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Title: Neotropical primates
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098814/00028
 Material Information
Title: Neotropical primates a newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCNSSC Primate Specialist Group
Abbreviated Title: Neotrop. primates
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
Conservation International
Center for Applied Biodiversity Science
Publisher: Conservation International
Place of Publication: Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Publication Date: March 1999
Frequency: quarterly
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Primates -- Periodicals -- Latin America   ( lcsh )
Primates -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Wildlife conservation -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: review   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Brazil
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Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Language: English, Portuguese, and Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Mar. 1993)-
Issuing Body: Issued jointly with Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, <Dec. 2004->
General Note: Published in Washington, D.C., Dec. 1999-Apr. 2005 , Arlington, VA, Aug. 2005-
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 13, no. 1 (Apr. 2005).
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098814
Volume ID: VID00028
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28561619
lccn - 96648813
issn - 1413-4705

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Table of Contents
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    Back Cover
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Full Text


ISSN 1413-4703








A Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group

Editors: Anthony B. Rylands and Ernesto Rodrfguez Luna
PSG Chairman: Russell A. Mittermeier
PSG Deputy Chairman: Anthony B. Rylands


K.


SPECIES SURVIVAL
COMMISSION


FUNDAQAO
BIODIVERSITAS






Neotropical Primates 7(1), March 1999 Page 1


OBSERVACIONES PRELIMINARES SOBRE LA DIETA DE
CACAJAO CALVUS UCAYALII EN EL NOR-ORIENTE
PERUANO
Rolando Aquino
Filomeno Encarnacidn
Introducci6n
De las cuatro subespecies de Cacajao calvus hasta ahora
reconocidas (Hershkovitz, 1987), C. c. calvus, es la tnica,
cuya ecologia y dindmica poblacional fue estudiada en
detalle; las otras species, entire ellas C. calvus ucayalii,
son muy poco conocidas debido a las dificultades que el
medio natural present para estudiarla. La escasa
informaci6n sobre C. c. ucayalii estA referida a la
distribuci6n geogrAfica y densidad poblacional (Aquino,
1988; Puertas y Bodmer, 1993), conduct y components
alimenticios (Bartecki y Heymann, 1987; Heymann, 1989,
1990), los mismos que derivaron de encuentros
circunstanciales durante la ejecuci6n de otros studios de
la fauna silvestre.
El interns cientffico por lainformaci6n ecol6gicareferida al
taxon, sobre alimentaci6n, tambidn es important por su
relaci6n con conservaci6n, p. ej. la determinaci6n de
species de plants usadas por C. c. ucayalii, que esta
ligados a la economic de subsistencia de los habitantes
riberefios de la region amaz6nica. Estas justificaciones y
debido a la escasa informaci6n motivaron para realizar
intensas exploraciones en los bosques del drea de studio,
desde Junio de 1993 a Agosto de 1994 y de Diciembre de
1994 aMayode 1995, con lafinalidad de recopilarinformaci6n
eto-ecol6gica. Se present un advance sobre de los registros
de plants cuyos frutos y otras parties forman parte de la
dieta de C. c. ucayalii en la Amazonia nororiental del Perd.


Figura 1. Areas de studio de Cacajao calvus ucayalii: 1. Quebrada Bla
Comunal Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo. 2. Agua Negra, rio Yavarf. 3. Carolin,
Mirf.


Area deEstudio
Los studios fueron ejecutados en la quebrada Blanco,
situada al sureste de Iquitos (aprox. 04023'S y 7255'0),
comprensi6n de la Reserva Comunal Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo,
y los bosques entire Agua Negra y Carolina, cuenca del rfo
Yavarf, situado al noreste de Iquitos (4030'S y 7143'O),
(Fig. 1). El bosque primario en su mayor parte corresponde
al denominado "bosque de altura" (Encamaci6n, 1985,1993)
cuyos Arboles alcanzan entire 20 a 30 m. de alto, con algunos
emergentes que superan los 40 m. En general el bosque
present un aspect alterado, con numerosas trochas y
senderos de uso por los cazadores, de modo que la
presencia de animals escasa, particularmente en la
quebrada Blanco, como consecuencia de la alta presi6n de
caza que tambi6n afecta a C. c. ucayalii.
Material y Metodos
En base a las informaciones sobre el bosque habitat y las
visualizaciones directs de alguna manada en anteriores
ocasiones, se procedi6 a la bdsqueda y localizaci6n de los
individuos. El primer paso fue el entrenamiento para
reconocer las huellas dejadas por Cacajao en los frutos y
semillas por las mordeduras y otras marcas. Luego se
procedi6 a la apertura de transectos paralelos y
perpendiculares, sistema de cuadrantes en mas de 70 km.,
cuyas longitudes fluctuaron desde 2.0 a 8.8 km., los que
sumados alas trochas antiguas hicieron un total aproximado
de 110 km. Luego siguiendo los transectos y trochas, las
caminatas fueron a una velocidad lenta de 1.5 km./hora,
con pausas y detenciones de 2 a 3 minutes, de modo que
en el silencio percibir las vocalizaciones y ruidos
ocasionados por los saltos o cafda de restos de frutos y
ramas o bejucos secos. El hallazgo de frutos y sus restos al
pie del Arbol, fue registrado y tomado en cuenta, con mayor
detalle en los casos de inmaduros, de manera que siguiendo
la direcci6n de los arboles con frutos recidn comidos. Una
vez que un grupo fue contactado, se procedi6 al seguimiento
sigiloso durante el mayor tiempo possible. Estos tiempos de
contacts variaron de escasos 35 minutes a 7.0 horas;
solamente en ocasiones se logr6 el seguimiento
desde que salieron de sus Arboles de dormir
hasta su instalaci6n en otros nuevos Arboles al
N anochecer, cuyos tiempos de actividad fueron
de 12.2 horas en Julio y 12.4 horas en Febrero.
Desde el primer encuentro ocurrido en Julio de
_, 1993, cada vez que estos primates se hallaban
comiendo en algdn drbol, se procedi6 de manera
simultanea, al registro de los frutos comidos, al
registro de patr6n de actividades, y a la
tipificaci6n de bosques que conforman el
habitat. Los restos de frutos caidos al suelo
fueron colectados en bolsas de polietileno con
IAZIL anotaci6n de la plant (arbol, arbusto, bejuco)
en fructificaci6n y sus caracteristicas, el estado
de madurez o inmadurez, la parte comida y el
inco. Reserva color del exocarpio. En el campamento, la
a, rio Yavar- r
colecta fue rotulada con una numeracidn


Cover photograph by Russell A. Mittermeier: A juvenile Guiana spider monkey, Ateles paniscus.


Neotropical Pritnates 7(1), March 1999


Page 1






Neotropical Primates 7(1), March 1999


Tabla 1. Especies de plants en la dieta de C. calvus ucayalii en el nor-oriente peruano.
Especle N* Parte comida Textura Tamaflo (cm)
registro M S A Long. x Grosor


Apocynaceae
Couma macrocarpa*
Lacmelea sp.
Parahancornia sp.*
Rhigospira sp.*
Arecaceae
Jessenia bataua*
Mauritia flexuosa*
Cecropiaceae
Pourouma tomentosa
Chrysobalanaceae
Licania micrantha
Cyclantaceae
No identificado
Euphorbiaceae
Hevea brasiliensis
Micrandra spruceana
Onetaceae
Gnetum sp. 1
Gnetum sp. 2
Humiriaceae
Vantanea sp.
Vantanea spichigeri
Vantanea tuberculata
Icacinaceae
No identificado
Lecythidaceae
Eschweilera sp.
Eschweilera corrugata
Eschweilera chartaceae
Leguminosae
Inga sp. 1*
Inga sp. 2*
Pakia multijuga
Hymenaea courbaril*
Hymenaea oblongifolia*
Loganiaceae
Strychnos sp.
Meliaceae
Guarea sp.
Menispermaceae
Abuta grandifolia
Abuta sp.
Moraceae
Clarisia biflora
Brosimum rubescens
Myristicaceae
Iryanthera sp.
Iryanthera tricornis
Myrtaceae
Calycorectes sp.
Passifloraceae
Passflora sp. 1*
Passiflora sp. 2*
Rhizophoraceae
Sterigmapetalum sp.
Sapindaceae
Paullinia sp.
Sapotaceae
Chrysophyllum sp. 1
Chrysophyllum sp. 2
Ecclinusa sp. 1*
Ecclinusa sp. 2*
Micropholis sp.
Pouteria sessilis*
Pouteria sanguinolenta*
Pouteria sp. 1*
Pouteria sp. 2*


5
2
8
3


lm 5
2i
lm 5
1m 5


3 3i
12 3i


4.0 x 4.2 (n = 3)
4.1 x 4.0 (n = 4)
4.7 x 5.5 (n = 3)
6.5 x 5.3 (n = 2)


c 2.1 x 1.4 (n = 6)
c 3.9 x 2.5 (n = 12)

a 1.9 x 0.8 (n = 10)


1.8 x 1.1 (n = 8)


a 1.5 x 1.7 (n = 8)

c 6.5 x 5.7 (n = 1)
a 1.7 x 1.5 (n = 5)

c 2.1 x 0.5 (n = 4)
c 3.0 x 1.3 (n = 3)


d
d
d

im c
lm c
c
c
c


2 1m


4 1m

3 1m
1 1m


6.3 x 4.5 (n = 5)
5.9 x 3.2 (n = 12)
5.8 x 5.1 (n = 5)

1.5 x 1.8 (n = 2)

4.1 x 3.2 (n = 5)
3.8 x 3.4 (n = 6)
4.3 x 3.9 (n = 11)

8.1 x 0.1 (n = 6)
20.2 x 2.5 (n = 2)
30.0 x 4.8 (n = 3)
4.4 x 2.1 (n = 3)
3.4 x 2.1 (n = 7)


c 2.3 x 2.1 (n = 6)

d 2.4 x 2.3 (n = 4)

c 2.7 x 1.9 (n = 15)
c 1.5 x 0.5 (n = 9)

c 1.6 x 1.4 (n = 9)
c 1.5 x 1.5 (n= 7)

c 1.9 x 2.1 (n =6)
c 1.5 x 2.5 (n = 3)

a 1.6 x 1.0 (n = 6)

b 6.8 x 5.5 (n = 3)
b 8.8 x 5.5 (n = 2)

c 1.9 x 0.9 (n = 4)

c 4.0 x 0.9 (n = 4)


1m
4i
1m 4i
1m 4i
1m
1m 4i
4i
1m 4i
Im 4i


7.2 x 6.2 (n = 3)
6.0 x 5.1 (n = 4)
3.9 x 3.8 (n = 7)
3.6 x 3.5 (n = 9)
1.3 x 1.4 (n = 8)
3.0 x 3.9 (n = 4)
5.1 x 4.2 (n = 6)
5.1 x 2.7 (n = 6)
5.2 x 4.2 (n = 4)


Cont.


Page 2








Tabla 1. Cont.
Pouteria sp. 3* 4 4i d 2.8 x 2.4 (n = 8)
Violaceae
Leonia sp. 1 1 Im c 2.3 x 2.2 (n = 2)
Leonia sp. 2 1 1m c 2.6 x 2.2 (n = 2)
No determinado 1 2 Im c 7.3 x 6.9 (n = 3)
No determinado 2 3 3i a 1.6 x 1.6 (n = 5)
No determinado 3 2 2i d 1.9 x 2.3 (n = 5)
M: Mesocarpio. S: semilla. A: arilo; m: maduro. i: inmaduro; 1: dulce. 2: Acido. 3: astringente. 4:
insfpido. 5: engullido y eliminado en las heces; a: ciscara delgada y texture suave. b: cascara gruesa
y textura suave. c: cdscara delgada y textura dura y d: cascara gruesa y textura dura. Utilizada por
los habitantes ribereflos en la dieta alimenticia.
Tabla 2. Sabores y estado de las parties u 6rganos de los frutos comidos por C. c. ucayalii en las Areas
de studio.
Partes No. de species Partes No. de species
Mesocarpio dulce 24 Mesocarpio maduro 23
Mesocarpio astringente 2 Mesocarpio inmaduro 5
Mesocarpio insipido 2 Arilo maduro 2
Arilo dulce 2 Semilla inmadura 2
Semilla Acida 2 Semilla madura 22
Semillas astringente 6 Semilla madura./inmadura 1
Semilla insipida 18
Total: 56 Total 55


correlativa, correspondiente al registro cronol6gico de la
libreta de campo; luego se les afiadi6 alcohol absolute como
preservante. Dicha colecta se halla depositada en la
Estaci6n Experimental del Tr6pico del C.I. Institute
Veterinario de Investigaciones Tropicales y de Altura de la
Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, con sede en
Iquitos.
El tratamiento sistemdtico de las muestras fue por
comparaci6n con el material de referencia del Centro de
Reproducci6n y Conservaci6n de Primates no Humanos y
del Herbarium Amazonense (AMAZ) de la Universidad
Nacional de la Amazonia. En algunos casos fueron tiles
las claves y descripciones segdn Spichiger et al. (1989,
1990).
Resultados
Especies utilizadas en la alimentaci6n
Durante el perfodo de studio fue observado y registrado a
individuos de C. c. ucayalii en 171 oportunidades comiendo
los frutos de 53 species de plants correspondientes a
mas de 20 families (Tabla 1). Los taxa con mayor diversidad
de species fueron las sapotficeas con 10, las leguminosas
con 5, las apocindceas con 4, las moriceas y lecitiddceas
con 3 cada una. Sin embargo, las species de Pouteria,
Vantanea, Eschweilera, Abuta y Mauritia flexuosa, fueron
los mas importantes, tanto por el mayor ndmero de registros
como porque fueron constantes, en casi todo el afio (Tablas
1 y 3), except la dltima especie citada.
De los frutos registrados, los de unas 20 species forman
parte de la dieta y de la economfa de subsistencia de los
habitantes ribereflos. Entre ellas estfn Mauritia flexuosa,
Jessenia bataua y Couma macrocarpa; las mismas que
tambi6n tienen gran demand y aceptaci6n en los mercados
de las ciudades como Iquitos, Requena y Contamana. Sin
dudas, la colecta y el comercio de los frutos de M. flexuosa
es de much importancia en el flujo econ6mico de los
riberefilos, las mismas que imponen la tumba de millares de


arboles cada afio; derivando en una sobre explotaci6n que
original en algunos casos la extinci6n local.
Disponibilidad estratificada de los frutos
Los frutos de la mayorfa de las species de plants de la
dieta de C. c. ucayalii se hallan entire 16 a 35 m de alto;
solamente los de Hevea brasiliensis, Jessenia bataua y
Micrandra spruceana prosperan por debajo de los 15 m
(minimo 7 m), mientras que los drboles emergentes, de
Vantanea sp. y otra "no determinada", estdn encima de los
35 m de alto.
Tamafio y textura de los frutos
Los frutos comidos variaron en tamafio y textura segdn la
especie. El tamafio de los frutos mas pequefios, como
Micropholis sp. y Pourouma tomentosa, alcanzaron
medidas hasta 1.1 cm de longitud y 2.0 cm de didmetro; los
mis grandes, como Passiflora spp. y Chrysophyllum spp.,
midieron hasta 8.0 cm de longitud y 6.5 cm de diametro. No
obstante, el tamafio de la mayorfa de los frutos se encuentra
en el rango medio entire los mencionados (Tabla 1). Por la
textura, los frutos fueron clasificados en: a) cAscara delgada
y textura suave, b) cAscara gruesa y textura suave, c)
cascara delgada y texture dura y d) cascara gruesa y textura
dura. Del total de species registradas, 44 presentaron la
textura dura, y en la mayorfa de los casos, las parties m6s
utilizadas fueron las semillas inmaduras.
Partes comidas
Los registros preliminares indican que C. c. ucayalii se
alimenta principalmente del mesocarpio (50.0%) y de las
semillas (46.0%) (Tabla 2). El uso de las semillas inmaduras,
como Eschweilera spp., Pouteria spp. y otros, por
desgarramiento del mesocarpio de textura dura, son
facilitados por los grandes y fuertes caninos de Cacajao,
claro indicio de la anatomfa adaptada para el
aprovechamiento de estos tipos de semillas y frutos. De
los sabores convencionales establecidos, se infiere que
existe una mayor predisposici6n por los frutos con


Neotropical Primates 7(l), March 1999


Page 3






Page 4


mesocarpio maduro y dulce, y de semillas inmaduras e
insipidas. Ocasionalmente fueron observados
mordisqueando yemas y hojas tiernas de plants epffitas
de las families ciclantAceas y bromeliAceas, y flores de
bejucos y enredaderas, adn cuando no estamos seguros
de su ingesti6n.

Variaci6n estacional del consume

En el "bosque de altura" la producci6n de frutos ocurre
durante todo el aflo; no obstante, existe una estacionalidad
en la fructificaci6n con un minimo durante la estaci6n seca,
es decir entire Junio a Octubre y un mayor pico de
producci6n al final de la estaci6n lluviosa (Norconk, 1986;
Castro, 1991; Garber, 1993). En nuestro caso, observamos
gran variaci6n en el consumo, de la diversidad de las
species, de plants consumidas por C. c. ucayalii.
Mientras algunas species como p. ej. Vantanea spp,
Eschweilera spp. y Pouteria spp. fueron consumidas du-
rante 5 o 6 meses, el consume de otras species fue
observado solamente en uno o dos meses. Por otra parte, la
mayor diversidad de species fueron consumidas entire
Febrero-Marzo y Julio-Octubre (Tabla 3).

Discusi6n

La relative abundancia de frutos, de diversas species de
plants, utilizadas por C. c. ucayalii (53 species en 171
registros de alimentaci6n), comparadas a los registros de


Ayres (1986) y Ayres y Johns (1987) para C. c. calvus (100
species en 2345 registros de alimentaci6n), podrfa estar
relacionada con la diversidad floristica distinta entire los
bosques de altura y los de vdrzea, o a la diferente
metodologfa de registro aplicado en este studio. Pero, no
existe diferencias fundamentals en relaci6n alas principles
families que aportan con el mayor nmimero de species para
la dieta alimentaria para ambas subespecies.
De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos, la dieta
alimentaria de C. c. ucayalii mayormente est& compuesto
por el mesocarpio maduro y dulce y de semillas inmaduras
e insfpidas, correspondientes a frutos de tamafto median
y grande con cascara y textura gruesa y dura. Estos hallazgos
coinciden con los resultados de Ayres (1986) para C. c.
calvus, Bartecki y Heymann (1987) y Heymann (1989) para
C. c. ucayalii y Da Cunha y Barnett (1990) para C.
melanocephalus ouakary. El consumo de semillas, de
Eschweilera spp., Pouteria spp. y de otras, previo
desgarramiento del mesocarpio de textura dura, son
facilitados por los grandes y fuertes caninos como ocurre
en Cebus y Chiropotes (Kinzey and Norconk, 1990). Esa
forma de consume es el indicador de una adecuada
adaptaci6n para el aprovechamiento de este tipo de frutos.

Ayres (1986), sostiene que C. c. calvus tiene mayor
preferencia por los frutos grandes y de cescara gruesa con
alto contenido energ6tico. Al respect, en el "bosque de


Neotropical Primates 7(1), March 1999

Tabla 3. Registro mensual de frutos y semillas consumidos por C. c. ucayalii durante el perfodo de studio.
Especies Periodo de consumo*
F M A M J J A O
12.3 16 1.1 1.6 3.6 32 17 11.6**
Abuta spp. x x x x x
Brosimum rubescens x
Calycorectes sp. x x
Chrysophyllum spp. x x
Clarisia biflora x
Couma macrocarpa x x x
Ecclinusa spp. x x x x
Eschweilera spp. x x x x x
Gnetum sp. x x
Guarea sp. x
Hevea brasiliensis x
Hymenaea spp. x x
Icacinaceae x
Inga spp. x x
Iryanthera spp. x x
Jessenia bataua x x
Lacmellea sp. x
Licania micrantha x
Leonia spp. x
Mauritia flexuosa x x
Micrandra spruceana x
Micropholis spp. x
Parahancornia sp. x x
Parkia multijuga x x
Passiflora spp. x x
Paullinia sp.
Pourouma tomentosa x
Pouteria spp. x x x x x
Rhigospira sp. x
Sterigmapetalum obovatum x x
Strychnos spp. x x
Vantanea spp. x x x x x
* En Enero, Setiembre, Noviembre y Diciembre no hubo contact con grupos de C. c. ucayalii.
** Total mensual de horas de contact con grupos de C. c. ucayalii.






Neotropical Primates 7(1), March 1999

altura", C. c. ucayalii, se suministra esos nutrients de los
frutos de Mauritia flexuosa y Jessenia bataua,
particularmente entire los meses de Junio a Agosto,
coincidente con la estaci6n de escasez de otros frutos.
Agradecimientos
Este trabajo fue ejecutado con el apoyo econ6mico de la
Srta. Suzi Leonard del Detroit Zoo de Michigan, USA, y del
Gesellschaft flir Primatologie de Gottingen, Germany y
Zoologische Gesellschaft fur Arten-und Populationsschutz
de Munich, Germany, a quienes los autores agradecen.
Tambi6n nuestro reconocimiento al Dr. R. Bodmer del Tropi-
cal Conservation and Development Program, Universidad
de Florida, por su valioso apoyo logistico. Finalmente
agradecemos a los gufas de campo Juan Huanaquiri y Jeissen
Shahuano, con quienes compartimos gratas experiencias
durante las actividades de campo.
Rolando Aquino y Filomeno Encarnaci6n, C. I. Institute
Veterinario de Investigaciones Tropicales y de Altura,
Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos y Sociedad
Peruana de Primatologia, Apartado 575, Iquitos, Perd. E-
mail: .
Referencias
Aquino, R. 1988. Preliminary survey on the population den-
sities of Cacajao calvus ucayalii. Primate Conserva-
tion (9): 24-26.
Ayres, J. M. 1986. The conservation status of the white
uakari. Primate Conservation (7): 22-26.
Ayres, J. M. y Johns, A. D. 1987. Conservation of white
uakaries in Amazonian varzea. Oryx 21(2): 74-80.
Bartecki, U. y Heymann,E. W. 1987. Sightings of reduakaris,
Cacajao calvus rubicundus, at the Rio Blanco, Peruvian
Amazonia. Primate Conservation (8): 34-36.
Castro, R. 1991. Behavioral ecology of two coexisting tama-
rin species (Saguinusfuscicollis nigrifrons and Saguinus
mystax mystax, Callitrichidae, Primates) in Amazonian Peru.
Ph. D. Thesis, Washington University, Seattle.
Cunha da, A. C. y Barnett, A. 1990. Sightings of the golden-
backed uakari, Cacajao melanocephalus ouakari, on the
upper Rio Negro, Amazonas, Brazil. Primate Conserva-
tion (11): 8-11.
Encarnaci6n, F. 1985. Introducci6n a la flora y vegetaci6n
de la Amazonia peruana: estado actual de los studios en
su medio natural y ensayo de una clave de determinaci6n
delas formaciones vegetables en la llanura amaz6nica.
Candollea (40): 237-252.
Encarnaci6n, E 1994. Elbosque y las formaciones vegetables
en lallanura amaz6nica del Perd. Alma Mater (6): 95-114.
Garber, P. A. 1993. Seasonal patterns of diet and ranging in
two species of tamarin monkeys: Stability versus vari-
ability.Am. J. Primatol. 14(1): 145-166.
Heymann, E. W. 1989. Observaciones preliminares del mono
huapo rojo, Cacajao calvus ucayalii (Primates:
Platyrrhini), en el rio Blanco, Amazonia Peruana. Medio
Ambiente (10): 113-117.
Heymann, E. W. 1990.Further field notes on red uakaris,
Cacajao calvus ucayalii, from the Quebrada


Page 5


Blanco,Amazonian Peru. Primate Conservation (11): 7-8.
Hershkovitz, P. 1987. Uakaries, New World monkeys of the
genus Cacajao (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): A preliminary taxo-
nomic review with the description of a new subspecies.
Am. J. Primatol. 12: 1-53.
Kinzey, W. and Norconk, M. A. 1990. Hardness as a basis
of fruit choice in two sympatric primates. Am. J. Phys.
Anthropol. 81: 5-15.
Norconk, M. A. 1986. Interactions between primate species
in a neotropical forest: Mixed-species troops of Saguinus
mystax and Saguinus fuscicollis (Callitrichidae). Ph.D.
Thesis, University of California, Los Angeles.
Puertas, P. y Bodmer, R. 1993. Conservation of a high diver-
sity primate assemblage. Biodiversity and Conservation
2:586-593.
Spichiger, R., M6roz, J., Loizeau, P. y Stutz de Ortega, L.
1989. Contribuci6n a la Flora de la Amazonia Peruana:
Los Arboles del Arboretum Jenaro Herrera, Vol. 1.
Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques, Geneve.
Spichiger, R., M6roz, J., Loizeau, P. y Stutz de Ortega, L.
1990. Contribuci6n a la Flora de la Amazonia Peruana:
Los Arboles del Arboretum Jenaro Herrera, Vol. 2.
Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques, Geneve.

FISSION-FUSION IN THE BLACK-HEADED UACARI
(CACAJAO MELANOCEPHALUS) IN EASTERN
COLOMBIA
Thomas R. Defler
Introduction
Until recently little has been known about the behavior and
ecology of the pithecine species Cacajao melanocephalus,
which in Colombia does not seem to be particularly abun-
dant, besides being hunted by various indigenous ethnic
groups (Defler, 1991). The Colombian reality has resulted in
my suggestion that the Colombian status of the species
should be classified as "Vulnerable", using the IUCN sys-
tem (Defier, 1996).
Recently Boubli (1994, 1997, 1998) has begun reporting on
his recent study of northern Brazilian populations of this
primate, including the surprising observation that at his
study site no fission-fusion behavior was observed. I re-
port here on the extreme fission-fusion behavior commonly
observed in the Colombian population that I have been
observing for several years (Defier, 1989, 1991, in press).
Methods
The term "fission-fusion" in Primatology has most often
been used with respect to the primates Pan troglodytes
(common chimpanzee) and Ateles spp. (spider monkeys),
as discussed by Symington (1988, 1990). These primates
travel in subgroups varying in number, according to condi-
tions and decisions made by the individual animals. The
subgroups, however, belong to a large clan or group.
Symington (1987, 1988,1990) demonstrated ecological cor-
relates with group size inAteles chamek, particularly food






Page 6

crop size, while this type of grouping was first described in
Pan troglodytes by Nishida (1968), Wrangham (1977) and
Goodall (1986).
I use the term "fission-fusion" for any primate species that
is observed in groups which vary greatly in number in the
same area being studied. Thus, Cacajao melanocephalus,
which sometimes is observed as individuals or very small
groups and at other times is observed in seemingly cohe-
sive groups of 100 or more, are clearly exhibiting a fission-
fusion type of society.
When using the term fission-fusion I do not intimate any-
thing about the nature or make-up of the subgroups, as
this is still under study. Nevertheless, it is clear that the
larger groups of Cacajao melanocephalus are made up of
multiple adult males and females with young.
The Study Site
I have been observing Cacajao melanocephalus ouakary
on-and-off for more than seven years near the Estaci6n
Biol6gica Capard, a site in the Colombian Amazon near the
Brazilian border (Defier, 1999). I have accumulated more
than 1,800 observation hours (many informal observations
beginning as early as 1984 are not included in this count) of
the population found around Capard. The monkeys range
around an ancient oxbow lake formed from a meander of the
lower Rfo Apaporis (see Fig. 1).
During this time I have developed a trail system of about
100 km on inland forest and about 20 km in the local igap6
(black-water inundation forest), which has been used for
studies of several other primate species. Both al azar and
focus animal techniques have been used to monitor basic
activities.


Apaporis, Colombia.


Neotropical Primates 7(1), March 1999

Range of Group Size Observed
Cacafao melanocephalus


SO 50 -

I 0 .

1 2 3 4 5 6
Group Sizes
1=single animals; 2=2-10 animals; 3=11-20
animals; 4=21-30 animals; 5=31-100
animals; 6->100
Figure 2. The range of group sizes observed for Cacajao
melanocephalus at the Estaci6n Biol6gica Capard, Rio Apaporis,
Colombia.
The local primate community includes eight species: Aotus
sp., Saimiri sciureus, Callicebus torquatus, Cebus apella,
Cebus albifrons, Cacajao melanocephalus, Alouatta
seniculus and Lagothrix lagothricha.
Counting Monkeys
Several years ago, Dilver Pintor of the Colombian National
Park System and I discussed the difficulty of counting small
primate groups in forest habitat. We compared separate
counts to the actual number that had been determined for
several groups of several species and concluded that counts
in forests are notoriously unreliable (Defier and Pintor, 1985).
Most counts in this study were taken from a canoe as group
members passed by in typical fashion along the river edge,
so the counts represent in most cases a minimum estimate,
as some members obviously could have passed by deeper
in the forest. Thus, my highest count of 108 animals was a
minimum and the group was probably larger. One early ob-
servation of 1984 of a very large group within the forest
may have actually represented around 200 animals, but no
count was attempted at the time.
Results and Discussion
I have observed an extremely variable number of uacaris at
this site throughout the year, varying from individual ani-
mals, which do not seem to be in contact with conspecifics,
to cohesive groups of over 100 individuals, which travel in
a coordinated fashion for several days both in igapd and
dry land. Figure 2 gives a break-down of group size esti-
mates.
Groups of around 20-30 are most often noted at Capard,
and I take this to indicate that the number represents the
average group size for this site. Nevertheless, the groups
of this population both split up and coalesce into large
groups of over 100, apparently in response to the available
food; the largest counted group was of at least 108 indi-
viduals. Small groups of 1-10 are most commonly seen dur-
ing the season with fewest available fruits (Defier and
Defier, 1996; Palacios et al., 1997; S. Defler, in prep.), while
the groups surpassing 100 are seen sporadically during the
rest of the year and especially during the seasons of greater
fruit availability, particularly when Eschweilera sp.






Page 7


(Lecythidaceae) fruits mature in the seasonally flooded for-
est.
Although Micrandra spruceana (Euphorbiaceae) is found
at appreciable densities at Capard, especially on the exten-
sive Pleistocene terrace not far from the igapd, it is not the
most important food species for these animals as was re-
ported by Boubli (1998) for his groups. The Eschweilera
species is by far the most consumed fruit of the Capard
population, and I believe that the igap6 is important to
Cacajao melanocephalus at this site because of the wide-
spread occurrence of Eschweilera there.
Lagothrix lagothricha at Capari also exhibits a type of
fission-fusion society as first described by Soini (1986) in
Pacaya-Samiria, Peru. One study group made up of 22-24
animals most commonly moved in two separate subunits
(often in vocal contact) throughout most of the day, only
seeming to come together when particularly large food crops
were available or at night for sleeping, although it often
slept spread out over a large area (Defier, 1996b). This fis-
sion behavior is apparently not seen at another Colombian
study site on the Rfo Duda, Tinigua National Natural Park,
north-western Colombian Amazon (Stevenson et al., 1994).
Several types of evidence suggest that Capard (which is a
black-water site) is very infertile, while the Rfo Duda site
(white-water and near the Cordillera Oriental) is relatively
more fertile. At any rate, Ardila and Florez (1994) and Peres
(1996) give data showing that group dispersion is minimal
when most ripe fruit is available, and troops are less cohe-
sive when ripe fruit is at its lowest levels.
Besides Lagothrix lagothricha and C. melanocephalus
varying intraspecific differences in fragmentation and coa-
lescence have been described for groups of Saimiri (see
Baldwin and Baldwin, 1972),Alouattapalliata (see Glander,
1987), Brachyteles arachnoides (see Strier, 1989), Cebus
olivaceus (see Robinson, 1988), some Saguinus spp. (Castro
and Soini, 1977), and Cacajao calvus (see Ayres, 1986), the
most extreme cases of which Kinzey and Cunningham (1994)
term "fission-fusion", but which are obviously part of a
continuum. C. melanocephalus seems to me to represent
an extreme example of fragmentation, at least at the Capard
site. Fission-fusion of the type described above may be an
ecological tactic of many Neotropical primates, allowing a
more efficient and economic foraging mode, according to
the circumstances of available food (Kinzey and
Cunningham, 1994; Chapman etal., 1991). It is particularly
interesting that intraspecific foraging tactics may vary from
site to site, and field researchers should be aware of the
possibility of these differences and seek to associate the
particular tactic with the available resources.
Thomas R. Defler, Instituto Amaz6nico de Investigaciones
de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia (IMANI) &
Fundaci6n Natura (Colombia), A. A. 53200, Bogota, Co-
lombia. E-mail: .
References
Ardila-C., J. 0. and Florez-Z., A. N. 1994. Aspectos de la
ecologfa de un grupo silvestre de Lagothrix lagothricha


(Humboldt, 1812), Primates-Atelidae en la Amazonia
Colombiana. Bachelor's thesis, Universidad Nacional de
Colombia, Santa Fe de Bogoti.
Ayres, J. M. 1986. Uakaris and Amazonian flooded forest.
Ph.D. thesis, Cambridge University, Cambridge.
Baldwin, J. D. and Baldwin, J. I. 1972. The ecology and
behavior of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) in a natu-
ral forest in western Panama. FoliaPrimatol. 18:161-184.
Boubli, J. P. 1994. The black uakari in the Pico de Neblina
National Park. Neotropical Primates 2(3):11-12.
Boubli, J. P. 1997. Ecology of the black uakari monkey
Cacajao melanocephalus melanocephalus in Pico da
Neblina National Park, Brazil. Ph.D. thesis, University of
California, Berkeley.
Boubli, J. P. 1998. A study of the black uakari, Cacajao
melanocephalus in the Pico da Neblina National Park,
Brazil. Neotropical Primates 5(4):111-113.
Castro, R. and Soini, P. 1977. Field studies on Saguinus
mystax and other callitrichids in Amazonian Peru. In: The
Biology and Conservation of the Callitrichidae, D. G.
Kleiman (ed.), pp. 73-78. Smithsonian Institution Press,
Washington, D.C.
Chapman, C. A., Wrangham, R. W. and Chapman, L. J. 1995.
Ecological constraints on group size: An analysis of spi-
der monkey and chimpanzee subgroups. Behav. Ecol.
Sobiobiol. 36:59-70.
Defler, T. R. 1989. The status and some ecology of primates
in the Colombian Amazon. Primate Conservation (10):
51-56.
Defler, T. R. 1991. Preliminary observations of Cacajao
melanocephalus (Humboldt, 1812) (Primates, Cebidae).
TRIANEA (Act. Cient. Tecn. INDERENA) 4: 557-558.
Defier, T. R. 1996a. An IUCN classification of Colombian
primates. Neotropical Primates 4(3): 77-78.
Defler, T. R. 1996b. Aspects of the ranging pattern in a
group of wild woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagothricha).
Am. J. Primatol. 38: 289-302.
Defler, T. R. 1999. Estaci6n Biol6gica Capard Colombian
Amazon. Neotropical Primates 7(1): 24-26.
Defier, T. R. In press. Primates of Colombia. Tropical Field
Guide Series, Conservation International, Washington,
D.C.
Defler, T. R. and Defier, S. B. 1996. The diet of a group of
wild woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagothricha
lagothricha) in eastern Colombia. Am. J. Primatol. 38(4):
289-302.
Defier, T. R. and Pintor, D. 1985. Censusing primates by
transect in a forest of known primate density. Int. J.
Primatol. 6(3): 243-259.
Glander, K. 1987. Reproduction and population growth in
free-ranging mantled howling monkeys. Am. J. Phys.
Anthropol. 53:25-36.
Goodall, J. 1986. The Chimpanzees ofGombe. Belknap Press,
Cambridge, Mass.
Kinzey, W.G. and Cunningham, E. P. 1994. Variability in
platyrrhine social organization. Am. J. Primatol. 34(2):
185-198.
Nishida, T. 1968. The social group of wild chimpanzees in


Neotropical Primates 7(1), March 1999






Page 8 Neotropical Primates 7(1), March 1999


the Mahali Mountains. Primates 9:167-224.
Nishimura, A. 1990. A sociological and behavioral study of
woolly monkeys, Lagothrix lagotricha, in the upper
Amazon. The Science and Engineering Review of
Doshisha University 31(2): 1-121.
Palacios, E., Rodrfguez, A. andDefler, T. R. 1997. Diet of a
group of Callicebus torquatus lugens (Humboldt, 1812)
during the annual resource bottleneck in Amazonian Co-
lombia. Int. J. Primatol. 18(4): 503-522.
Robinson, J. G. 1988. Group size in wedge-capped capu-
chin monkeys, Cebus olivaceus. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol.
23: 187-197.
Soini, P. 1986. A synecological study of the primate com-
munity in the Pacaya-Samiria National Reserve, Peru. Pri-
mate Conservation (7):63-71.
Stevenson, P. R., Quifiones, M. J. and Ahumada, J. A. 1994.
Ecological strategies of woolly monkeys (Lagothrix
lagotricha) in Tinigua National Park, Colombia. Am. J.
Primatol. 32(2):123-140.
Strier, K. 1989. Effects of patch size on feeding associations
in muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides). Am. J. Primatol.
23:113-126.
Symington, M. M. 1987. Ecological and social correlates of
party size in the black spider monkey, Ateles paniscus
chamek. Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, Princeton,
NJ.
Symington, M. M. 1988. Food competition and foraging
party size in the black spider monkey (Ateles paniscus
chamek). Behaviour 105:117-134.
Symington, M. M. 1990. Fission-fusion social organization
inAteles and Pan. Int. J. Primatol. 11: 47-61.
Wrangham, R. W. 1977. Feeding behavior of chimpanzees
in Gombe National Park, Tanzania. In: Primate Ecology:
Studies of Feeding and Ranging Behaviour in Lemurs,
Monkeys and Apes, T. H. Clutton-Brock (ed.), pp.503-
538. Academic Press, London.

Uso DE PLANTS COMO ALIMENTO POR ALOUATTA
PALLIATA EN UN FRAGMENTO DE SELVA EN Los
TUXTLAs, MExico
Satl Juan Solano
Teresita de Jesus Orttz Martinez
Alejandro Estrada
Rosamond Coates-Estrada
Debido a que las selvas tropicales son ecosistemas
altamente sensibles ala perturbaci6n causada por el hombre,
un gran ndmero de vertebrados han desaparecido
simultdneamente con la p6rdida y aislamiento de su habitat
natural (Estrada et al., 1993,1994, 1997) y aquellos que han
logrado sobrevivir a las condiciones de fragmentaci6n de
su habitat, estAn representados solamente por individuos
aislados o unidades de poblaci6n demasiado pequeflas o
de estructura de edades inadecuadas para hacer viable su
reproducci6n a largo plazo (Offerman et al., 1995). Los
monos aulladores, Alouatta palliata, del sur de Mdxico no
han escapado de esta alteraci6n resultando en el exterminio


local de la especie en algunas areas y en la existencia de
poblaciones fragmentadas y aisladas bajo riesgo de
extinci6n. Nuestro conocimiento sobre el comportamiento
y ecologfa de Alouatta bajo condiciones de fragmentaci6n
del habitat es escaso (Kinzey, 1997). Tal informaci6n es
indispensable para calibrar la elasticidad ecol6gica de las
species y general models que eviten la desaparici6n
continuada de 6stas a nivel local y regional. Asf, el objetivo
de este proyecto fue describir, en un ciclo annual (1995), el
uso de plants como recurso alimenticio por un grupo de
monos aulladores viviendo en un fragmento aislado de
vegetaci6n selvtica en la regi6n de Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz,
M6xico.
Metodologia
El trabajo se efectu6 en la regi6n de Los Tuxtlas, al sur del
estado de Veracruz, M6xico, en la zona en donde se
encuentran los terrenos de la Estaci6n de Biologfa Tropical
<> del Instituto de Biologfa de la Universidad
National Aut6nomade M6xico, localizada aproximadamente
entire los 95 04'-95 09' de longitud oeste y a 18* 34'- 18 36'
de latitud norte (Fig. 1). El clima en el Area de studio es
calido-htimedo con una precipitaci6n media annual de 4900
mm y una temperature media annual de 27 C (Estrada et al.,
1985).
En esta regi6n existen constelaciones de fragments de
selva aislados unos de otros por distancias variables. El
sitio de studio fue uno de estos fragments que comprende
un Area de 3.6 ha en extension, de forma alargada, y habitado
por una tropa de A. palliata compuesta por dos machos
adults, dos hembras adults, dos infants y un juvenile.
Las observaciones del comportamiento alimenticio de los


Figura 1. Ubicaci6n de la zona de studio y del fragmento habitado
por la tropa de monos aulladores. Note la forma alargada y angosta
del sitio.


100 m


ARROYO
I-"


LAGO CATEMACO


Neotropical Primates 7(1), March 1999


Page 8







Neotropical Primates 7(1), March 1999 Page 9


0150 -

100 L

w 50 -


2 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15
SPECIES
Figura 2. Indice de Dominancia para 15 species arb6reas con valores
>1 y usadas como fuente de alimento por la tropa estudiada. En
orden jerArquico las siete mIs dominantes: C. obtusifolia, B.
alicastrum, P. armata, F. insipida, F tecolutensis, S. radolkoferi y
F yoponensis.
aulladores se efectuaron durante 10 dias de cada mes del
afio, dedicando una hora de observaci6n a cada individuo
en cada dfa. Para cada sujeto se registr6 el tiempo dedicado
al consumo de hojas (j6venes y maduras), de frutos (j6venes
y maduros), de flores y de peciolos de epffitas, hemiparasitas
y bejucos (Juan, 1997). Para las species usadas por
Alouatta en el sitio de studio se calcul6 un indice de
dominanciadeterminado apartir de la densidad, distribuci6n
y el area basal de los individuos de cada especie (Martinez
Ramos, 1980).
Resultados
Los aulladores utilizaron como fuente alimenticia 52 species
de plants representadas por cinco formas de vida: 50%
fueron Arboles en pie y el 17% correspondi6 a arboles
hemiepffitos. Una especie epffita y una hemiparAsita,
representaron cada una el 2% del total de las species
usadas como fuente alimenticia y el 29% represent a
species de bejucos. Los aulladores emplearon el 96% del
tiempo registrado alimentdndose de parties de drboles en
pie y drboles hemiepffitos, el 3% correspondi6 a bejucos y
el 1% a hemiparasitas y epffitas. Los Arboles usados como
fuente de alimento presentaron una altura promedio de 19
m (4.2), con un rango de 9-30 m y un d.a.p. promedio de 0.6
m (0.4) (rango de 0.2-2.3 m). Especies arb6reas de las
families Moraceae (7 speciess, Anacardiaceae (1 especie)
y Sapotaceae (1 especie) contribuyeron al 52% de los drboles
usados como recurso alimenticio. Cinco species de la
familiar Moraceae (Ficus tecolutensis, Brosimum alicastrum,
Poulsenia armata, Ficus yoponensis y Cecropia
obtusifolia) aportaron el 80% del tiempo total registrado en
alimentaci6n.
El censo de la vegetaci6n en el sitio de studio indic6 la
presencia de 536 arboles de las species usadas por los
aulladores como fuente de alimento y el Indice de
Dominancia (ID) present un rango de 0.002 (Ficus
padifolia) a 120.4 (C. obtusifolia). El 6% de las species
presentaron un ID alto (>50), el 13% regular (>20<50), el
29% bajo (>1<20) y el 52% muy bajo (<1). Dos species
sobresalen por haber presentado un ID >100 en esta
subcomunidad (Fig. 2).
Los aulladores invirtieron el 57% del tiempo de alimentaci6n


registrado en el consume de hojas, el 38% en frutos, el 1 %
en flores y el 5% en peciolos de epffitas, hemiparisitas y
bejucos. Las hojasj6venes contribuyeron al 86% del tiempo
dedicado al consumo de hojas y el consume de frutos
maduros aport6 el 86% del tiempo registrado en consume
de frutos. La diversidad (H' Shannon) media mensual en el
uso de species consumidas por Alouatta fue de 1.1 (
0.17), registrAndose el valor mas bajo en Julio (0.7) y el mas
alto en Diciembre (1.4) (Fig. 3). El indice de similitud
intermensual (Indice de Sorensen) en el uso de species
vari6 de 0.41 (Julio y Agosto) a 0.73 (Junio y Julio), con una
media mensual de 0.6 ( 0.1) (Fig. 3). El 17% de las species
fueron usadas por los aulladores en > 9 y <12 meses, 5% en
_ 5 y < 8 meses y el 58% en 2 1 y < 4 meses. Cuatro species
de la familiar Moraceae, B. alicastrum, C. obtusifolia, F
tecolutensis y F yoponensis, fueron usadas como fuente
alimenticia durante cada uno de los 12 meses del afio.
El porcentaje de tiempo de alimentaci6n registrado para
cada especie de drbol estuvo significativamente relacionado
al fndice de dominancia (r = 0.47, p<0.05) de cada una y a su
densidad (r = 0.34, p<0.05), pero un anilisis de correlaci6n
parcial demostr6 la existencia de una relaci6n positive y
significativa (r = 0.48, p<0.05) solamente con el indice de
dominancia (densidad r = 0.23, p = 1.0). El ndmero de meses
que las species arb6reas fueron usadas por los aulladores,
estuvo correlacionado (r = 0.54, p<0.0001) con el fndice de
dominancia de dstas en el sitio de trabajo.
Discusi6n
El uso predominante de species de la familiar Moraceae
por la tropa bajo studio coincide con el hecho de que en
habitats perturbados estas species se presentan en altas
densidades (Julliot y Sabatier, 1993). Algunas species de
los g6neros Ficus y Cecropia son caracterfsticas de
habitats secundarios (Alvarez-Buyllay Martfnez, 1992). En
el sitio de studio C. obtusifolia fue la especie con los
valores mas altos de densidad e indice de dominancia y
estuvo entire las cinco species mas utilizadas por los
aulladores como fuente de hojas y de frutos, presentando
una dispersi6n espacial agregada, posiblemente debido a
las condiciones de perturbaci6n del sitio y a la caracteristica
colonizadora de la especie para espacios abiertos, que se
presentan en diferentes puntos del fragment.
Los datos sugieren que los aulladores pueden persistir por
un tiempo en "islas" de vegetaci6n selvdtica residual
mediante el uso de hojas y frutos de species de la familiar

^ 1,5--0,8
0,4

S0,5- --,4


EFMAMJ JASOND

Figura 3. Indices de diversidad (H') y similitud (Sorensen) en la
dieta de los aulladores para los meses del ciclo annual estudiado.


Page 9


Neotropical Primates 7(l), March 1999






Page 10 Neotropical Primates 7(1), March 1999


Moraceae como parte principal en su dieta. Algunas de
ellas, como C. obtusifolia, F yoponensis y E tecolutensis
fueron utilizadas como fuente de alimento en cada uno de
los 12 meses del ciclo annual debido, quizA, a que los
individuos de las poblaciones de estos Arboles tienden a
ser asincr6nicos en la producci6n de frutos y hojas (Estrada
y Coates-Estrada, 1985). Las caracteristicas fisicas del sitio
de studio (Area pequefia, forma alargada y angosta),
ayudan a explicar la ausencia de correlaciones significativas
entire la distancia media mensual recorrida por los aulladores
y el ndmero de species usadas como fuente de hojas y/o
frutos. El comportamiento fenol6gico de las plants fue
otro determinante de las variaciones temporales en el uso
de species, ya que solamente el 8% de las species usadas
fueron aprovechadas en cada mes del ciclo annual
investigado, lo que sugiere unabfisqueda active en el tiempo
y espacio por el recurso alimenticio.
Nuestro studio mostr6 el uso de 52 species de plants
por la tropa estudiada. Estudios de una tropa de aulladores
introducida en una isla lacustre de 8.5 ha dominada por
vegetaci6n secundaria a 40 km de la zona de studio, indic6
el uso de 28 species de plants (Serio-Silva, 1992). Otro
studio de una tropa de A. palliata en un fragmento de 10
ha compuesto por vegetaci6n secundaria con algunos
elements arb6reos de la selva original ubicado a 80 km al
sur, en lamismaregi6n, report la utilizaci6n de 15 species
de plants (Jim6nez-Huerta, 1992). Estudios de tropas de
Alouatta en extensions de selva mAs amplias y sin
perturbaci6n antropog6nica ubicadas a 5 km de nuestro
sitio, indican el uso de 27 species de plants (Estrada,
1984) como fuente de hojas y/o frutos. Lasimilitud calculada
(Indice de Sorensen) entire nuestro studio y los otros tres
a nivel de species utilizadas fue de 0.22 (9 species
comunes) con la isla, de 0.23 (8 species comunes) con el
fragmento a 80 km y de 0.27 (11 species comunes) con el
studio de Alouatta en selvas no perturbadas.
Estos cuatro studios indican por ahora la utilizaci6n de 78
species de plants por A. palliata en Los Tuxtlas. Tal
diversidad de species es consistent con los hAbitos
generalistas de species del g6nero Alouatta (Estrada y
Coates-Estrada, 1993), caracteristica que, acoplada a la
capacidad de usar hojas como alimento, le permit a estos
primates afrontar reducciones amplias en el Area de
vegetaci6n selvAtica que conforma su habitat. Sin embargo,
es muy probable que tropas de Alouatta en fragments
selvAticos pequefios, como el estudiado, existan bajo
condiciones ecol6gicas sub6ptimas que las ponen en peligro
de extinci6n. Por ejemplo, la biomasa por unidad de drea
para la tropa de aulladores en el sitio de studio se estim6
en 8.7 kg/ha que contrast significativamente con la cifra
de 1.28 kg/ha reportada para tropas de A. palliata en selvas
mas amplias (>500 ha) y poco perturbadas (Estrada y
Coates-Estrada, 1996). Tal diferencia sugiere que a pesar de
la elasticidad alimenticia detectada paraA. palliata en Los
Tuxtlas y en otras parties del Neotr6pico (Estrada y Coates-
Estrada, 1993; Kinzey, 1997), fragments de selva como el
estudiado posiblemente estAn, debido a su pequefia Area,


sujetos a una sobrecarga animal con importantes efectos
negativos sobre el bienestar ffsico y supervivencia de los
aulladores. Por ejemplo la relaci6n positive entire el
porcentaje de tiempo alimenticio, el ndmero de meses de
utilizaci6n y el valor del indice de dominancia para las
species arb6reas en la dieta de la tropa estudiada, podrfa
indicar un sobreuso de estos recursos. AdemAs, existen
otros mamfferos y aves que hacen uso de los frutos de
Arboles utilizados por Alouatta en fragments como el
habitado por la tropa bajo studio, asi como insects (por
ejemplo, Atta cephalotes) que usan las hojas de dicho
Arboles (Estrada etaL, 1984; Estraday Coates-Estrada, 1985;
1986; S.J. obs. pers.).
Por otro lado, entire los efectos de la fragmentaci6n y
aislamiento de las selvas, se ha documentado la creaci6n
de bordes que modifican el microambiente de los
fragments de vegetaci6n selvatica, incrementando la
mortalidad de los Arboles y la invasion de species no
selvAticas al interior del fragmento (Brown, 1991). Estas
modificaciones del medio ambiente ffsico resultan en
cambios en la composici6n de species y estructura de la
vegetaci6n que altera la disponibilidad del recurso
alimenticio para primates como A. palliata, creando
condiciones sub6ptimas de supervivencia.
El efecto neto de las condiciones ecol6gicas mencionadas
anteriormente es una disminuci6n en la cantidad y calidad
del alimento potencialmente disponible para los aulladores
que existen en fragments pequefios de vegetaci6n original.
Esto sugiere que es indispensable desarrollar escenarios
ecol6gicos que, a nivel del paisaje, favorezcan la conexi6n
ffsica entire fragments aislados de vegetaci6n selvAtica
(Estrada y Coates-Estrada, 1996), atenuando asi los efectos
negativos de p6rdida de Area y aislamiento sobre Alouatta
y sobre las poblaciones de plants que les sirven de
alimento y de substrato.
Agradecimientos
Se agradece el apoyo del Scott Fund for Neotropical
Research del Lincoln Park Zoological Society de Chicago,
del Sistema Nacional de Investigadores a trav6s de una
beca de Asistente de Investigador asignada por el Dr. A.
Estrada y a la Universidad Nacional Aut6noma de M6xico
por apoyos generals y logfsticos.
Sadl Juan Solano, Teresita de Jesus Ortiz Martinez,
Facultad de Biologfa, Universidad Veracruzana, Alejandro
Estrada y Rosamond Coates-Estrada, Estaci6n de Biologia
Tropical "Los Tuxtlas", Instituto de Biologia, Universidad
Nacional Aut6noma de M6xico, Apartado Postal 176, San
Andres Tuxtla, Veracruz, Mdxico.
Referencias
Alvarez-Buylla, E. R. y M. Martfnez-Ramos. 1992.
Demography and allometry of Cecropia obtusifolia a
neotropical pioneer tree: an evaluation of the climax-
pioneer paradigm for tropical forests. J. Ecol. 80: 275-290.
Brown, K., Jr. 1991. Conservation of Neotropical environ-
ments: Insects as indicators. En: The Conservation of


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Neotropical Primates 7(1), March 1999 Page 11


Insects and their Habitats, N. M. Collins y J. H. Thomas
(eds.), pp. 349-404. Academic Press, London.
Estrada, A. 1984. Resource use by howler monkeys
(Alouatta palliata) in the rain forest of Los Tuxtlas,
Veracruz, Mexico. Int. J. Primatol. 5: 105-131.
Estrada, A. y Coates-Estrada, R. 1985. A preliminary study
of resource overlap between howling monkeys (Alouatta
palliata) and other arboreal mammals in the tropical rain
forest of Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. Am. J. Primatol. 9:27-37.
Estrada, A. y Coates-Estrada, R. 1986. Use of leaf resources
by howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata) and leaf-cutting
ants (Atta cephalotes) in the tropical rain forest of Los
Tuxtlas, Mexico. Am J. Primatol. 10:51-66.
Estrada, A. y Coates-Estrada, R. 1993. Aspects of ecological
impact of howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata) on their
habitat: a review. En: Estudios Primatoldgicos en Mdxico,
Vol. 1, A. Estrada, E. Rodrfguez-Luna, R. L6pez-Wilchis y
R. Coates-Estrada (eds.), pp.87-117. Asociaci6n Mexicana
de Primatologia, A.C. y Patronato Pro-Universidad
Veracruzana, A. C. Xalapa, Veracruz.
Estrada, A. y Coates-Estrada, R. 1996. Tropical rain forest
fragmentation and wild populations of primates at Los
Tuxtlas. Int. J. Primatol. 5: 759-783.
Estrada, A., Coates-Estrada, R., Vizquez-Yfiies, C. y Orozco-
Segovia, A. 1984. Comparison of frugivory by howling
monkeys (Alouatta palliata) and bats (Artibeus
jamaicensis) in the tropical rain forest of Los Tuxtlas,
Mexico. Am. J. Primatol. 7:3-13.
Estrada, A., Coates-Estrada, R. y Martinez Ramos, M. 1985.
La Estaci6n de Biologfa Los Tuxtlas: Un recurso para el
studio y conservaci6n de la selvas del tr6pico htimedo
en M6xico. En: Regeneracidn de Selvas II, S. del Amo y
A. G6mez-Pompa (eds.), pp.379-393.Instituto Nacional de
Investigaciones sobre Recursos Bi6ticos. Editorial
Alhambra Mexicana, M6xico.
Estrada, A., Coates-Estrada, R. y Meritt, Jr., D. 1993. Bat
species richness and abundance in tropical rain forest
fragments and in agricultural habitats at Los Tuxtlas,
Mexico. Ecography, 16:309-318.
Estrada, A., Coates-Estrada, R. y Meritt, Jr., D. 1994. Non
flying mammals and landscape changes in the tropical
rain forest region of Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. Ecography 17:
229-241.
Estrada, A., Coates-Estrada, R. y. Meritt, Jr., D. 1997.
Anthropogenic landscape changes and avian diversity
at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. Biodiv. Conserv. 6(1): 19-43.
Jim6nez-Huerta, J. 1992. Distribuci6n y Abundancia del
Recurso Alimenticio en un Fragmento de Selva Alta
Perennifolia y su Uso por Ateles y Alouatta en el Ejido
Magallanes (Municipio de Soteapan, Veracruz). Tesis de
licenciatura, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Veracruz.
Julliot C. y Sabatier, D. 1993. Diet of the Red Howler monkey
(Alouatta seniculus) in French Guiana. Int. J. Primatol.
14(4): 527-550.
Juan S. 1997. Recursos Alimenticios Utilizados por Monos
Aulladores (Alouatta palliata) en un Habitat con Alta
Perturbaci6n Antropogdnica en la Regi6n de Los Tuxtlas,
Veracruz, M6xico. Tesis Licenciatura, Facultad de Biologfa,


Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Veracruz.
Kinzey, W. G. 1997. Alouatta. En: New World Primates:
Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, W. G. Kinzey (ed.),
pp.174-185. Aldine, New York.
Martfnez-Ramos, M. 1980. Aspectos Sinecol6gicos del
Proceso de Regeneraci6n Natural de una Selva Alta
Perennifolia. Tesis de Licenciatura. Facultad de Ciencias.
U.N.A.M., M6xico.
Offerman, H. L., Dale, V. N., Pearson, S. M., Bierregaard, Jr.,
R. 0. y O'Neill, R. V. 1995. Effects of forest fragmentation
on neotropical fauna: Current research and data
availability. EnvironmentalReview 3:190-211.
Serio-Silva, J. C. 1992. Patr6n Diario de Actividades y
HAbitos Alimenticios de Alouatta palliata en
Semilibertad. Tesis Licenciatura. Facultad de Biologfa,
Universidad Veracruzana, C6rdoba.

GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR STANDARDIZING LINE-
TRANSECT SURVEYS OF TROPICAL FOREST PRIMATES
Carlos A. Peres
Line-transect surveys have been widely used over the last
three decades to quantify primate population abundance
in tropical forests. However, the details of the census meth-
odology applied by different investigators remains highly
variable despite a number of reports attempting to stan-
dardize primate census techniques (Wilson and Wilson,
1975; Janson and Terborgh, 1980; NRC, 1981; Brockelman
and Ali, 1987; Defter and Pintor, 1985; Johns, 1985; Skorupa,
1987; Whitesides etal., 1988). Many of the currently used
field procedures, involving site selection, transect prepara-
tion, and the way the censuses are carried out across dif-
ferent studies, are therefore not strictly comparable. In ad-
dition, manipulation and analysis of census data, as re-
ported in the formal and grey literature, can also diverge
considerably. To a large extent, this hinders the level of
confidence attributed to primate abundance estimates at a
given forest site, and undermines the comparative power
of surveys at different sites, whether these are reported in
the form of linear detection indices (e.g., group sighting
rates/10 km walked) or population density estimates (e.g.,
ind./kn2).
Here I prescribe a set of practical guidelines and recom-
mendations for conducting line-transect surveys of tropi-
cal forest primates. Although readers of Neotropical Pri-
mates may be primarily interested in primates, the method-
ology outlined here could be equally applied to a number
of large vertebrate taxa amenable to direct observations
under similar conditions, provided that their intrinsic de-
tectability and spatial behaviour do not violate some of the
basic assumptions of line-transect census theory (see be-
low). These guidelines focus on the practicalities of the
actual field procedures of one choice method that is widely
used, rather than on the accuracy and pros and cons of
different census methods. They are thus intended to
complement, rather than replace, a number of other useful
discussions of line-transect census methodology (Janson


Neotropical Primates 7(l), March 1999


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Page 12 Neotropical Primates 7(1), March 1999


and Terborgh, 1980; NRC, 1981; Brockelman and Ali, 1987;
Whitesides etal., 1988; Buckland etal., 1993; Greenwood,
1996; Southwell, 1996), which may provide useful field tests
of the accuracy of different techniques. The theoretical
background of the most current modelling tools for analysing
census data are described in detail elsewhere, and are largely
beyond the scope of this paper. Buckland and collabora-
tors (1993) provide a detailed treatment on the statistical
analysis of distance sampling data used to estimate popu-
lation densities, which largely supersedes its predecessor
(Burnham et al., 1980). However, I also provide some com-
mon-sense recommendations for enhancing field proce-
dures in order to minimize or prevent some common sam-
pling biases. This is critical because the robustness and
accuracy of model estimators are highly dependent on the
quality of field data, and no amount of sophistication in
post-survey data analysis can correct for some basic flaws
in sampling methods.
This set of guidelines results from first-hand experience
obtained during a standardized program of 26 diurnal wild-
life censuses conducted throughout Brazilian Amazonia
over the last 15 years (1984-1998: Peres 1988, 1989a, 1990,
1993a, 1997a, 1997b, in press a, in press b, Peres and Dol-
man, in press; C. Peres and H. Nascimento, unpubl. data),
each of which lasted approximately one month. Our field
procedures have thus been repeatedly tested and "refined
to a fine art" over the course of this long-term census pro-
gram. This condensed set of guidelines is therefore intended
to provide a straightforward and workable sampling proto-
col for both the novice and experienced field investigator
who wishes to standardize a census methodology in order
to improve its overall efficiency, accuracy, and comparabil-
ity.
Sampling Site Selection
Once the general survey area has been selected, two rea-
sonably long random transects (4-5 km) from the base-camp
should be cut, preferably at angles of 135-1800 from one
another. With the exception of drive-censuses where
transects are laid parallel to one another, it is best if the
nearest point along different transects in the same survey
area are at least 1 km from one another. If the general cen-
sus area is intersected by a river, then it may be more appro-
priate to set up transects on opposite banks of the river.
Although transect placement is inherently dependent upon
the objectives of the survey, establishing random transects
may be preferable in areas of continuous forest. In practice,
however, a blind policy of random transects may not be
feasible or entirely appropriate because of irregularities in
terrain topography, distribution of undesirable landscape
features (e.g., river contours; proximity to active house-
holds) and, depending on survey objectives, the need to
avoid sampling areas or vegetation types which could sub-
stantially bias detection probabilities in a habitat mosaic
(e.g., forest edges when sampling core-habitat populations;
secondary forest patches when sampling primary forest
species). Moreover, it may be actually more appropriate to
carry out some form of systematic sampling in a small for-


est fragment (<500 ha), such as through parallel transects
which will provide a more even coverage of the survey area
and prevent transect lines from crossing one another.
Staunch advocates of strictly random sampling, who tend
to inherently dislike systematic placement of transects,
would compromise their ideal in such small survey area.
Here the best policy is to use information gathered in situ
and decide transect placement with a strong dose of com-
mon sense, for it is impossible to anticipate all circumstances
under which a survey will be conducted. However, it is
important to carefully consider the survey objectives and
all sources of prior information available on the landscape
in which the census will be done (e.g., maps; satellite pho-
tos; local interviews; reconnaissance walks) before the
number, length and orientation of transects are decided.
Transect Preparation
Each of our transects at different Amazonian forest sites
are usually prepared from scratch within the same day (0630-
1630 h) by three trail cutters aided by a fourth person guard-
ing the rear who measures and marks the transect. For a
field survey lasting no more than 30 days, including site
selection and transect preparation, we find it most cost-
effective to cut two transects of 4.5 km each. In many cases,
this extended transect length allows us to get away from
portions of the study area more accessible to hunters (e.g.,
riparian forests) which may be an advantage in hunted ar-
eas. Given our time and personnel limitations, a greater ef-
fort allocated to transect preparation would be simply inef-
fective, as it is important to optimize the amount of time
cutting transects and carrying out the actual census. Given
the average speed at which observers should walk the
transects (approx. 1,250 m/h), this line length allows each
census walk to be completed within about 3 h 36 min, but in
practice this often takes about 4 h because of normal de-
lays following detection events, particularly where the abun-
dance of target species is high. This is compatible with the
peak activity periods of most diurnal animals whether cen-
sus walks are conducted only early in the morning, or re-
peated in the afternoon from 1400 h onwards.
In order to minimize disturbance of the sampling area, how-
ever, we always retain a buffer zone around our base-camp
by cutting an additional access trail of 300-500 m before
beginning to cut the actual transect. Our transects within
undisturbed primary forest are thus cut at a rate of some
500 m/h, depending on manpower and undergrowth condi-
tions, but these are never wider than 1 m, and do not al-
ways appear to be meticulously "clean" and well-trodden
at the beginning of the survey. Although our transects
remain rigorously faithful to the same pre-established com-
pass bearing, which is double-checked by the leading trail-
cutter at approximately every 50 m using a Suunto preci-
sion compass, we do not attempt to cut through and over-
come every natural obstacle (e.g. a large fallen tree trunk) in
order to maintain absolute transect linearity. Slight detours
immediately around small patches of dense undergrowth,
say around a regenerating tree-fall gap, do not change the
overall objectives of the survey, but considerably speed


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Neotropical Primates 7(l), March 1999






Neotropical Primates 7(1), March 1999


up the process of transect preparation. It is important how-
ever that the leading trail-cutter can make sensible deci-
sions about slight deviations in transect orientation, and
resume the original compass bearing immediately on the
other side of such obstacles.
Transects should be measured (with the aid of a Hip-Chain@
or a 50-m forester's tape) and marked every 50m, which will
facilitate accurate mapping of detection events. Brightly
colored vinyl plastic flagging and permanent pens are usu-
ally good enough for these purposes, and tape marks are
expected to last for at least 12 months provided they are
not removed by sciurids or destroyed by ants. In the inter-
est of efficiency, this is usually done by a single person
walking well behind the last trail-cutter, and using a piece
of low-elasticity nylon rope of c. 51 m in length (with knots
tied 50 cm from both ends), which can be reversed at every
50-m section along the transect. In the absence of a Hip-
Chain, this will prevent the rear person's need to frequently
backtrack along the trail to release the ends of the rope (or
tape), which will effectively halve the total distance walked
in the process of measuring the entire transect.
Freshly prepared transects should be "laid to rest" (left
alone by observers) for at least one whole day, which will
allow the disruption created by the trail preparation per-
sonnel to normalise, and animals to redistribute themselves
in space along the transect area in the total absence of
observer disturbance. This is critical because trail cutters
may often shout to one another along the transect, and
loud human voices can be heard for hundreds of meters
and potentially repel a number of game vertebrates, par-
ticularly in persistently hunted areas. In our experience,
however, transect preparation over a single day's work is
insufficient to condition animals to avoid the transect area,
provided that transects are left alone for at least a whole
day before census walks are initiated. This routine is also
perfectly compatible with surveys based on multiple
transects because this will require the field crew to rotate
among different survey areas during the initial stage of
transect preparation.
Getting Started
Line-transect census theory relies on five basic assump-
tions (in decreasing order of importance) which must be
met for accurate density estimation (Burnham et al., 1980;
Buckland et al., 1993): (1) all animals on the transect line
must be detected; (2) animals are detected at their initial
location, prior to any movement in response to the ob-
server, and are not counted twice; (3) animals of target spe-
cies move slowly relative to the speed of the observer; (4)
distances from the transect are measured accurately; and
(5) detections are independent events. It is therefore im-
portant to reduce or eliminate systematic observer biases
which compromise these assumptions and standardize sam-
pling protocols such as group counts, and estimates of
perpendicular distances (see below) and spread of social
groups. This should be done even among previously trained
observers by jointly carrying out some census walks on


the first days of a survey, and attempting to standardize
data collection on the basis of non-independent detection
events. Observers should practice rapid counts of indi-
viduals in a group of the target species before undertaking
the survey, and become previously familiar with their
behaviour and escape responses.
Needless to say, it is critical that all single observers
censusing independently know their animals and are equally
proficient at their detection and identification skills. In prac-
tice, this often relies on the accurate identification of rather
subtle search images and acoustic cues such as alarm-calls,
patterns of branch crashes, and other escape maneuvers in
diurnal surveys, as well as patterns of eye shine in noctur-
nal surveys. This becomes a greater challenge in commu-
nity-wide vertebrate surveys that can include as many as
45 reptile, bird, and mammal species'. In western Amazo-
nian primate communities, this requires considerable back-
ground training as species-specific detection cues cannot
be learnt overnight by a novice observer unfamiliar with
the local fauna. Over the years we have found that teach-
ing census protocols to (mostly uneducated but proficient)
local hunters is far easier than doing the same to the even
the brightest, but inexperienced, student of urban back-
ground. In addition, using illiterate but otherwise skilled
local field assistants is not generally a problem provided
that they can record their data into a handheld micro-cas-
sette recorder, which can be easily operated in the field.
Walking the Transects
Censusing should be avoided during rainy days, particu-
larly from early in the morning, because this affects the
ability of observers to detect different animal species (e.g.
unfavourable acoustic background dominated by raindrops
on the foliage), as well as their intrinsic detectability (e.g.
animals often become less active, and "freeze" rather than
flee as a behavioral response to the presence of observ-
ers). In practice, however, more ephemeral rainshowers tend
to occur later in the day, and should not entirely compro-
mise the quality of at least some of the census data, pro-
vided that observers discontinue census walks during rain
and subsequent periods of heavy raindrops trickling down
from the canopy, and resume censusing immediately there-
after. This is particularly appropriate in time-limited sur-
veys in many regions of tropical forests where rainstorms
are more likely to occur in the afternoon, thus allowing
uninterrupted census walks to be carried out in the morn-
ing, which in any event is the best time of day for conduct-

' Our vertebrate surveys in Amazonia (Peres, in press a), for ex-
ample, include the following taxa: callitrichid primates (e.g. Callithrix,
Saguinus), all larger primates (Callicebus, Saimiri, Pithecia,
Chiropotes, Cacajao, Cebus, Alouatta, Lagothrix, and Ateles), squir-
rels (Microsciurus and Sciurus spp.), acouchis (Myoprocta), agoutis
(Dasyprocta), five species of forest ungulates (collared peccary
Tayassu tajacu, white-lipped peccary T. pecari, red brocket deer
Mazama americana, gray brocket deer M. gouazoubira, and low-
land tapir Tapirus terrestris), woodquails (Odontophorus spp.), small
tinamous (Crypturellus), large tinamous (Tinamus), trumpeters
(Psophia), common guans Penelope and piping guans Aburria pipile,
curassows (Crax spp. and Mitu mitu), and tortoises (Geochelone).


Page 13






Page 14 Neotropical Primates 7(1). March 1999


ing censuses.
Transects should be walked by single observers at aver-
age speeds of approximately 1,250 m/h, from 0630-0645 h to
1030-1045 h in the morning, and 1400 to 1800h in the after-
noon. Brief stops every 100 m are advisable for even the
most sensitive observers in order to minimize background
noise, particularly where detection cues are primarily acous-
tic and the leaf litter is dry. A period of 4 h is therefore
usually quite sufficient to conduct each one-way census
replicate, including the time allocated to observations and
data collection. Return walks in the afternoons should be
done after 1400 h, following a midday period of approxi-
mately 3 h, when observers should remain relatively quiet
at the end of the transects. This allows sufficient time for
animals to redistribute themselves and overcomes the mid-
day period of reduced activity for a number of target spe-
cies. However, analysing data from return (afternoon) cen-
sus walks is problematic for diurnal species retiring to their
sleeping sites (or becoming less detectable) before 1700 h,
as is often the case with callitrichids (Peres 1989b; 1993b).
In these terms, return census walks may not overlap the
entire activity period of different marmoset, tamarin, and
lion tamarin species thus potentially underestimating their
densities. The trick here is to use those data selectively,
and stratify density estimates by time of day, as group
counts and PD estimates during return census walks may
be perfectly valid data, whereas the overall detection rate
may not.
In our surveys, observers are rotated on a daily basis be-
tween different transects in order to minimize or cancel out
potential observer-dependent biases. This system has
worked very well at our survey sites where groups of two
and three transect lines have been used simultaneously
(by observers with synchronized watches). This also al-
lows observers operating alone to establish a better overall
team effort over the course of the survey, and double-check
one another's previous efforts by inspecting daily marks
left on a plastic tape at the end of the transect.
Recording Data
Observers should record date, transect identity, weather
conditions, and personnel at the beginning of a census
walk, as well as the start and end time of each walk. Upon a
detection event, the time, species identity, group size, group
spread, sighting location along the transect, and detection
cue should be recorded, preferably in the same sequence
onto a standardized datasheet which facilitates their entry
into an electronic data file. The opportunity to record sub-
sidiary information such as activity, diet, height, age and
sex of animals sighted, mixed-species associations, and
vegetation features are also important and should not be
wasted. As a general policy, observers should remain on
the transect line, but in some cases it may be necessary to
move away from the transect (for no more than 10 min) and
approach the animals to make further observations pos-
sible.
If sighting distances (SD) and angles are taken, they should


be transformed to perpendicular distances (PD) for analy-
sis because density estimators based on SD (i) require un-
realistic assumptions about the detection process that are
not required by PD methods (Burnham etal, 1980; Buckldand
et al., 1993), and (ii) perform poorly relative to those based
on PD (Hayes and Buckland, 1983). In practice, it is actually
easier to restrict distance estimates to PD by memorizing
the exact location where an animal (or a group of animals)
was first detected, and then walking to the nearest point
along the transect from this location.
Distances to each independent subject should be measured
or estimated accurately (these data are referred to as
"ungrouped"). If an observer cannot reliably estimate dis-
tances accurately, than an optical range finder (c. US$50) or
a more expensive pair of survey laser binoculars (US$ 290-
500) should be used. We have recently begun using the
latter because of the additional accuracy afforded, despite
the added cost. As a general rule, however, it is best if all
observers calibrate the accuracy of their distance estimates
prior to the actual census by either learning how to pace
distances according to their stride length or practicing PD
estimates based on repeated trials aided by a range finder
or 50-m tape. Distance measurements are particularly criti-
cal close to the trackline because the behaviour of model
estimators is highly dependent on the frequency distribu-
tion of short distances from the line. On the other hand,
distance measurement errors for subjects away from the
line matter comparatively little from a statistical standpoint
because they have lesser consequences on the detection
probability function. Extreme departures in PD values are
also tolerated by most detection functions, either because
(i) the data distribution is often truncated and outliers are
eliminated, and (ii) estimates are robust to such departures
provided that some 40 animal clusters (spatially indepen-
dent groups or subgroups) or more are available.
In addition, pay close attention to animals possibly mov-
ing away (being flushed) from the trackline before the ani-
mal is detected by the observer, but after the observer is
detected by the animal (assumptions 1 and 2). The same
problem could happen with animals moving towards the
observer just prior to detection but this is counter-intuitive
for most tropical forest vertebrates and unlikely to happen.
Statisticians who frequently handle line-transect data will
refer to this as a "g(0) problem". The mathematical term g(0)
refers to the probability of detection on the line, which is
usually assumed to be greater than at increasing distances
from the line. This is critical because most model estimates
rest on the assumption that all animals on the trackline are
detected (assumption 1), and that the detection probability
is independent of the observer's presence (assumption 2).
The probability of detecting an animal, given that it hap-
pens to be at the line, should therefore be one. Moreover,
rounding errors of distance estimates, particularly at short
distances from the transect, can be problematic if not re-
paired during data analysis by regrouping the PD class
intervals or other "smearing" techniques. This is often com-
mon because of the observers' natural tendency to round


Page 14


Neotropical Primates 7(1), March 1999






Neotropical Primates 7(1), March 1999

distance estimates to the nearest multiple of five. It is there-
fore crucial that enough time (1-2 days) is allowed to prac-
tice and standardize distances measurements by indepen-
dent observers prior to the onset of a survey.
In social species such as primates, the groups (or sub-
groups) must be considered to be the relevant spatial unit
of the population and distances should be measured to the
center of the group. Population density then becomes a
product of group density times the average group size based
on reliable group counts. In practice, however, animals near-
est the observer are intrinsically more visible and the point
defining the geometric center of the group cannot be easily
assessed, particularly in species living in large groups (e.g.,
in Amazonian primates, Saimiri spp. Cebus albifrons,
Cacajao spp. Lagothrix spp.: Peres, 1993; Peres, 1997a). It
thus becomes essential to add a correction factor based on
group spread or group diameter estimates for every inde-
pendent sighting, or else the densities of species in large-
groups, which are intrinsically more detectable, could be
severely overestimated (see Janson and Terborgh, 1980;
Brockelman and Ali, 1987; Peres 1997a). One other option
for species forming extremely large and uncohesive groups,
or with a strong tendency to split up into subgroups, is to
treat each small party of animals independently and record
party size and a PD estimate for every reasonably discrete
animal cluster even if they are obviously part of a larger
group (and therefore not moving independently). In these
cases, sightings of adjacent subgroups may violate the
theoretical condition that detection events should be inde-
pendent (assumption 5), but this is not as serious as clus-
ter-size dependent biases in species forming large,
uncohesive groups. Because of the larger sample size, this
approach should also result in more robust estimates of
overall population density (S. Buckland and K. Burnham,
pers. comm.), but which should be similar to those derived
from methods based on larger cluster sizes, although clus-
ter density estimates could diverge substantially.
Sampling Effort
Our Amazonian surveys usually consist of a cumulative
one-way distance on each transect line of at least 75 km.
This corresponds to a one-way distance of at least 150 km
along two forest transects, or a two-way distance of 300 km
for both transects. This usually requires 17 days of census
if two independent observers are available to walk both
transects simultaneously. In practice, however, even this
relatively large census effort may not be sufficient to de-
tect a pre-specified number of objects compatible with a
robust density estimate for some rare species. Although
the recommended number of independent detection events
per species per census should exceed 40, smaller sample
sizes can derive robust density estimates if treated care-
fully. In general, there is no fixed rule about a sufficient
sample size, because strip-width estimates are highly de-
pendent on the nature of the distribution of detection dis-
tances, and as few as 20 sightings may suffice to derive
good density estimates provided that the data distribution
is highly favourable (S. Buckland, pers. comm.). In


Page 15

neotropical primate communities, however, even a small
sample size of 20 sighting/species may be unrealistic for
species occurring in low group densities (e.g., Callimico,
Pithecia spp., Lagothrix spp.), even if relatively labour-
intensive surveys involving a cumulative distance >300 km
are considered. One possibility for strengthening such small
sample sizes is to pool the data from different surveys con-
ducted in the same forest type and then stratify the analy-
sis according to survey location (e.g., Peres 1997a). How-
ever, I recommend that initially the PD distribution at differ-
ent sites should be examined through analysis of variance,
because of possible differences in the understory struc-
ture (and detectability) of different forests. An indepen-
dent measure of understory density at different survey sites
would also offer further support for data-pooling proce-
dures. If additional data from independent surveys are sim-
ply unavailable then I recommend that data on sample sizes
(number of sightings), sampling effort (distance walked),
and confidence intervals (CI) of density estimates should
be presented in the final report to extent that dangerously
large CIs can be tolerated.
Data Analysis
In the 1980s, TRANSECT (Laake etal., 1979) became the
most popular comprehensive computer software for analy-
sis of line-transect data from surveys of tropical forest ver-
tebrates. More recently this program has been superseded
by DISTANCE (Laake et al., 1991; Buckland etal., 1993),
which has become well-established and is relatively easy
to use, as it is now available for a Windows platform (ver-
sion 3.5). DISTANCE provides several estimators for com-
puting group (and population) density from either PD or
SD and sighting-angle data, and is currently the best avail-
able comprehensive software package dedicated for den-
sity estimates based on distance data. DISTANCE models
the probability density function of the PD data by first
selecting a key function and then a series expansion
(Buckland et al., 1993), and handles all the necessary com-
putations. An information criterion built into the software
facilitates model selection for each grouped or ungrouped
PD distribution. The Hazard-rate model with one of a num-
ber of mathematical adjustments is often the best density
estimator for g(x) "shoulders" resulting from forest primate
censuses (Peres 1997a), and performs reasonably well for
most other non-primate species.
I hope this rather brief set of guidelines will prove useful in
the planning and execution stages of future line-transect
surveys of tropical forest vertebrates, which have become
important biodiversity conservation assessment tools. This
may also serve to stimulate the adoption of a standardized
census protocol for further fieldwork in tropical wilderness
frontiers, as previously remote primate populations become
increasingly accessible to those wielding a pair of binocu-
lars and notebook, rather than a shotgun.
Carlos A. Peres, School of Environmental Sciences, Uni-
versity of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK. E-mail:
.






Page 16


References
Brockelman, W. Y. and Ali, R. 1987. Methods of surveying
and sampling forest primate populations. In: Primate Con-
servation in the Tropical Forest, C. W. Marsh and R. A.
Mittermeier (eds.), pp. 23-62. Alan R. Liss, New York.
Buckland, S. T., Anderson, D. R., Burnham, K. P. and Laake,
J. L. 1993. Distance Sampling: Estimating Abundance of
Biological Populations. Chapman & Hall, London.
Burnham, K. P., Anderson, D. R. and Laake, J. L.. 1980.
Estimation of density from line transect sampling of bio-
logical populations. Wildl. Monog. 72:1-202.
Defter, T. and Pintor,D. 1985. Censusing primates by transect
in a forest of known primate density. Int. J. Primatol.
6:243-259.
Greenwood, J. J. D. 1996. Basic techniques. In: Ecological
Census Techniques: A Handbook, W.J. Sutherland, (ed.),
pp. 11-109. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Hayes, R. J. and Buckland, S. T. 1983. Radial-distance mod-
els for the line-transect method. Biometrics 39: 29-42.
Janson, C. and Terborgh, J. 1980. Censo de primates en
selva humeda tropical. Publicaciones del Museo de
Historia Natural "Javier Prado", Serie A (Zoologia)
28:1-39.
Johns, A. D. 1985. Differential detectability of primates be-
tween primary and selectively logged habitats and impli-
cations for population surveys. Am. J. Primatol. 8:31-36.
'Laake, J. L., Burnham, K. P. and Anderson, D. R. 1979. User's
Manual for Program Transect. Utah State University, Lo-
gan, Utah.
.Laake, J. L., Buckland, S. T., Anderson, D. R. and Burnham,
K. P. 1991. DISTANCE User's Guide. Colorado State Uni-
* versity, Fort Collins, Colorado.
NRC. 1981. Techniques for the Study of Primate Popula-
tion Ecology. Subcommittee on Conservation of Natural
Populations, National Research Council. National Acad-
emy Press, Washington, D.C.
Peres, C. A. 1988. Primate community structure in western
Brazilian Amazonia. Primate Conserv. (9): 83-87.
Peres, C. A. 1989a. A survey of a gallery forest primate
community, Maraj6 Island, Para Vida Silvestre Neotro-
pical 2: 32-37.
Peres, C. A. 1989b. Costs and benefits of territorial defense
in wild golden lion tamarins, Leontopithecus rosalia.
Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 25: 227-233.
Peres, C. A. 1990. Effects of hunting on western Amazo-
nian primate communities. Biol. Conserv. 54:47-59.
Peres, C. A. 1993a. Structure and spatial organization of an
Amazonian terra firme forest primate community. J. Trop.
Ecol. 9:259-276.
Peres, C. A. 1993b. Diet and feeding ecology of saddle-
back and moustached tamarins in an Amazonian terra
firme forest. J. Zool., Lond. 230:567-592.
Peres, C. A. 1997a. Primate community structure at twenty
western Amazonian flooded and unflooded forests. J.
Trop. Ecol. 13: 381-405.
Peres, C. A. 1997b. Effects of habitat quality and hunting
pressure on arboreal folivore densities in neotropical for-
ests: a case study of howler monkeys (Alouatta spp.).


Folia Primatol. 68: 199-222.
Peres, C.A. In press a. Evaluating the impact and
sustainability of subsistence hunting at multiple Amazo-
nian forest sites. In: Hunting for Sustainability in Tropi-
cal Forests, J. G. Robinson and E. L. Bennett (eds.). Co-
lumbia University Press, New York.
Peres, C. A. In press b. Effects of subsistence hunting and
forest types on the structure of Amazonian primate com-
munities. In: Primate Communities, J. G. Fleagle, C. Janson
and K. Reed (eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cam-
bridge.
Peres, C. A. and Dolman, P. In press. Density compensa-
tion in neotropical primate communities: evidence from
56 hunted and non-hunted Amazonian forests.
Oecologia.
Skorupa, J. P. 1987. Do line-transect surveys systematically
underestimate primate densities in logged forests? Am. J.
Primatol. 13:1-9.
Southwell, C. 1996. Estimation of population size and den-
sity when counts are incomplete. In: Measuring and
Monitoring Biological Diversity: Standard Methods for
Mammals, D. E. Wilson,E R. Cole, J. D. Nichols, R. Rudran
and M. S. Foster (eds.). Smithsonian Institution Press,
Washington D. C.
Whitesides, G. H., Oates, J. F, Green, S. M. and Kluberdanz,
R. P. 1988. Estimating primate densities from transects in
a west African rain forest: a comparison of techniques. J.
Appl. Ecol. 57:345-367.
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S. Kondo, M. Kawai and A. Ehara (eds.), pp. 345-350.
Karger, Basel.

TAIL-USE IN CAPUCHIN MONKEYS
Dionisios Youlatos
Introduction
Capuchin monkeys, Cebus, are among the most widespread
of the platyrrhines (Emmons, 1990). The brown capuchin,
C. apella, has the largest geographic range, found east of
the Andes from Colombia and Venezuela, south to Para-
guay and northern Argentina (Emmons 1990). The white-
fronted capuchin, C. albifrons, occurs in the upper Ama-
zon and central Colombia, the white-faced capuchin, C.
capucinus, occurs in northern Colombia and Central
America, and the weeper capuchin, C. olivaceus ranges
from Venezuela east to the Guianas and the north-eastern
Brazilian Amazon. C. apella and C. olivaceus are sympat-
ric in French Guiana.
Capuchins, like the large-bodied atelines, have a prehen-
sile tail. Anatomical studies have shown, however, some
morphological differences between the tails of Cebus and
the atelines, suggesting that this feature has evolved twice
in platyrrhines, and also that they may use their tails in
different ways (Ankel, 1972; Grand, 1977; German, 1982;
Rosenberger, 1983; Lemelin, 1995). There has been only
limited quantitative study in tail use in the prehensile-tailed


Neotropical Primates 7(l), March 1999






Page 17


platyrrhines. Bergeson (1995), studying free-ranging howl-
ing, spider, and capuchin monkeys in Costa Rica, found
that tail use was closely associated with feeding and forag-
ing activities in all three species, but that capuchins used
their tails less than their sympatric atelines. Freese and
Oppenheimer (1981) and Janson and Boinski (1992) reported
that capuchins also use their tails during climbing down
and gap-crossing sequences in locomotion and that they
may suspend themselves by their tails during feeding. It
would appear, therefore, that the prehensile tail is an adap-
tation mainly associated with feeding/postural activities,
and much less with locomotion.
Here I report on a study to determine the role and impor-
tance of the prehensile tail during locomotion and feeding
and foraging postures in the brown capuchin, Cebus apella,
and the wedge-capped capuchin, C. olivaceus.
Study site, subjects, and methods
This study was conducted at the 'Station des Nouragues'
(4005'N, 5240'W) in French Guiana, 100 km south of Cay-
enne, the French department's capital. This site is charac-
terized by lowland humid rain forest, with patches of transi-
tional, low, liana and pina palm forests (Zhang, 1995). An-
nual rainfall varies from 3,000 to 3,250 mm, and the mean
annual temperature is 26.1 C. The study site is described in
Zhang (1995).
Both Cebus species are found in the study area, with their
home ranges widely overlapping (Zhang, pers. comm.). Data
were collected between July and September 1993, during
the transitional and early dry season (rainfall = 356 mm).
Although previous studies have shown some differences
in support and height use between age-sex classes
(Robinson, 1986; Terborgh, 1983; Janson, 1988; Gebo, 1992),
the sexes were not distinguished. Focal animal instanta-
neous sampling was carried out on adult individuals of
both species (Altmann, 1974). Each focal animal was fol-
lowed for 15 min. The session was discontinued if the focal
animal was lost from view before the end of the 15 minutes.
Locomotor behavior was recorded at 20-second intervals
determined by a beep from a stopwatch, and postural be-
100%


60% m-']_ l CLD

S..... E CLU
40% 1 PCL

20% [ I QWR
0%

apella travel apella forage olivaceus feed/frg
apella feed olivaceus travel
Figure 1. Percentages of locomotor modes of C. apella and C.
olivaceus during travel, feeding and foraging. Sample sizes are: apella
travel n = 1218, apella feed n = 219, apella forage n = 174, olivaceus
travel n = 412, olivaceus feed/forage n = 138. QWR = quadrupedal
walk and run, BI = bipedalism, PCL = pronograde clamber, CLU =
climb up, CLD = climb down, BRD = bridging, AIR = leap, drop.


havior was recorded by time bouts (Cant, 1987). A bout
ended when one of the recorded variables changed. Total
samples sizes for C. apella were: 1,218 intervals of locomo-
tion during travel, 219 locomotion intervals during feeding,
174 intervals during foraging, 226 min feeding postural be-
havior, and 17 min foraging postural behavior. Those for C.
olivaceus were: 412 intervals of locomotion during travel,
138 locomotion combining feeding and foraging, and 15
min of feeding/foraging postural behavior. G-tests were
used for statistical comparison of frequencies and p values
of 0.05 or less were considered significant.
The behavioral contexts recorded were travel (moving to
and from sleeping trees, as well as between feeding trees),
feeding (searching for, acquiring and processing plant foods
within a single or adjacent feeding trees) and foraging (ani-
mal prey searching and processing). Locomotor modes re-
corded were: Quadrupedal walk and run, bipedalism,
pronograde clamber, climb up, climb down, bridging, air.
Postural modes recorded were: sit, quadru/tripedal stand,
bipedal stand, suspensory. When the tail was not anchored,
I recorded tail free. When the tail was anchored beneath
the animal (or below the level of the midthoracic region in
orthograde postures) I recorded tail below center of grav-
ity (CG). Lastly, when the tail was anchored above the ani-
mal (or above the level of the midthoracic region in ortho-
grade postures) I recorded tail above CG.
LocomotorBehavior
Figure 1 shows the locomotor profiles of both species dur-
ing travel, feeding, and foraging. In C. apella, quadrupedal
walk/run was the principal locomotor mode used during
travel (Fig. 1). The tail was rarely used (3.6% of the quadru-
pedal walk/run subsample [n = 307] in C. apella), and was
kept in a curled-down position. Climbing/clambering (climb
up, climb down, and pronograde clambering) was more im-
portant during feeding and foraging than during travel
(travel vs feed: G = 75.851, p<0.001, travel vs forage: G =
61.577, p<0.001). The tail was used frequently in the climb
down category (61.5% of the climb down subsample [n =
65] in C. apella). It anchored mainly above CG, supporting

100%




60% SUSP
M2 STAND
SM4-3 STAND


20% -


0% apella feed apella forage olivaceus feed/frg

Figure 2. Percentages of postural modes of C. apella and C. olivaceus
during feeding and foraging. Sample sizes are: apella feed n = 226
min, apella forage n = 17 min, olivaceus feed/forage n = 15 min. SIT
= sit, 4-3 STAND = quadru/tripedal stand, 2 STAND = bipedal stand,
SUSP = suspensory.


Neotropical Primates 7(l), March 1999







Page 18 Neotropical Primates 7(1), March 1999


25



15
15 ^H ^ Wall below CC

SinWtail above CCG




apella travel a feed pella foraging olivaceus feed/forage
apella feeding olivaceus travel
Figure 3. Use of the prehensile tail during locomotion. Labels on
bars show percentages of use for each context (apella travel n =
1218, apella feeding n = 219, apella foraging n = 174, olivaceus
travel n = 412, olivaceus feed/forage n = 138).
part of the body weight, controlling and braking the de-
scent.
After leaping, bridging was the second most important gap
crossing mode (Fig. 1). It was used extensively in travel,
but its contribution decreased significantly in feeding and
foraging (apella: travel vs feed G = 23.72, p<0.001,
olivaceus: travel vs feed/forage G = 8.307, p<0.05). The tail
was used very frequently during bridging (82.2% of the
bridging subsample [n = 129] in C. apella; 87.8% of the
bridging subsample [n = 41] in C. olivaceus) and was mostly
anchored above CG, supporting the animal's weight. When
employed, the tail was typically the last appendage to de-
tach from the initial substrate giving the impression of con-
trolling the passage and providing security.
No significant differences were detected in tail use during
locomotion between the two species (travel apella vs
olivaceus: G = 1.439, p = 0.487). The tail was anchored in
less than 25% of the locomotor intervals in all contexts in
both species (Fig. 3). In both species, the tail was anchored
above CG in order to brake descents, control risky pas-
sages or in changes of direction. In C. apella there is a non
significant tendency for the tail to be used less in feeding
than in traveling (Fig. 3; travel vs feed: G = 0.8, p = 0.067;
travel vs forage: G = 2.941, p = 0.23; feed vs forage: G =
0.731,p= 0.694).
Postural Behavior
Figure 2 shows the percentages of postural behaviors for
both species during feeding and foraging. The species dif-
fered in the use of modes during feeding postural behavior
(Fig. 2; apella vs olivaceus feeding postures: G = 10.80,
p<0.05). Sitting was the dominant feeding posture in both
species (Fig. 2). the tail was very frequently used during
sitting (apella 64.5%, and mostly below CG). On the other
hand, percentages of tail-anchoring below and above CG
in quadru/tripedal postures were more similar (apella above
CG 28.5%, below CG 37.4%).
Suspensory postures were quite infrequent in C. apella,
while they represented a considerable proportion in
olivaceus (Fig. 2; but this could be an artifact due to the
small sample size for olivaceus). In both species, the most
frequent suspensory posture was tail-2hindlimbs hang,


70










apella feeding apella foraging olivaceus feedlforage
Figure 4. Use of the prehensile tail during feeding and foraging
postural behavior. Labels on bars show percentages of use for each
context (apella feeding n = 226 min, apella foraging n = 17 rmin,
olivaceus feed/forage n = 15 min).
while tail-only hang or tail-2hindlimbs-forelimb hang were
used very rarely. Suspensory postures were adopted not
only for food acquisition but also for processing of mostly
soft-tissue food items. The tail was always used in suspen-
sory postures.
The prehensile tail was frequently used in feeding postural
behavior (apella feed 65.8%, apella forage 54.3%, olivaceus
feed/forage 59.2%), mainly anchoring below CG (Fig. 4). No
significant difference was found in tail use during feeding
postural behavior between the two species (G = 0.685, p =
0.71).
Discussion
Bergeson's (1995) results from free-ranging sympatric howl-
ing, spider, and capuchin monkeys in Costa Rica, showed
that capuchins used their tail much less (36.3%) than howl-
ers and spiders (58.3% and 71.3%, respectively). Youlatos
(1994) reported similar results for sympatric howling and
spider monkeys in French Guiana, with spider monkeys
using their tail in 62% of the locomotor sample, and howl-
ing monkeys only 25%. These results are more or less simi-
lar to Bergeson's, showing that there is a tendency for de-
creasing tail use from spiders to howlers and capuchins.
During locomotion, the tail was used very frequently in
irregular modes (for example, climbing down, bridging) oc-
curring on, below, and across slender substrates. In such
modes, the tail was anchored mostly above CG suggesting
that it supported a significant part of the body weight. Both
bridging and climbing down require caution in the choice
of different, diversely oriented substrates, and, as the prin-
cipal body displacement is obliquely or vertically down-
ward, both forelimbs and hind limbs are frequently loaded
under tension. The tail grasp brakes the movement, se-
cures body displacement, and offers an additional limb in
weight distribution above slender substrates. Grand (1984)
qualitatively underlined the importance of such functions
for the prehensile tail, and Youlatos (1993) showed the im-
portance of tail use in bridging behavior in red howlers.
These findings would appear to agree with previous quali-
tative observations and expectations for prehensile tail use
(Rosenberger, 1983; Grand, 1977). Cebus may use its pre-
hensile tail in a rather conservative way, and only in critical


Page 18


Neotropical Primates 7(l), March 1999






Page 19


situations within the canopy. Anchoring of the tail above
CG during locomotion suggests that the tail must be loaded
under tensile and torsional forces. The frequent action of
such forces is partly responsible for anatomical features
indicating prehensility in Cebus tails.
The tail was used very frequently in feeding postures, more
often than in locomotion. This suggests a close associa-
tion between feeding postures and tail use as argued by
Thorington (1967) and Rose (1974), and shown quantita-
tively by Bergeson (1995). In C. apella, sitting was the
most frequently used feeding posture, as it is among platyr-
rhines and catarrhines (Rose, 1974; Cant, 1986, 1988; Gebo,
1992). By sitting, an animal enlarges its contact surface
with the substrate and simultaneously lowers its center of
gravity (Grand, 1977). Anchoring the tail below the center
of gravity lowers further the position of the center of grav-
ity. The animal's equilibrium is thereby enhanced by coun-
teracting the destabilizing torques resulting from sitting on
narrow substrates (Rose 1974). This biomechanical stabil-
ity allows capuchins to both acquire and manipulate food
items, as in cracking open hard-shelled fruit and nuts (Izawa
and Mizuno, 1977), breaking open branches, and unfurling
leaves. Manipulation and processing of hard-shelled fruit
is time consuming, which may also justify the exceptionally
long sitting bouts of capuchins.
In general, suspensory postures help arboreal primates to
expand their feeding and foraging activities within the ter-
minal twigs (Grand, 1972; Janson and Boinski, 1992). In
both capuchins, the tail was always used during suspen-
sory postures. However, since tail-only postures are rare
and very brief, the tail may help distribute the weight in 3 or
4 limbs in tail-assisted suspensory postures, thus stress-
ing the other limbs less.
In both species, the tail was used to stabilize the animals in
either above-branch, or suspensory feeding postures, but
not as a supportive fifth limb as in atelines. During locomo-
tion, capuchins seem to use their tails rather conservatively
in risky crossings and downward movements, braking, and
securing the movement of the body.
Acknowledgments
I am particularly indebted to Dr. P. Charles-Dominique and
Pr. J.-P. Gasc for permission to work at the Nouragues Re-
search Station, French Guiana. Field research was funded
by CNRS-URA 1137, Laboratoire d'Anatomie Compar6e,
Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France, and
"Action Sp6cifique Guyane", Mus6um National d'Histoire
Naturelle, Paris, France. Drs. J. G. H. Cant, D. Dunbar, J.-P.
Gasc, F Jouffroy, and B. Hallgrfmsson kindly provided valu-
able comments on previous drafts of this report.
Dionisios Youlatos, Mus6um National d'Histoire Naturelle,
Laboratoire d'Anatomie Compar6e, 55 rue Buffon, 75005
Paris, France. Address for correspondence: 35,
Agathoupoleos Street, 11252 Athens, Greece.


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Cant, J. G. H. 1988. Positional behavior of long-tailed
macaques (Macacafascicularis) in northern Sumatra. Am.
J. Phys. Anthropol. 76:29-37.
Emmons, L. H. 1990. Neotropical Rain Forest Mammals. A
Field Guide. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Freese, C. H. and J. R. Oppenheimer, 1981. The capuchin
monkey, genus Cebus. In: Ecology and Behavior ofNeo-
tropical Primates, Vol. 1., A. F. Coimbra-Filho and R. A.
Mittermeier (eds.), pp.331-390. Academia Brasileira de
Ci8ncias, Rio de Janeiro.
Gebo, D. L. 1992. Locomotor and postural behavior in
Alouattapalliata and Cebus capucinus. Am. J. Primatol.
26:277-290.
German, R. Z. 1982. The functional morphology of caudal
vertebrae in New World monkeys. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol.
58:453-459.
Grand, T. I. 1972. A mechanical interpretation of terminal
branch feeding. J. Mammal. 53:198-201.
Grand, T. I. 1977. Body weight: Its relation to tissue compo-
sition, segment distribution, and motor function. I. Inter-
specific comparisons. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 47: 211-
240.
Grand, T. I. 1984. Motion economy within the canopy. In:
Adaptations for Foraging in Non-Human Primates, P. S.
Rodman andJ. G. H. Cant (eds.), pp.54-72. Columbia Uni-
versity Press, New York.
Izawa, K., 1979. Foods and feeding behavior of wild black-
capped capuchins (Cebus apella). Primates 20: 57-76.
Janson, C. H., 1988. Food competition in brown capuchin
monkeys (Cebus apella). Quantitative effects of group
size and tree productivity. Behaviour 105: 53-76.
Janson, C. H. and Boinski, S. 1992. Morphological and be-
havioral adaptations for foraging in generalist primates:
The case of the cebines. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 88: 483-
498.
Lemelin, P. 1995. Comparative and functional myology of
the prehensile tail in New World monkeys. J. Morph. 224:
351-368.
Robinson, J. G. 1986. Seasonal variation in use of time and
space by the wedge-capped capuchin monkey, Cebus
olivaceus. Smiths. Contrib. Zool. 431:1-60.
Rose, M. D. 1974. Postural adaptations in New World and


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Page 20 Neotropical Primates 7(1), March 1999


Old World monkeys. In: Primate Locomotion, E A.
Jenkins, Jr. (ed.), pp.201-221. Academic Press, New York.
Rosenberger, A. L. 1983. Tale of tails: Parallelism and pre-
hensility. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 60:103-107.
Terborgh, J. 1983. Five New World Primates. A Study in
Comparative Ecology. Princeton University Press,
Princeton.
Thorington, R. W., Jr. 1967. Feeding and activity of Cebus
and Saimiri in a Colombian forest. In: Neue Ergebnisse
der Primatologie, D. Starck et al. (eds.), pp.180-184.
Gustav Fischer, Stuttgart.
Youlatos, D. 1993. Passages within a discontinuous canopy:
Bridging in the red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus).
Folia Primatol. 61: 144-147.
Youlatos, D. 1994. Mattrise de l'espace et aces aux
resources chez le singe hurleur roux (Alouatta seniculus)
de la Guyane Francaise. Etude morpho-fonctionnelle.
Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
Zhang, S.-Y. 1995. Activity and ranging patterns in relation
to fruit utilization by brown capuchins (Cebus apella) in
French Guiana. Int. J. Primatol. 16:489-507.

AGGRESSION AND DOMINANCE REVERSAL IN A
CAPTIVE ALL-MALE GROUP OF CEBUS APELLA
Antonio Christian de A. Moura
Capuchin monkeys, Cebus, live in multimale-multifemale
societies, with a dominant male and a dominant female
(Fedigan, 1993; Izawa, 1980; Janson, 1984; Perry, 1996). Hi-
erarchies are based mainly on age, size and sex, and older
and larger individuals usually have higher rank (Freese and
Oppenheimer, 1981). In the brown capuchin monkey, C.
apella, the dominance order among males is directly re-
lated to age (Izawa, 1980, 1990). Aggressive interactions
within the group are rather infrequent (Izar and Sato, 1997;
Izawa, 1980), and dominance reversal events are rare
(Robinson and Janson, 1987). However, Santini (1984),
studying a captive C. apella group that had been split into
three sub-groups, observed aggression among males when
the group was re-united. After reunion the males skirmished
among themselves in order to attain the alpha position.
Byrne et al. (1996) reported on a dominance reversal and
aggression among males in a captive C. apella group, but
the reasons for the initial fight between the higher-ranking
males were unknown. Izawa (1990) related two cases of
dominance reversal in a wild group of C. apella. In one
case a younger animal was supplanted by an older animal
that had entered the group and in the other, reversal oc-
curred between animals of the same age, but one was larger
than the other. Moreover, neither of the dominance rever-
sals involved the alpha male. In this note I relate a case of
aggression and dominance reversal in a captive all-male
group of C. apella apparently due to the increase in size of
a juvenile.
The group was composed of three unrelated males: Chico,
more than 20 years old, the dominant male; Tadeu, more


than eight years old; and Paulinho about five years old, a
juvenile-subadult. They were maintained at the Laborat6rio
Tropical de Primatologia (LTP) at the Federal University of
Paraiba, in a large wire mesh enclosure (3.8 m x 4.2 m x 2.6
m), containing natural branches and platforms. They re-
ceived three meals a day. The enclosure was subject to
normal environmental and climatic conditions, since the
LTP is located in a 5 ha remnant of coastal Atlantic forest.
The animals had lived together, for at least two years.
The dominance order in the group was related to age, and
the relationships between the group members was gener-
ally peaceful. In spite of this, Tadeu occasionally bullied
Paulinho, mounting him, and sometimes barring his access
to food. On 27 October 1996, there was a fight involving
Paulinho, Tadeu and Chico. Paulinho and Chico attacked
Tadeu, whose face was injured as a result. It was not pos-
sible to determine who started the fight nor who was more
aggressive. However, most of Chico's attacks against Tadeu
were prevented by the keepers using a hose to direct water
at him, and likewise to stop Paulinho's attack. Due to the
injures suffered, Tadeu was isolated for medical treatment.
About one week later he returned to the group. After that,
on several occasions Tadeu avoided Paulinho, he became
frightened of him, and usually screamed when Paulinho
approached him. Tadeu, as such, became subordinate to
Paulinho. Interestingly, after this event, when a person ap-
proached the cage only Chico and Paulinho would go to
the netting to "greet" them.
On one occasion, the keepers observed Paulinho blocking
Chico's access to food. On 19 May 1997, Paulinho attacked
the dominant Chico. The fight was serious, and Chico was
wounded on the right hand and suffered a perforation on
the right leg and some injuries on the face. Externally
Paulinho showed no sign of injury. Following this event
Paulinho was isolated and transferred to another facility.
In the two events reported here the severity of aggression
was unusual. The C. apella males typically use aggressive
vocalizations and facial intimidation in agonistic interac-
tions, physical injury is rather infrequent (Santini, 1984).
Izawa (1980, p.453), for example, never found any injuries in
the animals he studied in wild (but see Byrne et al., 1996).
Although the reasons for the aggression and dominance
reversal reported here are unknown, I believe that it was
favored by Paulinho increasing his body size. The captive
conditions may also have contributed, but hormonal changes
due to puberty (increasing testosterone levels) may have
been responsible for Paulinho's aggressiveness, and his
increase in body size could have made him more self-confi-
dent. However, his aggressiveness may be explained merely
by a more aggressive personality.
Interesting was the active participation of the alpha male
during the first aggressive outbreak. Janson (1984) observed
a dominant male intervening to support juveniles, although
an older unrelated juvenile was never defended by the al-
pha male. A primate male's rank may change many times


Page 20


Neotropical Primates 7(l), March 1999







Neotropical Primates 7(1), March 1999 Page 21


over the course of his lifetime (Walters and Seyfarth, 1987),
but in C. apella reports on dominance reversal events in-
volving the alpha male, are rare.
Acknowledgment: I thank Dr. Alfredo Langguth for valu-
able comments.
Antonio Christian de A. Moura, Departamento de
SistemAtica e Ecologia-CCEN, Universidade Federal da
Parafba, 58059-900 Joao Pessoa, Parafba, Brazil. E-mail:
mail:.
References
Byme, G., Abbott, K. M. and Suomi, S. J. 1996. Reorganiza-
tion of dominance rank among adult males in a captive
group of tufted capuchins (Cebus apella). Lab. Prim.
Newsl. 35:1-6.
Fedigan, L. 1993. Sex differences and intersexual relations
in adult white-faced capuchins monkeys (Cebus
capucinus). Int. J. Primatol. 14:853-877.
Freese, C. H. and Oppenheimer, J. R. 1981. The capuchin
monkeys, genus Cebus. In: Ecology and Behavior of
Neotropical Primates, Vol. 1, A. F. Coimbra-Filho and R.
A. Mittermeier (eds.), pp.331-390. Academia Brasileira de
Cidncias, Rio de Janeiro.
Izar, P. and Sato, T. 1997. Influncia de abundfncia alimentar
sobre a estrutura de espagamento interindividual e
relaq6es de dominancia em um grupo de macacos-prego
(Cebus apella). In: A Primatologia no Brasil 5, S. F.
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Brasileira de Primatologia, Universidade Federal do Para,
Bel6m.
Izawa, K. 1980. Social behaviour of the wild black-capped
capuchin (Cebus apella). Primates 21:443-467.
Izawa, K. 1990. Social changes within a group of wild black-
capped capuchins (Cebus apella) in Colombia (II). Field
Studies of New World Monkeys, La Macarena, Colom-
bia 3: 1-5.
Janson, C. 1984. Female choice and mating system of the
brown capuchin monkey Cebus apella (Primates:
Cebidae). Z Tierpsychol. 65:177-200.
Perry, S. 1996. Female-female social relationships in wild
white-faced capuchin monkeys, Cebus capucinus. Am. J.
Primatol. 40:167-182.
Robinson, J. G. and Janson, C.H. 1987. Capuchins, squirrel
monkeys, and atelines: Socioecological convergence with
Old World Primates. In: Primate Societies. B. B. Smuts;
D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham and T. T.
Struhsaker (eds.), pp.69-82. University of Chicago Press,
Chicago.
Santini, M. E. L. 1984. Observaces sobre o comportamento
social e reprodutivo do Cebus apella em cativeiro. In: A
Primatologia no Brasil. M. T. de Mello (ed.), pp.313-319.
Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia, Brasilia.
Walters, J. R. and Seyfarth, R. M. 1987. Conflict and coop-
eration. In: Primate societies. B. B. Smuts, D. L. Cheney,
R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham and T. T. Struhsaker
(eds.), pp.306-317. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.


A TWIN BIRTH IN CEBUS XANTHOSTERNOS (WIED,
1820) (CEBIDAE, PRIMATES)
Alcides Pissinatti
Adelmar F Coimbra-Filho
Anthony B. Rylands
Eduardo C. Nogueira Rubido
Cebus is a very wide ranging genus but the taxonomy of
the four to five species recognized today is still poorly
understood. The tufted brown capuchin, C. apella, espe-
cially has resisted a modem systematic evaluation mainly
due to extreme individual variation (Hill 1960; Torres, 1988).
For many years, the nominate subspecies has been ascribed
to the entire Amazon, although at least four C. apella sub-
species were recognized from the Atlantic forest, in Brazil,
Paraguay and Argentina (C. a. xanthostemos, C. a. robustus
and C. a. nigritus) and the central savanna (cerrado) of
Brazil (C. a. libidinosus) (Mittermeier et al., 1988, Rylands
etal., 1995). Of these, the form xanthosternos formerly oc-
curred in a large area extending from the Rio Jequitinhonha
in the south, and throughout the Atlantic forest of the state
of Bahia, probably north and inland to the Rio Sao Fran-
cisco (Hill, 1960; Coimbra-Filho etal., 1992a, 1992b). The
karyotype of the form xanthosternos is well differentiated
from other forms of tufted capuchin (Seuinez et al., 1986;
Matayoshi et al., 1987) and Mittermeier et al. (1988) and
Rylands et al. (1995) listed it as a full species. Today hunt-
ing and habitat loss have resulted in a severe decline in
their populations and geographic range, and they are dis-
appearing rapidly even in their last stronghold, the cocoa
growing region of southern Bahia (Mittermeier et al., 1982;
Coimbra-Filho, 1990; Oliver and Santos, 1991; Coimbra-Filho
et al., 1992a, 1992b; Rylands et al., 1993). Its status is rec-
ognized as "Critically endangered" by the World Conser-
vationUnion (IUCN) (IUCN, 1996).
A small colony of C. xanthosternos was begun at the Rio
de Janeiro Primate Center (CPRJ-FEEMA) in 1984, in col-
laboration with the World Wildlife Fund -US (WWF-US)
and Wildlife Preservation Trust International (WPTI), and
Fauna and Flora International (FFI). Its critical status, and
the large number found being maintained as pets in south-
em Bahia, however, argued for the expansion of this colony
and the establishment of breeding colonies for its conser-
vation ex situ elsewhere (Santos and Oliver, 1991; Oliver
and Santos, 1991; Santos and Lemould, 1993a). The Brazil-
ian Institute for the Environment (Ibama) established an
International Recovery and Management Committee for the
species in 1992 (Santos and Lemould, 1993a, 1993b).
The first specimens of C. xanthostemos arrived at CPRJ in
1980, and the first birth was registered in October 1984 (a
female CPRJ 596). Two groups were then established and
the beginning of the Center's colony as such. The founder
population was comprised of six young and subadult indi-
viduals, and 24 births have been registered since then, from
two males and ten females between 1984 and 1997. There
was a problem with the first birth, to a primiparous female


Neotropical Primates 7(l), March 1999


Page 21






Page 22


(CPRJ 324) which suffered a vaginal prolapse, and the new-
born was found abandoned, still wrapped in the placental
membranes and hand-reared (Pissinatti and Coimbra-Filho,
1991). From then on, however, all births were normal, and of
single offspring, except for one twin birth reported here.
With the exception of callitrichines, twin births are rare
among cebids, although they have been reported in wild
populations of Aotus vociferans (v. Aquino et al., 1990),
Callicebus cupreus cupreus (v. Knogge and Heymann,
1995),Alouattapalliata (v. Chapman and Chapman, 1986),
Alouatta seniculus (v. Crockett and Rudran, 1987), Alouatta
caraya (v. Bicca-Marques and Calegaro-Marques, 1994),
and Brachyteles arachnoides (v. Strier, 1991). Twin births
have also been reported in captive populations of Saimiri
boliviensis (v. Anonymous, 1993; Biben, 1993), Aotus
nancymaae (v. Gozalo and Montoya, 1990; Malaga et al.,
1991), Pithecia pithecia (v. Savage et al., 1995), Cebus
apella (v. Eisenstein andD'Amato, 1972; Stott, 1953),Ateles
fusciceps (J. Vermeer, pers. comm.), and Bushmitz Moshe
(pers. comm.) recorded three cases for Cebus apella in the
Israel Monkey Park. A twin birth has also been reported for
Callimico goeldii, which normally produces single off-
spring (Altmann etal., 1988).
The birth of twins in Cebus xanthosternos at CPRJ-FEEMA
was significant in that both survived well. In two of the
three twin births reported by Bushmitz Moshe (pers. comm.)
only one of the twins survived. Likewise one of the twin C.
apella reported by Eisentein and D'Amato (1972) was born
dead. Only one of the twin Callicebus c. cupreus reported
by Knogge and Heymann (1995) and of Brachyteles re-
ported by Strier (1991) survived. The twin C. xanthosternos
(CPRJ 1739 and CPRJ 1740) were born on 25th February
1997. They were both male. Eisenstein andD'Amato (1972)
recorded the birth of two females, with separate placentas,
but we were unable to ascertain if the C. xanthosternos
twins had separate placentas or not. Some biometric pa-
rameters are shown in Table 1.
The mother of the twins (CPRJ 1084) was primiparous, al-
though she had had plenty of time to observe births of
other females in her group. She was an extremely careful
mother. During the first month, the offspring were carried
ventrally, only rarely and briefly venturing to the mother's
dorsum. Most of the time, and when not suckling, they
were oriented similarly, with their heads on the same side of
the mother. This is in contrast to marmoset twins, in which


each generally places itself with its head on different sides
of the mother, and are only rarely aligned with their heads
on the same side. Only around the fifth month did the off-
spring begin minor escapades away from the mother, with
some rare and brief occasions when they were carried by
other group members. This only became more frequent when
the young were one year old and already being weaned. At
20 months old, they still rode on the mother's back or occa-
sionally grabbed hold of another group member when they
felt threatened. The father (CPRJ 474) was never observed
to participate in the carrying or socialization of the young,
a feature observed in all the Cebus births recorded at the
Center.
Acknowledgments: The authors are most grateful to Dr.
Russell Coffin for his substantial help in financing the main-
tenance of the C. xanthosternos colony, also to Ilmar B.
Santos and William L. R. Oliver for their help in setting up
the colony (supplying confiscated animals), to Drs. Jean-
Marc Lemould (Parc Zoologique et Botanique, Mulhouse-
France) and Roland Wirth (Zoological Society for the Con-
servation Species and Populations) for their help in the
construction of the cages, and to Maria lolita Bampi (Ibama)
for her support in the bureaucratic and legislative aspects
involved in establishing the colony and who was instru-
mental in setting up the International Recovery and Man-
agement Committee for the species (Edict 111/92, 16 Octo-
ber 1992).
Alcides Pissinatti, Centro de Primatologia do Rio de Janeiro
(CPRJ/FEEMA), RuaFonseca Teles 121/160, Sao CristovAo,
20940-200 Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Adelmar F.
Coimbra-Filho, Rua Artur Araripe 60/901, Givea, 22451-
020 Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Anthony B. Rylands,
Conservation International do Brazil, Avenida Ant8nio
Abrahdo Caram 820/302,31275-000 Belo Horizonte, Minas
Gerais, and Eduardo C. Nogueira Rubiao, Faculdade
Niteroiense de Medicina Veteriniria (FANIVE), Rua
Visconde do Rio Branco 123, Centro, 24020-000 Niter6i, Rio
de Janeiro, Brazil.
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Aquino, R., Puertas, P. and Encarnaci6n, F. 1990. Supple-
mental notes on population parameters of north eastern


Neotropical Primates 7(1), March 1999

Table 1. Development of the twin offspring of Cebus xanthosternos during the first 20 months.
Father Mother Twins
474 1084 1739 1740
Age 15 years 9 years 12 mo 20 mo 12 mo 20 mo
Weight (g) 3.900 3.000 1.600 1.750 1.500 1.850
Total body length (mm) 835 860 760 795 745 800
Tail length (mm) 460 500 440 450 440 460
Right foot (mm) 122 120 110 115 110 115
Ear (mm) 33 x 40 30 x 39 30 x 36 30 x 37 28 x 36 29 x 37
Upper canine 14 8 mm 7 6 6 4
Lower canine 11 8 mm 7 6 6 6
Distance upper canines 30.0 24 mm 17 25 23 26
Distance lower canines 23 18 21 21 17 21
Source: CPRJI/FEEMA animal register.






Page 23


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chromosome variation in Cebus apella (Cebidae,
Platyrrhini): The chromosomes of the yellow-breasted
capuchin Cebus apella xanthosternos Wied, 1820. Am. J.
Primatol. 10: 237-247.
Stott, K., Jr. 1953. Twinning in hooded capuchin. J. Mam-
mal. 34(3): 385.
Strier, K. B. 1991. Demography and conservation of an en-
dangered primate, Brachyteles arachnoides. Conserv.
Biol. 5:214-218.


Neotropical Primates 7(1), March 1999






Page 24


Torres de Assumplco, C. 1988. Resultados preliminares de
reavaliaqao das ranas de macaco-prego Cebus apella (Pri-
mates: Cebidae). Rev. Nordest. Biol. 6(1): 15-28.




ESTACION BIOLOGICAL CAPARU COLOMBIAN
AMAZON
In 1984, after many years of planning, I established the
nucleus of a research station in the Colombian Amazon on
the lower Rio Apaporis, not far from the Brazilian border.
The idea was to pursue long-term studies of primates and
other endangered animals, clarifying some of the interac-
tions that these animals have with their plant communities,
and training young Colombians in field techniques. The
primate community at Capard is made up of eight species:
Aotus sp., Callicebus torquatus, Saimiri sciureus, Cebus
apella, Cebus albifrons, Cacajao melanocephalus,
Alouatta seniculus, and Lagothrix lagothricha. My first
priority was to begin a study of Lagothrix lagothricha,
which was common and easy to find in this region, a fact I
had first established during a preliminary visit in 1980 (Fig.
1).
The site of the Estaci6n Biol6gica Capard (105.55'S,
69030.8'W) is in lowland (200 m) forest in a transition zone
between the ancient rocks and soils of the Guyana Biogeo-
graphical Province and the Amazonian Biogeographical
Province (sensu Hemrndez-Camacho et aL, 1991) in ablack-
water drainage, thus a site of comparatively low soil fertil-
ity. The station itself sits on an ancient Pleistocene river
terrace, which has its own particular plant community of


Apaporis, Colombia.


Neotropical Primates 7(1), March 1999

lower diversity when compared with the more inland Plio-
Pleistocene soils of the typical rolling red clay hills which
support the highest diversity of plants in the area (Ibarra et
al., 1977; Defier and Defier, 1996). The buildings are 900 m
north of Colombia's largest freshwater Amazonian lake, the
24-km Lago de Taraira, which protects a rich community of
endangered species such as the Amazonian manatee
(Trichechus inunguis), the giant river otter (Pteronura
brasiliensis), the black cayman (Melanosuchus niger), and
the piraracu (Arapaima gigas). The greatest source of hu-
man disturbance had been hunting and fishing by neigh-
boring Brazilians, which mostly ceased when we began our
activities there. This was essentially a forgotten comer of
Colombia with little colonization and only occasional hunt-
ing and fishing by indigenous people.
Our first Colombian student began her bachelor's thesis
work in 1984, and she has been succeeded by about 10
other thesis students, while we have taught two field
courses with the participation of other Colombian biolo-
gists (Forero, 1986; Mufioz, 1991; Ardila and Fl6rez, 1994;
Palacios and Rodriguez, 1995; Palacios, 1997; Rodrfguez,
1997; Barrios and Mantilla, 1998; Patiflo, in progress; G6mez,
in progress; Stephen, in progress). Most of the thesis work
has been with primates, although there has been work with
fishes (Corea, in progress) and giant otter (Botello, in prep.)
as well. An independent project of an assistant resulted in
a valuable collection of butterflies (Lora, 1991), while an
on-going doctoral project from a student from the Univer-
sity of London has made an extremely valuable collection
of frogs, lizards and snakes (with 1 or 2 new herp species to
be described) (Stephen, in prep.).
Sara Bennett-Defler has worked with the avifauna (Bennett-
Defier, 1994; Bennett-Defier and Defier, 1997) as well as
completing a four and one-half year phenological study of
the major plant communities (Bennett-Defler, in progress). I
have concentrated on woolly monkeys (Lagothrix
lagothricha) and black-headed uacari (Cacajao
melanocephalus), as well as primate conservation, for the
past few years (Defier, 1989a, 1989b, 1989c, 1990,1991,1994a,
1994b, 1995a, 1995b, 1996a, 1996b, 1996c, in press;
Hemrndez-Camacho and Defler, 1989; Palacios et al., 1997),
and had recently begun studying Saguinus inustus, al-
though problems on the lower Apaporis have made the
resolution of some of the research a rather difficult prob-
lem.
For several years we worked with the Colombian National
Parks for the declaration of the entire region of the lower
Apaporis river as a National Park (Defier et al., 1991), until
the project was opposed by the Indian community upriver,
which wanted to annex the land into their own Indian Re-
serve. In June 1998 all of the land of the lower Apaporis,
including the Estaci6n Biol6gica Capard was declared part
of the more than 1,000,000 ha Yaigoj6-Apaporis Indian Re-
serve. In a meeting with the Association of Captains of
Yaigoj6-Apaporis (ACIYA) in May, several NGOs and gov-
ernment conservation organizations signed an agreement
with ACIYA to develop environmental zoning for the lower






Neotropical Primates 7(1), March 1999


Apaporis which would define an Indigenous Faunistic Re-
serve where hunting activities would be strictly controlled
and the area of the station and Taraira Lake would be man-
aged as a nature preserve. Funds for this joint project are
currently being sought.
Since 1984 we have occasionally received orphaned mon-
keys representing species of this area, and these we have
raised by hand in a free-ranging state. Subtle behaviors of
these tame animals have become part of our knowledge of
these species' repertoire (Defter, in press). We have also
been able to collect other interesting data from these mon-
keys such as woolly monkey blood pressure and the estrus
cycle of Callicebus torquatus. Some details of the process
of reintroduction for some of these species have become
clear (Defier and Defter, in prep.).
Presently we are attempting to identify funds to help in
basic upkeep of the station. The Fundaci6n Natura has
become part of the alliance along with the Corporation Re-
gional del Desarrollo Sostenible del Norte y Oriente de
Amazonia (C.D.A.) (in charge of natural resources for this
part of the Amazonia), the Instituto Amaz6nico de
Investigaciones de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia
(IMANI) and Conservation International de Colombia in
attempting to strengthen Caparti in the face of its present
adversity.
The Fundaci6n Natura has joined forces with IMANI for
the administration of the Estaci6n Biol6gica Capard for the
future with the hope that research, education and conser-
vation can be strengthened in such a way that the region
and nation benefit from our activities.
Thomas R. Defter, Instituto Amaz6nico de Investigaciones
de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia IMANI y la
Fundaci6n Natura, A. A. 53200, Santaf6 de Bogota, Colom-
bia. E-mail: .
References
Ardila-C., J. 0. and Florez-Z., A. N. 1994. Aspectos de la
ecologfa de un grupo silvestre Lagothrix lagothricha
lagothricha (Humboldt, 1812), Primates Atelidae, en la
Amazonia Colombiana. Bachelor's thesis, Universidad
Nacional de Colombia, Bogota.
Barrios, L.F and MantillaM., H. In prog. Estudio de la ecologfa
bosica de Cebus apella en el bajo Apaporis, Estaci6n
Biol6gica Caparui. Bachelor's thesis, Universidad Nacional
de Colombia, Bogota.
Bennett-Defler, S. 1994. Las aves de la Estaci6n Capard: una
lista preliminary de species. TRIANEA (Act. Cient. Tecn.
1NDERENA) 5:379-400.
Bennett-Defier, S. and Defier, T. R. 1997. Anotaciones sobre
los cricidos del bajo Apaporis en el sureste de Colombia.
In: The Cracidae: Their Biology and Conservation, S. D.
Strahl, S. Beaujon, D. M. Brooks, A. J. Behazo, G.
Sedaghatkish and F. Olmos (eds.), pp. 289-297. Hancock
House Publishers Ltd., Surrey, B.C.
Botello, J. C. In prep. Ecologfa y dicta de Pteronura
brasiliensis. Bachelor's thesis, Universidad del Valle, Cali.
Corea, S. In prep. Ictiofauna del Lago de Taraira (Estaci6n


Biol6gicaCapari). Bachelor's thesis, Universidad del Valle,
Cal
Defter, T.R. 1989a. The status and some ecology of primates
in the Colombian Amazon. Primate Conservation (10): 51-
56.
Defter, T. R. 1989b. Recorridos y uso del espacio en un grupo
de Lagothrix lagothricha (mono lanudo o churuco) en la
Amazonia colombiana. TRIANEA (Acta Cient. Tecn.
INDERENA) 3:183-205.
Defter, T. R. 1989c. El bajo Apaporis: un Nuevo Parque
National? Colombia Su Gente y Paisaje 16: 244-255.
Defler, T. R. 1990. Primates andtheColombianAmazon. IPPL
(International Primate Protection League) NEWS 17(2):
8-12.
Defter, T. R. 1991. Preliminary observations of Cacajao
melanocephalus (Humboldt, 1811) (Primates, Cebidae).
TRIANEA (Acta Cient. Tecn. INDERENA) 4: 557-558.
Defier, T. R. 1994a. Callicebus torquatus is not a white-sand
specialist. Am. J. Primatol. 33(2): 149-154.
Defter, T. R. 1994b. Jaguars eat dolphins, too. TRIANEA (Acta
Cient. Tecn. INDERENA) 5: 415-416.
Defier, T. R. 1994c. La conservaci6n de primates en Colombia.
TRIANEA (Acta Cient. Tecn. INDERENA) 5: 255-287.
Defter, T. R. 1995. The time budget of a group of wild woolly
monkeys, Lagothrix lagothricha. Int. J. Primatol. 16: 107-
120.
Defter, T. R. 1996a. Some aspects of the ranging pattern in a
group of wild woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagothricha).
Am. J. Primatol.
Defler, T. R. In press. Primates of Colombia. Conservation
International, Tropical Field Guide Series, Washington, D.
C
Defler, T. R. Submitted. Locomotion and posture in Lagothrix
lagothricha.
Defler, T. R. andDefler, S. B. 1996a. Diet of a group ofLagothrix
lagothricha lagothricha in southeastern Colombia. Int. J.
Primatol. 17(2):161-189.
Defter, T. R. and Defier, S. B. 1996b. The diet of a group of
woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagothricha lagothricha). Am.
J. Primatol. 17(2): 161-189.
Defter, T. R. and Defler, S. B. In prep. Notes on the reintroduc-
tion of some species of neotropical primates at Capard Bio-
logical Station.
Forero, 0.1986. Contribuci6n al conocimiento del uso espacial
de Callicebus torquatus lugens en el bajo rio Apaporis,
Vaup6s. Bachelor's thesis, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana,
Bogota.
G6mez, C. In prog. La ecologfa del maicero Cebus apella en el
bajo rfo Apaporis, el Vaup6s, Colombia. Universidad del
Valle, Cali.
Hernmndez-Camacho, J. and Defier, T. R. 1989. Algunos
aspects de la conservaci6n de primates no-humanos en
Colombia. In: La Primatologta en Latinoamdrica, C. J.
Saavedra, R. A. Mittermeier and I. B. Santos (eds.), pp. 67-
100. WWF-US, Washington, D. C.
Hemrndez-Camacho, J., Hurtado-G., A., Ortiz-Q., R. and
Walschburger, T. 1992. Unidades biogeogrdficas en Colom-
bia. In: La Diversidad Biol6gica de Iberoamdrica I, ed. G.


Page 25






Page 26 Neotropical Primates 7(1), March 1999


Halffter,pp.105-151. Institute deEcologfa, A.C., M6xico.
lbarra, C., Morelo, J., Bricefio, J., Cort6s, A., Motta, B. de,
Luna, C., Garavito, F. and Pulido, C. 1979. Suelos. In: La
Amazonia Colombiana ysusRecursos, pp.93-216. Proyecto
Radargrametrico del Amazonas, Bogoti.
Lora, C. 1991. Listado preliminary de mariposas de la zona
propuesta para el Parque Nacional Capard. In: Propuesta
para la Creacidn del Parque Nacional Natural Caparni,
T.R. Defier, S. B. Defler(eds.) andB. Arjona, 15pp.Fundaci6n
Natura, Bogota, (Appendix).
Mufioz, J. 1991. Algunos aspects de ladispersi6n, estructura
social y uso del espacio habitado en un grupo de Lagothrix
lagothricha (Humboldt, 1912) Primates, Cebidae en la
Amazonia colombiana. Bachelor's thesis, Universidad
National de Colombia, BogotA.
Palacios-A., E. 1997. Dietay recorridos deAlouatta seniculus
en el bajo rio Apaporis, Vaup6s, Colombia. Master's thesis,
Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota.
Palacios-A., E. and Rodrfguez-R., A. 1995. Caracterizaci6n de
la dieta y comportamiento alimentario de Callicebus
torquatus lugens. Bachelor's thesis, Universidad Nacional
de Colombia, Bogota.
Palacios-A., E., Rodriguez-R., A. and Defler, T. R. 1997. Diet of
a group of Callicebus torquatus lugens (Humboldt, 1812)
during the annual resource bottleneck in Amazonian Co-
lombia. Int. J. Primatol. 18(4): 503-522.
Patiflo, A. In prog. La ecologfa bAsica del chichico Saimiri
sciureus en el bajo rfo Apaporis, el Vaup6s, Colombia.
Master's Thesis, Universidad Nacional de Colombia,
BogotA.
Rodriguez-R., J. A. 1997. La dieta de Callicebus torquatus
lugens en el bajo rio Apaporis, Vaup6s. Master's Thesis,
Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota.
Stephen, I. In prog. The lizard community of Capard. Ph.D.
thesis, Royal Holloway College, University of London, Lon-
don.

1997 EUROPEAN REGIONAL STUDBOOK FOR THE
SPIDER MONKEYS ATELES SSP. AND AN EEP FOR
ATELES FUSCICEPS ROBUSTUS
The third edition of the European Endangered Species Pro-
gram (EEP) studbook on spider monkeys subspecies, Ateles
ssp., has been published by the Dou6 la Fontaine Zoologi-
cal Park. It was compiled by Sophie Durlot, eco-ethologist,
and supervised by M. Pierre Gay, Director of the Dou6 Zoo
(France). M. Pierre Gay is theAteles ssp. Studbook keeper
and EEP coordinator for Ateles fusciceps robustus. This
edition presents information on Ateles biology and status
in the wild, and provides historical and current surveys of
the captive populations. Data on births, deaths, and trans-
actions during the year 1996 are given for each spider mon-
key subspecies: Ateles belzebuth belzebuth, Ateles
belzebuth chamek, Ateles belzebuth hybridus, Ateles
geoffroyi (all ssp.), Ateles fusciceps robustus, Ateles
paniscus and Ateles hybrids. For each of them, the situa-
tion in Europe and in the other regions (Australia, North
America, South Africa) are summarized along with the rec-


ommendations of transfers proposed at the annual EEP
congress held in Berlin, Germany, 2-3 September, 1998.
Demographic and genetic analyses of the Atelesfusciceps
robustus captive population are presented. This subspe-
cies is classified as "Endangered" following the Mace-Lande
criteria. It can be found from Panama to the west coast of
Ecuador. The European captive population began in 1964
with several imports from Colombia and Panama up to 1980.
The first animal born in captivity was a female registered in
1967. The population today has reached 136 (50.83.3) indi-
viduals in 34 institutions and 128 (45.80.3) of these animals
are in 25 EEP participating institutions. The sex ratio is 1.80.
but both sexes are distributed fairly evenly over the vari-
ous age classes. Males show a higher fecundity rate than
females during their life span; they begin reproducing ear-
lier. The EEP population average lambda value (the rate of
population change per year) over the last 10 years is 1.025,
including imports and exports. This shows, along with the
other demographic parameters, that the captive population
is growing in the European region. There are 28 founders
(18 are alive and still reproducing) and 13 potential
founders. These founders have formed genetic lines with
descendants distributed through the participating institu-
tions. Recommendations of transfers are based on the in-
breeding coefficients and optimization of poorly represented
genetic lines. Applying this breeding policy for all captive
populations reduces risks of inbreeding and the loss of
wild genes.
Sophie Durlot, 04 rue Jean-Baptiste Tubi, 78590 Noisy-le-
Roi, France, e-mail: , and
Pierre Gay, Parc Zoologique de Dou6 la Fontaine, route de
Cholet, 49700 Dou6 la Fontaine, France.
References
Durlot, S. and Gay, P. 1998. European Regional Studbook
for the Spider Monkeys, Ateles ssp., Ateles fusciceps
robustus E.E.P. Number 3, 115 pp. Dou6 la Fontaine Zoo-
logical Park, France. Datathrough 31 December 1997.
Gay, P. 1995. European Regional Studbook for the Spider
monkeys Ateles ssp., Ateles fusciceps robustus EEP.
Number 2, 94pp. Dou6 la Fontaine Zoological Park,
France. Data as of 31 December 1995.

SOUTH AMERICAN ATELES REGIONAL STUDBOOK
FOR NORTH AMERICA 1997
Kristi Newland of the Memphis Zoo and Aquarium has
published the second historical listing and the 1997 stud-
book (data current through 31 December 1997) for the South
American Ateles in captivity in North and Central America
and the Caribbean (including Canada, United States,
Mexico, Trinidad, Bermuda, Belize, Cuba, and Panama).
Following an introduction, including descriptions of the
species and aspects of their captive care, biology, habitats
and distributions, historical listings are given for Ateles
belzebuth (subspecies not identified), A. b. belzebuth, A. b.
chamek, A. b. hybridus, A. b. marginatus, A. paniscus, A.
fusciceps (subspecies not identified) and A. f robustus.


Neotropical Primates 7(1), March 1999


Page 26







Neotropical Primates 7(1), March 1999 Page 27


According to the records available, A. f. fusciceps has never
been held in captivity in the North American region. Age
pyramids and summaries of fecundity and mortality are
given for each.
No living A. b. marginatus were registered, and only five
(3.0.2) were recorded in the historical listing. The living
captive populations for some other Ateles are minimal. An
adult male A. belzebuth hybrid lives in the Ralph Mitchell
Zoo, Independence, KS. The International Animal Ex-
change, Femdale, MI, maintains a female A. b. belzebuth
and Bramble Park Zoo, Watertown, SD, a female. Thirteen
A. b. chamek (4.6.3) are maintained in three institutions,
International Animal Exchange, the Gladys Porter Zoo,
Brownsville, TX, and NBJ Park, Bulverde, TX. Twenty-eight
A. b. hybridus (10.18.0) were living in 12 institutions, the
largest collection (2.7.0) being in the Zoological Society of
Trinidad and Tobago, Port of Spain, Trinidad. Six A.
fusciceps (subspecies undetermined) (1.3.2.) are included
in the historical listing but no live animals were registered.
Relatively large numbers (292) of A.f robustus have been
kept in captivity in the North American region (104.160.28).
On 31st December 1997, the studbook recorded a popula-
tion of 125 (44.74.7) in 33 institutions, the largest collection
being in the Sedgwick County Zoo, Wichita, KS. A total of
169 A. paniscus (59.69.41) were included in the historical
listing, but today there are very few in captivity in the re-
gion: just five animals (2.3.0) in four institutions. The large
numbers recorded in the past may be a result of
misidentification; black spider monkeys in general were li-
able to be identified as A. paniscus, and many were per-
haps A.f. robustus or the, also all-black, form chamek, pre-
viously considered a subspecies of paniscus.
The appendices include information on a program for karyo-
typing the entire living spider monkey collection in the North
American region, taking into consideration the fact that
pelage variability can sometimes make species/subspecies
identification difficult. For information on this program,
contact: Dr. Jean Dubach, Brookfield Zoo, Brookfield, Illi-
nois 60513, USA, Tel: 708 485 0263 x 502, Fax: 708 485 3532.
For copies of the studbook, please write to Kristi Newland,
Memphis Zoo and Aquarium, at the address below. A spe-
cial appeal is made to zoo and breeding institutions which
are maintaining spider monkeys but which have not been
included in this AZA register to contact Kristi Newland,
Official Studbook Keeper and Population Manager for South
American spider monkeys for the AZA/WCMC.
Kristi Newland, Memphis Zoo and Aquarium, 2000 Gallo-
way, Memphis, TN 38112, USA, Tel: 901725 3400 x 3119,
Fax: 901725 9305. E-mail: .
Reference
Newland, K. 1999.1997 NorthAmerican Regional Studbook
(Historical) for South American Spider Monkeys Ateles
belzebuth, A. fusciceps, A. paniscus all subspecies. Mem-
phis Zoo and Aquarium, Memphis, Tennessee. 131pp. +
appendices. Data current through 31 December, 1997.


NACIMIENTO DE GEMELOS DE SAGUINUS LABIATUS
OBSERVADO EN SU HABITAT NATURAL
Dos gemelos estaban naciendo en un grupo de Saguinus
labiatus que son observados con parte de un studio
comparative de Callimico goeldii, Saguinus labiatus y
Saguinus fuscicollis. El studio es conducido en Bolivia
en el Departamento Pando, en la provincia Nicolas Suarez,
el Municipio de Bolpebra, 2 km norde del Rio Tahuamanu y
63 km suroeste de la ciudad de Cobija.
El grupo de cinco individuos de S. labiatus estaba siendo
seguido el dia 10 de noviembre, 1998. Observaci6nes de el
grupo empez6 a las 07:10 de la manana. A las 08:35 dos
machos y una embra estaban descansando juntos, como
de pronto los dos machos se alejaron. Alas 08:40 la embra
estaba observada solita en un arbol a la altura de
aproximadamente 25 m. Ella estaba en una posici6n sentada
agachada investigando la salida del primer beb6. El beb6
naci6 y ella lo tubo por menos de un minuto en sus manos
lamiendolo. Despues el beb6 subi6 encima de la espalda de
su madre. Luego, ella se traslado aun gajo aproximadamente
5 m mas bajo en el mismo arbol. Ella primero estaba
observada en cuatro pies pero despues volvi6 en un
posici6n sentada agachada de nuevo. A las 08:51 el segundo
beb6 nacio. El segundo beb6 inmediatamente subi6 encima
de la espalda de su madre. Alas 08:54 un otro animal vin6
cerca de la madre y mir6 los beb6s. Despues tres mas
animals regressaron y a las 08:55 la madre sali6 con ellos
con los beb6s encima de su espalda. La madre estaba
seguida por dos machos, y ellos querian cargar los beb6s
pero ella no permitia.
Alas 11:07 un beb6 cay6 al suelo de 6 m de altura cuando la
madre estaba saltando de un arbol a otro. Todos los
meimbros del grupo empezaron a alarmarse con la caida del
bebe y miraron el suelo. Seis minutes despues un macho
baj6 al suelo y recogfo el beb6 encima de su espalda y
subi6 en los arboles. Por las seguientes horas el grupo
viaj6 lentemente y paraba frequentemente en bejucales
densos en los arboles ala altura 15 m hasta 25 m. Alas 14:30
ellos estaban escondidos y no era possible por mas
observaci6nes por el dia. Por los siguiente cuatro dias el
grupo estaba seguido con muchas difficultades porque ellos
descansaban casi siempre en vegetaci6nes densas y altas.
Durante estos dias los beb6s estaban cargados aveces
juntos encima de un adulto y otros opportunidades
separados encima de dos animals. Este grupo sera
observado por los seguinte cuatro meses para mirar el
desarollo de los beb6s.

BIRTH OF SAGUINUS LABIATUS TWINS OBSERVED IN
THEIR NATURAL HABITAT
Twin infants were born into a group of S. labiatus which
are being observed as part of a comparative study of S.
labiatus, S. fuscicollis and Callimico goeldii. The study is
being conducted in the Department of the Pando, in north-
west Bolivia, 2 km north of the Rio Tahuamanu and 63 km


Neotropical Primates 7(l), March 1999


Page 27







Pa-e 28a


south-east of the city of Cobija.
A group of five individuals of Saguinus labiatus was be-
ing followed on November 10, 1998. Observations of the
group began at 07:10 am. At 08:35 two males and one fe-
male were resting together, but the males left the female
soon after. At 08:40 the female was observed resting alone
in a tree at a height of about 25 m. She was in a crouched
sitting position examining the birth of the first infant. After
the infant was born, the mother held it in her hands licking
it for less than a minute, and it then climbed onto her back.
The mother then moved to a branch 5 m lower in the same
tree. She was first seen standing on four feet, but then
returned to a crouched sitting position. At 08:51 the sec-
ond infant was born. It immediately climbed onto its moth-
er's back. At 08:54 another tamarin approached her and
looked at the infants. Three other group members then ap-
proached, and at 08:55 the mother left with them with the
two infants on her back. She was followed by two males.
Both attempted to carry the infants, but she did not allow
them to. At 11:07 one infant fell to the ground from a height
of 6 m when the mother leapt between two trees. All the
group members began to alarm call at the infant's fall, and
began scanning the ground. Six minutes later a male de-
scended to the ground, retrieved the baby onto its back,
and went back up into the trees. For the following hours
the group travelled slowly and rested mostly in dense lianas
in trees at heights of 15 to 25 m. At 14:30 the group was
hidden, and no more observations were possible for that
day. On the following four days the group was followed
with difficulty as they continued to rest frequently high up
in dense vegetation. During these days the infants were
sometimes carried together, but on other occasions sepa-
rately by two different adults. Observations will continue
for a further four months to observe the development of
the twins.
Edilio Nacimento Bezerra, Correo Central, Cobija,
Departamento Pando, Bolivia, and Leila M. Porter, Doc-
toral Program in Anthropological Sciences, Department of
Anthropology, State University of New York (SUNY), Stony
Brook 11794, USA.

NEW WORLD PRIMATES OF THE ARGENTINEAN
MUSEUM OF NATURAL SCIENCES "BERNARDINO
RIVADAVIA", BUENOS AIRES
The Argentinean Museum of Natural Sciences (MACN)
was founded in December 1823 (Gonzales, 1980). We regis-
tered 555 primate specimens under different preservation
conditions. This report is the result of the revision of the
New World Primate collection composed of 405 specimens,
belonging to three families, following Ford (1986):
Cebidae (64% of the total Platyrrhine collection), with the
following species (number of specimens in brackets): Cebus
sp. (6); Cebus apella (31); C. a. paraguayanus (69), C. a.
nigritus (26), C. a. pallidus (5), C. a. libidinosus (1), Saimiri


sp. (13), Saimiri boliviensis (6), Aotus sp. (39), Aotus azarae
(21), Callicebus sp. (29), Callicebus donacophilus (6).
Atelidae (26%), Pithecia sp. (2),Alouatta sp. (14), A. caraya
(60), Afitsca (10),A. seniculus (3),Ateles sp. (6),A. geoffroyi
(3), Brachyteles arachnoides (1), Lagothrix sp. (5).
Callitrichidae (10%), Callithrix sp. (20), C. melanura (5),
C. jacchus (5), Leontopithecus sp. (3), L. rosalia (2),
Saguinus sp. (1).
Our work with each specimen included detailed observa-
tion, evaluation of its preservation status, comparison of
the information on the specimen label and that registered in
the catalogue, and the inclusion of all relevant information
in a computerized database. Regarding the composition of
the collection, 31% of the specimens have both skull and
skin preserved; 24% only the skin, and 45% is represented
solely by the skull. There are also 15 specimens in alcohol,
including: 10 Cebus sp., 1 Aotus sp., 3 Saimiri sp., and 1
Callithrix sp. Unfortunately, this wet collection is in very
poor condition which, added to the lack of information about
their precedence, makes it the least valuable part of the
platyrrhine collection. Twelve skulls that are currently on
loan outside the museum, have not been analyzed. They
are: 2 Ateles sp., 2 Lagothrix sp., 2 Aotus sp., 3 Callicebus
sp. and 3 Leontophitecus sp.
A total of 79% of the specimens were collected by Museum
members and associated collectors; 5% came from exchange
with other Latinamerican museums; 1% has its origins in a
number of zoos; and the remaining 15% come from un-
known collectors. There are no primate type specimens in
the collection. Based on this study, we hope to highlight
the value of this Museum, housing the largest and most
important platyrrhine reference collection in Argentina.
Acknowledgements: We are grateful to the Mammal Divi-
sion of the Argentinean Museum of Natural Sciences, and
especially to Drs Martha Piantanida and Gabriel Zunino
and Lie. Olga Vaccaro for providing the access to the col-
lection and for useful comments on this report.
Marina Sofia Ascunce, Romari Martinez, Grupo de
Investigaci6n en Biologfa Evolutiva gibeE), Ignacio Avila,
GIBE and Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Ber-
nardino Rivadavia", Divisi6n de Mastozoologfa, Avenida
Angel Gallardo 470, (1405) Buenos Aires, and Marta Mudry,
GIBE, Departamento de Ciencias Biol6gicas, Fac. Cs. Exactas
y Naturales, UBA, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. II 4o Piso,
(1428) Buenos Aires, Argentina. E-mail of the first author:
.
References
Ford, S. 1986. Systematics of the New World Monkeys. In:
Comparative Primate Biology, Vol. 1: Systematics,
Evoluition and Anatomy, D. R. Swindler and J. Erwin
(eds.), pp.73-135. Alan R. Liss, New York.
Gonzales, A. L. 1980. El Museo de Ciencias Naturales de
Buenos Aires. Ediciones Culturales Argentinas, Buenos
Aires. 135pp.


Neotropical Primates 7(l), March 1999


e gaP 28






Neotropical Primates 7(1), March 1999


A WORKING GROUP FOR THE PIED TAMARIN,
SAGUINUS BICOLOR
The Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Renewable
Natural Resources (Ibama) has established a special, inter-
national consultative working group for the conservation
and management of the pied tamarin, Saguinus bicolor bi-
color (Edict No. 1588,29th December 1998). The coordina-
tor is Dr. Andrew Baker, Curator of Primates and Small Mam-
mals of the Zoological Society of Philadelphia, and the sub-
stitute coordinator is Alcides Pissinatti, Director of the Rio
de Janeiro Primate Center (CPRJ/FEEMA). The members of
the group include besides: Maria lolita Bampi, Head of the
Department of Wildlife, Ibama; Leobert E. M. de Boer,
Apenheul Primate Park; Rosemary de Carvalho Mamede,
Department of Wildlife, Ibama; Anthony B. Rylands, IUCN/
SSC Primate Specialist Group and Conservation Interna-
tional do Brasil; and RosanaJ. Subira, University of Brasilia;
as well as a representative of the Brazilian Society of Zoo-
logical Gardens (SZB). The stated aim of the group is to
"set up strategies for research, management and protec-
tion of S. b. bicolor in order to establish a genetically self-
sustaining population".
This Working Group arose from a recommendation arising
from a meeting (1 st Meeting for the Establishment of Mea-
sures for the Recovery and Management of Saguinus bi-
color), held in the Botanical Garden, Rio de Janeiro, 11 June
1997, presided by Maria lolita Bampi, representing Ibama.
The research carried out so far on its distribution and ecol-
ogy was reviewed by Silvia Egler and Rosana Subir,, and
Alcides Pissinatti (Brazil), Andrew Baker (USA) and Leobert
E. M de Boer (Europe) reported on the status of the species
in captivity. In Brazil, the first colony was formed at the Rio
de Janeiro Primate Center (CPRJ) from four wild born
founders received in 1980 (1) and 1985(3), one of which is
still alive. Further founders were obtained in 1993 (1) and
1996 (11). Breeding was very successful, and in June 1997 a
further nine Brazilian zoos and breeding facilities were also
participating in the breeding program. The population in
the US was begun with six tamarins sent by the CPRJ to the
Philadelphia Zoological Garden in 1993. By the end of 1995
there were about 25 individuals in four zoos in the US and
Canada. The European population arose from three colo-
nies, at the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust (received
animals from the CPRJ), the Mulhouse Zoo, France, and at
the University of Bielefeld, Germany. In June 1997, the Eu-
ropean population was estimated at 35-40 animals. Andrew
J. Baker is the International Studbook Keeper.
Andrew J. Baker, Curator of Primates and Small Mammals,
Zoological Society of Philadelphia, 3400 West Girard Av-
enue, Philadelphia, PA 19104-1196, USA, and Maria lolita
Bampi, Departamento de Vida Silvestre, Diretoria de
Ecossistemas, Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos
Recursos Naturais RenovAveis (Ibama), SAIN AvenidaL4
Norte, Ediffcio Sede, 70800 Brasilia, D.F., Brazil.


Page 29


THE SPECIES SURVIVAL COMMISSION (SSC) SPECIES
INFORMATION SERVICE (SIS)
Since 1994, SSC has, through its vol-
unteer network and guided by its Stra-
tegic Plan, been developing a Species
sp5EC SURVIVAL CO-ISSON Information Service (SIS). A Working
Group of SSC volunteers, led by the Lagomorph Specialist
Group Chair Andrew Smith and Steering Committee mem-
ber Luigi Boitani, has examined the capacity and informa-
tion needs of the volunteer network to participate in SIS
and has analyzed in detail SSC's current services to the
conservation community and how these products and
analyses could be enhanced through SIS.
The proposed program envisions a world-wide Species In-
formation Service (SIS) that is easily accessible to the con-
servation and development communities (scientists, natu-
ral resource managers, educators, decisionmakers, and do-
nors). Thousands of species conservation experts through-
out the world will have the capacity to equitably,
proactively, and effectively contribute to the conservation
of biodiversity with quality information provided to the
conservation and development decision-making processes.
The network will be a decentralized means of sharing infor-
mation that can be accessed by users interested in informa-
tion at different geographical scales (global, regional, na-
tional, and subnational), and that is flexible so as to be
adaptable to the user's needs.
A single (one-size-fits-all) system to suit the capabilities
and expectations of all Specialist Groups is neither pos-
sible nor desirable, thus, planning has incorporated a flex-
ible approach to the architecture of the SIS. The modular
data management system ensures minimum requirements
and is adaptable toward the needs of individual Specialist
Groups. The modular system sets standards to facilitate
data exchanges while allowing Specialist Groups to build in
components that meet particular requirements relevant to
the taxa under their purview. Particular attention in the de-
velopment process is also being given to aspects of qual-
ity assurance and the protection of intellectual property
rights of data owners.
At present, a full-prototype SIS modular software package
has been developed and provided to Specialist Groups for
review. A small planning group met in March to execute a
logical framework analysis, a process that helped to clarify
SIS development and implementation activities, SIS part-
ners, and SIS audiences. Included among the agreed activi-
ties are software revisions based on the aforementioned
review, a workshop to test and analyze this second ver-
sion, and distribution of the working release version. SIS
will be supported by a small Secretariat unit, which will be
responsible for providing training and other capacity-build-
ing activities to Specialist Groups, links to BCIS, and assis-
tance in the development of SIS information products. The
principal outcomes of the planning meeting were a detailed
program plan and funding proposal. Staff and Working





Page 30


Group members are now beginning active fundraising to
enable SIS implementation.
Links to the Biodiversity Conservation Information System
(BCIS)
Concurrently, the relationship between SIS and BCIS is
developing in two ways: 1) data management and custodi-
anship polices and guidelines are being developed in tan-
dem to ensure complementarity between SIS and other BCIS
members; 2) BCIS is emerging as a forum foer linking SSC's
species conservation objectives to the ecosystem, pro-
tected areas, and legal conservation objectives of the BCIS
members, thus increasing the member's collective influence
on a wide range of policy fora. The complementary strengths
and diversity of the BCIS members are proving to be a
strong force in the conservation and development commu-
nities, as evidenced by the advisory services BCIS is in-
creasingly providing to intergovernmental and other infor-
mation management initiatives. For example, BCIS partici-
pates on the Informal Advisory Committee of the Conven-
tion on Biological Diversity's Clearinghouse Mechanism,
and in the regional workshops designed to guide develop-
ment of the Clearinghouse Mechanism. BCIS representa-
tives are also involved in planning processes for two re-
gional biodiversity information management initiatives: 1)
the Inter-American Biodiversity Information net-work
(IABIN); and 2) the Regional Biodiversity Information Sys-
tem of the SADC (Southern African Development Commu-
nity) countries.
BCIS members are now in the process of building a
metadatabase that will point to the multitude of data and
information resources held by members. The SSC Secre-
tariat has completed an initial survey of the many data sets
held throughout the SSC network to be included in the
metadatabase. Updates and revisions will be ongoing. Three
pilot projects, funded in part by the initial grant from the
Norwegian Agency for International Cooperation
(NORAD), have been agreed upon. SSC and the World
Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA) are taking the
lead on a project to analyze the relationship between glo-
bally threatened bird and mammal species and protected
areas. This project will test the principles of SIS and will
contribute to SIS development. Wetlands International is
leading a pilot project to develop a global resource of infor-
mation about wetlands, and TRAFFIC is leading the devel-
opment of a BCIS-wide information resource on threatened
plants used for medicinal purposes. SSC will play an active
role in all three of these projects.
In February 1998, BCIS welcomed its twelfth member: the
International Species Information System (ISIS). ISIS is a
network of 500 zoos and aquariums from 54 countries that
record and share detailed specimen information on more
than one million specimens (living and dead) of 7,000 verte-
brate species. ISIS develops and supports several PC-based
software packages (ARKS, SPARKS, MedARKS and
REGASP) that assist in ex situ management and
recordkeeping.


Neotropical Primates 7(1), March 1999

The BCIS Secretariat has developed a discussion paper,
Data Policy and Procedures Manual, which is available
on the BCIS Web site and has generated considerable in-
terest. The Data Policy provides the coordination mecha-
nism to more effectively integrate activities of data collec-
tors, data managers, and information providers that partici-
pate in a distributed data and information network like BCIS
and SIS. It describes an infrastructure and sets of stan-
dards, guidelines, and procedures that will be necessary to
improve the effectiveness of data management and the cre-
ation and dissemination of data and information in support
of conservation-related sustainable development and other
environmental issues. The Data Custodianship and Ac-
cess discussion paper has been posted to the custodian-
ship policy that will help ensure equity and provide for
network cohesion.
For more information about BCIS and its Members, visit
the Web site at www.biodiversity.org or contact Susan
Tressler for a copy of the BCIS Information Packet
(tressler@igc.apc.org, c/o Chicago Zoological Society,
Brookfield IL 60513, USA). For more information about the
Species Information Service, contact Mariano Gimenez
Dixon at IUCN headquarters (). From
Species, Newsletter of the IUCN Species Survival Commis-
sion, (30): 7-8, June 1998.
Luigi Boitani, Mariano Gimenez-Dixon, Andrew Smith and
Susan Tressler, Species Survival Commission (SSC), The
World Conservation Union (IUCN), Rue Mauverney 28,
CH-1196 Gland, Switzerland.

LEVANTAMENTO DO MURIQUI (BRACHYTELES
ARACHNOIDES) NO ESTADO DO RIO DE JANEIRO
A caga e os intensos desmatamentos ocorridos na floresta
Atlintica foram as principals causes que levaram o maior
primata representante deste ecossistema, o muriqui ou
mono-carvoeiro (Brachyteles arachnoides), entrar em
perigo de extingao. HA mais de 30 anos, quando o
pesquisador Alvaro Coutinho Aguirre realizou o primeiro
levantamento das populaqces de muriquis em toda sua area
zoogeografica, verificou que haviapouqufssimos individuos
vivendo nas serras do Rio de Janeiro. Desde entao, o que
se tem observado 6 uma continue destruigAo e aumento da
pressao antr6pica principalmente nas areas onde Aguirre
constatou a presenga do muriqui no Rio de Janeiro. Assim,
o "Projeto Muriqui-Rio" tem como objetivos principals
realizar um levantamento das populag6es remanescentes
do muriqui para verificar se o mesmo ainda vive no estado
do Rio de Janeiro, e ao mesmo tempo, colher dados que
poderiam contribuir para um entendimento da taxonomia
da esp6cie neste estado, pois como foi assumido
recentemente, existem duas subesp6cies de muriqui,
Brachyteles arachnoides arachnoides e Brachyteles
arachnoides hypoxanthus. A primeira ocorre no estado de
Slo Paulo e a segunda mais ao norte nos estados de Espfrito
Santo e Minas Gerais. Como as dreas onde vivem as





Neotropical Primates 7(1), March 1999


populag6es do norte foram muito destruidas, e hoje estao
muito fragmentadas, esta subesp6cie estA sendo
considerada pelos pesquisadores, como sendo a mais
ameacada de extinqao. No entanto, nao se tem certeza de
qual das duas existed no Rio de Janeiro. 0 Rio de Janeiro
estf nos limits das distribuigtes das duas subesp6cies.
Assim, o Projeto Muriqui-Rio contribuirA corn informag6es
atuais sobre a situagAo do muriqui no Rio de Janeiro, que
servirao para dar um melhor direcionamento As an6es que
vissem a sua conservacao, como tamb6m ajudarA a esclarecer
os limits de distribuicao das subesp6cies atualmente
reconhecidas. Este trabalho esta sendo financiado pela
Fundaglo 0 BoticArio de Protegao A Natureza, Fundagao
MacArthur e a Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation e
sera realizado em tries unidades de conservagao situadas
no Rio de Janeiro que representam uma ampla amostra
geogrdfica da distribuigao do muriqui neste estado. Ao sul,
o Parque Nacional de Itatiaia, no centro, o Parque Nacional
da Serra dos Orgaos, e ao norte o Parque Estadual do
Desengano.
Vania Limeira, Coordenadora e ResponsAvel T6cnica,
Projeto Muriqui-Rio, Rua Hon6rio de Barro, 20/607
Flamengo, 22250-120 Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil,
e-mail: .

THE L. S. B. LEAKY FOUNDATION AWARDS 1997-
1998
S In the budget year 1997-1998, The
SLeakey Foundation, celebrating its
30th anniversary, provided 61 grants
for research in Cultural Anthropology, Primatology, chemi-
cal dating and Geology, fossil recovery, Genetics, Morphol-
ogy, and Prehistory. The following grants were awarded for
primatological research: Jozef Dupain Socio-ecology of
the fission-fusion society of Pan paniscus in the Demo-
cratic Republic of Congo; Eduardo Femandez-Duque-
Cathemerality in owl monkeys (Aotus azarai) of Formosa,
Argentina; Michelle Goldsmith and Craig Stanford Be-
havioral ecology of sympatric mountain gorillas and chim-
panzees in the Bwindi-Impenetrable Forest, Uganda; Victoria
Gutierrez-Diego The use and function of cheek pouches
in yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus) in Mikumi Na-
tional Park, Tanzania; Marc Hauser and Richard Wrangham
- Long term study of inter-community aggression in chim-
panzees (Uganda); Craig Kirkpatrick Ecological and nutri-
tional correlates to group size in Rhinopithecus roxellana;
Chelsea Kostrub The social organization and behavior of
golden mantled tamarins (Saguinus tripartitus) in eastern
Ecuador; Charles Menzel The knowledge base of chim-
panzee communication; Michelle Merrill Orangutan cul-
tures? Tool use, social transmission and population differ-
ences; Leila Porter Comparative study of Callimico goeldii
and Saguinus fuscicollis in Bolivia. Three awards were
given for genetic research on non-human primates: Babette
Fahey Genetic differentiation among East African chim-
panzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) communities


(Uganda); Anne Yoder Phylogeny and evolution of mi-
tochondrial DNA in the extinct primates; Sarah Zehr -
Nuclear and mitochondrial phylogeny of the lesser apes
(Hylobates). Grants for morphological research included,
amongst others: Frederick Grine Dental microwear analy-
sis of South African fossil cercopithecoid diets; Carol
Macleod The anatomy and function of the cerebellum in
extant primates; John Polk The influence of body propor-
tions and body size on primate quadrupedal locomotion;
Andrea Taylor Ontogeny and function of maxillomandibular
form in the African apes; Susannah Thorpe Climbing and
bipedalism in Sumatran Orangutans: Implications for early
hominid bipedalism; Patricia Vmyard Postcranial variation
in hominoids and Papio: Implications for fossil hominids;
Karen Weinstein Skeletal responses to high altitude and
cold stress in modern humans and macaques.
For more information: The L. S. B. Leakey Foundation, P. 0.
Box 29346, Presidio Building 1002A, O'Reilly Avenue, San
Francisco, CA 94129, USA, Tel: 415 5614646, Fax: 415 561
4647, e-mail: . Web site:
.

PRIMATE CONSERVATION INCORPORATED CALL FOR
GRANT PROPOSALS
Primate Conservation, Incorporated (PCI) is a non-profit
foundation which funds field research that supports con-
servation programs for wild populations of primates. Prior-
ity is given to projects that study, in their natural habitat,
the least known and most endangered species. The involve-
ment of citizens from the country in which the primates are
found is a plus. The intent is to provide support for original
research that can be used to formulate and to implement
conservation plans for the species studied. Eligibility: Pri-
mate Conservation, Inc. will grant seed monies or provide
matching grants for graduate students, qualified conserva-
tionists and primatologists to study rare and endangered
primates and their conservation in their natural habitat.
Grants have averaged approximately $2,200, with a maxi-
mum grant of $5,000. We do not support conferences, travel
to scientific meetings, legal actions, tuitions or salaries at
institutions, and overhead costs. Selection Criteria: Pro-
posals are evaluated on a competitive basis. Applications
are screened by outside reviewers and the Board of Direc-
tors of PCI. All appropriate projects will be considered, but
the regions of current interest are Asia and west Africa.
Application Procedure: Grant applicants should write for
application materials. Please submit five copies of our stand-
ard cover sheet and your proposal. Proposals are to be
submitted typed, double spaced, in English. Deadlines:
Please note the following changes in the deadlines for grant
applications. All applications for consideration must be at
PCI on 20 September for the Fall granting period or 10 Feb-
ruary for the Spring. In fairness to other applicants please
do not ask for exceptions to these deadlines. Awards will
be given May 15 and December 15. For an application or
more information please contact Noel Rowe or Abigail Bar-


Page 31






Page 32

ber at: Primate Conservation Inc., 163 Town Lane, East
Hampton, New York 11937-5000 USA, Tel: 516 267 6856, Fax
516 267 6856. E-mail: <74225.2342@compuserve.com>.

AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MAMMALOGISTS LATIN
AMERICAN FELLOWSHIP 1999
The Latin American Fellowship was established by the
American Society of Mammalogists (ASM) to promote
the support of mammalian field research by Latin Ameri-
cans in Latin America. Eligible students must be citi-
zens of Latin American countries (excluding Puerto Rico),
and enrolled in a graduate program in either a Latin
American or North American University. The award is
US$1,000. Proposed projects must be primarily field-ori-
ented with a research emphasis in the areas of mamma-
lian natural history, conservation, ecology, systemat-
ics, wildlife biology, biogeography or behavior. These
areas of research in mammalogy shall be considered
equally important by the selection committee. The
awardee will be announced at the annual meeting of the
ASM (the awardee does not need to be present). Dead-
line for applications is 15 May 1999. Application in-
formation is available from: Dr. Janet K. Braun, Okla-
homa Museum of Natural History, 1335 Asp Avenue,
University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019, USA, Tel:
(405) 325 2828, Fax: (405) 325 7699, e-mail:
. The original and two copies of the
form must be accompanied by two letters of recommen-
dation from people familiar with the applicant's scien-
tific background and current academic program, one of
them must be the graduate advisor. It is the responsibil-
ity of the applicant to ensure that the letters are re-
ceived by the Chairman of the Committee by the dead-
line. Applications and letters can be sent by ordinary
mail, fax, or e-mail. However, if sent by e-mail, the appli-
cation must contain all the information requested on
the form and the project description must be limited to
one printed page.

FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY-PANAMA'S PRIMATE
BEHAVIOR AND ECOLOGY PROGRAM
Florida State University-Panama is offering a 4-week 7-
semester hour Primate Behavior and Ecology Program
this summer from June 14 to July 12, 1999. As a part of
the training, students will conduct directed research
projects on the endangered Panamanian tamarin
(Saguinus geoffroyi) and live at the International Pri-
mate Sanctuary of Panama. The primate sanctuary is
located on the Atlantic side of Panama in the Tiger Is-
lands, the tops of mountains flooded by the creation of
the Panama Canal. Dennis R. Rasmussen, Director of
the International Primate Sanctuary, and a member of
the permanent faculty of the FSU-Panama branch, will
be leading the program and teaching the courses. For
more information Web Site: ~cppanama/ipsp/Program.htm>.


Neotropical Primates 7(1), March 1999


IX CONGRESS BRASILEIRO DE PRIMATOLOGIA
- Em 1979 foi criada a Sociedade Brasileira de
Primatologia que, a partir de entio, passou a
organizer, bianualmente, o Congresso
Brasileiro de Primatologia, reunindo
pesquisadores e estudantes do Brasil e de outros pafses
interessados em nossa fauna de primatas. Os trabalhos
apresentados no Congresso sao publicados numa sdrie de
livros A Primatologia no Brasil, cujo 70 volume estard
pronto antes do Congresso de 1999. Originalmente, o
Congress era organizado em paralelo com o Congresso
Brasileiro de Zoologia, mas corn o grande crescimento da
primatologia no Brasil nos iltimos anos, o Congresso
passou a ser organizado independentemente, em data
diferente. Atualmente, o Congresso tem reunido cerca de
duzentos participants, dentre pesquisadores brasileiros e
estrangeiros e estudantes. Em 1999, o IX Congresso
Brasileiro de Primatologia serd realizado na regiao Sudeste,
no Museu de Biol6gia Mello Leitio, Santa Teresa, Espirito
Santo nos dias 25 a 30 dejulho, com a comemoraqao dos 20
anos da SBPr, e acredita-se que podera haver um maior
ndmero de participants.
Em funigo da crescente preocupagio com a preservago
da biodiversidade e pelo fato de terms virias esp6cies de
primatas brasileiros ameagadas de extinqAo, o tema escolhido
para 1999 6 a conservag~o, que sera abordadapor divers s
cientistas com diferentes enfoques. Al6m disto, por ser o
iltimo Congresso deste sdculo, seri o palco para a avaliacao
do crescimento da primatologia no Brasil e para a discussao
das perspectives para o S6culo XXI. 0 Congresso oferecera
mini-cursos e organizard mesas redondas, conferencias,
palestras e sess6es de paindis. Em complement As
atividades cientificas, serao organizadas atividades
culturais e visits a sitios de interesse primatol6gico.
Santa Teresa 6 uma pequena cidade de colonizagao
predominantemente italiana, localizada na regiao serrana
do estado do Espfrito Santo, a 80 km da cidade de Vit6ria.
Em Santa Teresa estA localizado o Museu de Biologia Prof.
Mello Leitao, fundado por Augusto Ruschi em 1949, que
estaricomemorando seu cinqtlentendrio em 1999. O0 Museu
tem tradiqao em atividades de pesquisa e conservagao da
Mata Atlantica e tem desenvolvido trabalhos na Area de
primatologia, sendo um criadouro cientifico de primatas do
genero Callithrix. Inscrie6es e Envio de Resumos: Em breve
serao envidas informaq6es detalhadas sobre inscrig5es e
apresentan6es de trabalhos no Congresso. Programafdo
Preliminar: 1) Conferencias Conservacao de primatas -
Desafios para o Sdculo XXI; e Conservagao de primatas
neotropicais; 2) Mesas Redondas Conservacao de
primatas no Brasil; Sistemdtica, biogeografia e evoluqdo de
primatas neotropicais; Cogniqao, visao e comunicacao em
primatas; Manejo de primatas em cativeiro; 3) Palestras -






Neotropical Primates 7(1), March 1999

Comunidades de primatas neotropicais; A hist6ria da
primatologia no Brasil; Estrat6gias reprodutivas de primatas
neotropicais; A biogeografia dos primatas da Amazonia; A
biogeografia dos primatas da Mata Atlantica; Evoluhao da
comunicaqao em primatas neotropicais; Desafios no estudo
do comportamento os primatas como modelo; Avangos
nos estudos do comportamento social de calitriquideos;
Avanqos nos estudos do comportamento social de
cebfdeos; Ecologia alimentar em primatas neotropicais; Etica
e legislaqdo em pesquisas corn primatas; A gen6tica e a
conservacgo de primatas; 4) Mini-cursos Sistemitica e
biogeografia de primatas; T6cnicas de estudo do
comportamento de primatas; Manejo de primatas em
cativeiro; Comportamento social de calitriquideos;
Bioacdstica de primatas; Biologia da conservagao de
primatas. Comissao Coordenadora: Alcides Pissinatti,
S6rgio L. Mendes, Patrfcia Izar, Cristina Santos, Adriana
Rfmoli, Jos6 Rlmoli. InformafOes: S6rgio L. Mendes, Museu
de Biologia Prof. Mello Leitao, 29650-000 Santa Teresa,
Espirito Santo, Tel/Fax: (027) 259-1182, e-mail:
. Home page da SBPr: www.sbpr.org.br>.

EUROPEAN MARMOSET RESEARCH GROUP
^ The 5th Winter Workshop of the European
Marmoset Research Group (EMRG) was
held in Paris 14-16 December 1998. The
EMRG sponsors these meetings to increase understand-
ing of the usefulness of common marmosets in biomedical
research and to bring together investigators in basic and
applied research in academic, pharmaceutical and contract
research institutions. The theme of the December 1998 meet-
ing was Marmosets in Biomedicine and as Models for
Human Disease, and focused on (1) the immune system
and its pathology in common marmosets, (2) particular bio-
medical applications in which the common marmoset is
proving to be a key research model, including multiple scle-
rosis, ischaemic stroke, Parkinson's disease and osteoporo-
sis, and (3) common marmoset biology and the develop-
ment of husbandry and research methods. The relatively
large amount of time allotted to discussion of issues raised
is becoming a valued hallmark of these gatherings.
Part 1. The Common Marmoset and the Study of the Im-
mune System and its Pathology. An overview of major points
in immunology 200 years in 20 minutes Gareth Griffiths;
The immunology of the marmoset, and its suitability for
immuno-toxicological studies Reinhard Neubert; Further
immunological studies using the marmoset Gareth Griffiths;
Analysis of immune markers in the marmoset by flow
cytometry Rebecca Homby; Creation of a new model of
multiple sclerosis in the common marmoset Bert 't Hart;
Analysis of immunopathological pathways towards autoim-
mune encephalomyelitis in the common marmoset Herbert
Brok. Part 2. The Common Marmoset as a Biomedical Model.
Physiological adaptations to cooperative breeding in fe-
male common marmosets and their application in biomedi-


Page 33

cal research David Abbott; The common marmoset, te-
lemetry, and development of a model for applied cardiovas-
cular research Christian Schnell; The use of the marmoset
to study neuroprotective drugs for the treatment of
ischaemic stroke Jonathan Marshall; The common mar-
moset, behavioral neurochemistry, and development of a
model for Parkinson's disease Michel Reibaud; The 5-
HT1A antagonist, WAY 100 635, reverses cognitive defi-
cits induced by dizocilpine (MK-801) treatment in the mar-
moset Josie Harder. Part 3. Common Marmoset Biology
and Development of Husbandry and Research Methods.
The sociophysiology of the pair bond in common marmo-
sets: behavioral and cardio-physiological responses to
an unfamiliar environment Patricia Gerber; Integrating
marmoset husbandry and behavioral biology Isabelle
Allmann; Development of non-invasive methods for moni-
toring physiology in callitrichid monkeys Christopher
Pryce; The influence of food distribution on ranging
behaviour and group cohesion in semi-free living common
marmosets Holger Westermann; Marmoset wasting syn-
drome: a case study Anne-Dominique Degryse.
For further information on the activities of the ERMG, please
contact: Dr. Christopher Pryce, President, EMRG,
Behavioural Biology Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of
Technology, Schorenstrasse 16, CH-8603 Schwerzenbach
Switzerland, Tel +411825 7386, +41 1825 7416 (Secretariat),
Fax +411825 7417, email: pryce@toxi.biol.ethz.ch
David H. Abbott, Physiological Ethology Research Group,
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wisconsin Re-
gional Primate Research Center, 1220 Capitol Court, Madi-
son, Wisconsin 53715-1299, USA.





BIODIVERSIDADE DO ESTADO DE SAO PAULO -
BIOTASP
Foram publicados os dois primeiros volumes da s6rie
Biodiversidade do Estado de Sio Paulo, Brasil: Sfntese
do Conhecimento ao Final do Sdculo XX. A publicagqo
desta series, que traz um diagn6stico do conhecimento
acumulado sobre a biota paulista e a infra-estrutura do
estado para conservacio in situ e ex situ da biodiversidade,
represent a concretizacgo de um dos grandes objetivos
do Grupo de Coordenacqo do BIOTASP, alem de ser um
compromisso assumido no workshop de Serra Negra, Sao
Paulo, 30 de julho 2 de agosto de 1997. A series 6 composta
por sete volumes, abrangendo de microrganismos e virus a
mamfferos e fanerogamas, estg sendo publicada pela
Fundaqao de Amparo A Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo
(FAPESP), Sio Paulo, a media que os volumes ficam
prontos. Os volumes que estlo sendo langados sAo Vol-
ume 2 Fungos Macroscdpicos & Plantas, editado por
Carlos E. de M. Bicudo e George M. Shepherd, e Volume 6
- Vertebrados, editado por Ricardo M. Castro. 0 Volume 3







Page 34 Neotropical Primates 7(1), March 1999


- Invertebrados Marinhos e o Volume 4 Invertebrados de
Agua Doce serao publicados no future pr6ximo. Os vol-
umes 1 (Microrganismos e Virus), 5 (Invertebrados
Terrestres) e 7 (Infra-estrutura para Conservafio da
Biodiversidade) jA foram encaminhados a FAPESP corn a
solicitagao de recursos para a publicacgo. Os interessados
poderao adquirir os livros, prego R$17,00 cada, atrav6s da
homepage do BIOTASP no enderego biotasp/livros>.

BOOKS
Fldrula de las Reservas Biol6gicas de Iquitos,
Peru: Allpahuayo-Mishana, Explornapo Camp,
Explorama Lodge, by Rodolfo VAsquez Martinez, edited
by Agustin Rudas Lleras and Charlotte M. Taylor, and sup-
ported by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foun-
dation, 1046pp., 1997. Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri.
ISBN 0 915279 48 7. Price US$85.00. PSG member Eckhard
W. Heymann reports that "this is a most valuable book. We
used it for plant identification during our last trip to our
field site...". Available from: Missouri Botanical Garden
Press, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110, USA,
Tel: (314) 577-9534, Fax (314) 577-9591, e-mail:
. For more information web site:
.
The Genus Inga Botany, by T. D. Pennington, x +
844pp, 1997. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. ISBN 1
9003347 12 1. Price 69.00 (incl.p&p.). The genus Inga
(Leguminosae: Mimosoideae) is a large group of forest trees
restricted to tropical America. This monograph accounts
for 258 species. It includes chapters on morphology, wood
and bark anatomy, cytology, non-protein amino acid chem-
istry, flavonoid chemistry, variation, relationships and dis-
tribution, and uses. The systematic section includes a con-
spectus of the genus, regional keys to species, and species
descriptions with full synonymy. Nearly all species are il-
lustrated and mapped, and information is presented on dis-
tribution and ecology, field characters, and species rela-
tionships. There is a full list of exsiccatae and indices to
scientific and vernacular names. Obviously an extremely
important reference for field primatologists. Also published
by the Royal Botanic Gardens: El Ginero Inga en el Peru:
Morfologia, Distribucidn y Usos, by C. Reynel and T. D.
Pennington, illustrations by Rosemary Wise, 1997, 27.00
(+ p&p); El Gdnero Inga en el Ecuador: Morfologia,
Distribuci6n y Usos, by T. D. Pennington and N. Revelo,
27.00 (+ p&p); and The Genus Inga: Utilization, by T. D.
Pennington. Available from: Mail Order Department, Royal
Botanic Gradens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB, En-
gland, UK. Payments not in sterling attract a 10.00 sur-
charge.
Saudade do Matdo: Relembrando a Hist6ria da
Conservagao da Natureza no Brasil, by Teresa Ur-
ban, 1998, 371pp. JohnD. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foun-
dation, Fundaqio 0 BoticArio de Protegao h Natureza,
Editora da Universidade Federal do Parani, Curitiba. ISBN


85 7335 28 8. In Portuguese. Preface by Miguel Serediuk
Milano. A beautifully produced book which documents
the early days (1960s and 1970s) of nature conservation in
Brazil. It begins with a brief history of the development of a
conservation awareness in the country, including chapters
on the first naturalist explorers, the destruction of Brazil's
natural ecosystems, the development of a conservation leg-
islation, and the principal institutions involved. It then cen-
ters on the remarkable and, without exaggeration, heroic
roles played by Paulo Nogueira Neto, Adelmar Faria
Coimbra-Filho, Ibsen de Gusmao Camara, Alceo Magnanini,
Maria Tereza Jorge Padua and Wanderbilt Duarte de Barros.
There are short biographies of each, and the subsequent
chapters reproduce verbatim their memories and opinions
(excepting Wanderbilt Duarte de Barros, deceased) in the
form of discussions between them of some key aspects
and institutions, and important events, including the cre-
ation of the first protected areas, the institutions involved
in conservation (governmental and non-governmental), the
formulation and consequences of the Forest Code (1965)
and the Faunal Protection Law (1967), the role of the Brazil-
ian Forestry Development Institute (IBDF), the develop-
ment of the parks system, the impact of Stockholm 1972,
the activities of the first conservation NGO the Brazilian
Foundation for the Conservation of Nature (FBCN), some
aspects of species conservation, the role of the Secretariat
of the Environment created in 1973 and the Brazilian Insti-
tute for the Environment (IBAMA) created in 1989, and
finally the Earth Summit, Rio de Janeiro 1992. Available from:
Editora da Universidade Federal do Parana, Centro
Polit6cnico, Jardimdas Amnricas, Caixa Postal 19.029,81531-
990 Curitiba, Parand, Brazil, Tel: 267 5973,3613380.
Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Wel-
fare, edited by Marc Bekoff and Carron A. Meaney, 472pp.,
June, 1998. Greenwood Publishing Group, Westport, VT.
Price: US$59.95. ISBN 0-313-29977-3. Human beings' re-
sponsibility to and for their fellow animals has become an
increasingly controversial subject. This book, which Jane
Goodall in her foreword calls "unique, informative, and ex-
citing", provides a provocative overview of the many dif-
ferent perspectives on the issues of animal rights and ani-
mal welfare in an easy-to-use encyclopedic format. Stu-
dents, teachers, and interested readers can explore the ideas
of well-known philosophers, biologists, psychologists, and
historians such as Peter Singer, Tom Regan, and over 125
others, all of whom have contributed original entries. Avail-
able from: Greenwood Publishing Group, 88 Post Road West,
Box 5007, Westport, VT 06881, USA, Toll free: 1-800-225-
5800, e-mail: . URL: http://
www.greenwood.com.
Queridos Animais. Relagao Humanos & Animais:
Novas Areas Profissionais sob Enfoque Ecol6gico,
edited by Angela Escosteguy, 1997, 204pp. L&PM Editores
S/A., Porto Alegre. In Portuguese. Twelve chapters in eight
sections: 1. Introduqo; 2. Biotecnologia e Bio6tica; 3.
Biodiverasidade: Animais Brasileiros em Extingao (includ-
ing Biodiversidade e Conservango Helena Romanowski &


Page 34


Neotropical Primates 7(l), March 1999






Neotropical Primates 7(1), March 1999

Gerson Buss); 4. Agropecuiria Ecol6gica; 5. Terapias
Suaves; 6. Bem-estar Animal; 7. Exemplos de produgao de
Alimentos Ecol6gicos; 8. Aspectos Jurfdicos. Available
from: L&PM Editores, S/A., Rua Padre Chagas 185/802,
90570-080 Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, Tel: 051
3463444.
0 Pensamento de Animais e Intelectuais: Evolufdo
e Epistemologia, by Dennis Werner, 1997, 195pp. Editora
da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florian6polis.
In Portuguese. Price R$18.00. Available from: Editora da
UFSC, Caixa Postal 476, 88010-970 Florian6polis, Santa
Catarina,Brazil, Tel: 048 331-9408, Fax: 048 331-9680.

ARTICLES
Abbott, D. H., Saltzman, W., Schultz-Darken, N. J. and
Tannenbaum, P. L. 1998. Adaptations to subordinate sta-
tus in female marmoset monkeys. Comp. Biochem.
Physiol. 119(3): 261-274.
Bergeson, D. J. 1998. Patterns of suspensory feeding in
Alouattapalliata,Ateles geoffroyi, and Cebuscapucinus.
In: Primate Locomotion: Recent Advances, E. Strasser, J.
Fleagle, A. L. Rosenberger and H. McHenry (eds.), pp.45-
60. Plenum Press, New York.
Colwell, D. D. and Milton, K. 1998. Development of
Alouattamyia baeri (Diptera: Oestridae) from howler
monkeys (Primates: Cebidae) on Barro Colorado Island,
Panama. J. Med. Entomol. 35(5): 674-680.
Cropp, S. J., Larson, A. and Cheverud, J. M. 1999. Historical
biogeography of tamarins, genus Saguinus: The molecu-
lar phylogenetic evidence. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 108:
65-89.
Dagosto, M. and Gebo. D. L. 1998. Methodologcial issues
in studying positional behavior. In: Primate Locomotion:
Recent Advances, E. Strasser, J. G. Fleagle, A. L.
Rosenberger and H. McHenry (eds.), pp.5-29. Plenum
Press, New York.
Ellowson, A. M., Snowdon, C. T. and Lazaro-Perea, C. 1998.
Infant babbling in a nonhuman primate: Complex vocal
sequences with repeated call types. Behaviour 135(5):
643-664.
Encarnaci6n, F. and Heymann, E. W. 1998. Body mass of
Callimico goeldii. Folia Primatol. 69: 368-371.
Garber, P. A. 1998. Within- and between-site variability in
moustached tamarin (Saguinus mystax) positional behav-
ior during food procurement. In: Primate Locomotion:
Recent Advances, E. Strasser, J. G. Fleagle, A. L.
Rosenberger and H. McHenry (eds.), pp.61-78. Plenum
Press, New York.
Haefeli, R. J., Solms, J. and Glaser, D. 1998. Taste responses
to amino acids in common marmosets (Callithrixjacchus
jacchus, Callitrichidae), a non-human primate in compari-
son to humans. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und
Technologies 31(4): 371-376.
Herrera Tirado, E. R. and Heymann, E. W. 1998. A possible
case of myiasis in a wild moustached tamarin, Saguinus
mystax (Callitrichinae, Cebidae). J. Med. Primatol. 27:271-
273.
Lemelin, P. and Grafton, B. W. 1998. Grasping performance


Page 35

in Saguinus midas and the evolution of hand prehensil-
ity in primates. In: Primate Locomotion: Recent Ad-
vances, E. Strasser, J. Fleagle, A. L. Rosenberger and H.
McHenry (eds.), pp.131-144. Plenum Press, New York.
McGraw, W. S. 1998. Locomotion, support use, maintenance
activities, and habitat structure. In: Primate Locomotion:
Recent Advances, E. Strasser, J. Fleagle, A. L. Rosenberger
and H. McHenry (eds.), pp.79-94. Plenum Press, New York.
Masterson, T. J. and Hartwig, W. C. 1998. Degrees of sexual
dimorphism in Cebus and other New World monkeys.
Am. J. Phys.Anthropol. 107(3): 243-256.
Mayeaux, D. J. and Mason, W. A. 1998. Development of
responsiveness to novel objects in the titi monkey,
Callicebus moloch. Primates 39(4): 419-431.
Meireles, C. M., Czelusniak, J., Sampaio, I., Schneider, H.,
Ferrari, S. F, Coimbra-Filho, A. F., Pissinatti, A., Muniz, J.
A. P. C., Ferreira, H. S. and Schneider, M. P. C. 1998. Elec-
trophoretic polymorphisms and their taxonomic implica-
tions in Callitrichini (Primates, Platyrrhini). Biochem.
Genet. 36(7-8): 229-244.
Meldrum, D. J. 1998. Tail-assisted hind limb suspension as
a transitional behavior in the evolution of the of the platyr-
rhine prehensile tail. In: Primate Locomotion: Recent
Advances, E. Strasser, J. Fleagle, A. L. Rosenberger and
H. McHenry (eds.), pp. 145-156. Plenum Press, New York.
Michels, A. M. 1998. Sex differences in food acquisition
and aggression in captive common marmosets (Callithrix
jacchus). Primates 39(4): 549-556.
Nievergelt, C. M., Mundy, N. I. and Woodruff, D. S. 1998.
Microsatellite primers for genotyping common marmo-
sets (Callithrixjacchus) and other callitrichids. Molecu-
lar Ecology 7(10): 1432-1434.
Passamani, M. 1998. Activity budget of Geoffroy's marmo-
set (Callithrix geoffroyi) in an Atlantic forest in south-
eastern Brazil.Am. J. Primatol. 46(4): 333-340.
Phillips, K. 1998. Conservation of capuchin and howler
monkeys in Trinidad. ASP Bulletin 22(4): 5.
Richard-Hansen, C., Bello, N. and Vid, J.-C. 1998. Tool use
by a red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) towards a
two-toed sloth (Choloepus didactylus). Primates 39(4):
545-548.
Rocha, V. J., Reis, N. R. dos and Sekiama, M. L. 1998. Uso de
ferramentas por Cebus apella (Linnaeus) (Primates,
Cebidae) para obten9Ao de larvas de Coleoptera que
parasitam sementes de Syagrus romanzoffianum (Cham.)
Glassm. (Arecaceae). Revta. Bras. Zool. 15(4): 945-950.
Portuguese with English summary.
Smith, T. E. and Abbott,D. H. 1998. Behavioral discrimina-
tion between circumgenital odor from peri-ovulatory domi-
nant and anovulatory female common marmosets
(Callithrix jacchus). Am. J. Primatol. 46(4): 265-284.
Szapkievich, V. B., Comas, C. I., Zunino, G. E. and Mudry,
M. D. 1998. Andlisis de variabilidad proteica en Alouatta
caraya y Cebus apella (Primates: Platyrrhini).
Mastozoologia Neotropical 5(1): 5-11.
Torii, R., Moro, M., Abbott, D. H. and Nigi, H. 1998. Urine
collection in the common marmoset (Callithrixjacchus)
and its applicability to endocrinological studies. Primates







Page 36 Neotropical Primates 7(1), March 1999


39(4):407-417.
Walker, S. E. 1998. Fine-grained differences within postional
categories: A case study of Pithecia and Chiropotes. In:
Primate Locomotion: Recent Advances, E. Strasser, J.
Fleagle, A. L. Rosenberger and H. McHenry (eds.), pp.31-
43. Plenum Press, New York.
Westergaard, G. C. 1998. What capuchin monkeys can tell
us about the origins of hominid material culture. J. Mate-
rial Culture 3(1): 5-19.
Youlatos, D. 1998. Seasonal variation in the positional be-
havior of red howling monkeys (Alouatta seniculus).
Primates 39(4): 449-457.
Zietkiewicz, E., Richer, C., Sinnett, D. and Labuda, D. 1998.
Monophyletic orgin of Alu elements in primates. J. Mol.
Evol. 47(2): 172-182.





II International Wildlife Management Congress "Wild-
life, Land and People: Priorities for the 21" Century", 28
June-2 July 1999, Gd6oll6, Hungary. Organized by The Wild-
life Society with the Hungarian co-sponsor and host, the
University for Agricultural Sciences in G6d6ll6, Hungary.
Deadline for proposals of one-half-day workshops, sym-
posium, and special poster session proposals: 30 June 1998.
Workshops, symposia, and special poster sessions should
focus on topics of wildlife science, management, sustain-
able development, education and outreach, or laws and
policy within the broad theme of the Congress. Each day
will begin with a morning plenary session followed by re-
lated concurrent sessions, symposia and workshops in the
afternoon. Themes for the five-day congress are (1) Sus-
tainable Development and Wildlife Conservation; (2) Land-
scape Linkages: Ecosystem Science and Management; (3)
Issues in Wildlife-Human Conflicts; (4) Education, Outreach,
and Human Dimensions in Wildlife Conservation; and (5)
Techniques for Monitoring Wildlife Populations. Sympo-
sia, and, where appropriate, workshop presentations will
be considered for publication in a Congress proceedings;
organizers will be required to provide an initial edit and
evaluation of submitted papers. The proceedings will be
published in English; oral presentations will be in English
or possibly Hungarian depending on the availability of
translators. More information on preparing proposals for
workshops, symposia, and special poster sessions can be
found in the March-April 1998 issue of The Wildlifer, and
on The Wildlife Society website index.html>, or guidelines may be requested from Co-Chair
of the Program Committee, W. Daniel Edge at his e-mail
address. Deadline for submission of papers and posters: 15
October 1998. Electronic (e-mail or internet form) submis-
sions are preferred. Electronic submissions of contributed
papers and posters should be sent to the Program Co-Chair
at the e-mail address below. Please, no telephone inquiries
related to abstract submission or acceptance. Direct all other
inquiries to The Wildlife Society office at Tel: (301) 897-
9770, Fax: (301) 530-2471, e-mail: . Deci-


sions concerning acceptance of papers and posters will be
made by 30 November 1998. The abstract submission form
can be found on the TWS webpage www.wildlife.org/abstract.html>. Dr. W. Daniel Edge, Co-
Chair, Program Committee, Department of Fisheries and
Wildlife, Oregon State University, 104 Nash Hall, Corvallis,
Oregon 97331-3803, USA, e-mail ,
, also .
IIl Congress of the Mesoamerican Society for Biology and
Conservation, 4-9 July 1999, Guatemala City, Guatemala.
The objective of the congress is to "Promote the exchange
of information and progress in the field of conservation
biology." Activities include keynote lectures, open paper
sessions, symposia and workshops on specific topics or
projects, poster and audiovisual sessions, roundtable dis-
cussions of topics related to the Society's mission,
ecotourism trips (during the weekend of 10-12 July), and
cultural activities that will demonstrate the cultural rich-
ness of the country. Field trips are scheduled to visit
Biotopo del Quetzal, Manchon Guamuchal, Reserva Natu-
ral Monterrico, Biotopo Chocon Machacas, Reserva de
Biosfera Sierra de Las Minas-Albores, and Parque Nacional
Tikal. Papers on any topic related to biology or conserva-
tion are welcome, but are especially sought if they match
one of six general themes for the congress: (1) Ecology of
fragmentation of the tropical landscape; (2) Studies for the
selection and conservation of priority areas; (3) Genetics
and conservation (taxonomy, phylogenetics, population
structure, applied biotechnology, wildlife); (4) Agro-ecol-
ogy, integration of agrosystems with wild species; (5) Inte-
gration of indigenous knowledge and community partici-
pation in the conservation of natural resources; and (6)
Land use and planning. The program and information on
accommodation, registration, and deadlines, can be found in
the Society's webpage: < mesoamericana/CONGRESO.htm>>. Deadline for abstracts:
31 March 1999, but extensions will be considered. Informa-
tion: Mercedes Barrios (Congress Coordinator),
Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala, or Pilar Negreros
(Scientific Program Coordinator), Universidad del Valle de
Guatemala, or Ana Carolina Rosales Zamora, Country Rep-
resentative for Guatemala of the Sociedad Mesoamericana
para la Biologfa y la Conservaci6n, Avenida La Reforma 0-
63 zona 10, Guatemala. C.P. 01010. Tel: (502) 334-6064. Fax:
(502) 334-7664, e-mail: . You may also
contact the Society's US representative: Mark Bonta, Loui-
siana State University, Tel: (504) 383-1073, e-mail:
.
2nd IUPAC International Conference on Biodiversity, 11-
15 July 1999, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo
Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Organized by the Interna-
tional Union of Pure and Applied Biochemistry (IUPAC)
and the Federal University of Minas Gerais. The Confer-
ence program will include plenary and invited lectures as
well as poster presentations on the latest developments on
biodiversity research in the fields of ecology, molecular
genetics, chemical ecology, structural biology of signal


Page 36


Neotropical Primates 7(1), March 1999






Neotropical Primates 7(1), March 1999


transduction, agrobiotechnology, plant tissue cultures and
natural products. There will be roundtables on
bioinformatics, biocatalysis, and natural products in anti-
parasitic drug development. Deadlines: Second announce-
ment December 1998; Submission of abstracts 31st March
1999; Notification of acceptance 30th April 1999. For fur-
ther information: Secretary, 2nd IUPAC International Con-
ference on Biodiversity, Faculdade de Farmdcia,
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Avenida Olegario
Maciel 2360,30180-112 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Bra-
zil, Tel: +55 31339 7675, Fax: +55 31 339 7666. Home page:
.
IX CongressoBrasileira dePrimatologia, 25-30 July 1999,
Museu de Biologia Mello Leitio, Santa Teresa, Espfrito
Santo, Brazil. The theme of the congress is "Primate Con-
servation Perspectives for the 21st Century". For further
information, please contact: Sdrgio Lucena Mendes, Museu
de Biologia Mello Leitao, Avenida Jos6 Ruschi 4, 29650-
000 Santa Teresa, Espfrito Santo, Brazil, Tel: (027) 259-1182,
Fax: (027) 259-1182, e-mail: br>.
22nd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Prima-
tologists, 12-16 August, 1999, Fairmont Hotel, New Orleans,
Louisiana, USA. Hosted by the College of Liberal Arts and
Sciences and the Regional Primate Research Center of
Tulane University. Abstracts must be sent to the Chair of
the Program Committee by 1 February 1999. Contact infor-
mation: Program Chair, Dr. Mollie Bloomsmith, TECHLab,
Zoo Atlanta, 800 Cherokee Ave., S.E., Atlanta, Georgia
30315, USA, Tel: (404) 624 5990, Fax: (404) 627-7514, e-mail:
. Local Arrangements
Chair: Dr. Margaret Clarke, Department of Anthropology,
Tulane University, 1021 Audubon Street, New Orleans, LA
70118, Tel: (504) 865-5336, Fax: (504) 865-5338, e-mail:
mrclarke@mailhost.tcs.tulane.edu>. ASPwebsite: www.asp.org>.
6th Congress of the Gesellschaft fuir Primatologie (GfP),
18-22 August, 1999, Universiteitscentrum "De Uithof',
Utrecht, The Netherlands. It will be hosted by the
Projectgroep Ethologie & Socio-oecologie, Utrecht Univer-
sity. Invited speakers will focus on "Perspectives in Prima-
tology". The program committee invites individuals to
present perspectives on their scientific work in any field of
primatology. Abstracts must be sent to the program com-
mittee no later than 1st June, 1999. For more information
contact Annet Louwerse, Liesbeth Sterck or Jan van Hooff
at: GfP, Projectgroep Ethologie & Socio-oecologie, Pb
80.086,3508 TB Utrecht, NL, Tel: +31-(0)30-2535401, Fax:
+31-(0)30-2521105, e-mail: . Allin-
formation, including deadlines, fees, registration form etc.
may also be obtained via the society's web page: http://
www.dpz.gwdg.de/gfp/utrecht99.htm.
4th International Conference on Environmental Enrich-
ment, 29 August 3 September, 1999. Edinburgh, Scotland,
UK. Abstracts deadline: 31 March, 1999. Contact: In Con-
ference Limited, 10B Broughton Street Lane, Edinburgh EH1


3LY, Scotland, UK Fax: +44 131 556 9638, e-mail:
.
Asociaci6n Mexicana de Primatologia Simposio Nacional,
6-9 Septiembre de 1999, Catemaco, Veracruz, M6xico. Tema
general "Investigaci6n y Conservaci6n de Primates
Neotropicales". Mayor informaci6n: Dr. Jorge Martinez,
Depto. de Filosoffa, UAM-Iztapalapa, Apdo. Postal 55-536,
09340 M6xico, D. F. Tel: (5) 724 47 85, Fax: (5) 724 4778, e-
mail: amp@xanum.uam.nx.
III Congreso de la Asociaci6n Primatol6gica Espafiola
(APE), 20-22 September 1999, Universidad Aut6noma de
Barcelona, Spain. Inaugural lecture to be given by Profes-
sor Adriaan Kortlandt "Protohominid behaviour in pri-
mates". Plenary lectures include: Montse Garcia "Aplicaci6n
de los studios citogen6ticos en primates a la patologia
gen6tica humana"; Dr. R. Stanyon "Evoluci6n gen6tica y
especiaci6n en primates"; Dr. J. Sabater Pi "La cultural en
los primates no humanss; Dr. Turb6n "Adaptaci6n y
comportamiento de los primeros hominidos". Contact:
Secretaria del Departamento de Biologfa Celular eFisiologfa,
Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Aut6noma de Barcelona,
08193 Barcelona, Spain, Fax: 93 5812295. E-mail: ub.es>.
IV Congress de Manejo de Fauna Amazonica, 4 al 8 de
octubre de 1999, Asunci6n, Paraguay. Este important
event, iniciado en 1992, resume en breves dias los
resultados de todos los esfuerzos aplicados en pos de la
conservaci6n de la fauna de toda la region amazonica. En
esta oportunidad se fortalecera la pluriparticipaci6n, la
discusi6n de estrategias y la elaboraci6n de planes de acci6n
apuntando a una conservaci6n protagonizada por los
pobladores rurales, beneficiaries director de un uso
sostenible del recurso faunistico. La organizaci6n de este
event es el resultado de un esfuerzo conjunto entire la
Oficina CITES-Py, La Gobernaci6n del Departamento Cen-
tral y la organization ambientalista Fundaci6n Moises
Bertoni para la Conservaci6n de la Naturaleza. Misi6n:
Trabajar en forma pluriparticipativa y en acci6n coordinada
para la optimizaci6n de las political de uso, tecnicas y
estrategias de manejo de la vida silvestre amazonica para
fomentar el desarrollo socio-economico sostenible y la
conservaci6n de la naturaleza. Los trabajos seran recibidos
hasta el 1 de marzo de 1999. Se podran enviar por correo
electronic, o en impression en papel blanco tamano carta
con una copia archivada en diskette. Unicamente se
recibiran los siguientes formats: WP5.1, Microsoft Word
6.0 o textos en ASCII (DOS IBM). Invitaci6n a events: La
comisi6n organizadora desearia recibir propuestas para la
organizaci6n de simposios, talleres, cursos, mesas redondas
y otras reuniones relacionadas a la tematica propuesta para
el Congress. Los interesados en organizer o en participar
de algunos de estos events pueden comunicarse con el
Comite Organizador. Inscripciones: Hasta el 31 de marzo de
1999, estudiantes: US$30, profesionales: US$60; Hasta el
30 de setiembre de 1999, estudiantes: US$50, profesionales:
US$100; Inscripciones tardias (durante el Congreso),


Page 37






Neotropical Primates 7(1), March 1999


estudiantes: US$60, profesionales: US$120. Los idiomas
oficiales del Congreso seran Espanol y Portugues, no se
haran servicios de traducci6n simultanea. Comisi6n
Organizadora, IV Congreso de Manejo de Fauna Amazonica,
Fundaci6n Moises Bertoni, C.C. 714, Asunci6n, Paraguay,
Tel: (595-21) 608 740,600 855, Fax: (595-21) 608 741m, e-mail:
. Visitenos en internet (apartir
dejulio): .
Primate Society of Great Britain Winter Meeting 1999,
1 December 1999, The Zoological Society of London, Lon-
don. The theme will be "Mating and Social Systems of Old
World Monkeys". Suggestions for speakers and offers of
posters are very welcome. Please contact: Dr. Caroline Ross
or Mairi Macleod, School of Life Sciences, Roehampton
Institute London, West Hill, London SW15 3SN, UK, Tel:
+44 181 392 3561, Fax: +44 181 392 3527. E-mail: crosss@
roehampton. ac. uk> or .
Primate Socioecology: The Role of Life Histories, 14-17
December 1999, The German Primate Center (DPZ),
G6ttingen. An international conference on primate
socioecology. The focus of this meeting (2nd "G6ttinger
Freilandtage") will be on life history variation among pri-
mates. Invited speakers will examine causes of variation in
life history traits and explore the consequences of this varia-
tion for behavioral and reproductive strategies. An addi-
tional goal is to better characterize unique aspects of pri-
mate life histories and illuminate general principles through
comparison with other mammals. Submissions for relevant
oral (15 min) and poster contributions are invited. The con-
ference is also open to guests without presentations. The
deadline for submission of abstracts wishing to be consid-
ered for spoken papers or posters is August 1, 1999. Guests
must also register in advance by October 1, 1999. Addi-
tional details available from Peter Kappeler, e-mail:
, or the conference secretariat, e-mail:
, and the conference web site:
.

2001
XVIIIth Congress of the International Primatological So-
ciety, 7-12 January 2001, Adelaide, Australia. Hosted by
the Australasian Primate Society, President Mr. John Lemon,
Western Plains Zoo, Dubbo, NSW. Theme: "Primates in the
New Millenium". Mr. Graeme Crook is Chairman of the Or-
ganizing Committee. Symposia Participants wishing to
register a symposium title must submit a 200 word abstract
by 31 July 1999. E-mail to Carla Litchfield
. Titles of accepted symposia will
be published on the webpage from August 1999. Papers -
An abstract of 100 words is required. E-mail to CarlaLitchfield
. Closing date for first call for pa-
pers: 31 January 2000. Closing date for second call for pa-
pers: 31 May 2000. A final list of papers will be published
on the Internet by 30 June 2000. For more information, and
to be put onto the Congress Organizer's mailing list, write
to: Conventions Worldwide, PO Box 44, Rundle Mall, SA
5000, Australia, Tel: +618 8363 0068, Fax: +618 8363 0354, e-


mail: , sending your postal ad-
dress, telephone, fax and e-mail address.




We would be most grateful if you could send us information
on projects, research groups, events (congresses,
symposia, and workshops), recent publications, activities
of primatological societies and NGOs, news items or
opinions of recent events and suchlike. Manuscripts should
be double-spaced and accompanied by the text in diskette
for PC compatible text-editors (MS-Word, Wordperfect,
Wordstar). Articles, not exceeding six pages, can include
small black-and-white photographs, high quality figures,
and high quality maps, tables and references, but please
keep them to a minimum.

Please send contributions to: ANTHONY RYLANDS, c/o
Conservation International do Brasil, Avenida Ant8nio
Abrah&o Caram 820/302,31275-000 Belo Horizonte, Minas
Gerais, Brazil, Tel/Fax: +55 (31) 441-1795 or ERNESTO
RODRIGUEZ-LUNA, Parque de La Flora y Fauna Silvestre
Tropical, Instituto de Neuroetologfa, Universidad
Veracruzana, Apartado Postal 566, Xalapa, Veracruz 91000,
M6xico, Fax: 52(28) 12-5748.

LIuANA CORTES-ORTIZ (Universidad Veracruzana) provides
invaluable editorial assistance.

Correspondence, messages, and texts can be sent to:
ANTHoNY RYLANDS
a.rylands@conservation.org.br

ERNESTO RODRIGUEz-LUNA
saraguat@ speedy.coacade.uv.mx

NEOTROPICAL PRIMATES is produced in collaboration
with CONSERVATION INTERNATIONAL, 2501 m Street, NW,
Suite 200, Washington DC 20037, USA, and FUNDA4QAO
BIODIVERSITrrAs, Av. do Contorno, 9155/11'. andar Pra-
do, Belo Horizonte 30110-130, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Design and Composition: ALEXANDR S. DINNouTI -
a.dinnouti@conservation.org.br CONSERVATION
INTERNATIONAL DO BRASIL.


Page 38







ISSN 1413-4703


NEOTROPICAL PRIMATES
Anthony Rylands/Ernesto Rodriguez Luna, Editors
Conservation International
Avenida Ant8nio Abrahao Caram 820/302
31275-000, Belo Horizonte
Minas Gerais, Brazil


A DMslon of the Houston
Parks and Recreation Department


This issue of Neotropical Primates was kindly sponsored by the Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foun-
dation, 432 Walker Road, Great Falls, Virginia 22066, USA, the Houston Zoological Gardens Con-
servation Program, General Manager Donald G. Olson, 1513 North MacGregor, Houston, Texas
77030, USA and the Grupo de Trabalho em Biodiversidade (GTB), through the Brazilian National
Science Research Council (CNPq), Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca, Coordenador do GTB, c/o Conserva-
tion International do Brasil, Avenida Ant6nio Abrahdo Caram 820/302,31275-000 Belo Horizonte,
SMinas Gerais, Brazil.




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