp.256-259;
Biology and conservation of the Callitrichidae Claudio
Valladares-Padua, pp.259-261; Nutrition Roberto da
Rocha e Silva, pp.261-263; Behavior and environmental
enrichment Vanner Boere, pp.263-267; Medicine Jose
Luiz Catao Dias, pp.267-272; Medicine, selected disorders
- Alcides Pissinatti, pp.272-274; Reproduction Marcelo A.
de B. V. Guimaraes, pp.274-278. An excellent compendium
and difficult to believe that any zoo or breeding institution
could do without it. Available from: Iowa State University
Press, 212 South State Avenue, Ames, IA 50014, USA, Tel:
800 862 6657, 515 292 0155, Fax: 515-292-3348. Web
site:.

Songs, Roars, and Rituals: Communication in Birds, Mammals,
and Other Animals, by Lesley J. Rogers and Gisela Kaplan,
Harvard University Press 2000. Price: $31.50, ISBN: 0-674-
00058-7. The authors have highlighted many of the latest
developments in the study of animal communication,
offering insights on how animals communicate by sight,
sound, smell, touch and electrical signaling. They explore
a wide variety of communication patterns and how these
patterns evolved, including an account of the science of
animal communication and modern concepts, controversies
and the evolution of human language and the use of symbolic
language by apes. Available from: Harvard University Press,






Neotropical Primates 9(3), December 2001


Customer Service Department, 79 Garden Street, Cambridge,
Massachusetts 02138 USA, Fax: (800) 962-4983, phone:
(800) 448-2242, e-mail: ,
web site: .

Colbert's Evolution of the Vertebrates: A History of the
BackbonedAnimals Through Time, Fifth Edition, by Edwin H.
Colbert, Michael Morales and Eli C. Minkoff, WILEY LISS
2001. Price: $145.00 (hardbound), ISBN: 0-471-38461-5.
A valuable reference for professionals in evolutionary biology
and paleontology, as well as students in those fields. From
the back cover. "Vertebrate evolution is studied through
comparative anatomy and functional morphology of existing
vertebrates as well as fossil records. Since the publication of
the previous edition of Colbert's Evolution of the Vertebrates:
A History of the Backboned Animals Through Time, there
have been significant advances in the knowledge surrounding
backboned animals. This latest edition of the classic text is
completely revised to offer the most recent discoveries in this
continually evolving field of science. Covering the various
aspects of vertebrate life, from skeletal system to ecology,
behavior, and physiology, the Fifth Edition includes new
sections on conodonts, dinosaurs, primates, and the origin of
birds, and discusses: Analysis of morphological and molecular
data; early diversification of vertebrates; the evolution of
dinosaurs; the origin of mammals; early ruling reptiles;
and basic adaptation of ungulates". Chapter twenty-three:
Primates and Their Kin, covers: The Archonta, Scandentia,
The Bats, Dermoptera, The Origin of the Primates, Primate
Characters, A Classification of the Primates, Plesiadapiformes,
Strepsirhini The Adapids, Lemurs, and Lorises, Haplorhini,
The Tarsioids, Platyrrhini The New World Monkeys,
Catarrhini The Old World Monkeys, Apes, and Humans
and The Family Hominidae. Available from: John Wiley &
Sons, Inc., Distribution Center, 1 Wiley Drive, Somerset, NJ
08875-1272, phone: (732) 469-4400 or (800) 225-5945,
Fax: (732) 302-2300, e-mail: .

Animal, The Definitive Visual Guide to the World's Wildlife,
edited by Don E. Wilson and David Burnie, 2001, 624pp.,
DK Publishing, ISBN: 0-789-47764-5, over 4000 color
photos and color illustrations. Price: 30.00. Researched
by over 70 zoologists and naturalists this book covers
over 2000 mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, fish and
invertebrates. Principle consultants include: Juliet Clutton-
Brock (Mammals) Dr Francois Vuilleumier (Birds) -
Richard Rosenblatt (Fish) Chris Mattison (Reptiles) Tim
Halliday (Amphibians) George McGavin (Arthropods) -
Richard Barnes (Non-Arthropod Invertebrates). Available
from: NHBS Mailorder bookstore, 2-3 Wills Road, Totnes,
Devon, TQ9 5XN, UK, web site: .
NHBS Stock Code.- #119919Whardback.

Economics in Nature: Social Dilemmas, Mate Choice and
Biological Markets, edited by Ronald Noe, Jan van Hooff
and Peter Hammerstein, 2001. Published by Cambridge
University Press, ISBN: 0-521-65014-3 (hardbound). Price:
$80.00. From the back cover:.


Since the development of game theory, the analysis of animal
behaviour using the theories of economics has become a
growing field of biological research in which models of
games and markets play an important role. Studies of
sexual selection, interspecific mutualism and intraspecific
cooperation show that individuals exchange commodities to
their mutual benefit; the exchange values of commodities are
a source of conflict, and behavioral mechanisms such as
partner choice and contest between competitors determines
the composition of trading pairs or groups. These 'biological
markets' can be examined to gain a better understanding
of the underlying principles of evolutionary ecology. In
this volume scientists from different disciplines combine
insights from economics, evolutionary biology and the
social sciences to look at comparative aspects of economic
behaviour in humans and other animals. Aimed primarily
at evolutionary biologists and anthropologists, it will also
appeal to psychologists and economists interested in an
evolutionary approach. Available from: Cambridge University
Press, 40 West 20th St., New York, NY 10011-4211, USA.
Phone: (800)-872-4723, Fax: (800)-914-937-4712, web site:
.



ARTICLES

Anaya-Huertas, C. and Mondragon-Ceballos, R. 2001.
Behavioral differences between sexes in captive spider
monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi). Lab. Prim. Newsl. 40(4): 1-3.
Anderson, E. N. 2001. Tropical forest game conservation.
Conserv Biol. 15(3): 791-792.
Anderson, J. R. 2001. Self-and other-control in squirrel
monkeys. In: Primate Origins of Human Cognition and
Behavior, T. Matsuzawa (ed.), pp.330-348. Springer,
Tokyo.
Anonymous. 2001. Lion tamarins. On the Edge 65: 9-13.
Astor, M. 2001. Golden lion tamarin born in Brazil. Lab.
Prim. Newsl. 40(3): 20 -21.
Bain, S. 2001. Welfare factors concerning laboratory
primates with emphasis on housing and environmental
considerations. Australasian Primatol. 14(3): 30-31.
Baker, K., O'Herron, M., Baker, A. J. and Dietz, J. M.
2001. Sources of variability in numbers of live births in
wild golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia). Am. J
Primatol. 54(4): 211-221.
Bardi, M., Petto, A. J. and Lee-Parritz, D. E. 2001. Parental
failure in captive cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus).
Am. J Primatol. 54(3): 159-169.
Bennett, C. L., Leonard, S. and Carter, S. 2001. Abundance,
diversity and patterns of distribution of primates on the
Tapiche river in Amazonian Peru. Am. J Primatol. 54(2):
119-128.
Bernstein, I. 2001. Letters: Howling howlers. Lab. Prim.
Newsl. 40(1): 16.
Bodmer, R. E. and Lozano, E. P. 2001. Rural development
and sustainable wildlife uses in Peru. Conserv Biol. 15(1):
1163-1170.






138 Neotropical Primates 9(3), December 2001


Boinski, S., Quatrone, R. P. and Swartz, H. 2000. Substrate
and tool use by brown capuchins in Suriname: Ecological
contexts and cognitive bases. Amn. Anthropol. 102(4):
741-761.
Bostock, S. S. C. 2001. Roles of zoos. In: Encyclopedia
of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare, M. Bekoff, C. A.
Meaney (eds.), pp.371-374. Greenwood Press, Westport,
CT.
Brooks, T., Bakarr, M., Fonseca, G. A. B. da and Rylands,
A. B. 2001. Pessimism from Manu. Conserv Biol. 15:
296-298. (Review of Requiem for Nature, by John
Terborgh, 1999, Island Press, Washington, DC).
Bruner, A. G., Gullison, R. E., Rice, R. E. and Fonseca,
G. A. B. da. 2001. Effectiveness of parks in protecting
tropical biodiversity. Science 291: 125-128.
Bukh, J., Apgar, C. L., Govindarajan, S. and Purcell, R. H.
2001. Host range studies of GB virus-B hepatitis agent, the
closest relative of hepatitis C virus, in New World monkeys
and chimpanzees. J Med. Virology65(4): 694-697.
Burgman, M. A., Possingham, H. P., Jasmyn, A., Lynch, J.,
Keith, D. A., McCarthy M. A., Hopper, S. D., Drury, W.
L., Passioura, J. A. and Devries, R. J. 2001. A method for
setting the size of plant conservation target areas. Conserv.
Biol. 15(3): 603-616.
Byron, J. K. and Bodri, M. S. 2001. Environmental
enrichment for laboratory marmosets. Lab. Anim. 30(8):
42-48.
Campbell, C. J., Shideler, S. E., Todd, H. E. and Lasley, B.
L. 2001. Fecal analysis of ovarian cycles in female black-
handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi). Am. J Primatol.
54(2): 79-90.
Cant, J. G. H., Youlatos, D. and Rose, M. D. 2001.
Locomotor behavior of Lagothrix lagothricha and Ateles
belzebuth in Yasunf National Park, Ecuador: General
patterns and nonsuspensory modes. J Hum. Evol. 41(2):
141-166.
Chamove, A. S. 2001. Floor-covering research benefits
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Abstracts

Achenbach, G. G. 1999. The consequences of variation
in care for infants and caregivers in captive cotton-top
tamarins (Saguinus oedipus). Diss. Abst. Int. B60(6): 3005.
Addington, R. L. 1999. Social foraging in captive pygmy
marmosets (Cebuellapygmaea): Effects of food characteristics
and social context on feeding competition and vocal
behavior. Diss. Abst. Int. B60(6): 3012.
Campbell, C. J. 2001. The reproductive biology of black-
handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi): Integrating
behavior and endocrinology. Diss. Abst. Int. A62(1): 229.
Escobar-Paramo, P. 2000. Inbreeding avoidance and the
evolution of male mating strategies. Diss. Abst. Int. B60 (8):
3681.
Ladasky, J. J. Jr. 2000. Beta-2 microglobulin polymorphism
in the owl monkey (Aotus): Studies of structure, function,
and evolution. Diss. Abst. Int. B60(8): 3838.
Loudon, J. 2001. Diet, activity and ranging behavior of
Alouatta pigra in Monkey River, Belize. Masters Abstracts
38(6): 1472.
Mills, M. D. Studying the effects of randomized food
presentation on affiliative behaviors and vocalization rates
in a captive population of black-handed spider monkeys,
Ateles geoffroy Masters Abstracts 39(1): 169.
Porter, L. M. 2001. The behavior and ecology of the Goeldi's
monkey (Callimico goeldil) in northern Bolivia. Diss. Abst.
Int. A62(1): 229.
Ramos- Fernandez, G. 2001. Patterns of association, feeding
competition and vocal communication in spider monkeys,
Atelesgeoffroyi. Diss. Abst. Int. B62(2): 733.
Stafford, S. G. 1999. Thermoregulatory and endocrine
adaptations of small body size in primates. Diss. Abst. Int.
B60(6): 2448.
Wallander, D. L. 1999. Food sharing and the development
of feeding behavior in Saguinus imperator, the emperor
tamarin (family: Callitrichidae). Diss. Abst. Int. A60(6):
2114.






Neotropical Primates 9(3), December 2001


In: Am.J. Phys. Anthropol. Suppl. 32, 2001.

Barnett, A. A. and Ross, C. 2001. The predictive value of
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Cole, T. M., III. Phylogenetic analysis of landmark data and
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Cunningham, E. P. and Janson, C. H. Effect of small home
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Duren, D. L. Metaphyseal angular morphology and primate
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Henry, R. E. and Winkler, L. Foraging, feeding and
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Huntington, C. and Fernandez-Duque, E. Natal dispersal in
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Norconk, M. A. and Conklin-Brittain, N. L. Methods for
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Panger, M., Perry, S., Rose, L., Gros-Louis, J., Vogel, E.,
MacKinnon, K. and Baker, M. Food processing technique
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Pucciarelli, H. M., Mune, M. C., Orden, A. B., Oyhenart,
E. E., Villanueva. M. E., Rodriguez, R. R. and Pons,
E. R. Growth velocity of bone variables and indices in the
squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus boliviensis). A longitudinal
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Richmond, B. G. and Strait, D. S. Knuckle-walking and the
midcarpaljoint, p. 126.
Runestad Connour, J. A. and Glander, K. E. Description of
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Suarez, S. A. Quantifying fission-fusion behavior and social
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Swartz, D. Gradient phenomena in primates and the
intermembral index, p.146


Toloczko, D. M. Love potions in primate brains? p.150.
Videan, E. N. Daytime resting-site selection in mantled
howling monkeys (Alouattapalliata): Relative influences of
feeding and comfort, p.155.
Vinyard, P. S. Variance dimorphism in the postcrania of
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Walker, S. E. and Ford S. M. Evolution of behavioral and
ecological variables in the Pitheciinae, p. 158.
Winkler, L., Zhang, X. and Ferrell, R. Intergroup differences,
troop immigration, and genetic variation in mantled
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Wright, B. W. Fruit tissue toughness as a determinant of
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Wright, K. A. A comparison of the locomotor behavior and
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p.167.

In: Folia Primatologica, 72(3) 2001. Selected abstracts
of the scientific meetings of La Societ6 Francophone de
Primatologie, The Italian Primatological Society and The
German Primate Society.

12 Annual Meeting ofLa Socite Francophone de Primatologie,
Besancon, September 27 29, 20000

Di Trani, C. M. P. The primate model in zooanthropology:
Didactic examples at the Mulhouse Zoo, p. 117.
Dubreuil, G. and Dormont, D. Prions and non-human
primates, p.119.
Leroy, E., Bilbaut, M., Gautier, Y., Monchatre, R. and Pellier,
A. A successful treatment of a stress-induced behavioral
disorder in Geoffroy's tufted-ear marmoset, Callithrix
geoffroyi, at the Reserve Africaine de Sigean, pp.122-123.

14" Meeting of the Italian Primatological Society Pisa-Calci,
October 911, 2000

Addessi, E. and Visalberghi, E. Social influences on neophobia
in Cebus apella, p.128-129.
Biagini, L., Bogani, P., Ardito, G. and Buiatti, M. Molecular
methods for variability analysis in primates, p.144.
Carosi, M., Ulland, A. E., Gerald, M. S. and Suomi,
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Carosi, M., Ulland, A. E. and Suomi, S. J. Urine washing
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Testing a few hypotheses, p. 130.
Dal Secco, V. and Visalberghi, E. Male response to female
proceptivity in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella),
pp.130-131.
de Rosa, C., Vitale, A. and Puopolo, M. Puzzle-feeders
as environmental enrichment in common marmosets
(Callithrixjacchus), p. 131.
Gueyras, A., Bernarducci, R. and Vitale, A. Environmental
enrichment during separation in captive common
marmosets (Callithrix jacchus): Behavioural and
physiological aspects, pp.151-152.






Neotropical Primates 9(3), December 2001


Riviello, M. C. and Wirz, A. Comparative blood values in
several species of New World monkeys, p.152.
Spinozzi, G. and Cacchiarelli, B. Lateral biases for haptic and
visually guided reaching tasks in tufted capuchin monkeys
(Cebusapella), p.140.
Truppa, V. and Spinozzi, G. Factors affecting manual
laterality in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) for
food reaching tasks, pp. 140-141.
Veracini, C., Galleni, L. and Forti, M. The concept of species
and the foundations of biology, a case study: The Callithrix
jacchus group, p. 148.
Visalberghi, E. and Moltedo, G. Sexual behaviour of tufted
capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella): What affects the target?
p.134.
Zanzoni, M., Vitale, A. and Chiarotti, F. Social context
affects the emission of food-calls in common marmosets
(Callithrixjacchus), pp.137-138.

th Congress of the German Primate Society, Zurich, September
30-October 4, 2001

Anzenberger, G., Mfnch, M., Moisson, P. and Petit,
T. Intergeneric marmoset hybrids (Cebuella pygmaea x
Callithrixjacchu5: An important case study for callitrichid
taxonomy, p.153.
Anzenberger, G. and Pryce, C. R. Field and laboratory
study of callitrichid behavioral biology: Contradictory or
complementary approaches? p. 154.
de Oliveira, M. S. Sexual inhibition and inbreeding
avoidance in captive common marmosets (Callithrix
jacchus), pp.174-175.
Dettling, A. C., Feldon, J. and Pryce, C. R. Repeated parental
separation and long-term biobehavioural development in
the common marmoset (Callithrixjacchus), p. 158.
Hammerschmidt, K. and Fichtel, C. 'Call pitch' as an
indicator of the intensity of affective states, p. 163.
Heistermann, M. and Hodges, J. K. Non-invasive endocrine
assessment: Methods and applications for monitoring
reproductive status and studying physiological mechanisms
underlying primate behaviour, pp.164-165.
Hemelrijk, C. K. Society, sexual attraction and male
'tolerance' to females: An individual-based model, p. 165.
Hernandez Salazar, L. T., Rodriguez-Luna, E. and Laska,
M. Sour-taste tolerance in captive spider monkeys, squirrel
monkeys, and pigtail macaques, pp. 165-166.
Heymann, E. W. Phenology and the scarcity of folivory in
New World primates, p. 166.
Heymann, E. W. The role of sleeping habits for malaria
infection rates in Amazonian primates, p. 167.
Heymann, E. W. Thoughts on the future of primate
behavioral ecology, p. 167.
Laska, M. Food preferences and nutrient composition in
squirrel monkeys, spider monkeys and pigtail macaques,
pp.170-171.
Laska, M., Kohlmann, S., Hernandez Salazar, L. T. and
Rodriguez Luna, E. Gustatory responses to polycose in
four species of non-human primates, pp.171-172.
Miller, A. E. and Soligo, C. Why are primates social?
pp.173-174.


Plesker, R. A. Dipetalonema gracile infection in a squirrel
monkey, p.177.
Seibt, A. and Laska, M. 'Microsmatic' primates revisited:
Olfactory sensitivity in squirrel monkeys and pigtail
macaques, p. 183.
Sterling, E. J. Conservation of non-human primates: Making
decisions in the face of uncertainty, pp. 184-185.
Thiess, A. and Rothe, H. Analysis of socio-dynamic processes
in large families of semi-free living common marmosets
(Callithrixjacchus), pp.186-187.
Thomas, R. M. and Curtis, D. J. A novel software application
for the study of photoperiodic cueing mechanisms
underlying circadian and circannual rhythms and lunar-
periodic modulations, p. 187.
Wiesemnller, B. and Rothe, H. The problem of small slope
differences in phylogenetic allometry studies, p. 192.
Zingg, J. and Martin, R. D. Temporal pattern of exudate
feeding in pygmy marmosets (Cebuellapygmaea) in Ecuador,
p.193.

In: American Journal of Primatology, 54 (Suppl. 1) 2001.
Program and Abstracts of the Twenty-Fourth Annual
Meeting of The American Society of Primatologists,
hosted by Armstrong Atlantic State University, Savannah
Georgia August 8-11, 2001.

Bach, A., Raboy, B. and Dietz, J. M. Birth seasonality in wild
golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas)
in Una Reserve, Bahia State, Brazil, p.69.
Baker, M. Variation in ranging patterns and habitat use
by capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) in a dry tropical
forest, p.95.
Bales, K., O'Herron, M., Baker, A. and Dietz, J. M. Sources
of variability in number of births in wild golden lion
tamarins, p.76.
Bales, K., French, J. and Dietz, J. Explaining variation
in maternal care in cooperatively breeding golden lion
tamarins, pp.47-48.
Bider, L. Paternal care in captive white-faced sakis (Pithecia
pithecia), p.24.
Brosnan, S. and de Waal, E A concept of value in brown
capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), p.51.
Cancino, L., Layne, D. and Tardif, S. D. Preliminary findings
on the relationship between early infant behavior, mother
peripartum behavior and survival in common marmosets
(Callithrixjacchus), p.90.
Clark, M., Arden, D., Epstein, D. and Gilbert, M. Activity
patterns of adult male howling monkeys (Alouattapalliata)
in the dry forest of Costa Rica: Comparison by age, habitat
and social group, p.28.
Cummins-Sebree, S., Fragaszy, D., Johnson-Pynn, J. and
Hirsh, E. A capuchin's (Cebus apella) performance in two
and three dimensional mazes, p.57.
Florence, D. Diseases as confounding variables in research:
Symposium, pp.29-30.
Jack, K. and Fedigan, L. Life history of male white-faced
capuchins (Cebus capucinus), Santa Rosa National Park,
Costa Rica, p.50.






Neotropical Primates 9(3), December 2001


Janson, C. Field experiments in primate ecology: The
monkeys are always right, p. 107.
Jardim, M. and Setz, E. Group size changes in free-ranging
howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans) in southern
Brazil, pp.74-75.
Hankerson, S., Short, K., Bachand, K. and Caine, N.
Vigilance as a function of prior exposure to threat in
Geoffroy's marmosets, Callithrixgeoffroyi, p.35.
Landau, K. Evidence for goal directed foraging patterns in the
mantled howler monkey on Ometepe island, Nicaragua,
p.107.
Leighty, K. and Fragaszy, D. Body-tilting during skilled use
of ajoystick, p.49.
Masterson, T. Geographic cranial variation among three
subspecies of Cebus apella, pp.46-47.
McCann, C., Koontz, E, Williams-Guillen, K. and Espinoza,
A. A. Population and habitat assessment of mantled
howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata) living on coffee
plantations surrounding Mombacho Volcano Nature
Reserve, Nicaragua, p. 79.
Miller, L. Bringing primatology into the classroom:
A workshop for K-12 teachers, pp.26-27.
Miller, L. Is there life after graduate school? A round-table
discussion on putting together grant proposals and applying
for post-docs, p.27.
Miller, L. and Dietz, J. Effects of intrinsic constraints and
seasonality on energy intake and energy expenditure in wild
golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecusrosalia), pp.75-76.
Miller, L., Savage, A., Mazak, B. and Giraldo, H. Habitat
assessment of the historic home range of cotton-top
tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) using Landsat imagery: Current
status and possible strategies for the future, p.56.
Norconk, M. White-faced saki group dynamics in Lago
Guri, Venezuela: 1990-2000, p.41.
Pinto, L. and Setz, E. Feeding ecology of Alouatta belzebulin
flood-plain forest of southern Amazon, p.96.
Phillips, K. A. and Shauver, L. M. Reunion displays in tufted
capuchins (Cebus apella), p.83.
Raboy, B. and Dietz, J. Immigration patterns and group
stability in wild golden-headed lion tamarins in southern
Bahia, Brazil, p.52.
Ross, C., Orit, G. and French, J. A. Genetic mosaics across
tissues in callitrichids (Callithrix kuhlii, black-tufted ear
marmosets), p.55.
Savage, A., Giraldo, H., LaRotta, C., Soto, L. H. and Garcia,
E. E Conservation education efforts in Colombia: Cotton-
top tamarins as ambassadors for habitat preservation,
p.57.
Schaffner, C., Aureli, F and Caine, N. Following the rules:
Why tamarins don't reconcile, pp.49-50.
Sheeran, L. Ethical issues in primatological research: Captive
settings (workshop), pp.27-28.
Soltis, J., Newman, J. D., Bernhards, D. and Donkin, H.
The structure and function of the chuck vocalization in
captive squirrel monkeys, p.38.
Suarez, S. Feeding patch choice in free-ranging Ateles
belzebuth belzebuth: Implications for cognitive foraging
skills, p.41.


Urquiza-Haas, T. and Serio-Silva, J. C. Nutritional
composition of Ficusperforata fruit (pulp, seeds and animal
matter), consumed by howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata
mexicana), pp.105-106.
Weghorst, J. A. Behavioral ecology of the central American
spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi panamensis) in Costa Rican
wet forest: Pilot study results, p.97.
Ziegler, T. Effective use of fecal and urinary cortisol
measurements for determining health conditions in wild
and captive nonhuman primates, p.44.








American Society of Primatologists 25th Annual Meeting,
1-4 June, 2002, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA. For
more information contact: Janette Wallis, Department of
Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Oklahoma
Health Sciences Center, P. 0. Box 26901, Oklahoma City,
OK 73190. Tel: (405) 627-8820, Fax: (405) 271-3808,
e-mail: .

3rd International Canopy Conference, June, 2002, Cairns,
Australia. Sponsored by the Queensland Government of
Australia and the Smithsonian Institution, the conference
theme is "Science, Policy and Utilisation" and is intended
to bring together scientists, environmental managers and
policy makers concerned with the discovery and sustainable
use of forests around the world. Contact: Eileen Domagala,
e-mail for further
information or look on the web site: qld.gov.au/whatsnew.htm>.

XV National Congress of The Italian Primatological
Association, 30 May-1 June 2002, Istituto di Psicologia del
CNR Rome. Organized by the Associazione Primatologica
Italiana. Contact: Annarita Wirz, Istituto di Psicologia
del CNR; Via Ulisse Aldovandi 16/B, 00197 Roma,
Italy, Tel: 06-3221252, 3221437, Fax: 06-3217090; e-mail:
. Web site: it/webbio/api/congl 5/15con.htm>.

Encroachment on Wildlife Ecosystems: New and Re-
Emerging Viral Epidemics, 9-11, June 2002, Artis
Zoological Gardens, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The
meeting focuses on the consequences of altering eco-systems,
alterations that affect an established virus-host balance, with
new and re-emerging diseases as a consequence. Agents
often persist in their natural reservoirs until an ecological
imbalance, such as the destruction of forests, results in
contact with a new and susceptible species. All too frequently
we have witnessed the result as an epidemic with high
morbidity and mortality. Several new and re-emerging viral
epidemics, like West Nile fever, Rift Valley fever, foot-and-
mouth disease, were witnessed during the last decade and
illustrate the importance and timeliness of this meeting.






Neotropical Primates 9(3), December 2001


Reservoirs of viruses in exotic species (such as fruit bats for
Nipah virus) and in aquatic vertebrates (influenza B virus)
were recognized, and their impact on human and animal
health was significant. It is the aim of the organizers to
have experts on wildlife and zoo animal virology discuss
the consequences of trans-species transmission on wildlife,
domestic animals and on the human population. The meeting
will be an informal opportunity to exchange experience
and expertise in the monitoring, diagnosis, prevention
(including wildlife vaccination) and control of outbreaks.
Contact: Ms. Jeanette Schouw, Department of Virology,
Biomedical Primate Research Centre, PO Box 3306, 2280
GH Rijswijk, The Netherlands, e-mail: ,
Website: .

16' Annual Meeting of the Society for Conservation
Biology, 14-18 July, 2002, Canterbury, England at the
University of Kent's campus. The theme of this meeting
will be, People and Conservation and will be co-hosted by
the Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology (DICE),
based in the Department of Anthropology at the University
and the British Ecological Society. For more information
contact: Nigel Leader-Williams, SCB2002 Program Chair,
e-mail: or Andrew Pullin, BES,
e-mail: . Web site: anthropology/dice/scb2002/>.

American Veterinary Society of Animal Behavior, 15 July,
2002, Nashville, Tennessee, USA. This meeting will be held
in conjunction with the annual meeting of the American
Veterinary Medical Association. The meeting format will
include presentations, question and answer sessions and a
poster session. Deadline for submitting abstracts is December
1, 2001. Authors will be notified by January 15, 2002. For
more information contact: Dr. Margaret Duxbury, 1299
South Shore Drive Amery, WI 54001. Tel: (715) 268-9900,
Fax: (715) 268-2691, e-mail: .

Ecological Society of America 87th Annual Meeting joint
with the Ecological Society of Mexico, 4-8 August, 2002.
Arizona, USA. Details from: ESA, 1707 H St., NW, Suite
400, Washington, DC 20006, USA, Tel: + (202) 833 8773,
Fax: +(202)833 8775, e-mail: .

#.e nXIXth Congress of the International
I Primatological Society, 4-9 August
2002, Beijing, China. Organized by the
Mammalogical Society of China and the
Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy
of Sciences. The venue will be the Beijing International
Convention Center, No. 8 Beichen Dong Road, Beijing
100101, China websitee ). The theme
of the Congress is "Caring for Primates", focusing on the
progress and prospects of primatology and the conservation


of non-human-primates. Deadline for symposium and
workshop titles: 31 August, 2001. Deadline for submitting
abstracts is the 31 March, 2002. On-Line registration
will be available after 1 December, 2001. Contact address.
Prof. Fuwen Wei, Secretary General, 19' Congress of the
International Primatological Society, c/o Institute of Zoology.
Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Zhongguancan Lu,
Haidian, Beijing 100080, China, Fax: (86-10) 82627388,
e-mail: . Home page: //www.ips.ioz.ac.cn>.

X0` Congresso Brasileiro de Primatologia, 26 30 August
2002, Universidade Federal do Para, Bel6m. Hosted by
the Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia (SBPr). For more
information: Stephen Ferrari, Departamento de Gen6tica,
Universidade Federal do Para, Campus do Guama, Caixa
Postal 8607, 66075-150 Bel6m, Para, Brazil, e-mail:
.

Annual Meetings of the IUCN/SSC Conservation
Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG), 10 13 August, 2002,
The World Zoo Organization (WZO), 13-17 August
2002, and The International Association of Zoo Educators
(IZE), 17-22 August, 2002, Hofburg Palace, Redoutensale,
Vienna. Hosted by the Schoenbrunn Zoo. For more
information: Austropa Interconvention, Conference Office,
Friedrichstrasse 7, A-1010 Vienna, Austria, Fax: +43 1 315
56 50, e-mail: .

The World Zoo Organization, 13-17 August, 2002,
Redoutensale, Vienna, Austria. Hosted by the Schoenbrunn
Zoo. For more information contact: Austropa Intercovention,
Conference office, Friedrichstrasse 7, A-1010, Vienna,
Austria. Fax: +43 1 315 56 50, e-mail: verkehrsbuero.at>.

The International Association of Zoo Educators, 17 22
August, 2002, Redoutensale, Vienna. Hosted by the
Schoenbrunn Zoo. For more information contact: Austropa
Intercovention, Conference Office, Friedrichstrasse 7, A-1010
Vienna, Austria. Fax: +(43) 1-315-56-50, e-mail:
.

The American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA)
Annual Conference, 10-14 September 2002, Fort Worth
Zoological Park, Fort Worth, Texas. The conference program
is geared toward the many disciplines in the zoological
profession directors, animal curators, keepers, society
members, scientists, gift shop merchandisers, and practitioners
in public relations, development, education, and government
affairs will all find something of interest. Most of the AZA
committees and special interests groups meet in conjunction
with the Annual Conference. For more information: /www.aza.org/ConfWork/>.











Scope

The journal/newsletter aims to provide a basis for conserva-
tion information relating to the primates of the neotropics. We
welcome texts on any aspect of primate conservation, including
articles, thesis abstracts, news items, recent events, recent publica-
tions, primatological society information and suchlike.

Submissions

Please send all English and Portuguese contributions to: Jennifer
Pervola, Conservation International, Center for Applied
Biodiversity Science, 1919 M. St. NW, Suite 600, Washington,
DC 20036, Tel: 202 912-1000, Fax: 202 912-0772, e-mail:
, and all Spanish contributions
to: Ernesto RodrIguez-Luna, Instituto de Neuroetologia,
Universidad Veracruzana, Apartado Postal 566, Xalapa 91000,
Veracruz, MExico. Tel: 281 8-77-30, Fax: 281 8-77-30, 8-63-52,
e-mail:

Contributions

Manuscripts can be in English, Spanish or Portuguese,
and should be double-spaced and accompanied by the text
on diskette for PC compatible text-editors (MS-Word,
WordPerfect, Excel, and Access), and/or e-mailed to
. (English, Portuguese) or
(Spanish) Hard copies
should be supplied for all Ygures (illustrations and maps) and
tables. The full name and address for each author should be
included. Please avoid abbreviations and acronyms without the
name in full. Authors whose Yrst language is not English, please
have texts carefully reviewed by a native English speaker.

Articles. Each issue of Neotropical Primates will include up to
three full articles, limited to the following topics: Taxonomy,
Systematics, Genetics (when relevant for systematics), Biogeog-
raphy, Ecology and Conservation. Texts for full articles should
not exceed about 20 pages in length (1.5 spaced, and includ-
ing the references). Please include an abstract in English, and
(optional) one in Portuguese or Spanish. Tables and illustrations
should be limited to six, excepting only the cases where they are
fundamental for the text (as in species descriptions, for example).
Full articles will be sent out for peer-review.

Short articles. These are usually reviewed only by the editors.
A broader range of topics are encouraged, including such as
behavioral research, in the interests of informing on general
research activities which contribute to our understanding of
platyrrhines. We encourage reports on projects and conserva-
tion and research programs (who, what, where, when, why etc.)
and most particularly information on geographical distributions,
locality records, and protected areas and the primates which
occur in them. Texts should not exceed 10 pages in length
(1.5 spaced, including the references).

Figures and maps. Articles can include small black-and-white


photographs, high quality Ygures, and high quality maps and
tables. Please keep these to a minimum. We stress the importance
of providing maps which are publishable.

News items. Please send us information on projects, field
sites, courses, recent publications, awards, events, activities
of Primate Societies, etc.

References

Examples of house style can be found throughout this journal.
Please refer to these examples when listing references.

Journal article
Stallings, J. D. and Mittermeier, R. A. 1983. The black-tailed
marmoset (Callithrix argentata melanura) recorded from Para-
guay. Am. J Primatol. 4: 1591f63.

Chapter in book
Brockelman, W. Y. and Ali, R. 1987. Methods of surveying and
sampling forest primate populations. In: Primate Conservation
in the Tropical Rain Forest, C. W. Marsh and R. A. Mittermeier
(eds.), pp. 23fi62. Alan R. Liss, New York.

Book
Napier, P. H. 1976. Catalogue of Primates in the British Museum
(Natural History). Part 1: Families Callitrichidae and Cebidae.
British Museum (Natural History), London.

Thesis/Dissertation
Wallace, R. B. 1998. The behavioral ecology of black spider
monkeys in north-eastern Bolivia. Doctoral thesis, University
of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.

Report
Muckenhirn, N. A., Mortensen, B. K., Vessey, S., Frazer, C. E.
0. and Singh, B. 1975. Report on a primate survey in Guyana.
Unpublished report, Pan American Health Organization,
Washington, DC.




Neotropical Primates is produced in collaboration
with Conservation International, Center for Applied
Biodiversity Science, 1919 M St. NW, Suite 600,
Washington, DC 20036, USA.


Printed on New Leaf 70# Reincarnation Matte text paper (100% recycled/50%
post-consumer waste), and bleached without the use of chlorine or chlorine
Compounds. For this issue, using 450 pounds of post-consumer waste instead
of virgin Yber savedO
3 Trees
245 Pounds of solid waste
269 Gallons of water
351 Kilowatt hours of electricity
445 Pounds of greenhouse gases
2 Pounds of HAPs, VOCs, and AOX combined
1 Cubic yard of landYll space






Neotropical Primates
Journal and Newsletter of the ILICN'SSC Primate Specialist Group
Vol. 9(3). December. 2001



Contents

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I',Iof W\'iglIlls ol \ .ill [ rill.ii' \/ll.JIIll pall.n.lm i ( osia RI.i II1 ru'.1i ,lli Age
Ef arj Zu be! .1 ai.airt R C1Pii. anid Kerrne E GCardaer 93
\.aui.llni s li. Gri 1,i) Si/, In Alii r & .uiv Svikis, h (Pitherlm lpithetm)] F[1,i ii. I For ,Ln M iog.ins or Seasonal ( imiCgr'g.iiinis'
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S iran a S ui L ...................................................... ............................................................................................................ .................. 1 1 1
Lisi ie Piil. his (C mii.n Alillll 'lllm n pr Moinus tiill.i.lmires. Ihnultll p.lih,,l). rii 'll I[.ilRl'Ir tillllk.i Tallmls,.. Mlei'Mi
arinda iani i/ d-I Ia Diuil/ur..1 /d l.1/adfria 1/1a3j10 .La-nrd,. E iUdja 3rBBerenieFrano ........ ............................. ........ 112
.I/nlwtt.ipgurih.i Ihrrunt (( a .(riirer 19 10l) A Ne,. Soloilleri I inlii fir ihr Spie. is .n ,ii for NmvIriro[mal Prinmill's
& toij/ o L Phinte' MI/ ia' I A Litertlid id ld ear.dio /,It 7d /dIJf ii ......... ....................... ......... .......... ... .................................. I 18
Tl(- Tm.\lliieillols iof li, Nis, \\,)ril Plilml.lir s '\ A i ill.mrisronIl r R\ l.ldl il ,l (200110) an.d ( Gro's (2001)
-I u-n on. R i/lan.d ........... ............................. ......... .................. ......... .................. .......... .................. ......... ................... ......... ........ 2 1

N e s ............ ............................. .............................. ................ ............................. ............... ............................................................. 1 2 5

P nr n ate S o c ieties ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 13 2

Recent Publicano sis ........ .......... ............ ......... ..................................... ......... ................. ..... ......... 133

M lee wings .............. ........ . ............... ............................. ......................................................... ....... ........................... .............. I 43




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