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||Neotropical primates a newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCNSSC Primate Specialist Group
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||oclc - 28561619
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|Table of Contents
A Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group
Editors: Anthony B. Rylands and Ernesto Rodrfguez Luna
PSG Chairman: Russell A. Mittermeier
PSG Deputy Chairman: Anthony B. Rylands and William R. Konstant
March December 1999
Volume 7(1), March 1999
Observaciones Preliminares sobre la Dieta de Cacajao calvus ucayalii en el Nor-Oriente Peruano.
R. Aquino & Encarnaci6n ........................................... ....................................................................... .. ......................... 1-5
Fission-Fusion in the Black-Headed Uacari (Cacajao melanocephalus) in Eastern Colombia. T. R. Defler.............................. 5-8
Uso de Plantas como Alimento por Alouatta palliata en un Fragmento de Selva en Los Tuxtlas, M6xico. S. J. Solano,
T.de J. Ortfz M artinez, A. Estrada & R. Coates-Estrada. ....................................... .................... ....... ........................... 8-11
General Guidelines for Standardizing Line-Transect Surveys of Tropical Forest Primates. C. A. Peres ................................... 11-16
Tail-Use in Capuchin Monkeys. D. Youlatos. .............................. ........... ............... .......................... 16-20
Aggression and Dominance Reversal in a Captive All-male Group of Cebus apella. A. C. de A. Moura. .................................. 20-21
A Twin Birth in Cebus xanthosternos (Wied, 1820) (Cebidae, Primates). A. Pissinatti, A. F. Coimbra-Filho,
A B Rylands & E C N Rubi o........................................................................................................................ ....................... 21-24
Estaci6n Biol6gica Capar Colombian Amazon. T. R. Defler.............................................................................................. 24-26
1997 European Regional Studbook for the Spider Monkeys Ateles ssp. and an EEP for Atelesfusciceps robustus.
S. D urlot & P. G ay. ................................................................................................................................................... 26
South American Ateles Regional Studbook for North America 1997. K. Newland.............................................................. 26-27
Nacimiento de Gemelos de Saguinus labiatus Observado en su Habitat Natural. E. N. Bezerra & L. M. Porter........................ 27-28
New World Primates of the Argentinean Museum of Natural Sciences "Bernardino Rivadavia", Buenos Aires.
M S. Ascunce, R. M artinez, I. Avila & M M udry..................................................................................................................... 28
A Working Group for the Pied Tamarin, Saguinus bicolor. A. J. Baker & M. I. Bampi............................. ............................. 29
The Species Survival Commission (SSC) Species Information Service (SIS). L. Boitani, M. Gimenez-Dixon,
A Sm ith & S. Tressler. .................................................................................................................................................................. 29-30
Levantamento do Muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides) no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. V. Limeira.............................................. 30-31
Neotropical Primates Index 1
I N 1) E X
The L. S. B. Leakey Foundation Awards 1997-1998....................................... ..................................................................... 31
Primate Conservation Incorporated Call for Grant Proposals................................... ............................... ...................... 31-32
American Society of Mammalogists Latin American Fellowship 1999................................................................................ 32
Florida State University-Panama's Primate Behavior and Ecology Program.................................................. 32
IX Congress Brasileiro de Primatologia................................................................................................. ............................ 32-33
European Marmoset Research Group. D. Abbott......................................................................................................................... 33
R ECENT PUBLICATIONS..................................................................................................................................................................... 33
M EETINGS...................................................................................................... ............. ... ........................... 36
Volume 7(2), June 1999
Species Status of the Colombian Spider Monkey, Ateles belzebuth hybridus. A. C. Collins.................................................. 39-41
New Observations on Cebus kaapori (Queiroz, 1992) in eastern Brazilian Amazonia. O. de Carvalho, Jr.,
A C. B. Pinto & M Galetti................................. ... .............................. ............................................... ...................... 41-43
Population and Conservation Status of the Black-and-Gold Howler Monkeys, Alouatta caraya, Along the Rio Riachuelo,
Argentina. G. Agoramoorthy & R. Lohmann.......................................................................................................................... 43-44
Preliminary Observations on the Songo Songo (Dusky Titi Monkey, Callicebus moloch) of Northeastern Ecuador.
D.Youlatos & W. Pozo Rivera................................................................................................................. ..................... 45-46
Predatory Behaviour by a Red Howler Monkey (Alouatta seniculus) on Green Iguanas (Iguana iguana).
B. de Thoisy & T. Parc........................................................................... ....... ...................................... ............................. 46-47
Adoption of a Young Juvenile in Black Howler Monkeys (Alouatta pigra). E. C. Schneider, L. F. Hunter & R. H. Horwich..... 47-51
Black Howler Monkey (Alouatta pigra) Reintroduction Program: Population Census and Habitat Assessment.
B. Clark & R. C. Brockett.................................... ........................... ..... ....... .............................. 51-53
Pointing Behavior in Mantled Howling Monkeys, Alouatta palliata. C. B. Jones....................................................... 53-54
Adaptation to Natural Food Resources by Semi-free Common Marmosets (Callithrixjacchus):
Preliminary Results. H Rothe..................................................... .................... ........................................... ...... ............. 54-57
The Scientific Names of the Howling Monkeys, Alouatta, from the Guianas and the Atlantic Forest.
D Brandon-Jones & A B. Rylands............................................................................................................................... ........ .. 57-58
Atlantic Forest Marmosets Species and Hybrids. F. R. de Melo................................................... ..... 58-59
New World Primate Taxon Advisory Group Prepares Updated Regional Collection Plan. K. Newland.................................... 59
The Central Suriname Nature Reserve. R. A. Mittermeier................................ .............................................................. 59-60
Reserva da Biosfera da Mata Atlntica Prmio Muriqui............................................................................................................. 60-62
The Amazon Center for Environmental Education and Research.............................................................. ........................ 62
Saint Eugene Research Station, Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, French Guiana............................... ................... 62-63
Jersey Zoo The Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust............................................................................. ............................... 63
Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation Grants awarded 1998-1999........................................................................................ 63-64
Fundanao o Boticario de Protegfo A Natureza Projetos 1998-1999. M. S. Milano & M.de L. Nunes..................................... 64
Lincoln Park Zoo Scott Neotropic Fund Projects 1999........................................................................... .................. ..... 64-65
Vol. 7, March December 1999
The Leakey Foundation Raises its Award Amounts..................................................................................................................... 65
Prim ate Conservation Inc. New Address..................................................................................................................................... 65
Workshop: Design of Biodiversity Inventories and Use of Indicator Groups.................................. ........................ 65
Primate Society of Great Britain Napier Memorial Award..................................................................................................... 65-66
Primate Field Studies Global Database. G. Cowlishaw.................................... .................................................................... 66
RECENT PUBLICATIONS.................................. ............................................. ............................ ........................................ 66
M EETINGS......................................................................................................................................................................................... 70
Volume 7(3), September 1999
Potential Competitors for Exudates Eaten by Saddleback (Saguinusfuscicollis) and Moustached (Saguinus mystax)
Tam arins. A C Sm ith................................................................................................................ ............. .. ............................. 73-75
An Observation of Carnivory by a Captive Pygmy Marmoset (Callithrix pygmaea). W. R. Townsend & Robert B. Wallace.... 75-76
A Northeastern Extension of the Distribution of Aotus infulatus in Maranhio, Brazil. J. de Sousa e Silva Jr. &
M E. B. Fe andes.............................................. ................................ ....................................................... .................... 76-80
Patrones de Actividad de Alouatta palliata en un Fragmento de Selva en Los Tuxtlas, Mdxico. T. de J. Ortfz Martinez,
S. J. Solano, A. Estrada & R. Coates-Estrada.................................. ...................... ................ ......................... 80-83
Preliminary Study of the Effects of Ecotourism and Human Traffic on the Howling Behavior of Red Howler Monkeys,
Alouatta seniculus, in Ecuadorian Amazonia. S. de la Torre, C. T. Snowdon & M. Bejarano...................................................... 84-86
Disappearance of Infants Following Male Takeovers in the Belizean Black Howler Monkey (Alouatta pigra).
R. C. Brockett, R. H. Horwich & C. B. Jones........................................................................................................................ 86-88
A New Species of Titi Monkey in Northeast Brazil. S. Kobayashi & A. Langguth.............................. ............................ 88-89
The Name of the Weeper or Wedge-Capped Capuchin in the Guianas. A. B. Rylands............................. ......................... 89-91
Seed dispersal by two sympatric tamarin species Saguinus mystax and Saguinusfuscicollis. C. Knogge.................................... 91-93
The Behavioural Ecology of Black Spider Monkeys in North-eastern Bolivia. R. B. Wallace................................. ............ 93-94
Conservation International's Rapid Assessment Program RAP. L. Alonso & T. Weer...................................................... 94-95
IPE A New Conservation Training Center................................... .................. ... ... ...................... 95-96
An Alliance to Save the Atlantic Forest. H. de Oliveira & M. Hirota........................................................ ....................... 96
Curso de Ecologia Quantitativa (Estatfstica) Aplicada A Biologia da ConservagAo. L. Cullen Jr............................................... 96-97
The Australasian Prim ate Society. G. Crook................................................................................................................................. 97
A New Editor for the American Journal ofPrimatology. N. Caine and J. Wallis............................... ....................... 97
RECENT PUBLICATIONS........................... .......... ...................................................................................................................... 97
M EETINGS......................................................... ................................................ 109
Neotropical Primates Index
Volume 7 (4), December 1999
A New Primate Record for Bolivia: An Apparently Isolated Population of Common Woolly Monkeys
Representing a Southern Range Extension for the Genus Lagothrix. R. B. Wallace & R. L. E. Painter.................................. 111-112
A Preliminary Study of Mantled Howling Monkey (Alouatta palliata) Ecology and Conservation on
Isla de Ometepe, Nicaragua. P. A. Garber, J. D. Pruetz, A. C. Lavallee & S. G. Lavallee................ ...................................... 113-117
Testis Symmetry in the Mantled Howling Monkey. C. B. Jones..................................... ...................... 117-119
On a New White Bald Uakari (Cacajao calvus calvus) Population in Southwestern Brazilian Amazonia.
J. de Sousa e Silva Jr & E.de S. M artins................................. ..................................................... ...................................... 119-121
Nuevo Mundo, Nuevos Monos: Sobre Primates Neotropicales en los Siglos XV y XVI. B.Urbani................................... 121-125
Color Perception in the Capuchin Monkey, Cebus apella: A Study Using the Ishihara Test.
V. F. Pessoa, M. C. H. Tavares, C. Tomaz, U. R. Gomes, D. M. A. Pessoa & L. C. Aguiar................................................ 125-127
Primates of the Ituberd Forest Complex, Bahia, Brazil. K. Flesher........................................................ 127-131
Prosthenorchis elegans (Oligacanthorhynchida, Oligacanthorhynchidae) and Dipetalonema sp.
(Spirurida, Onchocercidae) in Saimiri sciureus (Primates, Cebidae) in Brazil. J. B. de Oliveira,
A. C. J. da Silva, A. M edeiros & C. A. Soares................................................................................. ................................. 131-132
Primatas da Coleglo Lfquida do Musen Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. A. M. R. Bezerra and J. A. de Oliveira.......................... 132-133
Neotropical Primates Address Change.......................................................... 134
Census of the Primate Community at the EstaqIo Biol6gica de Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brazil. K. B. Strier,
S. L. Mendes, A. M. Braganqa, C. C. Coelho, C. G. Costa, L. G. Diaz, L. T. Dib, J. Gomes, A. Hirsch,
J. W. Lynch, C. P. Nogueira, A. Odalia Rimoli, A. S. Oliva, R. C. Printes, J. Rfmoli & R. R. Santos................................... 134-135
The Lami Biological Reserve, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and the Danger of Power Lines to Howlers in Urban Reserves.
R C Printes.................................................................................................................................................... 135-136
Phylogeny of the Marmosets, Callithrix. L. dos Santos Sena................................................... ..... 136-137
Ecology and Behavior of Black-Faced Lion Tamarins. F. Prado..................................................... 137
Dispersal of Adolescent Female Muriquis, Brachyteles. R. C. Printes................................................... 138
1998 European Studbook for the Emperor Tamarin. E. B. Ruivo...................................................... 138-139
Species Information Service An Update. M. Gimenez Dixon..................................................... .... 139-140
R am on Rhine................................................................................................................................................... 140-141
Quick Guide to the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center Internet Programs............................... .................... 141
PRIME SoCIn ES
A SP Conservation Award and Grants.................................................................................................................................. 142
European Federation of Primatology M eeting..................................................................................................................... 142-143
European Marmoset Research Group .................................................... 143
Donald G. Lindburg Receives the AZA President's Award................................................ ... 143
R ECENT P BL CATIONS............................................................................................................................................................. 143-146
M EET NGS................................................................................................................................. ........................................ 146-148
Vol. 7, March December 1999
Neotropical Primates 7(4), December 1999 Pane lii
A NEW PRIMATE RECORD FOR BOLIVIA: AN
APPARENTLY ISOLATED POPULATION OF COMMON
WOOLLY MONKEYS REPRESENTING A SOUTHERN
RANGE EXTENSION FOR THE GENUS LAGOTHRIX
Robert B. Wallace
R. Lilian E. Painter
The common woolly monkey (Lagothrix lagothricha) inhab-
its mature terra firme and seasonally flooded forests in west-
ern Amazonia to an altitude of 1800 m in the Andean foothills,
from Colombia to the Rio Tambopata in southern Peru (Fooden,
1963; Ramirez, 1988; Eisenberg, 1989; Emmons and Feer, 1999;
see Fig. 1). The distribution ofL. lagothricha cana is known
to reach the Bolivian border in two areas of Brazil; along the
Rio Abung in northeastern Pando Department (Brown and
Rumiz, 1985), and along the Rio Guapor6-Itefiez in northeast-
ern Beni and Santa Cruz Departments (Wallace etal., 1996; D.
Romero, pers. comm. to R. B. Wallace, 1997; see Fig. 1). Nev-
ertheless, as yet no official sightings exist for woolly mon-
keys in the Bolivian Amazon (Brown and Rumiz, 1985; Wallace,
1995). Apparently, L. 1. cana historically occurred in the north-
east corner of Pando Department, Bolivia, but this premise
stems from anecdotal information (Izawa and Bejarano, 1981;
Brown and Rumiz, 1985; Buchanan-Smith et al., in press).
Overhunting is suggested as the cause for the current ab-
sence in this area (Izawa and Bejarano, 1981).
On September 22, 1999, we observed woolly monkeys on two
occasions at an Andean cloud forest site within Madidi Na-
tional Park and Natural Area of Integrated Management. The
observations occurred at an altitude of approximately 1500 m
in a narrow steep-sided valley running north-south
(1439.63'S, 68041.49'W), about a 6-hour hike south-west from
the local community of Pata (1437.73'S, 68040.32'W). Upon
arriving at the crest of the valley in the late afternoon of 21
September, 1999 (c. 17:30 hrs) we heard vocalizations from the
valley below. They were varied, a mixture of yelps and trills,
and at times resembled both spider monkeys (Ateles) and
Figure 1. Geographic distribution of the woolly monkey, Lagothrix
The following day during the mid-morning (c. 10:15 hrs) we
observed a woolly monkey group of at least five animals: an
adult male, an adult female, a young juvenile and two unsexed
larger individuals. We observed them from the opposite side
of the valley at a distance of c. 100-150m for about 30 minutes.
The monkeys were initially located due to vocalizations simi-
lar to those of the previous afternoon. They were apparently
resting, but later they saw us and moved off rapidly down the
valley. These primates were large, robust animals with the
classic Lagothrix body shape. Overall, individuals were dark
smoky gray with ventral areas noticeably darker and head and
face essentially black. There was some individual variation in
pelage color; the adult male had a darker line running from the
head down the middle of the back to the tail. Another indi-
vidual in the group had clear tawny patches on both hind-
Early in the afternoon (c. 14:00 hrs) we disturbed a very dark
gray (almost black) adult female carrying an infant. Before
fleeing, the female was resting in a nest approximately 25 m up
in the canopy. The nest was approximately 60 x 30 cm in size
and made from small sticks, twigs and leaves. Another similar-
sized nest was observed the following day. The origin of these
nests is unclear, but on examination contained no feather re-
mains and was probably too small for spectacled bears
(Tremarctos ornatus), signs of which we were observing in
this forest. Apparently these nests are frequently used by the
woolly monkeys but as yet local inhabitants have not actually
seen them being constructed (F. Portillo, pers. comm. 1999).
A local informant, Florel Portillo, said that the observed social
group used the entire length of the valley ranging from about
1300 m to 1900 m a.s.l. The vegetation in the valley is low
elevation Andean cloud forest with abundant mosses, tree
ferns, bromeliads and orchids and a mossy ground layer on
the steep slopes. Cock-of-the-rock (Rupicola peruviana) are
frequently observed in this forest. Apparently the woolly
monkey social group we observed is particularly partial to the
small basins within the valley where the forest canopy reaches
30-35m, but also uses the dryer and lower forest found on the
steeper slopes. Furthermore, several local inhabitants reported
these monkeys as more common in higher cloud forest be-
tween 1500 m and approximately 2500m. Social groups of be-
tween 10-20 animals are most commonly observed at these
more remote sites (F Portillo, pers. comm. 1999).
The provisional distribution map presented in Figure 2 is a
result of the sighting reported here as well as anecdotal infor-
mation from three reliable local sources; Florel Portillo, Fran-
cisco Novack and Park Guard Radamir Sevillano. In general,
the forests of northern La Paz Department remain relatively
unexplored from a biological perspective, and to date lowland
forests have received far more attention than the cloud forest
formations occurring between 1500-3500 m a.s.l. Apparently
this woolly monkey population has a localized and disjunct
distribution in a limited geographical area. Faunal surveys
and anecdotal information from adjacent Bolivian lowland for-
est suggest the absence of this species in forests below 1000
m a.s.l. (Parker and Bailey, 1991; Novack, Portillo, Sevillano
and B. Hennessey, pers. comm. 1999). Indeed, this primate is
locally known as 'mono rosillo' or 'marimono del frio', which
Cover photograph: The pygmy marmoset, Cebuella pygmaea. Photo: Russell A. Mittermeier.
Neotropical Primates 7(4), December 1999
Figure 2. Reported Bolivian woolly monkey distribution.
roughly translated means 'spider monkey of the cold', further
suggesting their restriction to the cloud forest in this region.
According to available distributional information this
Lagothrix sighting represents a southern range extension for
the genus and would seem to be an isolated population (see
Figure 1). This isolation could be a result of over-hunting in
the adjacent lowland forests of Bolivia and southern Peru.
However, the relatively high densities of another popular
bushmeat primate, the black spider monkey (Ateles chamek),
within the lowland portions of Madidi National Park (Parker
and Bailey, 1991) would argue against this. If this population
is naturally isolated, and especially given its peculiar distribu-
tion with regard to habitat, then the possibility of it represent-
ing an undescribed subspecies must be considered. To this
end, we intend to return to the area in late 1999, when in col-
laboration with the Bolivian National Parks Service and the
Bolivian Faunal Collection, we intend to obtain further bio-
logical information, including samples for genetic analysis.
For the moment, however, we prefer to consider this an appar-
ently isolated population of Lagothrix lagothricha cana. We
appeal to any Peruvian colleagues who have more accurate
information regarding the presence or absence of L. lagotricha
cana in southern Peru, particularly south of the Rio Tambopata,
to please contact us as soon as possible.
Finally, from a conservation perspective, Figure 2 demonstrates
how the known distribution of this population is entirely within
two Bolivian protected areas; Madidi National Park and Natu-
ral Area of Integrated Management and Apolobamba Natural
Area of Integrated Management. Although these woolly mon-
keys are occasionally hunted by local inhabitants, this prac-
tice is apparently becoming rarer and this region of Bolivia is
very sparsely populated. Indeed, large areas of the theoretical
distribution of this population are completely uninhabited.
However, the ongoing construction of a road through the
Neotropical Primates 7(4), December 1999
Tuichi valley from Apolo to Asariama will facilitate access to
some of these remote areas and may pose problems for these
woolly monkeys in the future.
Acknowledgments: We were first alerted to the presence of
this primate species in June 1999 following conversations with
Park Guard Radamir Sevillano. Francisco Novack indepen-
dently described woolly monkeys to us in July 1999, and ac-
companied us providing substantial logistical support on our
trip to Canton Pata. Critically, Florel Portillo guided us to the
monkeys with great skill, enthusiasm and determination. We
would also like to thank the Bolivian National Parks Service
(SERNAP) for permission to work in the protected areas of
northern La Paz Department and for providing logistical sup-
port on many of our field trips. Finally, we acknowledge the
continuing support of the Wildlife Conservation Society.
Robert B. Wallace and R. Lilian E. Painter, Wildlife Conser-
vation Society, 1851 Street and Southern Boulevard, Bronx,
New York, 10460, USA. Address correspondence to: Robert B.
Wallace, Casilla 3-35181, San Miguel, LaPaz, Bolivia.
Brown, A. D., and Rumiz, D. I. 1985. Distribuci6n y
conservaci6n de los primates en Bolivia. Estado actual de
su conocimiento. Unpublished report to the New York Zoo-
logical Society, Bronx, New York.
Buchanan-Smith, H. M., Hardie, S. M., Caceres, C. and Prescott,
M. J. In press. Distribution and forest utilisation of Saguinus
and other primates of the Pando Department, northern Bo-
livia. Int. J. Primatol.
Eisenberg, J. F. 1989. Mammals of the Neotropics, Volume 1,
The Northern Neotropics: Panama, Colombia, Venezuela,
Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana. University of Chicago
Press, Chicago and London.
Emmons, L. H., and Feer, F 1999. Mamiferos de los Bosques
Humedos de America Tropical Una Guia de Campo. Edi-
torial EA.N., Santa Cruz, Bolivia.
Fooden, J. 1963. A revision of the woolly monkeys (genus
Lagothrix). J. Mammal. 44:213-247.
Izawa, K. and Bejarano, G. 1981. Distribution ranges and pat-
terns of nonhuman primates in western Pando, Bolivia. Kyoto
University Overseas Research Reports of New World Mon-
keys (1981): 1-12.
Parker, T. A., and Bailey, B. (eds.). 1991. A biological assess-
ment of the Alto Madidi region and adjacent areas of north-
west Bolivia. RAP Working Papers 1, Conservation Interna-
tional, Washington, D. C.
Ramirez, M. 1988. The woolly monkeys (genus Lagothrix). In:
Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical Primates. Vol. 2, R.
A. Mittermeier, A. B. Rylands, A. F Coimbra-Filho and G. A.
B. da Fonseca (eds.), pp.539-575. World Wildlife Fund,
Washington, D. C.
Wallace, R. B. 1995. El paso ecologico del marimono. Bolfor
Bulletin 5: 6-8.
Wallace, R. B., Painter, R. L. E., Taber, A. B., and Ayres, J. M.
1996. Notes on a distributional river boundary and southern
range extension for two species of Amazonian primates.
Neotrop. Primates4(4): 149-151.
Neotropical ~ Prmts74,Dcme 99Pg 1
A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF MANTLED HOWLING
MONKEY (ALOUATTA PALLIATA) ECOLOGY AND
CONSERVATION ON ISLA DE OMETEPE, NICARAGUA
J. D. Pruetz
A. C. Lavallee
S. G. Lavallee
In this paper we examine the ecology and conservation status
of mantled howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata) on Isla de
Ometepe, Nicaragua (Fig. 1). Ometepe (1140'N and 85050'W)
is a volcanic island located within the southeastern edge of
Lake Nicaragua. It is the largest island in the world (276 km2)
situated in a fresh water lake, and is characterized by zones of
dry deciduous forest, cloud forest, forest-shaded coffee
plantations, agricultural fields, and other areas cleared for
human use. Human impact has been most severe in zones
between the lake and the foothills of the volcanoes. The cloud
forest that covers the slopes of the volcanoes is characterized
by abrupt changes in elevation and habitat, and remains
relatively undisturbed. Two volcanoes dominate the island.
Concepci6n, the tallest, is active and rises to a height of 1,610
m. Maderas, the other volcano is dormant and measures 1,394
m at its summit (Salas Estrada, 1993). It is estimated that
Ometepe has been separated from the mainland for
approximately 10,000 years (Gillespie,1994), however, little is
known concerning when nonhuman primates first arrived on
the island, and the degree to which howling monkey
populations on Ometepe differ genetically, behaviorally, or
ecologically from howling monkey populations in other regions
of the Neotropics. White-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus)
also occur naturally on the island.
Nicaragua is a country rich in natural resources, with
approximately one-third of its tropical lowland rainforest
remaining intact. However, as a result of political instability
and civil war, there have been virtually no published studies
of the ecology and conservation status of Nicaraguan primates
over the past 25 years (Crockett et al., 1997). With the
assistance of the Nicaraguan Government, the University of
Illinois, Universidad Nacional Autonoma (Managua),
Universidad Nacional Autonoma (Leon), Universidad Centro
Americana, Universidad de Mobile (Nicaraguan Campus), and
the Molina family, a research and educational foundation
(Fundaci6n Ometepe) was established in Nicaragua. One of
the main goals of Fundaci6n Ometepe is to study the behavior,
ecology, and demography of primate populations in Nicaragua
in order to develop both community-based and internationally-
based plans for the conservation and management of
In December 1997, we established a biological field station on
the eastern part of the island (Estaci6n Biol6gica de Ometepe)
near the settlement of San Ram6n (see Figure 1), and initiated
a preliminary field investigation of the behavioral ecology of
mantled howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata). The genus
Alouatta represents the most geographically widespread taxon
of New World primates (Strier, 1992; Crockett, 1998). Howling
monkeys range from southern Mexico, throughout Central
America and the Amazon Basin, and as far south as northern
Argentina (Hershkovitz, 1977). Although most of the six
currently recognized howler species are reported to live in
relatively small groups composed of 1-2 adult males and 1-2
adult females (mean group size <10 individuals; Crockett and
Eisenberg, 1987; Chapman and Balcomb, 1998; Fedigan et al.,
1998), mantled howlers (A. palliata) are unusual in that group
size tends to be large (12-20), containing 2-4 adult males and
3-9 adult females (Crockett and Eisenberg, 1987; Chapman
and Balcomb, 1998; Fedigan et al., 1998). Compared to other
Alouatta species, sexual dimorphism in body weight (Ford
and Davis, 1992) and hyoid size (Crockett and Eisenberg, 1987)
in A. palliata are reported to be low, suggesting that factors
contributing to reproductive competition and mate choice in
this species may differ significantly from those present in more
dimorphic howler species.
In this paper, we present the results of a preliminary field study
of mantled howling monkeys conducted on Isla de Ometepe,
Nicaragua. In particular, we examine: 1) group size and
composition; 2) feeding behavior and the plant species
composition of the diet; 3) the physical structure of the habitat
Isla de Ometepe
W Etaolon Bilogica de Ometepe
Figure 1. Map of Nicaragua showing Isla de Ometepe and the location of the Estaci6n de Ometepe.
Neotrovical Primates 7(4), December 1999
of the study group. In addition, we have developed an initial
set of recommendations for effective community-based
conservation efforts to protect the wild primate populations
From December 1997 through January 1998 and July through
August 1999, we conducted a field study of a group of
approximately 20 mantled howling monkeys (Volcano Group)
inhabiting a 4 ha area on the foothills of Volcan Maderas.
Additional observations of this group were conducted in July
and August, 1999. The group's home range is part ofEstaci6n
Biol6gica de Ometepe, and was characterized by a dry
semideciduous forest of low to medium stature (Salas Estra-
da, 1993). Rainfall in this part of Nicaragua averages from 1200-
1900 mm per year, with most rain falling during the months of
May through November (Salas Estrada, 1993). Tree species
characteristic of this type of forest include Albizia guachapele
(Mimosaceae), Brosimum alicastrum (Moraceae), Coccoloba
floribunda (Polygonaceae), Ficus cotinifolia (Moraceae),
Hymenaea courbaril (Caesalpiniaceae), Bursera simaruba
(Burseraceae), Lonchocarpus latifolius (Fabaceae), and
Malpighia sp. (Malpighiaceae) (Salas Estrada, 1993).
Howlers in our main study group were observed for 62 hours
on 23 days. Data on activity budget, ranging patterns, diet,
and the location of feeding trees were compiled. Behavioral
data were collected at 2-minute intervals throughout the day
using a focal animal time sampling technique. We also noted
the size of the group or subgroup, identified, marked and
mapped the location all trees howlers were observed to feed
in, and collected data on the size, diameter at breast height
(DBH), and crown diameter of the feeding trees. Subgroups
were recorded as the number of howlers simultaneously visible
to the observer. We estimate that each subgroup represented
the number of howlers present within an area with a radius of
A trail system and map of the study group's home range was
constructed using a Brunton transit mounted on a tripod. In
all, the coordinates of 116 trail markers and 84 trees were
included on the field map (total of 200 mapped points). These
points encompassed an area of 48,125 m2 (4.8 ha). The
distances between nearest neighbor trees of the same species
and the distances that howlers traveled between successive
feeding sites were calculated directly from the field map.
In order to identify the structural characteristics of the forest,
we divided the study group's home range into seventy-seven
25 x 25 m quadrats. Each quadrat was plotted on the field map,
and measurements of tree height, density, and degree of human
disturbance were compiled. We interviewed members of the
local community in order to identify whether trees important
in the howling monkey diet were among the set of species
commonly cut by island inhabitants for firewood, canoes,
house construction, or other purposes. A second group of
howlers (Beach group) was also monitored for information on
group size, composition, and the presence of dependent young.
Neotropical Primates 7(4), December 1999
Size and Composition of Study Groups
Two groups of howlers were censused daily to determine the
size and composition of the groups. The Beach group
contained five adult males, five adult females with dependent
offspring, six adult females without dependent offspring, two
preadults, and five infants (total 23 individuals). This group
was found to spend much of its time each day exploiting a
small (1 ha) isolated patch of tall remnant forest adjacent to
the lake. This fragment contained a large number of fig trees
that were fruiting in December and January. The howlers
reached this forest patch by going to the ground and crossing
the main road on the island. In July and August 1999, however,
this group was never observed to cross the road and spent all
of its time in an adjacent 8 ha patch of forest.
The Volcano group contained at least 5-6 adult males, five
adult females, five preadults, and two infants (18-20
individuals). This group was frequently observed to split into
smaller subgroups during the day. Mean subgroup size was
8.4 individuals (3.5; range 3-17). Subgroups represent the
number of howlers simultaneously visible to the observer.
The average number of adults males per subgroup was 3.1
(1.4) and the average number of adult females per subgroup
was 2.9 (1.5). Although we failed to observe any aggressive
encounters between members of the same or neighboring
groups, several of the adult males in each study group showed
evidence of facial scars, cut lips, and broken digits, which
would suggest that although adult males tolerate the presence
of several other adult males in a group, fighting among adult
males can be extremely severe.
Feeding Patterns and the Distribution of Feeding Sites
During the course of the dry season study (December-January),
84 trees which the howlers fed in were marked, identified, and
mapped. Seventy-four of these trees were of nine species
(87%). They included Spondias mombin, Cecropia spp.,
Bursera simarouba, Gliricidia sepium, Calycophyllum
candidissimum and Lonchocarpus parviflorus. The howlers
consumed leaves from 53% of these trees, flowers from 32%,
and fruits from 14%. On average, each howler subgroup fed in
3.0 trees per observation hour. Subgrouping may enable
members of a single large group to exploit more effectively a
set of small clumped feeding sites that are scattered across
their home range (see below).
In order to examine howling monkey feeding and ranging
patterns, the nearest neighbor distances between feeding trees
of the same species and distances traveled between feeding
sites were calculated. As indicated in Table 1, tree species
exploited by howlers tended towards a clumped distribution.
Mean nearest neighbor distances in five of 10 species were
less than or equal to 35 m, and in two of the remaining cases
mean nearest neighbor distances was less than 50 m. The
greatest distance howlers traveled between successive feeding
sites within a resource clump was 20 m.
We also examined the distribution of feeding sites by counting
the number of trees in each of the seventy-seven 25 x 25m
Neotropical Primates 7(4), December 1999
Table 1. Spatial distribution of feeding trees exploited by mantled
howlers on Ometepe.
Tree Species No.of
Gliricidia sepium 21
Spondias mombin 11
Purple Flower 9
Cecropia sp. 8
Bursera simaruba 5
Schizoobium sp. 3
Hymenaea courbail 2
Calconhvllun candidissimum 2
NN = Neareast Neighbor
quadrats overlain on our field map. As indicated in Table 2,45
of 84 howler feeding trees (53.5%) were distributed in only 10
quadrats (an area of 0.64 ha or 13% of the home range). The
greatest number of feeding trees in any single quadrat was
seven. In contrast, howlers were not observed to feed in 42 of
these quadrats (2.6 ha or 54% of the home range). The
distribution of feeding trees exploited by the howlers on
Ometepe differed significantly from a Poisson or random
distribution (X2= 21.805, df= 3, p<0.01). Based on calculations
of the coefficient of dispersion (CD = 1.4574), these resources
are best characterized as local aggregations of clumped feeding
sites. Given the relatively large concentration of feeding trees
in circumscribed areas of their home range, even during the
dry season, these howlers were able to exploit small forest
Table 2. Distribution of feeding trees used by howlers at Ometepe.
N. of feeding Trees No.of
per quadrat quadrats
Comparison of Howler Feeding Trees and Sample Trees
A comparison of the height and DBH of howler feeding trees
with the height and DBH of trees sampled within twelve 15 x 4
m quadrats (720 m2) is presented in Table 3. Of the 67 trees
measured in the sample quadrats, mean tree height was 9.2 m
and mean DBH was 17.5 cm (range 5-52.5 cm; trees of diameter
<5cm were not included in the sample). In contrast, data
collected on 74 trees fed in by howlers indicate a very different
height/DBH profile. Howler feeding trees were significantly
taller (13.7 m 2.9; XZ = 547, df= 3, p<0.001) and had a greater
DBH (110 cm 78; X2 = 2 314, df= 3, p<0.001) than trees in our
sample plots. In the case of Ometepe howlers, 80% of trees
fed in had a DBH >41 cm. Trees of this diameter accounted for
only 10% of the trees sampled in the groups' home range.
A major focus of our research was to determine the degree to
which the forests exploited by howlers were impacted by
human activity. This was accomplished by evaluating the
vegetation and structural characteristics of 67 contiguous 25
x 25 m quadrats (4.1 ha) within the home range of the study
group. This area represents over 85% of the study group's
range. Within each quadrat the following were recorded:
canopy height, the number of trees of at least 2 m in total
height, degree of understorey vegetation, the number of
Cecropia trees (an early successional plant species), and
evidence of human disturbance.
Table 3. Dimensions of trees in sample plots and trees fed in by
Tree height (m)
0-5 6-10 11-15 16-20 >20 Total
(N) 10 38 17 2 0 67
% 14.9 56.7 25.3 2.9 0
(N) 0 8 54 17 2 81
% 0 9.8 66.6 20.9 2.4
Total 5-20 21-40 41-60 61-80 81-100 100+
(N) 46 14 7 0 0 0 67
% 69.6 20.8 10.4 0 0 0
(N) 2 14 14 2 9 40 81
% 2.4 17.2 17.2 2.4 11.1 49.3
Quadrats that evidenced recent human activities such as cut
trails and forest cleared for pasture, agriculture, and logging
were scored as human-impacted zones. These accounted for
40.3% (N = 27 quadrats) of the study area (three additional
quadrats showed evidence of both human disturbance and
natural edge habitat; Table 4). Human-impacted areas were
characterized by trees of low stature and a well developed
understorey. In over 51% (N = 14) of these quadrats, 75-100%
of the forest floor was covered with low shrubs and grasses.
Quadrats that included stream beds and tree fall gaps are
referred to as natural edge zones (Table 4). Natural edge zones
made up 14.9% (N = 11 quadrats) of the study area. Trees of
between 10-15 m in height were found in 64% (N = 7) of these
quadrats. Natural edges tended to have limited ground cover
(55% [N = 6] of the quadrats within this zone were characterized
by 0-25% ground cover). This may reflect the fact that many
of these quadrats bordered seasonally dry stream beds formed
from volcanic rock which served as a barrier to plant growth.
Cecropia trees were found in eight of 11 natural edge quadrats
and averaged 4.9 trees per quadrat (range = 0-19). This shade-
intolerant, pioneer genus requires high light levels for growth
and is commonly associated with gap-phase regeneration
(Denslow and Hartshorn, 1994). Fifty-six percent (N = 54) of
all reported Cecropia trees were located within this zone.
The interior forest zone is comprised of quadrats that exhibited
little to no evidence of recent human-disturbance or natural
edges. These quadrats made up 37.3% (N = 26) of the study
area. Trees of 10-15 m in height were found in 92% (N = 24) of
interior zone quadrats. More than half of these quadrats also
contained trees that were greater than 15 m in height.
Understorey density was highly variable in these quadrats.
Cecropia averaged 1.2 trees per quadrat (range = 0-6).
Table 4. Comparison between habitat types found within the howler
home range and the distribution of feeding trees.
% Area % Howler feeding
Human Edge 40.3% 16.0%
Natural Edge 16.4% 23.2%
Forest Interior 38.8% 58.9%
Human/Natural Edge 4.4% 1.7%
Pane 116 Neotropical Primates 7(4), December 1999
As indicated in Table 4, there was a significantly greater number
of howler feeding trees in the interior forest zone than expected
based on the availability of this habitat type in the group's
home range (C = 5.8, df = 1, p<0.02). For example, 58.9% of
trees fed in by howlers were located in areas of minimally
disturbed forest. This area accounted for only 38.8% of the
group's range. There was a significantly smaller number of
howler feeding trees in areas of the forest altered by human
interference (X2 = 8.1, df = 1, p<0.01). Areas impacted by
human activities accounted for 40.3% of the home range but
contained only 16.0% of feeding trees. In natural edge zones,
however, the howlers used feeding trees in proportion to the
size of the area exploited (X = 1.6, df = 1, p>0.10). These data
suggest that tree species regenerating in areas heavily
impacted by recent human activity are unlikely to provide
sufficient resources to support mantled howling monkeys.
Many of the families living near the field station regularly
enter the forest to extract wood for cooking and as building
materials. We therefore interviewed members of the local
community to identify which trees were most frequently
harvested. Several tree species important in the howling
monkey diet, such as Gliricidia sepium and Calycophyllum
candidissimum, were among the most common tree species
used for firewood. Effective conservation policies on Isla de
Ometepe must include working with local residents in finding
alternative sources of cooking fuel.
Based on our preliminary findings, it appears that the remaining
forests on Isla de Ometepe support a large population of
mantled howling monkeys. These howlers were found to
exploit patches of fragmented forest located near the margins
of the lake, on the foothills of the volcano, in areas impacted
by the cultivation of shade coffee, and in undisturbed cloud
forest going all the way up to the top of the volcano. Areas
clearcut for pastures or cultivated for other crops such as
corn, plantains, and rice do not support howling monkeys.
However, we have observed howlers using extremely small
strips of forest and tree-lined fence rows to move from one
area to another or to migrate between groups. From a
conservation perspective, even small corridors connecting
forest patches appear to be effective in facilitating dispersal.
The size and composition of the two study groups observed
on Ometepe were generally consistent with reports of mantled
howling monkeys from several sites in Mexico, Costa Rica,
and Panama (Estrada, 1982; Chapman and Balcomb, 1998;
Fedigan et al., 1998). Both of our howler study groups were
large, however, and both contained at least 5-6 adult males. In
fact, we have counted as many as nine adult males residing in
the same group (Bezanson, pers. comm.). Based on a
comparative study of howler population demography, Fedigan
et al. (1998) proposed that under conditions of low population
density and during the initial stages of forest regeneration,
males may exhibit enhanced survivorship resulting in an
increase in the number of males per group. On Ometepe,
however, it still remains unclear how howler groups are
distributed across the island, the degree to which individuals
in fragmented forests are isolated from neighboring groups,
and whether limited dispersal opportunities frequently result
in subadult males and females remaining in their natal groups.
A goal of our continued research is to examine age and sex-
based patterns of howler dispersal on Ometepe in order to
understand better how the density, distribution, and isolation
of established social groups impact on individual survivorship
and the genetic diversity of howler populations on the island.
Previous studies have indicated that howlers can successfully
exploit small patches of fragmented and disturbed forest
(Crockett, 1998). In part, this may reflect their ability to use a
diet that contains a high proportion of both immature leaves
and leaves of early successional plant species. The home ran-
ge of the Volcano group contained areas of natural edge forest
that were characterized by approximately five Cecropia trees
per hectare. The leaves and fruits of these trees are commonly
eaten by howlers (Milton, 1980). However, the ability of
howlers to persist under conditions o sever habitat
fragmentation has been questioned (Crockett, 1998). Crockett
(1998), for example, has suggested that increased exposure to
parasite loads, natural disasters, and inbreeding may limit the
long-term viability of fragmented howler populations (see also
Horwich, 1998). Our impression of the distribution of howlers
on Isla de Ometepe is that areas of more continuous canopy
cover, including areas of shade-coffee, support a higher
density of individuals and groups. In areas of highly
fragmented forest, group size may be large, but individuals
tend to spend the majority of their time in subgroups composed
of 4-8 individuals. Leighton and Leighton (1982) also reported
subgrouping in mantled howlers. They suggested that howlers
form subgroups when exploiting "locally high densities of
preferred food sources that occur in small patches" (Leighton
and Leighton, 1982, p.88).
The large number of males residing in our howler study groups
may be indicative of limited opportunities for male migration.
Given the low levels of genetic diversity which are reported to
characterize island populations in general (Crockett, 1998) and
isolated groups in particular, effective primate conservation
and management programs on Ometepe may require a
sustained effort to regenerate forested corridors between
isolated forest patches, and in extreme cases the translocation
of individuals from the mainland to increase the genetic
diversity of the population.
Howlers are not hunted for food or killed as agricultural pests
on Ometepe. Occasionally infants are captured by local people
as pets. There is no evidence, however, of any organized pet
trade on the island. Habitat destruction and forest
fragmentation remain the major conservation problems faced
by both animal and plant species on Ometepe.
Based on archaeological evidence, humans first colonized Isla
de Ometepe some 4000 years ago (Haberland, 1992). The island
was used principally as a ceremonial center and its precontact
population was small. Today, there are some 40,000 inhabitants
on Ometepe (this is double the population just 30 years ago).
Although most of the population is concentrated in a few
Neotropical Primates 7(4), December 1999
Neotropical Primates 7(4), December 1999
towns (Altagracia, Moyagalpa), the impact of human activity
is pervasive. In the area near our field station, clearing of land
between the lake and the foothills of the Volcan Maderas has
been so extensive that even selective logging is likely to have
a severe negative impact on the survival of local howler
populations. In order to address these problems, the Fundaci6n
Ometepe has purchased several parcels of land between the
foothills and the volcano. This area will serve as a buffer zone
to limit continued forest destruction, promote forest
regeneration, and provide corridors for howler migration and
Compared to other atelines, Alouatta is characterized by an
early age at first reproduction and a high intrinsic rate of
population increase (Fedigan and Rose, 1995; Strier, 1996;
Crockett, 1998). Given their relatively fast life history pattern
and ability to colonize regenerating habitats (Crockett, 1998;
Fedigan et al., 1998; Horwich, 1998), we are hopeful that our
efforts to protect and conserve mantled howling monkey
populations on Isla de Ometepe will succeed. However, in
order to safeguard the continued survival of wild primate
populations in Nicaragua and other areas of Latin America
members of the local community, National governments, and
International Aid Agencies must work together to develop
informed and successful wildlife management policies.
Acknowledgments: Support to conduct this research was
provided by Fundaci6n Ometepe, the Government of
Nicaragua, and the generosity of the Molina Family. PAG
wishes to thank Sara and Jenni for being Sara and Jenni, and
for sharing a summer with me on Isla de Ometepe.
Paul A. Garber, Department of Anthropology, University of
Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA, J. D. Pruetz, Department of
Zoology, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056, USA, A. C.
Lavallee, Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois,
Urbana, IL61801, USA, andS. G. Lavallee, Center for Economic
Entomology, Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaign,
Illinois 61820, USA.
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teristics of howlers: Ecological conditions or group history.
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Crockett, C. M. 1998. Conservation biology of the genus
Alouatta. Int. J. Primatol. 19:549-578.
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in group size and demography. In: Primate Societies, B. B.
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T. Struhsaker (eds.), pp. 54-68. Chicago University Press,
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C. and Mills, M. 1997. Recent observations of Nicaraguan
primates and a preliminary conservation assessment.
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forest. Int. J. Primatol. 19:405-432.
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TESTIS SYMMETRY IN THE MANTLED HOWLING
Clara B. Jones
Markow et al. (1996) studied fluctuating asymmetry (random
deviations from symmetry in traits on opposite sides of the
body) in the sex combs of two Drosophila species and found
no evidence for sexual selection in this secondary sexual
character, contrary to the predictions of Moller and
Pomiankowski (1994). The latter authors argued that symmetry
would be positively related to male copulation success and
that secondary sexual characteristics would exhibit the
Page 118 Neotropical Primates 7(4), December 1999
strongest associations because they are under directional
selection. Differential symmetry among males, then, may
provide cues to females of male fitness, explaining variance in
male reproductive success. Markow et al. propose that Moller
and Pomiankowski's ideas require further investigation in a
range of taxa before it can be concluded that they are general.
The purpose of this correspondence is to present preliminary
observations on fluctuating asymmetry in testis size in the
mantled howling monkey (Alouatta palliata).
Mantled howlers, large Neotropical cebids, are found
throughout the forests of Mesoamerica and the northern coast
of South America. Age is negatively correlated with dominance
rank and copulation success, and significant sexual dimorphism
in weight between adult males and females suggests that se-
xual selection has operated in this species (Jones, 1985). A
prominent aspect of male morphology is the large, white
scrotum (Fig. 1) employed in stereotyped displays in sexual
and aggressive contexts (C. B. Jones, unpubl. data).
Animals were studied at Hacienda La Pacifica, Cafias,
Guanacaste, Costa Rica (see Clarke and Zucker, 1994) in the
early to mid 1970's by Dr. Norman J. Scott, Jr. and his assistants,
including the present author. Monkeys were tranquilized, aged,
weighed, and measured (Scott et al., 1976). I divided adult
males into four age classes: I (n = 7), an individual @ 5-7 years
old; I (n= 11), @ 7-10 years old; III (n= 7), @ 10-15 years old;
and, IV (n = 2), > 15 years old. The vertical and horizontal
height and width (mm) of each testis was obtained by
measuring its outline through the tissues of the scrotum with
a sliding caliper. Mean vertical height of right testis was 32.2
+2.5 mm; mean width of right testis was 23.9 1.9. Mean verti-
cal height of left testis was 31.4 +2.6 mm; mean width of left
testis was 23.1 +1.7. In order to assess fluctuating asymmetry
of each male, I computed two ratios: a ratio of the smallest to
largest (left testis to right testis or right to left) vertical height
of testis (VR); and a ratio of the smallest to largest (left to right
or right to left) horizontal width of testis (HR) of each male.
This paper assumes that testis shape and scrotal shape are
highly positively correlated.
Across males, weight did not differ significantly by age (Sign
Test: X2 = 3.1, df= 3, P = 0.50). Thus, differences across males
in mating success cannot be explained by differences in weight.
Likewise, while VR (range = 0.92-0.99, median = 0.97) corre-
lates positively with weight (r = 0.44, N = 27, P<0.01), VR did
not differ significantly across males by age (Sign Test: X2 =
4.18, df = 3, P = 0.30). Fluctuating asymmetry in the ratio of
vertical circumference of both testes, then, apparently cannot
explain variance in copulation success across males.
An analysis of HR (range = 0.88 -1.00, median=0.95) revealed
that it failed to correlate with weight (r = 0.10, N= 27, P= 0.31),
possibly exhibiting developmental instability, compared with
the vertical orientation. Similar to the findings for VR, HR
exhibits no differences across males by age (Sign test: X2 =
2.23, df = 3, P = 0.70), possibly showing that female mantled
howler monkeys do not employ fluctuating asymmetry in testis
size as a visual cue of male quality. Fluctuating asymmetry in
two secondary sexual characteristics in the mantled howler
monkey (VR and HR) does not appear to be sexually selected,
then, consistent with the findings of Markow et al. (1996).
Moller and Pomiankowski (1994) predicted that the highest
correlations with asymmetry are expected in secondary sexual
characters. If the range in asymmetry for mantled howler tes-
tes are representative of other secondary sexual traits in the
species (e.g. incisor length), it seems unlikely that symmetry
will correlate with male fitness or that female "choices" will be
a function of low fluctuating asymmetry. It would be important
to know the heritability of secondary sexual characteristics
for this monkey since a trait with low heritability may not be a
reliable measure of fitness for females who may be evolved to
select "good genes". Further, female mantled howler monkeys
appear to be very sensitive to the proximate context of mating,
such as the availability of resources (Jones, 1995), a condition
that would dampen any tendency for female selectivity to
correlate with secondary sexual characteristics.
Finally, Allen and Simmons (1996) suggest that fluctuating
asymmetry in visual signals, such as scrotal displays, exhibit
an "equivocal" association with male fitness compared to
structures having "mechanical significance" (e.g., the penis),
and show for dung flies that "coercive mating" is correlated
with symmetry and male mating success. The mating system
of mantled howlers is not characterized by coercion (Jones,
1985), possibly explaining the failure to find a relationship
between fluctuating asymmetry, age, and, thereby, male mating
success in this species. These tentative results for mantled
howlers should be tested with larger sample sizes but suggest
that Moller and Pomiankowsi's predictions require adjustment
to taxonomic and, possibly, to ecological differences.
Figure 1. Adult male mantled howler monkey exhibiting asymmetrical
scrota. Note outline of testes in scrotal sac.
Acknowledgments: I am grateful to N. J. Scott, Jr. for providing
me with the results of his morphometric studies, to T. Markow
for her constructive criticism of an earlier draft of this note,
and to K. E. Glander for details on the methods of testis
Clara B. Jones, Community Conservation Consultants, Gays
Mills, WI, USA, and (address for correspondence) Livingstone
College, Psychology Department, 701 W. Monroe Street,
Salisbury, NC 28144, USA. E-mail: .
Neotropical Primates 7(4), December 1999
Neotropical Primates 7(4), December 1999 Page 119
Allen, G. R. and Simmons, L. W. 1996. Coercive
mating,fluctuating asymmetry and male mating success in
the dung fly Sepsis cynipsea. Anim. Behav. 52:737 741.
Clarke, M. R. and Zucker, E. L. 1994. Survey of the howling
monkey population at La Pacifica: A seven year follow up.
Int. J. Primatol. 15:61-73.
Jones, C. B. 1985. Reproductive patterns in mantled howler
monkeys: Estrus, mate choice, and copulation. Primates
Jones, C. B. 1985. Alternative reproductive behaviors in the
mantled howler monkey (Alouatta palliata Gray): Testing
Carpenter's hypothesis. Bol. Primatol. Latinoamericano 5:1-
Markow, T. A., Bustoz, D., and Pitnick, S. 1996. Sexual selec-
tion and a secondary sexual character in two Drosophila
species. Anim. Behav. 52:759-766.
Moller, A. P. and Pomiankowski, A. 1994. Fluctuating asym-
metry and sexual selection. In: Developmental Instability:
Its Origins and Evolutionary Implications. T. A. Markow
(ed.), pp. 269-281. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, Nether-
Scott, Jr., N.J., Scott, A. F., and Malmgren, L. A. 1976. Captur-
ing and marking howler monkeys for field behavioral stud-
ies. Primates 17:527-533.
ON A NEW WHITE BALD UAKARI POPULATION IN
SOUTHWESTERN BRAZILIAN AMAZONIA
Jose de Sousa e Silva Jdnior
Eduardo de Souza Martins
The geographic distributions of the four subspecies of the
bald uakari, Cacajao calvus, have been reviewed by
Hershkovitz (1987) and Barnett and Brandon-Jones (1997).
They occur in the upper Amazon, with C. c. calvus restricted
to a very small range between the lower Rio JapurA and the Rio
Solim6es, west as far as the Auatf-Parand, C. c. rubicundus to
the west of C. c. calvus, in a small area north of the Rio Solimoes
west of the Auatf-Parana and also between the Rios Solimies
and Ig, C. c. ucayalii between the Rfos Ucayali and Javarf in
Peru and Brazil, and the disjunct population of the white uakari,
C. c. novaesi described by Hershkovitz in 1987, which, with
the limited information available to him, he restricted to the
south bank of the upper Rio Jurua between the Rios Eiru and
Tarauacd. Hershkovitz (1987) indicated the likelihood of its
occurrence, however, west to the Rio Greg6rio or beyond to
occupy the entire basin between the Rio Tarauaca and right
bank of the Rio Jurua. Here we summarize some recent infor-
mation that modify the distributions of C. c. calvus and C. c.
novaesi, and report on the discovery of an outlying, new white
bald uakari population on the border of the states of Amazonas
and Acre in Brazil.
The Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi (MPEG) mammal collec-
tion has a specimen of C. c. calvus labeled "Rio Jurud" (MPEG-
576), a south bank tributary of the Rio Solimoes. Peres (1990)
recorded C. calvus on the upper Rio Riozinho, an affluent of
the Rio Jutaf (west of the Rio Jurua), and (Peres, 1997) at Vira
Volta, left (west) bank the lower Rio Jurun. A. Percequillo (pers.
comm.) also observed the uakaris from Vira Volta, recognizing
them as C. c. calvus, based on specimens in the Zoology
Museum of the University of Sao Paulo (MZUSP). On the
basis of this, C. c. calvus evidently occurs on both sides of
the Solim6es occupying at least the interfluvium between the
Rios Jurud and Riozinho and possibly extending to the Jutaf,
just south of the Rio Solim6es. The red uakari, C. c. rubicundus,
occurs in the Jutaf-Solim6es Ecological Station, west of the
lower Rio Jutaf (Nogueira-Neto, 1992).
C. c. novaesi is distinct from the white C. c. calvus in having a
general orange color, with the dorsum, from the nape to the tip
of the tail, paler orange, buffy or whitish (Hershkovitz, 1987).
Peres (1988, 1990, 1997) recorded it to the north-east of the
range described by Hershkovitz (1987), on the left bank of the
Rio Jurud, at Lago da Fortuna, Carauari; 500 km to the north
and roughly tripling the size of the range. Peres (1997) also
recorded C. calvus at Sobral on the right bank of the upper Rio
Jurua, but whether they belong to the subspecies ucayalii,
extending the range to east, or to novaesi, extending the range
to the west, as was proposed by Hershkovitz (1987), is not
Unconfirmed reports of a number of uakari populations were
also obtained by Femandes (1990) in the state of Acre. They
included: the Mamoadate Indigenous Area on the Peruvian
border on the upper Rio laco, a right bank tributary of the Rio
Purus (possibly ucayalii); the Seringal Republica, on the Rio
Moa, a left (west) bank tributary of the upper Rio Jurud (pos-
sibly ucayalii); the Seringal Boca da Pedra on the headwaters
of the Rio Tarauacd (possibly novaesi); the Rio Acuraud a left
(west) bank tributary of the middle Rio Tarauaci (possibly
novaesi); and the Kulina Indigenous Area on the upper Rio
Envira (possibly novaesi).
In September 1988, a preliminary inventory of the primate com-
munities on the border between the Brazilian states of
Amazonas and Acre was carried out by ESM. A new white
bald uakari population was discovered in the flooded forests
along the Rio Juruparf, a right bank tributary of the Envira-
Tarauacd-Jurua drainage, Amazonas (Figure 1). Three adult
specimens were collected and deposited in the MPEG (21861,
21862, 21863). The Rio Juruparf is outside the known geo-
graphic distribution of any C. calvus form. Due to the proxim-
ity of Juruparf to the Rios Eiru and Tarauaca, the uakaris were
identified in the field as C. c. novaesi. A comparison with the
material in the collections of MPEG, MZUSP and the Museu
National, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ),
however, revealed differences in the pelage of the specimens
collected with that of C. c. novaesi. The appearance of the
specimens from the Rio Juruparf was closer to C. c. calvus. C.
c. novaesi has an almost entirely reddish coat, with a short
whitish mantle that extends from the nape to the lower third of
the back (Hershkovitz, 1987). The uakaris of the Rio Jurupari
are almost entirely white on the upperparts, without a con-
trasting mantle on the back, and yellowish on the underparts
(including throat and beard), as in C. c. calvus. The Juruparf
series was examined by P. Hershkovitz in the MPEG, and later
Neotropical Primates 7(4), December 1999
Neotropical Primates 7(4), December 1999
through photographs sent to the Field Museum of Natural
History for comparison with the C. c. novaesi types.
Hershkovitz (in litt.) concluded that it was an undescribed C.
calvus subspecies, convergent with C. c. calvus in its pelage
color. Hershkovitz reinforced his argument, recalling that the
upper Jurui basin is rich in mammal endemisms (see, for ex-
ample, Hershkovitz, 1977; Emmons and Peer, 1997).
Hershkovitz' hypothesis is not, however, supported by differ-
entiation in any of the classic morphological characters. Mor-
phologically the Rio Juruparf population and C. c. calvus are
very similar. The Rio Jurupari population is separated from the
known distribution of C. c. calvus by more than 700 km, with
C. c. novaesi enclaved between them.
C. A. Peres also examined the material from the Rio Jurupari
and disagreed with Hershkovitz. Based on his observations
of C. calvus in unflooded forest habitat (see also Bartecki and
Heymann, 1987; Aquino, 1998), Peres (pers. comm.) suggested
that the C. c. calvus distribution may not be disjunct, possibly
being continuous through terra fire forest east of the C. c.
novaesi distribution. However, there is no evidence that C.
calvus occurs east of the Rio Jurud or west of the Rio Tefd
In an attempt to clarify this mystery, we are conducting a mor-
phometric analysis involving 40 cranial measurements (includ-
ing an initial ANOVA to determine the variables with signifi-
cant differences between taxa to be used in multivariate analy-
sis) to examine the affinities between the new population, C. c.
SHershkovitz (1987) M Hershkovitz (1987)
0 Percequillo (Pers. comm.) Peres (1988)
A The new white bald uakarl population
Figure 1. Location of the new white bald uakari population Cacajao
calvus. Map by Stephen D. Nash.
calvus and C. c. novaesi. A study of DNA extracted from hairs
will be also carried out in collaboration with the Molecular
Genetics Department of the Federal University of Park. An
affinity with C. c. novaesi may reinforce Hershkovitz' hypoth-
esis. An affinity with C. c. calvus, on the other hand, would
call for a major rethinking of current views on the evolutionary
history and taxonomic arrangement of the C. calvus subspe-
Specimens examined in the mammal collections of MZUSP,
MNRJ and MPEG for comparison. Cacajao calvus calvus:
BRAZIL: AMAZONAS: Lago Mamiraud, Rio Japuri mouth
region: MZUSP-17536, 17537; Lago do Tracajd, Rio Japura
mouth region: MZUSP-17535,17539; Ressaca de Vila Alencar,
Rio Japura mouth region: MZUSP-17542; Parana do Maiana:
Parani do Marauf, north bank of the Rio Solimoes, municipal-
ity ofFonte Boa: MPEG-8990; Rio Jurum: MPEG-576. Cacajao
calvus novaesi: BRAZIL: AMAZONAS: Santa Cruz, Rio Eiru:
4336, 4337, 4338, 4339, 5496, 19359, 19701. Cacajao calvus
rubicundus: BRAZIL: AMAZONAS: Buiuqu, Auatf-Parand
channel region: MZUSP-17552, 17553. Cacajao calvus
ucayalii: PERU: Chimbote, Rio Solim6es: MPEG-461,468,505;
Rio Napo: MPEG-49, 462,499,506,511,512; PERU: MNRJ-
2453; BRAZIL: AMAZONAS: Estirao do Ecuador, Rio Javari:
ssp.: BRAZIL: AMAZONAS: Rio Juruparf, right bank tribu-
tary of the Rio Envira: MPEG-21861, 21862, 21863.
Acknowledgments: We are grateful to Philip Hershkovitz (in
memorial), Jos6 MArcio Ayres, Carlos A. Peres and Anthony
B. Rylands for their comments, and to Alexandre Percequillo
for the information on the uakaris observed in Vira Volta. To
the curators of the Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de Sao
Paulo (Mario de Vivo) and Museu Nacional (Joao Alves
Oliveira and Stella Maris Santos Franco) for permission to
examine specimens in their respective mammal collections. Spe-
cial thanks are due to Francisco Ramos for the preparation of
the specimens collected, to Diego Astda de Moraes for the
correction of the English version, and to Carlos Eduardo de
Viveiros Grelle for his suggestions concerning the organiza-
tion of this article.
Jos6 de Sousa e Silva Junior, Departamento de Zoologia,
Museu Paraense Emflio Goeldi, Caixa Postal 399,66040-170
Bel6m, Para, e-mail: , and Eduardo
de Souza Martins, Institute Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e
Recursos Naturals Renoviveis, SAIN Av. L-4 Norte, Bl. A,
70800-200, Brasilia, DF, Brazil. Current address offirstauthor:
Laborat6rio de Vertebrados, Departamentos de Ecologia e de
Gendtica, CCS, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa
Postal 68020,21941-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
Aquino, R. 1998. Some observations on the ecology of Cacajao
calvus ucayalii in the Peruvian Amazon. Primate Conserv.
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Barnett, A. A. and Brandon-Jones, D. 1997. The ecology, bio-
geography and conservation of the uakaris, Cacajao
(Pitheciinae). Folia Primatol. 68(3-5): 223-235.
Bartecki, U. and Heymann, E. W. 1987. Sightings of red uakaris,
Cacajao calvus rubicundus, at the Rio Blanco, Peruvian
Amazon. Primate Conserv. (8): 34-36.
Emmons, L. and Feer, F 1997. Neotropical Rainforest Mam-
mals: A Field Guide. 2nd edition. The University of Chi-
cago Press, Chicago.
Fernandes, M. C. A. G. 1990. Distribuigqo de primatas nao-
humanos no estado do Acre e vizinhangas: Um estudo
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Natureza, Universidade Federal do Acre, Rio Branco.
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versity Press, Chicago.
Hershkovitz, P. 1987. Uakaris, New World monkeys of
the genus Cacajao (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): a preliminary re-
view with the description of a new subspecies. Am. J.
Primatol. 12(1): 1-57.
Nogueira-Neto, P. 1992. Ecological Stations: A Saga ofEcol-
ogy and Environmental Policy. Empresa das Artes, Slo
Peres, C. A. 1988. Primate community structure in western
Brazilian Amazonia. Primate Conserv. (9): 83-87.
Peres, C. A. 1990. Effects of hunting on western Amazonian
primate communities. Biol. Conserv. 54:47-59.
Peres, C. A. 1997. Primate community structure at twenty west-
ern Amazonian flooded and unflooded forests. J. Trop. Ecol.
NUEVO MUNDO, NUEvos MONOS: SOBRE PRIMATES
NEOTROPICALES EN LOS SIGLOS XV Y XVI.
La present entrega se propone dar a conocer una parte poco
conocida de la historic de la primatologia americana, referida a
las primeras menciones y descripciones de primates dadas
por los cronistas y viajeros en Am6rica, en los siglos XV y
XVI. Para ello, las referencias se presentan cronol6gicamente.
En aquellos casos donde se conozca con exactitud la localidad
aludida en la cr6nica, se emplea en la interpretaci6n por
comparaci6n biogeogrdfica, la obras de Wolfheim (1983) y
Emmons & Feer (1997) en el caso de Latinoam6rica y la de
Bodini & Perez (1987) y Linares (1998) en Venezuela, para la
determinaci6n del possible primate avistado. En 6ste orden de
ideas, a continuaci6n se relatan las primeras noticias de
primates del Nuevo Mundo:
1498. En el tercer viaje de Crist6bal Col6n, y precisamente en
el primer desembarco europeo en tierra continental americana,
en la costa sur de la peninsula de Paria, noreste de Venezuela,
Col6n envia un bote para el desembarco, nos dice ...y envid
los barcos a tierra, y hallaron que defresco se hablan ido de
all(gente, y hallaron todo el monte cubierto de gatospatiles;
bolvidndose. (Col6n, 1996). Los gatos pales segin la
denominaci6n de la literature del medioevo son los monos
(Acosta, 1992), los cuales tambi6n serin denominados gatillos
y gatos monillos por los espaholes (Ridruejo, 1969).
Considerando que el report fue hecho en Paria, Venezuela,
podria referirse a Alouatta seniculus o Cebus olivaceus. Por
otro lado, es important destacar que Col6n leg6 al Nuevo
Mundo con la idea de la existencia de primates. En el Libro de
Marco Polo anotadopor Crist6bal Col6n, 6ste iltimo destaca
al margen del texto la presencia de monos. En el Capitulo XV
Del reino de Bosman de este libro, Marco Polo sefiala que
...En este reino hay muchos monos de diversas classes: unos
sonpequeios y tienen la caraparecida a la humana e incluso
en el resto de sus miembros se conforma much con el
hombre..., a esto describe Col6n al margen muchos monos (Polo,
1987) Posteriormente, en el mismo libro pero en su Capitulo
XXXII. De la provincia de Comari, agrega ...Esta region es
muy salvaje y tiene muchos animals y muy diferentes de los
demds, y en particular simios. Hay all muchos monos que
tienen rostro de hombres. Hay gatos que se llaman paulos,
muy distintos de los demds..., del cual Col6n anota al margen
de libro muchos monos, gatos paulos (Polo, 1987). N6tese en
ambas referencia de Marco Polo el referente "humanizado" de
1502-1504. Crist6bal Col6n en su cuarto viaje, estando en
Centroam6rica probablemente Honduras y/o Nicaragua, relata
una escena de caceria de un primate. Dice ...Un ballestero
habia herido una animalia, que se parece a un gato patil,
salvo que es much mds grande y rostro de hombre, tenfale
atravesado con una saeta desde los pechos hasta la cola...
(Col6n, 1996). Es possible que se trate de Alouatta palliata,
Ateles geoffroyi o Cebus capucinus.
1502. Americo Vespuccio, navegante italiano, en una carta
enviada desde Lisboa a Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de Medici
de Florencia, sefiala la presencia de muchos tipos de babuinos
y macacos en tierra continental del Nuevo Mundo, la cual
recorri6 desde las costas intermedias de Brasil hasta la costa
occidental de Venezuela (Vespucci, 1986). N6tese el referente
africano para representar a monos del Nuevo Mundo.
1511. En el libro de la "Nao Bretoa" a cargo de Fernando de
Loronha, Benedito Morelli, Francisco Martins y Bartolomeu
Marchione, se report trifico de primates neotropicales a
Europa, sefialando 16 saguis y 3 monos (Ribeiro & Araujo
Moreira Neto, 1992). Esta nave permaneci6bAsicamente en la
desembocadura del rio Sao Francisco, Brasil, por tanto es muy
probable que se refieran entire los saguis a Callithrixjacchus
penicillata y/o Callithrixjacchus hfbrido y entire los monos a
Cebus apella y/o Alouatta belzebul.
1518. Pero de Magalhaes de Gindavo report cerca de Rio de
Janeiro al Sagot de color amarillo y rojo (Magalhaes de
Gandavo, 1576). Esta es posiblemente la primera referenda de
c. 1519. En el mapa policromo llamado Terra Brasilis, el cual
se le atribuye a Lopo Homen, se reproduce un possible primate
neotropical (Figura la) (Ribeiro & Araujo MoreiraNeto, 1992).
1526. Gonzalo Fern ndez de Oviedo en su Sumario de la
Neotropical Primates 7(4). December 1999
Page 122 Neotropical Primates 7(4), December 1999
Natural Historia de las Indias, dedica el capitulo XXV a la
descripci6n de primates del Nuevo Mundo. De ella resefia la
astucia de los monos, la variedad de colors, la amplia
distribuci6n asf como la diferencia de tamaiios ....Haylos tan
pequefiitos como la mano de un hombre, y menores, otros tan
grandes como un median mastfn (un perro). Tambi6n, hace
menci6n del envio de primates a Espafia, ademas del uso de
herramientas (Oviedo, 1996; Urbani, 1998). Alrealizar sus viajes
en tierras del Dari6n y cercanfas, Panama y norte de Colombia,
es probable que se refiera a Cebus capucinus, Alouatta
palliata o Ateles geoffroyi, y probablemente Saguinus
geoffroyi o Saguinus oedipus.
1530. Pedro Martin de Anglerfa, a pesar de no haber estado
en Am6rica fue considerado el primer cronista de America
(Perera, 1992). Refiere a monos del norte de Venezuela, del cual
dice sobre los de la region de CumanA al noroccidente de
Venezuela ...Crianse en aquella tierra gatos silvestres; la
madre, trepando entire los drboles, lleva abrazados a sus
hijos. Entonces tiran unflechazo, y cayendo muerta cogen
los gatillos, y los conservan por gusto, como nosotros a los
cercopitecos o monas (Anglerfa, 1965). En dste caso debe
referirse a Alouatta seniculus y/o Cebus olivaceus. Ademis,
indica la presencia de primates en Panami que van ...saltando
de drbol en drbol con espantable griterio... (Anglerfa, 1965).
Posiblemente Cebus capucinus, Alouatta palliata y/o Ateles
1535. Gonzalo Fernmndez de Oviedo sefiala la presencia de
gatos monillos en abundancia en Tierra Firme (Fermndez de
Oviedo, 1535, en Becco, 1983)
1537. Alvar Nufiez Cabeza de Vaca, refiridndose a los primates
de la region del Iguazi, dice ...los monos que comen estos
pifones de esta manera: que los monos se suben encima de
los pinos y se asen de la cola, y con la mano ypies derruecan
muchas piiias en el suelo, y cuando tiene derribada much
cantidad, abajan a comerlos... y comesen los pifiones... los
gatos estaban dando gritos sobre los drboles. (Nufiez Cabeza
de Vaca, 1969). Considerando el final de la descripci6n
probablemente se refiera a Alouattafusca o Alouatta caraya
y/o inclusive Cebus apella.
1539-1553. Galeotto Cey, hace una descripci6n de primates
del occidente de Venezuela. "Monos hay en gran cantidad y
diversas suertes. Hay algunos pequefos con la pelambre
negra y muy crecida, que son muy afables, pero se mueren
por cualquier pequefio desdin. Otros son mds grandecitos
con elpelo memory grisdceo. Hay unos grandes como ovejas,
fefsimos, velludos y con un palmo de barba, de color pardo o
rojizo, los cuales hacen un gritar y resoplar que se siente a
una legua de distancia... Cuando caminamos por los bos-
ques nos acompafian sobre los drboles orindndose encima
de nosotros y vaciando el vientre, tirdndonos pedazos de
ramas secas (Cey, 1994). Por su parte resefia el temor de los
monos al agua. Ademis, sefiala una nueva acepci6n para
primates del Nuevo Mundo para los indigenas de la regi6n, a
quienes llaman damoteyes, es decir, sus compaheros, pero
por nombrepropio los llaman micos (Cey, 1994). Los primates
referidos deben ser Cebus olivaceus y Alouatta seniculus.
1550. Pedro Cieza de Le6n, sefiala que en las montafias andinas
del Perd ...hay unas monas muy grandes que andan por los
drboles,... Dicen mds: que no tienen habla, sino un gemido y
un aullido temeroso. (Cieza de Le6n, 1945).
1552. Francisco L6pez de Gomara public su obra Historia
General de las Indias, en la cual al referirse a animals de caza
de los indigenas de Cumana, al noreste de Venezuela, expresa
literalmente, Usan una monteria deliciosa con otro animal
dicho aranata, quepor su gesto y astucia debe ser del genero
de los monos: es del tamafo del galgo, hechura de hombre
en boca, pies y manos, tiene honrado gesto y la barba de
cabrdn; anda en manadas, aullan recio, no comen came,
suben como gatos por los drboles; huye el cuerpo al mortero,
toman laflecha y arr6janla al que la tiro graciosamente
(L6pez de Gomara, 1979). El animal referido es sin dudaAlouatta
1555. Agustfn de Zarate en su cr6nica del Pern, nos dice
...Haypor los montes... monos de diversas maneras. (Zarate,
1555. Bernardino de Sahagin en su Historia de las Indias,
describe un apartado titulado De la mano de la mona, donde
express la costumbre de indigenas de Mdxico de emplear
manos de monas como elements que les permitfa a aquellos
que comerciaban vender toda la mercancia que posefan
(Sahag6n, 1986). Es probable que se refieran aAlouattapigra,
Alouatta palliata o Ateles geoffroyi.
1557. Hans Staden en tierra de los Tupinamba cercana a Rio
de Janeiro, sobre la presencia nos dice, Tambidn hay monos
de tres species. Una especie se llama Key (cay), y es la que
nos trabmos por acd (QEuropa?). Despues hay otra especie
que se llama Acha Keyy (Aka kay), que andan generalmente
en grandes grupos, saltando entire los drboles y armando un
gran griterfo en el bosque. Y hay otra especie que se llama
Pricki, son rojos, tienen barbas como los machos cabrios y
son de tamanio de unperro normal (Standen, 1983). Este tltimo
es sin duda, Alouattafusca, los llamados Cay probablemente
se refieran a Callithrix jacchus aurita y/o Callithrix jacchus
flaviceps. Realiza uno de los dibujos mAs tempranos de primates
de Nuevo Mundo (Figura 1).
Figura 1. a- Ilustraci6n de primate de Lopo Homen (circa 1519); b-
Dibujo de primate de Staden (1557); c- Mono con tPnica y bast6n
descrita para el Peri por Vico (1562); d- Primate de Guamtn Poma de
Ayala (1584). Tomados de Ribeiro & Araujo Moreira Neto (1992);
Standen (1983); Rojas Mix (1992) y GuamAn Poma de Ayala (1980),
Neotropical Primates 7(4), December 1999
Neotropical Primates 7(4), December 1999 Pa2e 123
1557. Andrd Thevet asentado por la misma zona de Staden al
referirse a los primates de la regi6n de Rio de Janeiro, nos dice
que hay monos (mones), pero no grandes primates (singes)
como en Africa realizando una comparaci6n entire los primates
del Nuevo Mundo y los del Viejo Mundo. (Thevet, 1557 en
1561. Girolano Benzoni resefia el consume de monos por
indfgenas en la Peninsula de Paria, Venezuela (Benzoni, 1989).
Siendo estos posiblemente Alouatta seniculus o Cebus
olivaceus. Sobre los primates nos dice lo siguiente ...comiendo
casi siempre caracoles y unos frutos silvestres que se
encuentran en aquellos bosques y de los cuales se nutren los
monos que continuamente van saltando por los drboles.
(Benzoni, 1989). Por su parte, indica que existen:..muchos
monos... en la region de Suere, aparentemente en
Centroamdrica, los cuales podrian refierir a Alouattapalliata,
Alouatta pigra o Ateles geoffroyi.
1562. Enea Vico en su obra Recueil de la diversity des habits
qui presented en visage tantae pays d'Europe, Asia, Afrique,
et illes Sauvages. Letoutfait apres de natural hace referencia
a la presencia de un mono con tdnica y bast6n, comun en la
literature fantAstica de la 6poca (Rojas Mix, 1992) que
supuestamente habitaba en Perd (Figura Ic). Dice ...pres le
Peru par effect le voit on, Dieu a donned au Singe telforme.
(Vico, 1562, enRojas Mix, 1992).
1563. Juan de Castellanos sefiala la presencia de micos en el
norte de Venezuela (Castellanos, 1962). Probablemente se
refiera a Alouatta seniculus, Ateles belzebuth o Cebus
1566-1569. Rodrigo Ponce de Le6n report para el noroeste
de Venezuela ...micos en much cantidad, grandes, pequefios
y algunos barbudos (Arellano Moreno, 1964). Posiblemente
se refiere a Cebus olivaceus y Ateles belzebuth, y con
seguridad a Alouatta seniculus para el dltimo de ellos.
Figura 2. Monos de Amdrica de Theodoro de Bry (1598). Tomados
de Bry (1995).
1570. TomAs L6pez Medel al escribir sobre los animals del
Nuevo Mundo se refiere que los ...gatillos ...son de hechura y
suerte de monos... (L6pez Medel, 1990). Sefiala su comercio
hacia Sevilla, Espafia, debido a su clima calido. AdemAs, refiere
que son de gran variedad de colors y tamafios, s61o
comparable entire la variedad existente entire los papagayos.
Para terminar su descripci6n efectda la primer descripci6n de
un primate probablemente del g6nero Aotus, dice ...un genero
de gatillos que son pardos y blancos... cuya naturaleza es
dormir de dia y de noche velar y andar a buscar comida.
(L6pez Medel, 1990). Si consideramos que L6pez de Medel
visit la zona de Popayin y cercana a Santa Fd de Bogota,
norte y oeste de Colombia es possible que se refiera a Aotus
1574. Juan L6pez de Velasco, sefiala que en Venezuela existe
...muy grande diversidad de monos y gatillos... (L6pez de
Velasco, 1971). Posiblemente refiere a los mds comunes del
norte de Venezuela, a saber, Alouatta seniculus, Cebus
olivaceu, y/o Ateles belzebuth.
1575-1576. Francisco Hernndez, en su copiosa obra Historia
de los Animales de Nueva Espafia, se encuentra el Tratado
sobre los cuadripedos, destacando entire los diferentes
g6neros de mamiferos, a los primates (Perera, 1992).
Considerando que Nueva Espafia corresponde con el actual
territorio de Mexico, es possible que se refiera a Alouatta
palliata o Alouatta pigra, e inclusive Ateles geoffroyi.
1576-1583. Juan de Pimentel report primates para la regi6n
cercana a Caracas y costa central de Venezuela. De ellos nos
dice ...monos de los cuales hay generos y entire ellos, unos
muy grande barbudos (Arellano Moreno, 1964). Puede referirse
a Ateles belzebuth o Cebus olivaceus, y para el dltimo se
refiere a Alouatta seniculus.
1578. Jean de Lery quien convivi6 con los indigenas en la
region aledafia a Rio de Janeiro, escribi6 su obra Historie d'un
voyage fait en la terre du Brasil; y refi6ndose a los monos del
Brasil nos resefia la presencia de monos que llama ...Aquiqui.
Son de pelo negro y tienen una larga barba en el mentdn.
Entre ellos hay a veces un macho de color rojizo, que los
Salvajes laman Rey de los Monos... y grita con la voz
engolada, tan fuerte que puede otrse desde bastante lejos.
(Lery, en Laet, 1988). Este mono con seguridad se refiere a
Alouatta fusca, es interesante notar la presencia del macho
rojo, lo cual coincide con los machos de esta especie en la
regi6n, que son anaranjados-rojizos y rojizos-marrones
(Emmons & Feer, 1997). Sefiala la presencia de pequefios
monos negros que denominan los indigenas ...Cay, muy
hermosas a la vista y al oido, pues gritan en coro en la cumbre
de los arboles... (Lery, en Laet, 1988), probablemente se tratan
si consideramos a la regi6n cercana a Rio de Janeiro de
Callithrix jacchus flaviceps y/o Callithrix jacchus aurita.
Por iltimo, describe monos que los indigenas lHaman Sagouin,
del tamafio de una ardilla y hasta con el mismo pelo rojo,
parecidos por lo demds en cuanto al hocico, cuello, pecho y
en casi todas otras parties al le6n... y no les van a la zaga en
belleza a los demds animalitospequefios. (Lery, en Laet, 1988).
Este primate probablemente corresponde con Leontopithecus
1579. Fray Pedro de Aguado, sefiala la presencia de micos en
la region de Santa Marta Colombia y norte de Venezuela, bajo
la denominaci6n de micos o gatos de arcabuco (Aguado, 1579
en Vaquero de Ramirez, 1981). Esto posiblemente sean Cebus
albifrons, Cebus olivaceus, Alouatta seniculus, Ateles
geoffroyi y/o Saguinus oedipus.
Neotropical Primates 7(4), December 1999
Page 124 Neotropical Primates 7(4), December 1999
1584. Femro Cardim en su obra, Tratado da terra e gente do
Brasil, se refiere a la presencia del aquigquig que son monos
con gran poder de aullar, sin duda alguna debe referir a
Alouatta fusca o Alouatta caraya. (Cardim, 1584, en Perera,
1584. Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala, en su obra Nueva
Cordnica y Buen Gobierno, nos sefiala que en el Perd ...la
sdptima coya Ipauaco Mamachi Coya... fue amiga de
criar...micos y monos..., siendo a su vez representado como
ilustraci6n. (Figura Id) (Guaman Poma de Ayala, 1980).
1590. Josd de Acosta describe en su obra un capitulo De los
micos o monos de Indias donde sefiala la variedad de monos
que existen en Tierra Firme y admirando su discurso y raz6n...
no parecen animals brutos, sino de entendimiento human
(Acosta, 1962). Como visit Panama y Cartagena, Colombia es
probable que se refiera a Cebus capucinus, Cebus albifrons,
Ateles geoffroyi, Alouatta seniculus, Alouatta palliata,
Saguinus geoffroyi ylo Saguinus oedipus.
1598. Theodoro de Bry public ilustraciones de primates del
Nuevo Mundo (Figura 2) (Bry, 1995).
Finalmente, la informaci6n presentada destaca la importancia
que tuvieron los mamiferos, y particularmente los primates,
del Nuevo Mundo durante los siglos XV y XVI. Las
representaciones de los primates fueron parte de la
cotidianidad, imaginario y continue context de
"descubrimiento" que caracteriz6 el inicio del period de
Contacto en Am6rica.
Agradecimientos: A la Dra. Erika Wagner, Antrop. Edgar Gil y
Marcia L6pez del IVIC por sus comentarios. Al Prof. Emanuele
Amodio (UCV), Sr. Pedro Pdrez (Libreria Ludems) y Dr. Angel
Viloria (Museo de Biologfa Universidad del Zulia) por su
colaboraci6n. A la Dra. Liliana Cort6s-Ortiz y Dr. Anthony
Rylands por sus sugerencias finales.
Bernardo Urbani, Escuela de Antropologia, Universidad
Central de Venezuela (UCV) y Departamento de Antropologia,
Institute Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientfficas (IVIC).
Direccidn Postal: Apartado 47.028. Caracas 1041-A. Venezuela,
Acosta, J. de. 1962. Historia Natural y Moral de las Indias.
(1590). Fondo de Cultura Econ6mica, Mexico.
Acosta, V. 1992. El Continente Prodigioso. Mitos e Imaginario
en la Conquista de America. Ediciones Universidad Central
de Venezuela, Caracas.
Anglerfa, P. M. de. 1965. Ddcadas del Nuevo Mundo (1530).
Ediciones Porrua, Mexico.
Arellano Moreno, A (Comp.). 1964. Relaciones Geogrdficas
de Venezuela. Biblioteca de la Academia Nacional de la
Historia. Colecci6n Fuentes para la Historia Colonial de Ven-
ezuela, Vol. 70, Caracas.
Becco, H. G. 1983. Venezuela; Imdgenes de Cuatro Siglos
(Testimonios de Viajeros) (1498-1504). Colecci6n Viajes y
Descripciones 2. Fundaci6n de Promoci6n Cultural de Ven-
Benzoni, G. 1989. Historia del Nuevo Mundo. (1561). Alianza
Editorial & Quinto Centenario, Madrid.
Bodini, R. & P6rez, R. 1987. Distribution of species and
subespecies of cebids of Venezuela. En: B. D. Patterson & R.
M. Timm. (Eds.) Studies in Neotropical Mammalogy. Es-
says in Honor of Philip Hershkovitz Fieldiana Zoologica.
Bry,T. de. 1995.Amdrica. (1590-1634). Editorial Siruela, Madrid.
Castellanos, J. de. 1962. Elegfa de Varones Ilustres de Indias
(1563). Biblioteca de la Academia Nacional de la Historia.
Colecci6n Fuentes para la Historia Colonial de Venezuela,
Vol. 57, Caracas.
Cieza de Le6n, P. 1945. La Crdnica del Perl (1550). Espasa-
Calpe Argentina S.A. Buenos Aires.
Col6n, C. 1996. Los Cuatro Viajes. Testamento. (1498/1502-
1504). Alianza Editorial, Madrid.
Cey, G. 1994. Viaje y Descripci6n de las Indias. (1539-1553).
Colecci6n V Centenario. Editorial ExLibris, Caracas.
Emmons, L. & Feer, F. 1997. Neotropical Rainforest Mam-
mals: A Field Guide. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Fernandez de Oviedo, G. 1996. Sumario de la Natural Historia
de Indias. (1526). Fondo de Cultura Econ6mica, Mexico.
Guamin Poma de Ayala, F 1980. Nueva Cor6nica y Buen
Gobierno (1584). Biblioteca Ayacucho, Vol. 75, Caracas.
Laet, J. de. 1988. Nuevo Mundo o Descripci6n de la Indias
Occidentales.(1633). Universidad Sim6n Bolivar, Instituto
de Altos Estudios de America Latina, Caracas.
Linares, 0. 1998. Mamfferos de Venezuela. Sociedad
Conservacionista Audubon de Venezuela & British Petro-
leum Venezuela, Caracas.
L6pez de Gomara, E 1979. Historia General de las Indias.
(1552). Biblioteca Ayacucho, Vol. 64, Caracas.
L6pez Medel, T. 1990. De los Tres Elementos. Tratado sobre
la Naturaleza y elHombre del Nuevo Mundo. (1570). Alianza
Editorial & Quinto Centenario, Madrid.
L6pez de Velasco, J. 1971. Geografla yDescripci6n Universal
de las Indias (1574). Ediciones Atlas. Madrid.
MagalhAes de Gindavo, P. de. 1576. Historia da Provincia de
Santa Cruz a que vulgarmente chamamos Brasil. Officina
de Antonio Gonqalves, Lisboa.
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(1537). Taurus Ediciones, Madrid.
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Polo, M. 1987. El Libro de Marco PoloAnotadopor Crist6bal
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COLOR PERCEPTION IN THE CAPUCHIN MONKEY,
CEBUS APELLA: A STUDY USING THE ISHIHARA TEST
Valdir F Pessoa
Maria Clotilde H. Tavares
Carlos Tomaz, Otrsula R. Gomes
Daniel M. A. Pessoa, and Leticia C. Aguiar
The biological advantages of color vision in the natural world
have motivated comparative studies in different species of
monkeys. Color can be used for the perceptual segregation of
targets and is certainly one of the cues that monkeys use to
identify conspecifics and species of particular plants (Mollon,
1989). In the case of obligate frugivorous monkeys, such as
cebids (Rosenberger, 1992), one of the most important func-
tions of color vision is expected to be to judge the ripeness of
fruit from the external appearance (Mollon, 1989; Osorio and
Recent studies on marmosets (Callithrix) and tamarins
(Saguinus) have shown a sex-linked color vision
polymorphism, characterized by the presence of three types
of trichromacy and three types of dichromacy; males expressing
only dichromatic phenotypes (Tovde et al., 1992). However,
there are some inconsistencies. While the saddle-backed
tamarin (S. fuscicollis) follows the trend and shows a sex-
linked polymorphism (Jacobs et al., 1987), the cotton-top
tamarin (S. oedipus oedipus) makes accurate discrimination
across the visible spectrum (Savage et al., 1987). Interspecific
and/or methodological differences may, however, account for
Regarding the family Cebidae, studies of color vision in squirrel
monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), which report a sex-linked
polymorphism (for example, Bowmaker et al., 1987) are in
contrast with a fragmentary knowledge of color vision in
capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). In this last species, studies
have suggested both the presence of dichromacy in male C.
apella (see Jacobs and Neitz, 1987) and its absence (see Gunter
etal., 1965; Ptito et al., 1973).
As suggested by Jacobs (1993), ideally, a survey of color vision
should include direct behavioral evidence for color vision. In
order to increase our understanding of this question, we
recently presented evidence of behavioral trichromaticity in
the capuchin monkey (Pessoa et al., 1997a; Pessoa et al.,
1997b). In these studies, the ability of two males and a female
Cebus in discriminating chromatic and achromatic stimuli was
tested with Munsell color chips. However, the chips require a
broad range of brightness values at each discriminable hue to
eliminate the possibility of subjects using brightness cues
rather than hue to make the discrimination. One speedy, simple,
and effective method used with humans to distinguish between
normal and deficient red-green color perception is provided
by Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plates (Birch, 1997). Its
popularity abides, partially, in the imperviousness of the test
to changes in experimental viewing conditions (Long et al.,
1985). In such plates, the perceptual segregation of a figure is
done by color cues, while the environment and figure vary
randomly in lightness. Besides the keen technique for masking
luminance edges, the plates offer conditions which are common
in the complex scene of the natural world (Mollon, 1989).
Taking this into account, the purpose of this study was to
investigate the possibility of color perception in Cebus through
Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plates. As far as we know there
has been no previous work using Ishihara plates with non-
Three young adult capuchins, Cebus apella two males and
one female served as subjects (Ss) for this study. They were
housed in cages (4 m length, 2.9 m width, 2 m height), at the
Primate Center of the University of Brasilia. The animals were
tested in their own home cages and they were not food
deprived. Prior to an experimental session food was removed
and was again available only after the test. They had free
access to water. All the Ss had previous experience with two-
choice color discrimination training, using Munsell color chips.
A modified version of the Wisconsin General Test Apparatus
was used. The apparatus was mounted on a portable table in
front of the animal's home cage. A tray carried the stimuli and
a wooden screen was used to permit the experimenter to set
up problems and prevent animals observing stimuli between
trials. This set up was manually operated.
The experimental sessions were conducted three times a week,
between 13.00 and 15.30 h under daylight diffuse illumination
according to viewing conditions as prescribed by the Ishihara
test. Training was begun with the presentation of one pair of
stimuli at a time. On any given trial, the subject was faced with
a choice between two discriminating stimuli. A food reward
(SD+, a grape) was placed under one of these stimuli (a wooden
cube) and was accessed by the monkey only if its choice was
correct. The left or right position of the reinforcer was
determined according to the Gellerman table of random
numbers. Nine correct responses on ten given trials was used
Neotropical Primates 7(4), December 1999
as a learning criterion for the Ss. Thereafter, they were tested
in a reversal learning procedure until reaching 90% of correct
responses. In this phase, the SD+ was changed to SD- and
vice-versa. A delay of 10 s was used as an intertrial interval.
The stimuli consisted of 75% reduced photocopies of Ishihara
plates on the upper surface of wooden cubes (size = 3cm;
weight = 10g) covered by a white paper. For the purpose of
this study, three different designs from a 24-plate edition
(Ishihara, 1980) were used: (a) an introductory plate, (b)
vanishing plates and (c) hidden digit plates. The numeral in
the introductory plate (plate 1) can be detected both by the
trichromat as well as by the various color vision deficients.
The vanishing format (plates 8, 10 and 11) discriminate between
color-normal and color-abnormal subjects. The hidden digit
group (plates 14 and 15) contained figures discernible only to
individuals with red-green deficiencies, although many human
subjects with normal color discrimination can detect them. To
assess color perception in Cebus with Ishihara plates, each
pair of stimuli presented to the animals consisted of copies
from the same plate to be discriminated, that is, both contained
the same elements or figures, but one stimulus was rotated
1800, being inverted with respect to the subject.
All of the monkeys tested reached criterion within 251 trials
on every discrimination problem presented during the origi-
nal learning. Table 1 presents a summary of individual test
Table 1. Performance summary: Cebus color vision test using Ishihara
NO of trials to criterion
Plates Original learning Reversal learning
Design N1 Lola Tilio Edmundo
O-R O-R O-R
Introductory 1 71-169 75-63 45-85
Vanishing 8 25-67 53-212 21-46
10 148-57 95-10 91-80
11 29-16 48-169 251-43
Hidden 14 125-84 24-10 106-160
15 75-221 20-97 27-402
Number of trials in all sessions to reach the criterion (nine out of ten
correct responses) for three different subjects (one female "Lola", and
two males "Tdlio" and "Edmundo") using a discrimination learning
procedure during original (0) and a subsequent reversal learning (R).
The introductory, vanishing and hidden designs are meant to be seen,
respectively, by trichromats and color vision deficients, by trichromats
only and by dichromats only.
All capuchin monkeys tested in the present experiments were
able to discriminate the Ishihara plates designed to be
perceived by normal trichromats as well as the hidden digit
plates meant to be detected by dichromats. These findings
are puzzling, at first glance. If Cebus are trichromats, as
suggested in our previous study using a similar behavioral
paradigm (Pessoa et al., 1997a, 1997b), how did the monkeys
discriminate the protan-deutan plates? In spite of the
robustness of Ishihara plates to experimental manipulation,
there is the possibility that the reproduction produced enough
Neotropical Primates 7(4), December 1999
changes in luminance and chromaticities to extinguish the
diagnostic value of the original plates. This possibility is being
Our evidence of trichromaticity in Cebus contrasts with
microspectrophotometrical and electrophysiological
measurements in receptors of Cebus apella. These experiments
show a single class of middle wavelength cone (Jacobs and
Neitz, 1987) suggesting that male Cebus are obligatory
dichromats. However, the correlation between number of reti-
na cone types (photopigment types) and the dimensionality
of resultant color vision must be considered with caution.
Spectral positioning of photopigment alone fails to capture
everything required to understand color vision. Differences
in pigment optical density provide a possible account for red/
green chromatic discrimination in some color-deficient
observers with only a single opsin gene (Sanocki et al., 1997).
The fact that color perception is a result of active operations
carried out in the nervous system as a whole has been stressed
by Zeki (1993). Despite these arguments, it would be also
interesting to assess the color vision of our putative trichromat
monkeys through molecular biology approaches.
Regarding the uses of color vision in the natural environment,
the presence of an exclusive trichromacy in Cebus monkeys is
a plausible hypothesis. Selective pressures favor accurate
color vision, thereby helping primates to discern the presence
of ripe fruits (Osorio and Vorobyev, 1996). Furthermore, it has
been suggested that a subset of neotropical trees depend
upon primates for their dissemination and typically have fruits
that are yellow or orange when ripe (Regan et al., 1996).
Concerning Cebus apella, its diet during the fruiting season,
is composed mainly of fruits which are in the long wavelength
region of the spectrum when ripe (Terborgh, 1983). This is an
inadequate foraging situation for dichromatic color vision
(Regan et al., 1996), unless the dichromats search for fruits
cooperatively in groups, enjoying the advantage of female
trichromacy (Mollon, 1989). However, differences in the
nutritional costs and requirements of reproduction may
influence the feeding patterns of male and female primates
(Garber, 1987). For example, C. olivaceus males spend more
time eating fruits, whereas females devote more of their foraging
to the acquisition of higher protein resources such as leaves
and insects. Polymorphism of color vision in Cebus may not,
therefore, be advantageous. In addition, Cebus-Saimiri
associations may involve cooperation in food searching, in
which the squirrel monkeys, which have a color polymorphism,
take advantage of the capuchin's detailed knowledge of the
fruiting trees (Terborgh, 1983).
Cebus apella does not seem to be the only exception to the
color vision polymorphism amongst the New World monkeys.
A recent electrophysiological study shows that howler
monkeys, Alouatta, have trichromat color vision (Jacobs et
al., 1996). Further studies in other species of monkeys and a
knowledge of their foraging strategies and dietary preferences
will help to clarify the question of the evolution of color vision
in the New World monkeys.
Neotropical Primates 7(4), December 1999
Acknowledgments: This research was funded in part by the
Fundagao de Amparo i Pesquisa do Distrito Federal, Brazil,
and a grant from the Brazilian Higher Education Authority
(CAPES/DAAD/PROBAL 058/98). We thank Raimundo Oli-
veira and Washington Luiz Vargas for their technical
assistance. We are especially grateful to Dr. Cristina M. Curto
for providing the Ishihara book.
Valdir F. Pessoa, Maria Clotilde H. Tavares, Carlos Tomaz,
Ursula R. Gomes, Daniel M. A. Pessoa and Leticia C. Aguiar,
Centro de Primatologia e Laborat6rio de Neurobiologia, Uni-
versidade de Brasilia, Caixa Postal 04631,70910-900 Brasilia,
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Savage, A., Dronzek, L. A. and Snowdon, C. T. 1987. Color
discrimination by the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedi-
pus oedipus) and its relation to fruit coloration. Folia
Terborgh, J. (1983). Five New World Primates: A Study in
Comparative Ecology. Princeton University Press. New Jer-
Tov6e, M. J., Bowmaker, J. K. and Mollon, J. D. 1992. The
relationship between cone pigments and behavioral sensi-
tivity in a New World monkey (Callithrixjacchusjacchus).
Vision Res. 32:867-878
Zeki, S. 1993. A Vision ofthe Brain. Blackwell Scientific Publi-
PRIMATES OF THE ITUBERA FOREST COMPLEX, BAHIA,
The near complete destruction of the Atlantic forest biome
through deforestation and hunting has resulted in the pre-
cipitous decline of its endemic primates (Rylands et al., 1997;
Myers, 1987; Fonseca, 1985). Santos et al. (1987) pointed out
the particular importance of preserving the remnant forests of
southern Bahia where all six of the Atlantic forest primate
genera historically occurred. The forests between the Rio de
Contas and the Rec6ncavo of the Bahia have received only
cursory scientific attention, and with the exception of sur-
veys carried out by the WWF Primate Program (Mittermeier et
al., 1981, 1982; Santos et al., 1987), by Alonso et al. (1987;
Callithrix hybridization in the Rec6ncavo da Bahia), and by
Oliver and Santos (1991), little information has been collected
on the primates of this region. Here I report the results of a
primate census from the forests near the town of Ituberi.
Fundacgo BioBrasil (an NGO based in Salvador) initiated this
study as part of an effort to determine the conservation value
of these forests.
Itubera is located on the southern Bahian coast (1350'S,
39015'W) in a hilly region dominated by plantation agriculture
with rubber, cacao, oil palm, pupunha palm, guarand, piagava
palm, heliconias, manioc and bananas, as the main crops, along
with cattle ranching. The rich biological heritage of the area
results from a diversity of distinct habitats including Atlantic
Page 128 Neotropical Primates 7(4), December 1999
rain forest, resting dune forest, salt marshes, freshwater
wetlands, mangroves, estuaries, rivers, beach, and ocean.
There is a minimum of 30,000 ha of forest remaining in the
region (Fig. 1).
The study was conducted between May 1997 and July 1998.
Primate censuses consisted of walking slowly (1 km/hour)
along existing forest trails while scanning the canopy with
the aid of binoculars, and yielded a total of 208 survey hours.
Primate sightings and calls were also recorded while conduct-
ing other work in the forest (171 hours). All sightings and
calls were mapped and then transferred onto 1:100,000 topo-
graphic maps (Brazil, SUDENE, 1975). Themainfazendas (plan-
tations/farms) surveyed and the primates found on these prop-
erties are shown in Figure 1. Attempts at estimating densities
were abandoned after I realized that the harassed fauna was
avoiding encounters with humans. As this violates the as-
sumption that the animals will de detected prior to any move-
ment in response to the observer (Peres, 1999; Southwell,
1996), I use frequency of encounters as a measure of relative
Three species of primates were sighted: Callicebus personatus,
Cebus xanthosternos, and a Callithrix species. Brachyteles
arachnoides and Alouatta fusca no longer occur in the area.
Callithrix sp. (nico or mico)
The marmoset of the region resembles Callithrixpenicillata
shown in Plate 8 in Emmons and Feer (1997) with a dark gray
body with gray and black stripes on the back, black head, a
white "star" on the forehead, and black ear-tufts. Eighteen
groups were seen and 13 others heard. Group sizes were diffi-
cult to determine because the marmosets fled quickly and trav-
eled spread out in the canopy, but most (59%, n = 17) groups
had a minimum of five animals and at least two groups had
over 15. These marmosets are well adapted to the landscape
mosaic of the region and were found inhabiting all forest types
including degraded gallery forest, small isolated fragments,
and resting forests. They were most frequently seen in the
upper canopy, but use all levels of the canopy and readily
come to the ground to cross roads. This was the only primate
species seen in agricultural lands (mostly in cabruca = cocoa
groves where forest trees have been left for shade). Several
Figure 1. The Ituberg Forest Complex with primate sighting locations. The forest complex has two main fragments: 1) the 8-10,000 ha Pratigi
resting forest; 2.) the 7-9,000 ha Juliana/Marimbu basins-Camamu/Igrapiuana watersheds forest. Because most of the forest has been/is being
logged, secondary forest dominates and old growth stands are extremely rare. All of the forest is on private property and only the Pratigi forest
has protected status (APA = Environmental Protection Area ). Numbers indicate the main study sites (fazendas), and C.x. = Cebus xanthosternos,
C.p. = Callicebus personatus, Ca. = Callithrix sp.: 1) Paineras (C.x., C.p., Ca.); 2) Piaul (C.p., Ca.); 3) Karin (C.x., C.p., Ca.); 4) Gaudalupe/Caipora
(C.x., C.p., Ca.); 5) SAo Jose (C.p., Ca.); 6) Juliana (C.p., Ca.); 7) Plantag6es Michelin de Bahia (C.p., Ca.) (C.x. last seen in 1995); 8) Jacarandi
(C.p., Ca.) (C.x. last seen 1994); 9) Restingas, mostly Fazenda Santarem, (Ca.) (C.p.?, C.x.? this forest awaits a proper survey). Sites for C.x. for
which anecdotal information was accepted A) Three C.x. killed in 1997; B) Two C.x. seen in 'jataipeba' groves behind mangroves, 1998. Map
sources CNES, 1988; Brazil, SOS Mata Atltntica/INPE, 1997; Brazil, SUDENE, 1975, Aerial photographs 1997; and work on the ground 1997/
98, FundacFo BioBrasil.
Neotropical Primates 7(4), December 1999
Neotropical Primates 7(4), December 1999
people claimed that marmosets are poisonous and only one
man was known to hunt them (he used them as fishing bait)
and the species is in no immediate danger of extirpation.
Callicebus personatus (melanochir) (guigo)
These titis have long dull yellow/gray brown fur with orange/
red on the lower back, sometimes going up the spine. The
topside of the tail is orange/red while the underside is yellow/
light brown. They have gray to black faces circled with a ring
of darker fur and black/brown hands and feet. Masked titis
were seen seven times and heard calling on 50 occasions. Of
the groups seen, two consisted of three monkeys, three of
two monkeys, and twice monkeys were seen alone. The titis
appear to be well adapted to the mosaic of secondary forests
(Pinto et al. 1993; Santos et al. 1987) and were encountered in
all forest types except the old growth groves. They continue
to survive in small (100-300 ha) isolated forest fragments, use
forest edges, narrow (200 m wide) forest patches, and forest
"peninsulas" jutting into agricultural lands. They were never
seen in, heard calling from, or reported using agricultural lands,
including cabruca. Anecdotal information suggests that they
are absent from the resting forests of Pratigi, and we neither
heard nor saw titis there, but our surveys in this forest type
were too brief (eight hours) to provide conclusive evidence
one way or the other.
Titi monkeys are fairly abundant and widely distributed in the
forests of the basins of the Rios Juliana and Marimbu and do
not appear to be in immediate danger of extirpation. No one
reported killing this monkey nor did people mention the spe-
cies when asked to list the animals that were hunted, although
when asked directly, hunters considered them edible. The titi's
cryptic coloration and behavior, and small group sizes make
this species difficult to find (Rylands et al., 1997). Although
their loud calls can make them vulnerable to hunters (Santos
et al., 1987), calling bouts in these forests typically consisted
of a single burst (49%, n=22) or a series of short bursts with
each burst lasting a few seconds to two minutes. These brief
calling bouts allow a hunter little time to locate and approach
the monkeys. Also, the titi's small size gives the hunter a low
return for the effort required to kill it (Emmons, pers. comm.).
The relative abundance of C. personatus in the Juliana and
Marimbu basins makes these forests a high priority for the
conservation of this threatened species.
Cebus xanthosternos (macaco-de-bando or macaco-prego-de-
Coloration was highly variable among the few individuals
seen. The chest and back were dark brown to bright yellow,
the shoulders and upper legs yellow, lower arms and legs
brown, tail dark brown with yellow over-hairs, face dark to
pink, bright yellow cap and a yellow ring around the face.
Troops were only seen on three occasions, heard on another
and reliably reported several times. Two of the sightings, the
calling recorded, and all but one of the anecdotal accounts
was of one group, and only three groups were known to exist
there. Capuchins were seen in groups of two, three, and five
animals. They use all forest types including the restingas.
Anecdotal information suggests that capuchins used to be
widespread and many people were familiar with the animal.
Various people reported knowing someone who had owned a
pet capuchin, but none were located during the study.
Despite frequent reports that there were capuchins in particu-
lar forest patches, intensive searches almost always failed to
locate them, and the extremely low encounter rate (1 encoun-
ter per 68 census hours) clearly indicates that this species is
on the brink of extirpation. Three monkeys from one group
were reportedly killed during our study. Its conspicuous group
living, bright coloration, and relatively large size make it an
optimal game species, and over-hunting as much as foresta-
tion is the main cause of species' decline (Coimbra-Filho et
al., 1992; Mittermeieretal., 1989; Santos etal., 1987). As this
species is highly endangered, immediate efforts should be
made to protect these remaining groups. If this cannot be
achieved in situ, perhaps they should be removed to estab-
lish a captive-breeding colony.
Brachyteles arachnoides and Alouatta fusca
Neither of these species was seen, reported present, or famil-
iar to any one in the area. Middle-aged hunters, whose fathers
had hunted these forests before them, did not recall having
heard their fathers mention them, so if they were present in
the past, it must have been a long time ago.
Threats to the primate community
Agricultural expansion, logging, and hunting are the main
threats to the primate community in the Itubera forest. Habitat
destruction threatens all three species, while hunting impacts
especially C. xanthosternos. Agricultural expansion on the
large plantations to increase pupunha palm production re-
sulted in the loss of over one hundred hectares of forest. In
addition to these clearings, the owner of Fazenda Contendas
practically eliminated his forest by clearing over 50 ha to plant
bananas and plantains. The owner of Itapema II has plans to
clear several hundred hectares to plant pasture grasses.
Properties owned by small holders support little more than
degraded hill top forest remnants, some of which were being
cleared during the study, making it likely that all forest on
these properties will be eliminated in the coming years. In the
older established small holder areas such as the Colonia (es-
tablished in the 1950s), the forest had already disappeared.
The recent invasions of the Fazendas Karin and Cascata by
more than 70 families of sem terras (landless peasants) poses
a threat to the forests on these properties as the peasants
consider them to be unproductive. They had cleared 15-20 ha
by the end of the study.
Intensive logging began in the 1950s and most of the large
trees were felled by the early 1980s. Logging continues with a
minimum of 15 timber mills operating in the vicinity of the
Itubera forests. Fazendas Jubiaba, Cascata, and Itapema I and
II and the forests of the Igrapiuna and Camamu watersheds
were the main sites being logged in 1997/98.
Hunting, although illegal, is practiced openly. Most of the
hunters are peasants who hunt for pleasure/subsistence, but
there was at least one gang of commercial poachers operating
in the Juliana/Marimbu forests. Gunshots were heard both
Neotropical Primates 7(4), December 1999
during the day and night, and traps and hides were abundant.
Hunting has devastated the local fauna, with the largest mam-
mals mostly extirpated and many of the medium-sized mammal
populations severely reduced (Flesher 1997).
The Instituto do Desenvolvimento Sustentavel da Bacia do
Rio Juliana (IDES) is an institute established in 1998 which
includes many of the larger landowners and leading business-
men in the Ituberd area, and has proposed the construction of
four small hydroelectric dams on the Juliana River and an
access road along the north bank. If these plans are carried
out, the resulting deforestation will eliminate wildlife habitat
and split the 7-9,000 ha Juliana/Marimbu forest in half.
Local conservation initiatives have been limited and insuffi-
cient to guarantee the protection of the flora and fauna. The
Centro de Recursos Ambientais (CRA) has been the govern-
ment agency most involved in conservation work and has
taken several measures to try to stop deforestation. They have
included shutting down several timber mills, requiring baker-
ies to switch from using wood to electric ovens, and creating
an APA (Area de ProtecAo Ambiental) for the Pratigi resting
forest (8-10,000 ha). Another APA has been proposed for the
Cachoeira Pancada Grande that would protect the 50 ha sur-
rounding the waterfall. Fundacao BioBrasil's approach has
been to collect and disseminate data on the flora and fauna, to
promote agroforestry, and to work with landowners in estab-
lishing private reserves. Some plantation owners have posted
"No hunting" signs on their properties and they have been
All of the land is in private ownership, and the establishment
of private reserves (Reserva Particular de Patrimonio Nacional
- RPPN) and APAs may be the best approach to protecting
the remaining flora and fauna. The owners of fazendas Juliana,
Piaui, California, Caipora, Paineras, Guadalupe, Sao Jose,
Plantag6es Michelin de Bahia, Jacarandi, and several others
have recently declared their forests protected, but little has
been done beyond this, and few of the reserves have been
officially registered. For the RPPN/APA approach to be effec-
tive, reserves will have to be officially registered and orga-
nized into a regional network, so that the forest can be man-
aged as a single entity instead of as isolated units (Fonseca,
The ItuberA forest complex is one of the largest remaining
fragments in Bahia and its importance as a potential site for
the long-term preservation of the region's biodiversity should
be acknowledged. This forest is large enough to support vi-
able populations of the three primate species as well as popu-
lations of rare endemics such as the bristle-spine porcupine
(Chaetomys subspinosus), the hairy dwarf porcupine
(Coendou insidiosus), the maned sloth (Bradypus torquatus),
and the gray slender mouse opossum (Marmosops incanus).
Laws exist that protect both the flora and the fauna, but few
are enforced, and logging, hunting, and agricultural expan-
sion continue to erode the region's biodiversity. This critical
situation warrants the involvement of the larger NGOs that
have the expertise and the financial resources to take on the
multi-faceted challenge that effective conservation of Itubera's
Acknowledgements: Special thanks to Fundaqao BioBrasil for
inviting me to help with their biodiversity assessment project.
Also to Dr Noberto Odebrecht, Bernard Francois, Danilo Lima,
lan Walker, Erico Leite, and the community of Kilometro 25 for
allowing us to work on their properties, and to Richard Hartley,
Zildomar, Tia Memeca and Marcia GuimarAes for help in the
office and in the field. To Heber Franco of CRA for his inde-
fatigable efforts enforcing the environmental laws and for
working hard to get the Pratigi Environmental Protection Area
Kevin Flesher, Department of Human Ecology, Program in
Ecology and Evolution, Rutgers University, New Jersey, USA.
Alonso, C., Faria, D. S. de, Langguth, A. and Santee, D. F.
1987. Variaq~o da pelagem na Area de intergradaao entire
Callithrix jacchus e Callithrix paneicillata. Rev. Brasil.
Brazil, SOS Mata Atlantica/ INPE. 1997. Folha SD-24-V-D.
Remanescentes de Mata Atldntica e Ecossistemas
Associados. SOS Mata Atlantica, Slo Paulo, Instituto
Nacvional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jos6 dos Cam-
Brazil, SUDENE. 1975. Folha SD. 24-V-D-VI: Ituberd.
Ministdrio do Interior, SUDENE, Bahia.
CNES.1988. Image Satellite SPOT du 18 et 19juin: Fazenda
Tres Pancadas. Toulouse Ramonville, France.
Coimbra-Filho, A. F, Rylands, A. B., Pissinatti, A. and Santos,
I. B. 1992. The distribution and status of the buff-headed
capuchin monkey, Cebus xanthosternos, in the Atlantic for-
est region in eastern Brazil. Primate Conserv. (12-13): 24-30.
Emmons, L.H. and Feer, F 1997. NeotropicalRainforestMam-
mals: A Field Guide, 2nd Edition. University of Chicago
Flesher, K. 1997. Medium and Large Nonvolant Mammals of
the Juliana River Basin. BioBrasil Mammalian Biodiversity
Assessment Project Report #12. Unpublished report for
Funda9o BioBrasil, Salvador, Bahia. 25pp.
Fonseca, G. A. B. da. 1985. The vanishing Brazilian Atlantic
forest. Biol. Conserve. 34:17-34.
Mittermeier, R. A., Constable, I. D. and Coimbra-Filho, A. E
1981. Conservation of eastern Brazilian primates. Unpub-
lished Report, Project 1614, Primate Program of the World
Wildlife Fund US, Period 1979/80, Washington, D. C. 39pp.
Mittermeier, R. A., Coimbra-Filho, A. F, Constable, I. D.,
Rylands, A. B, Valle C. M. C. 1982. Conservation of primates
in the Atlantic forest region of eastern Brazil. Int. Zoo Yearb.
Mittermeier, R. A., Kinzey, W. G. and Mast, R. B. 1989. Neotro-
pical primate conservation. J. Hum. Evol. 18:597-610.
Myers, N. 1987. Trends in the destruction of rain forests. In:
Primate Conservation in the Tropical Rain Forest, Clive
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Marsh and R. A. Mittermeier (eds.), pp. 3-22. Alan R. Liss,
Inc., New York.
Oliver, W. L. R. and Santos, I. B.. 1991. Threatened endemic
mammals of the Atlantic forest region of south-east Brazil.
Wildl. Preserve. Trust, Spec. Sci. Rep. 4, 126pp.
Peres, C.A. 1999. General guidelines for standardizing line-
transect surveys of tropical forest primates. Neotrop. Pri-
mates 7(1): 11-16.
Pinto, L. P. S, Costa, C. M. R., Strier, K. B. and Fonseca, G.A.B.
1993 Habitat, density, and group size of primates in a Brazil-
ian tropical forest. Folia Primatol. (61): 135-143.
Rylands, A. B., Mittermeier, R. A. and Rodriguez-Luna, E. 1997.
Conservation of Neotropical primates: Threatened species
and an analysis of primate diversity by country and region.
Santos, I. B., Mittermeier, R. A., Rylands, A. B. and C. M. C.
Valle. 1987. The distribution and conservation status of pri-
mates in southern Bahia, Brazil. Primate Conserv. (8): 126-
Southwell C. 1996. Estimation of population size and density
when counts are incomplete. In: Measuring and Monitor-
ing Biological Diversity: Standard Methodsfor Mammals,
D. E. Wilson, F R. Cole, J. D. Nichols, R. Rudran, and M. S.
Foster (eds.), pp.193-217. Smithsonian Institution Press,
Washington, D. C.
PROSTHENORCHIS ELEGANS (OLIGACANTHORHYNCHIDA,
OLIGACANTHORHYNCHIDAE) AND DIPETALONEMA SP.
(SPIRURIDA, ONCHOCERCIDAE) IN SAIMIRI SCIUREUS
(PRIMATES, CEBIDAE) IN BRAZI
Jaqueline Bianque de Oliveira
Alessandro Cdsar Jacinto da Silva
Carla Abreu Soares
The use of nonhuman primates as models in biomedical
research has contributed significantly to the development of
Medical Primatology, and the growing interest in the biology
of these mammals has demonstrated the need for a better
understanding of their diseases, especially with regard to
zoonoses (Cooper, 1968; Melo and Pereira, 1986; Cubas, 1996).
New World primates are hosts to a large number of internal
and external parasites, the study of which, in both wild and
captive populations is most important in order to (1) determi-
ne the consequences of host-parasite interactions, (2) to
identify adequate anti-parasitic agents, and (3) to identify
infection sources to develop efficient control and prevention
programs (Wolff, 1993). Cebids have been identified as hosts
to a number of helminths, including Oesophagostomum sp.,
Strongyloides cebus, Trypanoxyuris sp., Molineus sp.,
Filariopsis godius, Trichuris sp., Dipetalonema sp. and
Prosthenorchis sp. (Kuntz and Myers, 1972; Rego and
Schaeffer, 1988; Wolff, 1993; Cubas, 1996; Diniz, 1997). Despite
this, there is little published information on the occurrence
and clinical aspects of helminth infections in, for example, the
widely-used model for biomedical research, the squirrel
monkey, Saimiri sciureus. Here we report on two parasite
species found during the autopsy of a wild caught S. sciureus.
The study is part of a larger project identifying parasites in
captive and wild primates in the state of Pemambuco, North-
Material and Methods
A young male Saimiri sciureus (Primates, Cebidae),
approximately one year old, captured in the state of Amazo-
nas was sent to a private collection in Recife, state of
Pernambuco, Brazil. A few days after its arrival, the monkey
showed clinical alterations, including anorexia, acute caquexia,
prostration and dermatitis and died after a week. The monkey
was sent to the Parasitology Laboratory of the Department of
Biology, Federal Rural University of Pernambuco (UFRPE)
where an autopsy was carried out. Large numbers of
filariiforme parasites were found in the mesentery and beside
the liver. The parasites were collected, fixed in hot alcohol-
acetic formol (AAF), and cleared in Amman's lactophenol
following the procedure prescribed by Amato et al. (1991).
They were identified through the descriptions of Webber
(1955) and Anderson and Bain (1974). When opening the
intestine, helminths were found in the ileo-cecal ostium which
was apparently totally obstructed by the parasites, and there
was also a severe reaction noted in the intestinal tissues. The
cecum and descending colon were partially obstructed.
Thirty-two parasites were collected and placed in a recipient
in distilled water and cooled until the probosci were
extroverted (Amato et al., 1991). They were subsequently
fixed and mounted following Machado Filho (1950) and Amato
et al. (1991), and identified according to the descriptions of
Machado Filho (1950), Yamaguti (1963) and Amin (1987).
Results and Discussion
The parasites found in the abdominal cavity were identified
as filaria of the genus Dipetalonema Diesing, 1861 (Spirurida,
Onchocercidae), transmitted by hematophagous mosquitoes.
According to Dunn (1968) Dipetalonema spp. are one of the
most prevalent parasites of squirrel monkeys in Brazil, Peru,
Colombia and Panama. Adults are frequently found in the
peritoneum and mesentery and associated with the presence
of fibrous and adherent exudates. As microfilaria they occur
in the peripheral bloodstream, without any associated
pathologies or clinical symptoms (Dunn, 1968; Potkay, 1992).
The helminths, found deep in the intestinal mucosa, were
identified as acanthocephalans of the species Prosthenorchis
elegans Diesing, 1851 (Oligacanthorhynchida,
Oligacanthorhynchidae). P. elegans is a heteroxene
acanthocephalan. Cockroaches and beetles are intermediate
hosts (Stunkard, 1965; Cubas, 1996), and it has been
diagnosed for a number of cebids and callitrichids (Machado
Filho, 1950; Kuntz and Myers, 1972; Potkay, 1992; Wolff, 1993;
Ferraz etal., 1995; Cubas, 1996). Large numbers can be found
without the hosts showing any clinical symptoms, although
Ferraz etal. (1995) recorded diarrhea and loss of appetite and
energy in wild and captive callitrichids as a result of parasitism
by P. elegans. Dunn (1963) argued that infestations of
Neotropical Primates 704), December 1999
PNeotropical Primates 7(4), December 1999
approximately 30 to 33 P elegans are sufficient to cause intes-
tinal obstruction; the cause of the demise ofSaimiri and black-
mantle tamarins, Saguinus nigricollis, studied in Colombia
and Peru. According to Dunn (1968), death by intestinal
obstruction provoked by P. elegans is not uncommon in
recently-captured S. sciureus and results from increased
parasite loads arising from the stress experienced during cap-
ture and transport and due to inadequate installations and
changes in diet. The absence of any lesions on any other
internal organs indicated to us that intestinal obstruction was
also the cause of death in the squirrel monkey we studied.
This is the first record of the presence of adult Dipetalonema
sp. and of death by intestinal obstruction caused by
Prosthenorchis elegans in a wild caught Saimiri sciureus in
Jaqueline Bianque de Oliveira, Alessandro Cesar Jacinto da
Silva, Carla Abreu Soares, Universidade Federal Rural de
Pernambuco (UFRPE), Rua Dom Manoel de Medeiros, 52171-
030, Recife, Pernambuco, and Adolphe Medeiros, Criat6rio
Cientifico e Cultural SAo Joao, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil.
Address offirst author for correspondence: Jaqueline Bianque
de Oliveira, Laborat6rio de Parasitologia, Departamento de
Biologia, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE),
Rua Dom Manoel de Medeiros, 52171-030 Recife, Pernambuco,
Brazil. E mail: .
Amato, J. F. R., Boeger, W. A. and Amato, S. B. 1991. Protocolos
para Laborat6rios Coleta e Processamento de Parasitos
do Pescado. Imprensa Universitaria, Universidade Federal
Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropddica. 81pp.
Amin, O. M. 1987. Key to the families and subfamilies of Acan-
thocephala, with the erection of a new class Polyacantho-
cephala) and a new order (Polyacanthorhynchida). J. Para-
Anderson, R. C. and Bain, 0. 1974. Keys to genera of the order
Spirurida. In: C. L H. Keys to the Nematode Parasites of
Vertebrates, R. C. Anderson, A. G. Chabaud and S. Willmott
(eds.), pp.59-116. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau, En-
Cooper, R. W. 1968. Small species of primates in biomedical
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Problems Veterindrios. Editora Icone, Sao Paulo. 196pp.
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American monkeys and marmosets. J. Parasitol. 49:717-722.
Dunn, F L. 1968. The parasites of Saimiri: in the context of
platyrrhine parasitism. In: The Squirrel Monkey, L. A.
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Press, New York.
Ferraz, M., Andrade, M. C. R., Mello, A. L., Pereira, L. H. and
Almeida, A. 1995. Tratamento experimental contra
acantocdfalos em sagtlis (Callitrichidae). In: Resumos: XIX
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Machado Filho, D. A. 1950. Revisao do genero Prosthenorchis
Travassos, 1915 (Acanthocephala). Mem. Inst Oswaldo Cruz
Melo, A. L. and Pereira, L. H. 1986. Sobre o parasitismo por
Primasubulura jacchi em Callithrix penicillata (Primates,
Callitrichidae). In: A Primatologia no Brasil 2, M. T. de
Mello (ed.), pp.483-487. Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia,
Potkay, S. 1992. Diseases of the Callitrichidae: A review. J.
Med. Primatol. 21:189-236.
Rego, A. A. and Schaeffer, G. 1988. Filariopsis barretoi
(Travassos, 1921) (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) lung para-
site of primates from South America taxonomy, synonyms
and pathology. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 83:183-188.
Stunckard, H. W. 1965. New intermediate hosts in the life cycle
of Prosthenorchis elegans (Diesing, 1851), an acanthoceph-
alan parasite of primates. J. Parasitol. 51:645-649.
Webber, W. A. F. 1955. The filarial parasites of primates: A
review. I Dirofilaria and Dipetalonema. Parasitol. 49: 123-
Wolff, P. L. 1993. Parasites of New World primates. In: Zoo and
Wild Animal Medicine: Current Therapy 3, M. E. Fowler
(ed.), pp.378-389. W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia.
Yamaguti, S. 1963. Acanthocephala. In: Systema Helminthum
5: 1-423. Wiley Interscience, New York.
PRIMATAS DA COLE;AO LiQUIDA DO MUSEUM
NATIONAL, RIO DE JANEIRO
Alexandra Maria Ramos Bezerra
Joao Alves de Oliveira
A colecio mastozool6gica do Museu Nacional da Universi-
dade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) constitui omaior acervo
do g8nero na America do Sul com cerca de 90.000 exemplares
(Hafner et al, 1997), incluindo vwrios hol6tipos e pardtipos
(Langguth et al., 1997), e represent uma das principals fon-
tes de informacges para estudos realizados no pafs sobre a
mastofauna brasileira. A colegco preservada em meio liqui-
do no Setor de Mastozoologia cont6m cerca de 5.500 exem-
plares representantes das diferentes ordens que ocorrem no
Brasil e de algumas ordens ex6ticas, e tem sido continua-
mente incrementada pela adido de material obtido em proje-
Paralelamente a utilizago para estudos anat6micos, o mate-
rial preservado em meio liquid pode fornecer dados que em
geral nao estAo disponiveis nos esp6cimens taxidermizados.
Aspectos da ecologia das esp6cies representadas, eviden-
ciados pela andlise do conteddo estomacal, dos ecto e
endoparasitas, da condiqco reprodutiva, assim como a
necr6psia patol6gica de especimens encontrados mortos na
natureza, podem ser abordados (Bezerra, 1998). Coleges em
meio liquid ainda proporcionam material para estudos
histol6gicos e para preparaq6es especiais do esqueleto taiss
como diafanizagao), possibilitando o estudo de caracteres
morfol6gicos relacionados aos processes de ossificaqao
Neotrooical Primates 7(4). December IS99
Neotropical Primates 7(4), December 1999 Page 133
(Jones e Owen, 1987; Quay, 1974). Da mesma forma, assomam
como uma fonte potential de tecidos para a amplificago e
sequenciamento de material gen6tico, em vista da crescente
dificuldade de se obter novos materials, seja pelo desapareci-
mento de Areas e populaq6es causado pela aglo antr6pica, ou
devido As rigorosas leis de conservaqao animal que restrin-
gem as possibilidades de novas coletas (Jones e Owen, 1987).
O projeto "Coleqio em Meio Liquido do Setor de
Mastozoologia: Identificaqio, Organizagqo e Tombamento"
teve como objetivo principal resgatar informagBes sobre os
especimens preservados em fluido, alguns dos quais ainda
encontravam-se nos lotes originals de coleta ou transport,
datados atd mesmo do infcio do s6culo. Para facilitar o acesso
a informaqAo este material foi separado, identificado e distri-
bufdo em recipients por esp6cie e localidade, seguindo a
metodologia recomendada pela bibliografia (De Blase e Martin,
1981; Quay, 1974; Williams e McCarthy, 1984). Os exemplares
foram rotulados com etiquetas novas transcritas das origi-
nais, sendo estas tamb6m mantidas, recebendo quando ne-
cessArio um ndmero de tombo do MN, e foram acondiciona-
dos em frascos com soluqao de Alcool a 70%. As informag6es
disponfveis foram incluidas no banco de dados informatizado
da coleqo mastozool6gica. A identificagqo dos indivfduos
foi realizada com base em chaves e trabalhos taxon8micos
especificos para cada grupo, bem como por comparaqAo corn
exemplares tombados na coleao mastozool6gica do Museu
Do total de 4.578 especimens da colecao de mamfferos mantida
em meio liquid, a ordem Primates foi representada por 124
exemplares distribufdos entire quatro famflias e 27 esp6cies
(Tabela 1). O material 6 composto por especimens inteiros ou
parties, neste caso nao identificados ao nfvel de esp6cie. A
cole~io inclui ainda espdcimens-testemunho de events de
hibridago referidos nabibliografia (Coimbra-Filho, 1973), bem
como novos registros que se revelaram no decorrer deste pro-
jeto (Silva Jr., 1998).
Espera-se corn este trabalho fornecer subsfdios para a expan-
sdo planejada deste tipo de cole~io e difundir sobre a sua
importfncia, no sentido de viabilizar estudos que demandem
a analise de estruturas tradicionalmente descartadas, como
carcaqas e visceras, nas series preservadas em museus, e a
sua utilizaqo como mais uma ferramenta em estudos zool6gi-
cos. Assim, espera-se possibilitar um aproveitamento mais
complete de exemplares representantes de formas raras ou
ameagadas, que portanto tenham sua coleta para fins cientffi-
cos restritas, como 6 o caso da maioria das espdcies de
Agradecimentos: Agradecemos a Patricia Guedes por auxiliar
na identificailo de alguns exemplares, e A Fundaqdo de Am-
paro h Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ) por
financial este projeto.
Alexandra Maria Ramos Bezerra e Joio Alves de Oliveira,
Museu Nacional (UFRJ), Departamento de Vertebrados, Setor
de Mastozoologia. Quinta da Boa Vista, Slo Crist6vAo, 20940-
040 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil. E-mails: ,
Tabela 1. Lista das espdcies de primates presents na colegao liquid
do Setor de Mastozoologia, Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro.
,., . .-. ..,
aiusl IS.;; 2 .; ;. :,
C llir. s .... .n P .
emn Call ihrix "', ....c" a P rimate ,. R e v.. a. Biol. 3.
..n.. :' :" ". " i
DAM e, m " R. E. 1a
CT.lApu . .ol ,':on -i h We "."enH :, isper
.c. 93pp -
ns E. M e . .... F i P e. e atio ,n Sp ."ci
Cl. i R-r (ed 6 ,: Tc.. ..
Langguh, AP "'* V.' "A G. e F a', /" .9. No v
o L.,i : , ..
Bezerra, A. M. R. 1998. Physalaemus nattereri (NCN). Preda-
tion. Herpet. Rev. 29 (2): 98.
Coimbra-Filho, .E 1973. Novo aspect de duplo-hibridismo
em Callithrix (Callithrichidae Primates). Rev. Bras. Biol. 38
De Blase, A. F. e Martin, R. E. 1981. A Manual ofMammalogy
with Keys to Families of the World, 2nd edition. Wm. C.
Brown Company Publishers, Dubuque, Iowa.
Hafner, M. S., Gannon, W. L., Salazar-Bravo, J. eCastan&la, S.
T. A.. 1997. Mammal Collections in the Western Hemisphere
A Survey and Directory of Existing Collections. American
Society of Mammalogists, Kansas. 93pp.
Jones, E. M. e Owen, R. D. 1987. Fluid Preservation of Speci-
mens. In: Mammal Collection Management, H. H. Genoways,
C. Jones e O. L. Rossolimo (eds.). pp.51-63. Texas Tech Uni-
versity Press, Lublock.
Langguth, A., Limeira V. L. A. G. e Franco, S. 1997. Novo
catilogo de material tipo da colegao de mamiferos do Museu
NacionaL Publ. Avuls. Mus. Nac.,70: 1-29.
Silva Jr., J. S. 1998. Three Callitrichidae specimens recovered
in the Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. Neotrop. Primates 6
Quay, W. B. 1974. Bird and mammalian specimens in fluid -
objectives and methods. Curator 17: 91-104.
Williams, S. L. e McCarthy, T. J. 1988. The preservation of bat
specimens. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Manage-
ment of Mammal Collection in Tropical Environment, pp.61-
81, 19-25 January, 1984. Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta.
Neotropical Primates 7(4), December 1999
NEOTROPICAL PRIMATES ADDRESS CHANGE
After 10 years working at the National Institute for Amazon
Research (INPA), Manaus, and a further 13 years at the
Department of Zoology, Federal University of Minas Gerais,
Belo Horizonte, seven of which were spent working with
Conservation International do Brasil, in early December 1999
Anthony Rylands will be moving to Washington, D. C. to join
Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca, Executive Director, and Claude
Gascon, Deputy Director, of the Center for Applied Biodiversity
Science at Conservation International, as Senior Director for
Conservation Biology. Anthony Rylands will continue as edi-
tor of Neotropical Primates with Ernesto Rodrfguez-Luna.
However, discussions are underway regarding some possible
changes, one of which is the upgrading of the newsletter to
include in each issue a few full peer-reviewed articles, while
maintaining of course the "newsletter" element, with short
articles, notes, announcements, etc.
The sterling work and patience of Alexandre Dinnouti, battling
with maps and tables of all shapes and sizes, and his skill in
formatting the newsletter is very much appreciated, as is the
support and encouragement of Gustavo Fonseca (former
Director of Conservation International do Brasil) and Roberto
Cavalcanti (current Director), and members of CI-Brazil's
intrepid staff, Luiz Paulo Pinto, Paulo Gustavo Prado, Heloisa
Oliveira, M6nica Fonseca and Ivonilde Pereira. A special thank
you is due to Carlos Alberto Bouchardet, for seven years
juggling the accounts and muttering endlessly about the bo-
xes of Neotropical Primates cluttering the offices.
As of 1st December 1999, we would be most grateful if you
could send all correspondence to Ernesto Rodriguez-Luna at
the Universidad Veracruzana, Mexico, or to Anthony Rylands
at the following address: Center for Applied Biodiversity
Science, Conservation International, 2501 M Street NW, Suite
200, Washington DC 20037, USA, Fax: +1202 3310570, e-mail:
CENSUS OF THE PRIMATE COMMUNITY AT THE ESTA(AO
BIOLOGICAL DE CARATINGA, MINAS GERAIS, BRAZIL
The 860 ha forest at the Esta~o Biol6gica de Caratinga (EBC)
in Minas Gerais, Brazil, supports four species of primates:
Alouatta fusca; Brachyteles arachnoides; Callithrix
flaviceps; and Cebus apella, three of which (A. fusca,
Brachyteles and C. flaviceps) are endemic to Brazil's Atlantic
forest and in danger of extinction. All four primates in this
community have been the subjects of numerous Master's and
PhD theses and publications. Studies have focused, however,
on single groups of Brachyteles, Callithrix, and Cebus, and
there has been no overall appraisal of the status of the
community as a whole. Two previous censuses of theAlouatta
population, conducted in 1984 (Mendes, 1985, 1986) and 1994-
Neotropical Primates 7(4), December 1999
1995 (Hirsch, 1995) indicated high density, with an expansion
into areas of forest that were not previously used; findings
consistent with the documented increase in the size and home
range of one muriqui study group (from 22 individuals in 1982
to >65 in 1999; Strier etal., 1993; Strier, 1999). Together, these
findings stimulated our interest in initiating a long-term
monitoring program of this important primate community.
The first step in our monitoring program entailed an initial
census of the entire primate community. This was conducted
from 1-6 August, 1999, involving 16 observers in addition to
support staff. All of the 16 observers had extensive recent
experience with this forest and its primates. The census began
with a half-day training session, during which methods and
census routes were discussed and compass readings and
distance estimating were practiced and standardized.
Six circuit routes using existing trails were selected to cover
the widest possible diversity of habitat types in the Matao
portion of the forest. Matao circuits were walked a total of 10
times, once in the morning, beginning at 0730 h, and once in
the afternoon, beginning at 1330 h. Observers worked in pairs,
and partners were changed after each route. No observer
walked any route more than twice, and no two partners walked
together more than twice, or together on the same route more
than once. In this way, observers with different degrees of
expertise at aging and sexing different species could be paired
in different combinations to reduce potential biases.
An additional team of 3-4 participants, led by J. Gomes,
censused the Ja6 part of the forest using dirt access roads
and two extant trails. Different teams of observers
accompanied Gomes each day. Censusing in this part of the
forest focused on locating muriquis and identifying natal
females from the long-term MatAo study group that were
known to have transferred into the Ja6 group as adolescents
(Strier et al., 1993; Printes and Strier, 1999). Thus, although all
four species were censused when encountered in the Ja6 area,
our analyses will focus on the more systematic data collected
from the Matao area.
Each census team walked their designated census routes at a
slow pace, roughly 10-20 m apart from one another, until a
primate was sighted. Primates were sighted using visual
contact, vocalizations, and vegetation movement or noises.
The time and means of the sighting, the location relative to
mapped trail markers, and the species were recorded. Observers
then estimated their distance from the trail to the first primate
sighted at each census point, and measured the direct
observer-animal as well as the observer-trail angle with a
compass. A maximum of 20 minutes was allocated for each
sighting (except during encounters with muriquis in Ja6),
during which time all individuals present and whenever
possible, age-sex class distinctions, were tallied. During this
counting period, one member of each team remained on the
trail where the first sighting was made while the other team
member searched for additional monkeys in the vicinity.
Distinguishing features of individuals were also noted and
cross-checked with recurrent sightings of the same species in
roughly the same areas.
Neotropical Primates 7(4), December 1999 Pane 135
Analyses of the Matio census data are still underway. The
Ja6 censuses confirmed the presence of several muriqui
females who had previously transferred, some of whom were
seen carrying what we presume to have been their own infants.
An upcoming exhaustive census, in which a fraction of the
EBC forest will be intensively sampled with the goal of counting
every primate present, will yield important comparative data
with which our larger census results can be calibrated. Future
censuses planned for subsequent years will provide
comparative data with which to monitor the long-term
population dynamics of this rare primate community.
Acknowledgments: This census was funded by the National
Geographic Society. We are grateful to Eduardo M. V. Veado
for logistical and administrative support, and to Senhoras Lada
and Vera for their help. We also thank W. P. Martins and V. O.
Guimaraes for their contributions to the census as they
followed the Matao muriqui study group, W. A. Hoffmann for
assistance with driving, the Fundacgo Biodiversitas, and the
owners and residents of Fazenda Montes Claros.
K. B. Strier, S. L. Mendes, A. M. Braganoa, C. C. Coelho, C.
G. Costa, L. G. Diaz, L. T. Dib, J. Gomes, A. Hirsch, J. W.
Lynch, C. P. Nogueira, A. Odfilia Rimoli, A.S. Oliva, R. C.
Printes, J. Rimoli and R. R. Santos. Please address
correspondence to: Karen B. Strier, Department of
Anthropology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1180
Observatory Drive, Madison, WI, 53706, USA, e-mail:
, or Sdrgio L. Mendes, Museu
de Biologia Mello Leitho, Avenida Jos6 Ruschi 4, 29650-000
Santa Teresa, Espirito Santo, Brazil, e-mail,
Mendes, S. L. 1985. Uso do espago, padres de atividades
didrias e organizaqqo social de Alouatta fusca (Primates,
Cebidae) em Caratinga MG. Masters thesis, Universidade
de Brasflia, Brasilia.
Mendes, S. L. 1986. Caracterfsticas da populagao de Alouatta
fusca (Primates, Cebidae) na Estagqo Biol6gica de Caratinga,
Minas Gerais. In: A Primatologia no Brasil 2, M. T. de
Mello (ed.) p. 207. Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia,
Hirsch, A. 1995. Censo de Alouatta fusca Geoffroy, 1812
(Platyrrhini, Atelidae) e qualidade do habitat em dois
remanescentes de Mata Atlintica em Minas Gerais. Mas-
ters thesis, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo
Printes, R. C. and Strier, K. B. 1999. Behavioral correlates of
dispersal in female muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides). Int.
J. Primatol. 20:941-960.
Strier, K. B. 1999. Faces in the Forest: The Endangered Muriqui
Monkeys of Brazil. Harvard University Press, Cambridge,
Strier, K. B., Mendes, E D. C., Rfmoli, J. and Oddlia Rfmoli, A.
1993. Demography and social structure of one group of
muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides). Int. J. Primatol. 14:
THE LAMI BIOLOGICAL RESERVE, RIO GRANDE DO
SUL, BRAZIL, AND THE DANGER OF POWER LINES TO
HOWLERS IN URBAN RESERVES
The Lami Biological Reserve (LBR) is a municipal protected
area of 77.3 ha on the southern limits of the city of Porto
Alegre, the capital of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (3015'S,
5105'W). It was created in 1975, and the first to be created in
an urban area in Brazil. The main reason for its existence is to
protect the rare Ephedra tweediana, a climbing gymnosperm
endemic to the coastal, sandy soil forest restingg) associ-
ated with the Laguna dos Patos. The reserve marks the north-
ern limit to its range. Besides Ephedra, the reserve there pro-
tects remnants of the vegetation which was once widespread
along the margin of the Lago Guafba (Baptista et al., 1979).
The varied physiognomies and vegetation formations result
in this small reserve protecting a very diverse flora. Some
notable species include "corticeira" (Erythrina cista-galli),
"caraguati" (Eryngium pandanifolium) and "unha-de-gato"
(Acacia bonariensis), and in forested areas "mata-olho"
(Pouteria guardeniana) "figueira" (Ficus organensis),
"taruma" (Vitex megapotamica) and "agoita-cavalo" (Luhea
divaricata). The fauna is also rich, with preliminary surveys
recording 115 bird species (Albuquerque et al., 1986), the
majority migratory and typical of coastal wetlands. They in-
clude spoonbill (Ajaia ajaia), cormorant (Phalacrocorax
olivaceus), and snail hawk (Rosthramus sociabilis). There
are also large mammals and reptiles, some of which are threat-
ened, including Neotropical otters (Lutra longicauda), capy-
bara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris), the cayman (Caiman
latirostris) and the brown howler (Alouatta guariba
clamitans). Its small size means that there is considerable transit
of the animals between the reserve and immediate vicinity
(Cowling and Bond, 1991), and it usefulness depends on a
strong involvement and commitment on the part of the sur-
rounding communities, which for our purposes is a 10 km-
wide buffer zone, as defined by Resolution N 13/90 of the
National Council for the Environment (CONAMA) (Brazil,
In the third week of April 1999, some residents near the LBR
informed us of a howling monkey which had come out of the
Reserve, and had attempted to cross using the power lines.
The power lines short-circuited and the howler fell to the
ground, was unconscious for a short while, but then got up,
with a serious wound on its right arm, and disappeared into
the vegetation beside the road. The residents were without
electricity for some hours and the Environmental Police Bat-
talion of the Military Brigade were called in to capture the
howler, but had no success. It stayed in the vicinity for the
next two weeks, easily identifiable because of the wound.
On 4 May 1999, the howler was found in a small country resi-
dence 1.5 km from the Reserve. It was captured by two of the
LBR staff in a low forest beside the Lago Guaiba, and taken to
a veterinary clinic. Its arm was gangrenous and severely in-
fected with fly larvae, and was amputated. The howler, an
adult male, recovered and is now a resident of the Sapucaia do
Sul Zoo. Crockett and Pope (1988) reported a female red howl-
Neotropical Primates 7(4), December 1999
Page 136 Neotropical Primates 7(4), December 1999
ing monkey, Alouatta seniculus which survived the loss of
her arm from the middle of the humerus. She was alone, but
did eventually join a group and breed. The loss of an arm is
predictably more serious, however, for males in terms of their
capacity to remain in a social group.
On 4 July 1999, another howler was trapped on an electricity
cable of 110 volts, when attempting to reach an orchard be-
side the reserve. Two other howlers tried to help the animal
but also ended up trapped themselves, stuck to the first howler.
The electricity had to be switched off to allow them to free
Every day animals leave these sorts of small protected areas
in otherwise urban or semi-urban areas in search of food, wa-
ter, and new ranges and social groups (Mwalyosi, 1991). The
consequences are frequently that they are hunted or caught,
run over, killed by dogs, or suffer death or physical injury
from such as power lines (Pyle, 1980). The management of
these reserves demands that this problem be faced and if pos-
sible minimized; a task which is complicated by such aspects
as: a) ignorance on the part of the neighboring communities
of the importance and aims of the reserve; b) legal complica-
tions in terms of measures necessary outside the reserve lim-
its; c) a lack of understanding of the behavioral and ecologi-
cal requirements of the animals which leave and enter the
reserve; and d) the fact that very little attention has ever been
paid to the problem and the solutions available.
We suggest that there are preventative measures which could
be adopted to reduce the frequency of such incidents as those
of electrocution reported here. 1) The obvious solution is the
use of underground electricity cables. 2) When not possible,
the cables should be protected with insulating material; 3)
regular checking and pruning of trees which could give ac-
cess to power lines around the reserve; 4) the construction of
bridges (see, for example, Valladares-Padua etal., 1995; Cuar6n,
1995) at passage points which are favored by arboreal mam-
mals to bypass power cables or over roads; 5) maintain clear
areas of say 30 -50 m between the reserve limits and neighbor-
Acknowledgments: Prefeitura Muncipal de Porto Alegre,
Secretaria Municipal do Meio Ambiente Reserva Biol6gica
do Lami; Zool6gico de Sapucaia do Sul; Dirceu S. Pinheiro,
inio Manncuso, Fabiane Pruceh, Gerson Buss, Gleide
Marcicano, Hamilton F. P. Aguiar, Juanir Antunes, Mariana F.
Correa, Yanina M. Sammarco, and Vitor H. M. Corr8a.
Rodrigo C. Printes, Reserva Biol6gica do Lami/SMAM-PMPA
& Projeto Macacos Urbanos, Avenida Carlos Gomes, 2021,
Sala 16,90480-002 Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
Albuquerque, E. P., Reinehr, S. L. and Verrastro, L. 1986. Lista
preliminary das aves observadas na area da Reserva Biol6gica
do Lami e Ponta do Cego, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul,
Brasil, Roessleria 8(2): 186-196.
Baptista, L. R. de M., Ceroni, Z. da S. V., Irgang, B. E., Longhi,
H.M., Waechter, J. L., Miotto, S. T. S., Mariath, J. E. de A.,
Rosito, J. M., Prado, J. F. and Zanim, D. 1979. Levantamento
floristico preliminary da Reserva Biol6gica do Lami, Porto
Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. NIDECO, S&rie Urbana, No.1.
Brazil, CONAMA. 1992. Resolug6es do Conselho Nacional
do Meio Ambiente: 1984 a 1991, Quarta ediqao. Ministdrio
do Meio Ambiente (MMA), Brasflia. 226pp.
Cowling, R. M. and Bond, W. J. 1991. How small can a reserve
be? An empirical approach in Cape Fynbos, South Africa,
Biol. Conserv. 58:243-256.
Crockett, C. M. and Pope, T. 1988. Inferring patterns of ag-
gression from red howler monkey injuries. Am. J. Primatol.
Cuar6n, A. D. 1995. Pole bridges to avoid primate kills: A se-
quel to Valladares-Padua et al. Neotrop. Primates 3(3): 74-
Mwalyosi, R. B. B. 1991. Ecological evaluation for wildlife cor-
ridors and buffer zones for Lake Manyara National Park,
Tanzania, and its immediate environment, Biol. Conserv. 57:
Pyle, R. M. 1980. Management of nature reserves. In: Conser-
vation Biology an Evolutionary-Ecological Perspective,
M. E. Sould and B. A. Wilcox (eds.), pp.319-345. Sinauer
Associates, Sunderland, Massachusets.
Valladares-Padua, C., Cullen, Jr., L. and Padua, S. 1995. A pole
bridge to avoid primate road kills. Neotrop. Primates 3(1):
PHYLOGENY OF THE MARMOSETS, CALLITHRIX
In April 1998, Leonardo dos Santos Sena completed his
Master's dissertation, "The phylogeny of the genus Callithrix
based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II gene
sequences", for the postgraduate course in Genetics and
Molecular Biology at the Federal University of Pard (UFPA),
Goeldi Museum (MPEG) and the Brazilian Agricultural and
Cattle-Breeding Research Company (EMPRAPA), Beldm. His
supervisor was Dr. Maria Paula Cruz Schneider, and the study
was supported by the Brazilian Higher Education Authority
(CAPES). The following is an abstract of the thesis.
Phylogenetic relationships between 12 species of the genus
Callithrix (Callitrichinae, Platyrrhini) are inferred from
sequences of 549 bases of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome
oxidase II (COII). As COII is a relatively conservative gene,
most of the variable sites were located at the third codon
position, which was not saturated in intraspecific
comparisons. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences
encountered were similar to those already documented for
other mammals. The topologies of the phylogenetic trees
produced by maximum parsimony, neighbor-joining and
maximum-likelihood analyses were all very similar. The
analyses clearly indicated the presence of three species groups
- "argentata", pygmaeaa" and "jacchus" but no preferential
arrangement between the first two, similar to the findings of
Tagliaro (1997) based on nucleotide sequences of the
mitochondrial D-loop. Regarding the "argentata" group, C.
argentata and C. emiliae from southern Pard are closely linked,
while "C. emiliae" from Rondbnia does not group preferentially
with any of the species. C. humeralifera, C. mauesi, C. saterei,
and C. melanura form a third clade in the "argentata" group.
Neotropical Primates 7(4), December 1999
Neotropical Primates 7(4), December 1999
This arrangement confirms the need for a reclassification of
the Rondonian "emiliae", as was argued by Rylands et al.
(1993), while also indicating the existence of a major division
within the "argentata" species group related to a geographic
barrier (the Rio Tapaj6s) rather than to morphological traits
such as the presence or absence of ear tufts (Hershkovitz,
1977). In the "jacchus" group, C. aurita is well differentiated,
but the relationships between C. penicillata, C. geoffroyi, C.
jacchus and C. kuhlii are less clear, indicating possible cases
of ancestral polymorphism and/or differential introgression
between some lineages, probably due to a rapid and recent
radiation of these more recent forms (less than one million
years ago). The phylogeny obtained in the present study is
compared with existing proposals for Callithrix. The
difficulties of inferring species' phylogeny from analyses of
mitochondrial gene sequences and the contribution of this
and other genetic studies to the definition of taxonomic
relationships within the genus are discussed.
Leonardo dos Santos Sena, Departamento de Gendtica, Uni-
versidade Federal do Pard, Campus do GuamA, Caixa Postal
8607, 66075-970 Belem, Pard, Brazil. E-mail:
Hershkovitz, P. 1977. Living New World Monkeys (Platyrrhini)
with an Introduction to Primates, Vol. 1. The University of
Chicago Press, Chicago.
Rylands, A. B., Coimbra-Filho, A. F. and Mittermeier, R. A.
1993. Systematics, distributions and some notes on the con-
servation status of the Callitrichidae. In: Marmosets and
Tamarins: Systematics, Behaviour, and Ecology, A. B.
Rylands (ed.), pp. 11-77. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Sena, L. dos S. 1998. Filogenia do g8nero Callithrix Erxleben
1777 (Callitrichinae, Platyrrhini) baseada em seqiitncias do
gene mitochondrial dacitocromo oxidase II (COII). Master's
dissertation, Instituto de Ciencas Biol6gicas, Universidade
Federal do Pard, Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Empresa
Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecudria, Belhm. 111pp.
Tagliaro, C. H. 1997. A filogenia molecular na subfamilia
Callitrichinae (Platyrrhini, Primates): As relaq6es
intergen6ricas and intragen6ricas de Callithrix (sensu
Schneider et al., 1996). Doctoral thesis, Instituto de Ci8ncas
Biol6gicas, Universidade Federal do Pard, Museu Paraense
Emilio Goeldi, Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecudria,
ECOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR OF BLACK-FACED LION
In September 1999, Fabiana Prado defended her Master's thesis
in Zoology at the Biosciences Institute of the Paulista State
University at Botucatu, Sao Paulo. She successfully completed
a study on the ecology and behavior of a wild group of black-
faced lion tamarins, Leontopithecus caissara, in the Superagtii
National Park, Parand. The thesis was supervised by Dr. Valdir
A. Taddei and Dr. Claudio Valladares Padua (University of
Brasilia), and the research was supported by the Brazilian
Institute for the Environment (IBAMA), most especially in
the person of Guadalupe Vivekananda, Director of the
Superagili National Park, by the Funda o O Boticdrio de Pro-
tegio A Natureza, the Lion Tamarins of Brazil Fund, the Lincoln
Park Zoo Scott Neotropic Fund, World Wide Fund for Nature
- Brazil, WildInvest, IPE Instituto de Pesquisas Ecol6gicas,
and the Brazilian Higher Education Authority (CAPES). The
following is an abstract of the thesis.
The black-faced lion tamarin (Leontopithecus caissara) is one
of the four lion tamarin species endemic to the Atlantic forest.
L. caissara occurs in coastal forests in the south-east of the
state of Sao Paulo and north-east of the state of Parand.
Although the species was first described by Lorini and Persson
in 1990, very little was known of its behavior and ecology in
the wild. Valladares-Padua and Prado (1996) found it to be one
of the most endangered of the South American primates. In
this study, the aim was to describe the feeding ecology, ranging
behavior, locomotion (substrates) and vertical use of the forest,
and activity budgets of a wild group in the Superagii National
Park, Parand: basic data required for conservation efforts for
the species. The group, which ranged from four to seven
individuals, was studied five days a month from April to
December 1996. Young were born in December 1996. More
than 50% of their time was spent travelling and 30% feeding
and foraging. Resting was notable in the morning (around
0800 h) and the early afternoon. Grooming was the predominant
social activity. The majority of the time the lion tamarins were
active at heights of 6-10 m in the forest. In terms of the number
of 50 x 50 m quadrats used, the home range was estimated at
125.5 ha, but the convex polygon method indicated a much
larger range, exceeding 300 ha. The group used their entire
range quite uniformly. As in other lion tamarins, tree holes
were used as sleeping sites. Their diet included small animal
prey, including tree frogs, fruits, exsudates (gums and nectar),
and fungi. The diet showed clear seasonality, with more fruits
eaten during the wetter months (April-June and October-
December). Fungi were eaten especially during periods of low
rainfall (July-September). Recommendations are given
regarding future studies and measures for the conservation
of the species.
Fabiana Prado, IPI Instituto de Pesquisas Ecol6gicas, Caixa
Postal 47,12960-000 Nazard Paulista, Sao Paulo, Brazil. E-mail:
Lorini, V. G. and Persson, M. L. 1990. Uma nova especie de
Leontopithecus Lesson, 1840, do sul do Brasil (Primates,
Callitrichidae). Bol. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, nova ser
Prado, F. 1999. Ecologia, comportamento e ConservaqAo do
mico-leao-de-cara-preta (Leontopithecus caissara) no
Parque Nacional do Superagiii, Guaraquegaba, Parand.
Master's thesis, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade
Estadual Paulista Campus Botucatu, Sao Paulo. 69pp.
Valladares-Padua, C. and Prado, F 1996. Notes on the natural
history of the black-faced lion tamarin. Dodo, J. Wildl.
Preserve. Trusts 32: 123-125.
Page 138 Neotropical Primates 7(4), December 1999
DISPERSAL OF ADOLESCENT FEMALE MURIQUIS,
In January 1999, Rodrigo Cambard Printes defended his
Master's thesis which examined the behavior accompanying
the dispersal of adolescent female muriquis, Brachyteles
arachnoides hypoxanthus, at the Caratinga Biological Station,
Minas Gerais, Brazil. The study formed part of the postgraduate
course in Ecology, Conservation and Wildlife Management of
the Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, and
was supervised by Dr. Karen B. Strier, University of Wisconsin.
It was supported by a host of organizations, including: The
National Science Foundation (BNS 958298), The US Fish and
Wildlife Service, The Fulbright Foundation, The Joseph Henry
Fund of the National Academy of Sciences, Sigma Xi, The L.
S. B. Leakey Foundation, The World Wildlife Fund, The Seacon
Fund of the Chicago Zoological Society, The Liz Claiborne
and Art Ortenberg Foundation, The Lincoln Park Zoo Scott
Neotropic Fund, the Graduate School of the University of
Wisconsin, The FundacAo Biodiversitas, and the Brazilian
Higher Education Authority (CAPES). The following is an
abstract of the thesis.
The dispersal of individuals from their natal group is a powerful
force in evolutionary processes and an understanding of this
demographic process is most important for the conservation
management of endangered species such as the muriqui,
Brachyteles arachnoides. Although male dispersal is most
frequent in mammals in general, in primates the sex which
disperses is more variable (Strier, 1994). In muriquis it is female
adolescents which disperse. This study of the behavior of
young females was carried out from August 1994 to July 1995
at the Caratinga Biological Station, Minas Gerais. The aim was
to identify behavioral and social patterns related to dispersal,
specifically to support future possibilities for translocation as
a conservation management tool. Four adolescent females (5-
7 years old) changed groups (two emigrations and two
immigrations in the Matdo study group), while a further two
females observed remained in their natal group. A total of 617
focal-animal samples (10 minutes each) revealed significant
differences in the behaviors of the dispersing and resident
females. Dispersing (immigrant and emigrant) females spent
more time resting than resident females of the same cohort
during the three months in which the transfers occurred. The
emigrating females also spent more time eating ripe fruit than
the immigrant females, although these differences were evident
only during the season in which the dispersals occurred. With
regard to their social behavior, immigrant females were recorded
within 5 m of adult males more frequently than the emigrating
females and those which remained resident, suggesting that
proximity to adult males facilitates acceptance by them.
Adolescent females were recorded being displaced from food
sources on 27 occasions, most frequently by adult females.
Immigrant and resident female adolescents were treated alike
(number of expulsions = 8 and 6, respectively). The nearest
neighbors were compared between a female which had
immigrated previously (in the rainy season of 1995), the two
female residents, and a female which had only just immigrated
(in the dry season of 1995, three months later). The female
which had immigrated three months earlier showed a very
similar pattern to the resident females, indicating that social
relations as indicated by proximity to other group members
are established over a short period of time. Both emigration
and the success or otherwise of immigrating females can be
predicted through the observation of behavioral and social
parameters, an important aspect for any translocation program.
Emphasis is given to the need for veterinary evaluation
(especially the presence of parasites) prior to translocation,
and the recognition of the differences between the southern
and northern populations of muriquis, which may be
subspecifically or even specifically distinct. Females selected
for transfer should come from groups with a healthy number
of young or adult females, and they should be accompanied
for at least two years.
Rodrigo C. Printes, Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de
Ci8ncias Biol6gicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais,
31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Current
address: Reserva Biol6gica do Lami/Secretaria Municipal do
Meio Ambiente de Porto Alegre, Av. Carlos Gomes, 2021, Sala
16,90480-002 Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
Printes, R. C. 1999. Dispersdo de femeas adolescents muriquis
(Brachyteles arachnoides E. Geoffroy, 1806) dos grupos de
nascimento na Estagao Biol6gica de Caratinga (Minas Gerais,
Brasil): Implicagces para a Conservagdo. Master's thesis,
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte. 89pp.
Printes, R. C. and Strier, K. B. 1999a. Conseqii0ncias da
dispersao de f8meas em muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides,
A. Geoffroy 1806) para a sua conservagqo. In: Livro de
Resumos, IX Congresso Brasileiro de Primatologia, Santa
Teresa, Espirito Santo, Brazil, 25-30 July 1999, p.49.
Printes, R. C. and Strier, K. B. 1999b. Behavioral correlates of
dispersal in female muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides). Int.
J. Primatol. 20(6). In press.
Strier, K. B. 1994. Myth of the typical primate. Yearb. Phys.
1998 EUROPEAN STUDBOOK FOR THE EMPEROR
Eric Bairrio Ruivo, EEP Co-ordinator for the Emperor Tamarin,
Saguinus imperator, published the 1998 Studbook (5th edi-
tion, data current to 31 st December 1998) in June 1999. He was
assisted by Prof. Pereira da Silva, Patricia Vilarinho, Orlando
Silva and Jos6 Dias Ferreira. It includes the 1997 Annual Re-
port, and a report of a research project "Environmental evalu-
ation of Saguinus imperator subgrisescens enclosures at Lis-
bon Zoo" by Ant6nio Entrezede of the University of Evora.
The Studbook includes a full historical listing of S. i. imperator
and S. i. subgrisescens and hybrids, births and transfers dur-
ing 1998, a listing of the living population by location, a com-
prehensive demographic and genetic analysis (including age
Neotropical Primates 7(4), December 1999
Neotopicl Pimats 74), eceber 999Page 13
pyramids, analyses of age distributions, mortality, fecundity,
and inbreeding), recommendations regarding breeding and
transfers for 1999, and an address list of holding institutions.
The full listing includes data on 690 tamarins (568 S. i.
subgrisescens, 47 S. i. imperator and 75 hybrids), 145 of which
were alive on 31 December 1998. The current population in
Europe is 130 S. i. subgrisescens (69:56:5, sex ratio 1:0.81) in 37
institutions, an aged female S. i. imperator at Frankfurt Zoo,
and 14 hybrids in four institution; a total of 40 institutions.
The hybrid population is being phased out, and future stud-
books will deal only with S. i. subgrisescens.
The S. i. subgrisescens population arose from 34 founders. 29
wildborn and 5 animals of unknown origin; four are still alive,
but will probably not breed any more. It has been increasing
since 1980, but there was no population growth in 1998, and
unfortunately a high mortality in breeding females offset a
high birth rate. The number of institutions collaborating in the
programme increased however and two Australian Zoos,
Melbourne and Sydney, are also collaborating by keeping
bachelor groups. Hodenhagen, Germany, and Wissel, The
Netherlands, received emperor tamarins for the first time. A
further three will enter the programme in 1999: Lille in France,
Stuttgart in Germany, and Zagreb in Croatia. The main goal for
1999 is the publication of the husbandry guidelines as part of
the Callitrichids EEP Primate TAG Husbandry Guidelines.
Acknowledgments: The invaluable support of The Board of
Directors, Lisbon Zoo; the collaboration of all participating
institutions, and the Lisbon Zoo staff, and others who con-
tributed to the compilation of the studbook.
Eric Bairr~o Ruivo, EEP Co-ordinator for the Emperor Tamarin,
Jardim Zool6gico de Lisboa, Estrada de Benfica 158-160, 1500
Lisboa, Portugal, Tel: 351 1723 2900, Fax: 351 1723 29 01, e-
Ruivo, E. B. (compiler). 1999. European Studbook for the
Emperor Tamarin Saguinus imperator Goeldi, 1907, No. 5.
Lisbon Zoological Garden, Lisbon. (Data current through 31
SPECIES INFORMATION SERVICE AN UPDATE
This report provides a brief update of
progress in development of the SSC
Species Information Service (SIS). l
Development of a network-wide information management
system was first prioritised with the adoption of SSC's 1994
strategic plan. The plan recognized that data, information,
and expertise about species biology and status was SSC's
most valuable asset. Opportunities offered by emerging
electronic technologies coupled with increasing demands
placed on SSC members to provide their information and
expertise for the IUCN Red List, Action Plans, CITES analyses
and other advisory services, called for more comprehensive
information management support to network members.
SIS is comprised of three elements: software, a data custodian
model, and a central service unit. The software will be used by
SSC Specialist Groups and IUCN Red List Authorities (in those
instances where they are not the same entity), allowing them
to collect and organise their data in a standardised form. Data
will be managed in the context of a distributed data custodian
model, with an aim to manage data as close to the source as
possible, and capture the most current information available.
In most cases the data custodian will be the Specialist Group.
Through the central service unit, the SIS geo-referencing
component will allow GIS linkage, thus enhancing the utility
of the IUCN Red List as an analytical tool for management and
SIS will build capacity at three levels: 1) Specialist Groups and
their members will be provided with the tools and training
needed to strengthen their information management capacity;
2) SSC as a whole will be able to draw from the network-wide
common framework to efficiently produce relevant and timely
biodiversity conservation information products; 3) SSC will
be positioned to contribute to integrated information products
through the Biodiversity Conservation Information System
(BCIS), a consortium of twelve international conservation
organizations working together to produce better data for better
conservation decisions. For more information on BCIS, go to
Progress to Date
Professors Luigi Boitani (member, SSC Executive and Steering
Committees) and Andrew Smith (Chair, Lagomorph Specialist
Group) are leading the SIS development process. The SIS Data
Management Working Group (DMWG) guides development
of the SIS software tool. It is comprised of members with
expertise in informatics, information management and
biodiversity analyses. Careful selection of the DMWG has
ensured expertise representative of both terrestrial and aquatic
species, plants, animals and invertebrates. As with the IUCN
Red List Categories and Criteria, it is particularly challenging
to develop a system relevant to the wide variety of life forms
addressed by the SSC network, and the SIS planning team is
committed to developing a software package and system that
will support the needs and characteristics of all types of
General Program Development
Over the past 18 months, the SIS planning team has focused
on development of the full Service. This effort has included
not only software development, but also planning for sufficient
support into the network, composition of the Central Service
Unit, and planning for analytical products (biodiversity
analyses). A significant amount of time has been devoted to
raising funds for system implementation, including an effort
to secure funds for Specialist Group participation. Proposals
with the European Union DG XII (5th Framework) and the US
National Science Foundation are now pending. Both include
funding for Specialist Groups with Chairs based in Europe
and the United States, respectively (a requirement of each of
Neotrovical Primates 7(4), December 1999
these potential donors). Other small grants have been secured
to support the SIS development process, and include funding
for those Specialist Groups that are participating in the SIS
testing phase (see below). Funding for SIS has been included
in other programmatic budgets as well, for example proposals
requesting support for developing SSC's freshwater capacity
and Red List Programme. Copies of all funding proposals are
available to Specialist Group Chairs. Please contact the SSC
secretariat if you wish to see them.
Collaborative projects that will draw on SIS have been planned
at the BCIS consortium level. For example, SSC, BirdLife
International, the IUCN World Commission on Protected
Areas and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre have
designed a project to identify high concentrations of threatened
species and analyse them against protected areas. Although
the aim is to develop this capacity globally, BCIS is first
proposing to test the concept in Mesoamerica, in collaboration
with the IUCN Regional Office there (ORMA). SSC has chosen
to pursue this project for several reasons, including relevance
to information demands emerging from the CBD and the
funding potential for SIS development (including support to
Specialist Groups). The concept paper Enhancing the Role of
Protected Areas and Bio-Regional Planning in the
Conservation of Threatened Species is also available from
the SSC secretariat upon request.
SIS Software Development
DMWG and representatives of several Specialist Groups met
in November 1998 to evaluate the comments and critiques
made to the first version of the SIS software (version 0.1),
design the next version of SIS (content, structure, language,
etc.) and plan for the second round of tests of the software,
and prepare for the next stage of SIS implementation.
Based on the results and decisions made at that meeting, the
next stages of SIS development (during the first half of 2000)
were planned. One of the main tasks will be the completion of
the software that is required. A three-step process was outlined
to engage SSC members representing a wide variety of species.
The process entails: 1) development of the 2nd trial software
version (Version 0.2), to be completed by early November 1999;
2) review and test Version 0.2 throughout the remainder of
1999 and early 2000; 3) a workshop to agree to final revisions
to Version 0.2, which will lead to the full working release version
(Version 1.0). The workshop is scheduled to take place in Rome,
Italy, in March 2000. Seven Specialist Groups have agreed to
carry out in depth analysis of the software. These are the
Mediterranean Island Plant, Orchid, Mollusc, Marine Turtle,
Lagomorph, Primate, and Antelope Specialist Groups. BirdLife
International and Wetlands International will test the system
with their respective Specialist Groups as well. Representatives
of the selected testing Specialist Groups, disciplinary Specialist
Groups and SSC partners (e.g., BirdLife) will participate in the
Those Specialist Groups wishing to test the system that are
not one of those selected for in-depth testing should contact
Mariano Gimenez Dixon to discuss their intentions and to
arrive at the most efficient and relevant testing approach for
Once the trial software Version 0.2 is ready (early November)
the testing Specialist Groups will be asked to: 1. Have a "hard-
nosed" look at it and answer questions such as: Can it be
used to manage the Specialist Group's data needs? Does it
cover the modules and fields that are necessary? Is it user
friendly? What are the problems? Can the data available be
used in this system? (this includes importing existing data
without too much difficulty). 2. Populate the system with data
from the 50-100 species/populations identified to test SIS. 3.
Compile the Specialist Group's comments and input to the SIS
process and send these comments to SSC for their input at the
workshop early next year.
From April 2000 onwards
Essential to the success of this process is timely follow-up to
the decisions made at the workshop. Immediately following
the workshop, the DMWG will meet to prepare the operational
prescriptions to revise the software and programme the final
(full release working) version (Version 1.0). The software is
expected to be fully developed by September 2000 with the
goal of presenting and officially launching it at the IUCN World
Conservation Congress (Amman, Jordan, October 2000).
Following its presentation, the software will be distributed to
all Specialist Groups and other relevant partners in the SSC
network. Distribution will by diskette or CD-ROM. Full
implementation of the Species Information Service will begin
with this distribution. It is anticipated that SIS implementation
will phase in over a period of several years. Specialist Group
Chairs should discuss timing with their respective SSC Program
Officers, and determine resource needs and feasible phase-in.
At that time, an appropriate SIS focal point within the Specialist
Group will be discussed (noting that in most cases this will be
someone other than the Specialist Group Chair). Further
background information can be obtained at the following
website: http://indaba.iucn.org/extranet/documents Browse
Mariano Gimenez Dixon, Programme Officer/SSC, IUCN- The
World Conservation Union, rue Mauverney 28, CH-1196
Gland, Switzerland, Tel: 4122 999 0155, Fax: 4122 999 0015, e-
mail: . Web site: .
We are sad to report that Ramon Rhine, Professor Emeritus of
the Department of Psychology, University of California,
Riverside, died on 9 November 1999. Professor Rhine earned
his B.A. in Psychology from UC-Berkeley in 1950, his M.S. in
Psychology from the University of Oregon in 1952, and his
Ph.D. from Stanford University in 1955. Prior to joining the
UCR faculty, he taught at the University of Massachusetts,
Amherst, for one year and was a Systems Scientist Manager
at RAND Corporation for nine years. He brought national and
international recognition to the UCR campus through his
service on professional committees and his extraordinary
research record, addressing social attitudes, impression
formation, social cognition, primate socialization, and baboon
reproductive success. He established and managed a colony
Neotropical Primates 704), December 1999
Neotopial rimtes7(4, Dcemer 999Panne 141
of stumptailed macaque monkeys at UCR and a long-term
baboon field station at Mikumi National Park in East Africa.
His colony research focused on social dynamics and
development and his field research on problems in behavioral
ecology. The results of his research were published in 64
articles/chapters and 32 technical reports. Among his many
fellowships and appointments, Professor Rhine received a
Guggenheim Fellowship and was a Life Member of Clare Hall
College at Cambridge University, a Visiting Scholar in the
Zoology Department at Cambridge, and an Honorary Research
Associate in the Psychology Department at Witwatersrand
University (South Africa). He was an active member of the
major professional society in his field, the American Society
of Primatologists, acting as Chair of the Conservation
Committee from 1992 to 1996. His research was funded by
NSF, the Leakey Foundation, NIH, the National Geographic
Society, the Guggenheim Foundation, the Foundation for
Research Development (Republic of South Africa), and the
International Science Foundation.
Throughout UCR, Professor Rhine was respected by all those
who knew him; his influence will continue to be felt as a result
of the many students he trained and his leadership in his
department and on numerous Senate and systemwide
committees. Besides serving as Chair of the Psychology
Department and Chair of the Riverside Division of the
Academic Senate, he served on or chaired academic personnel
and personnel policy committees, both at UCR and at the
David H. Warren, Executive Vice Chancellor of UCR, wrote
that Professor Rhine was a vital member of the UC Riverside
community, both before and after his retirement. He joined the
campus in 1964 and it is clear, if only from a brief summary of
his record, how much he contributed to the reputation and
operations of UCR through his 35 year tenure.
Gifts in memory of Professor Ramon Rhine are being accepted
through the Department of Psychology for the American
Society of Primatologists, Conservation Fund. Checks may
be sent to Ms. Dianne Fewkes, Department of Psychology,
University of California, Riverside, CA.92521, USA.
From: Primate-Science News Note, Larry Jacobsen
, WRPRC University of
Wisconsin. Information kindly supplied by Mary Baker,
Visiting Professor, University of California, Riverside, CA.
QUICK GUIDE TO THE WISCONSIN REGIONAL PRIMATE
RESEARCH CENTER INTERNET PROGRAMS
The following Internet programs are run by the Wisconsin
Regional Primate Research Center (WRPRC) at the University
of Wisconsin Madison, supported by grant number RR00167,
Regional Primate Centers Program, National Center for
Research Resources, the National Institutes of Health.
Primate Info Net (PIN): A WWW information resource for
primatologists, includes taxonomy, endangered primates
listings, the World Directory of Primatologists, newsletters,
veterinary resources, etc. Documents can be viewed and
downloaded locally. Connect to PIN at:
Primate-Science: An electronic discussion forum for NCRR
primate centers, and other research-based primate centers,
laboratories, institutions and zoological gardens worldwide.
You must have an electronic mail address and access to the
Internet to participate in Primate-Science. To apply, fill out the
Primate-Science application form at:
www.primate.wisc.edu/pin/ps/pscientry.html> or request an
application form by sending a message containing "subscribe
primate-science" (without the quotes) to:
International Directory of Primatology (IDP): Coverage
includes: (1) detailed entries for major primate centers,
laboratories, educational programs, foundations, conservation
agencies and sanctuaries, (2) a listing of field projects, (3)
primate societies, and (4) population management groups.
Connect to the International Directory of Primatology at:
World Directory of Primatologists (WDP): A convenient
Internet source of contact information for people in the field
of primatology whose career interests involve or relate to
primate research, conservation, education or veterinary
medicine. Connect to the World Directory of Primatologists
Audiovisual Services: An archival collection of primate-related
videotapes, slides and audiotapes which may be borrowed
for research or educational purposes. To see the catalog of
available videotapes, and instructions on how to borrow from
the collection, link to:
Askprimate: An Internet reference service available to the
public. To ask a question or for referral, use the form at:
Primate-Jobs: An Internet job listing service. It includes
positions wanted and available. Connect at:
Careers in Primatology: A source of information for those
considering careers working with nonhuman primates. The
For more information about WRPRC Internet Services, contact
Ray Hamel, Special Collections Librarian, at
, or the Primate Center Library by
phone: 1-608-263-3512, Fax: 1-608-263-4031, or e-mail:
NeotroDical Primates 7(4). December 1999
e gaP 141
Page 142 Neotropical Primates 7(4), December 1999
ASP CONSERVATION AWARD AND GRANTS
Sp The Conservation Committee of the American
Society of Primatologists, chaired by Randall
Kyes, approved the following awards on the
14th August 1999, during the Society's annual meeting, held
in New Orleans, LA. Conservation Award: Rondang S. E.
Siregar of Indonesia for her work with orang-utan
rehabilitation and reintroduction and her commitment to
primate conservation. AJP Subscription Awards: Michael
Abedi-Lartey of the Ankasa Resource Reserve, Ghana; Junus
Daniel of Sam Ratulangi University, Indonesia; Edem A.
Eniang of the University of Uyo, Nigeria; and Gabriel Ra-
mos-Fernandez of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma,
Mexico. Conservation Small Grants: Alex Degan, University
of Chicago, "The behavior of extinction: Predicting
biogepgraphic patterns of lemur repsonses to habitat
fragmentation in south-east Madagascar; Kaberi Kar Gupta,
Arizona State University, "Ecology and conservation of
slender loris in Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve, India";
Joanna E. Lambert, University of Oregon, 'The influence of
habitat conversion and hunting on primate populations in the
Dja Faunal Reserve, Cameroon", Sahdin B. Lias, Kinabatangan
Orang-utan Conservation Project, Malaysia, "Solving orang-
utan conflicts with local communities in the Kinabatangan
floodplain, Sabah, Malysia; Alecia B. Lilly, Center of Orang-
utan and Chimpanzee Conservation and SUNY Stony Brook,
"The effects of increasing human population density on in-
testinal parasite loads in gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla),
chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and indigenous human
populations in and around the Mondika Research Center,
Dzanga-Ndoki National Park, Central African Republic";
Barita O. Manullang, Wildlife Foundation of Indonesia,
Indonesia, "Preliminary survey on population status and
distribution of primate species in disturbed habitats after
forest-fires in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia; Joseph A. Ntui,
Federal University of Technology, Nigeria, "A preliminary
investigation of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) in Oban
Hills Forest Reserve, Nigeria; R. Ethan Pride, Princeton
University, "Population density, social behavior, and
physiological stress in Lemur catta"; Saul Juan Solano,
Universidad Nacional Autonoma, Mexico, "A comparative
study of resource use by groups of howler monkeys (Alouatta
palliata) in isolated rain forest fragments in the region of Los
Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico"; Sandra S. Suarez, New York
University, "Paternity, relatedness and male socio-
reproductive behavior in red-bellied tamarins (Saguinus
labiatus labiatus) in Bolivia: Training local investigators in
field techniques"; Elizabeth B. Yaap, Harvard University, "An
orang-utan conservation education programme for the Gunung
Palung area, West Kalimantan, Indonesia". The 1999 Senior
Biology and Conservation Award was not presented.
The Education Committee, chaired by Lynne E. Miller, also
awarded prizes for the best student presentations at the
meeting. Christina J. Campbell, Department of Anthropology,
University of California Berkeley, won the oral presentation
prize for her paper "Fur rubbing behavior in free-ranging black-
handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) in Panama". The
prize for a poster presentation was given to Jeffrey E. Fite,
co-authored by Jeffrey A. French, Department of Psychology,
University of Nebraska Omaha, for the study "The impact of
infant care on sleep in marmosets (Callithrix kuhlii): Is less
or disrupted sleep an additional cost of providing care to
EUROPEAN FEDERATION OF PRIMATOLOGY MEETING
The European Federation of Primatology will hold a scientific
meeting in London on the 27-29 November, 2000. On Monday,
27th November there will be a series of workshops. Each will
be run by two eminent primatologists. The topics will be in the
areas of Behavioural and Physiological Development, Ecology
and Sociality, and Cognition and Social Complexity (to be held
at Roehampton Institute, London), and Genetics and Evolution,
the Use of Primates as Research Models, and Viral Diseases in
Simian Primates (to be held at Goldsmith's College, London).
Applications will normally be considered from post-graduate
students from EFP Societies. The workshops are available as
half-day units and each participant will have the opportunity
to attend two workshops. Further details about these
workshops can be obtained from Ann MacLamon, School of
Life Sciences, Roehampton Institute, West Hill, London, SW15
3SN, U.K. Tel.: +44 (0) 20 8392 3524, Fax.: +44 (0) 20 8392, e-
During the following two days (28-29 November), a total of 14
to 16 talks will be given by invited speakers at the Meeting
Rooms of the Zoological Society of London in Regent's Park,
London. The main themes will be: Ecology and Conservation,
Reproduction and Mating Systems, Evolution and Biology,
and Cognition and Conflict. The following have agreed to
present papers: Filippo Aureli, Mike Bruford, Alan Dixson,
Robin Dunbar, Annie Gautier, Keith Hodges, Peter Kappeler,
Bob Martin, Ronald Nod, Chris Pryce, Volker Sommer, Caroline
Tutin, Jan van Hooff and Elisabetta Visalberghi. Further details
about this part of the conference may be obtained from Hilary
Box, Department of Psychology, University of Reading,
Whitenights, Reading, RG6 2AL, U.K. Tel.: +44 (0)118 9316668,
Fax: +44 (0)118 9316715, e-mail: .
The local organising committee for the conference is Bertrand
Deputte (France), Hilary Box (UK), Ann MacLarnon (UK),
Hannah Buchanan-Smith (UK) together with the invaluable
assistance of both the President of the EFP, R6gine Vercauteren-
Drubbel (Belgium) and of the Primate Society of Great Britain,
Phyllis Lee. Members of the advisory committee also include
Fernando Colmenares (Spain) and Augusto Vitale (Italy).
We are delighted to have the opportunity to organise this
meeting. It will provide many excellent opportunities for
students and more senior colleagues in all aspects of
primatology. It is worth noting that the dates of the meeting
immediately precede that of the Winter meeting of the
Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour that will also
be held at the Zoological Society of London.
Neotropical Primates 7(4), December 1999
Netoia- rmae () eebe 99Pg 4
We shall provide more specific information about the EFP
conference, its organisation and how to register in early 2000.
This will be available on the PSGB web site: http://
EUROPEAN MARMOSET RESEARCH GROUP
The European Marmoset Research Group
(EMRG) is a non-profit organisation which was
/ established in 1994 to facilitate inter-
disciplinary communication between
institutions academic and industrial -
conducting biological and/or biomedical research with
primates. The major goals of the EMRG are: 1) To identify the
needs, capabilities, and susceptibilities of marmoset and
tamarins in fundamental and applied research; 2) to optimise
the laboratory maintenance of, and the experimental
procedures performed on, marmosets and tamarins, relative to
their needs, capabilities and susceptibilities; 3) to act as a
forum for multidisciplinary information exchange via the
organisation of workshops and publications, and affiliation
to and interaction with other organizations; and 4) to identify
the suitability in fundamental and applied research of
marmosets and tamarins compared with other primate and non-
primate species. The EMRG has published a Handbook of
Marmosets and Tamarins in Biological and Biomedical
Research (1997), produces a biannual newsletter, and has to
date organised five workshops. The workshop proposed for
April 2000 in Paris (see "Meetings") will bring together expert
scientists, veterinarians, and technical personnel, on the one
hand, and emerging doctoral and postdoctoral scientists on
the other hand, in eight disciplines in the life sciences:
Behavioural Neuroscience, Genetics, Immunology, Laboratory
technology/management, Pharmacology, Reproduction,
Toxicology and Wildlife biology.
The current Co-ordinating Committee is as follows: President
and Newsletter Editor Dr. Christopher Pryce, ETH, Ziurich,
Switzerland; Secretary Dr. Annette Domeney, Neurofit,
Illkirch, France; Treasurer Hr. Christian Schnell, Novartis
AG, Basel, Switzerland; Liaison/Promotion Mrs. Leah Scott,
DERA, UK; Webpage Manager Hr. Michael Schwibbe, DPZ,
Gottingen, Germany; Regional Representatives France Dr.
Dr. Anne-Dominique Degryse, Pierre Fabre; Germany Dr.
Uwe Schdnmann, DPZ, G6ttingen; Italy Dr. Augusto Vitale,
Istituto Superior Di Sanita; Netherlands Dr. Bert 't Hart,
Primate Center TNO; Scandinavia Dr. Tomas Ljungberg,
University of Stockholm; Switzerland Dr. Isabelle Allmann,
ETH, Zurich; UK- Dr. Peter Pearce, DERA; USA Prof. David
Abbott, University of Wisconsin, Madison; South America -
Prof. Anthony Rylands, Center for Applied Biodiversity
Science, Conservation International, Washington, DC.
Formal membership procedures were introduced at a meeting
of the EMRG in 1998. Persons considered by the Co-ordinating
Committee to possess relevant experience of marmosets and
tamarins in the laboratory or in the field are eligible for
membership; the aim of which is to contribute to the pursuit
and realisation of EMRG objectives. A candidate for
membership shall apply using the form available on the home
page or from the Secretary: Dr. Annette M. Domeney, Secretary
EMRG, Neurofit, rue J. Sapidus, Pare d'Innovation, 67400
Illkirch, France, e-mail: . The candidate
must be proposed by two members, both of whom know the
candidate and his work. A modest annual subscription applies
to members for all countries except for the USA, Japan and in
South America (due to prohibitive bank charges). There is no
annual subscription for students. EMRG web page:
Christopher Pryce, EMRG President, Behavioural
Neurobiology Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of
Technology, Schorenstrasse 16, CH-8603 Schwerzenbach,
Switzerland. E-mail: .
DONALD G. LINDBURG RECEIVES THE AZA PRESIDENT'S
Donald G. Lindburg, founder and former
JJZ President of the American Society of
M Primatologists was awarded the American
Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA) President's Award. Is
especially well-known for his work over 30 years on macaques,
but has also studied cheetahs, lemurs, condors, rhinoceroses,
drills, and golden monkeys. He was editor of Zoo Biology,
and is species co-ordinator for the Giant Panda (AZA). From:
ASP Bulletin 23(2): 5, June 1999.
A bumper issue, Volume 3 (1-2) (1997-1998), of the IUCN/SSC
Primate Specialist Group newsletter, African Primates, has been
published (Editors, Thomas M. Butynski and Debra L.
Forthman). It was sponsored by the Zoo Atlanta's
Conservation Action Resource Center (ARC), the National
Museums of Kenya's Institute of Primate Research and Centre
for Biodiversity, and the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund-
International, Atlanta, Georgia. Published with this issue is a
supplement of a Report for the Ape Alliance by E. Bowen-
Jones "A Review of the Commercial Bushmeat Trade with
Emphasis on Central/West Africa and the Great Apes" (42pp.).
Contents Articles: Conservation in Centtal Africa: Time for a
more business like approach K. Amman, pp.2-6; Growing
commerce in bushmeat destroys great apes and threatens
humanity A. L. Rose, pp.7-12; The drill integrated in situ
and ex situ conservation E. L. Gadsby & P. D. Jenkins Jr.,
pp.12-18; De Brazza's monkeys Cercopithecus neglectus in
the Kisere National Reserve, Kenya J. Chism & M.Cords,
pp.18-22; Survey of endangered primates in the forest reser-
ves of eastern Cote d'Ivoire W. S. McGraw, I. T. Monah &M.
Abedi-Lartey, pp.22-25; Demography of chimpanzees Pan
troglodytes schweinfurthii in Budongo Forest, Uganda V.
Reynolds, pp.25-28; Pygmy chimpanzees, bonobo, or gracile
chimpanzee: What's in a name? A. Kortlandt, pp. 28-35. No-
tes: Human relations with chimpanzees: A proposed code of
Neotropical Primates 7(4), December 1999
conduct G. Teleki, pp.35-38; Lessons in self-medication from
great apeas?, pp.38-39. Precision de la situation du chimpanzd
(Pan troglodytes verus) en Guin6e Bissau: Une enquete en
course E. FCron & E Correia, pp.39-40; Birth of a wild gorilla -
W. Betunga, pp.40-41; Elephant dung: A food source for the
crested mangabey Cercobus galeritus A. Gautier-Hion,
pp.41-42; Pseudopotto martini: A new potto? C. Groves,
pp.42-43; Pseudopotto: When is a potto not a potto? S. K.
Bearder, pp.43-44; The validity of "Pseudopotto martini" E.
Sarmiento, pp.44-45; The problem of sub-species: a further
comment V. Birstein, pp.45-46; How to define a subspecies?
- P Leyhausen, pp.46-47; Baboon nomenclature C. Jolly, pp.47-
48; Current problems with Papio taxonomies E. Sarmiento,
pp.48-52; Foreign aid and conservation of tropical forests: An
action plan for change T. T. Struhsaker & C. Oren, pp.52-53;
Convention Africaine por la Conservation de la Nature et des
Ressources Naturelles, pp.53-55.
Thomas M. Butynski, Senior Editor, Zoo Atlanta, Africa
Biodiversity Conservation Program, PO Box 24434, Nairobi,
Kenya, and Debra Forthman, Editor, Zoo Atlanta, 800
Cherokee Avenue SE, Atlanta, Georgia 30315-1440, USA.
Anonymous. 1999. Structure and aims of the European Fed-
eration for Primatology. Folia Primatol. 70(1): 61-62.
Bradley, B. J. 1999. Levels of selection, altruism, and primate
behavior. Quart. Rev. Biol. 74(2): 171-194.
Canavez, F. C., Moreira, M. A. M., Ladasky, J. J., Pissinatti, A.,
Parham, P. and Seuanez, H. N. 1999. Molecular phylogeny of
New World primates (Platyrrhini) based on beta2-
microglobulin DNA sequences. Molec. Phylogen. Evol.
Entrezede, A. 1999. Environmental evaluation of Saguinus
imperator subgrisescens enclosures at Lisbon Zoo. In: Eu-
ropean Studbook for the Emperor Tamarin Saguinus
imperator Goeldi, 1907, E. B. Ruivo Compp.), (5):19-22.
Estrada, A., Anzures, D. A. and Coates-Estrada, R. 1999. Tropi-
cal rain forest fragmentation, howler monkeys (Alouatta
palliata), and dung beetles at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. Am. J.
Primatol. 48(4): 253-262.
Jones, C. B. 1999. Why both sexes leave: effects of habitat
fragmentation on dispersal behavior. Endangered Species
Jones, C. B. 1999. A method to determine when active translo-
cation of nonhuman primates is justified. J. Appl. Anim.
Welfare Sci. 2(3), 229-238.
Klerman, E. B., Boulos, Z., Edgar, D. M., Mistlberger, R. E. and
Moore-Ede, M. C. 1999. Circadian and homeostatic influ-
ences on sleep in the squirrel monkey: Sleep after sleep dep-
rivation. Sleep 22(1): 45-59.
Kobayashi, R., Sakakibara, I., Furuta, T. Kikuchi, T. and
Yoshikawa, Y. 1999. Opportunistic Pneumocystis carinii in-
fection in red-bellied tamarins (Saguinus labiatus). Exp.
Anim. 48(1): 55-57.
Milton, K. 1999. A hypothesis to explain the role of meat-
eating in human evolution. Evolutionary Anthropology 8(1):
Milton, K. 1999. Nutritional characteristics of wild primate
Neotropical Primates 7(4), December 1999
foods: Do th diets of our closest living relatives have les-
sons for us? Nutrition 15(6): 488-498.
Richard-Hansen, C., Vie, J. C., Vidal, N. and Keravec, J. 1999.
Body measurements on 40 species of mammals from French
Guiana. J. Zool., Lond. 247(4): 419-428.
Robinson, E. L. and Fuller, C. A. 1999. Endogenous thermoregu-
latory rhythms of squirrel monkeys in thermoneutrality and
cold. Am. J. Physiol. 276(5, part 2): R1397-R1407.
Ruiz-Miranda, C. R., Kleiman, D. G., Dietz, J. M., Moraes, E.,
Grativol, A. D., Baker, A. J. and Beck, B. B. 1999. Food trans-
fers in wild and reintroduced golden lion tamarins,
Leontopithecus rosalia. Am. J. Primatol. 48(4): 305-320.
Teixidor, P. and Byrne, R. W. 1999. The "whinny"of spider
monkeys: Individual recognition before situational mean-
ing. Behaviour 136(3): 279-308.
Turnquist, J. E., Schmitt, D., Rose, M. D. and Cant, J. G. H.
1999. Pendular motion in the brachiation of captive Lagothrix
and Ateles. Am. J. Primatol. 48(4): 263-281.
Urbani, B. 1999. Spontaneous use of tools by wedge-capped
capuchin monkeys (Cebus olivaceus). Folia Primatol. 70:
Van Schaik, C. P., Deaner, R. O. and Merrill, M. Y. 1999. The
conditions for tool use in primates: Implications for the evo-
lution of material culture. J. Hum. Evol. 36(6): 719-741.
Winkler, P. 1999. Activities of the European Federation Prima-
tology. Folia Primatol. 70(1): 62-64.
Collins, A. C. 1999. Phylogenetic relationships among popula-
tions of spider monkeys (Ateles spp.) based on mitochon-
drial and nuclear DNA variation. Diss. Abst. Int. A60(1): 180.
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Arbor, MI 48106, USA.
Crook, G. A. 1999. When is a marmoset, not a marmoset?
Australasian Primatology 13(4): 9-10.
Crook, G. A. 1999. Is reintroduction a viable option for cap-
tive-bred primates? Australasian Primatology 13(4): 14-15.
Knogge, C. 1999. Tier-Pflanze-Interaktionen im Amazonas-
Regenwald: Samenausbreitung durch die sympatrischen
Tamaringarten Saguinus mystax und Saguinus fuscicollis
(Callitrichinae). Gesselschaft fir Primatologie e. V 23
Rundbrief, January 1999, p.38. (PhD abstract)
Seibt, A. 1999. VerhaltensphysiologischeUntersuchungen zur
Sensitivitiit des Geruchsinnes von Totenkopfaffen (Saimiri
sciureus) fir 1,8-Cineol, n-Pentanol und n-Heptanal.
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1999, p.38. (PhD abstract)
In: Livro de Resumos, IX Congresso Brasileiro de
Primatologia, Santa Teresa, Espirito Santo, Brazil, 25-30
July 1999 (part).
Oliveira, M. F., Menezes, A.C. and Nascimento, M. I.
Ocorr8ncia de sagiiis-da-serra-escuros (Callithrix aurita)
em areas de florestas implantadas no alto Tiet8 e Vale do
Parafba, SP, p.75.
Oliveira, M. F; Nishie, M. J. and Manzatti, L. Reintroduqgo e
monitoramento de um sagiii-da-serra-escuro (Callithrix
aurita) na Serra do Itapety, Mogi das Cruzes, SP, p.47.
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Oshiro, N., Ferreira, W. A., Silva, E. L. P. and Pires, M. R. S.
Dieta e area de uso de um grupo deAlouattafusca clamitans
num fragmento de Mata Atlantica em Itapecerica da Serra -
Passos, F. C. and Alho, C. J. R. Area de vida e uso do espaqo
utilizado pelo mico-leao-preto, Leontopithecus chrysopygus,
na EstaqAo Ecol6gica dos Caetetus, SP (Primates:
Passos, F. C. and Alho, C. J. R. Importancia de diferentes
substratos no comportamento de forrageio por press do
mico-leio-preto, Leontopithecus chrysopygus, pp.67-68.
Peralta, A. S. L., Muniz, J. A. P. C. and Brigido, M. C. O.
Ocorrencia do piolho Pediculus humanus (Linnaeus, 1758),
em primatas nao-humanos, colhidos durante o resgate de
fauna na Uhe-Serra da Mesa, Minaqu-GO, p.56.
Peres, C. A. Primate community structure in neotropical for-
ests: Patterns of diversity and abundance, p.24.
Pessoa, D. M. A., Baptista, A. J., Cesar, F. B., Tomaz, C. and
Pessoa, V. F Discriminago de cores no sauim-de-cara-preta
(Saguinus midas niger), p.37.
Pessoa, V. F. Color perception in the neotropical monkey Cebus
apella: Evidence of behavioral trichromaticity, p. 15.
Pinto, A. C. B., Carvalho Jr., O and Azevedo-Ramos, C. A
utilizaqco de raqao por casais isolados de Callithrix
penicillata em cativeiro, p.40-41.
Pinto, A. C. B., Carvalho Jr., O. de and Azevedo-Ramos, C. A
seletividade e a efici8ncia alimentar de sagiiis cativos
(Callithrix penicillata) a tr8s diferentes tamanhos de
Pires, M. R. S. and Garavello, J. C. Comparando caracteres
comportamentais e morfol6gicos como indicadores de
filogenia em Callitrichinae, p.81.
Pires, M. R. S. and Roque, F. O. Fauna de primatas no Parque
Estadual do JaraguA, Sdo Paulo SP, p.63.
Pissinatti, A., Coimbra-Filho, A. E, Rylands, A. B. and Rubiao,
E. C. N. Reproducgo em cativeiro de Cebus apella robustus
(Kuhl, 1820) (Primates: Cebidae), pp.81-82.
Pissinatti, A., Burity C. H. F. and Mandarim-de-Lacerda C.A.
Alterag6es morfol6gicas e morfomdtricas na aorta toricica
relacionadas a idade em Leontopithecus (Lesson, 1840) (Pri-
mates: Callitrichidae), pp.27-28.
Pissinatti, A., Coimbra-Filho, A. F, Rylands, A.B. and Rubiao
E. C. N. Parto gemelar em Cebus xanthostemos (Wied, 1820)
(Primates: Cebidae), p.82.
Prado, E and Valladares-Padua, C. Ecologia alimentar de um
grupo de mico-ledo-da-cara-preta, Leontopithecus caissara
(Primates: Callitrichidae) no Parque Nacional do Superagiii,
Guaraquegaba-PR, Brasil, p.61.
Printes, R. C. A primatologia no sul do Brasil: das pesquisas
de campo as estrategias conservacionistas, p.21.
Printes, R. C. and Strier, K. B. Conseqiiencias da dispersed de
femeas em muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides, E. Geoffroy
1806) para a sua conservagqo, p.49.
Sammarco, Y. M., Jerusalinsky, L., Mattevi, M. S. and Freitas,
T. R. O. Projeto macacos urbanos extraqco de UNA a partir
de fezes de rugio-ruivo (Alouattafusca), p.77.
Raboy, B. E. and Dietz, J. M. The use of pristine and disturbed
forests by wild golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus
chrysomelas) in Una, Brazil, p.68.
Resende, B. D. de and Ottoni, E. B. Aprendizagem de uma
tarefa cor trincos por dois grupos de macacos-prego (Cebus
Resende, M.C., Akenaton, B., Torres, R. and Tomaz, C.
Aprendizagem de discriminaqco concorrente e formaqao de
"Learning set" em Cebus apella Juvenis, p.35.
Rfmoli, J. and Lynch, J. W. Demografiade um grupo de macacos
pregos (Cebus apella nigritus, Primates: Cebidae) na Estagco
Biol6gica de Caratinga, Minas Gerais, p.71.
Rosa-e-Silva, A. A. M. Dominancia e atresia folicular.
Implica~ges no sucesso reprodutivo, p.17.
Ruiz-Garcfa, M. and Alvarez, D. Partial phylogenetic analysis
of five Colombian species (Cebus albifrons, Cebus apella,
Saimiri sciureus, Lagothrix lagotricha and Alouatta
seniculus) and divergence times between species and gen-
era using RFLP's on mtDNA, p.76.
Ruiz-Garcfa, M., Castillo, M. L, Alvarez, D. and Gardeazbal, J.
Reconstruction of partial platyrrhine phylogeny using seven
mocrosatelliteloci (AP40, AP68, D5S117, D17S804, D52111,
D6S260 and D14S51) with seven different Colombian pri-
mate species (Cebus albifrons, Cebus apella, Saimiri
sciureus, Alouatta seniculus, Lagothrix lagotricha, Ateles
fusciceps and Ateles belzebuth), pp.75-76.
Ruiz-Miranda, C. R., Kleiman, D. G., Moraes, E. and Grativol,
A. D. Conspicuidade na comunicacqo dos filhotes do mico-
leao dourado, p.20.
Ruiz-Miranda, C. R., Kleiman, D. G., Moraes, E. and Grativol,
A. D. Diferengas da comunicaqao entire primates nascidos
em cativeiro e primatas selvagens, pp.44-45.
Rylands, A. B. A diversidade de primatas neotropicais: nome
filogeografia e a abordagem de evidencia total, p. 18.
Rylands, A. B. Perspectivas para a conservaqao de primatas
Sales, L. 0. and Guedes, P. G. Avaliaqgo cladistica das
evidencias morfol6gicas na reconstruqAo filogendtica de
Santana, O .A. and Santee, D. P. Variaqio do deslocamento em
fungCo do tempo nos registros mensais de um grupo de
mico-estr8la (Callithrixpenicillata), p.67.
Santee, D.P. O repert6rio vocal e a busca de assinaturas vocais:
Relevancia te6rica e dificuldades operacionais, p.19.
Santos, C. V. Monitoramento hormonal e primatas criados em
Santos, G.R. dos and Blanes, J. J. Educaqdo ambiental como
estrat6gia de conservaqco dos remanescentes de Mata
AtlAntica confrontantes a Reserva Biol6gica de Una BA,
Santos, S. M. C., Nogueira, C. P, Strier, K. B. and Carvalho, A.
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Santos, S. M. C., Nogueira, C. P, Strier, K. B. and Carvalho, A.
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Schneider, H. A gendtica e a conservaqao de primates, p.24.
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SeuAnez, H. N. Filogenias moleculares dos primatas
Silva Jdnior, J. de S. and Martins, E. de S. Sobre uma nova
populaqao de uacaris-brancos (Cacajao calvus calvus) na
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Silva Jtinior, J. de S. Novos dados sobre ocorrencias e uso de
habitat pelo sagiii-do-nordeste, Callithrixjacchus (Primates:
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sagtiis Callithrixjacchus (Primates: Callitrichidae) no Cam-
pus do PICI- UFC, pp.62-63.
Sousa, M. B. C. Coleta de fezes em primatas de pequeno porte
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Souza, L. L. and Ferrari, S. F. The role of red-handed howler
monkeys (Alouatta belzebul) as seed dispersers in south-
eastern Amazonia (Ferreira Penna Scientific Station,
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Souza, R. M. M. and Arruda, M. F. Distribuiqlo do carregar e
o perfil de atividades dos cuidadores em duas proles de
filhote tnico e uma de genero, de Callithrix jacchus em
ambiente natural, pp.37-38.
Souza, R. M. M. and Arruda, M. F. Uma abordagem
comportamental dos custos relacionados h reproduqo e ao
cuidado A prole em um grupo silvestre de Callithrixjacchus,
Strier, K. B. Reproductive ecology of new world monkeys,
Talebi-Gomes, M. and Ades, C. Preferencia manual de muriquis
selvagens (Brachyteles arachnoides Primates: Atelidae)
durante a coleta de alimento, p.34.
Talebi-Gomes, M. Fatores que afetam a escolha do alimento
em muriquis selvagens (Brachyteles arachnoides Primates:
Atelidae): Dados preliminares sobre o conteido nutncional
Tavares, M. C. H. and Menna-Barreto, L. S. Ritmos de
desempenho e tempo de reaqdo em primatas (C. apella),
Tomaz, C. and Tavares, M. C. H. Investigating cognitive learn-
ing in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), p.16.
Tomaz, C., Aguiar, L. and Tavares, M. C. Efeitos da prAtica
sobre a preferencia manual numa tarefa de discriminacdo
visual em Cebus apella, pp.41-42.
Tramonte, R., Hirano, Z. M. B.; Siquinelli, F.; Demarch, R. B.
and Wanke, E. AnAlise histol6gica das glandulas cutaneas
de Alouatta fusca clamitans, p.27.
Valenga, M. M., Oliveira, J. B. and Monteiro da Cruz, M. A. O.
Infecqio natural por Trypanosoma sp. em Callithrixjacchus
de vida livre, p.56.
Valenqa, M. M., Oliveira, J. B., Monteiro da Cruz, M. A. 0., and
Silva, L. B. G. Parasitismo por Acaro em Callithrixjacchus
de vida livre na Estaqio Ecol6gica do TapacurA, Pemambuco,
Valladares-PAdua, C., Martins, C., Cullen Jr., L., Padua, S. and
Morato, I. A conservaqao dos micos-le6es-pretos
(Leontopithecus chrysopygus) em regiao de reform agraria
no oeste de Sao Paulo, p.54.
Veado, E. M. V., Braganca, A. M. and Abdala, R. A recuperaqao
de Areas perturbadas: "Corredores ecol6gicos" na Fazenda
Montes Claros/Estagdo Biol6gica de Caratinga, pp.47-48.
Neotropical Primates 7(4), December 1999
Veracini, C and Omedes, A. Callithrix argentata vocaliza-
tions: A comparison between captive and field studies, pp.43-
Verona, C. E. and Ruiz-Miranda, C. Relago entire medidas de
condig6es ffsicas e estado clinico em mico-leoes-dourado
Leontopithecus rosalia e sagiii-de-tufo-branco Callithrix
jacchus em vida livre, p.60.
Verona, C. E. S., Chame, M., Ruiz-Miranda,C., Dietz, J. and
Beck, B. Exames parasitol6gicos de mico-leao-dourado
Leontopithecus rosalia e sagiii-do-tufo-branco Callithrix
jacchus em vida livre, como indicadores da qualidade do
Vilela, S. L. and Faria, D. S. de. Especies vegetais consumidas
por Callithrixpenicillata (Primates: Callitrichidae) em Areas
de cerrado e cerradao no Distrito Federal, pp.64-65
Vilela, S. L. andFaria, D. S. de. Padres de floraqao e frutificaqAo
de espdcies de cerrado e cerradao utilizadas no alimento por
Callithrixpenicillata (Primates: Callitrichidae), p.64.
Vilela, S. L. and Faria, D.S. de. Aspectos comportamentais de
dois grupos de Callithrix penicillata (Primates:
Callitrichidae) em cerrado denso e cerradao e comparaqao
entire estagao seca e chuvosa, p.64.
Visalberghi, E. Extracting information from seeing: The case of
capuchin monkeys, pp.15-16.
Yamamoto, M. E. Avangos nos estudos do comportamento
social de calitriquideos, p.23.
Ziegler, T. E. Comparison of captive and field fecal hormonal
values in non-human primates provides an important tool
for primate health and conservation, p.17.
Zunino, G. E., GonzAlez, V., Kowalewski, M. M. and Bravo, S. P.
Alouatta caraya Relations among habitat, density and
social organization, p.70.
Zunino, G. E., Kowalewski, M. M., Gonzdlez, V. and Bravo, S. P.
Analyses of births in Alouatta caraya related to the sea-
sonal variation in the availability of food, p.70.
Primate Society of GreatBritain Millenium Meeting, 1 April
2000, Flett Lecture Theatre, British Museum (Natural History),
London. The theme of the meeting is "Primates: Our past,
their future". It will be a public understanding of science/
primatology event, and will be associated with the Natural
History Museum's two-week millennium celebration. Speakers
will include Mike Bruford (Institute of Zoology), Robin Dunbar
(University of Liverpool), John Fleagle (SUNY at Stony Brook),
Phyllis Lee (University of Cambridge), and Steve Mithen
(University of Reading). For more information, please contact:
Dr. Mark Collard, Department of Anthropology, University
College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK, Tel:
+44 (0)171 380 7842, Fax: +44 (0)171 380 7728, e-mail:
2000 Workshop of the European Marmoset Research Group
(EMRG): Inter-disciplinary Research and Training in
Primate Biological and Biomedical Research, 3-5 April 2000,
Forest Hill Hotel, Citd des Sciences, Paris. Funded by the
European Commission Human Potential Programme. Keynote
e. P 4 D
lectures, paper sessions and roundtable discussion sessions
will be held on the following topics: Behavioural Neuroscience,
Genetics, Immunology, Laboratory technology/management,
Pharmacology, Reproduction, Toxicology and Wildlife biology.
For more information, please contact: Dr. Annette M. Domeney,
Secretary EMRG, Neurofit, rue J. Sapidus, Pare d'Innovation,
67400 Ilkirch, France. EMRG web page:
69th Annual Meeting American Association of Physical
Anthropologists, 12-15 April 2000, Adam's Mark Hotel,
Riverwalk, San Antonio, Texas. Forprogram information: Mark
Teaford, Department of Cell Biology & Anatomy, Johns
Hopkins University, School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street,
Baltimore, MD 21205, USA, Tel: 410 955 7034, Fax: 410 955
4129, e-mail: . Local arrangements: Sarah
Williams Blangero, Department of Genetics, Southwest
Foundation for Biomedical Research, P. O. Box 760549, San
Antonio, TX 78245-0549, USA, Tel: 210 258 9434, Fax: 210 670
3317, e-mail: .
Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour General
Meeting, 17-19 April 2000, University of Sheffield, UK. Please
contact: Dr. M. Siva-Jothy, Department of Animal and Plant
Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2UQ, UK, e-
International Conference The Apes: Challenges for the 21st
Century, 10-13 May 2000, Brookfield Zoo, Brookfield. Keynote
speakers include: David J. Chivers (lesser apes); Carel van
Schaik (orangutans); Gay Reinartz (bonobos); Claudia
Olejnickzak (gorillas); and Toshishada Nishida (chimpanzees).
The plenary speaker is Russell A. Mittermeier (Chair, PSG and
Conservation International). Immediately following the
Conference, the Lincoln Park Zoo, Chicago, will host the North
American Ape Taxon Advisory Group meetings. Information
on registration and submission of abstracts: Ape Conference
Planning Committee, Brookfield Zoo, Brookfield, Illinois 60513-
0719, USA, Tel: 708 485-0263 x 604, Fax: 708 485-3140, e-mail:
EcoSummit 2000: Integrating the Sciences, 18-22 June 2000,
Halifax, Nova Scotia. The theme is "Understanding and
Solving Environmental Problems in the 21st Century". For
more information: Amy Richardson, EcoSummit 2000
Secretariat, Elsevier Science, The Boulevard, Langford Lane,
Kidlington,Oxford OX5 1GB, UK, Tel: +44 (0)1865 843643, Fax:
+44 (0)1865 843958, e-mail: , or
in North America to: EcoSummit 2000 Seceteriat, PO Box 1656,
New York, NY 10116-1656, USA. Website:
American Society of Primatologists 2000 Meeting, 21-24
June, Regal Harvest House, Boulder, Colorado. The web site
for the hotel is (under ho-
tel directory click on boulder) and information regarding the
Boulder area can be located at
@chamber.boulder.co.us>. Local Arrangements Chair: Mark
Laudenslager. For preliminary information on the meeting itself:
3rd International Symposium-Workshop onFrugivores and
Seed Dispersal: Biodiversity and Conservation Perspectives,
6-11 August, 2000, Hotel Fazenda Fonte Colina Verde, Sao
Pedro, Sao Paulo, Brazil. For more information: Museu de His-
t6ria Natural, Instituto de Biologia, UNICAMP, Caixa Postal
6109,13083-970 Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, Fax: (019) 289-
3214, e-mail: . Web site:
Measuring Behavior 2000 3rd International Conference
on Methods and Techniques in Behavioral Research, 15-18
August, 2000, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. For more
information: Wineke Schoo, Measuring Behavior 2000, PO Box
268 6700, AG Wageningen, The Netherlands, Tel: +31 317
497677, Fax: +31317 424496, e-mail: , or
. Web site:
European Federation of Primatology Meeting, 27-29
November, 2000, London, UK. Monday, 27 November there
will be a series of workshops, each run by two eminent
primatologists. Further details can be obtained from Ann
MacLanon, School of Life Sciences, Roehampton Institute,
West Hill, London, SW15 3SN, U.K. Tel.: +44 (0) 20 8392 3524,
During the following two days (28-29 November), a total of 14
to 16 talks will be given by invited speakers at the Meeting
Rooms of the Zoological Society of London in Regent's Park,
London. The main themes will be: Ecology and Conservation,
Reproduction and Mating Systems, Evolution and Biology,
and Cognition and Conflict. Further details about this part of
the conference may be obtained from Hilary Box, Department
of Psychology, University of Reading, Whitenights, Reading,
RG62AL,U.K.Tel.: +44(0)1189316668,Fax: +44(0)1189316715,
British Ecological Society '2000' Winter Meeting, 3-5
January 2001, University of Birmingham, England, UK. For
more information: British Ecological Society, 26 Blades Court,
Deodar Road, Putney, London SW15 2NU, England, UK.
XVIIIth Congress of the International Primatological Society,
7-12 January 2001, Adelaide, Australia. Hosted by the
Australasian Primate Society, President Mr. John Lemon,
Western Plains Zoo, Dubbo, NSW. Theme: "Primates in the
New Millenium". Mr. Graeme Crook is Chairman of the
Organizing Committee. Symposia Participants wishing to
register a symposium title must submit a 200 word abstract by
31 July 1999. E-mail to Carla Litchfield .
Titles of accepted symposia will be published on the webpage
from August 1999. Papers An abstract of 100 words is required.
E-mail to Carla Litchfield . Closing date
for first call for papers: 31 January 2000. Closing date for
second call for papers: 31 May 2000. A final list of papers will
be published on the Internet by 30 June 2000. For more
information, and to be put onto the Congress Organizer's
mailing list, write to: Conventions Worldwide, PO Box 44,
Neotropical Primates 7(4), December 1999
Page 148 Neotropical Primates 7(4), December 1999
Rundle Mall, SA 5000, Australia, Tel: +618 8363 0068, Fax: +61
8 8363 0354, e-mail: , sending your
International Conference "Ecology of Insular Biotas", 12-16
February 2001, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington,
New Zealand. Focus: ecological patterns and processes of
importance to isolated biotas, including true islands, and na-
tural and artificial habitat islands. Examples of topics for papers
include: dispersal and gene flow within and among isolated
populations; ecology of small populations; ecological
consequences of disharmonic floras and faunas; the relevance
of island biogeography principles in conservation; islands as
model ecosystems; and comparative ecology of true islands
vs. habitat islands. Abstracts may be submitted electronically
on the webpage (http://www.vuw.ac.nz/sbs/conferences/
island.shtml) and submitting the requested information to
email@example.com>. Deadline for abstracts is 1 October
2000. If web access is not available, contact Dr. Christa Mulder,
School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of
Wellington, PO. Box 600, Wellington, New Zealand. The com-
plete scientific program will be available on the conference
website by 15 November 2000.
14th Annual Meeting of the Society for Tropical Ecology, 14-
16 February 2001, Zentrum ftir Marine Tropen6kologie (Center
for Marine Tropical Ecology), Bremen, Germany. Topics:
Aquatic ecosystems, Neotropics, Interdisciplinary research.
Free topics in tropical ecology.Contact: Zentrum fiir Marine
Tropen6kologie, Fahrenheitstr. 1, D-28359 Bremen, Germany,
Tel: +49 421-2380-029, Fax: +49 421-2208-330, e-mail:<
Besides short articles, principally on the ecology, distribu-
tions, taxonomy and conservation of New World primates, we
would be most grateful if you could send us information on
projects, research groups, expeditions, surveys, events, re-
cent publications, completed theses and dissertations, activi-
ties of primatological societies and NGOs, news items, con-
siderations on, or summaries of, recent events, and suchlike.
Manuscripts should double spaced and accompanied by the
text in diskette for PC-compatible text-editors, MS-Word,
Wordperfect. Articles, not generally exceeding 8 pages, double
spaced, can include black and white photographs, high qual-
ity figures and maps, tables and references, but please keep
them to a minimum. A special plea regarding maps please
make sure they are of publishable quality. The large majority
submitted, including those on the backs of envelopes, are
Please send contributions to: Anthony B. Rylands, Center for
Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International, 2501
M Street NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20037, USA, Tel: +1
202 9749714,Fax: +1 2023310570, orErnesto Rodriguez Luna,
Institute de Neuroetologia, Universidad Veracruzana, Aparta-
do Postal 566, Xalapa, Veracruz 91000, Mexico, Fax: +52 (28)
Liliana Cortis-Ortiz (Universidad Veracruzana) provides
invaluable editorial assistance.
Correspondence, messages and texts can be sent to:
Neotropical Primates is produced in collaboration with
Conservation International, Center for Applied Biodiversity
Science, 2501 M Street NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20037,
USA, and Fundacao Biodiversitas, Av. do Contorno 9155, 110
andar, Prado, Belo Horizonte, 30110-130, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Design and composition: Glenda P. Fabregas, Center for Ap-
plied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International, Wash-
NeotropicalPrimates ISSN 1413-4703.
Abbreviated title: Neotrop. Primates.
Neotropical Primates 7(4), December 1999
Anthony Rylands/Ernesto Rodriguez Luna, Editors
Center for Applied Biodiversity Science (CABS)
2501 M Street, NW, Suite 200
IUCN/SSC Washington, DC 20037
[BIVoDIV ARSITY __S_____ _____
This issue of Neotropical Primates was kindly sponsored by the Margot Marsh Biodiversity
Foundation, 432 Walker Road, Great Falls, Virginia 22066, USA, the Houston Zoological Gar-
dens Conservation Program, General Manager Donald G. Olson, 1513 North MacGregor, Hous-
ton, Texas 77030, USA, the Los Angeles Zoo, Director Manuel Mollinedo, 5333 Zoo Drive, Los
Angeles, California 90027, USA and the Grupo de Trabalho em Biodiversidade (GTB), through
the Brazilian National Science Research Council (CNPq), Gustavo A.B.da Fonseca, Coordenador
do GTB, c/o Conservation International do Brasil, Avenida Ant6nio Abrahao Caram 820/302,31275-
00 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.