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||Neotropical primates a newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCNSSC Primate Specialist Group
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|Table of Contents
A Journal and Newsletter of the
Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC
Primate Specialist Group
Editors: Anthony B. Rylands and Ernesto Rodriguez-Luna
PSG Chairman: Russell A. Miltermeier
PSG Deputy Chairmen: Anthony B. Rylands and William R. Konstant
A Journal and Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group
Center for Applied Biodiversity Science
1919 M. St. NW, Suite 600, Washington, DC 20036, USA
ISSN 1413-4703 Abbreviation: Neotrop. Primates
Anthony B. Rylands, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International, Washington, DC
Ernesto Rodrfguez-Luna, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Mexico
Jennifer Pervola, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International, Washington, DC
Hannah M. Buchanan-Smith, University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland, UK
Adelmar F. Coimbra-Filho, Academia Brasileira de Ciancias, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Liliana Cortis-Ortiz, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Mexico
Carolyn M. Crockett, Regional Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
Stephen E Ferrari, Universidade Federal do Pari, Beldm, Brazil
Eckhard W. Heymann, Deutsches Primatenzentrum, Gottingen, Germany
William R. Konstant, Conservation International Washington, DC
Russell A. Mittermeier, Conservation International, Washington, DC
Marta D. Mudry, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina
Horacio Schneider, Universidade Federal do Pari, BelIm, Brazil
Karen B. Strier, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
Maria Emilia Yamamoto, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Brazil
Primate Specialist Group
Chairman Russell A. Mittermeier
Deputy Chairs Anthony B. Rylands & William R. Konstant
Co-Vice Chairs for the Neotropical Region Anthony B. Rylands & Ernesto Rodrfguez-Luna
Vice Chair for Asia Ardith A. Eudey
Vice Chair for Africa Thomas M. Butynski
Vice Chair for Madagascar J6rg U. Ganzhorn
Glenda P. Fibregas, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International, Washington, DC.
Production: Kim Meek, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International, Washington, DC.
The black-headed uacari, Cacajao melanocephalus ouakary.
This issue of Neotropical Primates was kindly sponsored by the Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation, 432 Walker Road, Great Falls, Virginia 22066,
USA, the Houston Zoological Gardens Conservation Program, General Manager Donald G. Olson, 1513 North MacGregor, Houston, Texas 77030,
USA, and the Los Angeles Zoo, Director Manuel Mollinedo, 5333 Zoo Drive, Los Angeles, California 90027, USA.
F 0UjNDAI IONI
smta uisIe rT e DnaOtpnl
Neotropical Primates 8(4), December 2000 131
CONTRASTES Y SIMILITUDES EN EL USO DE RECURSOS Y PATRON GENERAL DE ACTIVIDADES EN
TROPAS DE MONOS AULLADORES (ALOUATTA PALLIATA) EN FRAGMENTS DE SELVA EN Los
Saul Juan1, Alejandro Estrada2 and Rosamond Coates-Estrada2
'Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad NacionalAutdnoma de M&ico (UNAM), Apartado Postal 70-275, Mexico DF 04510, Mixico
2Estacidn de Biologia "Los Tuxtlas" Instituto de Biologia-UNAM, Apartado Postal 176, San Andris Tuxtla, Veracruz, Mixico
La fragmentaci6n y aislamiento del habitat natural de los primates silvestres por la actividad humana tiene un impact important
sobre el comportamiento alimenticio y los patrons de actividad general de monos aulladores. La variaciones en estos
comportamientos pueden representar ajustes por parte de los aulladores a condiciones ambientales cambiantes. Sin embargo,
la informaci6n disponible en la literature acerca de estos efectos es escasa. En este trabajo reportamos las preferencias alimenticias
de tropas de monos aulladores (A. palliata) existiendo en un fragmento pequefio (3 ha), uno median (35 ha) y uno grande
(250 ha) en la region de Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. Los resultados mostraron una tendencia hacia una diet mis diverse del fragmento
pequefio al grande. Una tendencia similar fue observada en cuanto al nimero de species arb6reas utilizadaspor los aulladores,
el cual vari6 de 6 a 15 a 22. La dieta de la tropa en el fragment pequefio estuvo dominada por el consumio de hojas (80% del
tiempo alimenticio), mientras que en el fragmento median y grande el consume de hojas contribuy6 al 44% y 22% del
tiempo alimenticio respectivamente. En estos dltimos dos sitios los aulladores tambien consumieron proporciones importantes
de frutos y flores. Observamos una tendencia, en la proporci6n de tiempo invertido por los aulladores en viajar de un lado a
otro, a disminuir del fragment grande al pequefio, sugiriendo limitaciones importantes en los desplazamientos de la tropa
dentro de su area de suministro. Nuestro studio sugiere el uso de una perspective a nivel del paisaje en el studio y conservaci6n
de tropas de monos aulladores existiendo en habitats fragmentados.
Palabras Clave: Mono aullador, Alouatta palliata, fragmentaci6n, Los Tuxtlas, Mexico
Human induced fragmentation and isolation of the natural habitat may have important effects on the feeding behavior and
general activity patterns of howler monkeys. Observed variations in these behavior patterns may represent adjustments made
by howler monkeys to changing environmental conditions, but until now little information is available in the literature on
such effects. We studied the general feeding preferences and activity patterns of howler monkey troops (A. palliata) existing in
three forest fragments--one small (3 ha), one medium (35 ha) and one large (250 ha)-in the region of Los Tuxtlas, Mexico.
Results showed a general trend toward a more diverse resource base in the diet from the small to the large forest fragments. A
similar trend was evident in the number of tree species used, ranging from 6 to 15 to 22. The observed diet of the howler troop
in the smallest fragment was dominated by leaves (80% feeding time). In contrast, in the medium and large fragments
consumption of leaves accounted for 44% and 22% of their feeding time, respectively, with fruits and flowers accounting for
the remaining feeding time. The proportion of time spent traveling decreased from the large to the medium to the small forest
fragment, suggesting limitations in troop ranging with decreases in habitat size. Our study suggests the use of a landscape
perspective in the study and conservation of howler monkey troops existing in fragmented habitats.
Key Words: Howler monkey, Alouatta palliata, fragmentation, Los Tuxtlas, Mexico
Introducci6n nuestros bancos de datos sobre la historic natural y ecologia de
las species en el gdnero Alouatta, pero tambidn para calibrar la
Los monos aulladores del area Mesoamericana, Alouatta elasticidad ecol6gica de las species y general models que eviten
palliata y A. pigra, no han escapado de la destrucci6n y la desaparici6n continuada de estas a nivel local y regional.
fragmentaci6n de su habitat natural por el hombre, resultando
en la extinci6n local de las species y en la existencia de La perturbaci6n antropogenica del habitat natural de los pri-
poblaciones fragmentadas y aisladas bajo riesgo de extinci6n mates Neotropicales debe tener consecuencias importantes sobre
(Offerman et al., 1995). Nuestro conocimiento sobre las los patrons de utilizaci6n de recursos alimenticios y sobre las
respuestas de Alouatta a la fragmentaci6n y degradaci6n de actividades generals de estos. Cambios en estos patrons
sus habitats naturales es aun escasa (Kinzey, 1997). Tal representan ajustes de tiempo y energia dirigidos al
informaci6n es indispensable, no solo para enriquecer sostenimiento de actividades vitales como crecimiento,
132 Neotropical Primates 8(4), December 2000
Figura 1. Paisaje fragmentado de la region de Los Tuxdas, Veracruz,
Mexico. Las ireas oscuras son fragments de selva. Lineas continues
son arroyos. Areas en blanco son pastizales. P = fragmento pequefio
3.2 ha, M = fragmento median 35 ha, G = fragmento grande 250
mantenimiento y reproducdci6n y su documentaci6n nos puede
decir much acerca de la elasticidad adaptativa de las species
a los cambios ambientales. Sin embargo, a pesar de la extensa
destrucci6n y aislamiento de los habitats naturales de las
species involucradas, la documentaci6n de estas respuestas
es adn pobre en la literature (Bicca-Marques, 1991; Chiarello,
1993; Bicca-Marques y Calegaro-Marques; 1994a, 1994b,
1994c; Galetti y Morellato, 1994; Estrada et al., 1999a).
Con el objeto de contribuir a este vacio de informaci6n, en
este trabajo reportamos resultados parciales de una
investigaci6n de campo dirigida a documentary las variaciones
en el comportamiento alimenticio y patrons de actividad
generals en tropas de monos aulladores (Alouatta palliata)
existiendo en un fragmento de selva pequefio (3.2 ha), uno
median (35 ha) y uno grande (250 ha), localizados en la
region de Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico.
El trabajo se efectu6 en la region de Los Tuxtlas, al sur del
estado de Veracruz, Mexico, en la zona en donde se encuentran
los terrenos de la Estaci6n de Biologia Tropical "Los Tuxtlas"
del Instituto de Biologia de la Universidad Nacional Aut6noma
de M6xico, localizada aproximadamente entire los 950 04'-
950 09' de longitud oeste ya 180 34'-180 36' de latitud norte
(Fig. 1). El clima en el area de studio es calido-himedo con
una precipitaci6n media annual de 4900 mm y una temperature
media annual de 27 C. Como resultado de la actividad humana
una proporci6n alta de las selvas de esta region han sido
fragmentadas en las iltimas seis decadas (Estrada y Coates-
Estrada, 1996; Estrada et al., 1999). En este tipo de paisajes
han quedado aisladas tropas de aulladores en algunos
fragments de selva (Estrada et al., 1999b), situaci6n que
permit llevar a cabo studios relacionados a diagnosticar las
respuestas de los monos aulladores a la fragmentaci6n de sus
habitats. Asi, tres fragments de selva ocupados por una tropa
de monos aulladores cada uno fueron seleccionados para los
prop6sitos de este trabajo.
El fragmento pequefio, con un Irea de 3.2 ha y de forma
alargada, present vegetaci6n selvAtica residual formada por
arboles a los lados de un arroyo. Este sitio esti rodeado de
pastizales y el fragmento de selva mis cercano esta a 1.5 km
(Fig. 1). En este sitio se encontraba una tropa de A. palliata
compuesta por dos machos adults, dos hembras adults y
un infante. El fragmento median, con una superficie de 35
ha, tambidn rodeado de pastizales, se localiz6 a 2 km al oeste
del fragmento pequefio y a 0.5 km del fragmento mas cercano
(Fig. 1). En este sitio estaba present una tropa de monos
aulladores compuesta por tres machos adults, dos hembras
adults, un juvenile y un infante. El fragmento grande, de
250 ha en extension, se localiza a unos 5-6 km al sur de los
anteriores y tambidn estaba rodeado por pastizales (Fig. 1).
Este sitio lo habitaba una tropa de aulladores compuesta por
dos machos adults, cuatro hembras adults, un juvenile y un
infante (Tabla 1).
El registro del comportamiento alimenticio y patr6n gen-
eral de actividades de los aulladores de cada sitio se efectu6
durante 5-8 dias en cada mes para el period Marzo-Julio y
para el mes Septiembre de 1999. Las observaciones
consistieron en muestreos focales de cada individuo de la
tropa, iniciindose estos a las 0600 hrs y terminando a las
1800 hrs. Para cada sujeto se registry el tiempo dedicado a
cinco actividades generals: descanso, alimentaci6n,
locomoci6n, interacciones sociales y viaje (movilizaci6n
sincr6nica de los individuos de la tropa a otra irea de arboles
dentro del fragmento de selva). En el caso de la actividad
alimenticia, se marcaron los arboles utilizados y se
identificaron a nivel de especie. Asf mismo, se desglos6 el
tiempo invertido en el consume de hojas (j6venes y
maduras), de frutos (j6venes y maduros), de flores y de
"otros" (peciolos de epifitas, hemiparisitas y bejucos). Los
datos resultantes fueron expresados como porcentajes de
tiempo registrado en cada actividad.
Tabla 1. Composici6n por edades y sexo de las tropas de monos
aulladores en los fragments estudiados. Se indican tambien las
estimaciones de la biomasa animal representada por los aulladores
en cada sitio.
Pequefio Mediano Grande
(3.2 ha) (35 ha) 1250 ha)
Machos adults 2 3 2
Hembras adults 2 2 4
Juveniles 1 1
Infantes 1 1 1
Total 5 7 8
Kg/ha 8.0 1.1 0.17
Neotropical Primates 8(4), December 2000 133
Con el objeto de contar con datos cuantitativos sobre aspects
estructurales de la vegetaci6n de cada sitio, todos los irboles
> 25 cm en diametro a la altura del pecho (dap) fueron
censados en cada sitio en seis cuadros de 10 x 10 m. Para
cada Arbol registrado se identific6 la especie, se obtuvo su
dap y su altura maxima.
Patrdn general de actividades
Las actividades generals de los monos aulladores en el
fragmento pequefio se distribuyeron del siguiente modo:
descanso 74.4%, alimentaci6n 24.3%, interacciones sociales
0.6%, locomoci6n 0.5%, yviaje 0.2%. En el caso de la tropa
en el fragmento median las proporciones de tiempo
dedicadas a estas actividades variaron de la siguiente manera:
descanso 78.6%, alimentaci6n 16.4%, interacciones sociales
3.6%, locomoci6n 0.9% yviaje 0.5%. La distribuci6n de las
actividades de los aulladores en el fragmento grande fue como
sigue: descanso 69.0%, alimentaci6n 28.0%, viaje 1.5%,
interacciones sociales 0.8% y locomoci6n 0.7% (Tabla 2).
Uso de recursos alimenticios
En el fragment pequefio registramos alimentaci6n por los
aulladores en 16 arboles de seis species. Dos de estas species,
Brosimum alicastrum y Ficus tecolutensis (Moraceae), fueron
el foco de alimentaci6n de los aulladores quienes invirtieron
el 86.2% alimentindose de las hojas y frutos de estas species.
En el fragmento median los aulladores usaron 30 irboles
de 15 species. Entre estas species sobresalieron Ficus spp.,
Poulsenia armata, y Clarisia biflora de la Moraceae, Cecropia
obtusifolia de la Cecropiaceae y Spondias radolkoferi de la
Anacardiaceae, contribuyendo al 71.1% del tiempo
alimenticio registrado. Las species de la Moraceae
contribuyeron al 69.8% de este tempo. En el sitio grande,
los monos usaron 45 drboles de 22 species como fuente de
alimento. Entre estas, Ficus sp.9, Pseudolmedia oxyphyllaria y
Poulsenia armata de la Moraceae contribuyeron al 52% del
tiempo alimenticio registrado.
En el fragmento pequefio los aulladores invirtieron el 81.9%
del tiempo alimenticio registrado en el consume de hojas
j6venes, 16.2% en el consume de hojas maduras y 1.1% y
0.8% en el consume de frutos j6venes y maduros
respectivamente. Los aulladores en el fragment median
pasaron el 42.6% de su tiempo alimenticio en el consume
de frutos maduros, 34.2% en el consume de hojas j6venes,
10.7% en el consume de flores y 9.8% en el consume de
hojas maduras. Frutos j6venes y "otros" contribuyeron al
1.5% y 1.2% del tiempo alimenticio respectivamente. En el
sitio grande la tropa de aulladores pas6 el 64.7% del tiempo
de alimentaci6n consumiendo frutos maduros, 22.5% hojas
j6venes, 7.1% frutos j6venes, 4.7% y 1.0% hojas maduras.
El censo de la vegetaci6n en los seis cuadros de 10 x 10 m
por sitio mostr6 que a media que se incrementa el drea del
fragment, se incrementa el ndmero irboles registrados, se
registrar un mayor ndmero de species y las medidas promedio
del dap y alturas son mis altos (Tabla 2).
Tabla 2. Proporci6n de tiempo empleado por los aulladores en
diferentes actividades generals. Tambidn se muestra, para el
comportamiento alimenticio, la proporci6n de tiempo registrado en
el consume de cada partfcula alimenticia. Al final de la tabia se muestra
el ndmero de drboles y species arboreas usadas por los aulladores de
cada sitio como fuente de alimento y los resultados del censo de irboles
> 25 cm en diinetro a la altura del pecho (dap), en seis cuadros de 10
x 10 m en cada sitio.
Fra Dmeeto de sdeva
SPequefio- Mediano Grande
.-, : ._* % : % -,,:
Descanso -4.4 -8.6 69.0
Alimentaci6n 24.3 16.4 28.0
Locomoci6n 0.5 0.9 0.7
Interac. Sociales 0.6 3.6 0.8
Viaje 0.2 0.5 1.5
Hojas j6venes 81.9 34.2 22.5
Hojas maduras 16.2 9.8 1.0
Frutos j6venes 1.1 1.5 7.1
Frutos maduros 0.8 42.6 64.7
Flores 10.7 4.7
No. arboles usados 16 30 45
No. species 6 15 22
Censo de irboles
No. species contadas 15 22 31
No. arboles contados 28 46 74
Promedio dbh cm 33.5 51.4 71.3
Rango dbh cm 25-70 25-120 25-130
Altura promedio arboles m 15 19 23
Rango alturas m 10-22 15-25 17-24
Los aulladores de los tres fragments presentaron similitudes y
diferencias evidentes en sus comportamientos generals y
patrons de utilizaci6n de recursos. En el caso del patr6n gen-
eral de actividades, este fue similar con una predominancia de
la actividad descanso sobre las otras, seguida por la actividad
alimenticia. Sin embargo, el incremento observado en la
proporci6n de tiempo en la actividad viaje a media que se
incrementa el tamafio del fragment, hace evidence la restricci6n
espacial de los aulladores a media que decrece el tamafio del
fragment (Chiarello, 1993; Bicca-Marques y Calegaro-
Marques, 1994b; Ostro et al., 1999).
En el caso del comportamiento alimenticio, es possible observer,
por un lado, una tendencia general hacia un uso de recursos y
dieta mis diversos del fragment chico al grande. Por ejemplo, el
ndmero de irboles utilizados vari6 de 16 a 30 a 45 a media que
el area del fragment se incremental. Una tendencia similar es
evidence en el caso del nmimero de species arb6reas usadas, el
cual vari6 de 6 a 15 a 22. Por otro lado, mientras que la dieta de
los aulladores en el fragmento chico estuvo dominada por el
consume de hojas, en las tropas del fragmento median y grande
la dieta induy6 proporciones regulates de frutos y flores, como ha
sido reportado para grupos de aulladores existiendo en selvas no
perturbadas y de mayor extension (Milton, 1980; Estrada, 1984).
134 Neotropical Primates 8(4), December 2000
La capacidad de usar hojas como alimento le permit a los
monos aulladores afrontar reducciones amplias en el area de
vegetaci6n selvitica que conforma su habitat (Estrada y Coates-
Estrada, 1993, 1996). Sin embargo la naturaleza efimera de
las hojas j6venes y frutos maduros usados por Alouatta como
alimento (Milton, 1984), sugiere que esta elasticidad tiene
limits y que quizA los aulladores se ven forzados a consumer
recursos de menor calidad 6 de naturaleza ex6tica (Bicca-
Marques y Calegaro-Marques, 1994c). Por ejemplo, nuestros
datos indicaron que la proporci6n de tiempo dedicado al
consumo de hojas maduras se increment6 del 1.0% al 9.8%
al 16.2% a media que decrece el area del fragmento. Asi
mismo, los aulladores en esta situaci6n probablemente
presented problems de balance nutritional como resultado
de una dieta basada predominantemente en el consumo de
hojas (Milton, 1984). La predominancia en fragments de
selva pequefios del Arbol pionero Cecropia obtusifolia, especie
reportada como important en la dieta de A. palliata (Glander,
1979, Milton 1980, Estrada 1984), sugiere una abundancia
de recursos (hojas y frutos). Sin embargo, una explotaci6n
intense de esta especie, por falta de otras, podria conducir a
una ingesti6n excesiva de compuestos secundarios, comunes
en esta especie arb6rea (Garay-Arroyo yAlvarez-Buylla, 1997),
con repercusiones negatives sobre el bienestar fisico de los
aulladores (Estrada etal., 1999).
En fragments de selva pequefios las tropas no pueden, a
media que los recursos se extinguen en el tiempo y espacio,
incrementar el tamafio de sus areas de suministro y asf expandir
sus alternatives dieteticas, situaciones que obligan a las tropas
a utilizar recursos alimenticios sub6ptimos desde el punto de
vista nutritional con presiones importantes sobre el estado
fisico de los individuos (Milton, 1984). Por otro lado, es de
esperarse que a media que disminuye el tamafio del habitat,
exista una mayor carga animal sobre el Area disponible. Por
ejemplo, una estimaci6n de la biomasa animal representada
por los aulladores en cada sitio, vari6 de 8.0 kg/ha en el
fragmento pequefio, a 1.1 kg/ha en el median, a 0.17 kg/ha
en el grande. Por consiguiente, es muy probable que tropas de
Alouatta en fragments selvAticos pequefios y en aquellos que
continuan reduciendose en tamafio, existan bajo condiciones
ecol6gicas sub6ptimas y de alto estres ambiental que las ponen
en peligro de extinci6n (Offerman etal., 1995).
Aunado a la falta de espacio y recursos alternatives, la
degradaci6n continuada de la vegetaci6n en fragments
pequefios de selva result en una alta mortalidad de arboles
(Laurance et al., 1997). Esto, mAs la extracci6n de madera 6
la expansion de las areas de pastizal por el hombre a expenses
de la selva remanente, sugiere presiones adicionales sobre la
supervivencia de tropas de aulladores existiendo en fragments
de vegetaci6n selvdtica < 30-50 ha en extension. Por ejemplo,
el censo de los irboles en los cuadros de 10 x 10 m en cada
sitio, mostr6 una tendencia al decremento en el nmmero de
arboles, en la diversidad de species y en el area basal arb6rea
a media que disminuye el area del fragmento, cambios que
indican un important pdrdida de recursos para los monos
aulladores que habitan estos sitios. Es probable que en estos
casos las demands del habitat sobre la elasticidad ecol6gica,
fisiol6gica y conductual de los monos aulladores son tales
que, a menos que estos sean transferidos a sitios de mayor
extension, tendri consecuencias graves para su supervivencia
a corto, median y largo plazo (Ostro, etal., 1999).
El establecimiento de corredores de vegetaci6n entire fragments
selviticos aislados podrfa aliviar estas presiones y afiadir
conectividad entire las tropas aisladas de monos aulladores. Esto
dtltimo seria casi tan important como la necesidad de contar
con fuentes alternatives de alimentaci6n 6 la oportunidad de
diversificar su dieta para asegurar su conservacid6n (Estrada y
Coates-Estrada, 1996; Silver etal., 1998).
Se agradece el apoyo de la UNAM y del Sr. John Scott. SJ
fue beneficiario del 1999 ASP Conservation Grant.
Bicca-Marques, J. C. 1991. Padrio de utilizacao de uma ilha
de mata por Alouatta caraya (Primates: Cebidae). Rev. Bras.
Biol. 1: 161-171.
Bicca-Marques, J. C. y Calegaro-Marques, C. 1994a. Feed-
ing behavior of the black howler monkey (Alouatta caraya)
in a seminatural forest. Acta Biol. Leopoldiana 2: 69-84.
Bicca-Marques, J. C. y Calegaro-Marques, C. 1994b. Activ-
ity budget and diet ofAlouatta caraya: An age-sex analysis.
Folia Primatol. 63: 216-220.
Bicca-Marques, J. C. y Calegaro-Marques, C. 1994c. Exotic
plant species can serve as staple food sources for wild howler
populations. Folia Primatol. 63: 209-211.
Chiarello, A. 1993. Activity pattern of the brown howler
monkey Alouatta fusca, Geoffroy, 1812, in a forest frag-
ment of northeastern Brazil. Primates 3: 289-293.
Estrada, A. 1982. Survey and census of howler monkeys
(Alouattapaliata) in the rain forest of Los Tuxdas, Veracruz,
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Estrada, A. 1984. Resource use by howler monkeys (Alouatta
palliata) in the rain forest of Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico.
Int. J. Primatol. 5: 105-131.
Estrada, A. y Coates-Estrada, R. 1993. Aspects of ecological
impact of howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata) on their
habitat: A review. En: Avances en Estudios Primatoldgicos en
Mexico, A. Estrada, E. Rodriguez-Luna, R. Lopez-Wilchis
y R. Coates-Estrada (eds.), pp. 87-117. Asociaci6n
Mexicana de Primatologia, A.C. y Patronatto Pro-
Universidad Veracruzana, A.C. Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico.
Estrada, A. y Coates-Estrada, R. 1996. Tropical rain forest
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Estrada, A., Juan Solano, S., Ortfz-Martinez, T. y Coates-
Estrada, R. 1999a. Feeding and general activity patterns
of a howler monkey (Alouatta palliata) troop living in a
forest fragment at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. Am. J. Primatol.
Estrada, A., Anzures D. A. y Coates-Estrada, R. 1999b. Tropi-
cal rain forest fragmentation, howler monkeys (Alouatta
Neotropical Primates 8(4), December 2000 135
palliata) and dung beetles at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. Am. J.
Primatol. 48: 253-262.
Galetti, M., Pedroni, E y Morellato, L. P C. 1994. Diet of the
brown howler monkey Alouattafiusca in a forest fragment in
southeastern Brazil. Mammalia 58(1): 111-118.
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tion in a tropical pioneer tree species (Cecropia obtusifolia,
Moraceae) with high contents of secondary compounds.
Biotropica 3: 280-290.
Glander, K. E. 1979. Howling monkey feeding
behavior and plant secondary compounds: A study of
strategies. En: The Ecology of the Arboreal Folivores. G. G.
Montgomery (ed.), pp. 561-574. Smithsonian Institu-
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Kinzey, W. 1997. Alouatta. En: New World Primates: Ecol-
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Merona, J., Gascon, C. y Lovejoy, T. E. 1997. Biomass
collapse inAmazonian forest fragments. Science 278: 1117-
Milton, K. 1980. The Foraging Strategy of Howler Monkeys:
A Study in Primate Economics. Columbia University Press,
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mate food choice. En: Adaptations for Foraging in Non
Human Primates, P. S. Rodman, J. G. H. Cant (eds.),
pp.249-277. Colombia University Press, Colombia.
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0. Jr. y O'Neill, R. V. 1995. Effects of forest fragmenta-
tion on Neotropical fauna: Current research and data avail-
ability. Env. Rev. 3: 190-211.
Ostro, L. E. T., Silver, S. C., Koontz, E W., Young, T. P. y
Horwich, R. H. 1999. Ranging behavior of translocated
and established groups of black howler monkeys Alouatta
pigra in Belize, Central America. Biol. Conserv. 87: 181-
Silver, S. C., Ostro, L. E. T., Yeager, C. P. y Horwich, R.
1988. Feeding ecology of the black howler monkey
(Alouatta pigra) in northern Belize. Am. J. Primatol. 45:
Neotropical Primates 8(4), December 2000
REPRODUCTIVE SEASONAUTY IN THE BEUZEAN BLACK
HOWLING MONKEY (ALOUATTA PIGRA)
Robin C. Brockett
Robert H. Horwich
Clara B. Jones
The synchrony of mating by female primates ("temporal syn-
chrony") and the subsequent synchrony of births varies within
and between species and is thought to be a function of re-
source distribution in time and space as well as other environ-
mental factors such as the risks of predation or infanticide
(Nunn, 1999). Primates may exhibit discrete birth seasons,
birth peaks, birth "clusters", birth "dips", or females may pro-
duce young asynchronously throughout the year (see reviews
in Smuts etal., 1986 and Crockett and Rudran, 1987). From
a female's perspective, the timing of reproduction is expected
to exert a significant influence on lifetime reproductive suc-
cess if her chances of successful reproduction vary significantly
from month to month. In particular, environmental regimes
(e.g., food availability or risks of infanticide) may determine
probabilities of successful implantation, gestation, lactation,
or maternal or infant survival.
The present note presents evidence that Belizean black howl-
ing monkeys (Alouattapigra) exhibit a significant peak in births
during those months when rainfall is lowest and that this re-
productive seasonality may be related to peaks in the abun-
dance of fruit during the period of gestation. Reproductive
seasonality has been reported for two other species ofAlouatta
(A.palliata: Jones, 1980; Fedigan etal., 1998; andA. seniculus:
Crockett and Rudran, 1987). Similarities and differences be-
tween these reports and the present observations will be dis-
cussed in addition to a consideration of data available on birth
patterns for other species of the genus.
The six or seven recognized species of howling monkeys, large,
vegetarian, arboreal atelids, are distributed throughout Latin
America from northern Argentina to southern Mexico
(Crockett and Eisenberg, 1986). Our adlibitum observations
of marked black howlers were collected at the Community
Baboon Sanctuary (CBS), Belize, Central America. The CBS
is a managed reserve of>18 sq. mi. formed in 1985 by coop-
erative agreement among private landowners (Horwich, 1990).
Located at 17*33' N, 8835' W, the CBS is a mosaic of small
farms, pastures and tropical moist forest fragments including
riparian habitat along the Belize River (see Horwich and Lyon,
1990). The study area is composed of mapped trails, and
>1500 trees are mapped and identified. Black howlers are
generally polygynous (single breeding male) with a modal
group size of one adult male to several adult females and
immatures (Horwich et al., in prep.), although multimale-
multifemale (polygynandrous) groups may be found. Groups
have been studied by the present research program since 1985,
and systematic observations, including marking of animals
and collection of morphometric data, have been carried out
since the early 1990's.
Horwich (1983) reported opportunistic observations of sexual
behavior in A. pigra, although reproductive behavior in the
species has not been described in systematic detail. Our ob-
servations indicate that reproductive parameters in black howl-
ers are similar to those of their congeners. In particular, gesta-
tion length appears to be slightly over six months (Brockett,
pers. obs.), and interbirth intervals are within the range re-
ported for other Alouatta species (Horwich et al., in prep.).
Black howler females demonstrate unreliable genital markers
during the estrous cycle, similar to A. seniculus (Crockett and
Eisenberg, 1986), although chemical cues appear to be sig-
nificant as suggested by male attraction to female genitalia
(Horwich, 1983). A male and a female may leave a group
Figure 1. The distribution of black howler births at the CBS (1992-1999). Month
Figure 1. The distribution of black howler births at the CBS (1992-1999). Months with lowest annual rainfall are in black.
Neotropical Primates 8(4), December 2000 137
together in apparent consort (Brockett, pers. obs.; Horwich,
pers. obs.; Jones, pers. obs.) as reported for A. seniculus
(Crockett and Eisenberg, 1986) and A. palliata (Jones, 1995).
No data are available for either sex on age of sexual maturity
in black howlers.
Figure 1 shows the proportion of births per month at the
CBS from 1992-1999 (N = 121). Births differ significantly
by month (p<0.001, x2 = 36.38, df = 11), and births are sig-
nificantly more likely to occur during the six month period,
December through May, which is early dry season through
early wet season, (Horwich and Lyon, 1990) than during the
remaining six months of the year (p<0.001, x2= 26.5, df = 1).
Silver (1998, Fig. 2.3) reports an annual peak in fruit from
July to December, suggesting that females adjust gestation to
this annual period and lactation to the driest months.
There is no simple relationship between birth peaks, season-
ality, and food availability within the genus Alouatta. Jones
(1980) reported a statistically significant peak in births dur-
ing the dry season at Hacienda la Pacifica (Costa Rica). Her
report combined data for two groups, one in riparian habitat
and one in deciduous habitat, presumed to be the poorer habi-
tat. All births in the latter habitat were restricted to the dry
season (November through April). Recently, Fedigan et al.
(1998) reported a statistically significant birth peak in Costa
Rican deciduous habitat (Santa Rosa National Park) during
the dry season. Clarke and Glander (1984), primarily study-
ing mantled howler groups in riparian habitat at Hacienda la
Pacifica, reported birth "clusters" without annual patterns and
slightly more births during the wet season than the dry sea-
son. At Barro Colorado Island, Panama, a semideciduous low-
land tropical forest, Carpenter (1934) found that births oc-
curred throughout the year, while at the same site Milton
(1982) found some evidence of clustering. In the same spe-
cies, then, differences have been found within and between
habitats with drier sites (Santa Rosa and Hacienda la Paci-
fica) and wetter sites (riparian and semideciduous) appearing
to demonstrate the same trends. Birth peaks in tropical dry
forest, in particular, deciduous forest, may be related to the
availability of fruit (Frankie etal., 1974). Mantled howlers in
these forests may time lactation to coincide with food availabil-
ity, the opposite pattern than that proposed for black howlers.
Crockett and Rudran (1987) described reproductive seasonal-
ity inA. seniculus. Reporting results for two habitats (woodland
and gallery forest), they suggested a birth peak in woodland
habitat during the dry season, as found for A palliata in decidu-
ous habitat. In Crockett and Rudran's Venezuelan study site,
woodland habitat is most likely the poorer for red howlers, simi-
lar to deciduous habitat for mantled howlers. Crockett and
Rudran (1987) also found a "birth dip" in both habitats during
the early wet season (May-July). In Argentina, Zunino and his
colleagues reported a birth peak from mid March-mid June for
the black-and-gold howling monkey, A. caraya, in riparian for-
est, possibly related to "a slight reduction in rainfall" (Zunino,
pers. comm., October, 2000). However, infants are born
throughout the year in flooded insular habitats along the Parani
river (Zunino, pers. comm., October, 2000).
Crockett and Rudran (1987) pointed out that howlers might
be expected to exhibit less seasonal breeding than other gen-
era due to their broad vegetarian diets and large body size.
Nonetheless, as reviewed here, several studies have found re-
productive seasonality in Alouatta. Additional studies are re-
quired to document the extent of birth peaks and reproduc-
tive seasonality in howling monkeys and the proximate and
ultimate causes of these patterns.
Acknowledgments: We are grateful to Dr. K. E. Glander for his
assistance in marking the animals. These studies were carried
out with the support of the National Geographic Society
(Grants #5352-94 and #5653-96).
Robin C. Brockett, Zoo Atlanta, Atlanta, Georgia, USA,
Robert H. Horwich, Community Conservation Consultants,
R.D. 1, Box 96, Gays Mills, Wisconsin 54631, USA, and
Clara B. Jones, Livingstone College, Salisbury, North Caro-
lina 28144, USA. Address for correspondence: Clara B. Jones,
Livingstone College, Department of Psychology, 701 W.
Monroe Street, Salisbury, North Carolina 28144, USA, e-
Carpenter, C. R. 1934. A field study of the behavior and so-
cial relations of howling monkeys (Alouattapalliata). Comp.
Psychol. Monog. 10: 1-168.
Clarke, M. R. and Glander, K. E. 1984. Female reproductive
success in a group of free-ranging howling monkeys (Alouatta
palliata) in Costa Rica. In: Female Primates: Studies by Women
Primatologists, M. F. Small (ed.), pp.111-126. Alan R. Liss,
Crockett, C. M. and Eisenberg, J. E 1987. Howlers: Varia-
tions in group size and demography. In: Primate Societies,
B. B. Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham
and T. T. Struhsaker (eds.), pp.54-68. University of Chi-
cago Press, Chicago.
Crockett, C. M. and Rudran, R. 1987. Red howler monkey birth
data I: Seasonal variation. Am. J. Primatol 13: 347-368.
Fedigan, L. M., Rose, L. M. and Avila, R. M. 1998. Growth
of mantled howler groups in a regenerating Costa Rican
dry forest. Int. J. PrimatoL 19: 405-432.
Frankie, G. W., Baker, H. G., and Opler, P. A. 1974.
Comparative phenological studies of trees in tropical wet
and dry forests in the lowlands of Costa Rica. J. Ecol. 62:
Horwich, R. H. 1983. Breeding behaviors in the black howler
monkey (Alouatta pigra) of Belize. Primates 24: 222-230.
Horwich, R. H. 1990. How to develop a community sanctu-
ary: An experimental approach to the conservation of
private lands. Oryx 24: 95-102.
Horwich, R. H. and Lyon, J. 1990. A Belizean Rainforest.
Orang-Utan Press, Gays Mills, WI.
Jones, C. B. 1980. Seasonal parturition, mortality, and dis-
persal in the mantled howler monkey, Alouattapalliata Gray.
Brenesia 1: 1-10.
Jones, C. B. 1995. Alternative reproductive behaviors in the
mantled howler monkey (Alouatta palliata Gray): Testing
138 Neotropical Primates 8(4), December 2000
Carpenter's hypothesis. Bol. Primatol6dgico Latinoamericano
Milton, K 1982. Dietary quality and demographic regulation
in a howler monkey population. In: The Ecology of
a Tropical Forest: Seasonal Rhythms and Long-Term
Changes, E. G. Leigh, Jr., A. S. Rand, D. M. Windsor (eds.),
pp.273-289. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.
Nunn, C. L. 1999. The number of males in primate social
groups: A comparative test of the socioecological model.
Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 46: 1-13.
Silver, S. C. 1998. The Feeding Ecology of Translocated
Howler Monkeys, Alouatta pigra, in Belize. Unpublished
Ph.D. Dissertation, Fordham University.
Smuts, B. B., Cheney, D. L., Seyfarth, R. M., Wrangham, R.
W. and Struhsaker, T. T. (eds.). 1986. Primate Societies.
University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
AGONISTIC ENCOUNTERS BETWEEN MURIQUIS,
BRACHYTELESARACHNOIDES HYPOXANTHUs (PRIMATES,
CEBIDAE), AND OTHER ANIMALS AT THE ESTA(AO
BIOLOGICAL DE CARATINGA, MINAS GERAIS, BRAZIL
Luiz G. Dias
Karen B. Strier
The Atlantic forest of southeastern Brazil is well-known for
high levels of primate species diversity and endemism (Rylands
etal., 1995). There are currently 24 primate species and sub-
species recognized in the Atlantic forest, with up to five spe-
cies still found sympatrically in a number of remaining forest
tracts (Rylands et aL, 1996). Censuses of a number of these
primate communities, particularly in the states ofMinas Gerais
and Sio Paulo, have consistently estimated higher primate
population densities in the small, disturbed forest fragments
than in the larger, more pristine ones (Stallings and Robinson,
1991; Pinto etal., 1993; Hirsch, 1995; Strier and Fonseca,
1996/1997). For example, density estimates for northern
muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides hypoxanthus) and brown
howler monkeys (Alouatta fusca) are much greater in the
890 ha forest at the Estacao Biol6gica de Caratinga (EBC),
in Minas Gerais, than in the nearby, 36,114 ha Parque
Estadual de Rio Doce (Hirsch, 1995).
High densities, along with high dietary and habitat overlap
among species, are also likely to lead to high frequencies of
interspecific encounters, and possibly correspondingly high
levels of direct or indirect interspecific competition (Waser,
1987). However, very little is known about how high levels
of interspecific competition might affect populations of en-
dangered species (Strier et al., 2000).
In a preliminary investigation, we collected data on the con-
texts and outcomes of all agonistic interactions observed be-
tween northern muriquis, now classified as one of the world's
25 most endangered primates (Conservation International,
2000), and other animals at the EBC. In addition to muriquis
and brown howler monkeys, the EBC primate community
consists of a third endangered species of primate, the buffy-
headed marmoset (Callithrixflaviceps), and the more wide-
spread tufted capuchin monkey (Cebus nigritus).
Because larger-bodied species tend to "win" in direct con-
tests with smaller-bodied species (Waser, 1987), we predicted
that muriquis, which can weigh up to 15 kg (Aguirre, 1971)
would be "dominant" in their interactions with other smaller
primate species and with other smaller animals. Nonethe-
less, the fact that the diets of all four species of primates at
the EBC overlap to varying degrees led us to predict that
differences in the frequency and intensity of interspecific
interactions would occur. For example, EBC muriquis and
howler monkeys consume many of the same species, and in
some cases, patches of fruits, leaves, and flowers (Mendes,
1989; Strier, 1991; Rfmoli, 1994). Tufted capuchins are om-
nivorous, and have been known to prey on a variety of in-
Table 1. Muriqui behavior during aggressive interactions with other animals at the EBC.
Howlers Capsucins Tayra Owl Lizard
Muriqui behavior" N % N % N % N % N %
Branch shaking 9 31 0 4 33.3 1 100 1 100 1 100
Teeth-bared 1 3.4 1 8.3 1 100
Chase 26 89.0 11 91.7 1 100 1 100 1 100
Vocalize 11 37.0 11 91.7 1 100 1 100 1 100
*Percentages for each species may exceed 100% because muriqui behaviors are not mutually exclusive.
Table 2. Contexts of agonistic interactions between muriquis and other animals at the EBC.
Howlers Capuchins Tayra Owl Lizard
Muriqui activity' N o N "o N % N % N %
Traveling 7 24.1 3 25.0 -
Resting 3 10.3 7 58.3 1 100 1 100 1 100
Feeding 16 55.2 4 33.3 -
Playing infants 5 17.2 1 8.3
*Percentages for each species may exceed 100% because muriqui behaviors are not mutually exclusive.
Neotropical Primates 8(4), December 2000 139
sects and vertebrates including lizards, bats, squirrels, young
coatis, and even small primates such as owl and titi mon-
keys where they occur sympatrically (Freese, 1981; Fedigan,
1990; Galetti, 1990), but they also exploit many of the same
fruit, flower, and nectar sources as muriquis (Torres de
Assumpsao, 1983). Similarly, although buffy-headed mar-
mosets rely heavily on invertebrates and gum (Ferrari, 1988),
their diet overlaps with muriquis in certain fruit and nectar
species (Ferrari and Strier, 1992).
There are few data on muriqui predators (Olmos, 1994),
and there are few large carnivores or raptors at the EBC
(Strier, 1986; Hirsch, 1995). However, Printes etal (1996)
describe two possible predations on muriqui infants at the
EBC, one involving a tayra ("irara", Eira barbara) and the
other a large hawk (Leptodon cayanensis, Accipitridae). Thus,
at least some of the muriquis' interspecific interactions might
involve predators with the potential to impact muriqui popu-
lation size and viability.
From January to July 1999, one group of muriquis was ob-
served on a near-daily basis as part of a long-term study on
the EBC population (Strier, 1999). All 59 members in the
study group during this period were individually recogniz-
able and thoroughly habituated to the presence of trained
observers. Behavioral data on agonistic interactions between
muriquis and other species were recorded whenever observed.
For each interaction, the species, context of the encounter
(food or feeding site, traveling, resting site), and behavior
exhibited by all species involved were noted. Behavioral cat-
egories included chases, alarm vocalizations, branch-shak-
ing, and teeth-baring displays, as described by other authors
(Strier, 1986; 1999, Petroni, 1993; Galetti, 1996). Agonis-
tic interactions were considered to be of "low intensity" if
threats, such as branch shaking or vocalizations, were lim-
ited in duration, and of "high intensity" when one or both
species engaged in prolonged threats or vocalizations, or
when chases or bared-teeth displays were involved.
A total of 44 interactions were observed between muriquis
and other animals during this seven-month study period.
Of these, 65.9% involved howler monkeys and 27.3% in-
volved capuchins. Single interactions between muriquis and
a tegu lizard ("teidi", Tupinambis sp.), a tawny-browed owl
("corujao mateiro", Pulsatrix koeniswaldina), and a tayra
(2.3% each) were also observed.
As expected based on body size, muriquis "won" all agonis-
tic encounters with other species, which inevitably termi-
nated the interaction by leaving the vicinity. However, there
were striking differences in the intensity and contexts of in-
terspecific interactions (Table 1). Muriqui interactions with
howler monkeys were generally brief and of low intensity,
consistent with those described previously at the EBC (Strier,
1986; Mendes, 1989) and elsewhere (Petroni, 1993). The
slightest threat from one or more muriquis made the howlers
run away, even though more than half of their encounters oc-
curred in food patches (Table 2). Capuchin monkeys, by con-
trast, often vocalized (75%), broke branches (41.7%), and bared
their teeth (33.3%), evoking much higher intensity interac-
tions with muriquis. Nonetheless, all of these encounters ended
when the capuchins moved away from the muriquis.
Muriqui interactions with nonprimates also differed in inten-
sity. When they encountered the tegu lizard, the muriquis were
spread out resting in low branches or feeding on ferns on the
ground. The lizard's sudden appearance elicited threats, but no
alarm calls. Similarly, when an owl landed less than 5 m away
from a resting adult female, she was clearly startled. Her alarms
seemed to have a similar effect on the owl, which immediately
took flight, but no other muriquis resting nearby participated
in the interaction. When the tayra approached, however, one
muriqui gave an alarm call and immediately all infants present
ran to their mothers. Three adult males and one adult female
that were resting in the vicinity responded to the alarm call by
moving rapidly toward the tayra while vocalizing loudly, at
which point the tayra ran away.
The frequency of agonistic encounters between muriquis and
howler monkeys is probably a consequence of the high density
of both species in this forest (Mendes, 1989; Hirsch, 1995;
Strier and Mendes, in prep.). The high percentage (55.2%) of
interactions that occurred in food patches is consistent with
high dietary overlap. However, the fact-that both species occur
at such high densities suggests that neither is yet suffering from
the effects of either direct or indirect feeding competition
More than half (58.3%) of all agonistic interactions between
muriquis and capuchins occurred when capuchins moved into
an area where the muriquis were resting. This is consistent with
the high degree of overlap noted in their home ranges (Torres
de AssumpcAo, 1983, Strier, 1986; Petroni, 1993). However,
more detailed data on capuchin diets at the EBC are needed to
evaluate the level of potential feeding competition (Rimoli, in
The fact that muriqui interactions with capuchin monkeys were
more intense than with howler monkeys could be a consequence
of the higher levels of aggression capuchins display. However,
although capuchins are known to prey on infants of smaller
primates (Fedigan, 1990; Galetti, 1990), it is also possible that
they may pose a threat to solitary infant muriquis.
Many primates display aggressive behavior and alarm calls in
response to the presence of predators (Cheney and Wrangham,
1987). The muriqui's alarm and threatening reaction to the
tayra in this study was consistent with their response described
in a prior suspected predation event (Printes et al., 1996). In
contrast, the lack of alarm in response to the lizard is consis-
tent with the lack of real or perceived threat.
140 Neotropical Primates 8(4), December 2000
The fact that muriquis never fled from encounters with other
species is likely to be a consequence of larger body size, and
thus a reflection of dominance over the three other primate
species in this community. This dominance should minimize
the risks of losing direct contests over food with other species.
However, we cannot yet evaluate the possible effects of indi-
rect feeding competition from howler monkeys, or even ca-
puchins, at this site. Studies focusing exclusively on interspe-
cific interactions, and in particular on the potential indirect
effects of interspecific feeding competition, are merited at sites
like the EBC, where multiple sympatric species, including
those which are endangered, may occur at high densities.
LGD thanks Cristiane C. Coelho, Clhudio P. Nogueira,
Waldney P. Martins and Vanessa 0. GuimarAes for their friend-
ship and companionship, and Jairo V. Gomes, Eduardo M. V.
Veado, Judeci V. Lada, Vera Ldcia, Antonio and Roberto for
all of their help and support. This research was supported by
grants to KBS from the Liz Claiborne and Art Ortenberg
Foundation, the Lincoln Park Zoo Neotropical Fund, and
the Graduate School of the University of Wisconsin-Madi-
son. C. P. Nogueira and J. C. da Silva Junior provided helpful
comments on an earlier version of this report.
Luiz G. Dias, Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Ciencias
Biol6gicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo
Horizonte 31270-901, Minas Gerais, Brazil, e-mail:
and Karen B. Strier, University of
Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Anthropology, 1180
Observatory Drive, 5440 Social Science Building, Madison,
Wisconsin 53706, USA.
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1995. A species list for the New Word primates
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HUNTING IMPACT ON NEOTROPICAL PRIMATES:
A PRELIMINARY CASE STUDY IN FRENCH GUIANA
Benoit de Thoisy
Rainforest still covers more than 90% of French Guiana,
affording this territory a rather favorable status compared
with many Neotropical countries (Whitmore, 1997). Forest
wildlife may nonetheless be locally threatened by uncon-
trolled agriculture, habitat fragmentation from roads, tracks,
a hydroelectric dam, logging, legal and illegal gold mining,
and hunting. Still, no conservation and natural resource
management policies exist, and the impact of human distur-
bance is only a recent concern (Granjon et al., 1996; Vid,
1998; Cosson etal., 1999). Effects of hunting on mammal
communities have not yet been evaluated, although it is one
of the major threats to a significant part of French Guianan
wildlife (de Thoisy and ViM, 1998).
As part of a multidisciplinary program on the impact of log-
ging in a traditionally used rainforest (hunting, non-ligne-
ous resource use), the Counami forest was surveyed to evalu-
ate large bird and mammal abundances, in both heavily and
lightly hunted areas. Abundances were also recorded in the
Trinity Natural Reserve, an area lightly hunted in the past
but which has now been effectively protected for four years.
The Counami site, a lowland Neotropical rainforest (53 15'W,
520'N), is located in the north of French Guiana, approxi-
mately 50 km from the Atlantic Ocean (Fig. 1). The dominant
tree families include: Lecythidaceae (22% of trees with DBH >
7.5 cm), Caesalpiniaceae (12%), Chrysobalanaceae (11%), and
Sapotaceae (6%) (Teillier, unpub. data). Interviews with local
hunters suggest that only the first 3 km of the forest, which can
be accessed by cars, motorcycles, and/or boats, are regularly
hunted. Two areas were sampled, one facing high hunting pres-
sure ("CH+", at one to 3 km from the track serving the forest),
and the other facing low hunting pressure ("CH-", four to 7
km from the track). The sites chosen were far from rivers or
possible access by boat. The study area of Trinit6 (TNR, Fig.
1) is located in the northern part of the natural reserve
(53013'N, 4043'W), in a lowland forest. Botanical surveys in
this area are presently ongoing.
Figure 1. Site location of Counami and La Trinit6 Natural Reserve,
Line transects (Brockelman and Ali, 1987; Peres, 1999; de
Thoisy, 2000) at the Counami sites were conducted in May
and June (rainy season), and from September to November
(dry season), 1998. The areas CH+ and CH- were covered by
93.5 km and 91.5 km of transect, respectively. In November
1999, 93.2 km of the TNR site were sampled and species abun-
dance was expressed as number of groups per 10 km, with the
addition of mean group size. Densities were calculated using
Leopold's method, the mean of perpendicular sighting distances
is used for estimation of the strip width (de Thoisy, in press).
Crude biomasses (mean species weight density, in kg.km-2)
were determined using the weights given in Robinson and
-.Counami site (2 areas sunweed)
142 Neotropical Primates 8(4), December 2000
Six primate species were noted to occur in the three areas
surveyed: red howler monkeys Alouatta seniculus, black spi-
der monkeys Ateles paniscus, brown capuchins Cebus apella,
wedge-capped capuchins C olivaceus, white-face sakis Pithecia
pithecia, and red-handed tamarins Saguinus midas. The wedge-
capped capuchin, however, was not observed during the
transect period at the Trinite site. Abundance, mean group
size, density and biomass from the three sites are given in
Table 1. Data from the two study periods at Counami are
At the Counami sites, total density and biomass were respec-
tively 40% and 60% lower in the area facing the heavier hunt-
ing pressure, the howler and the brown capuchin monkeys
accounting for most of the variation (Fig. 2). At the Trinite
site densities and biomasses were intermediate, but species
contribution differs by the relative importance of the spider
monkey. Contribution of the three largest species to the total
primate density, i.e., spider and howler monkeys, and brown
capuchins, decreases with the hunting pressure, from 73%
(TNR site) to 47% (CH+ site). The contribution of these
three species to the total biomass follows the same trend, de-
creasing from 94% (TNR) to 82% (CH+). Group size is not
significantly affected by hunting pressure, except for C. apella
at Counami (Table 1). Hunting pressure also affects species
behavior. In capuchins, howler and spider monkeys, much
more frequent vocalizations, alarm calls, and less cryptic be-
haviors were observed in the less disturbed areas (TNR and
CH-, vs. CH+).
Primate populations in French Guiana remain poorly docu-
mented except at l'Arataye (Guillotin et al., 1984), les
Nouragues (Julliot and Sabatier, 1993; Simmen etal., 1998),
Petit Saut (Vie, 1998), and Counami and Trinitd (de Thoisy,
2000), and even the distributional limits of the common squir-
rel monkey, Saimiri sciureus, and the bearded saki, Chiropotes
satanas are still unknown (Norconk et al., 1996).
The Counami forest is hunted by Indians, Creoles (intermixed
population descended from slaves), and Hmongs originating
from Laos. Typically, peccaries, deer, tapir, large rodents, large
birds, and primates are hunted (de Thoisy, unpubl. data).
Among the primates, capuchins are a prime target for most
hunters, and the brown capuchin is also commonly taken as
a pet. Impacts on populations may nonetheless be difficult
to assess. Cebus olivaceus has a naturally patchy distribution
(Norconk et al., 1996), and C apella is able to support a
certain harvest level by hunters (Baal etal., 1988). The meat
from larger primates, Ateles and Alouatta, is more widely ap-
preciated but hunting impacts may vary locally.
As reported for other Amazonian sites (Freese et al., 1982;
Johns, 1986; Bodmer et al., 1988; Sussman and Phillips-
Conroy, 1995; Peres, 1997a), our preliminary data suggest
that hunting pressure in French Guiana has a major impact
on primate communities. Species equilibrium, eco-ethologi-
cal patterns (Johns, 1986), reproductive rates (Peres, 1990)
and populations of the larger species, Alouatta, Ateles and
Cebus, appear to be affected. Our surveys also indicate that
population density and biomass also vary naturally, perhaps
due to changes in floristic composition and differing spatial
and temporal food resource availability. Cebus olivaceus, for
example, is very rare in the northern part of the undisturbed
La Trinitd Natural Reserve, but more abundant than C apella
in the Les Nouragues Natural Reserve, 100 km away
(Simmen et al., 1998). Howler density was also low in the
area surveyed at La Trinitd, about 60% less than at Les
Nouragues (Simmen et al., 1998). Independent of hunting
pressure, foliage quality is a predominant factor explaining
species abundance (Queiroz, 1995; Peres, 1997b; Simmen
et al., 1998). Density and biomass contributions of each
species to the total community should limit the bias of habi-
tat quality, and could be considered a better indicator to as-
sess hunting impact, than crude abundances data. With an
apparent disappearance of Ateles paniscus, and drastic de-
crease of capuchins, howlers, and other species (de Thoisy,
2000), the situation at the Counami sites may reflect the
accessibility to forest areas by roads, tracks and rivers, vil-
lages, timber and gold mining sites.
Until very recently, conservation policy in French Guiana
has been more passive than active (Norconk et al., 1996).
Wildlife management is limited to the protection of some
species and remains poorly enforced. Among the primates
present in the study areas, the spider monkey and the saki
are fully protected while other species can be hunted, but
their commercial use is forbidden. Habitat protection is also
only a recent concern; the two natural reserves of pristine
Table 1. Abundance, density and biomass of primates in 3 sites in French Guiana, facing a high hunting pressure (CH+), a low hunting
pressure (CH-), and in a Natural Reserve (TNR).
Species (mean weij) Groups / 10 km (group size) Density (ind./km2) Crude biomass (Iig
CH+ CH- TNR CH+ CH- TNR CH+ CH- TNR
Atelespaniscus (7.8 kg) 0.1 (3) 0.5 (2.5) 0.7 (2.7) 0.5 2.2 5.5 3.9 16.8 42.9
Alouatta seniculus (6.2 kg) 0.7 (5.7) 1.5 (5.6) 0.9 (4.5) 10.5 21.5 8 65.1 133.3 50
Cebus apella (3.4 kg) 0.4 (5.4) 0.9 (11.3) 0.9 (7.8) 5.7 24.4 19 19.4 83 64.5
Cebus olivaceus (2.9 kg) 0.1 (4.5) 0.1 (6) n.d 1.4 1.9 n.d 4.1 5.5 n.d
Pithecia pithecia (1.8 kg) 0.4(3) 0.3(2.7) 0.1 5 3.5 0.4 9 6.3 0.7
Saguinus midas (0.5 kg) 1(5.5) 1.4(5) 1.2(3.2) 16.2 21.8 11.3 8.1 10.9 5.6
Total: _____39.3 75.3 44.2 109.6 255.8 163.7
Neotropical Primates 8(4), December 2000 143
U -, I I I* - --- . .
CH+ CH TNR
Figure 2a and 2b. Contribution of the different species to the total density and biomass of primates in the three sites. CH+: high hunting
pressure, CH-: low hunting pressure, TNR. la Trinit6 Natural Reserve. Ase: Alouatta seniculus, Apa: Ateles paniscus, Cap: Cebus apella, Col:
Cebus olivaceus, Ppi: Pithecia pithecia, Smi: Saguinus midas.
forests, Les Nouragues and La Trinit6, were created in 1995
and 1996, respectively. The National Park project, in the
southern third of the country, is developing very slowly and
is still not fully accepted by local communities and authori-
ties. Alternatively, it should be noted that a natural park,
with sustainable development objectives, has just been cre-
ated in the north of the country.
Our preliminary conclusions reflect those of Mittermeier
(1991) for the primate community of Surinam. At the mo-
ment, taking into account the entire country of French
Guiana, primates do not appear to be threatened by hunt-
ing, although dramatic depletions in some species may oc-
cur locally. Further surveys are urgently needed in order to:
(i) obtain practical ecological data of species distributions
and densities in both pristine and hunted habitats; (ii) assess
the impact of human activities and (iii) evaluate the
sustainability of current hunting levels. Involving local people
in wildlife management programs would be beneficial for spe-
cies conservation, and implementing an active, enforceable con-
servation policy for one of the largest remaining pristine
neotropical rainforests is imperative.
The study at the Counami sites was supported by the
Groupement d'Int6r&t Scientifique "Silvolab", French Guiana.
The field work in the Trinit6 Natural Reserve was funded by
the Reserve de la Trinit6.
Benotit de Thoisy, David Massemin, Association Kwata, "Study
and Conservation of French Guianan Wildlife", BP 672,97335
Cayenne cedex, French Guiana, France, and MaMl Dewynter,
Reserve Naturelle de la Trinit6, ONF, route de Montabo, 97300
Cayenne, French Guiana.
70 Biomass (%) [
CH+ CH TNR
144 Neotropical Primates 8(4), December 2000
Baal, E L., Mittermeier, R. A. and Van Roosmalen, M. G. M.
1988. Primates and protected areas in Suriname. Oryx 22:
Bodmer, R. E., Fang, T. G. and Ibanez, L. M. 1988. Primates
and ungulates: a comparison of susceptibility to hunting. Pri-
mate Conserv. 9: 79-83.
Brockelman, W. Y. and Ali, R. 1987. Methods for surveying
and sampling forest primate populations. In: Primate Conser-
vation in the Tropical Rain Forests, C. W. Marsh and R. A.
Mittermeier (eds.), pp.22-62. Alan R. Liss, Inc., New York.
Cosson, J. E, Ringuet, S., Claessens, 0., de Massary, J. C.,
Dalecky, A., Villiers, J. E, Granjon, L. and Pons, J. M. 1999.
Ecological changes in recent land-bridge islands in French
Guiana, with emphasis on vertebrate communities. Biol. Cons.
Freese, C. H., Heltne, P. G., Castro, N. and Whitesides, G.
1982. Patterns and determinants of monkey densities in Peru
and Bolivia, with notes on distribution. Int. J. Primatol.
Granjon, L., Cosson, J. E, Judas, J. and Ringuet, S. 1996. In-
fluence of tropical forest fragmentation on mammal commu-
nities in French Guiana: Short-term effects. Acta Oecol.
Guillotin, M., Dubost, G. and Sabatier, D. 1994. Food choice
and food competition among the three major primate species
in French Guiana. J. Zool., Lond. 233: 551-579.
Johns, A. D. 1986. Effects of habitat disturbance on rainforest
wildlife in Brazilian Amazonia. Unpublished report, World
Wildlife Fund, US, Washington, DC.
Julliot, C. and Sabatier, D. 1993. Diet of the red howler
monkey (Alouatta seniculus) in French Guiana. Int.J. Primatol.
Mittermeier, R. A. 1991. Hunting and its effect on wild pri-
mate populations in Surinam. In: Neotropical Wildlife Use and
Conservation, J. G. Robinson and K. H. Redford (eds.),
pp.93-107. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Norconk, M. A., Sussman, R. W. and Phillips-Conroy, J. 1996.
Primates of the Guyana shield forests: Venezuela and the
Guianas. In: Adaptive Radiations ofNeotropical Primates, M.
A. Norconk, A. L. Rosenberger and P. A. Garber (eds.), pp.69-
83. Plenum Press, New York.
Peres, C. A. 1990. Effects of hunting on western Amazonian
primate communities. Biol. Conserv. 54: 47-59.
Peres, C. A. 1997a. Primate community structure at twenty
western Amazonian flooded and unflooded forests. J. Trop.
Ecol. 13: 381-405.
Peres, C. A. 1997b. Effects of habitat quality and hunting pres-
sure on arboreal folivore densities in neotropical forests: A
case study of howler monkeys Alouatta seniculus. Folia
Primatol. 68: 199-222.
Peres, C. A. 1999. General guidelines for standardizing line-
transect surveys of tropical forest primates. Neotrop. Primates
Queiroz, H. L. (ed.). 1995. Preguifas e Guaribas: OsMamiferos
Folivoros Arboricolas do Mamiraud. MCT- CNPq, Programo
do Tr6pico LJmido, Sociedade Civil Mamiraui, Belem.
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and population density of Neotropical forest mammals.
Am. Nat. 128: 665-680.
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Densitis de primates en for& guyanaise. Test d'une mithode
d'estimation par transect. C. R. Acad. Sciences Paris, Life
Sciences section 321: 699-704.
Sussman R. W. and Phillips-Conroy J. E. 1995. Survey and
the distribution and density of primates of Guyana. Int.J.
Primatol. 16: 761-791.
de Thoisy, B. 2000. Line-transects: Sampling application to
a rainforest in French Guiana. Mammalia 64: 101-112.
de Thoisy, B. and Vie, J. C. 1998. Faune sauvage et activities
humaines: Chasse et exploitation forestiere en Guyane
Frangaise. JATBA, Revue d'Ethnobiologie 40: 103-120.
Vid, J. C. 1998. Les effects d'une perturbation majeure de
l'habitat sur deux especes de primates en Guyane Franpaise:
translocation de singes hurleurs roux (Alouatta seniculus)
et translocation et insularisation de sakis at face pale (Pithecia
pithecia). Doctoral thesis, Universit6 de Montpellier,
Whitmore T. C. 1997. Tropical forest disturbance,
disapppearence, and species loss. In: Tropical Forest Rem-
nants: Ecology, Management and Conservation ofFragmented
Populations, W E Laurance and R. 0. Bierregaard, Jr. (eds.),
pp.3-12. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
CULTURAL PRACTICES BENEFITTING PRIMATE
CONSERVATION AMONG THE GUAJA OF EASTERN
The negative effects of human activities such as habitat de-
struction, the pet trade, and medical research on Neotropi-
cal primate populations have been well documented (Aquino
and Encarnaci6n, 1994; Chiarello, 1993; Hershkovitz, 1972;
Mittermeier, 1987; Mittermeier et al., 1978; Rylands et al.,
1997). However, insufficient attention is given to indigenous
cultural practices that may benefit primate conservation. Pri-
mate hunting, particularly using indigenous methods, does
not always threaten primate populations. Hunting pressure
often becomes a serious problem only when it is combined
with widespread deforestation (Lizarralde, 1997; Mittermeier
and Coimbra-Filho, 1977), or when hunting moves from
traditional subsistence activities to a commercial basis, such
as with the African bushmeat crisis (Hutchins, 1999; Rose,
The research here explored the role of monkeys in the
culture of the GuajA Indians on the Caru Indigenous Re-
serve in Maranhio, Brazil. Seven species occur there: the
red-handed howler (Alouatta belzebul), the black-bearded
saki (Chiropotes satanas), the brown capuchin (Cebus
Neotropical Primates 8(4), December 2000
apella), the Ka'apor capuchin (Cebus olivaceus kaapori),
the owl monkey (Aotus infulatus), the squirrel monkey
(Saimiri sciureus), and the black-handed tamarin
(Saguinus niger). Monkeys were found to be a key food
source for the Guaji, largely determining the trekking
behavior of these foraging people. However, it was also
found that the Guaji consider monkeys kept as pets to
be nearly human, even to the extent of incorporating
them into their kinship system. Although
anthropomorphization and consumption of monkeys
would seem to be contradictory, these dual roles were
found to be compatible with the symbolic cannibalistic
beliefs of the Guaji religion. Preservation of the GuajA
indigenous reserves is essential not only for the survival
of their culture, but also for endemic species, including
the endangered Chiropotes satanas satanas and the recently
discovered Cebus olivaceus kaapori (Queiroz, 1992).
The importance of monkeys in the Guaji diet was assessed
through daily random spot checks of Guaji activities (in-
cluding eating) during wet and dry seasons with 111 sam-
pling days and 110 individuals. Random spot checks in cul-
tural anthropology typically involve making daily rounds of
a group with one observation of each individual per day.
The importance ofethnobotanical knowledge of plants eaten
by monkeys was assessed through plant collecting trips with
multiple informants to gather information regarding plant
names and uses. A total of 275 morpho-species were distin-
guished. The social and religious roles of monkeys in the
Guaji culture were also assessed through interviews and par-
ticipant observation among the people over a period of 15
months in 1996-1997. A total of 90 pet monkeys were
kept as pets by the Guaji during the research period. In
addition to qualitative observations, limited focal animal
samples of the pet monkeys were conducted (61 individuals,
130 hours) in order to obtain measurable data regarding the
nature of Guaji-monkey interactions, as well as the conse-
quences to the animals being kept as pets (also see Cormier,
Heavy seasonal reliance on monkeys as food was found and
was also demonstrated in Guaja trekking patterns and eth-
nobotanical knowledge. Random spot checks revealed sig-
nificant seasonal differences in the animal types utilized in
the wet and dry seasons (p <.001). Monkeys were the most
frequently eaten animal in the wet season (30.92%) while
fish were the most frequently eaten type in the dry season
(44.37%). The hunting of monkeys in the wet season was
associated with increased trekking, while when fishing in
the dry season, they were more sedentary. Random spot
checks demonstrated significant seasonal differences in trek-
king (p<0.001), with individuals camping away from the
village almost five times more frequently in the wet season than
in the dry season.
The dietary importance of monkeys was also reflected in Guaji
ethnobotanical knowledge. Of the 275 morpho-species identi-
fied, 43.64% were described as plants eaten by monkeys. Guaji
knowledge of plants eaten by monkeys far exceeded the num-
ber of plants they used for food themselves (14.91%). Knowl-
edge of plants, and particularly fruiting trees eaten by mon-
keys, can be considered an important hunting strategy.
Orphaned monkeys whose mothers were killed for food are
returned to the village and cared for by a Guaja woman. These
pet monkeys are given a nearly human status, are addressed as
kin, and function to a degree as surrogate children. Like infant
Guaji children, the monkeys stay in constant physical contact
with the "mother," and are breast-fed, bathed, played with, sung
to, and even eat premasticated foods directly from the women's
Monkeys also serve as a form of body art. Nurturing surrogate
monkey children projects an image of female fertility, the ideal
of feminine attractiveness in the culture. The ability of the
monkey to function in this role is predicated on the physical
and behavioral similarities of infant monkeys to infant human
children. Maturational changes, however, make it impossible
for monkeys to sustain the role of a dependent child. Focal
animal samples revealed significant differences (p<0.001) in
the amount of time primate infants, juveniles, and adults spent
in contact with the Guaji. Older monkeys eventually began to
display aberrant and often aggressive behaviors, and were con-
sequently tied up much of the time. Unfortunately, such social
isolation only compounds the abnormal behaviors.
The seeming incongruity of monkeys serving as surrogate chil-
dren while also being the preferred food can be understood
through the symbolic endocannibalism (eating of kin) in the
Guaji religion. The two key principles involved are the exten-
sion of kin relations to forest species and the recurrent theme of
"like eats like" in their spiritual beliefs. According to the Guaji
creation myth, monkeys were at one time human, and thus, all
forest monkeys are considered to be either consanguineal or
affinal kin. Monkeys are the preferred game source because they
are considered to be most like humans. All forms of plant and
animal life are believed to be endowed with a spiritual as well as
a physical nature. Thus, consumption is not merely an act of
predation, but is sacred. Eating another releases the physical
body and sends the spirit to the eternal sky home. Relations of
consumption are a form of reciprocity with one form of life
giving the gift of divinization to another form of life. For ex-
ample, the squirrel monkey is believed to be spiritually kin to
the mariawa palm (Bactris setosa) which it also eats, and thus
divinizes, just as the Guaji divinize their monkey kin when
they eat them. In addition, the Guaja believe they also receive
help in hunting from monkey divinities during their karawara
spirit possession ritual.
146 Neotropical Primates 8(4), December 2000
Guaji cultural survival as well as the survival of endemic pri-
mate species in the region is extremely threatened. The situa-
tion has escalated since 1985 with construction of the Carajis
railway through the middle of their territory to mine iron.
Guaji reserves are highly contested from agribusiness, log-
gers, and posseiros (illegal Brazilian squatters) systematically
encroaching into their habitat, creating subsequent defores-
tation and development.
Conservation of the indigenous reserves is of particular im-
portance for the endangered Chiropotes satanas satanas and
the recently identified Cebus olivaceus kaapori, whose habitat
is restricted to the traditional territory of the Guaji people.
The hunting of monkeys for food in itself, particularly using
indigenous methods, is often not the real threat to monkey
populations. Hunting pressure more often arises in the wake
of deforestation when monkey populations are reduced and
restricted to circumscribed patches which may then allow a
species to be hunted out entirely. The fates of the Guaja people
and the local monkeys are intertwined. Preservation of the
indigenous reserves of the Guaji for traditional hunting also
provides primates a refuge from habitat destruction.
I am most grateful to the Guaji people, the National Indian
Foundation (FUNAI), the Brazil Science Council (CNPq), the
Museu Goeldi Herbarium, the Tulane University Herbarium,
and Jolo Farias Guerreiro of the Universidade Federal do Para.
Financial support was obtained through grants from the
Fulbright Institute for International Education, the American
Society of Primatologists, and the Tinker Foundation.
Loretta Ann Cormier, Department of Anthropology, 338
Ullman Building, 1212 University Boulevard, University of
Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294-
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sis in tropical African countries. ASP Bull 23: 7.
Lizarralde, M. 1997. Ethnoecology of monkeys among the
Barf of Venezuela: Perception, use, and conservation. Pa-
per presented at the American Anthropological Associa-
tion Invited Session: What Are We Doing Watching Mon-
keys? Anthropological Perspectives and the Role of Non-
human Primate Research. Washington, DC.
Mittermeier, R. A. 1987. Primate conservation priorities in
the Neotropical region. In: Primate Conservation in the
Tropical Rain Forest, C. W. Marsh and R. A. Mittermeier
(eds.), pp. 221-240. Alan R. Liss, New York.
Mittermeier, R. A., Bailey, R. C. and, Coimbra-Filho, A E 1978.
Conservation status of the Callitrichidae in Brazilian
Amazonia, Surinam, and French Guiana. In: The Biology and
Conservation ofthe Cal/trichidae, D. G. Kleiman (ed.), pp.l137-
146. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.
Mittermeier, R. A. and Coimbra-Filho, A. E 1977. Primate
conservation in Brazilian amazonia. In: Primate Conserva-
tion, H. S. H. Prince Rainier III of Monaco and G. H.
Bourne (eds.). pp.117-166. Academic Press, New York.
Queiroz, H. L. 1992. A new species of capuchin monkey,
genus Cebus Erxleben, 1777 (Cebidae: Primates) from east-
ern Brazilian Amazonia. Goeldiana Zoologia 15: 1-13.
Rose, A. L. 1996. The African forest bushmeat crisis. Afri-
can Primates 2: 32-34.
Rylands A. B., Mittermeier, R. A. and Luna, E. R. 1997.
Conservation ofNeotropical primates: Threatened species
and an analysis of primate diversity by country and re-
gion. Folia Primatol. 68: 134-160.
HABITAT FRAGMENTATION AND PARASITISM IN
HOWLER MONKEYS (ALOUATTA CARAYA)
Antonia Concepcidn Miropi Santa Cruz
Juan Toribio Borda, Exequiel Maria Patifio
Laura Gdmez, Gabriel Eduardo Zunino
Comparative studies of ecto- and endoparasitism affecting
howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) in relation to the frag-
mentation of their habitat are unknown for Argentina. Trans-
location of fauna is potentially dangerous for both the trans-
located and resident populations, which may lack resistance
when confronted with new species of parasites. In order to
better manage the translocation of species and to help solve
conservation issues, it is important to understand the effects
of parasitism. Here we report observations on the fragmen-
tation of habitat and parasitism in populations of Alouatta
Three study sites were chosen in northeastern Argentina.
The first was a severely fragmented and degraded
semideciduous forest (SF) in the basin of the Rio Riachuelo,
San Cayetano (Corrientes province) (2730'S, 58*41'W).
Neotropical Primates 8(4), December 2000 147
The second was a flooded forest (FY) recently fragmented
by the lake formed by the Yaciretd dam in Ituzaing6
(Corrientes) (2728'S, 56044'W). The third was a flooded
forest (FF) on the island of Brasilera (Chaco province)
(27020'S, 58o40' W). This last forest was considered a con-
trol because there is almost no human activity and it is not
severely fragmented. These sites are within the Chaquefia
and Paranaense Biogeographic Provinces (Cabrera and
A total of 44 animals were sampled, 21 (48%) from SF, 9
(20%) that were rescued from FY before the dam comple-
tion, and 14 (32%) from FE The howlers were captured
using anesthetic darts. Each was inspected systematically, fur
and all natural orifices, for all visible arthropods and tissue
samples were taken from cutaneous lesions and other areas
suspected of acari infestation. The samples were preserved
in Railliet and Henry's solution for systematic classification
and the acari were cleaned in Amman's lactophenol (Amato
et al., 1991) for identification. The faecal analyses were car-
ried out using flotation (modified Ritchie's method), and by
simple sedimentation (Weitz et al., 1992). Trematode, ces-
tode and nematode eggs were identified using a light micro-
scope. Vegetative forms of protozoa were determined by us-
ing the method ofThienpont et al. (1979).
The highest occurrence of parasitism was observed in San
Cayetano (SF): 57% of the howlers sampled. Eight species
of parasites were recorded, four of which were not found in the
other groups (Table 1). The monkeys captured in Yacireta (FY)
showed 44.4% infestation, with four species of parasites, and
only a single species was present in the Brasilera (FF) group. In
this control area, only 7.14% of the specimens sampled had
parasites, with a single species (Table 2).
The most frequent endoparasitosis and the only one identified
in all three sites was berteliosis (De Negri, 1985). Psoroptidosis
(Fain, 1963; O'Connors, 1988) and oxyuorosis and
estrongiloidosis were detected only in the fragmented habitats.
The howlers also showed louse infections, protozoosis,
trematodosis and nematodosis in the severely fragmented habi-
tats SF and FY.
The results indicate that infestation indexes are directly related
to the area and degree of fragmentation of forest available to
the howlers. The group size and density were considerably
smaller in the severely fragmented forest at San Cayetano but
similar at Yacireti and Isla Brasilera. Although sample sizes were
small, especially for Yacireti, the high degree of parasite infes-
tation at San Cayetano may reflect, or be associated with, the
behavioral and ecological disruption caused by fragmentation
(Ojeda and Mares, 1984). Fewer trees in smaller forest frag-
ments indicate less food, and the monkeys in these areas tend
to spend a longer time in each tree (Kowalewski and Zunino,
1999), increasing their exposure to infection and reinfection
from parasites (Freeland 1976, 1980; Gilbert, 1994). Small
forest fragments with insufficient food also forces the monkeys
Table 1. Parasites found in the three study sites.
San Cayetano (SF) Yadredtt(FY) Isla Brasilera (FF)
Cebalges gaudi Cebalges gaudi
Protozoa (unidentified ameba)
Trematoda (eggs) Unidentified
Bertiella mucronata (eggs) Bertiella mucronata (eggs) Bertiella mucronata (eggs)
Nematoda (eggs Unidentified)
Oxyuridae (eggs) Oxyuridae (eggs)
Strongloides sp. (eggs) Strongyloides sp. (eggs)
Table 2. Study sites, number of samples and degrees of parasitism.
San Cayetano (SF) Yaciretd FYI Isla Brasilera iFFI
N 21 9 14
% infested 57 44.4 7.14
Number of parasite species 8 4 1
Density (monkeys/ha) 1 0.9 2-3 2-3
Group size 1 5 10 12
Home range (ha) 1 -8 -4 -4
Habitat fragmented 1 YES YES (recent) NO
I Brown and Zunino (1994); Zunino etal. (1995).
148 Neotropical Primates 8(4), December 2000
to go to the ground to travel between forest patches, also in-
creasing the probability of infestation. The effects of frag-
mentation on parasite loads and rate of infection should be
considered in the management (especially reintroduction and
translocation) of species such as Alouatta caraya in Argentina.
This investigation was carried out with the support of the
Secretarfa General de CienciayThcnica, Universidad Nacional
del Nordeste (SGCyT/UNNE-PI 489). We thank M.
Kowalewski for his comments on earlier drafts of the manu-
Antonia Concepci6n Mirop6 Santa Cruz, Juan Toribio
Borda, Exequiel Maria Patifio, Laura G6mez, Facultad de
Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad Nacional del Nordeste,
Sargento Cabral 2139, 3400, Corrientes, Argentina, and
Gabriel Eduardo Zunino, Museo Argentino de Ciencias Natu-
rales "Bernardino Rivadavia" CONICET. Division
Mastozoologia. Avda. Angel Gallardo 470, 1405, Buenos
Amato, J. E R., Boeger, W. A. and Amato, S. B. 1991.
Protocolos para Laboratdrios: Coleta e Processamento de
Parasitos do Pescado. Imprensa Universitiria, Universidade
Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica. 81pp.
Brown, A. D. and Zunino, G. E. 1994. Habitat, densidad y
problems de conservaci6n de los primates de
Argentina. Vida Silv. Neotrop. 3(1): 30-40.
Cabrera, A. L. and Willink, A. 1973. Biogeografla deAmerica
Latina. Secretaria General de la Organizaci6n de los Estados
Americanos (OEA), Washington, DC.
Contreras, J. 1979. Yacyreta-Apipe: Anglisis global acerca del
nuevo entorno. Serie Cientifica 11115: 24-29.
De Negri, G. M. 1985. Consideraciones sobre sistemitica y
distribuci6n geogrifica del genero Bertiella (Cestoda-
Anoplocephalidae) en el hombre y en primates no humans.
Neotrdpica. 31(85): 55-63.
Fain, A. 1963. Les acariens producteurs de gale chez les
16muriens et les singes avec une 6tude des Psoroptidae
(Sarcoptiformes). Bull. Inst. Roy. Sci. Nat. Belgique 39(32):
Freeland, W. J. 1976. Pathogens and the evolution of primate
sociality. Biotropica 8: 12-24.
Freeland, W. J. 1980. Mangabey (Cercocebus albigena) move-
ment patterns in relation to food availability and fecal con-
tamination. Ecology 61(6): 1297-1303.
Gilbert, K. A. 1994. Red howling monkey use of specific def-
ecation sites as a parasite avoidance strategy. Anim. Behav.
Kowalewski, M. M. and Zunino, G. E. 1999. Impact of the
deforestation on a population ofAlouatta caraya in north-
ern Argentina. Folia Primatol. 70(3): 167-169.
O'Connor, B. M. 1988. Host associations and coevolution-
ary relationships ofastigmatid mite parasites of New World
primate families, Psoroptidae and Audycoptidae. Fieldiana
Zoology 39: 245-260.
Ojeda, R. and Mares, M. 1984. La degradaci6n de los
Recursos naturales y la fauna silvestre en Argentina.
Interciencia 9(1): 21-26.
Thienpont, D., Rochette, F. and Vanparijs, 0. F. J. 1979.
Diagndstico de las Helmintiasis por Medio del Exdmen
Coproldgico. Janssen Research Foundation, Beerse, Belgica.
Weitz, J. C., Astorga, B. and Herskovic, P. 1992. El
diagn6stico de laboratorio de las parasitosis. In: Parasitologia
Clinica, A. Atias (ed.), pp.577-587. Publicaciones Thcnicas
Mediterrdneo Ltda., Santiago de Chile.
Zunino, G. E., Mudry, M. D., Delprat, M. A. 1995. Estado
actual del conocimiento de las poblaciones silvestres de
primates de laArgentina. Treballs de la SCB. 46: 177-188.
A STUDY OF SPIDER MONKEYS (ATELES GEOFFROYI
VELLEROSUS) IN THE FOREST OF THE CRATER OF
SANTA MARTA, VERACRUZ, MiXIco
Although studies at Sierra de Santa Marta, Veracruz, Mexico,
have documented the situation of primates inhabiting the
forest fragments of the slopes of the mountainous massif
(e.g., Benitez-Rodrfguez, 1989; Silva-L6pez, 1987; Silva-
L6pez and Garcfa-Ordufia, 1984; Silva-L6pez et al., 1986,
1988, 1993), little is known of the primate groups inhabit-
ing the crater of Santa Marta. Santa Marta is an extinct vol-
cano located to the south of the Los Tuxtlas region, and
harboring one ofVeracruz's larger continuous tracts of tropi-
cal rainforest. Los Tuxtlas, including Sierra de Santa Marta,
was recently decreed a Biosphere Reserve by the Federal
Executive (23 November, 1998) (Enrique Portilla Ochoa,
pers. comm.), which was endorsed and supported by the
several studies conducted throughout the years on its rich
fauna and flora (Andrle, 1964; Rappole and Warner, 1980;
Gonzalez Ch. etal., 1987; Gonzalez Soriano etal., 1997).
Based on this study and on recent visits made by Domingo
Canales Espinosa (pers. comm.), it can be safely assumed
that no major changes have occurred to the vegetation of
the crater in the 4-5 years since the original survey.
The walls and bottom of the crater are covered by high ever-
green rainforest, and encompass an area of approximately
5,000 ha. According to Mario Vizquez Torres (unpubl. data;
see also Benftez-Rodrfguez et al., 1992), vegetation in both
the forest and the forest fragments of the Sierra's eastern
slopes is very similar in structure and species composition,
with Pseudolmedia oxyphyllaria, Guarea glabra, Cymbopetalum
penduliflorum, Inga spp., Sapium lateriflorum, Brosimum
alicastrum, Dendropanax arboreus, Ficus sp., Rheedia edulis,
Terminalia amazonia, and Nectandra ambigens among the
dominant species. Due to the steep slopes of the crater walls
Neotropical Primates 8(4), December 2000
(>60 in some places), we restricted our study area to the
bottom, which has a width of 40 to 130 m, and an altitude
of 700m. The Rio Tecuanapa crosses the bottom of the cra-
ter (average width of 25 m). Protected by the crater's walls
and stimulated by the continuous formation of clouds in the
upper portions of the Sierra (approximately 1,500 m above
sea level), rainfall indices are higher in the bottom of the
crater (Andrle, 1964).
Benftez-Rodriguez etal. (1992) made the first assessment of
spider monkeys in the area. They set up, and repeatedly
walked, two transects (an area of approximately 26.96 ha)
and recorded information from both, which were then com-
bined to obtain the following results: Sixty-eight individuals
were tallied during the survey, including 30 adult males and
33 adult females (a sex ratio of 1:1.1). Mean foraging party
size was 3.33 (range of 1-7 individuals/party). Based solely
on the transect area, it was possible to estimate a very high
density of 2.52 individuals/ha. However, taking into account
the entire area covered by forest in the crater, density was
estimated to be 0.01 individuals/ha or 1/100 ha.
On the basis of this preliminary study, we established a third
transect in the same area. This time, 24 monkeys were indi-
vidually recognized, and included a total of four adult males
(AM), 13 adult females (AF), one immature male (IM), and
six immature females (IF). Mean foraging party size was four,
and mean party composition was 0.67 AM, 2.17 AF, 0.17
IM, and 1.0 IE The AM-AF ratio was 1:3.25, while the IM-
IF ratio was 1:6.0. The adult-infant ratio was fixed at 1:0.41
and the number of infants per reproductive female was esti-
mated to be 0.5. A raw density estimate obtained from the
transect area was low (0.66 individuals/ha) when compared
to the previous study, but I believe no conclusions should be
made on this result due to the small number of censuses
made over the same census route (n = 19). Group fission was
common. The most commonly observed subgroups were
males traveling with females and young (50%), solitary fe-
males with an infant (33.3%), and adult males and females
(16.7%). Solitary males were never recorded in the crater, as
have been occasionally observed in forest fragments of the
slopes of the Sierra (Silva-L6pez, 1995). Howler monkeys
(Alouattapalliata mexicana) were commonly heard in both
studies, but no attempt was made to find them.
The results differ in some aspects from those of Silva-L6pez
et al. (1995) for the forest fragments of the Sierra's eastern
slopes. For example, group size recorded in the fragments
was larger, ranging from 2 to 16 individuals and with a mean
of 5.7 individuals/group (SD 3.5, n = 17). The proportion
of adult and immature males was more conspicuous in the
fragments, where average group composition was 1.71 AM,
2.6 AF, 1.33 IM, and 1.63 IE The previously reported fe-
male-biased ratio (Chapman et al., 1989), which was ob-
served in the crater's second study, was also recorded in the
fragments. There the bias was in the adults (1:1.34, n = 17)
and the immatures (average of 1:1.5, n = 17), and was in
accordance with the male-female ratios reported at sites with
a high habitat productivity (Chapman et al., 1989). The ratio
was higher, however, in the crater, where figures were 1:3.25
(AM-AF) and 1:6.0 (IM-IF). Likewise, in the fragments, adults
were present in a higher proportion than immatures (average
of 1:0.44, n = 17). The data shows the relationship was more
consistent with respect to the overall adult female-immature
ratio (1:0.76), than with the adult male-immature ratio
(1:1.03), suggesting that there tend to be more immatures than
adult males in any given group. This result was consistent with
the records at the crater, where the AM-I was 1:1.75. As Silva-
L6pez (1995) observed, group fission was not common in the
fragments, except for groups of 10 or more individuals.
These results suggest that spider monkey group characteristics
are different in varying environmental situations. The nature
of the factors influencing this difference needs to be examined
looking at various factors (e.g., availability of food, size of the
available habitat, activity patterns, group size, and age-sex char-
acteristics of individuals in a group) before more conclusive
remarks can be made.
Acknowledgments: This note is a contribution of the Linea de
Investigaciones sobre "Ecologia y Conservaci6n de Primates"
of the Instituto de Investigaciones Biol6gicas of the Universidad
Gilberto Silva-L6pez, Area de Biologia de la Conservaci6n,
Institute de Investigaciones Biol6gicas, Universidad
Veracruzana. Apdo. Postal 294, C.P. 91000, Xalapa, Veracruz,
Mexico. Tel./fax: (01-2) 812-5757. e-mail:
invest.uv.mx>, and Joaquin Jimenez-Huerta, Facultad de
Biologia-Xalapa, Universidad Veracruzana, Apdo. Postal 294,
C.P. 91000, Xalapa, Veracruz, M6xico.
Andrle, J. D. 1964. A Biogeographical Investigation of the Si-
erra de Tuxtla. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Michigan, Ann
Benitez-Rodriguez, J. 1989. Perfil de actividades del mono arafia
mexicano, Atelesgeoffroyi vellerosus Kellogg y Goldman, 1944,
en la Sierra de Santa Marta (Veracruz, Mexico). Tesis de
Licenciatura, Universidad Veracruzana, Mexico.
Benitez-Rodriguez, J., Jimnnez-Huerta, J., Silva-L6pez, G. and
Toledo-Cirdenas, M. R. 1992. Estudio preliminary sobre el
mono arafia (Atelesgeoffroyi) en el crater del volcano de Santa
Marta, Veracruz. Paper given at the I Congreso Nacional de
Mastozoologia, AMMAC. Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico. Octo-
Chapman, C. A., Fedigan, L. M., Fedigan, L. and Chapman,
J. L. 1989. Sex ratio in primates: A test of the local resource
competition hypothesis. Oikos 54: 132-134.
Gonzalez Ch., A., Rodriguez-Luna, E. and Mendoza-Castillo,
V. M. 1987. La Sierra de Santa Marta y sus mamfferos. Paper
given at the Simposio Internacional sobre Mastozoologia
Latino Americana, Can Cln, Quintana Roo, Mexico. 28-
30 June, 1987.
150 Neotropical Primates 8(4), December 2000
Gonzalez Soriano, E., Dirzo, R. and Vogt, R. C. 1997. Historia
Naturalde Los Tuxtlas. Universidad Nacional Aut6noma de
Mexico, Mexico. 647pp.
Rappole, J. H. and Warner, D. W. 1980. Ecological aspects
of migrant bird behavior in Veracruz, Mexico. In: Migrant
Birds in the Neotropics: Ecology, Behavior, Distribution, and
Conservation, A. Keast and E S. Morton (eds.), pp.353-
393. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.
Silva-L6pez, G. 1987. La Situaci6n Actual de los Monos Arafia
(Ateles geoffroyi) y Aullador (Alouatta palliata) en la Sierra
de Santa Marta (Veracruz, Mdxico). Tesis de Licenciatura,
Universidad Veracruzana, Mexico.
Silva-L6pez, G. 1995. Habitat, Resources, Group Character-
istics, and Density ofAtelesgeoffroyi vellerosus in Forest Frag-
ments and Continuous Forest of Sierra de Santa Marta,
Mexico. M.S. Thesis, University of Florida. Gainesville.
Silva-L6pez, G. and Garcfa-Ordufia, E 1984. Primate con-
servation studies at Universidad Veracruzana, Mexico.
IUCN/SSCPrimate Specialist Group Newsletter 4: 29-30.
Silva-L6pez, G., Garcia-Ordufia, E and Rodriguez-Luna, E.
1988. The present status of Ateles and Alouatta in non-ex-
tensive forest areas of the Sierra de Santa Marta, Veracruz,
Mexico. Primate Conserv. (9): 53-61.
Silva-L6pez, G., Garcfa-Ordufia, E, Rodriguez-Luna, E.,
Jim6nez-Huerta, J. and Benitez-Rodrfguez, J. 1986. Results
of a three year survey of Ateles and Alouatta in non-exten-
sive forest areas of the Sierra de Santa Marta, Mexico. Prim.
Rep. 14: 420.
Silva-L6pez, G., Jiminez-Huerta, J., Benitez-Rodrfguez, J. and
Toledo-Cirdenas, M. R. 1993. Availability of resources to
primates and humans in forest fragments of Sierra de Santa
Marta, Mexico. Neotrop. Primates 1(4): 3-6.
SYMPATRY AND NEW LOCALITY FOR ALOUATTA
BELZEBUL DISCOLOR AND ALOUATTA SENICULUS IN THE
Liliam P Pinto
Eleonore Z. E Setz
In September 1999, when beginning a research project on
Alouatta ecology at Paranafta, northern Mato Grosso, Brazil,
we discovered two distinct howler species, Alouatta belzebul
discolor and Alouatta seniculus, living in neighboring and par-
tially overlapping home ranges. The study site (9034.197 S;
56019.381 W; Fig. 1), located on the left bank of the Rio
Santa Helena, a tributary of the Rio Teles Pires, comprises
part of the legally conserved vegetation of the Fazenda Uni-
versal cattle ranch, and is contiguous with the protected veg-
etation ofneighboring ranches, forming approximately 10,000
ha of continuous forest. The regional climate is type AWl
(Koppen), tropical rainy with a marked dry season, with a
mean annual temperature of 260C. The dry season is from
May to August. In some years total rainfall surpasses 2,800
mm (Empaer, 1999).
A. belzebul discolor occurs south of the Amazon River in the
states of Maranhao, Para e Mato Grosso (Hill, 1962). At
Pavanaita, we are studying activity pattern, diet and use of
space. The study group has seven individuals, all with pelage
characteristics typical for the species (Emmons and Feer,
1990): one adult male, three adult females, two juvenile fe-
males and one infant male.
A. seniculus is widespread north of the Amazon river which
bends southwestward to the Rio Guapord basin (Hill, 1962;
Setz, 1991) and the only previous record from the north of
the state of Mato Grosso, is at Aripuana, on both banks of
Aripuana River (Ayres, 1981). The A. seniculus group ob-
served had five individuals: one adult male, two adult fe-
males, one sub-adult female and one juvenile male. During
a period of 140 days between September and May 1999, we
observed the A. seniculus group on four occasions at the edge
of the A. belzebuldiscolor group's home range. Twice in Oc-
tober 1999, agonistic interactions occurred when both groups
attempted to use the same feeding tree. The encounters were
accompanied by agitated vocalizations during 34 and 10 min-
utes respectively, once in the morning (starting at 9:30 am)
and another in late afternoon (starting at 6:15 pm), by the
adult males of both groups. In both events the adult male A.
belzebul discolor actively pursued A seniculus group members.
We observed four other A. seniculus groups in forest con-
tiguous with the study area, and also found a dead adult
male, which will be deposited in the Museu de Zoologia of
the Universidade de Slo Paulo. It was not possible to obtain
a specimen ofA. belzebuldiscolor, but based on geographical
distribution and pelage characteristics of the group mem-
bers, R. Gregorin (pers. comm.) confirmed the species' iden-
tification. As is apparently the case with other primate spe-
cies (see Hershkovitz, 1977), we expected that the Rio Teles
Pires would present a natural barrier to Alouatta dispersal,
and that A. belzebul discolor would occur only on its right
(east) bank. However, this river has numerous islands, and
some animals might cross the river in periods of marked
Figura 1. Location of the study area, in southern Amazon, Brazil.
Neotropical Primates 8(4), December 2000 151
Acknowledgments: The Fundagio de Amparo a Pesquisa do
Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP) provided financial support
(proc. No. 98/16201-3). We thank Lufs E Silveira, for help
in the field and preparation of the collected specimen; Renato
Gregorin, from Museu de Zoologia da USP, for comments
and confirming the identification ofA. belzebuldiscolor, and
Woody Benson for comments on the manuscript. The own-
ers Josias e Uriel and staff of Fazenda Universal provided
hospitality and essential logistic support for which we are
most grateful. We also thank Shirlei and Eraclides Pinto,
Izael and Sr. Jodo and the Paranafta Municipal Government.
Liliam P. Pinto, PPG Ecologia-UNICAMP, Rua
Coronel Camislo, 409, ap. 83, Butanti, Sao Paulo 05590-
120, Sio Paulo, Brazil, e-mail: , and
Eleonore Z. E Setz, Department of Zoology, Institute of
Biology, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Caixa Postal
6109, 13083-970 Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, e-mail:
Ayres, J.M. 1981. Observac6es sobre a ecologia e o
comportamento dos cuxids (Chiropotes albinasus e
Chiropotes satanas, Cebidae: Primates). Dissertaqlo de
mestrado, Fadesp//Grafisa, Belkm.
Emmons, L. H. and Feer, E 1990. NeotropicalRainforestMam-
mals: A Field Guide. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Empaer. 1999. Plano municipal de desenvolvimento rural
do municipio de Paranafta, MT. Versdo preliminary.
Hershkovitz, P. 1977. Living New World Monkeys
(Platyrrhini). VoL L. With an Introduction to the Primates.
The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Hill, W. C. 0. 1962. Primates. Comparative Anatomy and
Taxonomy, Vol. V Cebidae, Part B. Edinburgh University
Setz, E. Z. F. 1991. Animals in the Nambiquara diet:
Methods of collection and processing. J. Ethnobiol. 11(1):
NEW LOCALITIES FOR COIMBRA-FILHO'S TITI
MONKEY, CALLICEBUS COIMBRAI, IN NORTH-EAST
Marcelo Cardoso de Sousa
Callicebus coimbrai was described in 1999 by Kobayashi and
Langguth, based on differences in the skull, dental morphol-
ogy and pelage when compared to the other Atlantic forest
titis. Five specimens were examined for description, all of
them from the Atlantic forest in the state of Sergipe, be-
tween the Rio Sao Francisco and Rio Real, in Pacatuba,
Maruim and Cristinipolis. However, the limits of its geo-
graphic range have yet to be defined. Here I report on two
new localities in Sergipe, and one in the extreme north of
the state of Bahia.
Mata do Crasto, municipality of Santa Luzia do Itanhy, state of
Sergipe. About 900 ha in size, this is one of the most important
areas of remnant Atlantic forest in the state of Sergipe. Although
still relatively well preserved when compared to other forest
fragments, the Mata do Crasto is threatened. It has no status as
a protected area, and its continued existence depends on the
goodwill and good sense of the few major landowners in the
region. Illegal logging is frequent, and regional development
programs related to promoting tourism include paving roads
around and even in some parts of the forest. This is the largest
forest fragment in the state, and perhaps has the largest exist-
ing population of C. coimbrai. I have consistently seen groups
in this forest over the last nine years, but the risk of them dis-
appearing is real.
Mata do Dira, municipalities ofltaporanga and Laranjeiras, state
ofSergipe. Covering more than 800 ha, the Dira forests were,
until very recently, one of the most important in the northern
part of the state. However, squatters and Agrarian reform settle-
ment schemes for the landless, deforestation, and the creation
of pasture for cattle ranching have destroyed a good part of the
forests in this municipality. Currently the forest is degraded,
especially due to forest fires in recent years as well as human
use and exploitation. Selective logging has opened up many
clearings, which are very slow to regenerate.
Matas do Conde, municipalities of Conde and Jandaira, state of
Bahia. I heard titi monkeys vocalizing in this forest in August
1996, which supports Kobayashi and Langguth's (1999) indi-
cation that they occur in northern Bahia. The majority of the
forest fragments which support populations of C coimbrai there
are surrounded by Pinus and Eucalyptus plantations, and are
along the perimeter of the Environmental Protection Area
(APA) of the North Bahian Coast. However, they are undoubt-
edly threatened by selective logging, hunting, and land specu-
Callicebus can be found in highly disturbed forests, in dense,
young, and older, secondary growth, but it is evident that popu-
lations have been decreasing drastically over the years, mainly
through forest loss and hunting and, more recently, with in-
creasing tourism, the establishment of numerous settlement
schemes throughout its range, and the lack of any environ-
mental awareness programs in the region. The status of this
species is obviously critical. They do not occur in any protected
areas, the creation of which is a vital first step for the conserva-
tion of the titis and their forests.
Marcelo Cardoso de Sousa, Centro de Ciencias Biol6gicas
e da Sadde, Universidade Tiradentes, Avenida Murilo
Dantas 300. 49030-270, Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil, e-mail:
Kobayashi, S. and Langguth, A. 1999. A new species of titi
monkey, Callicebus Thomas, from north-eastern Brazil (Pri-
mates, Cebidae). Revta. Bras. Zool. 16(2): 531-551.
152 Neotropical Primates 8(4), December 2000
DISTRIBUTION OF BROWN CAPUCHIN MONKEYS
(CEBUS APELLA) IN VENEZUELA: A PIECE OF THE
Gerardo A. Cordero-Rodriguez
The distribution of the brown capuchin monkey (Cebus apella)
in South America is widely documented (Husson, 1978;
Eisenberg, 1989; Emmons and Feer, 1990). It ranges from
northern Argentina throughout the Guyanas, southern Co-
lombia, and southern Venezuela, inhabiting a broad variety
of forest types. The habitats and distribution of Cebus apella
in Venezuela are known from the works of Handley (1976),
Rudran and Eisenberg (1982) and Bodini and Pdrez-
Hernindez (1987). According to Bodini and PNrez-Hernindez
(1987), Cebus apella is represented by two subspecies, C. a.
apella (Linnaeus, 1758) and C. a. margaritae Hollister, 1914.
The first is restricted to the state ofAmazonas where it is found
along both banks of the upper Rio Orinoco, whereas the lat-
ter is restricted to Margarita Island highlands, approximately
38 km from the state of Sucre, northeastern Venezuela. The
disjunct distribution of the brown capuchin monkey is puz-
zling and not yet explained. It is likely that man introduced
this monkey to Margarita Island (Rudran and Eisenberg, 1982;
Eisenberg, 1989; Linares, 1998). A recent sighting of Cebus
apella in eastern Venezuela suggests that fieldwork should be
conducted in the south and east to gather information on its
presence from northern Guyana throughout northeastern
Bolivar State, the Rio Orinoco delta and the highlands of
the state of Sucre. In this paper we report new findings on
the distribution of the brown capuchin monkey in Venezu-
On May 23, 1993, a survey was conducted by law enforcing
officials of the Venezuelan Wildlife Service under the com-
mand of Chief Game Warden S. Boher-Bentti along Calio
(stream) Matico to and from Curiapo village (8o35'N,
60002'W). Curiapo is in the southeastern part of the Rio
Orinoco delta, approximately 120 km SE Tucupita (Fig. 1).
The mean annual temperature in the area is 26 C. and the
yearly rainfall is over 2000 mm. According to Holdridge Life
Zones (Ewel et al., 1976), the vegetation of the area is a
tropical humid forest.
While travelling along Matico stream, we sighted two brown
capuchin monkeys that were foraging in a patch of "moriche"
palm trees (Mauritiaflexuosa) at 16:50 hours. At that time,
we were stationed at the mouth of the Jamatuba Stream,
approximately 45 minutes from S Curiapo village. Accord-
ing to the indigenous field guide, Cebus apella is locally known
as "Nakdi-Jabu" in the language of the Warao People. Its pres-
ence in the Rio Orinoco delta is a new record for Venezuela
and an extension of the species' range.
Figure 1. Map of Delta Amacuro State showing the Orinoco River Delta and the Curiapo village sighting site, northeastern
62o30' 62'00' 61030' 61000' 6030' 60000 59030' 59*00'
Neotropical Primates 8(4), December 2000
In Guyana, Cebus apella is found along both banks of middle
Essequibo River and the River Cuyuni (Map 6.11 p.248 in
Eisenberg, 1989). The latter locations are close to the coastal
belt of Guyana and are approximately 300 km SE of Curiapo.
Lowland forests are found in the Orinoco delta and north-
eastern Bolivar State (Huber and Frame, 1989), whereas sea-
sonal evergreen forests are found in the northeastern coastal
belt of Guyana (Lindeman and Mori, 1989). This continu-
ous forest belt suggests that Cebus apella might be present
from northern Guyana to the Orinoco delta. The habitat
types found along this belt harbor similar conditions to the
delta region (V. Gonzalez, pers. comm. 2000), supporting
the conjecture of a continuous distribution for Cebus apella.
We are planning a field trip to the Orinoco delta to conduct
a wildlife survey, looking particularly for the brown capu-
chin monkey, in the near future.
Acknowledgments: We greatly appreciate the field assistance
provided by Game Warden Giusseppe Cagnino, Venezuelan
National Guard Corporal Rafael Gonzalez and our Warao
field guide Juan Jose Salcedo. Dr. Valois Gonzalez (Instituto
de ZoologiaTropical, Central University ofVenezuela) kindly
shared with us his personal experiences, knowledge and ex-
pertise on the vegetation of northeastern South America. Drs.
Roberta Bodini and Juhani Ojasti from the Instituto de
Zoologia Tropical kindly read the manuscript and provided
Salvador Boher-Bentti and Gerardo A. Cordero-Rodriguez,
Institute de Zoologia Tropical, Facultad de Ciencias,
Universidad Central de Venezuela, Apartado de Correo
47058, Caracas 1041-A, Venezuela.
Bodini, R. and PNrez-Hern.ndez, R. 1987. Distribution of
the species and subspecies of cebids in Venezuela. In: Stud-
ies in Neotropical Mammalogy. Essays in Honor of Philip
Hershkovitz. Fieldiana Zoology, New Series 39: 231-244.
Firled Museum of Natural History, Chicago.
Eisenberg, J. E 1989. Mammals of the Neotropics. Vol. I. The
Northern Neotropics: Panamd, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana,
Suriname, and French Guiana. University of Chicago Press,
Emmons, L. H. and Feer, E 1990. Neotropical Rainforest
Mammals: A Field Guide. University of Chicago Press,
Chicago and London.
Ewel, J. J., Madriz, A. and Tosi, J. A. 1976. Zonas de Vida de
Venezuela. Fondo Nacional de Investigaciones
Huber, 0. and Frame, D. 1989. Venezuela. In: Floristic
Inventory of Tropical Countries, D. G. Campbell and
H. D. Hammond (eds.) pp.362-371. New York Botani-
cal Garden, New York.
Husson, A. M. 1978. The Mammals ofSuriname. E. J. Brill,
Lifiares, 0. 1998. Mamiferos de Venezuela. Editorial Sociedad
Conservacionista Audubon de Venezuela, Caracas.
Lindeman, J. C. and Mori, S. A. 1989. The Guianas. In: Flo-
ristic Inventory of Tropical Countries, D. G. Campbell and H.
D. Hammond (eds.), pp.375-390. NewYork Botanical Gar-
den, New York.
Rudran, R. and Eisenberg, J. E 1982. Conservation and
status of wild primates in Venezuela. Int. Zoo Yearb.
A NEW LOCALITY FOR THE MASKED TITI MONKEY,
CALLICEBUS PERSONATUS NIGRIFRONS, IN A PROTECTED
AREA IN MINAS GERAIS, BRAZIL
Marcelo Ferreira de Vasconcelos
The masked titi monkey (Callicebuspersonatus), a species threat-
ened in Brazil (Fonseca etal., 1994; Lins etaL, 1997; Machado et
al., 1998), is restricted to the Brazilian Atlantic forest, including
the states ofSergipe, Bahia, Espirito Santo, Minas Gerais, Rio de
Janeiro, and Slo Paulo (Rylands, 1994, 1998). A proposed con-
servation strategy for the species in Minas Gerais state is to survey
protected areas for unknown populations (Rylands, 1998). This
paper reports a new locality for C personatus nigrifrons in a pro-
tected area in Minas Gerais state.
Field work was conducted at the Reserva Particular do
Patrim6nio Natural do Caraqa (RPPN Caraca) (20005'S,
4328'W), municipalities of Catas Altas and Santa Barbara,
state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. The Caraca Reserve
is 11,233 ha, ranging in elevation from 850 to 2,072 m above
sea level (Zico, 1990). Native vegetation inside the reserve
includes montane Atlantic forest in the lowest parts and near
water, and Campoo rupestre' and high altitude grassland ('cam-
pos de altitude') in the highest and rocky regions. There are
small patches of pasture in some areas in the reserve.
Since 1996, groups of C. personatus nigrifrons have been re-
corded at RPPN Caraca, at altitudes between 850 and 1,450
m. These forests have trees varying in height from 4 to 17 m.
Generally, groups of two to five individuals can be observed
foraging in the middle and upper strata of the forest (Fig. 1).
In April 1996 one individual was observed eating fruits from a
Besides the observations from the RPPN Caraca, we found
groups of three to four individuals at Fazenda Bocaina (1958'S,
42057'W), municipality of Santa Birbara, located at the base
of the Serra do Caraca, 4 km from the reserve. Fazenda Bocaina
has areas of second growth forest at altitudes between 750 and
900 m above sea level. These forests are connected with those
of the RPPN Caraqa. Unfortunately, every year, many forested
areas adjacent to RPPN Caraca, are cut due to mining and
Neotropical Primates 8(4), December 2000
Figure 1. A masked tinti monkey, Callicebuspersonatus nigrifrons, in a montane forest in the Reserva Particular do Patrim6nio Natural do
Caraca. Photo by M. E Vasconcelos.
logging, and lost through fires. These forests should be pro-
tected for their role as corridors.
Acknowledgments: M. F. Vasconcelos is grateful to the Brazil
Higher Education Authority (CAPES), World Wide Fund for
Nature (WWF) and USAID for financial support during his
Marcelo Ferreira deVasconcelos, e-mail:
ufmg.br> and Andr6 Hirsch, Instituto de Ciencias Biol6gicas,
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Caixa Postal 486,
30161-970 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerias, Brazil, e-mail:
Fonseca, G. A. B., Rylands, A. B., Costa, C. M. R., Machado,
R. B. and Leite, Y. L. R. 1994. Livro Vermelho dosMamiferos
Brasileiros Ameafados de Extinfdo. Fundacio Biodiversitas,
Lins, L. V., Machado, A. B. M., Costa, C. M. R. and
Herrmann, G. 1997. Roteiro metodol6gico para elaboracao
de listas de esp&cies ameacadas de extincao contendo a lista
official da fauna ameagada de extincao de Minas Gerais).
Publicaf6es Avulsas da Fundafdo Biodiversitas 1: 1-50.
Machado, A. B. M., Fonseca, G. A. B., Machado, R. B.,
Aguiar, L. M. S. and Lins, L. V. 1998. Livro Vermelho das
Espicies Ameacadas de Extincdo da Fauna de Minas Gerais.
Fundacio Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte.
Rylands, A. B. 1994. Guig6, saud Callicebuspersonatus (E.
Geoffroy, 1812). In: Livro Vermelho dos Mamiferos
BrasileirosAmeafados de Extinfdo, G. A. B. Fonseca, A. B.
Rylands, C. M. R. Costa, R. B. Machado and Y. L. R.
Leite (eds.), pp.211-218. Fundacqo Biodiversitas, Belo
Rylands, A. B. 1998. Callicebus personatus (E. Geoffroy,
1812). In: Livro Vermelho das Espicies Ameafadas de
Extingo da Fauna de Minas Gerais, A. B. M. Machado,
G. A. B. Fonseca, R. B. Machado, L. M. S. Aguiar and L.
V. Lins (eds.), pp.90-92. Fundagqo Biodiversitas, Belo
Zico, J. T. 1990. Carafa: Parque Natural eArquivo do Coldgio.
Editora 0 Lutador, Belo Horizonte.
RECORDS OF HOWLERS (ALOUATTA) ON THE AZUERO
PENINSULA AND CANAL ZONE OF PANAMA
Panama has two species of howler monkeys (Groves, 1992):
the mantled howler (Alouatta palliata aequatorialis) and the
Coiba Island howler (A. coibensis). The latter has two sub-
species A. c. coibensis, found on Coiba Island, and A. c.
trabeata, on the Azuero Peninsula. Although the mantled
howler has been studied quite thoroughly in Panama on
Barro Colorado Island, the last report published in the lit-
Neotropical Primates 8(4), December 2000 155
erature about A. coibensis was in 1987 (Froehlich and
Froehlich, 1987). Here I report on some observations of
howler monkeys during a survey from 8-28 January, 1998,
on the Azuero Peninsula and the Canal Zone of Panama.
Although it was our intention to visit Coiba Island as well,
the permits required and the logistics involved proved too
difficult for this short survey. Howler groups were located by
their loud territorial calls. The number of individuals per
troop was noted, photographs were taken and, when pos-
sible, age and gender of the individuals in the troop were
Azuero Peninsula (Alouatta coibensis trabeata)
Although there are no population estimates for any of the
primates of the Azuero Peninsula, the howler monkeys are
the most easily seen, and are presumably the most common.
INRENARE, which is in charge of managing the protected
areas of Panama, has a distinct presence on the Azuero Pen-
insula. We were told of the efforts of one man on the eastern
side of the Peninsula near Las Tablas who was campaigning
to stop the hunting of howlers. The troop we saw next to the
road may well owe its existence to this man's work.
January 8, 1998. During a trip to the INRENARE Las Tablas
office, on the road to Tonosi (7040'N, 80020'W). One lone
male seen who was vocalizing. Later, a troop of six was seen,
also vocalizing, and comprised of two males, two females
(one with an infant), and two juveniles. We were quite close
to the troop. They did not flee, and continued howling for
at least 20 minutes.
January 10-12, 1998. Five different troops of howlers were
recorded while traveling from the INRENARE station at
Punta Restinga in Cerra Hoya National Park (7015'N,
80055'W). One troop remained for three days in large trees
along a stream near the road to Punta Restinga, where cattle
are kept. Troop of eight was seen consisting of two males,
one female with infant, two adults of unknown sex, and three
January 13, 1998. Saw one troop of four in a small remnant
forest by Sefior Sanchez's house at Punta Restinga. The for-
est was isolated by open pasture. The troop consisted of one
male, one female with an infant, and two juveniles.
January 13, 1998. One troop of howlers was heard on the
steep hill on the left side of the Rio Mata Prio (7015'N,
80052'W). We took a boat from Punta Restinga to this val-
ley and met the farmer who works this area of Cerra Hoya
National Park. He walks or rides 3-4 hours from his village
to spend a week or so in the Park each month. He reported
seeing capuchins and spider monkeys only occasionally. He
informed that he hunted peccaries with dogs.
Chorcha Plateau (Alouatta palliata aequatorialis)
The Chorcha plateau located near the town of Chorchita
(8023'N, 8201 0'W). The forest on the plateau itself has been
cleared for agriculture, but there is still good forest on the steep
slopes which are below the plateau.
January 14, 1998. Two howlers were seen climbing trees, close
January 15, 1998. Three troops of howlers were heard from
the road that goes up to the plateau. Two troops were seen.
One troop of at least seven, included two males, one subadult
male, two females (one with an infant), and two juveniles. A
second troop intermixed with the first as it left a fruiting tree
and the juveniles played together. This second troop had at
least nine members; two males, two females, and five uniden-
tified subadults or juveniles. Four white-throated capuchins,
Cebus capucinus, were also seen.
Fortuna (Alouatta palliata aequatorialis)
Fortuna is on the Caribbean side of the continental divide to
the west of the road to Isla Grande (8050'N, 82010'W).
January 21, 1998. One troop was seen and heard near to a
stream to the west of Willie Mazu Eco Ranch. Four individuals
were identified: one male, one female, and two juveniles.
Achiote Road, Canal Zone (Alouatta palliata
Achiote Road is a protected forest in the west side of the canal
zone south of Fort Sherman (915'N, 79055'W) and had the
largest numbers of howler troops seen on this survey. All of the
troops observed appeared to have a range of ages, from infants
to adults, and appeared to be thriving, except for evidence of
botfly infestations in some individuals.
January 24, 1998. Eight troops of howlers were seen or heard
from the road.
January 25, 1998. Three troops were seen, one with at least 10
individuals, including three females with infants. A second troop
had 11 + individuals, including three females with infants. Seven
troops were heard but not seen.
January 26, 1998. Two troops were seen. The first contained
more than 12 individuals. Eleven individuals were counted in
the second troop, which included a very young infant. One
juvenile in this troop had a white band of fur toward the end of
its tail. A further three troops were heard.
Cerra Hoya National Park has a patrol house at Punta Restinga
in which two guards are usually present. Each has a motorbike,
and a horse shares the grounds around the house. We were told
that arrests for tree cutting in the park were about to be made
three days after our departure. The park is reasonably intact,
but there are still farmers who have prior legal use of pastureland
within the park boundaries. Hunting of peccaries and prob-
ably other species is still going on. The park itself was difficult
156 Neotropical Primates 8(4), December 2000
to survey due to its steepness and the lack of trails leading to
the interior, although it is quite likely that there were more
trails then our guide knew of, because he was new to the area.
Efforts should be made to establish a base for further biologi-
cal research to study this forest, which has a number of little
known and endemic bird and mammal species.
Besides the Azuero Peninsula, there appear to be only a few
areas on the Pacific side of Panama, west of the canal zone all
the way to David, with suitable forest for primates. The one
exception is the Plateau near the town of Chorita, which has
several troops of howlers living in the forest that grows on the
steep slopes. Efforts should be made to legally protect this
valuable forest, which is also home to white-throated capu-
chin monkeys (Cebus capucinus).
Acknowledgments: I thank Oswaldo Jordan and Darien
Martinez from The Panama Audubon Society and Havier
Gonzalez, Carlos Ortega, and Nicolis Ramos from
INRENARE, who helped plan, and participated in the sur-
vey of the Azuero Peninsula. I am grateful to INRENARE for
permission to visit Cerra Hoya, and Sefior Sanchez and his
son who took us in their boat to Rio Mata Prio. Special thanks
to Wilberto Martinez who was our guide for the Fortuna and
Canal Zone portion of the survey.
Noel Rowe, Primate Conservation Inc., 1411 Shannock Road,
Charlestown, Rhode Island 02813-3726, USA, e-mail:
Froehlich, J. W. and Froehlich, P. H. 1987. The status of
Panama's endemic howling monkeys. Primate Conservation
Groves, C. P 1993. Order Primates. In: Mammal Species of
the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, D. E. Wil-
son and D. M. Reeder (eds.), pp.243-277. 2nd edition.
Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.
IUCN SPECIES SURVIVAL COMMISSION PETER ScoTTr
AWARDS FOR CONSERVATION MERIT
In honor of the late Sir Peter Scott, who served as chairman of
the SSC from 1963 to 1967 and who is considered to be one
of the fathers of conservation, the Peter Scott Award for Con-
servation Merit was given to three remarkable individuals, dur-
ing the Second World Conservation Congress, Amman, Jor-
dan, October 2000. Under Sir Peter Scott's leadership, the SSC
developed into the largest of the six volunteer commissions of
the IUCN and now incorporates the expertise of some 7,000
scientists, researchers and conservation practitioners through-
out the world. Based on their dedication, persistence, commit-
ment and achievements in conservation the recipients of the
award were, Peter Jackson, Marshall Murphee, and William
Conway, all of whom have served the conservation commu-
nity for many years and are each recognized as leading fig-
ures in the preservation of nature.
Peter Jackson, Chair of the SSC Cat Specialist Group, is best
known for his conservation efforts in India on the critically
endangered tiger. Among his many accomplishments, he
served as the Director of Information for World Wildlife
Fund International, and has published several books includ-
ing, Wild Cats: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan
and Riding the Tiger: Tiger Conservation in Human-Domi-
nated Landscapes. In 1997 he was made an officer of the
Order of the Golden Ark by Prince Bernhard of the Nether-
lands and was recently presented with the Salim Ali Interna-
tional Award for his work in conservation and ornithology
in India by the Bombay Natural History Society.
Professor Marshall W. Murphee, Chair of the Sustainable
Use of Wild Species Specialist Group, is noted for his work
in the social sciences, particularly for his innovative think-
ing on integrating conservation issues and the human com-
ponent. During the late 80's Marshall became Chairman of
the Parks and Wildlife Board of Zimbabwe, the highest coun-
cil on wildlife matters in the country, and in 1992 and 1994
he became part of the Zimbabwe delegation to CITES. His
influence in sustainable use is far reaching, and as Director
of the Center for Applied Social Sciences (CASS) at the Uni-
versity of Zimbabwe, he raised significant funding to em-
power CASS to develop a major applied socio-economic re-
search programme. Truly a conservation leader who believes
in "conservation with a human face", Marshall is a cham-
pion of sustainable wildlife use.
Dr. William G. Conway, former President of the Wildlife
Conservation Society in New York, profoundly impacted con-
servation through his activities in conservation biology, wild-
life propagation, the role of zoological parks, and ornithol-
ogy. Serving as President of the Society since 1967, he al-
tered the roles of both European zoological institutions and
North American zoological parks and aquariums. Having
persuaded the conservation community that effective con-
servation requires scientific knowledge and field research, he
is responsible for creating an institution that participates in
conservation activities in over 300 sites worldwide. A leader,
writer and spokesman for conservation for over 40 years,
William has written more than 200 articles and has sup-
ported many SSC Specialist Groups including those work-
ing on curassows, primates, peccaries, reptiles, crocodiles,
freshwater turtles and sustainable use.
For more information on these remarkable individuals and/
or the Peter Scott Award for Conservation Merit, please con-
tact: Sue Mainka, Head IUCN Species Programme, e-mail:
or Anna Knee, Communications Of-
ficer, Species Survival Commission, e-mail: .
Neotropical Primates 8(4), December 2000
COURSE ON PRIMATE BEHAVIOR AND ECOLOGY-
FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY
A Primate Behavior and Ecology Program will be held from
21 June 22 July, 2001, at the Primate Refuge and Sanctu-
ary of Panama, sponsored by Florida State University. It is a
4-week, 7-semester hour Primate Behavior and Ecology Pro-
gram. As a part of the training, students will conduct di-
rected research projects on the endangered Panamanian tama-
rin (Saguinus geoffroyi) and live at the Primate Refuge and
Sanctuary of Panama. The Program runs from 21 June to
22 July 2001, but the application deadline is not yet closed.
The Program runs again from June 21 to July 22, 2002, the
deadline for application is mid-January 2002. Contact: Iris
Broekema, e-mail: , or Nancy
Smith, e-mail: . Web page:
WISCONSIN REGIONAL PRIMATE RESEARCH CENTER
In August, 2000, the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research
Center (WRPRC) was awarded a grant to co-ordinate both
information services among the Regional Primate Research
Centers (RPRCs) and outreach to the international prima-
A consortium of RPRC Libraries has been formed to coor-
dinate grant activities. An RPRC Staff Services Menu has
been developed to provide staff with centralized Web access
to a wide range of research support tools and services. The
menu includes links to services at the various RPRCs.
Initial development of a document delivery program is com-
pleted. Yerkes will be the initial test site, although all Cen-
ters will be phased in. Centers with libraries will have docu-
ment requests routed to those libraries; others will be pro-
vided access to this service through Wisconsin. This service
is intended to complement, not replace, existing document
delivery services at the RPRCs.
The PrimateLit database has been moved to the University
of Wisconsin and is developing a new platform. Literature
analysis and indexing will be provided by the Primate Infor-
mation Center at the Washington RPRC. An electronic ver-
sion of Current Primate References has been developed.
Major support for the database will be provided by the Na-
tional Center for Research Resources, with the Wisconsin
and Washington Centers supplementing. Release is projected
for late this spring.
Primate Info Net, a major Web resource for electronic prima-
tology information, has been enhanced by fact sheets about
the primates, as well as links to sites on primates as animal
models and to government documents, such as the Chimpan-
zee Health Improvement, Maintenance, and Protection Act.
A Web resource page, which addresses the benefits of primates
in biomedical research, is in development.
Three educational projects underway are: 1) development of a
collection of images of primates in art and illustration (with
Stephen Nash, SUNY-Stony Brook); 2) a teaching set on field
work with nonhuman primates (print and Web versions) and;
3) a grant-supported upgrade of the Callicam technology-a
camera and Web site about the Common Marmoset which is
accessible from classrooms worldwide.
If you have any comments or questions about progress on the
grant, please contact Larry Jacobsen, Library and Information
Services, Wisconsin RPRC, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI
53715 [e-mail: email@example.com]; or see
THE CHAPALA ECOLOGY STATION (CES), MEXICO
Located on the shore of Mexico's largest natural lake, Lago de
Chapala, at the foot of the mountain range making up the
southwestern boundary of the Mesa Central, the Chapala Ecol-
ogy Station (CES) is ideal for ecological study and instruction.
Montane coniferous forest, desert scrubland, tropical rainforest,
large and small lakes, salt lakes, reservoirs, rivers, marshes, and
thermal springs are easily accessible from the station and within
a days drive, the alpine forests of Nevado de Colima, the Pa-
cific Ocean at Barra de Navidad, and the Universidad
Aut6noma de Guadalajara's marine science/aquaculture labo-
ratory. The station provides classes and facilities for both stu-
dents and researchers wishing to study in the area. A profes-
sional team of ecologists teach the courses and field lectures are
provided in both English and Spanish. For more information,
contact Laura Davalos, Tel: (254) 710 2911, e-mail:
or see the web site:
RAINFOREST RESEARCH GRANTS
Grants are now available for researchers working in southwest-
ern Peru. The grants support ongoing research at the Tambopata
Research Center (TRC) or Posada Amazonas Lodge (PAL),
facilities operated by Rainforest Expeditions. Graduate students
or researchers of tropical biology or environmental studies are
encouraged to apply. Preference is given to those with interests
on large vertebrates or ecotourism. For further information
contact: Donald J. Brightsmith, Duke University Department
of Zoology, e-mail: .
BIODIVERSITY SUPPORT PROGRAM (BSP)
Supported by the Nature Conservancy and the World Resources
Institute, the Biodiversiy Support program is an online site
which highlights information gathered from 12 years of BSP
158 Neotropical Primates 8(4), December 2000
research on biodiversity conservation. The site includes an
electronic library of BSP publications and can be subscribed
to free of charge at .
ASP CONSERVATION AWARD WINNERS FOR 2000
The American Society of Primatologists (ASP) gave the fol-
lowing Conservation Awards (small grants of $500-1500 each)
in 2000: Matthew Banks Lemur fauna of Littoral Forest,
Tolagnaro (Fort Dauphin) Region, southeastern Madagascar;
Mukesh Chalise Survey of Assamese monkeys in Langtang
National Park, Nepal; Anwaruddin Choudhury Survey of
non-human primates in West Kameng District (26050'-
27050'N, 92000'-92o50'E), Arunachal Pradesh, India;
Ekpenyong Effiong Community-based conservation educa-
tion and awareness campaign programme in the proposed Afi
Mountain Wild Life Sanctuary in Cross River state of Nigeria;
Joel Gathua Monitoring the demographic status of the
Angolan colobus (Colobus angolensispalliatus) in the Shimba
Hills Reserve, coastal Kenya; Entang Iskandar Population sur-
vey of Javan gibbon (Hylobates moloch) at the Ujung Kulon
National Park, West Java, Indonesia; Mugambi Karere Eco-
logical study and conservation strategy for De Brazza's mon-
keys (Cercopithecus neglectus) in Kenya; Erwin Palacios Pri-
mate conservation in the lower CaquetA and Apaporis Rivers
through educational activities; Tania Saj The Boabeng-Fiema
Primate Research Project: The potential role of sacred groves
in the conservation of West African monkeys; Janette Wallis -
Monitoring the behavioral ecology and viability of forest frag-
ment chimpanzees, Masindi District, Uganda.
For information on these small grants please contact: Dr.
Randall C. Kyes, Chair, ASP Conservation Committee, Re-
gional Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Box
357330, Seattle, WA 98195 USA, Tel: (206) 543-3025, Fax:
(206) 685-0305, e-mail: . Website:
PRIMATE SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN (PSGB) WEBSITE
The Primate Society of Great Britain's website can be accessed
at: . The site has been redesigned so it
should be a little easier to get around. It contains information
about the society and the various meetings (twice yearly) orga-
nized by the Society. There are also new application forms for
the PSGB conservation grants and other bits of information.
Bill Sellers, Editor of Primate Eye and the PSGB website, De-
partment of Biomedical Sciences (Anatomy), University of
Edinburgh, Hugh Robson Bldg, George Square, Edinburgh
EH8 9XD, UK, Tel: (0)131-650-3110 Fax: UK (0)131-650-
6545, e-mail: .
PSGB PRIMATE EYE FIELD STUDIES SUPPLEMENT
Number 72 of Primate Eye, published by The Primate Soci-
ety of Great Britain (PSGB) brings with it the millennium
edition of the Primate Field Studies Guide, published as a
supplement. It contains details on 186 projects, spanning
47 countries across Africa, Madagascar, Asia and the Ameri-
cas. For the first time the collection and presentation of this
information has been carried out in conjunction with the
Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center (WRPRC) who
make available an electronic version of the database on their
html>. The listing was compiled by Guy Cowlishaw, Insti-
tute of Zoology, Zoological Society of London, UK, and the
supplement includes an editorial by him which analyzes the
geographic and taxonomic distributions of the projects, as
well as by subject components, and duration. There is also a
short presentation by David J. Chivers, who began the Field
Studies Supplement in 1974 and was the editor from then
Fifty-two field studies were listed for the Americas, the same
number as for Asia, while 62 were listed for Africa and 20
for Madagascar. The breakdown for each country in the
Americas is as follows: Argentina-5; Belize-2; Bolivia-1; Bra-
zil-17; Colombia-4; Costa Rica-6; French Guiana-3; Mexico-
6; Nicaragua-1; Panama-1; Peru-2; Puerto Rico-1; Suriname-
1; Trinidad-1; and Venezuela-1.
The supplement is available from the PSGB Treasurer,
Dr. Charlie Evans, Dept. of Biological Sciences, Glasgow
Caledonian University, Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow G4 OBA,
Scortland, UK, e-mail:. The price is 5.00
(+postage). For membership of the PSGB, please write to
Dr. Russell Hill, Membership Secretary, School of Biologi-
cal Sciences, Nicholson Building, University of Liverpool,
Liverpool L69 3BX, UK.
Guy Cowlishaw, Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of
London, Regent's Park, London NW1 4RY, England, UK.
A RED LIST FOR THE STATE OF RIO DE JANEIRO,
A Fauna Ameacada de Extinfdo do Estado do Rio deJaneiro,
compiled by Helena de Godoy Bergallo, Carlos Frederico
Duarte da Rocha, Maria Alice dos Santos Alves and Monique
van Sluys. 2000, 168pp. Editora da Universidade do Estado
do Rio de Janeiro (EDUERJ), Rio de Janeiro. ISBN 85
85881-92 5. The Red List of threatened animals for the state
Neotropical Primates 8(4), December 2000 159
of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Chapter 10 (pages 125-135) deal-
ing with the mammals, was compiled by Helena de Godoy
Bergallo, Lena Geise, Cibele Rodrigues Bonvicino, Rui
Cerqueira, Paula S. D'Andrea, Carlos Eduardo EsberArd,
Fernando A. S. Fernandez, Carlos Eduardo Grelle, Adriano
Peracchi, Salvatore Siciliano and Sdrgio Maia Vaz. The fol-
lowing species of primates were listed: Callithrix aurita (Vul-
nerable), Leontopithecus rosalia (Endangered), Brachyteles
arachnoides (Critically Endangered), Callicebus personatus
(Vulnerable), and Alouatta guariba (= fiusca) (Presumed
Threatened). Of the primates occurring in the state of Rio
de Janeiro, only the capuchin monkey, Cebus nigritus was
not listed as threatened. Overall, of 176 mammals consid-
ered for the state, 43 (24.4%) are listed as threatened, and a
further 34 (19.3%) as presumed threatened. Available from:
Editora da Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro
(EDUERJ), Rua Sao Francisco Xavier 524, Maracani, Rio
de Janeiro 2.0550-013, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Tel/Fax: +(0)21
587 7788, 587 7789.
GUIA DE FINANCIADORES-ONDE OBTER DINHEIRO
PARA FINANCIAL PROJETOS
Uma boa noticia para as pessoas e instituiq6es que
desenvolvem ou pretended desenvolver projetos nas mais
diversas Areas, como sadlde, social, educacao,
desenvolvimento, meio ambiente, agriculture, arte, cultural,
direitos humans, e pesquisa. Foi lanqada a nova versio do
Guia de Financiadores, um catAlogo que traz informaq6es
bdsicas e atualizadas sobre 114 instituiq6es que financial
projetos no Brasil ou na Am6rica Latina e que tern se revelado
de grande auxflio para a obtenqgo de recursos financeiros. 0
Guia e uma ferramenta pritica, de estrutura simples, onde
as informaq6es sio apresentadas de forma sucinta e descrevem
para cada instituicao a Area de financiamento, os valores
financiados, as formas de contato, enderegos postais e
eletr6nicos, home-pages alkm de outras informac6es
Os pedidos por via postal podem ser enviados juntamente
com um cheque nominal a Associaqco Pr6 Bocaina no valor
de R$ 20,00 para: Associacao Pr6 Bocaina, Caixa Postal 01,
12850-970 Bananal, Sio Paulo, Brasil. Para pagamento
atrav6s de dep6sito bancirio utilizar a conta abaixo: Banco
do Brasil, Agencia 1490-7, Conta no. 7432-2. Enviar por
correio ou pelo fax (X 12) 576.1082 o recibo de dep6sito
com nome e endereqo do depositante para envio e CGC ou
CPF para emissio de recibo. Em caso de necessidade solicite
informaq6es atrav6s do fone/fax (X 12) 576.1714 ou pelo e-
A Associacao Pr6 Bocaina, entidade que public o Guia, e
uma ONG, que atua na regilo da Serra da Bocaina (divisa
dos estados de Slo Paulo e Rio de Janeiro) desenvolvendo
aq6es para a promoo do bem-estar de sua populagco atraves
de projetos de educacao, desenvolvimento sustentAvel e
conservaqio dos ecossistemas da regiao, Areas nas quais possui
diversos projetos implantados ou em fase de implantacAo. En-
tre os projetos em andamento estA a publicacgo de duas cartilhas:
"Elaboraqio de Propostas e Projetos" e "Gerenciamento da
Implantacao de Projetos".
MUSEU DE BIOLOGIA MELLO LEITAO-BRASIL
No ano de 1949, o naturalist Augusto Ruschi fundou o Museu
de Biologia Professor Mello Leitio, na cidade de Santa Teresa,
Espirfto Santo, Brasil. Iniciou naquele ano a ediqlo do Boletim
doMuseu, e de 1949 a 1985 foram impressos 390 titulos, dentro
de series de Biologia, Zoologia, Botinica, ProteIo a Natureza,
Antropologia, Divulgaqao e Geologia. 0 ultimo nimero do
Boletim foi publicado em 1985, ano anterior ao seu falecimento.
Ap6s a reestruturacqo do Museu, em 1992, as sete series foram
fundidas passando o peri6dico a se chamar Boletim do Museu
de Biologia Mello Leitdo Nova Sdrie. Desde entio a publicaco
passou a publicar contribuiq6es para a biologia que nao se
restringem a trabalhos realizados no Museu, mas que em geral
sio de autoria de pesquisadores vinculados ao Museu. Em 1996,
o Conselho Cientifico do Museu foi institufdo, e assumiu a
funSio de Conselho Editorial do Boletim, que vem sendo
No ano de 1999, por ocasilo de cinqiientenArio do Museu foi
editado urn volume especial comemorativo, corn artigos de
membros do Conselho Cientffico e de pesquisadores vinculados
que tern colaborado corn o Museu nos iltimos anos,
especialmente aqueles oriundos do projeto "Biodiversidade da
Mata Atlintica no Estado do Espfrito Santo". Assim foi
publicado a "Edicqo Comemorativa dos 50 Anos do Museu",
ndmeros 11 e 12, junho de 2000. A publicacao prestou
homenagaem tambdm a Augusto Ruschi, pela sua iniciativa de
criar um peri6dico que tern dado uma relevant contribuilo a
biologia e conservaqio da biodiversidade no Brasil.
Conteddo: A Estaqao Biol6gica de Santa Lucia, Santa Teresa,
Espirito Santo S. L. Mendes & M. da P. Padovan, pp.7-34;
Especies vegetais descritas a partir de especimes coletados na
Reserva Florestal de Linhares, Espirito Santo, Brasil P.
Germano Filho, A. L. Peixoto & R. M. de Jesus, pp.35-48;
C61ulas piramidais apicais dos tegumentos do 6vulo em
Velloziaceae e suas relag6es filogeneticas N. L. de Menezes &
N. M. de Castro, pp.49-56; Recursos de Bromeliaceae
utilizados por beija-flores e borboletas em Mata Atlntica no
Sudeste do Brasil I. G, Varassin & M. Sazima, pp.57-70;
Diversidade de Lepidoptera em Santa Teresa, Espirito Santo -
K. S. Brown, Jr. & A. V. L. Freitas, pp.71-116; Perfil da fauna
de himen6pteros parasit6ides (Insecta, Hymenoptera) em uma
Area de Mata Atlantica da Reserva Biol6gica de Duas Bocas,
Cariacica, Brasil C. 0. Azevedo & H. S. Santos, pp.117-
126; Studies on Neotropical Protoneuridae. 10. Forcepsioneura
lucia sp.n. from the Parque Estadual Rola Moga, Minas Gerais,
Brazil (Odonata, Zygoptera) A. B. M. Machado, pp.127-
134; Ecology of Leptagrion perlongum Calvert, 1909: A bro-
meliad-dweller odonate species P. de Marco Jdnior & K. S.
Furieri, pp.135-148; Composiqlo da avifauna da Estacao
Biol6gica de Santa Lucia, Santa Teresa ES J. E. Simon,
160 Neotropical Primates 8(4), December 2000
pp.149-170; Descriqdo do comportamento de corte do
dangarino-de-coroa-vermelha, Machaeropterus regulus (Aves,
Pipridae) M. L. da Silva, G. Baudet, T. Sigrist & J. Vielliard,
pp. 171-188; Reintroducio do tucano-de-bico-preto
(Rhampastos vitellinus arielVigors, 1826) no Parque Nacional
da Tijuca (Rio de Janeiro RJ) e notas sobre sua distribuiqio
geogrnfica A. E Coimbra-Filho, pp. 189-200; Non-volant
mammals of the Estacio Biol6gica de Santa Lticia and adja-
cent areas of Santa Teresa, Espirito Santo, Brazil M.
Passamani, S. L. Mendes & A. G. Chiarello, pp.201-214;
Analise da comunidade de marsupials em Mata Atlintica de
Santa Teresa, Espirito Santo M. Passamani, pp.215-228;
Influ8ncia da caca illegal sobre mamnferos e aves das matas de
tabuleiro do norte do estado do Espirito Santo A. G.
Chiarello, pp.229-247. Available from: Biblioteca, Museu de
Biologia Mello Leitko, Avenida Jose Ruschi 4, 29650-000
Santa Teresa, Espfrito Santo, Brasil.
Sirgio L. Mendes, Departamento de Biologia, Av. Mal. Cam-
pos 1468, Marufpe, 29040-090 Vit6ria, Espirito Santo, Brasil.
CONSERVATION BIOLOGY-SPECIAL SECTION ON
The December 2000 issue, Vol. 14(6), of Conservation
Biology, the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology,
has a special section with 12 articles devoted to the theme
"Habitat Disturbance andTropical Rainforest Mammals", put
together by the Guest Editor Alfredo D. Cuar6n of the
Departamento de Ecologia de los Recursos Naturales, Instituto
de Ecologia, Universidad Nacional Aut6noma de Mexico,
Michoacin, Mdxico. It includes the following papers: A glo-
bal perspective on habitat disturbance and tropical rainforest
mammals, A. D. Cuar6n, pp.1574-1579; Monitoring mam-
mal populations in Costa Rican protected areas under differ-
ing hunting restrictions, E. Carrillo, G. Wong and A. D.
Cuar6n, pp.1580-1591; Habitat mosaic, wildlife availabil-
ity, and hunting in the tropical forest of Calakmul, Mexico,
A. Escamilla, M. Sanvicente, M. Sosa and C. Galindo-Leal,
pp. 1592-1601; Bushmeat markets on Bioko Island as a mea-
sure of hunting pressure, J. E. Fa, J. E. Garcia Yuste and Ramon
Castelo, pp.1602-1613; Roads, development, and conserva-
tion in the Congo basin, D. Wilkie, E. Shae, F Rotberg, G.
Morelli and P. Auzel, pp. 1614-1622; Influence of timber ex-
traction routes on Central African small-mammal commu-
nities, forest structure, and tree diversity, J. R. Malcom and J.
C. Ray, pp.1623-1638; Effects of habitat disturbance and
protected areas on mammals of Peninsular Malaysia, R. K.
Laidlaw, pp.1639-1648; Density and population size of mam-
mals in remnants of Brazilian Atlantic forest, A. G. Chiarello,
pp. 1649-1657; Effects of human colonization on the abun-
dance and diversity of mammals in eastern Brazilian Amazonia,
M. A. Lopes and S. E Ferrari, pp.1658-1665; Bat diversity
and abundance as indicators of disturbance in Neotropical
rainforests, R. A. Medellin, M. Equiha and M. A. Amin,
pp.1666-1675; Effects of land-cover changes on mammals
in a Neotropical region: A modeling approach, A. D. Cuar6n,
pp. 1676-1692; Bat and bird-generated seed rains at isolated
trees in pastures in tropical rainforest, J. Galindo-GonzAlez,
S. Guevara and V. J. Sosa, pp.1693-1703.
A NEw BIODIVERSITY JOURNAL
Biodiversity: Journal of Life on Earth, is a new journal pro-
duced quarterly by Tropical Conservancy, based in Canada.
For more information or to subscribe, contact Biodiversity,
94, Four Seasons Drive, Nepean, Ontario, Canada, K2E 7S 1,
e-mail: or see
Classification of Mammals, by Macolm C. McKenna and
Susan K.Bell, 2000, 631pp. Columbia University Press, New
York. ISBN 0 231 11013 8 (paper), 0 231 11012 X (cloth).
Price: US$50.00 (paperback); US$175.00 (cloth). This is
the first comprehensive classification to appear in more than
50 years. Since George Gaylord Simpson's 1945 classifica-
tion, the paleontological record has been greatly
expanded, the timescale recalibrated, and much debate and
progress concerning the theoretical underpinnings of sys-
temization has occurred. McKenna and Bell have constructed
a completely updated hierarchical system that reflects the
genealogy of the Mammalia. Available from: Columbia Uni-
versity Press, Order Department, 136 South Broadway,
Irvington, NY 210533, USA, Tel: (800) 944 8648 or (914)
591 9111, or Columbia University Press, c/o John Wiley
and Sons, Ltd., 1 Oldlands Way, Bognor Regis, West Sussex
P022 95A, England, UK, Tel (1243) 779 777, e-mail:
. Web site: .
Primate Ecology and Social Structure, Volume 2: New World
Monkeys, by Robert W. Sussman, Department of Anthro-
pology, Washington University, St. Louis. 2000, 207pp.
Pearson Custom Publishing, Boston. Price: $35.95 (+$5.50
shipping). ISBN: 0536602654. This is the second of a
three volume set. The first was Volume 1: Lorises, Lemurs and
Tarsiers. After an introductory chapter with an overview of
New World monkeys and their evolution, the remainder re-
view the literature on each of the following taxa:
Callitrichidae, including marmosets, tamarins, and Goeldi's
monkey (Chapter 2); Cebidae, including squirrel monkeys,
capuchins, night monkeys, and titi monkeys (Chapter 3);
and Atelidae, including spider monkeys, woolly monkeys,
woolly spider monkeys, howler monkeys, sakis, bearded sakis,
and uakaris (Chapter 4). To facilitate comparison, the gen-
eral organization of each of the review chapters is similar.
For each, there are reviews on habitat and locomotion,
diet, activity cycles, predation, social structure and organiza-
tion, reproduction, and ranging behavior. In Chapter 5, each
of these topics are compared among all of the
taxa, examining patterns that emerge, and discussing the
conservation status of New World monkeys and some of the
problems for their future preservation. Volume 3 of this se-
Neotropical Primates 8(4), December 2000 161
ries will cover the Old World monkeys and apes. Available
from: Pearson Custom Publishing, 160 Gould Street, Needham
Heights, MA 02494 1-800-428-4466 (Toll free), Fax:1-781-
455-1707; e-mail: , URL:
Mammalian Social Learning: Comparative and Ecological Per-
spectives, edited by Hilary Box and Kathleen Gibson, 1999,
438pp, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. ISBN
0 521 63263 3 (Hardback). Price: 60.00. Symposia of the
Zoological Society ofLondon, 72. Social behaviour commonly
refers to the social transfer of information and skill among
individuals. It encompasses a wide range of behaviours that
include where and how to obtain food, how to interact with
members of one's own social group, and how to identify and
respond appropriately to predators. The behaviour of experi-
enced individuals provides natural sources of information by
which inexperienced individuals may learn about the oppor-
tunities and hazards of their environment, enabling them to
develop and modify their own behaviour accordingly. His-
torically, scientific interest in social learning has been mark-
edly biased in both theoretical considerations and the range
of species that have been studied especially in nature. Hence,
social learning has never been adequately represented in the
literature in behavioral biology and the whole area is still
under subscribed despite a recent upsurge of interest. There is
little or no information for the majority of species. In fact
biologists, and especially field biologists, have rarely consid-
ered their animals from social learning perspectives. Many of
the contributors to this groundbreaking volume are field work-
ers. Moreover, their contributions cover a wide diversity of
taxa that vary greatly in ecological strategies, social systems,
and in mental and sensorimotor skills. The book aims to in-
crease the database of comparative information in two ways.
First, in providing new information on species that have not
been previously discussed or have been very little discussed in
this domain, and second in providing additional information
for animals that are much more familiar in a social learning
context. Humans are placed firmly within a comparative mam-
malian framework, and for the first time there are discussions
of social learning abilities in prehistoric hominoids whose brain
size and technological capacities were intermediate between
those of modern humans and great apes. Contents Part 1:
New Perspectives in Studies of Social Learning. 1. The myth
of peculiar primates T. Rowell; 2. New directions in the
study of primate learning B. J. King; 3. Temperament and
socially mediated learning among primates H. 0. Box; 4.
Evolutionary biology of skill and information transfer R.
M. Sibly. Part 2. Social Learning Among Species ofTerrestrial
Herbivores: 5. Social learning in marsupials K. Higginbottom
& K. R. Gibson; 6. The social context for learning and
behavioral development among wild African elephants P.
C. Lee and C. J. Moss; 7. Comparative social learning among
arctic herbivores: The caribou, muskox and arctic hare D.
R. Klein; 8. Transmission of olfactory information from
mother to young in the European rabbit R. Hudson, B.
Schaal & A Bilk6; 9. Social transfer of information in domes-
tic animals D. M. Broom. Part 3. Rats, Bats and Naked
Mole Rats: Animals with Information Centres: 10. Exploring
the dynamics of social transmission with rats K. N. Laland;
11. Social influences on foraging in bats G. S. Wilkinson &
J. W. Boughman; 12. Social transmission of information in a
eusocial rodent, the naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber).
Part 4. Social Learning Among Species of Terrestrial Carni-
vores: 13. Opportunities for social learning in bears B. K.
Gilbert; 14. Watch with mother: A review of social learning
in the Felidae A. C. Kitchener; 15. Social learning in canids:
An ecological perspective J. A. J. Nel. Part 5. Dolphins and
Whales: Communication and Foraging in Aquatic Environ-
ments: 16. Social learning in cetaceans: Hunting, hearing and
hierarchies J. R. Beran and S. L. Heinlich; Origins and im-
plications of vocal learning in bottlenose dolphins V. M.
Janik. Part 6. The Great Ape Human Adaptation: Culture
and the Cognitive Niche: 18. Cognition in great ape ecology:
Skill-learning ability opens up foraging opportunities R. W.
Byrne; 19. Social transmission of facts and skills in the hu-
man species: Neural mechanisms K. R. Gibson; 20. Cul-
tural learning in hominids: A behavioral ecological approach
- S. J. Shennan &J. Steele; 21. Imitation and cultural change:
A view from the Stone Age, with specific reference to the
manufacture of handaxes S. Mitken. Concluding Remarks -
H. 0. Box & K. R. Gibson. Available from: UK and Ireland -
UK Sales Department, Cambridge University Press, The
Edinburgh Building, Shaftesbury Road, Cambridge CB2
2RU, UK, e-mail: , web site:
, or North and Central America Cam-
bridge University Press North American Branch, 40 West 20th
Street, New York, NY 10011-4211, US, e-mail:
, or South America and Hispanic
Caribbean Cambridge University Press South American
Branch, Av. Paulista 807, Conj. 1218, 01311-915 Sio Paulo,
SP, Brazil, e-mail: , web site:
Flora da Reserva Ducke, by Josd E. L. da S. Ribeiro, Michael
J.G. Hopkins, Alberto Vicentini, et. al, 1999, 86 pp, INPA,
Manaus. A extremely well illustrated botanical guide to the
Reserva Ducke, a terra-firma forest adjacent to Manaus, in
the Amazon basin. The guide is an excellent tool for both
students and researchers working in the area. Written in Por-
tuguese, the book includes a useful introduction, complete
with a densely illustrated glossary of vegetative characters such
as cut stems, leaf domatia, glands and galls. Available in Eu-
rope from Kew Gardens, London (firstname.lastname@example.org) for
25; in the US from
for US$50; and in Brazil through SAPECA, Sociedade para
Pesquisas e Conservacao de Amaz6nia, Projeto Flora da
Reserva Ducke for R$50.
All That Glitters is Not Gold: Balancing Conservation and De-
velopment in Venezuela's Frontier Forests, by M. Miranda, A.
Blanco-Uribe, L. Hernindez, J. Orhoa and E. Yevena, 1998,
60pp, ISBN: 1569732515 (English) or 1569732523 (Span-
ish). Price US$20. This book outlines the frontier forest found
in Venezuela's Guayana region, south of the Orinoco River.
This area is home to 75% of the countries plant species yet is
being devastated by ongoing extractive activities such as gold
and diamond mining, logging, oil exploration, and highway
162 Neotropical Primates 8(4), December 2000
construction. Presently the government has a five-year plan
for further development and this book analyzes these plans,
taking into account the realities of current forest resources
used and possible environmental and social implications of
increased extraction. Available from the World Resources
publications, 1709 New York Avenue, N.W., Washington,
DC 20006, USA.
Natural Conflict Resolution, edited by Filippo Aureli and Frans
B. M. de Waal, 2000, 391pp, ISBN 0 520216717 (cloth),
price US$65 or ISBN 0 520223462 (paperback), price
US$24.95. A group of fifty two authors, including the worlds
leading experts on human and animal behavior, review evi-
dence from various disciplines on natural conflict resolution.
This book addresses the cultural, ecological, cognitive,
emotional, and moral perspectives of resolution and
provides a tool to establish conflict resolution as a field of
systematic research. Contents include: an introduction, his-
tory, controlling aggression, repairing the damage, triadic af-
fairs, ecological and cultural contexts, a conclusion, and ap-
pendixes. Available from California Princeton Fulfillment
Services, 1445 Lower Ferry Rd., Ewing, NJ 08618, USA,
Tel: (800) 777 4726, Fax: (800) 999 1958 or e-mail:
Adams-Curtis, L., Fragaszy, D. and England, N. 2000. Pre-
hension in infant capuchins (Cebus apella) from six weeks
to twenty-four weeks: Video analysis of form and symme-
try. Am. J Primatol. 52(1): 55-60.
Agoramoorthy, G. and Hsu, M. J. 2000. Extragroup copula-
tion among wild red howler monkeys in Venezuela. Folia
Primatol. 71(3): 147-151.
Ah-King, M. and Tullberg, B. S. 2000. Phylogenetic
analysis of twinning in Callitrichinae. Am. J Primatol. 51(2):
Bales, K., Dietz, J., Baker, A., Miller, K. and Tardif, S. D.
2000. Effects of allocare givers on fitness of infants and
parents in callitrichid primates. Folia Primatol. 71(1-2):
Bravo, S. P and Zunino, G. E. 2000. Germination of seeds
from three species dispersed by black howler monkeys
(Alouatta caraya). Folia Primatol. 71(5): 342-345.
Boubli, J. P. and Ditchfield, A. D. 2000. The time of diver-
gence between the two species of uacari monkeys: Cacajao
calvus and Cacajao melanocephalus. Folia Primatol. 71(6):
Campbell, C. J. 2000. Fur rubbing behavior in free ranging
black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) in Panama.
Am. J. Primatol. 51(3): 205-208.
Clisson, I., Lathuilliere, M. and Crouau-Roy, B. 2000. Con-
servation and evolution ofmicrosatellite loci in primate taxa.
Am. J. Primatol. 50(3): 205-214.
De Waal, E B. M. 2000. Attitudinal reciprocity in food shar-
ing among brown capuchin monkeys. Anim. Behav. 60(2):
Di Bitetti, M. S. and Janson, C. H. 2000. When will the
stork arrive? Patterns of birth seasonality in neotropical pri-
mates. Am. J. Primatol. 50(2): 109-130.
Di Bitetti, M. S., Vidal, E. M. L., Baldovino, M. C. and
Benesovsky, V. 2000. Sleeping site preferences in tufted ca-
puchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus). Am. J. Primatol.
Feistner, A. T. C. and Price, E. C. 2000. Food sharing in black
lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysopygus). Am. J. Primatol.
Ginther, A. J., Washabaugh, K. F. and Snowdon, C. T. 2000.
Measurement of scrotum and testis size of unrestrained cap-
tive cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus oedipus). Am. J.
Primatol. 51(3): 187-195.
Herrick, J. R., Agoramoorthy, G., Rudran, R. and Harder, J.
D. 2000. Urinary progesterone in free ranging red howler
monkeys (Alouatta seniculus): Preliminary observations
of the estrous cycle and gestation. Am. J. Primatol. 51(4):
Herrera, E. R. T., Knogge, C. and Heymann, E. W. 2000.
Infanticide in a group of wild saddle-back tamarins, Saguinus
fuscicolis. Am. J. Primatol. 50(2): 153-157.
Heymann, E. W. 2000. Spatial patterns of scent marking in
wild moustached tamarins, Saguinus mystax. No evidence
for a territorial function. Anim. Behav. 60(6): 723-730.
Heymann, E. W. 2000. Field observations of the golden-
mantled tamarin, Saguinus tripartitus, on the Rfo Curaray,
Peruvian Amazonia. Folia Primatol. 71(6): 392-398.
Heymann, E. W., Knogge, C. and Herrera, E. R. T. 2000.
Vertebrate predation by sympatric tamarins, Saguinus mystax
and Saguinus fuscicollis. Am. J. Primatol. 51(2): 153-158.
Key, C. and Aiello, L. C. 2000. A prisoner's dilemma model
of the evolution of paternal care. Folia Primatol. 71(1-2):
Mendes, E D. C., Martins, L. B. R., Pereira, J. A. and
Marquezan, R. E 2000. Fishing with a bait: A note on
behavioral flexibility in Cebus apella. Folia Primatol. 71(5):
Mendes, K. A. and de Waal, E B. M. 2000. Capuchins do
cooperate: The advantage of an intuitive task. Anim. Behav.
Marques, A. B. de and Ades, C. 2000. Male care in a group of
wild Alouatta fusca clamitans in southern Brazil. Folia
Primatol. 71(6): 409-412.
Motta, M. T. and Sousa, M. B. C. 2000. Prolactin levels
of fathers and helpers related to alloparental care in com-
mon marmosets, Callithrixjacchus. Folia Primatol. 71(1-2):
Nunes, S., Fite, J. E. and French, J. A. 2000. Variation in
steroid hormones associated with infant care behavior and
experience in male marmosets (Callithrix kuhlii). Anim.
Behav. 60(6): 857-965.
Pereira, M. E., Schill, J. L. and Charles, E. P. 2000. Recon-
ciliation in captive Guyanese squirrel monkeys (Saimiri
sciureus). Am. J. Primatol. 50(2): 159-167.
Queyras, A., Scolavino, M., Puopolo, M. and Vitale A.
2000. Social influence on induced food preference in com-
mon marmosets (Callithrixjacchus). Folia Primatol. 71(6):
Neotropical Primates 8(4), December 2000
Ross, C. and MacLarnon, A. 2000. The evolution of non
maternal care in anthropoid primates: A test of the hypoth-
eses. Folia Primatol. 71(1-2): 93-113.
Stanyon, R., Consigliere, S., Miller, S., Morescalchi, A.,
Neusser, M. and Wienberg, J. 2000. Fluorescence in situ
hybridization (FISH) maps chromosomal homologies be-
tween the dusky titi and squirrel monkey. Am. J. Primatol.
Stevenson, P. R. and Castellanos, M. C. 2000. Feeding rates
and daily path range of the Colombian woolly monkeys as
evidence for between- and within-group competition. Folia
Primatol. 71(6): 399-408.
Stevenson, P. R. 2000. Seed dispersal by woolly monkeys
(Lagothrix lagothricha) at Tinigua National Park, Colom-
bia: Dispersal distance, germination rates, and dispersal
quantity. Am. J. Primatol. 50(4): 275-289.
Urbano, L. B. and Ferrari, S. E 2000. Habitat use by Chiropotes
satanas utahicki and syntopic platyrrhines in eastern
Amazonia. Am. J. Primatol. 50(3): 215-224.
Voelkl, B. and Huber, L. 2000. True imitation in marmosets.
Anim. Behav. 60(2): 195-202.
Wesdund, K., Ljungberg, T., Borefelt, U. and Abrahamsson,
C. 2000. Post conflict affiliation in common marmosets
(Callithrixjacchusjacchus). Am. J. Primatol. 52(1): 31-46.
Windfelder, T. L. 2000. Observations on the birth and
subsequent care of twin offspring by a lone pair of wild
emperor tamarins (Saguinus imperator). Am. J. Primatol.
Ziegler, T. E. 2000. Hormones associated with non maternal
infant care: A review of mammalian and avian studies. Folia
Primatol. 71(1-2): 6-21.
Selected abstracts from the Scientific Meetings of The Ger-
man Primate Society, La Socidtd Francophone de
Primatologie, and The Italian Primatological Society. In: Fo-
lia Primatologica, 71(4), 2000.
Adler, H. J. Science and species conservation-Primatology
in the next century, p.189.
Basoni, C., Lejeune, C. and Mercier, M. Comparison of cog-
nitive performances between brown capuchin twins, Cebus
Bardi, M. Differences in infant care behaviour of captive
marmosets and tamarins, pp.290-291.
Carosi, M. Endocrine monitoring of the ovarian function in
tufted capuchin (Cebus apella) by using a non-invasive tech-
Christel, M. I. and Fragaszy, D. Endurance as a measure of
manual dexterity and performance asymmetry in Cebus
Christen, A. Callimico goeldii (Goeldi's monkey), the most
enigmatic South American monkey, p.219.
Fichtel, C., Hammerschmidt, K. and JUrgens, U. Aversion
correlated changes in the vocalization of squirrel monkeys
(Saimiri sciureus), p.192.
Freudenstein, T., Hammerschmidt, K. and Jiirgens, U. De-
velopmental changes in squirrel monkey vocalizations
(Saimiri sciureus), p.224.
Gaspari, F., Perretta, G. and Schino, G. Effects of different
housing systems on the behaviour of the common marmo-
set (Callithrix jacchus), p.291.
Hammerschmidt, K. and Jiirgens, U. Amplitude correlated
changes in the vocalization of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri
Heymann, E. W. Scent marking and sexual selection in
callitrichines-a new hypothesis, p. 196.
Herrera, E. R. T. and Heymann, E. W. Mom needs more
protein-sex differences in the diet composition of red titi
monkeys, Callicebus cupreus, p.244.
Heymann, E. W. Is chimerism in callitrichine twins a female
strategy to conceal paternity? p.230.
Heymann, E. W., Knogge, C. and Herrera, E. R. T. Verte-
brate predation by sympatric tamarins, Saguinus mystax and
S. fuscicollis, p.230.
Jiirgens, U, Diisterh6ft, E and Hdusler, U. Telemetric record-
ing of neuronal activity during vocal interactions in squirrel
monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), p. 197.
Kortlandt, A. Some truisms for primatologists, pp.199-200.
Laska, M., Seibt, A. and Weber, A. Olfactory detection thresh-
olds in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus), p.234.
Nijssen, E. C. and Sterck, E. H. M. The effects of human
disturbance on callitrichid social organization, p.235.
Oerke, A. K., Martin, R. D. and Hodges, J. K. Ultrasonogra-
phy in Goeldi's monkey (Callimico goeldii): Reproductive
data with evolutionary significance, p.204.
Queyras, A., Vitale, A. and Scolavino, M. Learning what to
eat: An experiment on food aversion and social learning in
common marmosets (Callithrixjacchus), p.276.
Queyras, A., Scolavino, M., Puopolo, M. and Vitale, A. So-
cial transmission of food preferences in a colony of captive
common marmosets (Callithrixjacchus), p.296.
Salazar, L. T. H., Rodriguez-Luna, E. and Laska, M. A com-
parison of taste responsiveness to food associated acids in
the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) and the spider mon-
key (Ateles geoffroyi), p.229.
Scolavino, M. and Vitale, A. The influence of age and sex on
the acquisition of food from a limited source in common
marmosets (Callithrixjacchus), p.285.
Sommer, V. Cultural Anthropology and the Darwinian pri-
mate paradigm, pp.211-212.
Steinweg, P. and Welker, C. The dominance structure of the
squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus), p.212.
Taglioni, A., Casetti, R., Bernardini, A. and Perretta, G. Body
weight increase during pregnancy in the common marmo-
set (Callithrixjacchus), p.293.
Tavares, M. C. H. and Tomaz, C. Cognitive learning and
declarative memory in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella),
Tondu, M., Lejeune, C. and Mercier, M. Ethological evalua-
tion of some environmental enrichments in a captive colony
of Cebus apella, p.267.
Tomaz, C., Barros, M., Boere, V. and Huston, J. P. Confron-
tation with a stuffed 'predator': An ethologically based model
of anxiety in marmosets (Callithrixpenicillata), p.245.
164 Neotropical Primates 8(4), December 2000
Veracini, C. Ecological aspects of Callithrix argentata in east-
ern Amazonia (Pari, Brazil), p.277.
Visalberghi, E., Valente, M. and Fragaszy, D. The role of re-
peated encounters and social context on the consumption
of unusual foods by tufted capuchins (Cebus apella), p.276.
Selected abstracts from European Federation for Primatol-
ogy Meeting, London, November 2000. In: Folia
Primatologica, 71(5), 2000.
Aureli, E Managing conflict in group-living primates, p.362.
Dixson, A. Primate comparative anatomy and the evolution
of reproduction, p.359.
Dunbar, R. The evolution of the social brain, p.359.
Martin, R., Soligo, C., Tavare, S., Will, 0. and Marshall, C.
New light on the dates of primate origins and divergence,
Pryce, C. The primate mother-infant relationship: Causes and
consequences, p. 360.
Rylands, A. B. and Konstant, W. R. Primate conservation,
global patterns, hotspots and wilderness areas, p.365.
Visalberghi, E. and Addessi, E. Learning what to eat: The
role of social influences in capuchins, p.363.
Primate Evolutionary Genetics, 19-20 May, 2001, San Di-
ego, California. Hosted by the American Genetic Associa-
tion. Contact: Registration and updated program informa-
tion can be found at http://lifesciences.asu.edu/aga. For ques-
tions and/or assistance contact: Ms. Susan Hansen, e-mail:
. Pre-registration is $90.00, non-
member ($80.00 for AGA members); $75.00 students and
postdocs ($70.00 for AGA members who are students/
postdocs). Registration includes a reception on the evening of
May 18th and banquet at the World-Famous San Diego Zoo
the evening of the 20th. The symposium will be held at the
Town & Country Resort and Convention Center, 500 Hotel
Circle North, San Diego, California (619-291-7131). A spe-
cial room rate of $99.00 per night plus tax has been arranged
for the conference.
XXV Congresso Brasileiro de Zool6gicos e VI Encontro
International de Zool6gicos, 20-25 de maio de 2001, Brasilia,
DF, Brasil. 0 tema central 6 "ConservaqAo". Informag6es:
Comissgo Organizadora do Congresso, a/c Raul Gonzales
Acosta, FundaqAo P6lo Ecol6gico de Brasflia, Avenida das
Naq6es, Via L-4 Sul, 70610-100 Brasilia, DF, Brasil, Tel: +55
61 9966 0092, Fax: +55 61 346 4611, e-mails:
Congress-Primatology of The New World, 13-15 June,
2001, Centro Cultural Gimnasio Moderno, Bogota, Colom-
bia. Sponsor: Centro de Primatologfa Araguatos. Four ses-
sions: Biology and Ecology; Medicine; Use and Conserva-
tion; Management and Keeping. Deadline for call for papers
and posters-March 21, 2000. Contact: Victoria Pereira,
Calle 96 No. 22-08, Bogota, Colombia. Tel/Fax: 57-1-
2573691, Web site: http://www.araguatos.org>, E-mail:
38th Annual Meeting of The Animal Behavior Society, 14-
20 July, 2001, Oregon State University, Corvallis Oregon.
Symposiums include "Behavioral genetics for the next de-
cade" and "Detecting and measuring mating preferences", and
invited paper sessions on the "Song System" and "Aggression
and group organization in animal societies". There will also
be a Poster session on "Educating in animal behavior". Key-
note speaker will be Dr. Harry Greene, and there will be Fel-
lows lectures by Dr. Ellen Ketterson and Dr. Eliot Brenowitz.
Contact: Online through
Association for Tropical Biology Annual Meeting, 15-18
July 2001, Bangalore, India. The theme of the meeting will
be the International Conference on Tropical Ecosystems: Struc-
ture, Diversity and Human Welfare and will address three
major areas of concern: 1. Global change and tropical forests,
2. The structure, diversity and function of tropical ecosys-
tems, and 3. Biodiversity hotspots. For more information visit
the web site of the Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and
the Environment (ATREE) at .
6"h International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology, 21-
26 July, 2001, Jena, Germany. For details about the congress
contact Dr. J.Matthias Starck at the Institute of Systematic
Zoology and Evolutionary Biology, Friedrich-Schiller-Univer-
sity, Erbertstrasse 1, D-07743 Jena, Germany. E-mail:
email@example.com.>, Home Page:
The First International Conference on Distance Sampling-
Estimating Wildlife Abundance for Ecology, Management
and Conservation, 30 July-3 August, 2001, St. Andrews, Scot-
land. Details from: Rhona Rodger, Tel: + 44 (0) 1334 463
228 or e-mail: , Home Page
The Animal Behavior Society Annual Meeting-Comparisons
between Primates and Cetaceans, 5-9 August, 2001, Atlanta,
Georgia, USA. Details may be obtained from the web site:
8th International Theriological Congress, 12-17 August,
2001, Sun City, South Africa. Contacts: ITC 2001 c/o
Event Dynamics, PO Box 98009, Sloane Park, 2152
Johannesburg, South Africa. Tel: +27 11 706 5010, e-mail:
. Web Page:
XIII Curso Intensivo Internacional de Manejo Diversificado
de Bosques Naturales Tropicales, 20 Agosto-21 Setiembre
2001, CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica. Informes: CATIE 7170,
Neotropical Primates 8(4), December 2000
Turrialba, Costa Rica, Tel: (506) 556-2703; Fax: (506) 556-
7730 , e-mail:
Annual Conference of the American Association of ZooVet-
erinarians, 18-23 September, 2001, Orlando, Florida. For
more information on the scientific program: Ray Wack, Pro-
gram Chairman, Sacramento Zoo, 3930 West Land Park
Drive, Sacramento, CA 95822-1123, USA, Tel: 916 264
5887, e-mail: . Conference or mem-
bership information: Wilbur Amand, Executive Director/
AAZV, 6 North Pennell Road, Media, PA 19063, Tel: 610
892 4812, Fax: 610 892 4813, e-mail: .
24th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatolo-
gists, 8-11 August 2001, Armstrong Atlantic State Univer-
sity, Savanna, Georgia. Symposia and workshop deadline:
15 March, 2001. Individual abstracts deadline: 1 April, 2001.
Contact: Dr. Tammie Bettinger, ASP Program Chair,
Cleveland Metroparks Zoo, 3900 Wildlife Way, Cleveland,
OH 44109, USA, Tel: (216) 635 3314, Fax: (216) 661 3312,
e-mail: . Web site:
IV Congress de la Asociaci6n Primatol6gica Espafiola, 26-
27 September, 2001 Madrid, Spain, Sal6n de Actos. Facultad
de Psicologia, Universidad Aut6noma de Madrid, Cantoblanco
28049, Madrid, Spain. For more information, contact: Dr.
Susana Sinchez Rodriguez, Dpto. Psicologfa Biol6gica y de la
Salud Fac. de Psicologia, UAM, 28049 Madrid, e-mail:
Tel: 34.91.3978748 / 3975351, Fax:
34.91 3975215, Web site: .
Brazil's International Conference on The Human Dimen-
sions of Global Change, 6-8 October, 2001. The 2001 Open
Meeting of the Human Dimensions of Global Environmen-
tal Change Research Community will be held in Rio de
Janeiro, Brazil on 6 to 8 October 2001. Following three suc-
cessful meetings held at Duke University (USA) in 1995, the
International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (Austria)
in 1997, and Shonan Village (Japan) in 1999, the human
dimensions research community will meet for the first time
in the Southern Hemisphere. Particular emphasis will be
placed on research reports that include a regional or "place-
based" perspective and that make a linkage between natural
and social sciences, as well as among local, regional and glo-
bal scales. Plenary themes of the meeting will address the chal-
lenges of integration in human dimensions research across
disciplines, across hemispheres, and across the science-policy
interface. The Open Meeting is being organized by the Bra-
zilian Academy of Sciences, the Inter-American Institute for
Global Change Research (IAI), the International Human
Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change
(IHDP), and CIESIN. Information about the meeting, in-
cluding instructions for the submission of abstracts, will be
made available at the website
V Congress Latinoamericano de Ecologia, 15-19 de Octubre
de 2001, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad Nacional
de Jujuy, San Salvador de Jujuy, Argentina. La fecha limited de
presentaci6n de los resumenes es el 30 de abril de 2001.
Organiza: Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Alberdi No. 47,
(4600) San Salvador de Jujuy, Argentina, Tel: 54 0388
4221550, 54 0388 4221553, Fax: 54 0388 4221547, e-mail:
. Web site: .
V Congress de la Sociedad Mesoamericana para la Biologia
y la Conservaci6n (SMBC), 15-19 de Octubre de 2001, El
Salvador. La Sociedad Mesoamericana para la Biologia y la
Conservaci6n SMBC, es una organizaci6n international no
lucrative cuyo objetivo es contribuir con la promoci6n de la
biologfa y la conservaci6n de la naturaleza, nace en 1996 como
iniciativa de un grupo de profesionales de cinco pauses,
interesados en fomentar la comunicaci6n entire
conservacionistas e investigadores trabajando en la regi6n
mesoamericana. Esta ha crecido y evolucionado much desde
su fundaci6n. Para mis informaci6n sobre la sociedad visit:
. La SMBC
organize cada afio el mayor congress cientffico-
conservacionista regional, este congress constitute una
oportunidad regional unica, permitiendo la difusi6n de avances
cientificos y conservacionistas, estimula la producci6n de
nuevas ideas, promueve la interacci6n entire actors, tanto
mesoamericanos como extranjeros trabajando en la region,
permit a los profesionales conocer sobre la realidad de cada
pais, da oportunidad para la formaci6n de nuevos valores, y
nos abre las puertas al mundo, como una region de gran interns
para la conservaci6n global y decidida a construir su desarrollo
sobre bases sostenibles. Hasta la fecha se han realizado cuatro
congress, en Honduras (1997), Nicaragua (1998), Guate-
mala (1999), y Panami (2000). En octubre 2001 corresponde
a El Salvador el honor de albergar tan important event y
desde ya les invita a participar. Se invita a todos los interesados
en presentar ponencias y/o organizer simposia mandar sus
propuestas a: Eunice Echeverria:
o Roberto Rivera: con copia a:
. Fecha lfmite
para propuestas de simposia: 5 de marzo 2001. Fecha limited
para ponencias: 31 de Mayo de 2001. Para mis informaci6n
sobre el congress visit:
smbc_elsalvador_2001/>, esta pigina se estari actualizando
peri6dicamente para mantenerles informados.
5th International Conference on Environmental Enrichment,
4-9 November 2001, Taronga Park Zoo, Sydney, Australia.
The theme is "Making Enrichment a 21" Century Priority".
For information: Margaret Hawkins, 51 EE Conference Co-
ordinator, Taronga Zoo, PO Box 20, Mosman, NSW 2088,
Australia, Tel: +61 2 9978 4615, Fax: +61 2 9978 4613,
e-mail: . Web site:
V Congress Brasileiro de Ecologia do Brasil, 4-9 Novem-
ber, 2001, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. 0 tema e
" Ambiente x Sociedade". Entidade promotora: Sociedade de
166 Neotropical Primates 8(4), December 2000
Ecologia do Brasil. Apoio: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande
do Sul, Instituto de Biociencias, Centro de Ecologia e
Departamentos de Ecologia, Zoologia e Botinica. Contatos e
44- cj.402, 90460-150 Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Tel/Fax: +
55 51 333 8737, e-mail: .
IV Simposio Internacional de Desarrollo Sustentable en los
Andes. La Estrategia Andina para el Siglo XXI, 25 de
noviembre al 2 de diciembre, 2001. Facultad de Ciencias,
Institute de Ciencias Ambientales y Ecologicas (ICAE),
Universidad de Los Andes, Merida. Informes: Maximina
Monasterio o Rigoberto Andressen, e-mail:
Committing to Conservation Conference, 28 November-2
December, 2001, Melbourne, Florida, USA. This will be the
fourth Zoos and Aquariums: Committing to Conservation
Conference. The goal is to bring together field researchers
and zoo personnel to promote a greater involvement of zoos
and aquariums supporting in situ work. There will be a mix-
ture of sessions, panel discussions and round tables with a
special emphasis on audience participation and problem solv-
ing. The registration fee is US$ 175.00 and includes sessions,
some meals and social events. For more information contact:
Beth Armstrong, Tel: 321-454-6285, e-mail:
or Margot McKnight, Tel: 321-254-
9453, ext. 23, e-mail: .
3"' Gottinger Freilandtage: Sexual Selection in Primates, 11-
14 December, 2001, hosted by the German Primate Center
(DPZ), G6ttingen, Germany. Invited speakers will summa-
rize and evaluate recent empirical and theoretical work deal-
ing with causes, mechanisms and consequences of sexual se-
lection in primates, including humans. In addition, it is hoped
to identify general principles through comparison with other
mammals. Oral (15 min) and poster contributions. Deadline
for submission of abstracts is 1 August, 2001. Guests must
also register in advance by October 1, 2001. Additional de-
tails are available from Peter Kappeler, e-mail:
, and the web site:
American Association for the Advancement of Science, 14-
19 February, 2002, annual meeting. The program will in-
clude various environmental issues, including: Achieving
health in a connected world, connecting diverse disciplines,
visualizing the earth, communicating across boundaries, en-
vironmental and biological diversity in a connected world,
cultural and social diversity in a changing world, and science
and sustainability in a global economy. For more information
contact: Kathryn Papp, Senior Program Officer, Program on
Ecology and Human Needs, International Directorate, AAAS,
1200 New YorkAvenue, NW, Washington, DC, 20005, USA,
Tel: (202) 326 6427, Fax: (202) 289 4958 or see:
Cambridge Conservation Conference, 25-27 March, 2002,
Cambridge, UK. For additional information contact: Dr. An-
drew Balmford, Conservation Biology Group, Department
of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing St., Cam-
bridge CB2 3EJ, UK, Tel/Fax: + 01223 331770, e-mail:
American Society of Primatologists, 1-4 June, 2002, Okla-
homa City, OK, USA. For more information contact: Janette
Wallis, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences,
University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, P. 0. Box
26901, Oklahoma City, OK 73190, USA, Tel: 405-271-5251
ext. 47612, Fax: 405-271-3808, e-mail:
3rd International Canopy Conference, June, 2002, Cairns,
Australia. Sponsored by the Queensland Government ofAus-
tralia and the Smithsonian Institution, the conference theme
is "Science, Policy and Utilisation" and is intended to bring
together scientists, environmental managers and policy mak-
ers concerned with the discovery and sustainable use of for-
ests around the world. Contact Eileen Domagala, e-mail:
for further informa-
tion or look on the web site:
Ecological Society ofAmerica 87'h Annual Meeting joint with
the Ecological Society of Mexico, 4-8 August, 2002, Ari-
zona, USA. Details from: ESA, 1707 H St., NW, Suite 400,
Washington, DC 20006, USA. Tel: + (202) 833 8773 or Fax:
+ (202)833 8775. E-mail: .
XIXth Congress of the International Primatological Soci-
ety, 4-9 August, 2002, Beijing, China. Organized by the
Mammalogical Society of China and the Institute of Zool-
ogy, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The main themes of the
Congress will focus on the progress and prospects of prima-
tology and the conservation of non-human-primates. The first
deadline is for symposium and workshop tides, to be submit-
ted by 31 August, 2001. Contact address: Prof. Fuwen Wei,
Secretary General, 196 Congress of the International Prima-
tological Society, c/o Institute of Zoology. Chinese Academy
of Sciences, 19 Zhongguancan Lu, Haidian, Beijing 100080,
China, Fax: (86-10) 82627388, e-mail:
ioz.ac.cn>. Home page: .
Annual Meetings of the IUCN/SSC Conservation Breed-
ing Specialists Group (CBSG) 10-13 August, 2002, The
World Zoo Organization (WZO), 13-17 August 2002, and
The International Association of Zoo Educators (IZE), 17-
22 August, 2002, Hofburg Palace, Redoutensile, Vienna.
Hosted by the Schoenbrunn Zoo. For more information:
Austropa Interconvention, Conference Office, Friedrichstrasse
7, A-1010 Vienna, Austria, Fax: +43 1 315 56 50, e-mail:
The journal/newsletter aims to provide a basis for conservation
information relating to the primates of the neotropics. We welcome
texts on any aspect of primate conservation, including articles, thesis
abstracts, news items, recent events, recent publications, primato-
logical society information and suchlike.
Please send all English and Portuguese contributions to: Jennifer
Pervola, Conservation International, Center for Applied Biodiversity
Science, 1919 M. St. NW, Suite 600, Washington, DC 20036, Tel:
202 912-1000, Fax: 202 912-0772, e-mail:
, and all Spanish contributions to:
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Examples of house style can be found throughout this journal.
Please refer to these examples when citing references throughout the
Stallings, J. D. and Mittermeier, R. A. 1983. The black-tailed mar-
moset (Callithrix argentata melanura) recorded from Paraguay. Am.
J. Primatol. 4:159-163.
Chapter in book
Brockelman, W. Y. and Ali, R. 1987. Methods of surveying and
sampling forest primate populations. In: Primate Conservation in
the Tropical Rain Forest, C. W Marsh and R. A. Mittermeier (eds.),
pp. 23-62. Alan R. Liss, New York.
Napier, P. H. 1976. Catalogue of Primates in the British Museum
(Natural History). Part 1: Families Callitrichidae and Cebidae. British
Museum (Natural History), London.
Wallace, R. B. 1998. The behavioral ecology of black spider
monkeys in north-eastern Bolivia. Doctoral thesis, University of
Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.
Muckenhirn, N. A., Mortensen, B. K., Vessey, S., Frazer, C. E. 0.
and Singh, B. 1975. Report on a primate survey in Guyana.
Unpublished report, Pan American Health Organization,
NeotropicalPrimates is produced in collaboration with
Conservation International, Center for Applied
Biodiversity Science, 1919 M. St. NW, Suite 600,
Washington, DC 20036, USA
Journal and Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group
Vol. 8(4), December, 2000
Contrastes y Similitudes en el Uso de Recursos y Patr6n General de Actividades en Tropas de Monos
Aulladores (Alouattapalliata) en Fragmentos de Selva en Los Tuxtlas, M dxico.................................................................................. 131
Reproductive Seasonality in the Belizean Black Howling Monkey (Alouattapigra)........................................................................ 136
Robin C Brockett, Robert H. Horwich & Clara B. Jones
Agonistic Encounters between Muriquis, Brachyteles arachnoides hypoxanthus (Primates, Cebidae),
and Other Animals at the Estago Biol6gica de Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brazil...................................... ...................................... 138
Luiz G. Dias &AKaren B. Strier
Hunting Impact on Neotropical Primates: A Preliminary Case Study in French Guiana.................................................................... 141
Benott de Thoisy David Massemin & Ma'l Dewynter
Cultural Practices Benefitting Primate Conservation Among the Guaji of Eastern Amazonia....................................................... 144
Habitat Fragmentation and Parasitism in Howler Monkeys (Alouatta caraya)................................................................................... 146
Antonia Concepcidn Miropi Santa Cruz Juan Toribio Borda, Exequiel Maria Patifio
Laura Gdmez & Gabriel Eduardo Zunino
A Study of Spider Monkeys (Ateles geoflfoyi vellerosus) in the Forest of the Crater of Santa Marta, Veracruz, M rico ......................... 148
Gilberto Silva-Ldpez &Joaquin fmez-Huerta
Sympatry and New Locality for Alouatta belzebul discolor and Alouatta seniculus in the Southern Amazon........................................ 150
Liliam P. Pinto & EleonoreZ. E Setz
New Localities for Coimbra-Filho's Titi Monkey, Callicebus coimbrai, in North-east Brazil ........................................................... 151
Marcelo Cardoso de Sousa
Distribution of Brown Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella) in Venezuela: A Piece of The Puzzle ...................................................... 152
Salvador Boher-Bentti & Gerardo A. Cordero-Rodriguez
A New Locality for the Masked Titi Monkey, Callicebuspersonatus nigrifons, in a Protected Area in Minas Gerais, Brazil ............. 153
Marcelo Ferreira de Vasconcelos &Andrd Hirsch
Records of Howlers (Alouatta) on the Azuero Peninsula and Canal Zone of Panama......................................................................... 154
N ew s ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 156
Prim ate Societies ........................................................................................................................................................................... 158
R recent Publications ........................... ..... ..................... ............................................................................................................ 158
M meetings .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 164