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Title: Neotropical primates
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098814/00027
 Material Information
Title: Neotropical primates a newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCNSSC Primate Specialist Group
Abbreviated Title: Neotrop. primates
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
Conservation International
Center for Applied Biodiversity Science
Publisher: Conservation International
Place of Publication: Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Publication Date: December 1998
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Primates -- Periodicals -- Latin America   ( lcsh )
Primates -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Wildlife conservation -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: review   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Brazil
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Language: English, Portuguese, and Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Mar. 1993)-
Issuing Body: Issued jointly with Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, <Dec. 2004->
General Note: Published in Washington, D.C., Dec. 1999-Apr. 2005 , Arlington, VA, Aug. 2005-
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 13, no. 1 (Apr. 2005).
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Volume ID: VID00027
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28561619
lccn - 96648813
issn - 1413-4705


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Table of Contents
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    Back Cover
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Full Text

ISSN 1413-4703

A Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group

Editors: Anthony B. Rylands and Ernesto Rodriguez Luna
PSG Chairman: Russell A. Mittermeier
PSG Deputy Chairman: Anthony B. Rylands






Volume 6
March December 1998

Multiple simultaneous breeding females in a pygmy marmoset group (Cebuella pygmaea).
M ichael Schrtpel ..................................... ................................................................................................ 1-7
The effect of rainfall seasonality on the geographic distribution of Neotropical primates. R. Pastor-Nieto
and D K W illiam son...................................................... .................................................................... 7-14
The squirrel monkey breeding colony of The Pasteur Institute, Cayenne, French Guiana.Benoit de Thoisy
and H ugues Contam in ............................................................................................................................. 14-17
First detailed field data on Chiropotes satanas utahicki Hershkovitz, 1985. Urbano L. Bobadilla and
Stephen F Ferrari .......................................................................................................................................... 17-18
Primates of the Serra do Brigadeiro State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Brdz A. P. Cosenza and
Fabiano R de M elo ................................................................................................................................ 18-20
Reaction of wild emperor tamarins to the presence of a snake. ClAudio Arani Nunes,
Jdlio C. Bicca-Marques, Karin Schacht, Alice C. de A. Araripe ........................................ ............................ .... 20
Three callitrichid specimens recovered in the Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. Jos6 de Sousa e
Silva Jdnior ................................................. .................................................................................... . ............. 2 1
Associagdo Mico-Leio-Dourado Corredores. Denise Margal Rambaldi ......................................................... 21
Problems de amostragem no desenvolvimento da sistemdtica e biogeografia de primatas Neotropicais.
Jos e de Sousa e Silva Jtinior................. ............ ......... ...... .................... .......................................... 21-22
EEP Studbook for the cotton-top tamarin, Saguinus oedipus. Michael Schripel .............................................. 22
Centro Nacional de Prim atas, Bel6m Brasil ............................................................ ................................. 22-23
Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation 1997 projects...............................................................................23-24
Regional Plan for the Conservation and Management of Mesoamerican Primates.......................................... 24

Neotropical Primates Index 1

I I N 1) E X

Netherlands' Order of Golden Ark awarded to PSG member Marc van Roosmalen.................................... 24
The Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center (WRPRC) Audiovisual Archive Contribution Policy.
L arry Jacobsen ........................................ ....................................... ................................................................ 24
Fauna and Flora International The 100% Fund ......................................................................................... 25
Directory of graduate programs in primatology and primate research ....................................... ............ .. 25
Center for Environmental Research and Conservation Columbia University........................................... 25-26
American Society of Primatologists Awards 1998 .................................................................................... 26
Primate Society of Great Britain Napier Medal 1997. Hilary O. Box.................................... ................ 26
American Society of Primatologists' Conservation Award nominations and grant applications.
Randall C K yes..................................................................................................................... ............... 26-27
Nueva mesa directive de La Asociaci6n Mexicana de Primatologia (AMP) ................................................... 27
R ECENT P UBLICATIONS .................................................................................................................................. 27-32
M EETINGS ................................................................... ..................................................................... ... 32-34

The most enigmatic monkey in the Bolivian rain forest Callimico goeldii. Anita Christen ..................... 35-37
A broad-band contact call by female mantled howler monkeys: Implications for heterogeneous conditions.
Clara B. Jones ............................................ ...... .......................................................... ........... 38-40
Observations on reproduction and behavior of the muriqui, Brachyteles arachnoides, in captivity. Alcides
Pissinatti, Adelmar F. Coimbra-Filho and Anthony B. Rylands.................................................40-45
Primate densities in the Natural Reserve of Nouragues, French Guiana. Philip Kessler.............................45-46
Temporal and acoustic properties of long-distance calls of the masked titi monkey, Callicebus personatus.
M ilene M M artins and Adelaide H. P. Silva .......................................... .................................... 46-48
Unusual sexual posture in a howler monkey couple, Alouattafusca clamitans. Sandra Steinmetz and
M nica de Souza .......................................................................................................... ........................... 48-49
Sobre a ocorrencia do muriqui, Brachyteles arachnoides, em Mambucaba, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.
S rgio M V az ........................................ ...................................................... 49-50
Primate type specimens in the Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. Alfredo Langguth, Vania L. A. G. Limeira
and Stella Franco ................................................................................................................................ 50
Reorganizaqdo da coleg~o de primatas do Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. S6rgio M. Vaz .......................... 50
Reserva Biol6gica Fazenda Uniao, Rio de Janeiro. Maria C. M. Kierulff and Paula P. de Oliveira................ 51
Superagiii National Park protection for the black-faced lion tamarin ..................................... ........... 51
Ecology and social behaviour of buffy-headed marmosets, Callithrixflaviceps. Alice Guimaraes ............51-52
A muriqui PHVA workshop. Anthony B. Rylands.................................................... .............................52-53
A new prim ate list-server Prim focus .................................................................... .... ........................... 53
IUCN/SSC W wildlife Trade Programme........................................................ ........................................... 53-54
Annual Meeting of the International Committees for the Lion Tamarins .................................................54-55
Fundacao o BoticArio de Prote lo Natureza Projetos 1998. Miguel S. Milano ...................... ............ 55
The Lion Tamarins of Brazil Fund. Jeremy J. C. Mallinson ......................................................................55-56
Lincoln Park Zoo 1998 Scott Neotropic Fund Projects .............................................................................. 56
XVII Congress of the International Primatological Society ....................................... ............... 57
Guidelines for captive care and breeding ............................................................................... ...................... 57
PSG B Field Studies Supplem ent ................................ .................................................................................. 57

SVol. 6, March December, 1998

Officers of The Primate Society of Great Britain (PSGB)............................................................................... 57
R ECENT PUBLICATIONS ........................................... ................................... ............ ............................58-69
M EETING S ...................................................................................................................................................... 69-7 2

Mitochondrial DNA sequences and the taxonomic status ofAlouatta seniculus populations in northeastern
Amazonia. Wilsea B. Figueiredo, Nelson M. Carvalho-Filho, Horacio Schneider and Iracilda Sampaio .... 73-77
The evolutionary history of platyrrhines: Old controversies and new interpretations. Marcelo F. Tejedor .77-82
Presencia de Alouatta caraya fuera de su area de distribuci6n natural. Aldo M. Giudice and
M arina S. A scunce .........................................................................................................................................82-86
Distribution and conservation of the buffy tufted-ear marmoset, Callithrix aurita, in lowland coastal
Atlantic forest, south-east Brazil. Leticia D. Brand&o and Pedro F. Develey..............................................86-88
Preliminary observations on handedness in wild tamarins (Saguinus spp.) and titi monkeys (Callicebus
cupreus). Jdlio C. Bicca-Marques, Claudio A. Nunes and Karin Schacht ....................................................88-90
A new species of marmoset in the Brazilian Amazon. Marc G. M. van Roosmalen...................................90-91
Vocalizations of howling monkeys, Alouatta fusca. Dilmar A. G. de Oliveira.......................... ............. 91
Ultrasonography and reproductive status in the common marmoset. Ann-Kathrin Oerke .........................91-92
Feeding ecology of the masked titi, Callicebus personatus. Stefani Heiduck..................................92-93
Emperor tamarins in Europe, Eric B. Ruivo ................................................................................................93-94
Information on Cebus. Elisabetta Visalberghi, Dorothy Fragaszy and Linda Fedigan .................................. 94
Field Course in Primate Behavior and Ecology. Paul A. Garber.................................................... ........... 95
The Whitley Award f6r Animal Conservation.................................................................................................. 95
New Science-oriented list to replace Primate-Talk. Larry Jacobsen .................................... .............. 95-96
M Sc in w ild anim al health .............................................................................................................. ......... .... 96
XVIIth Congress of the International Primatological Society .................................................................. 96
The PSG and the International Primatological Society ........................................ .................................. 96
Martha J. Galante Award International Primatological Society ............................ ....................... .... 97
Officers of the International Primatological Society ............................................................................... 97
XVIIIth Congress of the International Primatological Society Australia....................................................... 97
Gesellschaft fir Primatologie. Andreas Koenig........................................................................................ 97-98
American Society of Primatologists Awards 1998 ..............................................................................98-99
R ECENT PUBLICATIONS ................................................................................ .......................................... 99-108
M EETINGS ............................................. ......... ....... .................... ........................................ 108-110

Monos aulladores (Alouatta palliata), escarabajos copr6fagos y la fragmentaci6n de las selvas en Los Tuxtlas,
Veracruz, M6xico. Alberto A. Dadda, Alejandro Estrada and Rosamond Coates-Estrada ..................... 111-114
On the capture of titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus) using the Peruvian method. Guilherme Silveira,
Jtlio Cesar Bicca-Marques and Cludio Arani Nunes............................................................................. 114-115
Proximity and grooming interactions as indicators of the social organization of brown howling monkeys
(Alouattafusca clamitans). Dilmar A. G. de Oliveira and C6sar Ades ................................................... 115-117
New data and a historical sketch on the geographical distribution of the Ka'apor capuchin,
Cebus kaapori Queiroz, 1992. Jos6 de Sousa e Silva Jr. and Rui Cerqueira............................................. 117-121

Neotropical Primates Index 3

Intergroup infant transfer among red howlers, Alouatta seniculus, in Venezuela: Adoption or
kidnapping? Govindasamy Agoramoorthy .......;................................................................................. 121-123
An early report on tool use by Neotropical primates. Bemardo Urbani................................ ............... 123-124
Vertebrate predation in common marmosets. Leslie Digby and Cliudio E. Barreto ............................... 124-126
Feeding ecology of Callithrix aurita in a forest fragment in Minas Gerais. Milene M. Martins ............ 126-127
Common marmosets at TapacurA, Pernambuco, Brazil. Maria Ad6lia O. Monteiro da Cruz ........................ 127
Primates in the Desengano State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. S6rgio Maia Vaz .................................... 127-128
The status of the pied Tamarin, Saguinus bicolor. Rosana J. Subir ........................................................... 128
Ecology of the black lion tamarin. Fernando de C. Passos...................................................................... 128-129
Threatened species lists for Brazilian states. Anthony B. Rylands.......................................................... 129-130
The 1998 Henry Ford Environmental Conservation Awards. Heloisa de Oliveira ........................................ 130
B B C Prim ate Series ........................................................................................................................................... 13 1
PSG members elected to the Brazilian Academy of Sciences ................................................................. 131-132
The Center for Applied Biodiversity Science Conservation International. Lisa Bowen....................... 132-133
From product to program: The Red List evolves .............................................................................................. 133
A new genetic research laboratory in Para, Brazil. Horacio Schneider ......................................................... 134
Um convenio entire Conservation International e o Centro de Primatologia do Rio de Janeiro (CPRJ/FEEMA).
Luiz P. de S. Pinto and A. Pissinatti............................................................................................................ 134
An audio field guide to Neotropical rainforest mammals............................................................................... 134
Mestrado em Psicologia Subprograma Etologia. Francisco D. C. Mendes .................................................. 134
JW PT Sum m er School .................................. ............................ ..... ..................................................... 134-135
IV Curso Intemacional: Disefio y Andlisis de Proyecto para el Manejo y Monitoreo de la
D iversidad B iol6gica .................................... ........................................... .................................................... 135
Zoo Biology Call for manuscripts ............................................................................................................. 135
Primate literature database on the web ........................................ ................................................. 135-136
R ECENT PUBLICATIONS ............................................................................ .................................................... 136
M EETING S ....................................................... .......................................................................................... 142

Vol. 6, March December, 1998

Neotropical Primates 6(4), December 1998


Alberto Anzures Dadda
Alejandro Estrada
Rosamond Coates-Estrada
En las selvas neotropicales, las heces frescas de mamiferos
selvAticos, especialmente de monos aulladores, constituyen
una important fuente de alimento y un recurso indispens-
able para ovipositar para un amplio ndmero de species
de escarabajos copr6fagos (Hanski y Cambefort, 1991).
Un segment de esta comunidad de escarabajos se ha
especializado en explotar las heces de los aulladores casi
exclusivamente (Estrada et al., 1993). Al localizar las
heces, los escarabajos proceden a enterrarlos rApidamente,
ya sea en el lugar de deposici6n o a cierta distancia de
6ste. Esto iltimo se logra haciendo una pelota que es rodada
sobre el piso de la selva y posteriormente enterrada. La
relocalizaci6n de las heces y la rapidez para enterrarlas es
una estrategia que han desarrollado los escarabajos
copr6fagos para enfrentarse a la fuerte competencia con
otros insects copr6fagos por este tipo de recurso (Halffter
y Mathews, 1966).
En las selvas de Los Tuxtlas tropas de Alouatta palliata
utilizan cerca de 78 species de drboles como fuente de
hojas y frutos a trav6s del afio (Estrada, 1984; Jim6nez-
Huerta, 1992; Serio-Silva, 1992; Juan, 1997), participando
asi en el reciclaje de material y energia en el ecosistema.
Cerca del 50% de estas species constituyen la fuente de
frutos en la dieta de estos primates y las semillas de la
mayoria de esta species son ingeridas accidentalmente
por los aulladores quienes, debido a sus movimientos
diaries (200-1500 m) y al lento pasaje del alimento por su
tracto digestive (18-20 hrs), las dispersan en estado vi-
able y a distancias variables de su lugar de origen (Estrada
y Coates-Estrada, 1991). Al dispersar la semillas, los
aulladores le prestan dos servicios importantes a las
plants. Primero, permiten que muchas semillas escapen
de una muerte segura bajo la sombra de la copa del Arbol
madre, incrementando asf el 6xito reproductive de la
plant. Segundo, permiten que las plants colonicen sitios
que de otra manera no les serfan accesibles. Asf, las plants
de las selvas htmedas estAn atrapadas en una intima
dependencia con mamiferos frugivoros como A. palliata
y 6stos, a su vez, dependent de los frutos de las plants
como una fuente important de alimento a trav6s del afio
(Estrada y Coates-Estrada, 1986).
Al enterrar las heces, los escarabajos tambi6n entierran a

Page 111

las semillas dispersadas por los monos aulladores, hasta a
12 cm bajo la superficie del suelo. Experimentos de campo
en Los Tuxllas demo.sraron que los roedores son incapaces
de localizar la mayoria de las semillas enterradas por los
escarabajos de esta manera y que eslas senullas logran
germnnar y establecerse. Aquellas serrllas que no son
enterradas por los escarabaios son depredadas ca;i en un
80% por los roedores. Asi. en el proceso de regeneraciin
de las selvas. en el cual esian involucrados los monos
aulladores a Irav4s de sus ineraccione; con uh amplio
espectro de plants, los escarabajos copr6fagos juegan un
papel estratigico en el 6xito.reproductivo de la plant
(Estrada y Coates-Estrada, 1991).
Debido a que la abundancia general de los mamiferos
selvaticos establece los niveles de disponibilidad de
recursos para los escarabajos copr6fagos (Hanski y
Cambefort, 1991) y a que mamiferos no voladores, como
A. palliata, son especialmente sensibles a la destrucci6n,
fragmentaci6n y aislamiento de sus habitats (Offerman et
al., 1995; Estrada et al., 1994), las poblaciones de
escarabajos copr6fagos se verin afectadas negativamente
por estos cambios (Klein, 1989). Sin embargo, la poca
evidencia de campo existente hasta el moment s6lo in-
dica queen el caso de los escarabajos copr6fagos existen
efectos negatives sobre sus poblaciones como resultado
de perdida de Area del hAbitat (Howden y Nealis, 1975;
Peck y Forsyth, 1982; Klein, 1989), pero no hay datos que
evalien los efectos de cambios en la abundancia relative
de mamfferos como resultado de la fragmentaci6n de la
selva sobre las poblaciones de escarabajos copr6fagos.
El objeto del present trabajo es describir la relaci6n
existente entire la presencia y la abundancia relative de
una poblaci6n fragmentada de A. palliata y la presencia y
abundancia relative de las poblaciones de 11 species de
escarabajos copr6fagos que manifiestan una clara
preferencia por las heces de este primate (Estrada et al.,
1993). Para lograr lo anterior, entire febrero y noviembre
de 1996 se censaron los grupos existentes de A. palliata y
las poblaciones de escarabajos copr6fagos en 24 fragments
de selva en un paisaje fragmentado de la regi6n de Los
Tuxtlas, Veracruz, M6xico.
El drea de studio con una extension aproximada de 31
km2, consiste en un paisaje dominado por pastizales para
la ganaderfa y en el que se presentan fragments aislados
de la selva que hasta hace 30-40 afios cubria la totalidad
del paisaje. Este paisaje se localiza en las inmediaciones
de la Estaci6n de Biologia "Los Tuxtlas" del Instituto de
Biologla de la Universidad Nacional Aut6noma de M6xico
en la region de Los Tuxtlas al sur de Veracruz, M6xico
(950 00' W, 180 25' N). El rango de drea de los 24
fragments investigados vari6 de 0.5 a 113 hectareas y en
el caso de la distancia de aislamiento (la distancia en lfnea
recta mds corta al fragmento mAs cercano) fue de 200 a
800 m.

Cover photograph by Alcides Pissinatti: Muriquis, Brachyteles arachnoides, at the Rio de Janeiro Primate Center (CPRJ/FEEMA), Brazil.

Page 112 Neotropical Primates 6(4), December 1998

Censos deA. palliata: Cada uno de los fragmento de selva
fue visitado tres veces durante el period de 10 meses que
dur6 la investigaci6n de campo. Los aulladores detectados
fueron contados y se determine su sexo y edad aproximada
(Anzures, 1997). Con datos provenientes de la literature
se estim6 el peso promedio de cada clase de individuo en
las tropas y la producci6n media de heces por dia por
individuo (Estrada, 1982; Estrada y Coates-Estrada, 1991).
Esto permiti6 una estimaci6n de la biomasa de Alouatta y
de la producci6n total diaria de heces para cada sitio.
Muestreo de escarabajos copr6fagos: Los escarabajos
copr6fagos con afinidad a las heces de Alouatta fueron
capturados utilizando trampas ('pitfall traps') cebadas con
50 g de una mezcla homogeneizada de heces de Alouatta,
vaca y caballo (Anzures, 1997). Se montaron 35 trampas
en el interior de cada fragmento de selva < 30 ha a lo
largo de una ruta mis o menos lineal. En fragments > 30
ha se montaron dos grupos de 35 trampas separados por
aproximadamente 200 m. Las trampas, colocadas a
intervals de 10 m se dejaron en el interior del fragmento
por un period de 24 horas, despu6s del cual fueron
recogidas y su contenido examinado en la Estaci6n de
Biologfa "Los Tuxtlas". Los escarabajos capturados se
contaron e identificaron a nivel de especie con una
colecci6n de referencia existente en la Estaci6n. Para
estimar la biomasa representada por los escarabajos
capturados, se us6 la longitud promedio del cuerpo en mm
(Klein 1989). Posteriormente los escarabajos fueron
liberados en el sitio de capture.
Detectamos la presencia de A. palliata en el 58% de los
24 fragments investigados, registrando un total de 132
individuos agrupados en 24 tropas y dos machos solitarios.
En el caso de las tropas, el 30% de los individuos fueron
machos, el 39% hembras, el 15% juveniles (>1 afio) y el
16% infantes( 6.0 (D.S. 2.0) individuos. El nimero medio de tropas de
aulladores por fragment fue de 1.5 (D.S. 0.9) con un
rango de 1 a 4 tropas. El ndmero medio de aulladores por
fragmento fue de 8.4 (D.S. 5.9) individuos con un rango
de 1-25 individuos. La biomasa media de aulladores y la
producci6n media de heces por dfa por fragment fue de
49 kg (D.S. 40) y 439 gr (D.S. 313) respectivamente.
La producci6n media estimada de copro de Alouatta por
hectdrea por sitio fue de 59.6 gr (D.S. 71.1; rango 4-300
gr). Se determine una relaci6n positive entire la biomasa
de aulladores en los sitios investigados y el irea de estos
iltimos (r = 0.60, p = 0.0001). La producci6n estimada
total de heces deAlouatta por sitio y de heces por hectirea
por sitio estuvieron fuertemente correlacionadas con la
biomasa de Alouatta en los fragments estudiados (r =
0.98, p<0.0001 y r = 0.72, p<0.001 respectivamente).
Capturamos un total de 2754 escarabajos representando a
las 11 species de interns. El ndmero medio de escarabajos
y de species capturados por trampa por fragmento fue de

2.5 (rango 0.03-17) y de 0.12 (D.S. 0.08) respecti-
vamente. La biomasa media estimada por trampa por
fragment fue de 24 mm (rango 0.3-16 mm). La tasa me-
dia de capture por trampa por sitio y la biomasa media de
escarabajos por trampa por sitio estuvieron
significativamente asociados al area del fragmento (r=
0.45, p = 0.01 y r,= 0.50, p = 0.006, respectivamente).
En los fragments de selva con presencia de Alouatta, la
tasa media de capture de escarabajos por trampa por sitio
(X = 3.73 4.7) y la biomasa media (X = 34.6 mm 43.2)
por trampa por sitio fueron significativamente mayores (z
= 2.29, p = 0.01 y z= 2.16, p= 0.01) que en los fragments
en los que Alouatta no estuvo present (X = 0.85 1.1 y X
= 8.84 mm 11.3, respectivamente) (Fig. 1).
La tasa media de capture de escarabajos por trampa por
sitio y la biomasa media de escarabajos por trampa por
sitio estuvieron significativamente relacionadas a la
producci6n estimada de heces de aulladores por hectirea
por sitio (r = 0.48, p = 0.008 y r = 0.38, p = 0.03
respectivamente). Estas dos variables tambi6n estuvieron
correlacionadas con la biomasa total de aulladores
estimada para cada sitio (r = 0.51, p = 0.005 y rs = 0.50, p
= 0.005).
Un andlisis de correlaci6n parcial mostr6 una relaci6n
positive y significativa entire la tasa media de capture y la
biomasa media de escarabajos por trampa por sitio y la
tasa de producci6n de heces de aullador por hectdrea por
sitio (r, = 0.40, p = 0.02 y r, = 0.36, p = 0.03), mientras
que la relaci6n de estas variables con el area del fragmento
result no significativa (r, = 0.11, p = 0.29 y r, = 0.07, p =
Los resultados de este studio indican que reducciones en
area de selva disponible tanto para los monos aulladores
como para los escarabajos copr6fagos resultan en
disminuciones importantes en las poblaciones de ambos
organisms. Estas observaciones son congruentes con
resultados de otras investigaciones sobre poblaciones

4- 35-
M4 25,
2 20

n is
?1. 10

0 i I o

Figura 1. Diferencias en la tasa media de capture de escarabajos copr6fagos
por trampapor sitio en fragments de selva con aulladores y sin aulladores

Neotropical Primates 6(4), December 1998

Page 112

Neotropical Primates 6(4), December 1998 Page 113

silvestres de primates y de escarabajos copr6fagos en selvas
Amaz6nicas (Rylands y Keuroghlian, 1988; Klein, 1989)
y en Los Tuxtlas (Estrada y Coates-Estrada, 1996).
Nuestros resultados claramente indican que en los
fragments de selva ocupados por monos aulladores habitat
un mayor ndmero de escarabajos copr6fagos en
comparaci6n con aquellos fragments en que los aulladores
no estin presents y los resultados del andlisis de
correlaci6n parcial sugieren un mayor efecto del volume
existente de material fecal de Alouatta por unidad de area
por dia sobre el tamafio de las poblaciones de las 11
species de escarabajos copr6fagos investigados, que el
efecto que ejerce el area del fragmento. Entre mds bajo el
volume, mis bajas, al parecer, son las poblaciones de
escarabajos, independientemente del drea del fragmento.
Esto sugiere que la desaparici6n de los monos aulladores
de remanentes de selva en el Neotr6pico puede resultar en
la extinci6n local y/o disminuciones importantes en las
poblaciones de species de escarabajos copr6fagos que
manifiestan una cierta especializaci6n hacia el recurso
producido por este primate. Por otro lado, la desaparici6n
y/o reducciones en el tamafio de las poblaciones deAlouatta
puede resultar en disminuciones importantes en la
dispersi6n y postdispersi6n de un gran ndmero de semillas
de un amplio espectro de plants en las selvas
neotropicales, cuya supervivencia se favorece por las
interacciones entire este primate con los escarabajos
copr6fagos (Estrada y Coates-Estrada, 1993; Kinzey,
1997). Esto iltimo tendrA un impact important sobre la
capacidad de regeneraci6n de la selva.
Nuestro studio sugiere que para lograr una conservaci6n
efectiva y a largo plazo de los monos aulladores en Los
Tuxtlas, es indispensable atenuar los efectos negatives del
area y aislamiento sobre los segments aislados de la
poblaci6n original de Alouatta. Esto podrfa lograrse,
inicialmente, a trav6s de la creaci6n de unidades de
conservaci6n formadas por archipi6lagos de fragments
de selva que podrfan ser unidos entire si por medio de
corredores de vegetaci6n a lo largo de rios y arroyos. La
conexi6n fisica y bi6tica podrfa intensificarse a trav6s del
establecimiento de cercas vivas conformadas no s61o por
las dos species arb6reas (Bursera simaruba Burseraceae
y Gliricidia sepium Leguminosae) usadas tradicionalmente
por los campesinos y rancheros para delimitar sus parcelas,
sino tambi6n con species de Arboles que usan los monos
aulladores. De este modo las tropas de monos aulladores
aisladas podrian restablecer el flujo g6nico y conformar
una poblaci6n gen6ticamente viable. Tal scenario,
facilitarfa tambi6n la supervivencia de escarabajos
copr6fagos especialistas y generalistas en hdbitos
alimenticios y que dependent de las heces de mamfferos
como Alouatta para alimento y reproducci6n, resultando
en el sostenimiento de la interacci6n primate-planta-
escarabajo, con efectos positives importantes sobre el
process de regeneraci6n natural de la selva.

Se agradece el apoyo del Scott Fund for Neotropical Re-
search del Lincoln Park Zoological Society de Chicago,
del Sistema Nacional de Investigadores a trav6s de una
beca de Asistente de Investigador asignada por el Dr. A.
Estrada y a la Universidad Nacional Aut6noma de M6xico
por apoyos generals y logisticos.
Alberto Anzures Dadda, Instituto de Historia Natural,
Tuxtla Guti6rrez, Chiapas, Alejandro Estrada y
Rosamond Coates-Estrada, Estaci6n de Biologfa Tropi-
cal "Los Tuxtlas", Instituto de Biologia, Universidad
Nacional Aut6noma de M6xico, Apartado Postal 176, San
Andr6s Tuxtla, Veracruz, M6xico.
Anzures, D. A. 1997. Presencia de Monos Aulladores
(Alouatta palliata) y Escarabajos Copr6fagos (Co-
leoptera, Scarabaidae, Scarabaeinae) en un Paisaje
Fragmentado en la Regi6n de Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz.
Tesis Profesional. Universidad de Ciencias y Artes del
Estado de Chiapas. Tuxtla Guti6rrez, Chiapas.
Estrada, A. 1982. Survey and census of howler monkeys
(Alouatta palliatal in the rain forest of Los Tuxtlas,
Veracruz, Mexico. Am. J. Primatol. 2: 363-372.
Estrada, A. 1984. Resource use by howler monkeys
(Alouatta palliata) in the rain forest of Los Tuxtlas,
Veracruz, Mexico. Int. J. Primatol. 5: 105-131.
Estrada, A. y R. Coates-Estrada. 1986. Frugivory by howl-
ing monkeys (Alouattapalliata) at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico:
Dispersal and fate of seeds. En: Frugivores and Seed
Dispersal, A. Estrada y T.H. Fleming (eds.), p. 93-104.
Dr. W. Junk Publishers, La Haya.
Estrada, A. y R. Coates-Estrada. 1991. Howling monkeys
(Alouatta palliata), dung beetles (Scarabaeidae) and seed
dispersal: Ecological interactions in the tropical rain
forest of Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico. J.Trop.
Estrada, A. y R. Coates-Estrada. 1993. Aspects of eco-
logical impact of howling monkeys (Alouatta palliatal
on their habitat: a review. En: Estudios Primatol6gicos
en Mdxico, Vol. 1., A. Estrada, E. Rodrfguez-Luna, R.
Lopez-Wilchis y R. Coates-Estrada (eds.), pp. 87-117.
Asociaci6n Mexicana de Primatologia, A. C. y Patronato
Pro-Universidad Veracruzana, A. C. Xalapa, Veracruz.
Estrada, A. y R. Coates-Estrada. 1996. Tropical rain for-
est fragmentation and wild populations of primates at
Los Tuxtlas. Int. J. Primatol. 5:759-783.
Estrada, A., G. Halffter, R. Coates-Estrada y D. Meritt, Jr.
1993. Dung beetles attracted to mammalian herbivore
(Alouatta palliata Gray) and omnivore (Nasua narica
Linneaus) dung in the tropical rain forest of Los Tuxtlas,
Mexico. J. Trop. Ecol. 9: 45-54.
Estrada, A., Coates-Estrada, R. y Meritt, D., Jr. 1994. Non
flying mammals and landscape changes in the tropical
rain forest region of Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. Ecogeography
Halffter, G. y E. G. Mathews. 1966. The natural history of

Neotropical Primates 6(4), December 1998

Page 113

Page 114 Neotropical Primates 6(4), December 1998

dung beetles of the subfamily Scarabaeinae (Coleoptera,
Scarabaeidae). Folia Entomol. Mexicana 12-14:1-312.
Hanski, I. y Cambefort, Y. 1991. Species richness. En:
Dung Beetle Ecology, I. Hanski y Y. Cambefort (eds.),
pp.350-365. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
Howden, H. F. y Nealis, V. G. 1975. Effects of clearing in
a tropical rain forest on the composition of the copropha-
gous scarab beetle fauna (Coleoptera). Biotropica 7: 77-
Jim6nez-Huerta, J. 1992. Distribuci6n y Abundancia del
Recurso Alimenticio en un Fragmento de Selva Alta
Perennifolia y su Uso por Ateles y Alouatta en el Ejido
Magallanes (Municipio de Soteapan, Veracruz). Tesis
de licenciatura, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa.
Juan S. 1997. Recursos Alimenticios Utilizados por Monos
Aulladores (Alouatta palliata) en un Habitat con Alta
Perturbaci6n Antropog6nica en la Regi6n de Los Tuxtlas,
Veracruz, M6xico. Tesis Licenciatura, Facultad de
Biologia, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa.
Kinzey, W. 1997. Alouatta. En: New World Primates:
Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, W. G. Kinzey (ed.),
pp.174-185. Aldine, New York.
Klein, B. C. 1989. Effects of forest fragmentation on dung
and carrion beetle communities in central Amazonia.
Ecology 6:1715-1725.
Offerman, H. L., Dale, V. N., Pearson, S. M., Bierregaard,
O. Jr., y O'Neill, R. V. 1995. Effects of forest fragmen-
tation on neotropical fauna: current research and data
availability. Environmental Review 3:190-211.
Peck, S. B. y A. Forsyth. 1982. Composition, structure
and competitive behavior in a guild of Ecuadorian rain
forest dung beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae). Canad.
J. Zool. 60: 1624-1634.
Rylands, A. B. y Keuroghlian, A. 1988. Primate popula-
tions in continuous forest and forest fragments in cen-
tral Amazonia. Acta Amazonica 18: 291-307.
Serio-Silva, J. C. 1992. Patr6n Diario de Actividades y
Hdbitos Alimenticios de Alouatta palliata en
Semilibertad. Tesis Licenciatura. Facultad de Biologia,
Universidad Veracruzana, C6rdoba.

Guilherme Silveira
Jalio Cesar Bicca-Marques
Cldudio Arani Nunes
Titi monkeys are shy and difficult to capture using baited
traps. This note reports the capture of two red titi mon-
keys (Callicebus cupreus cupreus) using a so-called
"Saguinus trap" by the Peruvian Method (see details of
the method in Encarnaci6n et al., 1990). The capture was
part of an experimental field study on feeding competi-
tion among sympatric groups of tamarins (Saguinus
imperator imperator and Saguinus fuscicollis weddelli)
and titi monkeys (C. c. cupreus) conducted by G. Silveira
and supervised by J. C. Bicca-Marques. The research was

carried out from May to August 1998 at the Zoobotanical
Park of the Federal University of Acre (UFAC) (9o56'30"-
9057' 19"S, 67052'08"-67053'00"W; 100 ha), Rio Branco,
state of Acre, Brazil.
The Peruvian trapping method has been used by Bicca-
Marques and colleagues (Bicca-Marques et al., 1997;
Calegaro-Marques and Bicca-Marques, 1994; Santos et
al., 1995) to capture tamarins in several parts of the Rio
Branco study site since 1994. More than 80 tamarins were
captured in the following periods: April-June 1994, Octo-
ber-November 1994, February 1995, August-October 1997,
December 1997, March 1998, and May 1998. Although
titi monkeys are found throughout the study site, and were
often observed near or on the capture platform, prior to
May 1998 they were only once observed entering the trap
and eating the bait (February 1995; M. A. Azevedo-Lopes,
pers. comm.).
During the last capture period (May 1998) a group of titi
monkeys comprised of four individuals (one adult female
and three immature males; the adult male of this group
died in January 1998) were observed to enter the traps
and eat the bananas. This group was very well habituated
to the researchers' presence. It was observed on 115 days
from 22 September 1997 to 29 January 1998 and was of-
ten observed eating bananas on experimental feeding plat-
forms (30 cm x 45 cm) located 1.5 m above the ground.
These platforms were being used for a study on primate
foraging decisions (see Bicca-Marques etal., 1998). Mem-
bers of the titi monkey group were first observed entering
the trap on 18 May. From 18 to 21 May, all individuals
fed inside the trap at the same time. On 26 May, two im-
mature males were captured (Fig. 1). Both were anaesthe-
tized with a mixture of Tiletamine hydrochloride and
Zolazepam hydrochloride (Telazoll by Elkins-Sinn, Inc.,
Cherry Hill, NJ 08003, U.S.A.; diluted in 10 ml distilled
water; doses=0.06 ml and 0.10 ml) (Fig. 2), weighed,
measured, sexed, and fitted with color-coded collars for
individual recognition. The other two group members (the
adult female and an immature male) could be distinguished
by their physical traits. The oldest individual captured
weighed 745 g and measured 287 mm head and body
length and 435 mm tail length. His left testicle was ap-
proximately 8.0 mm long and 5.6 mm wide. The young-
est individual weighed 590 g and measured 280 mm head

Page 114

Neotropical Primates 6(4), December 1998

Neotropical Primates 6(4), December 1998 Page 115

Figure 2. Anaesthetized immature red titi monkey over the "Saguinus trap".

and body length and 365 mm tail length. Testicles of this
individual were very small and were not measured. Fol-
lowing capture, the group spent eight days without re-
turning to the Feeding Station where it was captured.
However, the monkeys returned to feed on 4 June and re-
visited the platforms on a daily basis until the end of the
study (8 August).
In conclusion, the Peruvian Method proved useful in cap-
turing titi monkeys. Its efficacy, however, is low and seems
to depend strongly on the animals' habituation; We be-
lieve that widening the individual compartments of the
trap, putting the traps in a shady place, for example, close
to lianas, and having a detailed knowledge of the group's
range would greatly increase the facility with which titi
monkeys can be captured using this trapping method.
Acknowledgment: The Zoobotanical Park/Federal Univer-
sity of Acre provided logistical support for this project.
Guilherme Silveira, Rua FAbio Paludetto 43, 86063-160
Londrina, Parana, Brazil, Jdlio Cesar Bicca-Marques,
Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois at Ur-
bana-Champaign (UIUC), 109 Davenport Hall, 607 S.
Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801, U.S.A. and Claudio
Arani Nunes, Projeto Bigodeiro, Caixa Postal 1012,
69908-210 Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil.
Bicca-Marques, J.C., Calegaro-Marques, C., Farias, E. M.
P., Azevedo, M. A. O. and Santos, F G. A. 1997. Medidas
morfom6tricas de Saguinus imperator imperator e
Saguinus fuscicollis weddelli (Callitrichidae, Primates)
em ambiente natural. In: A Primatologia no Brasil 6,
M. B. C. Sousa and A. A. L. Menezes (eds.), pp.257-
267. Editora da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do
Sul, Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia, Natal.
Bicca-Marques, J. C., Nunes, C. A. and Schacht, K. 1998.
Preliminary observations on handedness in wild tama-
rins (Saguinus spp.) and titi monkeys (Callicebus
cupreus). Neotropical Primates 6(3): 88-90.
Calegaro-Marques, C. and Bicca-Marques, J. C. 1994.
Ecology and social relations of the black-chinned em-
peror tamarin. Neotropical Primates 2(2): 20-21.
Encarnaci6n, E, Moya, L., Soini, P., Tapia, J. and Aquino,
R. 1990. La capture de Callitrichidae (Saguinus y
Cebuella) en la Amazonfa Peruana. In: La Primatologia

en el Peru, N. E. Castro-Rodriguez (ed.), pp.45-56.
Proyecto Peruano de Primatologia, Iquitos.
Santos, F. G. A., Salas, E. R., Bicca-Marques, J. C.,
Calegaro-Marques, C., Azevedo, M. A. O. and Farias,
E. M. P. 1995. Uso de Zoletil 50 na anestesia de
calitriquideos (Mammalia, Primates). Paper presented
at the 47' Reunido Anual da Sociedade Brasileira para o
Progresso da Ci8ncia (SBPC), Sao Lufs, Maranhlo.

Dilmar A. G. de Oliveira
Cisar Ades
The frequency of social behaviors is much lower in howl-
ing monkeys (genus Alouatta) than in other primate spe-
cies (Neville et al., 1988); a feature believed to be related
to a strategy of reduced energy expenditure (Crockett and
Eisenberg, 1987; Nevilleetal., 1988; Milton, 1980, 1981).
Our own field data indicate that brown howling monkeys
(Alouatta fusca clamitans), observed at the Cantareira
State Park, Sao Paulo, spend less than 5% of their day in
explicit social activities (Oliveira and Ades, 1993; Oliveira,
1997). The scarcity of social interactions makes the as-
sessment of aspects of group structure and organization
time-consuming and difficult.
Besides displays and ostensible interactive behaviors,
howlers communicate and organize their behavior as mem-
bers of a group through indirect signals, such as ap-
proaches, retreats, following bouts, and huddling (Jones,
1980, 1983). Spatial relationships among howlers may
constitute, as in other primates (Rowell and Olson, 1983),
an important indication of how they relate to each other
in the group and of the prevailing social organization
(Jones, 1980).
The main aim of this research, which was part of a study
of vocal communication (Oliveira, 1997), was to evaluate
aspects of the social organization of brown howlers using
records of inter-individual distances and, as supplemen-
tary information, data on grooming episodes (Mendes,
1989; Chiarelli, 1995). The observation method adopted
is simple, reliable and relatively economic in terms of the
time spent in the field.
Our research site, the Cantareira State Park, is a large
urban reserve (7,900 ha) in the middle of the metropoli-
tan region of Sao Paulo. It is comprised predominantly of
secondary forest and, besides A. fusca clamitans, the pri-
mate community there includes capuchins (Cebus apella
nigritus), marmosets (Callithrix aurita) and masked titi
monkeys (Callicebus personatus nigrifrons).
Howlers at Cantareira spend about 60% of the day rest-
ing, about 18% and 15% foraging and travelling, respec-
tively, and the remaining, short time in social and other

Neotropical Primates 6(4), December 1998

Page 115

Page 116

activities (Oliveira, 1997). These figures do not differ
markedly from previous assessments of time allocation in
the same species (Mendes, 1989; Chiarello, 1993, 1994;
Oliveira and Ades, 1993; Marques, 1996). At Cantareira,
mature leaves predominate in the howler's diet, probably
as a result of the low supply of other preferred food items,
such as immature leaves and fruits (Oliveira and Ades,
1993; Oliveira, 1997).
Several groups of howlers were included in the study. They
were studied opportunely. Behavioral quantificaion was
by scan sampling (Altmann, 1974), with scans of three
minutes at intervals of 10 minutes. The duration of the
scan established a limit on the number of focal group
members sampled at each opportunity.

The following data were recorded for every sampled indi-
vidual: (a) identity adult male (AM), adult female (AF),
juvenile (JU), infant (IN); (b) social behavior social play,
grooming; (c) distance to nearest individual in contact,
from 0 to 1 m, from 1 to 2 m; from 2 to 3 m, more than 3
m, and 'isolated'; (d) identity of nearest individual sex
and age category of nearest individual. Indeterminate
(IND) was recorded whenever the identity of the nearest
individual could not be ascertained. When sex and age
categories of a sampled individual could not be determined
with certainty, it was necessary to use compound catego-
ries adult (AD), adult or juvenile (AJ), male or juvenile
(MJ), female or juvenile (FJ) and juvenile or infant (JI).
With the exception of the FJ category, such cases are, how-
ever, responsible for a very small number of the records
and were not taken into account.
The distance to the nearest individual (Fig. 1) depended
significantly upon sex and age categories (x2 = 246.2; df
= 12; p <0.001). All binary comparisons between sex and
age categories were significant (AM x AF, X2 = 15.7; AM
x JU, X2 = 71.2; AM x IN, x2 = 23.8; AF x IN, X2 = 59.9;
JU x IN, x2 = 76.8; in all cases, df = 4; p <0.001). Adult
males were most distant from other members of the group
(high levels of ISOLATED), infants predictably were near-
est to other members of the group. Juveniles and adult
females occupied intermediary spatial positions (Fig. 1).
The identity of the nearest individual also depended sig-
nificantly on sex and age category of the sampled animals
(X2 = 516.1; df = 12; p < 0.001). Differences remained
significant when FJ records were discarded (x2 = 423.8.
df = 9, p <0.001).

The association patterns for adult females were less spe-

Table 1: Number of grooming episodes. Left column indicates the identity
of the groomer, top row indicates the groomee.
AM 0 0 0 0 0
AF 10 4 1 8 23
FJ 9 2 2 1 14
JU 2 9 0 1 12
Total 21 15 3 10 49
AM = adult male, AF = adult female. FJ = female or juvenile, JU =juve-
nile. Infants were not included because they were never observed grooming
and only once were groomed.

Neotropical Primates 6(4), December 1998

(640) (712) (523) (152)

80 0 >3m
U 2-3m
60 I *1-2m
% O10-lm
40 0 contact


Figure 1. Distance to nearest individual (%). AM = adult male, AF = adult
female, JU =juvenile, IN = infant. Total number of observations in paren-

cific: they were seen with males, other females, juveniles
and, predictably, infants. Juveniles and infants were most
often associated with adult females. Adult males kept to
themselves most of the time, but were otherwise in asso-
ciation with adult females (Fig. 2).

An analysis of 49 grooming episodes revealed a signifi-
cant asysmmetry between groomers and groomed indi-
viduals (X2 = 29.98, df = 3, p<0.0001). Males acted sig-
nificantly more as groomees than as groomers (Fisher test,
AM x AF, p<0.0001; AM x FJ, p<0.0001; AM x JU,
p<0.0001). No other assymetries were significant (AF x
FJ, p>0.05; AF x JU, p>0.05; FJ x JU, p>0.05). Adult
females were responsible for most of the grooming. In-
fants were almost never groomed (see Neville [1972] who
also noted very little grooming of infants in A. seniculus).

Play episodes were quite rare. We observed six (five dy-
adic and one triadic episode) involving eight juveniles,
two infants, two females or juveniles, and an adult fe-
male. In all cases, at least one of the participants was im-
mature (infant or juvenile).

Analyses of proximity and grooming reveal some relevant
aspects of the social organization in Alouatta fusca
clamitans. One interesting feature is the males' spatial
relationship to the rest of the group. The adult males were
habitually the most distant from all other members of the
group; a feature which has also been observed forAlouatta

(320) (529) (412) (147)
100 ; 77

60 o FJ
40 AM


Figure 2. Identity of nearest individual (%). AM = adult male, AF = adult
female, FJ = female or juvenile, IN = infant. Total number of observations
in parentheses.

Neotropical Primates 6(4), December 1998 Page 117

seniculus. Neville (1972) noted that males of this species
were loosely attached to their groups, and Neville et al.
(1988) also remarked that male howlers very rarely par-
ticipated in the daily social interactions of other group
members. The distancing of males in A. f clamitans does
not seem to us, however, to be a basis for inferring less
influence on group organization. The groomer/groomee
asymmetry, favoring adult males as recipients, would ap-
pear to be a clear indication of such an influence.
Adult females, on the other hand, also play an important
role in the social dynamics of brown howler groups. By
associating more equitably with other group members and
by acting as the principal groomers (as was also related
by Mendes [1989] and Chiarello [1995]), they can most
effectively mediate social exchanges. Neville (1972) like-
wise noted the relevance of adult females in A. seniculus
groups, giving emphasis to the grouping of females with
their offspring.
It is usually assumed that subordinate primates groom
dominants more than vice versa. This is indeed what oc-
curs in black howler monkeys,Alouatta caraya (see Jones,
1983). In mantled howling monkeys, Alouatta palliata,
however, Jones (1979) observed that the dominant indi-
viduals were the ones preferentially engaged in groom-
ing. It seems to us that grooming interactions in brown
howlers, at least those that occur among members of dif-
ferent gender/age classes, follow the usual primate pat-
tern. The social structure of A. f clamitans groups would
appear to differ from that of A. palliata, while more simi-
lar to Alouatta seniculus and A. caraya (Neville et al.,
Inter-individual distances can be analysed with more pre-
cision using identified individuals as references (see Jones,
1982, for example). Using age and gender categories only,
as in this study, however, can also provide important in-
formation for comparing Alouatta species, or the assess-
ment of habitat and seasonal influences on group struc-
ture in a particular group or species.
This research was supported by a grant from the Brazil-
ian Higher Education Authority (CAPES) to D.A.G.O.
and grants from the Brazilian Science Council (CNPq)
and the Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (FINEP), Rio
de Janeiro, to C.A. We thank the Instituto Florestal, Sao
Paulo, for permission to work at the Cantareira State Park.
Dilmar A. G. de Oliveira and C6sar Ades, Departamento
de Psicologia Experimental, Instituto de Psicologia,
Universidade de Sao Paulo, Avenida Prof. Mello Moraes
1721, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Altmann, J. 1974. Observational study of behavior: sam-
pling methods. Behavior 49: 227-267.
Chiarello, A. G. 1993. Activity pattern of the brown howler
monkey Alouattafusca, Geoffroy 1812, in a forest frag-

ment of southeastern Brazil. Primates 34: 289-293.
Chiarello, A. G. 1994. Diet of the brown howler monkey
Alouatta fusca in a semi-deciduous forest fragment of
southeastern Brazil. Primates 35: 25-34.
Chiarello, A. G. 1995. Grooming in brown howler mon-
keys, Alouatta fusca. Am. J. Primatol. 35: 73-81.
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Wrangham and T. T. Struhsaker (eds.), pp.54-68. The
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howler monkeys, Alouatta palliata Gray: intraspecific
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Oliveira, D. A. G. and Ades, C. 1993. Aspectos do
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Jose de Sousa e Silva Junior
Rui Cerqueira
According to Lopes (1993), Lopes and Ferrari (1993,
1996), Ferrari and Queiroz (1994) and Ferrari and Lopes
(1996), the Ka'apor capuchin, Cebus kaapori Queiroz,
1992, should be considered as the rarest and most endan-
gered primate from eastern Amazonia. Rylands et al.
(1995) considered this taxon as "vulnerable", following
the Mace-Lande system criteria for the determination of
its conservation status. This is, however, one of the least
known of the Neotropical primates.
The rarity of the taxon has contributed to an insufficient
knowledge about its original and current geographical
distribution, being based as it is on only a few confirmed
localities (Figure 1). A review of the literature showed
that, from a historical perspective, the presence of an
"untufted" Cebus form in Maranhao and eastern Pard was
not known to the old naturalists (Abb6ville, 1876 [1614];
Evreux, 1929 [1615, 1874]; Lisboa, 1967 [1625-1631];
Prazeres, 1891, see also Frade, 1966; Avila-Pires, 1989,
1992), nor to XXth century zoologists who studied the
mammals of the region (Thomas, 1920; Snethlage, 1926;
Krumbiegel, 1940; Vieira, 1957; Avila-Pires, 1958;
Carvalho, 1960; Carvalho and Tocheton, 1969; Pine, 1973;
Fernandes and Aguiar, 1993), nor to those who carried
out collections for biomedical research (Deane and Mar-
tins, 1952; Travassos and Kloss, 1958; Deane and
Damasceno, 1961; Ferreira et al., 1970).
Goeldi and Hagmann (1906), however, drew attention to
the existence of "Cebus capucinus" in the region of Rios
Capim and Acard, in the State of Pard. This record re-
mained forgotten, however, until Queiroz (1992) identi-
fied and described Cebus kaapori. Queiroz (1992) re-
stricted the current geographical distribution of the new
taxon to western Maranhao, in the region located between
the Rios Gurupi (in the west) and Pindar6 (in the east).
The limits of its range would coincide, as such, with the
borders between Amazonian forest and the "Zona dos
Cocais" (dominated by Orbignya palm tree) in the north/
north-east, and savannah (cerrado) environments to the
south. Queiroz (1992) considered the possibility that the
species might also occur in some localities immediately
adjacent to these limits.
Subsequently, Lopes (1993), Lopes and Ferrari (1996) and
Ferrari and Lopes (1996) enlarged the geographical range,
extending it to the northwest, based on direct observa-
tions and secure information on the occurrence of C.
kaapori in five further localities: four from eastern Pard
and a fifth from the Gurupi Biological Reserve, west of
the Rio Gurupi in the state of Maranhao. The western
limit was fixed as the right bank of the lower Rio Tocantins.

The southern limit was established to the north of the 40S,
due to the absence of the species in the faunistic inventory
of the area affected by the Tucuruf dam (Mascarenhas and
Puorto, 1988). The northern limit, in that case, would
coincide with the borders between the forest and the coastal
formations in Pard and Maranhao (Ferrari and Lopes,
1996, Fig.2b, p.56). Ferrari and Souza Junior (1994) also
suggested the existence of an "untufted" Cebus form in
the Tocantins-Xingu interfluvium. This would discard the
hypothesis of allopatry between taxa of this species group
in the eastern Amazon, although this possibility remains
to be confirmed.
New data on the geographical distribution of Cebus
kaapori were obtained by M. A. Lopes and 0. de Carvalho
Junior (see Carvalho Jdnior et al., in prep., for a prelimi-
nary census) during observations in eastern Pard, and
through a compilation of the faunistic inventory results
that have been conducted in Maranhao since 1989. The
data come from direct observations and also accounts by
local inhabitants.
In Para, the species has been observed in the Fazenda
Amanda, near the village of Japiim, municipality of Vizeu,
in a well preserved primary forest fragment (about 6,000
ha, including areas from nearby ranches; M. A. Lopes,
pers. comm.), and in primary forest in the Fazenda Cauaxi,
municipality of Paragominas (0. Carvalho Jr., pers. com.).
Cebus apella was also recorded in both localities.
In Maranhao, C. kaapori was observed twice (in 1994
and 1997) in the Fazenda MAPISA, about 60 km south-
east from Buriticupu (minimum of one and three indi-
viduals together with a group of Chiropotes satanas, re-
spectively). C. kaapori was also recognized as occurring
locally by several informants in this and another two lo-
calities near to Santa Luzia. The informants commented
spontaneously on its rarity. C. apella, on the other hand,
was easily observed in all these localities. The observa-
tions of C. kaapori occurred in terra firma forest, with
some history of logging and hunting pressure. A captive
specimen was observed in Pio XII. The origin of the ani-
mal was attributed to the region of the lower Rio Grajad,
in the vicinity of the Lago Aqu. Information from four
people in Bacabal and Lago Verde also indicated the oc-
currence of C. kaapori in the region of the Rio Grajai.
This suggests that the geographical distribution of the
taxon is wider than previously supposed. Queiroz (1992),
Lopes (1993) and Lopes and Ferrari (1996) considered
that the "Zona dos Cocais" could be a limiting factor, an
ecological barrier to the species north and eastwards from
the border established by Queiroz (1992). While this may
be largely true, the evidence reported here suggests that
its range may extend more to the north-east and south,
along the patches of remnant forests of the Amazonian
part of the "Zona dos Cocais" in the Pindar6-Grajad
interfluvium. The lower/middle Grajad-Mearim and
Mearim-Itapecuru interfluvia have been systematically
inventoried. All other Amazonian primate forms that oc-
cur in MaranhIo have distributions that reach as far as at

Neotropical Primates 6(4), December 1998

Neotropical Primates 6(4), December 1998 Page 119

Figure 1. Localities for Cebus kaapori in eastern Para and middle-western Maranhbo. PARA: 1. Mocajuba, 02'35'S, 49'30'W; 2. CRAI Dend8, munici-
pality of Tailindia, 02'30'S, 48'50'W; 3. Rio Acari (arbitrarily restricted to 01"54'S, 48"15'W); 4. Fazenda Badaj6s, municipality of So Domingos do
Capim, 02'33'S, 47'47'W; 5. Rio Capim (arbitrarily restricted to 01'53'S, 47'45'W); 6. Fazenda Slo Marcos, municipality of Irituia, 0213'S, 47'20'W;
7. Fazenda Sao Sebastiao, municipality of Garrafo doNorte, 01 "52'S, 47"00'W; 8. Fazenda Amanda, municipality of Vizeu, around of 02"05'S, 46'30'W;
9. Fazenda Cauaxi, municipality of Paragominas, 03'45'S, 48110'W; MARANHAO: 10. Garimpo Chega-Tudo, municipality of Carutapera, 02'30'S,
47'30'W (type locality); 11. Garimpo LimAo, about 0215'S, 46'41'W; 12. Aldeia Gurupidna, Reserva Indfgena Alto Turiacu, 02'40'S, 46'20'W; 13.
Reserva Biol6gica de Gurupi, 03'25'S, 46'45'W; 14. Posto Indfgena Awd (paratype locality), Reserva Indfgena Cam, about 03'54'S, 46'35'W (from
Queiroz, 1992); 15. Fazenda MAPISA, municipality of Buriticupu, about 04'36'S, 46"30'W; 16. Fazenda Varig, about 47"03'S, 04'39'W (from Queiroz,
1992); 17. Santa Luzia, two localities around of 03'58'S, 45'31'W; 18. Lower Rio Grajad, near to Lago Acu, about 03"43'S, 44'58'W.

least part of the Mearim-Itapecuru interfluvium. While
Cebus apella was observed relatively easily in many lo-
calities (using a variety of habitats, including highly de-
graded areas), C. kaapori can be considered practically
absent, from the right bank of the Rio Grajad, eastwards.
However, more surveys will be carried out in the south-
ernmost parts in order to check this. The two Cebus spe-
cies are sympatric in almost all of C. kaapori localities,
although actual syntopy has not been veirified.
The taxonomic status of C. kaapori has been questioned
due to its close relationship with C. olivaceus populations
from the north bank of the Rio Amazonas and the island
of Caviana (Anon., 1993; Harada, 1994; Harada et al.,
1995; Masterson, 1996). This is an issue for further dis-
cussion (Silva Jinior and Cerqueira, in prep.). However,
whether a species or subspecies, the Ka'apor capuchin
continues as a valid taxon.
The enlargement of the range which was suggested by
Queiroz (1992) and Ferrari and Lopes (1996) does not
improve its conservation status as it involves highly de-
graded areas in both of the states. It is important that
mammalogists with access to the region continue to accu-
mulate data that will aid in the reconstruction of the origi-
nal and current geographical distribution of this taxon in

order to contribute to the establishment of monitoring pro-
grams for the remnant populations.
Acknowledgements: We are grateful to Maria Aparecida
Lopes and Oswaldo de Carvalho J6nior for providing the
data from eastern Para, to Mariana Moncassin Vale for
help in the determination of the geographical coordinates
of some localities, and to Cibele Rodrigues Bonvicino,
Luana Santoro Maroja and Vitor Rademaker for review-
ing this paper.
Jos6 de Sousa e Silva Jdnior, Departamento de Zoologia,
Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Caixa Postal 399, 66040-
170 Bel6m, Pard, Brasil, Current address: Laborat6rio de
Vertebrados, Departamentos de Ecologia e de Gen6tica,
CCS, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal
68020, 21941-970 Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil,
and Rui Cerqueira, Laborat6rio de Vertebrados,
Departamentos de Ecologia e de Gen6tica, CCS,
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal
68020, 21941-970 Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Abb6ville, C. d'. 1876 (1614). Hist6ria da Missao dos Pa-
dres Capuchinhos na Ilha do Maranhao e Terras
Circunvizinhas. Translated by C6sar Augusto Marques.

M Geographical Distribution (Queiroz, 1992)
* Type Locality
* Queiroz (1992)
* Goeldi and Hagmann (1906)
+ Lopes and Ferrar (1996)
o This Study
* Cebus apella

Neotropical Primates 6(4), December 1998

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Page 120

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Govindasamy Agoramoorthy
Episodes of infant adoptions have been reported in sev-
eral species of primates (Thierry and Anderson, 1986).
Infant kidnapping has also been reported for a number of
free-ranging Old World primate species including Papio
anubis (v. Ownes, 1975), Presbytis entellus (v. Sugiyama,
1965, 1966; Hrdy, 1978; Mohnot, 1980), Macacafuscata
(v. Itani, 1959), Macaca radiata (v. Rahamann and
Parthasarathy, 1962), Cercopithecus aethiops (v.
Lancaster, 1971), Pan troglodytes (v. Goodall, 1968), and
Gorilla gorilla (v. Fossey, 1976). Although infant adop-
tions have been previously reported among howlers
(Agoramoorthy and Rudran, 1992), no information is
available on the behavior of infant kidnapping and its con-
sequences among group living New World cebids in the
wild. A field study on red howler (Alouatta seniculus)
social behavior was carried out by the author during 1989-
94 at Hato Masaguaral, Venezuela (Agoramoorthy, 1994,
1995, 1997) and several cases of male invasions followed
by infanticide were observed (Agoramoorthy and Rudran,
1995), as well as three cases of infant adoptions
(Agoramoorthy and Rudran, 1992). This paper describes
an unusual case of intergroup infant transfer among red
Two red howler social groups numbered '6' and '7' were
neighbors, and their home ranges overlapped. During the
first week of April 1994, group 7 was comprised of 11
individuals, with two adult males, three adult females,
one subadult female, two large juvenile males, one me-
dium-sized juvenile male, one small juvenile male and
one male infant (approximately 3 months old). On 10 April
1994, female #3 of group 7 was captured with her infant
(#3.5) using chemical immobilization methods described
previously by Agoramoorthy and Rudran (1994). Both
mother and infant were marked with color-coded tags on
both ears for visual identification. The female was an old
adult, aged approximately 11 years. During early April
1994, group 6 was comprised of 12 individuals, with one
adult male, four adult females, one large juvenile male,
one large juvenile female, two small juvenile males, one
small juvenile female, and a pair of approximately four
month-old male infant twins. An adult female #4, approxi-
mately four years old was observed with these new born
twins on 10 December 1993. According to the life history
data, the female #3 of group 7 and female #4 of group 6
were not related.

On the morning of 20 April 1994 at 0830, groups 6 and 7
were seen in nearby trees within 20 meters of each other,
and howled at each other for 25 minutes. Subsequently
individuals of group 6, including female #4 with her in-
fant twins, chased group 7. As a result, group 7 individu-
als were forced to move away from the area, and group 6
stayed and fed in the tree. The observation ended at mid-
day. On the next morning when group 7 was contacted
again, the infant #3.5 of female #3 was missing. After
two hours of searching, the infant was found in the
neighboring group 6 with female #4. How and why the
infant was adopted or kidnapped by female #4 of group 6
was not known. Infant #3.5 was carried dorsally by fe-
male #4 of group 6, while her infant twins were carried
ventrally. A large juvenile female was also observed to
carry the adopted/kidnapped infant on a few occasions.
No other individuals of group 6 participated in transport-
ing or handling the infant. Although female #4 allowed
the new infant to stay in body contact with her, it was not
observed suckling.
From the morning of 21 April, the mother of infant #3.5
was seen wandering alone on the periphery of her group's
range but moving towards the direction of group 6. She
was not involved in the social activities in her group. On
the next day, in the evening, she twice attempted to ap-
proach female #4, but she was chased away by the females.
On both occasions, female #3 was alone and her group
was not in the vicinity. At dusk, group 7 individuals were
seen near group 6 and they later settled down to sleep
with no apparent aggressive encounters. On the morning
of 23 April at 0725, groups 6 and 7 were observed 15
meters apart and howling at each other. Ten minutes later,
adult males and females of group 7, led by female #3,
approached group 6 individuals and chased them away.
A moment later, infant #3.5 was seen unattended by mem-
bers of group 6 and it was vocalizing mildly. The mother
approached the infant, and sniffed its head, body and geni-
tals, and the infant immediately clung to the belly of its
mother. It appeared to be weak and had probably been
starved for the last two days.
Although it has been suggested that lactating young adult
females with infants are most likely to adopt or kidnap
infants than females without infants (Silk, 1980), the in-
volvement of a mother of twin infants in adopting or kid-
napping has never been reported previously for any non-
human primate. Several hypotheses have been proposed
regarding the causes and function of infant kidnapping,
but the costs and benefits of such behavior are almost im-
possible to measure quantitatively (Hrdy, 1976). A num-
ber of benefits, including improved foraging for the mother
after losing the infant to the kidnapper were suggested by
Hrdy (1976). The female in this study, however, did not
evidently gain any extra time for feeding or grooming. In
fact, she isolated herself and did not participate in any
social activities. This may have been due to psychological
trauma and stress after losing her infant. A female long-
tailed macaque was also reported to have shown high stress

Neotropical Primates 6(4), December 1998

Page 121

Neotropical Primates 6(4), December 1998

levels after frequent kidnapping of her infant (Schaik et
al., 1991). After losing their infants due to infanticide red
howler females have been observed to isolate themselves
from other group members (Agoramoorthy and Rudran,
1992, 1995). Furthermore, in rhesus macaques, an adult
female became ill after persistent attempts by another fe-
male to kidnap her infant (Hinde and Spencer-Booth,
1967). Lack of maternal intervention to retrieve kidnapped
infants has been recorded in a number of captive as well
as free-ranging primates (Maestripieri, 1993). The red
howler female in this study, however, attempted unsuc-
cessfully to retrieve her infant on at least two occasions.
In Hanuman langurs at Jodhpur, frequent interactions with
neighboring social groups increase the frequency of in-
fant kidnapping in cases where a large part of the groups'
home ranges overlap (Mohnot, 1980). All 38 cases oflan-
gur infant kidnapping reported by Mohnot (1980) occurred
during intergroup interactions in areas of home range
overlap. Similar to Hanuman langurs, the home ranges of
the red howler groups at Hato Masaguaral also overlap
extensively (Agoramoorthy and Rudran, 1992, 1993,
1995), but the frequency of infant kidnapping appears to
be low since no cases have been reported previously. This
may be due to vigilance by the females, which are ob-
served to defend their infants aggressively from attacking
males (Agoramoorthy and Rudran, 1992, 1995;
Agoramoorthy, unpubl. data).
A large juvenile female also carried the new infant on a
few occasions and probably gained some experience in
practicing mothering, an advantage cited for Hanuman
langurs (Mohnot, 1980). The adopted/kidnapped infant
was not physically harmed by members of group 6, but it
was not observed to suckle, and after two days became
weak and unable to move properly until it was picked up
by its mother. This indicates that the adoptee/kidnapper
had neglected the infant. The implications of the adop-
tion/kidnapping described here are difficult to ascertain,
but it appears that competition among females between
groups may have played a role. Furthermore, in red howl-
ers, both males and females routinely disperse and immi-
grate into new social groups (Crockett, 1984; Pope, 1992;
Agoramoorthy and Rudran, 1993, 1995). Thus competi-
tion among females as well as males is severe among red
howlers and this might have contributed, and deserves
attention for future research.
Acknowledgments: I thank Tomas and Cecilia Blohm for
their hospitality and support during my stay at Hato
Masaguaral, Venezuela. I also thank Rudy Rudran and
Minna Hsu for their encouragement, and Ragna Lohmann
and several Earthwatch volunteers for their assistance in
the field. I conducted this study while I was a Research
Associate at the Smithsonian Institution's Conservation
and Research Center. My field research was supported by
a grant from the Center for Field Research, Earthwatch
Institute, USA, and I am grateful to Landis Hudson for
her friendly support.

Govindasamy Agoramoorthy, Department of Wildlife
Conservation, National Pingtung University of Science and
Technology, P.O. Box 37-32, Pingtung 912, Taiwan, Re-
public of China.
Agoramoorthy, G. 1994. An update on the long-term field
research on red howler monkeys, Alouatta seniculus, at
Hato Masaguaral, Venezuela. Neotropical Primates 2
(3): 7-9.
Agoramoorthy, G. 1995. Red howling monkey (Alouatta
seniculus) reintroduction in a gallery forest of Hato Flores
Morades, Venezuela. Neotropical Primates 3(1): 9-10.
Agoramoorthy, G. 1997. Apparent feeding associations
between Alouatta seniculus and Odocoileus virginianus
in Venezuela. Mammalia 61 (2): 271-273.
Agoramoorthy, G. and Rudran, R. 1992. Adoption in free-
ranging red howler monkeys, Alouatta seniculus of Ven-
ezuela. Primates 33 (4): 551-555.
Agoramoorthy, G. and Rudran, R. 1993. Male dispersal
among free-ranging red howler monkeys (Alouatta
seniculus) in Venezuela. Folia Primatol. 61: 92-96.
Agoramoorthy, G. and Rudran, R. 1994. Field applica-
tion of Telazol (Tiletamine Hydrochloride and
Zolazepam Hydrochloride) to immobilize wild red
howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus) in Venezuela. J.
Wildl. Dis. 30 (3): 417-420.
Agoramoorthy, G. and Rudran, R. 1995. Infanticide by adult
and subadult males in free-ranging red howler monkeys,
Alouatta seniculus, in Venezuela. Ethology 99: 75-88.
Crockett, C. M. 1984. Emigration by female red howler
monkeys and the case for female competition. In: Fe-
male Primates: Studies by Women Primatologists, M.
Small (ed), pp.159-173. Alan R. Liss, New York.
Fossey, D. 1976. The Behavior of the Mountain Gorilla.
Ph.D. Dissertation, Cambridge University Press, Cam-
Goodall, J. 1968. The behavior of free-living chimpan-
zees in the Gombe Stream Research Center. Anim. Behav.
Monog. 1: 165-311.
Hinde, R.A. and Spencer-Booth, Y. 1969. The effect of
social companions on mother-infant relations in rhesus
monkeys. In: Primate Ethology, L. A. Rosenblum (ed.),
pp.343-364 Academic Press, New York.
Hrdy, S. B. 1976. Care and exploitation of nonhuman pri-
mate infants by conspecifics other than the mother. In
Advances in the Study of Behavior, Vol. 6., L. A.
Rosenblum (ed.), pp.101-158. Academic Press, New
Hrdy, S. B. 1978. Allomaternal care and abuse of infants
among Hanuman langurs. In Recent Advances in Pri-
matology, Vol. 1. Behaviour, D. J. Chivers and J. Herbert
(eds.), pp. 169-172. Academic Press, London.
Itani, J. 1959, Parental care in the wild Japanese monkey,
Macaca fuscata. Psychologia 1: 47-54.
Lancaster, J. B. 1971. Play-mothering: the relations be-
tween juvenile females and young infants among free-
ranging vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). Fo-
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Maestripieri, D. 1993. Infant kidnapping among group-
living macaques: Why don't mothers rescue their in-
fants? Primates 34: 211-216.
Owens, N. W. 1975. Social play behavior in free-ranging
baboons, Papio anubis. Anim. Behav. 23: 387-408.
Mohnot, S. M. 1980. Intergroup infant kidnapping in
hanuman langurs. Folia Primatol. 34: 259-277.
Pope, T. R. 1992. The influence of dispersal patterns and
mating system on genetic differentiation within and be-
tween populations of the red howler monkey (Alouatta
seniculus). Evolution 46: 1112- 1128.
Rahaman, H. and Parthasarathy, M. D. 1962. Studies of
the social behavior of bonnet monkeys. Primates 10: 149-
Schaik, C. P. van, Noordwjik, M. A., Bragt, T. van and
Blankenstein, M. A. 1991. A pilot study of the social
correlates of levels of urinary cortisol, prolactin, and tes-
tosterone in wild long-tailed macaques. Primates 32:
Silk, J. B. 1980. Kidnapping and female competition
among captive bonnet macaques. Primates 21:100-110.
Sugiyama, Y. 1965. On the social change of Hanuman
langur (Presbytis entellus) in their natural conditions.
Primates 6: 381- 418.
Sugiyama, Y. 1966. Artificial social change in Hanuman
langur troop (Presbytis entellus). Primates 7: 41-72.
Thierry, B. and Anderson, J. R. 1986. Adoption in an-
thropoid primates. Int. J. Primatol. 7(2): 191-216.

Bernardo Urbani
Some of the early reports of tool use in Cebus, dating from
the 18" and 19" Century, were summarized by Visalberghi
(1990). Here I bring attention to probably the earliest re-
port of such behavior, coming from the writings of Gonzalo
Fernandez de Oviedo y Vald6s (1478-1557), born in
Madrid, Spain. He first arrived in the New World with
the expedition of Pedrarias Divila (Miranda, 1996) and
lived mainly in the Darien region (today Panama and
northwestern Colombia). For his services to the Spanish
Crown, Fernandez de Oviedo was appointed Chronicler
of the Indies by King Carlos V, who ordered him to "rest
and write". This was a satisfactory arrangement for
Fernindez de Oviedo who in his retreat in Santo Domingo
(today the Dominican Republic) occupied his time writ-
ing the "General and Natural History of the Indies"
(Historia General y Natural de Indias), the first part of
which was published in 1535 (Miranda, 1996).
Another, poorly known but no less important, work of his,
the "Summary of the Natural History of the Indies"
(Sumario de la Natural Historia de las Indias), was also
written by order of King Carlos V, who requested a book
on zoological and botanical aspects of the New World.
The first edition was published in Toledo, Spain, on 15
February, 1526, and contains one of the first accounts of

Page 123

neotropical primates in "Chapter XXV. On the little mon-
key cats" (Capitulo XXV De los Gatos Monillos). In this,
he described how monkeys throw objects such as branches
and stones at the "Christians", and recounts their variety
in colors and shapes, from ones as small as a human hand
to some as large as a Great Dane (Fernfndez de Oviedo,
1996). He also reported that monkeys use tools as follows
"Some of these cats (monkeys) are so astute that many
things they see men do, they imitate and also do. In par-
ticular, there are many that when they see how to smash a
nut or a nutpine with a stone, do it in the same way and,
when leaving a stone where the cat (monkey) can take it,
smash all that are given to them. They also throw a small
stone, of the size and weight of their strength, as would be
thrown by a man" [Algunos de estos gatos (monos) son
tan astutos, que muchas cosas de las que ven hacer a los
hombres, las imitan y hacen. En especial hay muchos que
asi como ven partir una almendra o pifi6n con una pie-
dra, lo hacen de la misma manera, yparten todos los que
les dan, poniindole una piedra donde el gato (mono) la
pueda tomar Asimismo tiran una piedra pequeha, del
tamano y peso que su fuerza basta, como la tirarta un
hombre] (Fernmndez de Oviedo, 1996).
This is probably the first report (1526) of tool use by New
World monkeys. Since Fernandez de Oviedo traveled
mainly in the Darien region, it would seem likely that the
specific reference could have been to Cebus capucinus, a
neotropical primate of a genus with the greatest potential
to manipulate objects. This historic occurrence agrees with
recent known examples of tool use by Cebus in the wild,
including that of Fernandes (1991) to open oysters, and
nut-cracking using stones reported by Langguth and
Alonso (1997), and specifically for Cebus capucinus, with
the use of stones to open oyster shells by J. Hernmndez-
Camacho and R. Cooper (in Moynihan, 1976), the use of
a club against a snake (Boinski, 1988), and the recent
report of object-use for extractive foraging (Panger, 1998).
Bernardo Urbani, Escuela de Antropologia, Universidad
Central de Venezuela (UCV) and Departamento de
Antropologfa, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones
Cientificas (IVIC).Addressfor correspondence: Apartado
47.028. Caracas 1041-A. Venezuela. Tel/Fax: (+58 2 987
0621, e-mail: .
Boinski, S. 1988. Use of a club by wild white-faced capu-
chin (Cebus capucinus) to attack a venemous snake
(Bothrops asper). Am. J. Primatol. 14: 177-179.
Fernandes, E. B. M. 1991. Tool use and predation of oys-
ters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) by the tufted capuchin,
Cebus apella apella, in brackish water mangrove swamp.
Primates 32(4): 529-531.
Fernandez de Oviedo, G. 1996. Sumario de la Natural
Historia de las Indias. Biblioteca Americana Fondo
de Cultura Econ6mica. 279 pp. (First edition, 1526,
Toledo, Spain).
Langguth, A. and Alonso, C. 1997. Capuchin monkeys in
the Caatinga: Tool use and food habits during drought.

Page 124 Neotropical Primates 6(4), December 1998

Neotropical Primates 5(3): 77-78.
Miranda, J. 1996. Edici6n, introducci6n y notas del
Sumario de la natural historic de las Indias. In:
Fernandez de Oviedo, G. Sumario de la Natural Historia
de las Indias. pp. 7-74. Biblioteca Americana Fondo
de Cultura Econ6mica, M6xico.
Moynihan, M. 1976. The New World Primates: Adaptive
Radiation and the Evolution of Social Behavior, Lan-
guage, and Intelligence. Princeton University Press,
Princeton, NJ.
Panger, M. 1998. Object-use in free-ranging white-faced
capuchins (Cebus capucinus) in Costa Rica. Am. J. Phys.
Anthropol. 106: 311-321.
Visalberghi, E. 1990. Tool use in Cebus. Folia Primatol.
54: 146-154.


Leslie Digby
Cldudio Embirussu Barreto
Marmosets are sometimes characterized as "gumivores"
or "gumivore-insectivores" (Rylands and de Faria, 1993).
This is a fitting description given that some species may
spend as much as much as 70% of their feeding budget on
gums and maintaining tree gouges (Callithrix penicillata;
Fonseca and Lacher, 1984, C. jacchus; unpubl. data). Simi-
larly, marmoset species spend between 24-30% of their
overall activity budget foraging for insects (Rylands and
de Faria, 1993). However, in addition to these key food
items, marmosets exploit a wide variety of different food
sources, including fruits, seeds, flowers, fungi, nectar,
spiders, snails, and vertebrate prey (Stevenson and
Rylands, 1984; Ferrari et al., 1996). It is the ability to
adopt an opportunistic and varied diet that, in part, al-
lows marmosets to survive in such habitats as the highly
unpredictable caatinga (dry thorn scrub) and cerrado
(bush savanna), in addition to rich coastal and Amazo-
nian forests.
Here we focus on the role of vertebrate prey in the diet of
the common marmoset (Callithrixjacchus). Three com-
mon marmoset groups were studied for a total of 36 "group-
months" at EFLEX-IBAMA, an experimental forestry sta-
tion at Nfsia Floresta, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Two
groups occupied ranges in a 70 ha Atlantic forest reserve,
while the third lived in a plantation area. Data were col-
lected using both 30-minute focal-animal samples (dur-
ing periods when there were no infants less than 2 months
old) and all-day scan sampling using a 5-minute interval
(when infants were present). Rare behaviors, including
vertebrate predation, were recorded ad libitum (for details
see Digby and Barreto, 1993).
Vertebrate predation was rare in common marmosets, re-
sulting in less than 0.1% of all feeding records (0.6% of
all animal prey records). Nevertheless, marmosets were
seen eating a wide variety of vertebrate prey, including
lizards (n = 1), tree frogs (n = 1), bird's eggs (n= 2 nests),
nestlings (n = 1), and infant mammals (n = 1).

The predation of an infant mammal is of particular note
as it is the only case reported, that I am aware of, in the
wild. It was flesh colored, almost hairless, and estimated
to have been 3-4cm long, not including its long tail, and
was probably a rodent, but more specific identification
was impossible as the head had already been consumed
when first sighted. The remainder of the corpse was eaten
within a couple of minutes of the first sighting. During
the consumption of this prey item, other group members
vocalized excitedly and tried, without success, to steal a
part of the infant mammal for themselves. Though this is
the first mammalian predation by a callitrichid reported
for a free ranging marmoset group, at least three captive
studies have noted that callitrichids will readily eat infant
mice that are fed to them (C. jacchus Stevenson and
Poole, 1976; L. rosalia: Brown and Mack, 1978; Callimico
goeldii: Heltne, 1981). Both the wild and captive marmo-
sets eat the head of the prey item first. Craniocervical bites
are the typical method of killing used by marmosets (and
most mammals) to subdue relatively large prey (Steklis
and King, 1978; pers. obs.).
The consumption of lizards and frogs is widespread among
callitrichids (see Table 1), but the extent to which they are
preyed upon varies between species. Neyman (1978) ob-
served a single predation on a frog in 750 hours of obser-
vation of the cotton-top tamarin, Saguinus oedipus, and
Yoneda (1984) recorded saddle-backed tamarins, S.
fuscicollis, eating just one frog and one lizard over the
course of six months. Similarly, lizards and frogs are only
rarely eaten by common marmosets. Alonso and Langguth
(1989) observed predation on lizards on three occasions
over 13 months, and Maier et al. (1982) a single lizard
predation during 100 hours of observation. In contrast,
frogs and lizards constitute almost 16% of the animal diet
of the buffy-headed marmosets, C. flaviceps (Ferrari 1988;
n = 195 lizards and frogs over a 13 month period).
Terborgh's (1983) study of tamarins in Peru indicates that
interspecific variation in predation can occur even in sym-
patric species which presumably have similar access to
prey items. He reported that 13% of the saddle-back tama-
rin diet was comprised of frogs and lizards compared to
only 2% for the emperor tamarin, S. imperator. Stephen
Ferrari (pers. comm.) is currently making a detailed analy-
sis of interspecific variation in vertebrate predation by
marmosets and tamarins.
The consumption of lizards, frogs, and small mammals
appears to be rare and opportunistic in common marmo-
sets. In contrast, the hunting of bird's eggs and nestlings,
though also rare, appears to be more deliberate. Marmo-
sets were seen on 10 different occasions to seek out and
inspect bird nests (typically those of caciques, Cacicus
cela, and kiskadees, Pitangus sulphuratus). On several
occasions, one group member after another would ap-
proach and inspect a nest, sometimes manipulating open-
ings in order to look inside. Kiskadees, caciques, gnat-
catchers (Polioptila plumbea), and other birds were ob-
served mobbing marmoset groups on at least seven occa-

Page 124

Neotropical Primates 6(4), December 1998

Table 1. Vertebrate Predation in Callitrichid Primates.
Species Frogs Lizards Nestling birds Bird's eggs Mammals Reference
Callithrixjacchus x x x x x This study, Alonso & Langguth (1989), Maier et al. (1982)
C. flaviceps x x x x Ferrari (1988)
C. kuhlii x x Rylands (1989)
C. intermedia x x Stevenson & Rylands (1988)
C. aurita x Muskin (1984)
Saguinus fuscicollis x x Terborgh (1983), Yoneda (1984), Peres (1993)
S. mystax x Peres 1993
S.f illigeri x x Soini (1987)
S. imperator x Terborgh (1983)
S. oedipus x Neyman (1978)
S. geoffroyi x Dawson (1976) in Sussman & Kinzey (1984)
Leontopithecus rosalia x x x Coimbra-Filho & Mittermeier (1973), Dietz et al. (1997)

sions, suggesting that the marmosets were recognized
predators of the eggs and young of these species. Preda-
tion upon bird's eggs and nestlings appears to be less wide-
spread across the Callitrichidae, with only buffy-headed
marmosets, buffy-tufted ear marmosets (C. aurita) and
golden lion tamarins reported as consuming this type of
prey (Ferrari, 1988; Muskin, 1984; Dietz et al., 1997).
Vertebrate predation has been described for a number of
primate species (Butynski, 1982) and appears relatively
widespread among the callitrichids (Table 1), although
its importance in terms of their diet is not currently un-
derstood. A more thorough reporting and description of
vertebrate predation (and its possible correlates) will con-
tribute yet another important piece to the callitrichid
puzzle. The ability to exploit a wide range of food sources,
again exemplifies the impressive flexibility of the mar-
mosets and tamarins.
Acknowledgments: We thank Stephen Ferrari, Maria
Emilia Yamamoto, Fatima Arruda, Peter Rodman and the
folks at UFRN and EFLEX-IBAMA for their help with
various aspects of this project. Research was funded by
the National Science Foundation, the Wenner-Gren Foun-
dation for Anthropological Research, and the University
of California at Davis.
Leslie Digby, Department of Biological Anthropology and
Anatomy, Duke University, Box 90383, Durham, NC
27704, USA, and Cliudio Embirussu Barreto,
Coordenaqio de Ci8ncias Biom6dicas, OCIDEMNTE-
7CDE, Alameda Praia de Tambad, Qd. F, Lote 16, Itapud,
41.000-000 Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.
Alonso, A. and Langguth, A. 1989. Ecologia e
comportamento de Callithrix jacchus (Primates:
Callitrichidae) numa ilha de floresta Atlantica. Rev.
Nordestina Biol. 6(2): 105-137.
Brown, K. and Mack, D. S. 1978. Food sharing among
captive Leontopithecus rosalia. Folia Primatol. 29:268-
Butynski, T. M. 1982. Vertebrate predation by primates: a
review of hunting patterns and prey. J. Hum. Evol. 11:
Coimbra-Filho, A. F. and Mittermeier, R. A. 1973. Dis-
tribution and ecology of the genus Leontopithecus Les-
son 1840 in Brazil. Primates 14(1): 47-66.

Dietz, J. M., Peres, C. A. and Pinder, L. 1997. Foraging
ecology and use of space in wild golden lion tamarins
(Leontopithecus rosalia). Am. J. Primatol. 41: 289-305.
Digby, L. J. and Barreto, C. E. 1996. Activity and ranging
patterns in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus):
implications for reproductive strategies. In: Adaptive
Radiations of Neotropical Primates. M. A. Norconk, A.
L. Rosenberger and P. A. Garber (eds.), pp. 173-185. Ple-
num Press, New York.
Ferrari, S. F. 1988. The Behaviour and Ecology of the
Buffy-Headed Marmoset, Callithrixflaviceps (0. Tho-
mas, 1903). Ph.D., University College London.
Ferrari, S. F., Corr8a, H. K. M. and Coutinho, P. E. G.
1996. Ecology of the "southern" marmosets (Callithrix
aurita and Callithrixflaviceps): How different, how simi-
lar? In: Adaptive Radiations of Neotropical Primates.
M. A. Norconk, A. L. Rosenberger and P. A. Garber
(eds.), pp.157-171. Plenum Press, New York.
Fonseca, G. A. B. and Lacher, T. E. 1984. Exudate feed-
ing by Callithrix jacchus penicillata in semideciduous
woodland (cerradao) in central Brazil. Primates 25:441-
Heltne, P. G., Wojcik, J. F. and Pook. A. G. 1981. Goeldi's
monkey, genus Callimico. In: Ecology and Behavior of
Neotropical Primates, Vol. 1, A. F. Coimbra-Filho and
R. A. Mittermeier (eds.), pp.169-209. Academia
Brasileira de Ciancias, Rio de Janeiro.
Maier, W., Alonso, C. and Langguth, A. 1982. Field ob-
servations on Callithrix jacchus jacchus L. Z.
Saugertierkunde 47: 334-346.
Muskin, A. 1984. Preliminary field observations of
Callithrix aurita (Callitrichinae, Cebidae). In: A
Primatologia no Brasil, M. T. de Mello (ed.), pp.79-82.
Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia, Brasilia.
Neyman, P. F. 1978. Aspects of the ecology and social
organization of free-ranging cotton-top tamarins
(Saguinus oedipus) and the conservation status of the
species. In: The Biology and Conservation of the
Callitrichidae, D. G. Kleiman (ed.), pp.39-72.
Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Peres, C. A. 1993. Diet and feeding ecology of saddle-
back (Saguinus fuscicollis) and moustached (Saguinus
mystax) tamarins in an Amazonian terra firme forest. J.
Zool. 230: 567-592.
Rylands, A. B. 1989. Sympatric Brazilian callitrichids:
the black tufted-ear marmoset, Callithrix kuhli, and the

Neotropical Primates 6(4), December 1998

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Page 126 Neotropical Primates 6(4), DeceMber 1998

golden-headed lion tamarin, Leontopithecus
chrysomelas. J. Hum. Evol. 18: 679-695.
Rylands, A. B. and Faria D. S. de. 1993. Habitats, feeding
ecology, and home range size in the genus Callithrix.
In: Marmosets and Tamarins: Systematics, Behaviour,
and Ecology, A. B. Rylands (ed.), pp.262-272. Oxford
University Press, Oxford.
Soini, P. 1987. Ecology of the saddle-back tamarin
Saguinus fuscicollis illigeri on the Rfo Pacaya, north-
eastern Peru. Folia Primatol. 49: 11-32.
Steklis, H. D. and G. E. King 1978. The craniocervical
killing bite: toward an ethology of primate predatory
behavior. J. Hum. Evol. 7:567-581.
Stevenson, M. F. and Poole, T. B. 1976. An ethogram of
the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus jacchus):
general behaviour repertoire. Anim. Behav. 24:428-451.
Stevenson, M. E and Rylands, A. B. 1988. The marmosets,
genus Callithrix. In: Ecology and Behavior of Neotropi-
cal Primates, Vol. 2. R. A. Mittermeier, A. B. Rylands, A.
F. Coimbra-Filho and G. A. B. da Fonseca (eds.), pp.131-
222. World Wildlife Fund, Washington, D.C.
Sussman, R. W. and Kinzey W. G. 1984. The ecological
role of the Callitrichidae. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 64:
Terborgh, J. 1983. Five New World Primates: A Study in
Comparative Ecology. Princeton University Press,
Princeton, NJ.
Yoneda, M. 1984. Ecological study of the saddle-backed
tamarin (Saguinus fuscicollis) in northern Bolivia. Pri-
mates 25(1): 1-12.

A Master's thesis entitled "Feeding Ecology of the Buffy-
Tufted-Ear Marmoset, Callithrix aurita (Callitrichidae,
Primates) in a Forest Fragment" was defended on 5 Au-
gust 1998, by Milene Moura Martins at the Paulista State
University (UNESP/Rio Claro). The study was supervised
by Dr. Nivar Gobbi and Dr. Eleonore Z. F. Setz. It was
sponsored by the Brazilian Higher Education Authority
(CAPES), Brasilia, and Fundag~o MB/FUNCAMP,
Campinas. The following is a summary of the thesis.
This study, carried out from October 1994 to September
1995, focused on the seasonality of feeding behavior of a
group of four buffy-tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix
aurita). The study site was a semideciduous 17-ha forest
fragment located in Fazenda Lagoa, in the municipality
of Monte Belo, in the south of the state of Minas Gerais
(21o23'S, 46015'W). Two physiognomically distinct re-
gions were found in the fragment: the northeast (flat, sunny
and dry) and the south (steep, shadowy and moist). Each
region was divided in two sub-regions: edge and interior.
The edge was defined as the outermost 40m strip and the

interior the remaining area. Data on feeding behavior were
collected by scan sampling at five-minute intervals. Each
scan lasted one minute. The identity and activity of each
visible individual and the location of the group were re-
corded. Invertebrate abundance was estimated monthly
using sweep nets (about 120m) and pit-fall traps (n = 5)
in each sub-region.
A total of 79 days (305.4 hours) was spent in direct obser-
vation of the group. A total of 8,240 records were obtained
in 3,416 scans. Average annual activity pattern was: trav-
eling (41%), resting (33%), foraging (8%), feeding (6%)
and social activities (12%). There was no significant dif-
ference between seasons. The main foods were gums
(46%), invertebrates (22%) and fruits (11%).
Leguminosae, Meliaceae, Moraceae and Cactaceae were
the main plant families in the diet. Acacia paniculata
(Leguminosae), an abundant liana, was the main gum
source, representing 83% of gum feeding time. Of 12 fruit-
ing species, the highest ranking consumed was Maclura
tinctoria (Moraceae), a small, many-seeded berry. Cater-
pillars were the invertebrate item most preyed upon, fol-
lowed by katydids. Among food resources, only fruits were
consumed significantly more in the wet season than in
the dry season. The monthly predation rate on caterpil-
lars was positively correlated with the availability of large
larvae (>2 cm long). Associations between marmosets and
Labidus sp. (Ecitoninae, Formicidae) army ants were re-
corded only during the drier months.
The group occupied a home range of 16.5 ha and trav-
eled a mean daily distance of 986 meters. There was no
seasonal variation in either. The northeast region was used
more in comparison to the southern region, with a higher
concentration of quadrats with >2% of occupatidh records
in both seasons. Spatial distribution of foraging records
was not associated with invertebrate abundance. Sub-re-
gions presenting high invertebrate abundance (moist in-
terior in the wet season and moist edge in the dry season)
were not used more for foraging than others with lower
abundance. The spatial distribution of the small number
of fruiting trees had little influence on the pattern of space
use while the distribution of Acacia paniculata (n = 67
and 61) seemed to be the main factor determining rang-
The study demonstrated the buffy-tufted-ear marmoset's
ability to exploit abundant (Acacia gum) and temporary
(fruits, insects) foads. Edge habitats presented higher in-
vertebrate biomass, corroborating other studies (Buskirk
and Buskirk, 1976; Fowler et al., 1983), but, in this study,
it was not associated with the spatial distribution of for-
aging activities. Furthermore, local environmental condi-
tions are very important in the definition of intra-specific
differences in feeding ecology of C. aurita groups (see
Ferrari et al., 1996).
Milene M. Martins, Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto
de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas
(UNICAMP), 13083-970 Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Page 126

Neotropical Primates 6(4), December 1998

Page 127

Buskirk, R. E. and Buskirk, W. H. 1976. Change in ar-
thropod abundance in a highland Costa Rica forest. Am.
Midl. Nat. 95: 288-298.
Ferrari, S. E, Correa, H. K. M. and Coutinho, P. E. G.
1996. Ecology of the "southern" marmosets (Callithrix
aurita and Callithrixflaviceps), how different, how simi-
lar? In: Adaptive Radiations of Neotropical Primates,
M. A. Norconk, A. L. Rosenberger and P. A. Garber
(eds.), pp.157-171. Plenum Press, New York.
Fowler, H. G., Silva, C.A. and Venticinque, E. 1993. Size,
taxonomic and biomass distribution of flying insects in
Central Amazonia: forest edge vs. understory. Rev. Biol.
Trop. 41(3): 755-760.
Martins, M. M. 1998. Ecologia Alimentar do Sagui-da-
Serra-Escuro, Callithrix aurita (Callitrichidae, Primates)
em um Fragmento Florestal. Unpubl. Master's thesis,
Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP/Rio Claro), Rio
Claro, SP. 63pp.

On 18 June 1998, Maria Ad61ia Oliveira Monteiro da Cruz,
defended her doctoral thesis "Reproductive Dynamics of
a Population of Common Marmosets (Callithrixjacchus)
at the Ecological Station ofTapacuri, Pernambuco" at the
Institute of Psychology of the University of Sao Paulo,
Sao Paulo. Her supervisor was Prof. C6sar Ades, and the
study was supported by the Higher Education Authority
(CAPES), FACEPE, the Brazilian National Science Coun-
cil (CNPq), and PIBIC of the Federal Rural University of
Pernambuco, Recife. The following is an abstract of the
The study of the reproductive dynamics of a population of
common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) in the Alto da
Buchada forest patch in the Ecological Staion of Tapacura,
Pernambuco, was carried out over 30 months, from Janu-
ary 1994 to May 1996. Records were maintained of body
weights, births, migrations and the social behaviour of
five target groups, four peripheral groups and two tempo-
rary groups. The genetic relatedness of the group mem-
bers was studied using skin samples through mitochon-
drial DNA sequencing*. Body weights were higher in the
dry season. Births (59% twins) occurred throughout the
year, although fewer were recorded during transitions be-
tween seasons. Births were not synchronised among the
groups. The reproductive females were receptive through-
out the year. There was little fluctuation in group size.
Mean group size for the five target groups was 6.95 indi-
viduals, containing in all cases at least one adult female
and two adult males. Migration between groups was soli-
tary or in pairs, both apparently forced as well as sponta-
neous, and in some cases individuals later returned to their
original groups. Migrations occurred in both the dry and
wet seasons. Females dispersed more than males. Geno-
type diversity was relatively high, which suggested that
genetic divergence may be a criteria for mate selection.

An association was noted between affiliative behaviour
and births (the presence of infants was found to increase
group cohesiveness, even amongst unrelated individuals)
and between agonistic behaviour and changes in the group
composition. Social structure and stability was highly vari-
able between and within groups, even though all groups
were found to maintain a regular food supply throughout
the year through their tree-gouging and gum-feeding.
* In collaboration with Dr. Christopher Faulkes and his team at the Institute
of Zoology, Zoological Society of London.
Maria Ad6lia O. Monteiro da Cruz, Departamento de
Morfologia e Fisiologia Animal, Universidade Federal
Rural de Pernambuco, Dom Manuel de Medeiros s/n, Dois
IrmAos, 52171-900 Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil.
Monteiro da Cruz, M. A. 0. 1998. Din&mica reprodutiva
de uma populagao de sagilis-do-nordeste (Callithrix
jacchus) na Estagao Ecol6gica do TapacurA, Pernambuco.
Doctoral thesis, Instituto de Psicologia, Universidade de
Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo. 190pp.

The Desengano State Park of 22,400 ha in the north of
the state of Rio de Janeiro (21o46'-21o58'S, 4137'-
41058'W), protects montane Atlantic forest in rthe mu-
nicipalities of Santa Maria Madalena, Sao Fid6lis and
Campos (Fig. 1). It was created in 1970, and is now the
largest remaining forest remnant in the region. The pre-
dominant vegetation there is dense, humid, evergreen,
upland forest, between altitudes of 500 to 1,500 m above
sea level. The flora is extremely diverse and rich, includ-
ing ferns, orchids, bromeliads, palms, and such species as
thejequitiba (Cariniana), magaranduba (Persea), paineira
(Chorisia), angelim (Andira), and bicufba (Virola).
Three primate species have been recorded for the Park
over the last 16 years, the brown howler monkey, Alouatta
fusca clamitans, the muriqui, Brachyteles arachnoides,

2J r
y /

Figure 1. Map of the Desengano State Park. The areas indicated are those
where Brachyteles has been observed in the past. A Morumbeca; B -
Ribeirlo Vermelho; C Forquilha; D Mocot6; 1 Sao Fidelis; 2 Santa
Maria Madalena; 3 Campos.

Neotropical Primates 6(4), December 1998

Page 128

and the brown capuchin, Cebus apella nigritus. A. fusca
is the best known species and the most widespread in the
region. In May 1982, a group of five individuals were
observed eating fruits and young leaves of Cecropia sp.
C. apella, although considered common, is rarely seen.
On 11 August 1985, I observed two dead capuchin mon-
keys in a hunters camp at the locality of Ribeirio Vermelho.
Aguirre (1971, p. 49) estimated a population of 150-170
B. arachnoides in the Desengano State Park, in the area
referred to as "Matas Morumbeca". Today local people
are unanimous in confirming that it has disappeared from
the Desengano State Park as well other localities nearby
including, for example, Ribeirao Vermelho, Forquilha, and
Mocot6. This, however, does not necessarily mean that
they are extinct in the region. There are a number of ar-
eas, visible when flying over the Park by helicopter, which
are remote, of difficult access due to gorges and steep and
narrow valleys, and which maintain relatively intact for-
est, where B. arachnoides may still survive. Surveys, and
research and environmental education programs, are ur-
gently needed for this important Atlantic forest refuge.
Sirgio Maia Vaz, Museu Nacional, Seqao de Mamiferos,
Quinta da Boa Vista, Sao Crist6vIo, 20940-040 Rio de
Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.
Aguirre, A. C. 1971. O Mono Brachyteles arachnoides
(E. Geoffroy). Situaado atual da especie no Brasil.
Academia Brasileira de Ci6ncias, Rio de Janeiro. 53pp.

Rosana Junqueira Subirg defended her Master's thesis on
a survey of the distribution and status of the pied tamarin,
Saguinus bicolor bicolor, for the postgraduate program
in Ecology at the University of Brasilia, on 24 September
1998. Her supervisors were Prof. Cl6ber J. R. Alho and
Dr. Claudio Valladares-Padua, and the thesis was sup-
ported by the Brazilian Science Council (CNPq), the
Fundag~o O BoticArio de Proteq~o A Natureza, and the
"Working Group for Saguinus bicolor" of the Brazilian
Institute for the Environment (Ibama). The following is
an abstract of the thesis.
The pied tamarin (Saguinus bicolor bicolor) is consid-
ered one of the most endangered of the New World pri-
mates. It is threatened due to the expansion of the rap-
idly-growing city of Manaus, capital of the state of
Amazonas, and due to its very restricted distribution. The
aim of the study was to survey the populations within the
metropolitan region of Manaus, and examine the extent
of its geographic range. With the help of satellite images,
all forest fragments were visited in the city of Manaus,
and existing threats were evaluated. Its status in Manaus
is highly precarious due to urban expansion, and the few
remaining populations are becoming increasingly reduced,
fragmented and isolated. However, the metropolitan re-
gion of Manaus (377.4 km2) comprises only 5.03% of its

geographic range, and was not considered to represent
the major threat to the subspecies as a whole, this coming
principally from the evidently expanding distribution of
the golden-handed tamarin, Saguinus midas, which now
occupies large areas where S. b. bicolor existed in the
past, as evidenced by the surveys of Silvia Egler and Jos6
M6rcio Ayres in the early 1980s (Ayres et al., 1980, 1982;
Egler, 1983, 1986). A total of 173 localities were investi-
gated in order to delimit its geographic distribution. The
current range extends from the Rio Negro, as far north as
the left bank tributary, the Rio Cuieiras, east to the Rio
Urubd, and only as far north as Km 35 on the BR174
highway. The total geographic range was estimated at
7.500 km2.
Rosana Junqueira Subira, Avenida Constelag~o 18/08,
Conjunto Morada do Sol, Aleixo, 69.060-081 Manaus,
Amazonas, Brazil.
Ayres, J. M. R., Mittermeier, R. A. and Constable, I. D.
1980. A distribuiCgo geogrdfica e situaqao atual dos
sagfiis-de-cara-nua (Saguinus bicolor). Bol. FBCN, Rio
de Janeiro 16: 62-68.
Ayres, J. M. R., Mittermeier, R. A. and Constable, I. D.
1982. Brazilian tamarins on the way to exinction? Oryx
16(4): 329-333.
Egler, S. G. 1983. Current status of the pied tamarin in
Brazilian Amaz6nia. IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist
Group Newsl. (3): 20.
Egler, S. G. 1986. Estudos bion6micos de Saguinus bi-
color (Spix, 1823) (Callitrichidae, Primates) em mata
tropical alterada, Manaus, AM. Master's thesis,
Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas.
Subira, R. J. 1998. Avaliacio da situagAo atual das
populag6es do sauim-de-coleira, Saguinus bicolor bi-
color (Spix, 1823). Master's thesis, Universidade de
Brasflia, Brasilia. 91pp.

Fernando de Camargo Passos defended his doctoral the-
sis, entitled "Activity patterns, diet and range use in a
group of black lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysopygus)
in the Ecological Station of Caetetus, Sao Paulo", in the
Postgraduate Program in Ecology and Natural Resources,
at the Federal University of Sao Carlos (UFSCar), Sao
Carlos, Sao Paulo, Brazil. His supervisor was Prof. Cleb6r
Jos6 Rodrigues Alho, and the study was supported by the
World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF-Brazil), Brasilia, the
Fundado O BoticArio de ProteCo A Natureza, Sao Jos6
do Pinhais, Parana, the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust
(JWPT), Jersey, and the Lincoln Park Zoo Scott Neotropic
Fund, Chicago, Illinois, the Brazilian Higher Education
Authority (CAPES) and the Sao Paulo State Research
Support Foundation (FAPESP). The following is a sum-
mary of the thesis.
The activity patterns, diet and range use were studied in a
group of black lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysopygus)

Neotropical Primates 6(4), December 1998

Neotropical Primates 6(4), December 1998

in the Ecological Station of Caetetus (2215'-2233'S,
49030'-49045'W, 2,178 ha), in the central-west of the state
of Sao Paulo, during 15 months from August 1993 to Sep-
tember 1996. The group was followed using radiotelem-
etry over 15 months, totalling 550 hours of direct obser-
vation. Five categories of behavior were quantified through
scan sampling: traveling, resting, foraging for animal prey,
feeding, and "others". There were significant differences
in the time spent in these behaviors between the wet and
dry seasons. Fruits were the most important item in the
plant part of the diet in the wet season. Of the 46 plant
species providing fruits, five contributed the majority
throughout the year: Syagrus romanzoffiana, Rhamnidium
elaeocarpum, Celtis pubescens, Ficus trigona, and a Fi-
cus sp. In the dry season exudates were more important.
Of the 18 species providing exudates, that ofEuterpe edulis
was eaten most frequently. The group's home range was
estimated at 276.5 ha. (all 50 x 50 m quadrats entered) or
394 ha (estimated from the periphery).
Fernando de Camargo Passos, Departamento de
Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Parand, Caixa Postal
19020, 81531-990 Curitiba, Parana, Brazil.
Passos. E de C. 1997. Padrao de atividades, dieta e uso de espago
emumgrupo de mico-leao-preto (Leontopithecus chrysopygus)
na Esta~go Ecol6gica dos Caetetus, SP. Doctoral
thesis,Universidade de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos. 114pp.

The Secretary of the Environment of the state of Rio de
Janeiro has published the "Official List of Species Threat-
ened with Extinction in the State of Rio de Janeiro" (Edict
of the State Secretariat for the Environment [SEMA], No.1,
4 June 1998: Didrio Oficial do Estado do Rio de Janeiro,
24 (102 Part 1): 9-16, 5 June 1998). The Rio de Janeiro
state list includes 257 species of: Cnidaria (3), molluscs (7),
crustaceans (13), insects (47), Diplopoda (1), freshwater
fishes (39), sea fishes (9) amphibians (4), reptiles (9), birds
(82) and mammals (43). It was drawn up following a work-
shop held at the Ecology Sector of the State University of
Rio de Janeiro in December 1997 which involved the col-
lective brainstorming of more than 60 zoologists.
This workshop also resulted in a major report, as yet un-
published, reviewing the status of the threatened species
in Rio de Janeiro, and including suggestions and priori-
ties for their protection (Bergallo et al. 1998). In Portu-
guese, it includes the following chapters: Introduction:
Threatened species lists: Regional discrepancies and the
importance and meaning of the lists Helena de G.
Bergallo & Carlos F. D. da Rocha; The decline of animal
populations, the degradation of their habitats and conser-
vation priorities: Species or habitats? Carlos F. D. da
Rocha; Fragmentation of the Atlantic forest in the state of
Rio de Janeiro and the loss of biodiversity Kenny Tanizaki
& Timothy P. Moulton; Conservation status of the fauna
of the state of Rio de Janeiro: Methodology for evaluation

Page 129

- Monique van Sluys et al.; Aquatic invertebrates Timo-
thy P. Moulton et al.; Terrestrial invertebrates Luiz S.
Otero et al.; Fishes Rosana Mazzoni et al.; Amphibians
- Ulysses Caramaschi et al.; Reptiles Carlos F. D. Rocha
et al.; Birds Maria Alice S. Alves et al.; Mammals -
Helena de G. Bergallo et al.; Proposal for environmental
conservation policy for the state of Rio de Janeiro Ibsen
de G. Camara & Adelmar F. Coimbra-Filho.
This is the fourth Brazilian state to draw up species' lists
of threatened animals, the first being Parand in February
1995 (State Law 11.067, 17 February 1995) (Brazil,
Parand, SEMA, 1995a). The list for Parand includes 21
mammals, 117 birds, 12 reptiles, and 17 butterflies. Parani
also published its list of threatened plant species in the
same year (Brazil, Parana, SEMA, 1995b). The second
state was Minas Gerais (Deliberation of the State Council
for Environmental Policy [COPAM], 20 January 041/95,
in Minas Gerais, Orgdo Oficial dos Poderes do Estado,
Didrio Executivo, Legislativo e PublicaVoes de Terceiros,
(14, part 1): 1-4, 20th January 1996; Lins et al. 1997;
Machado et al. 1998). The Minas Gerais state list includes
40 mammals, 83 birds, 10 reptiles, 11 amphibians, three
fishes, 27 insects (one bee, 20 butterflies, one beetle, five
dragonflies), Peripatus acacioi (Onychophora), and three
earthworms (Oligochaeta). Finally, the state of Sao Paulo
published its threatened species' list in February, 1998
(State Decree No. 42.838,4 February 1998; Didrio Oficial
do Estado de Sao Paulo 108(25):1-7, 5 February 1998),
as part of its State Program for the Conservation of
Biodiversity (PROBIO/SP). The list, the result of a work-
shop held in Sao Carlos in December 1996, includes: Crus-
tacea (1 species); terrestrial invertebrates (45); marine
fishes (19); freshwater fish (18); amphibians (5); reptiles
(25); birds (163), and mammals (41) (Brazil, Sao Paulo,
SMA, 1998).
The following primates are included in the state lists.
Parand: Leontopithecus caissara and Alouatta fusca
clamitans. Minas Gerais: Callithrix aurita, C. flaviceps,
C. kuhlii, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, Alouatta fusca
fusca, A. f. clamitans, Brachyteles hypoxanthus,
Callicebus personatus personatus, C. p. nigrifrons, C. p.
melanochir and Cebus xanthosternos. Sao Paulo:
Callithrix aurita, C. penicillata, Leontopithecus
chrysopygus, L. caissara, Callicebus personatus, Alouatta
caraya, Alouattafusca and Brachyteles arachnoides. Rio
de Janeiro: Callithrix aurita, Leontopithecus rosalia,
Callicebus personatus and Brachyteles arachnoides.
For more information: Rio de Janeiro Dra. Helena de
Godoy Bergallo, Setor de Ecologia, Instituto de Biologia
'Roberto Alcantara Gomes', Universidade do Estado do
Rio de Janeiro, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier 524, 20559-
900 Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, e-mail:
. Parand Secretaria de Estado do
Meio Ambiente (SEMA), Rua Desembargador Motta 3384,
80.030-420 Curitiba, Parana, Brazil, Tel: (041) 322-1611,
Fax: (041) 223-2850. Minas Gerais Fundaggo
Biodiversitas, Avenida do Contorno 9155, 110. Andar,

Page 130 Neotropical Primates 6(4), December 1998

Prado, 30.110-130 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil,
Tel: (031) 291-9673, Fax: (031) 291-7658, e-mail:
. Sao Paulo Secretaria
do Meio Ambiente (SMA), Centro de Editorarao (CED),
Avenida Professor Frederico Hermann Jr. 345, 05.489-
900 Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil, Tel: (011) 3030 6200,
Fax: (011) 3030 6280, e-mail: ,
Web-site: .
Anthony B. Rylands, Conservation International do
Brasil, Avenida Ant6nio Abrahao Caram 820/302,31275-
000 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil.
Bergallo, H. de G., Duarte da Rocha, C. F., Alves, M. A.
dos S. and Van Sluys, M. 1998. A Fauna Ameagada de
Extingdo do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Unpublished re-
port, Programa de Ecologia, Conservagio e Manejo de
Ecossistemas do Sudeste Brasileiro, Universidade do
Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro.
Brazil, Parana, SEMA. 1995a. Lista Vermelha de Animais
Ameafados de Extindfo no Estado do Parand. Secretaria
de Estado do Meio Ambiente (SEMA), Deutsche
Gesellschaft fuir Technische Zusammenarbeit GTZ
(GmbH), Curitiba. 177pp.
Brazil, Parand, SEMA. 1995b. Lista Vermelha de Plantas
Ameafadas de Extinfao no Estado do Parand. Secretaria
de Estado do Meio Ambiente (SEMA), Deutsche
Gesellschaft fiir Technische Zusammenarbeit GTZ
(GmbH), Curitiba. 139pp.
Brazil, Sao Paulo, SMA. 1998. Fauna Ameafada no
Estado de Sao Paulo. Centro de Editoracqo (CED),
Secretaria de Estado do Meio Ambiente (SMA), Sao
Paulo. 60pp.
Lins, L. V., Machado, A. B. M., Costa, C. M. R. and
Herrmann, G. 1997. Roteiro Metodol6gico para
Elaborafdo de Listas de Espicies AmeaFadas de
ExtinFdo. Publicaf6es Avulsas da Fundafdo
Biodiversitas 1: 1-50. Fundaqgo Biodiversitas, Belo
Machado, A. B. M., Fonseca, G. A. B. da, Machado, R.
B., Aguiar, L. M. de S. and Lins, L. V. 1998. Livro
Vermelho das Espdcies Ameafadas de ExtinFdo da
Fauna de Minas Gerais. Fundagao Biodiversitas, Belo

The Henry Ford Environmental Conservation
Awards for Brazil (modeled on a similar award
Scheme in Europe) were begun in 1996, the
Result of a partnership between the Ford Mo-
cneo tor Co. and the Brazil Program of Conserva-
w ONA ONN tion International (Conservation International
do Brasil). This partnership also sponsors a number of
major conservation projects in the Brazilian Amazon, the
Atlantic forest, and the Pantanal of Mato Grosso. The
awards are of four categories: "Lifetime Achievement",

"Annual Conservation Initiative", "Science and Training"
and "Conservation and Business". The first lifetime
achievement award (1996) was given to Adelmar F.
Coimbra-Filho, conservationist and founder of the Rio de
Janeiro Primate Center (CPRJ/FEEMA). The second
award, 1997, was given to Ni6de Guid6n, President of the
NGO Fundacgo Museu do Homem Americano
(FUMDHAM), for her work in the Serra da Capivara
National Park in the state of Piauf, Brazil.
At an award ceremony held in the
Country Club, Porto Alegre, state of
Rio Grande do Sul, on 8 December
1998, Angelo Barbosa Monteiro
f. Machado, neuroanatomist, renowned
41.1 ? Brazilian conservationist, world expert
S on Neotropical dragonflies, member of
the Brazilian Academy of Sciences,
President of the NGO Fundagao
Biodiversitas, Professor at the Federal
University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, and award-
winning writer of children's books with conservation and
ecological themes, was given the 3rd Henry Ford Envi-
ronmental Conservation Award for lifetime achievement.
The conservation NGO Fundacio Ecotr6pica (Fundagao
de Apoio h Vida nos Tr6picos), Cuiabd, Mato Grosso, was
given the award for the category of "Annual Conserva-
tion Initiative" for its work in creating Private Reserves
in the Pantanal region of the Mato Grosso (working with
ranchowners, and with support from The Nature Conser-
vancy, they purchased three large ranches in the region
[including Acurizal, where George Schaller carried out
research on jaguar ecology and behavior in the late 1970's],
and increased by nearly 45% the protected areas in the
region around the Pantanal Matogrossense National Park
of 135,000 ha).

Tr PSG member Claudio Valladares-
Padua, founder of the NGO IPt-
Instituto de Pesquisas Ecol6gicas, based
in Nazard Paulista, Sao Paulo, and Pro-
fessor at the University of Brasilia, was
given the award for "Science and Train-
ing", for his work in wildlife conserva-
tion and training, benefiting from col-
laboration with Wildlife Preservation
Trust International (WPTI) amongst nu-
merous other international NGOs, and focused especially
on the black lion tamarin, Leontopithecus chrysopygus, in
the state of Sao Paulo. The award for the category "Conser-
vation and Business" was given to the "Projeto Unibanco
Ecologia". Unibanco is a private bank that has financed
231 conservation projects for environmental restoration, ben-
efiting more than 130 municipalities in the north and the
south of Brazil.
Heloisa de Oliveira, Conservation International do Brasil,
Avenida Ant6nio Abrahao Caram 820/302, 31275-000
Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Page 130

Neotropical Primates 6(4), December 1998

Neotropical Primates 6(4), December 1998

The BBC Natural History Unit is going to make a major
film series devoted to the primates. The series, called "Cous-
ins", will be presented by Charlotte Uhlenbroek, a prima-
tologist in her own right and currently presenter of BBC2's
"Chimpanzee Diary". Three one-hour films will focus on
the prosimians, the monkeys and the apes (and man), re-
spectively. Filming will take place throughout 1999 and the
programs are scheduled to be screened in prime viewing
time on BBCI. At this early stage of research we are anx-
ious to cast our net as wide as possible in search of exciting
and interesting behaviors or spectacles from the primate
world. One of our aims is to compile a list of all habituated
primate groups in the world. Obviously not all such groups
are study groups they could be self-habituated or habitu-
ated to tourists or researcher's activities in the area, for ex-
ample. We would be very grateful if you could tell us about
primate groups being studied and any other habituated groups
you might know of. Our other aim is to discover behaviors
that have never been filmed before. Again, if there is any-
thing that you think would be of interest please get in touch.
Equally we would like to hear of different settings for the
better known behaviors.
As film-makers, we are as ever indebted to scientists work-
ing in the field for the most up-to-date information on the
current state of knowledge about the primates. If there is
anything in this subject area you think we should be com-
mitting to film, please get in touch.
Please contact: Daniel Rees, BBC Natural History Unit, BBC
Broadcasting House, Whiteladies Road, Bristol BS8 2LR,
UK, Tel: 0117 974 7432, Fax: 0117 923 7727, e-mail:

Three PSG members were elected to the Brazilian Academy
of Sciences (ABC) at its General Assembly held on 16 No-
vember 1998. Horacio Schneider, geneticist at the Federal
University of Para, Bel6m, as an Associate Member, and
David J. Chivers of the Wildlife Research Group at Cam-
bridge University, UK, and Russell A. Mittermeier, Chair-
man of the PSG and President of Conservation International,
Washington, D. C., were elected as Corresponding Mem-
bers. They join two other PSG members at the Academy,
Adelmar F. Coimbra-Filho and Jos6 MArcio Ayres.
Molecular geneticist, Horacio Schneider has made enor-
mous contributions to our understanding of the systemat-
ics and evolution of New World primates. He obtained his
doctoral degree in 1984 at the Federal University of Rio
Grande do Sul (UFRS) under the supervision of Dr. Fran-
cisco M. Salzano. In 1990 he took up a post-doctoral po-
sition at Stanford University, Stanford, California, under
the supervision of Dr. L. Cavalli-Sforza, and from 1992
to 1993 he was a visiting researcher at Wayne State Uni-

Page 131

versity, Detroit, Michigan, USA. Since 1992, he has acted
as Coordinator of the International Co-operation Program
between the Brazilian National Research Council (CNPq)
and the National Science Foundation (NSF-USA) for the
investigation of molecular phylogeny of New World pri-
mates. Currently he is an Adjunct Professor at the De-
partment of Genetics of the Federal University of Pard
(UFPA). He has held numerous administrative positions
at UFPA, including: Head of the Department of Genetics;
Vice-Dean for Planning and Development (from 1985 to
1987); Co-ordinator of the Postgraduate Program (M.Sc.
and Ph.D.) in Biological Sciences (1997-1998); and Vice
Co-ordinator of the UFPA Environmental Institute (1992-
1993). At present, he is co-ordinating the new UFPA Cam-
pus at Braganga (see below), as well as a co-operative pro-
gram between Brazil and Germany (CNPq-BMBF) to study
Mangrove Dynamics and Management (MADAM). He
was Vice-president of the Brazilian Society of Genetics
from 1994 to 1996, and President of the Brazilian Society
of Primatology from 1991 to 1994. He has supervised four
M.Sc. dissertations and three Ph.D. theses, and is cur-
rently supervising three Ph.D. students and an M.Sc. stu-
dent. Since 1973, Horacio Schneider has published more
than 60 major papers on the systematics, conservation and
molecular evolution of the New World primates.
David Chivers, Lecturer in Veterinary Anatomy, and Head
of the Wildlife Research Group, at the Department of
Anatomy of the University of Cambridge, UK, began his
career with South American monkeys with a study on
howling in Alouatta palliata on Barro Colorado Island,
Panama, in 1967. His talents and dedication were subse-
quently largely focused on the conservation, ecology and
behavior of Asian primates. In the mid-1970s, he set up
the Wildlife Research Group, with the mission initially of
studying the socio-ecology of sympatric primates gib-
bons, langurs and macaques in various parts of South and
South-east Asia. In the late 1980s, however, the emphasis
shifted to investigating endangered wildlife in protected
areas and forest fragments in forested regions of Latin
America as well, focussing on plant-animal interactions
to elucidate the needs of endangered species in relation to
human needs for conservation and sustainable forest man-
agement. He has been active in Brazil since the 1980s,
when he took on the supervision of the doctoral theses of
Jos6 MArcio Ayres (behaviour and ecology of white uakaris
at MamirauA) and subsequently Carlos Peres (mixed-spe-
cies groups of tamarins on the Rio Uruci). Since then he
has taken on and promoted the academic careers of nu-
merous other Brazilian students, including: Mauro Galetti
Rodrigues (fruits and frugivores in the Atlantic forest,
followed by two months in the long-term Bornean study
area studying frugivory in horbills); Adriano Chiarello
(effects of forest fragmentation on Atlantic forest mam-
mals); Wilson Spironello (fruiting biology of Amazonian
Sapotaceae); Lana Formiga (social and feeding behaviour
of lion tamarins in Brasilia Zoo); Cecflia Kierulff (translo-
cation of golden lion tamarins); and Ant6nio Rossano
Mendes Pontes (frugivore biomass and productivity of dif-

Page 132 Neotropical Primates 6(4), December 1998

ferent forest types on Maraci Island, Roraima). In addition
Andrew Johns was a student of the Wildlife Research Group
in 1978-82, carrying out his thesis research on the effects of
selective logging on primate populations and other wildlife
in west Malaysia. His experience in South-east Asia was
later applied to pioneer studies on the effects of logging and
forest disturbance on wildlife, especially primates, in the
Gurupf Biological Reserve and the region of the Tucuruf
hydroelectric dam in Pard, as well as around Lake Tef6, on
the upper Rio Solimbes. Two other Latin American students,
both Mexicans, have also been supervised by David Chivers:
Alfredo Cuar6n carried out a Ph.D thesis on land cover
changes and mammal conservation in Mesoamerica, and
Miguel Martinez Morales is currently doing research on the
abundance, habitat preference and conservation of the curas-
sow on Cozumel Island.
Last but not least, Russell Mittermeier first visited Brazil
in 1971, carrying out field work in the Brazilian Amazon
and, with Adelmar F Coimbra-Filho, field research and
conservation campaigns for the Atlantic forest lion tama-
rins. Like David Chivers, his first primate field study was
on the mantled howlers (1970) on Barro Colorado Island,
Panama. In 1973 he carried out a major survey of primate
populations and distributions in the Brazilian Amazon.
Until 1976 no primate field studies (year long observa-
tions, for example, of behavior and ecology) had been car-
ried out in Brazil, and the research of Coimbra-Filho in
the 1960's and, with Russell Mittermeier, in the 1970's
was pioneer, and provided the initial stimulus not only for
preserving lion tamarins, but also other threatened spe-
cies, and for Brazilian field primatology in general. In
1977, he completed his doctoral thesis on the primates of
Surinam (Harvard University, Cambridge, MA), was ap-
pointed Chairman of the Primate Specialist Group, and
also Adjunct Assistant Professor at the Department of
Anatomical Sciences of the State University of New York,
Stony Brook (as from 1990, Adjunct Professor). In 1978,
he launched the Global Strategy for Primate Conserva-
tion, the first international program of its kind, and list-
ing priority projects worldwide. One of the highest prior-
ity projects identified was for the conservation of eastern
Brazilian primates, including especially the lion tamarins
and the muriqui, Brachyteles, and resulted in a number
of major primate surveys from 1979 to 1985, involving
Adelmar Coimbra-Filho and the Rio de Janeiro Primate
Center and Cl6io Valle, then Professor of Zoology at the
Federal University of Minas Gerais, as key Brazilian coun-
terparts. The second high priority project listed in the Glo-
bal Strategy was the establishment of a center for primate
conservation in Rio de Janeiro, supporting the ambitious
plans of Adelmar Coimbra-Filho which were realized with
the inauguration of the Rio de Janeiro Primate Center in
1979. From 1979 to 1989, he was a key figure in the World
Wildlife Fund-US, holding a number of positions includ-
ing Vice-President for Science (from 1987 to 1989). Most
important was the WWF Primate Action Fund, created by
Mittermeier while Vice-President for Conservation (1986-
1989). This fund provided seed money for numerous pri-

mate conservation and research projects and aspiring con-
servationists in Brazil, but ended in 1989 when he left
WWF to become President of Conservation International
(CI), Washington, D. C. (The Primate Action Fund was
reinstated with the creation of the Margot Marsh
Biodiversity Foundation in 1996.) In 1990, he set up CI's
Brazil Program, based in Belo Horizonte, through which
he has remained as active as ever in research and conser-
vation in Brazil as a central part of his commitment to
tropical forest and biodiversity conservation worldwide.
Since 1966 he has published six books and more than 250
scientific papers and popular articles on reptiles, primates,
tropical forests, and biodiversity.

Intel Corporation's co-founder and Chairman Emeritus
Gordon Moore and his wife Betty are contributing US$35
million to Conservation International (CI) to establish a
research center The Center for Applied Biodiversity Sci-
ence with the mission of identifying emerging threats to
biodiversity to allow for swift action for the protection of
the planet's most biologically valuable ecosystems. The
creation of this Center was announced by Peter Seligmann,
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of CI, at a cer-
emony held in SAo Francisco on 2 October 1998. The
Center will take on world leaders in science, technology,
economics and conservation to develop action plans to
counter imminent global threats. It will work closely with
partnership organizations worldwide to tackle, in the field,
some of the most pressing threats to biologically rich natu-
ral habitats. According to Russell A. Mittermeier, Presi-
dent of CI, "This is the largest, single private gift in the
history of international biodiversity conservation and hope-
fully marks the start of a new era of environmentally-fo-
cused philanthropy commensurate with the scale and im-
portance of the biodiversity crisis."
PSG Member, conservation biologist, Professor of Verte-
brate Zoology at the Federal University of Minas Gerais,
and CI Vice President for the Brazil Program, Gustavo A.
B. da Fonseca has been appointed Executive Director.
Roberto Cavalcanti, professor at the University of Brasilia,
has taken over as Director of CI-Brasil.
The Center's management will be based within Conser-
vation International's Washington, D. C., headquarters,
but will carry out its mandate throughout the world with a
network of global experts and partnership organizations.
It will also set up an Advisory Council consisting of out-
side experts and representatives of partnership organiza-
tions. A key aspect of the Center's operations will be the
creation of a number of fellowships as well as a strong
network of institutional partners. Fellows will be recruited
fromleaders in many different fields, from industry, uni-
versities, and other conservation groups. The Center will
provide action plan blueprints for field-testing conserva-
tion strategies. It will also organize conferences and work-

Page 132

Neotropical Primates 6(4), December 1998

Neotropical Primates 6(4), December 1998

shops to bring together top experts to explore trends and
opportunities in biodiversity conservation. The Center's
efforts will parallel Conservation International's strategic
focus of targeting the world's highest priority regions in
terms of biodiversity megadiversity countries, hot spots,
tropical wilderness areas and key marine ecosystems. An
example of one issue which will be tackled is predatory
logging in tropical forests. This threat has escalated rap-
idly in the recent past, with international logging con-
glomerates targeting tropical developing nations for huge
tracts of pristine forests. In most cases, massive environ-
mental degradation occurs as a result, with little economic
return for the developing countries involved. Among other
issues the center will also address the interface between
conservation biology as a science and field-based conser-
vation, mining and other extractive industries within bio-
logically sensitive regions, as well as the devastating im-
pact of invasive species on natural ecosystems.
Lisa Bowen, Conservation International, 2501 M Street
N.W., Suite 200, Washington, D. C. 20037, USA, e-mail:

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals and Plants is
widely recognized as the premiere source of scientifically
based information regarding the global status of species.
It is distinct as a global listing system in that it does not
involve a political process, in contrast to the Appendices
of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered
Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) and the Con-
vention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild
Animals (CMS), as well as the global listings made
through the United States Endangered Species Act (ESA).
The Red List approach has been a cornerstone of IUCN's
programs since 1963, and SSC has long been involved in
the production of Red Data Books and, later, the Red List
proper. In 1989, SSC initiated a process to develop a more
quantitative, objective approach to red listing. After ex-
tensive consultation, the new Red List Categories and Cri-
teria were developed and adopted by IUCN in 1994.
The adoption of the new system has led to an explosion of
interest in red listing, both within SSC and beyond. For
example, both the IUCN Red List and national Red Lists
inspired by the IUCN approach are increasingly being used
in the development of national biodiversity strategies and
action plans under the Convention on Biological Diver-
sity. As a result of this growing interest and emerging
opportunities, the SSC Steering Committee decided at its
1997 Meeting to develop a coherent, strategic Red List
Program Oversight
The IUCN Red List is overseen by the Red List Program
Subcommittee, which reports to the SSC's governing body,
the Steering Committee, via Russell Mittermeier. The sub-

committee is currently chaired by Jorgen Thomsen and is
responsible for developing the work plan and strategic
vision for the Red List Program, as well as fundraising
and communications functions. The Program will be sup-
ported by a new Red List Officer within the SSC Secre-
The Program is to incorporate a formal mechanism for
ensuring the quality and standards of the IUCN Red List.
A Standards Working Group of the Subcommittee, chaired
by Georgina Mace, has been established to serve this func-
tion. Listing Authorities responsible for listing groups of
species (typically SSC Specialist Groups) will be desig-
nated by the Standards Working Group, which will also
develop the minimum standards to which all Listing Au-
thorities must adhere. Examples of Listing Authorities
would be the Conifer Specialist Group for conifers, and
the Primate Specialist Group for primates. BirdLife Inter-
national will serve as the Listing Authority for birds. The
Standards Working Group will also develop and oversee
a formal process for handling disputes over the applica-
tion of the criteria and resulting listings.
The Program will also attempt to respond to the growing
interest in applying the categories and criteria at the na-
tional level. A National and Regional Application Work-
ing Group, chaired by Ulf Gardenfors, will work to de-
velop guidelines to assist national and regional groups in
making use of this valuable tool.
Key Activities
1) The Criteria Review. Since the Red List now enjoys a
much more prominent role, it is important that the stan-
dards and procedures used by SSC in its listing process
are maintained at the highest levels possible. The adop-
tion of new Red List categories and criteria has reduced
the subjectivity in making conservation assessments and
has enhanced the authority of the list. To ensure that the
system remain at the cutting edge, SSC is undertaking a
review of the effectiveness of the current categories and
criteria, incorporating Specialist Group input. This pro-
cess will be completed by the next World Conservation
Congress and is being overseen by Geogrina Mace.
2) Documentation of the Red List. For all species included
in the IUCN Red List under the new system, their Red
List Category is given and the criteria used to list the spe-
cies are indicated. However, an objective of the Program
is to improve documentation. All current and future list-
ings will have to be documented to provide explanations
for the listings and more complete taxonomic informa-
tion. It is hoped that the Red List can be documented in
this manner by the next World Conservation Congress. It
is hoped that this more strategic, coordinated approach to
SSC's red listing activities will ultimately enhance the
authority and effectiveness of the IUCN Red List, enabling
informed conservation advocacy and action. From: Spe-
cies, Newsletter of the IUCN Species Survival Commis-
sion, (30): 7-8, June 1998.

Page 133

Page 134 Neotropical Primates 6(4), December 1998

In July 1998, the Federal University of Pdrb established a
major new research laboratory for molecular genetics at
their Braganga Campus, on the coast of Brazil in south-
ern Para. The laboratory will focus on three major research
fields: systematics and molecular evolution of primates;
systematics, evolution and biogeography of crabs; and the
systematics, evolution and biogeography of bivalve mol-
luscs. The research team is comprised of Dr. Horacio
Schneider, Dr. Iracilda Sampaio, Dr. Claudia H. Tagliaro,
Dr. Colin R. Beasley, Claudia Nunes Santos MSc, Le6nidas
O. de Carvalho MSc, and Renata Chaves de Almeida MSc.
Horacio Schneider, Laborat6rio de Biologia Molecular,
Campus Universitario de Braganga, Universidade Federal
do Para, Alameda Leandro Ribeiro s/n, 68600-000 Braganga,
Pard, Brazil, e-mail: .

No dia 28 de setembro de 1998 foi assinado o convenio
entire a Conservation International do Brasil e a FundaqAo
Estadual de Engenharia do Meio Ambiente do Estado do
Rio de Janeiro-FEEMA, para o desenvolvimento de ages
conjuntas no Centro de Primatologia do Rio de Janeiro
(CPRJ) e na EstaqAo Ecol6gica Estadual do Paraiso. O
principal objetivo desse projeto 6 o desenvolvimento de
estrat6gias para a revitalizago do Centro de Primatologia
do Rio de Janeiro, fortalecendo a estrutura de pessoal
qualificado e introduzindo novas atividades (educaao
ambiental, ecoturismo, centro de informa96es e estudos
sobre biodiversidade) direcionadas para a ampliagao do
papel da FEEMA e do pr6prio Centro na conservaqao e
pesquisa sobre a biodiversidade regional e national.
Luiz Paulo de Souza Pinto, Coordenador de Projetos,
Conservation International do Brasil, Avenida Antonio
Abrahao Caram 820/302, 31275-000 Belo Horizonte,
Minas Gerais, e Alcides Pissinatti, Diretor, Centro de
Primatologia do Rio de Janeiro (CPRJ), Fundaao Estadual
de Engenharia do Meio-Ambiente (FEEMA), Rua Fonseca
Teles 121/1624, Caixa Postal 23011, Sdo Crist6vao, 20940-
200 Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

The Sounds of Neotropical Rainforest Mammals is an
audio guide, comprised of two compact discs (105 min.),
to serve as a companion to Neotropical Rainforest Mam-
mals: A Field Guide, by Louise H. Emmons and Franqois
Feer (The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 2nd ed.,
1997). This collection of calls of 109 species and subspe-
cies includes almost all primates and the commonly en-

countered larger mammals. It was put together by Louise
H. Emmons, Bret M. Whitney and David L. Ross, Jr. The
CDs are accompanied by a booklet. Price US$24.95. Avail-
able from: The University of Chicago Press, 5801 South
Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637. Web site:

A Universidade Cat61ica de Goias, Brasil, estard abrindo
seis vagas para o subprograma de "Etologia Animal e
Humana", dentro de seu Programa de Mestrado em
Psicologia. Os dois orientadores deste subprograma, os
professors Dwain Phillip Santee e Francisco Dyonisio
Cardoso Mendes (Dida), trabalham com comunicagao vo-
cal e comportamento social de primatas. Al6m do Parque
Estadual de Goids, da EstaiAo SAo Jos6, e de dois zool6gicos,
GoiAnia e areas adjacentes contam com varios parques e
reserves que oferecem boas possibilidades de pesquisa sobre
primatas. As inscrig6es estario abertas entire os dias 9 e 14
de fevereiro. Maiores informaCges podem ser obtidas no
telefone (062) 227-1116, ou na pAgina http://www.ucg.br.

The Summer School of the Training Centre
of the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust
"Breeding and Conservation of Endangered
Species" will be held from 16th July to 6th
August 1999. The course is based at the Trust's head-
quarters in Jersey and will consist of morning and after-
noon lectures, discussion sessions and individually su-
pervised research exercises. It offers: An overview of
how the JWPT and other organizations have integrated
conservation in captivity and the wild, and what fu-
ture strategies could be: Lectures which are a mixture
of fundamentals and provocative appraisals encourag-
ing the formulation of of views on the conservation
role of zoos based on an understanding of the issues
involved; Study projects which provide an opportunity
to gain first-hand experience of carrying out research
and analysing data, projects tailored to suit the capa-
bilities, background and types of investigation of in-
terest to each student; Practical instruction/workshop
sessions, with demonstrations of systematic data col-
lection, based on appropriate experimental design, and
showing how to analyse the information obtained; and
Other demonstration sessions in which zoo staff and
invited experts explain some of the practicalities of
captive and field management.
The Course Directors are the Trust Department Head
of Training, Dr. John E. Fa, and two internationally
recognized scientists. The Course Tutor is Dr. Anna T.
C. Feistner, Trust Department Head of Research. The
Course Co-ordinator is Mr. Chris Clark, Assistant
Deputy Head of Training at the Trust. The fee per per-

Neotropical Primates 6(4), December 1998

Page 134

Netoia- rmae () eebe 98Pg 3

son is 1,095 (includes 1999 membership of the Trust,
hotel accommodation, all meals, and course expenses.
Participation is limited to approximately 24 students,
with selection based on merit and suitability. Early ap-
plication is essential. Closing date for applications:
31 January 1999.
For applications, write to: Jersey Wildlife Preservation
Trust, Trinity, Jersey JE3 5BP, Channel Islands, Brit-
ish Isles, Tel: +44 1534 864666, Fax: +44 1534 865161,
e-mail: .


Curso Te6rico del 17 al 19 de mayo, Universidad de
Antioquia en Medellin, Colombia (Costo: U.S. $100;
Cupo: 40 estudiantes), y Curso Practico, del 20 mayo al 1
de junio de 1999, Parque Nacional Utria, Departamento
del Choc6, Colombia (Costo: U.S. $400; Cupo: 25
estudiantes). Organizado por: Centro para la Biologfa de
la Conservaci6n (CCB) Universidad de Stanford, Califor-
nia. USA; Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales,
Departamento de Biologia, Universidad de Antioquia,
Medellin, Colombia; Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias,
Posgrado en Bosques y Conservaci6n Ambiental,
Departamento de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad
Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin. Objetivo general:
Promover process alternatives de capacitaci6n para
estudiantes y profesionales de America Latina en el
desarrollo de programs de monitoreo y manejo para
afrontar la crisis de la diversidad biol6gica. Objetivo
especifico: Profundizar en concepts te6ricos y
metodol6gicos importantes para el desarrollo de programs
de monitoreo y manejo de la diversidad biol6gica, mediante
la combinaci6n de la teoria ecol6gica, diseiio y analisis de
resultados. Instructores: Carlos E. Galindo Leal, Centro
para la Biologia de la Conservaci6n, Stanford, Califor-
nia; Marco A. Rodriguez, Departement de Chimie-
Biologie, Universite du Quebec, Canada; Antonio W. Salas,
Coordinador CCB-Perd Museo de Historia Natural,
Universidad Ricardo Palma, Lima, Perd; Manuel Weber,
Coordinador CCB-M6xico Colegio de la Frontera Sur,
Centro Campeche, M6xico; Mauricio Guerrero,
Coordinador CCB-Ecuador, Fundaci6n Ecol6gica Mazdn,
Cuenca, Ecuador; Brian C. Bock, Departamento de
Ciencias Forestales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia,
Sede Medellin; Alicia Uribe Toro, Departamento de
Biologfa, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellin; Oscar
Ortega, Departamento de Biologia, Universidad Nacional
de Colombia; Jaime H. Polanfa, Centro de Estudios
Caribefios, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, San
Andr6s; Vivian P. Piez, Departamento de Biologia,
Universidad de Antioquia, Medellin. Fechas: Limite de
inscripci6n: 27 de Febrero de 1999; Notificaci6n de
participants: 27 de Marzo de 1999. Requisitos: El curso
estd dirigido a estudiantes avanzados y profesionales de

Ciencias Biol6gicas o afines, cuyo perfil principal es: 1.
Ser estudiante de iltimo afto de pregrado; estudiante de
posgrado o professional de Ciencias Biol6gicas o afines; 2.
Estar involucrado activamente en un proyecto de tesis,
investigaci6n o manejo (conservaci6n, ecologfa), pudiendo
estar en la fase de planeaci6n, ejecuci6n, o analisis. 3.
Tener conocimiento bAsico de estadistica elemental y
ecologia. AdemAs deberd presentar la siguiente
documentaci6n: 1. Formulario "Solicitud de Inscripci6n"
(ver pigina web); 2. Formulario "Perfil de Proyecto de
Investigaci6n" relacionado con la diversidad biol6gica, que
est6 realizando, o que vaya a realizar (usando format
pagina web = afiche); 3. Curriculum Vitae resumido y
actualizado (mdximo 5 pAginas). Mayores informaciones
e inscripciones: Dr. Vivian P. Pdez, Bloque 7 #106,
Departamento de Biologfa, Universidad de Antioquia,
Medellin, Colombia, Tel: 574 210 5624, Fax: 574 233
0120, e-mail: ,
. Web: http://

Zoo Biology, the Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research,
is calling for manuscripts for a special issue focussing on
non-human primate nutrition. This issue will be a collec-
tion of scientific papers relating to primate nutrition, feed-
ing and dietary husbandry. Articles with information on
nutrient requirements, deficiencies, toxicity, nutritional
status, biological response criteria, as well as field data as
they relate to captive husbandry, are encouraged. Please
prepare all manuscripts in the appropriate Zoo Biology
format. Guidelines are available in the journal. Send manu-
scripts to Dr. Dan Wharton, Editor, Zoo Biology, Central
Park Wildlife Center, 830 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY
10021-7095. Submission deadline: 30 April 1999.

The Primate Information Center's Primate Literature
Database (PrimateLit) is now available for searching on
the World Wide Web as a pilot project through June 1999.
PrimateLit indexes over 140,000 research publications
from 1940 to the present. There is no charge to access the
database during the January-June 1999 pilot period. In-
stead, the PIC staff are soliciting user feedback to help
guide the development of an outstanding bibliographic
search tool for the primatological community. The only
requirements for database access are an Internet connec-
tion, and willingness to answer a short feedback ques-
tionnaire. Access to PrimateLit is by password only. Please
contact the PIC to obtain your free password: E-mail:
. Subject Line: Password Re-
quest. Message: Include your full name, affiliation and e-
mail address. A password and instructions for accessing
the database will be sent by return e-mail.

Neotropical Primates 6(4), December 1998

Page 135

Page 136 Neotropical Primates 6(4), December 1998

Jackie Pritchard, Manager, Primate Information Cen-
ter, Health Sciences Libraries, University of Washington,
Seattle, e-mail: .

Number 51 (June 1998) of Primate Report (ISSN 0343-
3528), Editor Dr. Michael Schwibbe, is dedicated to a
single monograph, "Behavioural data on the titi monkey
Callicebus cupreus and the owl monkey Aotus azarae
boliviensis. A contribution to the discussion on the cor-
rect systematic classification of these species", by C.
Welker, B. Jantschke and A. Klaiber-Schuh. It is divided
into five sections, each presented as a separate paper. Part
1: Introduction and behavioral differences (pp.3-18); Part
II: Pair formation and relations between mates (pp.19-
27); Part III: Living in family groups (pp.29-42); Part IV:
Breeding biology (pp.43-53); and Part V: Miscellaneous
notes and final discussion (pp.55-71). Primate Report is
published three times a year by the Deutsches
Primatenzentrum (DPZ), G6ttingen. The subscription
price is DM18.00 or US$12.00 per issue, and includes
also a copy of the annual scientific report of the DPZ. For
more information: Dr. Michael Schwibbe, Editor Primate
Report, German Primate Center, Kellnerweg 4, D-37077
Gottingen, Germany, e-mail: .


Volume 46, number 1, 1998, of the American Journal of
Primatology, the official journal of the American Society of
Primatologists, is dedicated to "Nesting and Resting in Pri-
mates: Behavioral Ecology of Inactivity". The Guest Edi-
tors were William C. McGrew, Miami University, Oxford,
Ohio, and Barbara Fruth, Max Planck Institut fiir
Verhaltensphysiologie, Seewiesen, Germany. The papers
result from a symposium held during the Joint Congress of
the International Primatological Society and the American
Society of Primatologists in Madison, Wisconsin, in August
1996. Contents: Introduction to nesting and resting in pri-
mates: Behavioral ecology of inactivity Barbara Fruth &
William C. McGrew, pp.3-5; Nests, tree holes and the evo-
lution of primate life histories Peter M. Kappeler, pp.7-33;
Sleeping sites, sleeping places, and presleep behavior of gib-
bons (Hylobates lar) Ulrich Reichard, pp.35-62; Sleep,
sleeping sites, and sleep-related activities: Awakening to their
significance James R. Anderson, pp.63-75; Sex-specific
usage patterns of sleeping sites in grey mouse lemurs
(Microcebus murinus) in northwestern Madagascar Ute
Radespiel, Sabine Cepok, Vera Zietemann and Elke
Zimmermann, pp.77-84; Shadows on a changing landscape:
Comparing nesting patterns of hominids and chimpanzees

since their last common ancestor Jeanne Sept, pp.85-101.
AJP subscription inquiries: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Subscrip-
tion Department, 9th floor, 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY
10158, Tel: 212 850-6645. Members of the American Society
of Primatologists can subscribe at a reduced rate, for details con-
tact: Steven J. Schapiro, Department of Veterinary Sciences, M.
D. Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Rt. 2, Box
151-B1, Bastrop, TX 78602-9733, USA.

Conserving Brazil's Muriqui: Population and Habitat Vi-
ability Assessment (PHVA) for Brachyteles arachnoides,
edited by A. B. Rylands, K. B. Strier, R. A. Mittermeier,
J. Borovansky and U. S. Seal. 1998. Conservation Breed-
ing Specialist Group (CBSG), Apple Valley, MN. Price:
US$35.00 (incl. p+p). The final report of the PHVA
Worskhop for the muriqui, held in Belo Horizonte, Minas
Gerais, Brazil, 23-26 May 1998, organized by the
FundagFo Biodiversitas, the Brazilian Institute for the
Environment (IBAMA) and Conservation International
do Brasil, in collaboration with the IUCN/SSC Conserva-
tion Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG) and the Primate
Specialist Group (PSG), and sponsored by the Margot
Marsh Biodiversity Foundation. Contents: Executive sum-
mary and recommendations; Distribution and status; Popu-
lation and habitat management; Social, political, economic
and education impacts; Species biology and modeling;
Workshop participants; Vortex reference. Available from:
IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group,
12101 Johnny Cake Ridge Road, Apple Valley, MN 55124,
USA, Fax: 612 432 2757, e-mail: . US
checks payable to "CBSG". Web site: http://www/cbsg/org.

The Regional Office of FAO for Latin America and the Car-
ibbean (FAO/UNEP/Rede Latinoamericana de Cooperaci6n
T6cnica en Parques Nacionales, Otras Areas Protegidas,
Flora y Fauna Silvestres), based in Santiago, Chile, have
published some important reports.
Politicas, Estrategias y Acciones para la Conservaci6n de
la Diversidad Biol6gica en los Sistemas Costero-Marinos
de Areas Protegidas, by Jose Jairo Escobar R, 1996, 103pp.
Documento T6cnico No. 22 (Proyecto FAO/PNUMA FP/
0312-94-14), in Spanish, includes chapters on; The coastal-
marine biodiversity of the region; Diagnosis of the structure
of the national coastal-marine protected area systems; Di-
agnosis of planning and management in the national coastal-
marine protected area systems; Synthesis and conclusion
regarding the diagnoses of the national coastal-marine pro-
tected area systems; Proposals for a policy framework for
the structure and management of national coastal-marine
protected area systems. The results of a workshop "Polfticas,
Estrategias y Plan de Acci6n Regional para la Conservaci6n

Page 136

Neotropical Primates 6(4), December 1998

Neotropical Primates 6(4), December 1998 Page 137

de la Diversidad Biol6gica en los Sistemas Costeros de Ar-
eas Protegidas" held in Canctin, Mexico. 9-12 November
1995. Appendices: Organizational aspects of the workshop;
Maps of the Pacific and Atlantic coast and Caribbean coastal-
marine protected areas; and a listing of the marine coastal
protected area by country.
Uso y Conservaci6n de la Fauna Silvestre en Los Paises de
la Cuenca del Amazonas, by Juhani Ohasti, 1997, 205 pp.
Documento T6cnico No. 23 (Proyecto GCP/RLA/118/NET
"Apoyo a la Secretarfa Pro Tempore del Tratado de
Cooperaci6n Amaz6nica"), in Spanish. Includes the follow-
ing chapters: Parte I Diagnosis. Introduction; The use of
Amazonian wildlife; Trade in Amazonian wildlife and its
products; Economic value of wildlife; Sustainable manage-
ment of wildlife; Wildlife conservation. Part II Policy. In-
troduction; Policy guidelines. Part III Regional Projects.
Antecedents; Justification; Profiles of subprjects; Costa and
proposals. With 14 appendices. Based on the international
workshop "Uso Sostenible y Conservaci6n de la Fauna
Silvestre en los Paises de la Cuenca del Amazonas", held in
the National Natural Park of Amacayacu, Colombia, 30
August 4 September, 1995.
Politicas para la Conservaci6n de la Diversidad Biol6gica
en los Sistemas de Areas Protegidas de Amdrica Latina y El
Caribe, by Pedro Araya R., 1997, 56pp. Documento T6cnico
No. 24 (Proyecto FAO/PNUMA FP/0312-94-14), in Span-
ish, includes chapters on: Institutional aspects (hierarchy
and institutional autonomy, the role of NGOs, human re-
sources and financing); The structure and coverage of pro-
tected area systems; Protection of biological diversity; Pub-
lic use; Research; Sustainable use of biological diversity;
Buffer zones and local communities.
Available from: Kyran D. Thelen, Oficial Regional Forestal,
Oficina Regional de la FAO para Am6rica Latina y el Car-
ibe, Av. Dag Hammarskj6ld 3241, Casilla 10095, Santiago,
Chile, Fax: (562) 337 2101/2/3, e-mail:

The Asociaci6n Peruana de Ecologia has launched a jour-
nal Ecologia, Revista de la Asociaci6n Peruana de
Ecologta. The first issue, Volume 1(1), was published in
October 1998. The editor is Eduardo G6mez-Cornejo
Belgrano, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima.
It publishes a broad range of original articles on basic eco-
logical themes. It will include the following sections: Scien-
tific articles (peer-reviewed, up to 10 printed pages, includ-
ing tables and figures); Technical notes (peer-reviewed, short
articles of up to three printed pages); Reviews (invited);
Opinion and comments (up to two printed pages); and Book
reviews. Subscriptions: S/.100.00. For more information:
Eduardo G6mez-Cornejo Belgrano, Editor Ecologia,
Departamento Acad6mico de Biologfa, Universidad Nacional
Agraria La Molina, Apartado Postal 456, Lima 100, Peru,

Fax: +51 1 3496015, e-mail: . In-
formation kindly supplied by Eckhard W. Heymann,
Deutsches Primatenzentrum, Gottingen, Germany.

The publishers Blackwell Science, in association with the
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, launched a
new journal in July 1998 Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-
023X. It is a new forum for the very rapid publication of the
most important and interesting research in ecology. The
Editor-in-Chief is Michael Hochberg, Institut d'Ecologie,
University Pierre et Marie Curie, Ecole Normale Sup6rieure,
7 quai St. Bernard, Bat. A,. 76me 6tage, CC237m 75252
Paris 05, France, e-mail: . It will
be published three times in 1998 and bimonthly thereafter.
For more information and subscriptions: Anna Rivers,
Blackwell Science Ltd., Osney Mead, Oxford OX2 OEL,
UK, Tel: +44 1865 206206, Fax: +44 1865 206096. Web
site: .


Guia de Campo de Los Mamiferos de Honduras, por
Leonel Marineros y Francisco Martinez-Gallegos, 1998,
374pp. Institute Nacional de Ambiente y Desarrollo
(miembro de la UICN), Tegucigalpa. Precio US$28.00
(incluye gastos de envio por correo ordinario). Esta guia de
campo provee informaci6n detallada de los mamiferos
terrestres y marines registrados en Honduras. Su principal
contenido da informaci6n sobre las areas protegidas, listados
de mamiferos, descripci6n de las esp6cies, ilustraciones a
color, ilustraciones en blanco y negro (murci6lagos, ratones
y cetaceos), huellas, craneos, mapas de ubicaci6n de registros
en Honduras y bibliografia. Los primates abarcan las piginas
120 a la 128. Los interesados pueden solicitarlo a: Instituto
Nacional de Ambiente y Desarollo INADES, Apartado No.
4160, Tegucigalpa, M. D. C., Honduras, correo eletronico:
Primate Adaptation and Evolution, by John G. Fleagle,
1999, 596pp. Academic Press, San Diego. Second edition.
ISBN 0 122 60341 9. Price US$55.00. This is an extremely
useful, clearly written, and excellently and lavishly illus-
trated textbook and reference. Wonderful line drawings by
Stephen Nash, Hugh Nachamie, Luci Betti and Leslie
Jungers. Considerably expanded from the first edition of
486pp. Very highly recommended for researchers and stu-
dents alike. Available from: Academic Press, Ordering De-
partment, 6277 Sea Harbor Drive, Orlando, FL 32887, USA,
Tel: 1 800 545 2522, Fax: 800 874 6418.
Molecular Biology and Evolution of Blood Group and
MHCAntigens in Primates, edited by A. Blancher, J. Kelin
and W. W. Socha, 1997, 570pp. Springer Verlag, New York.
ISBN 3 540 61636 5. Price: US$149.00. Available from:
Springer Verlag New York, Inc., 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus,
NJ 07094, USA, Tel: +1 800-SPRINGER., Fax: 212 533

Neotrupical Primates 6(4), December 1998

Page 137

Page 138

Introduction to the Primates, by Daris R. Swindler, illus-
trated by Linda E. Curtis. University of Washington Press,
Seattle. 1998. Price: Paperback US$22.00. A comprehen-
sive but compact guide to the long evolutionary history of
the world's prosimians, monkeys and apes, and to the much
shorter history of humankind's interactions with them. Avail-
able from: University of Washington Press, P. O. Box 50096,
Seattle, WA 98145-5096, USA, Tel: +1 800 441 4115, Web
site: http://www.washington. edu/uwpress/.
Primate Locomotion: Recent Advances, edited by Eliza-
beth Strasser, John Fleagle, Alfred Rosenberger, and Henry
McHenry, 1998. Plenum Press, New York and London.
ISBN: 0 306 46022 X. Price: US$110 (USA and Canada),
other countries add 20%. Contents: Part 1: Naturalistic Be-
havior Alfred L. Rosenberger; 1. Methodological issues in
studying positional behavior: Meeting Ripley's challenge -
Marian Dagosto & Daniel L. Gebo; 2. Fine-grained differ-
ences within positional categories: A case study of Pithecia
and Chiropotes Suzanne E. Walker; 3. Patterns of suspen-
sory feeding inAlouatta palliata, Ateles geoffroyi and Cebus
capucinus David J. Bergeson; 4. Within- and between-site
variability in moustached tamarin (Saguinus mystax) posi-
tional behavior during food procurement Paul A. Garber;
5. Locomotion, support use, maintenance activities, and
habitat structure: The case of the Tai Forest cercopithecids -
W. Scott McGraw; 6. The gorilla paradox: The effects of
body size and habitat on the positional behavior of lowland
and mountain gorillas Melissa J. Remis. Part 11: Morphol-
ogy and behavior; Introduction John G. Fleagle; 7. Recon-
struction of hip joint function in extant and fossil primates -
Laura MacLatchy; 8. Grasping performance in Saguinus
midas and the evolution of hand prehensility in primates -
Pierre Lemelin & Brian W. Grafton; 9. Tail-assisted hind
limb suspension as a transitional behavior in the evolution
of the platyrrhine prehensile tail D. Jeffrey Meldrum; 10.
Unique aspects of quadrupedal locomotion in nonhuman
primates Susan G. Larson; 11. Forelimb mechanics dur-
ing arboreal and terrestrial quadrupedalism in Old World
monkeys Daniel Schmitt. Part III: Data acquisition and
analytic techniques; Introduction Elizabeth Strasser; 12.
Advances in three-dimensional data acquisition and analy-
sis John Kappelman; 13. Laser scanning and
paleoanthropology: An example from Olduvai Gorge, Tan-
zania Leslie Aiello, Bernard Wood, Cathy Key & Chris
Wood; 14. Use of strain gauges in the study of primate loco-
motor biomechanics Brigitte Demes; 15. The information
content of morphometric data in primates: Function devel-
opment and evolution Charles E. Oxnard; 16. Heterochronic
approaches to the study of locomotion Laurie R. Godfrey,
Stephen J. King & Michael R. Sutherland; 17. Body size
and scaling of long bone geometry, bone strength, and posi-
tional behavior in cercopithecoid primates William L.
Jungers, David B. Burr & Maria S. Cole. Part IV: Fossils
and reconstructing the origins and evolution of taxa; Intro-
duction Henry M. McHenry; 18. Afropithecus, Proconsul,
and the primitive hominoid skeleton Carol V. Ward; 19.
Fossil evidence for the origins of terrestriality among Old

World higher primates Monte L. McCrossin, Brenda R.
Benefit, Stephen N. Gitau, Angela K. Palmer & Kathleen
T. Blue; 20. Ecological morphology of Australopithecus
afarensis: Traveling terrestrially, eating arboreally Kevin
D. Hunt; 21. Time and energy: The ecological context for
the evolution of bipedalism Robert A. Foley & Sarah Elton;
22. Heel, squat, stand, stride function and evolution of homi-
noid feet Russell H. Tuttle, Benedikt Hallgrimsson &
Tamara Stein; 23. Evolution of the hominid hip Christo-
pher Ruff. To order: Plenum Publishing Corporation, 233
Spring Street, New York, NY 10013-1578, Tel: 1-800-221-
9369, Fax: 1-212-620-8000, .
Cognitive Ecology: The Evolutionary Ecology of Infor-
mation Processing and Decision Making, edited by
Reuven Dukas. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
1998, 420pp. Price: Paperback US$30.00. This book maps
out a new field in the intersection between cognitive psy-
chology and behavioral ecology, The chapters provide up-
to-date reviews of current research, including topics as di-
verse as neural networks, recognition of bird song, spatial
memory and foraging decisions. Available from: The Uni-
versity of Chicago Press, 5801 South Ellis Avenue, Chi-
cago, IL 60637. Web site: www.press. uchicago.edu.
Educaado Ambiental: Caminhos Trilhados no Brasil,
edited by Suzana M. Padua and Marlene F. Tabanez, 1997,
283pp. IP1 Instituto de Pesquisas Ecol6gicas, Brasilia. In
Portuguese. Twenty-two chapters outlining, reviewing and
detailing the state-of-the-art of environmental education in
Brazil. Contents: Projeto Reciclar Isabel Zaneti, pp.19-26;
Uma proposta de educaiAo agroecol6gica para o meio rural
do semi-irido brasileiro Edvalda P. T. L. Aroucha & M. L.
Aroucha, pp.27-42; Educacgo ambiental e universidade: Um
estudo de caso M. Sorrentino, pp.43-54; Escola de educacao
ambiental: A universidade e a incorporagqo da educagio
ambiental no ensino do 1 grau Elizabeth da C. Santos,
pp.55-72; A formag~o de professors em educacao ambiental
B luz da Agenda 21 Nahyda von der Wied, pp.73-88;
Avaliaqao de trilhas interpretativas para educagdo ambiental
- Marlene F. Tabanez et al., pp.89-102; Levantamento do
perfil dos diferentes grupos relacionados ao Parque Estadual
do Turvo, RS Cibele B. Indrusiak & Suzana M. Padua,
pp.103-117; Um program integrado para a conservitcio do
mico-ledo-preto (Leontopithecus chrysopygus) Pesquisa,
educaqao e envolvimento Suzana M. Padua & Claudio
Valladares-Padua, pp.119-131; Programa de conservaqgo do
mico-ledo-dourado: Atividades de educaglo comunitiria para
a conservagio da Mata Atlintica no estado do Rio de Janeiro
- Lou Ann H. Dietz & Elizabeth Y. Nagagata, pp.133-146;
Resgate cultural e conservagao de tartarugas marinhas -
Jaqueline C. de Castilhos, Dayse A. R. Alves & Augusto
C6sar C. D. da Silva, pp.147-156; Instrumentos educativos:
Estrat6gia de educacgo ambiental para o manejo sustentivel
da fauna silvestre por populayoes tradicionais em reserve
extrativista Magaly da F e S. T. Medeiros, pp.157-169; A
ciencia dos Mebeng6kr6 na educagao ambiental de jovens
Kayap6 Sandra M. Machado, pp.171-181; ExtensAo e

Neotropical Primates 6(4), December 1998

Neotropical Primates 6(4), December 1998 Page 139

educagdo florestal na Amaz6nia Oriental: O caso do Projeto-
Piloto de Manejo Florestal Paulo Amaral & Tatiana Corria,
pp.183-192; Zool6gico: Uma sala de aula viva Maria C.
Mergulhio, pp. 193-200; Importdncia de auto-estima no
Projeto Cerrado, Casa Nossa, do Jardim Botnico de Brasilia
(JBB) Carmen X. de Almeida, pp. 201-210; Educag~ o
ambiental com animals pegonhentos: "Na natureza nao
existem vil6es!" Pedro A. Federson Jr., Nayte Vitiello &
SilvanaC. da R. Calixto, pp.211-220; A educaqio ambiental
e a formago de jovens Gabriela P. de Oliveira, pp.221-
229; Rep6rter Eco: A beleza transform Lia de Souza &
Vera L. Diegoli, pp.231-235; Unidades de conservag~ o e
organizaqSes nao-goveramentais em parceria: Programa
de educagco ambiental Ligia M. de Rocha, pp.237-245;
Educacao ambiental nas empresas: Uma nova proposta de
trabalho Carola A. Thamm, pp.247-256; Breve hist6rico
da educaio ambiental Nand M. Medina, pp.257-269; As
transforma6 es na cultural e debate ecol6gico: Desafios
politicos para a educaqao ambiental, pp. 271-280. Available
from: IPE Instituto de Pesquisas Ecol6gicas, Caixa Postal
47, 12960-000 Nazar6 Paulista, Sao Paulo, Brazil, e-mail:
< ipe@ax.ibase.org.br>.
Mammalogy: Adaptation, Diversity and Ecology, by
George Feldhammer, Lee Drickamer, Stephen Vessey and
Joseph Merritt, 1999, 552pp. WCB/McGraw-Hill, New
York. ISBN 0 697 16733-X. A student text book, provides
complete coverage of the behaviour, ecology, and biogeog-
raphy of mammals, intended for one-semester, upper-level .
undergraduate and graduate courses. Available from: WCB/
McGraw-Hill, Tel: 800 338 3987, e-mail:
. International orders (out-
side Canada and USA) e-mail: hill.com> or call 609-426 5793.
Proceedings: International Symposium on Assessment
and Monitoring ofForests in Tropical Dry Regions with
Special Reference to Gallery Forests, edited by Jos6
Imafia-Encinas (University of Brasilia) and Christoph Kleinn
(University of Freiburg), 1997, 378pp. University of Brasilia,
Brasilia. Proceedings of a symposium held in Brasilia from
4-7 November 1996. Thirty-three contributions. For more
information: Editora Universidade de Brasflia, SCS Q.02,
Bloco C, No. 78, Edificio Ok, 20. andar, 70300-500, Brasilia,
D. F, Brazil.

Arden, D. D. 1998. 1997 North American Regional Stud-
book of the Pygmy Marmoset (Callithrix pygmaea).
Denver Zoological Gardens, Denver. 45pp. Data through
31 December 1997. Available from: Ms. Deborah D.
Arden, Denver Zoological Gardens, 2900 E. 23rd Av-
enue, Denver, CO 80205, USA.
Kaemmerer, K. R. and Stevens, A. M. 1998. The North
American Regional Studbook for Titi Monkeys (Genus
Callicebus) 1998. Dallas Zoo, Dallas. 230+pp. Data
through 4 October 1998. Available from: Dr. Kenneth
R. Kaemmerer, Dallas Zoo, 650 South R. L. Thornton

Freeway, Dallas, TX 75203, USA.

Anaya-Huertas, C. and Mondrag6n-Ceballos, R. 1998.
Social behavior of black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles
geoffroyi) reared as home pets. Int. J. Primatol. 19(4):
Ballou, J., Rylands, A. B., Santos, I. B. and Ellis, S. 1998.
Lion Tamarin PHVA. CBSG News 9(1): 8-9.
Barathy, B. 1997. Free-ranging common marmosets
(Callithrixjacchus) at Cricket St. Thomas Wildlife Park.
Ratel 24(6): 215-218.
Bicca-Marques, J. C. 1998. The cognitive aspects of tama-
rin foraging decisions. ASP Bulletin 22(3): 9.
Bicca-Marques, J. C. and Calegaro-Marques, C. 1998.
Behavioral thermoregulation in a sexually and develop-
mentally dichromatic Neotropical primate, the black-
and-gold howling monkey (Alouatta caraya). Am. J.
Phys. Anthropol. 106(4): 533-546.
Brack, M., Wohlsein, P., Minneman, D. and Brandt, H. P.
1998. Toxoplasmosis outbreak in ring-tailed lemurs (Le-
mur catta) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).
Primate Report (50): 71-82.
Bravo, S. P. and Zunino, G. E. 1998. Effects of black howler
monkey (Alouatta caraya) seed ingestion on insect lar-
vae. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 45(4): 411-415.
Brent, L. 1998. Behavioural management of nonhuman
primates in a laboratory environment. In: Proceedings
of the 2nd International Conference on Environmental
Enrichment, B. Hoist (ed.), pp.149-163. Copenhagen
Zoo, Frederiksberg.
Caine, N. G. 1998. Cutting costs in response to predatory
threat by Geoffroy's marmosets (Callithrix geoffroyi).
Am. J. Primatol. 46(3): 187-196.
Canavez, F. C., Moreira, M. A. M., Bonvicino, C. R.,
Parham, P. and Seuinez, H. N. 1998. Comparative gene
assignment in Ateles paniscus chamek (Platyrrhini, Pri-
mates) and man: Association of three separate human
syntenic groups and evolutionary considerations.
Chromosoma 107(2): 73-79.
Canavez, F. C., Ladasky, J. J., Muniz, J. A. P. C., Seuinez,
H. N. and Parham, P. 1998. Beta2-microglobulin in
Neotropical primates (Platyrrhini). Immunogenetics
48(2): 133-140.
Catlow, G. 1998. From sterile to stimulating: Six years of
management and husbandry changes to Edinburgh Zoo's
monkey house. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International
Conference on Environmental Enrichment, B. Hoist
(ed.), pp.205-208. Copenhagen Zoo, Frederiksberg.
Cerqueira, R., Marroig, G. and Pinder L. 1998. Marmo-
sets and lion tamarins distribution (Callitrichidae, Pri-
mates) in Rio de Janeiro state, south-eastern Brazil.
Mammalia 62(2): 213-226.
Coimbra-Filho, A. F. 1998. Brazilian biodiversity. An.
Acad. Brasil. Cignc. 70(4): 889-897.
Consigliere, S., Stanyon, R., Koehler, U., Arnold, N. and
Wienberg, J. 1998. In situ hybridization (FISH) maps

Neotropical Primates 6(4), December 1998

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Page 140 Neotropical Primates 6(4), December 1998

chromosomal homologies between Alouatta belzebul
(Platyrrhini, Cebidae) and other primates reveals exten-
sive interchromosomal rearrangements between howler
monkey genomes. Am. J. Primatol. 46(2): 119-133.
De Blois, S. T., Novak, M. A. and Bond, M. 1998. Object
permanence in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) and squir-
rel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). J. Comp. Psychol.
112(2): 137-152.
Dettling, A., Pryce, C. R., Martin, R.D. and Dobeli, M.
1998. Physiological responses to parental separation and
a strange situation are related to parental care received
in juvenile Goeldi's monkeys (Callimico goeldii).
Developm. Psychobiol. 33(1): 21-31.
Dixson, A. F 1998. Sexual selection and evolution of the
seminal vesicles in primates. Folia Primatol. 69(5): 300-
Durrell, L. and Mallinson, J. J. C. 1998. The impact of an
institutional review: A change of emphasis towards field
conservation programmes. Int. Zoo Yearbook 36: 1-8.
Estrada, A., Coates-Estrada, R., Dadda, A. A. and
Cammarano, P. 1998. Dung and carrion beetles in tropi-
cal rain forest fragments and agricultural habitats at Los
Tuxtlas, Mexico. J. Trop. Ecol. 14: 577-593.
Favre, N., Daubenberger, C., Marfurt, J., Moreno, A.,
Patarroyo, M. and Pluschke, G. 1998. Sequence and di-
versity of T-cell receptor alpha V, J, and C genes of the
owl monkey Aotus nancymaae. Immunogenetics 48(4):
Fragoso, J. M. V. 1997. Tapir-generated seed shadows:
Scale dependent patchiness in the Amazon rain forest.
J. Ecol. 85(4): 519-529.
Gonzalez-Kirchner, J. P. 1998. Group size and popula-
tion density of the black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra)
in Muchukux forest, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Folia
Primatol. 69(5): 260-265.
Groves, C. P. 1997. Taxonomy and phylogeny of primates.
In: Molecular Biology and Evolution of Blood Group
and MHC Anigens in Primates. A. Blancher, J. Kelin
and W. W. Socha (eds.), 3-23. Springer Verlag, Berlin.
Guerrero, S. R. 1998. Patr6n de actividades de monos
aulladores silvestres (Alouatta palliata mexicana) en una
zona perturbada del sur de Veracruz, M6xico. Lab. Prim.
Newsl. 37(4): 8.
Hager, R. and Welker, C. 1998. Are infant Callithrixjacchus
being fed by their parents? Primate Report (50): 67-70.
Harcourt, A. H. 1998. Does primate socioecology need
nonprimate socioecology? Evol. Anthropol. 7(1): 3-7.
Hardie, S. M. 1998. Mixed species tamarin groups
(Saguinus fuscicollis and Saguinus labiatus) in north-
ern Bolivia. Primate Report (50): 39-62.
Hatt, J. M. and Sainsbury, A. W. 1998. Unusual case of
metabolic bone disease in a common marmoset
(Callithrixjacchus). Vet. Rec. 143(3): 78-80.
Heymann, E. W., Knogge, C., Tirado, E. R. and Smith A.
C. 1998. Dwarf monkeys in the Amazonian rain forest:
Research on wild Peruvian tamarins. Zeitschrift des
Kilner Zoo 41(2): 63-84. In German.
Hill, R. A. and Dunbar, R. I. M. 1998. An evaluation of

the roles of predation rate and predation risk as selec-
tive pressures on primate grouping behaviour. Behaviour
135(4): 411-430.
Hoelzer, G. A., Wallman, J. and Melnick, D. 1998. The
effects of social structure, geographical pattern, and
population size on the evolution of mitochondrial DNA:
II. Molecular clocks and the lineage sorting period. J.
Mol. Evol. 47(1): 21-31.
Hoist, B. 1998. Introduction to the environmental enrich-
ment program in Copenhagen Zoo. In: Proceedings of
the 2nd International Conference on Environmental
Enrichment, B. Hoist (ed.), pp.244-250. Copenhagen
Zoo, Frederiksberg.
Horowitz, I., Zardoya, R. and Meyer, A. 1998. Platyrrhine
systematics: A simultaneous analysis of molecular and
morphological data. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 106(3): 261-
Hugot, J. P. Phyologeny of Neotropical monkeys: The in-
terplay of morphological, molecular and parasitological
data. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 9(3): 408-413.
Janson, C. H. 1998. Testing the predation hypothesis for
vertebrate sociality: Prospects and pitfalls. Behaviour
135(4): 389-410.
Jernvall, J. and Wright, P. C. 1998. Diversity components
of impending primate extinctions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.
U.S.A. 95(19): 11279-11283.
Jones, C. B. and Cort6s-Ortiz, L. 1998. Facultative poly-
andry in the howling monkey (Alouatta palliata): Car-
penter was correct. Bol. Primatol6gico Latinoamericano
7(1): 1-7.
Jorgensen, D. D. and French, J. A. 1998. Individuality
but not stability in marmoset long-calls. Ethology 104(9):
Koene, P. 1998. Time budgets of zoo mammals in relation
to housing. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International
Conference on Environmental Enrichment, B. Hoist
(ed.), pp.179-187. Copenhagen Zoo, Frederiksberg.
Lambert, J. E. 1998. Primate digestion: Interactions among
anatomy, physiology and feeding ecology. Evol.
Anthropol. 7(1): 8-20.
Lamprey, V. 1997. Polyandry as an alternative husbandry
strategy for the cotton-top tamarin. IZN (Int. Zoo News)
44(8): 452-456.
Lesley, D. 1998. Environmental enrichment in captive
primates: A survey and a review. In: Proceedings of the
2nd International Conference on Environmental Enrich-
ment, B. Hoist (ed.), pp.337-355. Copenhagen Zoo,
Mamede-Costa, A. C. and Gobbi, N. 1998. The black lion
tamarin Leontopithecus chrysopygus its conservation
and management. Oryx 32(4): 295-300.
Mamede-Costa, A. C. and Godoi, S. 1998. Consumption
of Syagrus romanzoffiana (Arecaceae) fruits by black
lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysopygus) in south-
eastern Brazil. Mammalia 62(2): 310-313.
Mandillo, S., Titchen, K. and Miczek, K. A. 1998. Etha-
nol drinking in socially-housed squirrel monkeys. Behav.
Pharmacol. 9(4): 363-367.

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Neotropical Primates 6(4), December 1998 Page 141

Markowitz, H. 1998. Environmental enrichment and the
conservation of behavior. In: Proceedings of the 2nd
International Conference on Environmental Enrichment,
B. Hoist (ed.), pp.17-23. Copenhagen Zoo,
Matamoros, Y. 1998. Confiscation Workshop in El Salva-
dor. CBSG News 9(1): 27-28.
Moore, M. T. 1997. Behavioural adaptation of captive-
born silvery marmosets Callithrix argentata argentata
to a free-ranging environment. Dodo, J. Wildl. Preserv.
Trusts. 33:155.
Moore, M. T. 1997. Behavioural adaptation of captive-
born golden-headed lion tamarins Leontopithecus
chrysomelas to a free-ranging environment. Dodo, J.
Wildl. Preserve. Trusts 33: 156-157.
Nisbett, R. A. and Glander, K. E. 1996. Quantitative de-
scription of parturition in a wild mantled howling mon-
key: A case study of prenatal behaviors associated with
a primiparous delivery. Brenesia 45-46: 157-168.
Palacios, E. 1998. Ecological bases for lake- and river-
side habitat use of Alouatta seniculus in Colombian
Amazonia. ASP Bulletin 22(3): 8.
Panger, M. A. 1998. Object use in free-ranging white-
faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) in Costa Rica. Am.
J. Phys. Anthropol. 106(3): 311-321.
Perez, A. and Vea, J. J. 1998. Cost-benefit analysis of
allogrooming behaviour in primates II. Primate Report
(50): 15-37.
Peters, V. M., and Guerra, M. 0. 1998. Growth of mar-
moset monkeys Callithrix jacchus in captivity. Folia
Primatol. 69(5): 266-272.
Phillips, K. A. 1998. Tool use in wild capuchin monkeys
(Cebus albifrons trinitatis). Am. J. Primatol. 46(3): 259-
Phillips, K. A., Elvey, C. H. and Abercrombie, C. L. 1998.
Applying GPS to the study of primate ecology: A useful
tool? Am. J. Primatol. 46(2): 167-172.
Pastorini, J. Forstner, M. R. J., Martin, R. D., Melnick,
D. J. 1998. A reexamination of the phylogenetic posi-
tion of Callimico (Primates) incorporating new mito-
chondrial DNA sequence data. J. Molec. Evol. 47(1):
Pope, T. R. 1998. Effects of demographic change on group
kin structure and gene dynamics of populations of red
howling monkeys. J. Mammal. 79(3): 692-712.
Price, E. C. 1997. Group instability following cessation
of breeding in marmosets and tamarins. Dodo, J. Wildl.
Preserve. Trusts 33: 157-158.
Puig, H., Fabre, A. and Gauquelin, T. 1998. Spatial dis-
tribution of seedlings and young plants of Iryanthera
hostmanni (Benth.) Warb. in French Guiana tropical rain
forest. Comptes Rendus de I'Academie des Sciences (Ser.
III) 321(5): 429-435. In French.
Ross, C., Williams, B. and Kay R. F 1998. Phylogenetic
analysis of anthropoid relationships. J. Hum. Evol. 35(3):
Santos, G. R. dos and Blanes, J. 1997. Environmental
education programme with the community surrounding

the Una Biological Reserve, Bahia, Brazil. Dodo, J.
Wildl. Preserve. Trusts 33: 118-126.
Schwammer, H. M. 1998. Time management for zoo ani-
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pp.239-243. Copenhagen Zoo, Frederiksberg.
Shepherdson, D. and Carlstead, K. 1998. Understanding
the relationship between environment and reproduction
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des Sciences Ser. III 321(8): 699-704. French with En-
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Sousa, M. B. C. and Ziegler. T. E. 1998. Diurnal varia-
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Stanford, C. B. 1998. Predation and male bonds in pri-
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Tejedor, M. F. 1998. The position ofAotus and Callicebus
in the phylogeny of the platyrrhine primates. Bol.
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with English summary.
Terborgh, J. and Andresen, E. 1998. The composition of
Amazonian forests: patterns at local and regional scales.
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Thierry, B. 1997. Adaptation and self-organization in pri-
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Treves, A. 1998. The influence of group size and
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Vi6, J. C., de Thoisy, B., Fournier, P., Fournier-
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of the German Primate Society, Berlin, 1-5 October,
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Neotropical Primates 6(4), December 1998

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Sanchez, S., Peldez, F., Kaumanns, W. and Heymann, E.
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H. M. Giving birth in primates: Connections between
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Welker, C. Alloparental care in capuchin monkeys (Cebus
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Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour, Easter
Meeting, 29-31 March, 1999. University of Newcastle,
UK. Organized by Sue Healy and Marion Petrie. A gen-
eral meeting with no specific theme. Invited speakers in-
clude: Naomi Pierce (Harvard University), Margo Wilson
(McMaster University) and John Krebs (Oxford Univer-
sity). A workshop "Advice to Postgraduate Students" will
be held in conjunction with the meeting, on 29 March
1999. For more information: Dr Sue Healy, Department
of Psychology, University of Newcastle, Newcastle-upon-
Tyne NE1 7RU, UK, Fax: +44 (0)191 2225622, e-mail:
Primate Society of Great Britain Spring Meeting 1999,
12-13 April 1999, Liverpool University, Liverpool, UK.
Monday 12 April will be a half-day programme (starting
at 1400 h) devoted to the topic of "Social Complexity",
and will consist mainly of invited speakers. It will be fol-
lowed by an informal social evening at a local venue. Tues-
day 13 April (an all-day meeting ending at 1600 h) will
be an open meeting for presentations by members of the
Society; following conventional practice, a special empha-
sis will be given to presentations by postgraduate students
and primate keepers. The organizers would welcome of-

Neotropical Primates 6(4), December 1998 Page 143

fers of papers for the Tuesday sessions. We would be espe-
cially grateful if supervisors would encourage (or nomi-
nate) their postgraduate students to give papers reporting
on their research. Offers of papers should be sent to Russell
Hill, School of Biological Sciences, Nicholson Building,
University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX (email:
), from whom further details about the
meeting may be obtained. Final details, including
programme and places to stay, will be given in the Febru-
ary issue of Primate Eye. A small number of rooms at
university halls of residence (cost 20.90p B & B per night)
will be available, but firm bookings and a cheque for the
full amount are required by 6 March at the latest. The
halls are a 15 min bus/taxi ride from the university; you
may prefer alternative accommodation in hotels (25 per
night B & B) which are just 5 minutes walk from the
lecture theatre. Phone numbers of hotels will be listed on
the web site (see below) and in the final announcement in
the spring issue of Primate Eye. Full details of the meet-
ing, as well as places to stay, are available on the PSGB
web page: http://www.liv.ac.uk/~lycett/main.htm.
I Congress Colombiano de Botanica, 26-30 de abril de
1999, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales de la Universidad
Nacional de Colombia, Santaf6 de Bogota. Los Temas que
se tratarin girarAri alrededor de: Biodiversidad y
Conservaci6n, Taxonomfa Sistem6tica y Evoluci6n;
Ecosistemas terrestres y marines; Biologia cellular y mo-
lecular; Etnobiologia y Botinica Econ6mica; Fisiologia;
Palinologfa y paleoecologia; Anatomfa y morfologfa.
Informaci6n adicional por favor contactar a: Jaime Aguirre
C., Coordinador general, Subdirector de Investigaciones,
Institute de Ciencias Naturales, Tel: 3165000 ext. 11520,
e-mail: .
3rd European Congress of Mammalogy, 29 May 3 June,
1999, Jyviskylli, Finland. Hosted by the Department of
Biological and Environmental Sciences of the University
of Jyvaskyla, the Societas Europaea Mammalogica and
Confennia Ltd. For more information: Congress Secre-
tariat, Confennia Ltd., e-mail: .
II International Wildlife Management Congress "Wild-
life, Land and People: Priorities for the 21" Century",
28 June- 2 July 1999, Gdo61l6, Hungary. Organized by
The Wildlife Society with the Hungarian co-sponsor and
host, the University for Agricultural Sciences in G6d6116,
Hungary. Deadline for proposals of one-half-day work-
shops, symposium, and special poster session proposals:
30 June 1998. Workshops, symposia, and special poster
sessions should focus on topics of wildlife science, man-
agement, sustainable development, education and out-
reach, or laws and policy within the broad theme of the
Congress. Each day will begin with a morning plenary
session followed by related concurrent sessions, symposia
and workshops in the afternoon. Themes for the five-day
congress are (1) Sustainable Development and Wildlife
Conservation; (2) Landscape Linkages: Ecosystem Sci-
ence and Management; (3) Issues in Wildlife-Human Con-

flicts; (4) Education, Outreach, and Human Dimensions
in Wildlife Conservation; and (5) Techniques for Moni-
toring Wildlife Populations. Symposia, and, where appro-
priate, workshop presentations will be considered for pub-
lication in a Congress proceedings; organizers will be re-
quired to provide an initial edit and evaluation of submit-
ted papers. The proceedings will be published in English;
oral presentations will be in English or possibly Hungar-
ian depending on the availability of translators. More in-
formation on preparing proposals for workshops, sympo-
sia, and special poster sessions can be found in the March-
April 1998 issue of The Wildlifer, and on The Wildlife
Society website , or
guidelines may be requested from Co-Chair of the Pro-
gram Committee, W. Daniel Edge at his e-mail address.
Deadline for submission of papers and posters: 15 Octo-
ber 1998. Electronic (e-mail or internet form) submissions
are preferred. Electronic submissions of contributed pa-
pers and posters should be sent to the Program Co-Chair
at the e-mail address below. Please, no telephone inquir-
ies related to abstract submission or acceptance. Direct all
other inquiries to The Wildlife Society office at Tel: (301)
897-9770, Fax: (301) 530-2471, e-mail: org>. Decisions concerning acceptance of papers and post-
ers will be made by 30 November 1998. The abstract sub-
mission form can be found on the TWS webpage www.wildlife.org/abstract.html>. Dr. W. Daniel Edge, Co-
Chair, Program Committee, Department of Fisheries and
Wildlife, Oregon State University, 104 Nash Hall,
Corvallis, Oregon 97331-3803, USA, e-mail edge@orst.edu>, , also wildlife.org>.
IX Congress Brasileira de Primatologia, 25-29 July
1999, Museu de Biologia Mello Leitao, Santa Teresa,
Espirito Santo, Brazil. The theme of the congress is "Pri-
mate Conservation Perspectives for the 21st Century".
For further information, please contact: S6rgio Lucena
Mendes, Museu de Biologia Mello Leitao, Avenida Josd
Ruschi 4, 29650-000 Santa Teresa, Espirito Santo, Bra-
zil, Tel: (027) 259-1182, Fax: (027) 259-1182, e-mail:
22nd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Pri-
matologists, 12-16 August, 1999, Fairmont Hotel, New
Orleans, Louisiana, USA. Hosted by the College of Liber-
al Arts and Sciences and the Regional Primate Research
Center of Tulane University. Abstracts must be sent to the
Chair of the Program Committee by 1 February 1999.
Contact information: Program Chair, Dr. Mollie Bloom-
smith, TECHLab, Zoo Atlanta, 800 Cherokee Ave., S.E.,
Atlanta, Georgia 30315, USA, Tel: (404) 624 5990, Fax:
(404) 627-7514, e-mail: com>. Local Arrangements Chair: Dr. Margaret Clarke,
Department of Anthropology, Tulane University, 1021
Audubon Street, New Orleans, LA 70118, Tel: (504) 865-
5336, Fax: (504) 865-5338, e-mail: mrclarke@mailhost.
tcs.tulane.edu>. ASP website: .

Neotropical Primates 6(4), December 1998

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Page 144

IV Congress de Manejo de Fauna Amazonica, 4 al 8 de
octubre de 1999, Asunci6n, Paraguay Este important
eventt, iniciado en 1992, resume en breves dias los
aresultados de todos los esfuerzos aplicados en po. de la
consernacion de la launa de toda la region amazonica. En
esta oportunidad se Iortalecera a plurparticipjciln. la
discusi6n de strategies y la elaboraci6n de planes de acci6n
apunltndo a una consernaci6n protagonizada por los
pobladores rurales. beneficiaries director de un uso
sostenible del recurso faunistico; La organizaci6n de este
event es el resultado de un esfuerzo conjunto entire la
Oficina CITES-Py. La Gobernaci6n del Departamento
Central y la organization ambientalisia Fundacl6n Moises
Bertoni para la Conservaci6n de.la.Naturaleza. Misi6n:
Trabajar en forma pluriparticipativa y en acci6n
coordinada para la optimizaci6n delays political de uso,
tecnicas y estrategias de manejo de la vida silvestre
-amazonica para fomentar el desarrollo socio-economico
sostenible y la conservaci6n de la naluraleza. Los Irabajos
seian redibidos hasta el 1 de marzo de 1999. Se podrjn
enviar por correo electronic, o en impression en papel
blanco tamano carta con una copia archivada en diskette.
Unicamente se recibiran los siguientes formatos: WP5.1,
Microsoft Word 6.0 o textos en ASCII (DOS IBM).
Invitaci6n a events: La comisi6n organizadora desearia
recibir propuestas para la organizaci6n de simposios,
talleres, cursos, mesas redondas y otras reuniones
relacionadas a la tematica propuesta para el Congreso.
Los interesados en organizer o en participar de algunos
de estos events pueden comunicarse con el Comite
Organizador. Inscripciones: Hasta el 31 de marzo de 1999,
estudiantes: US$30, profesionales: US$60; Hasta el 30 de
setiembre de 1999, estudiantes: -US$50, profesionales:
US$100; Inscripciones tardias (durante el Congreso),
estudiantes: US$60, profesionales: US$120. Los idiomas
oficiales del Congreso seran Espanol y Portugues, no se
haran servicios de traducci6n simultanea. Comisi6n
Organizadora, IV Congreso de Manejo de Fauna
Amazonica, Fundaci6n Moises Bertoni, C.C. 714,
Asunci6n, Paraguay, Tel: (595-21) 608 740, 600 855, Fax:
(595-21) 608 741m, e-mail: .
Visitenos en internet (a partir de julio): org.py>.
Primate Society of Great Britain Winter Meeting 1999,
1 December 1999, Institute of Zoology, London. The theme
will be "Mating and Social Systems of Old World Mon-
keys". Suggestions for speakers and offers of posters are very
welcome. Please contact: Dr. Caroline Ross or Mairi Macle-
od, School of Life Sciences, Roehampton Institute London,
West Hill, London SW15 3SN, UK, Tel.: +44 181 392 3561,
Fax: +44 181 392 3527, e-mail: .uk> or .

XVIIth Congress of the International Primatological
Society, 7-12 January 2001, Adelaide, Australia. Hosted
by the Australasian Primate Society, President Mr. John

Lemon, Western Plains Zoo, Dubbo, NSW. Mr. Graeme
Crook is Chairman of the Organizing Committee. Dead-
lines: Symposium titles July 1999;-Abstracts January
2000. For more information, and to be put onto the Con-
gress Organizer's mailing list, write to: Conventions
Worldwide. PO Box 44. Rundle Mall. SA 5000, Austra-
lia, Tel: +61 8 8363 0068. Fax: +61 8 8363 0354, e-mail:
, sending your postal address,
telephone, fax and e-mail address.

We would be most grateful if you could send us information
on projects, research groups, events (congresses, symposia,
and workshops), recent publications, activities of
primatological societies and NGOs, news items or opinions
of recent events and suchlike. Manuscripts should be
double-spaced and accompanied by the text in diskette
for PC compatible text-editors (MS-Word, Wordperfect,
Wordstar). Articles, not exceeding six pages, can include
small black-and-white photographs, high quality figures,
and high quality maps, tables and references, but please
keep them to a minimum.
Please send contributions to: ANTHONY RYLANDS, c/o
Conservation International do Brasil, Avenida Ant6nio
Abrahao Caram 820/302, 31275-000 Belo Horizonte,
Minas Gerais, Brazil, Tel/Fax: +55 (31) 441 17 95 or
ERNESTO RODRIGUEZ-LUNA, Parque de La Flora y Fauna
Silvestre Tropical, Instituto de Neuroetologfa, Universidad
Veracruzana, Apartado Postal 566, Xalapa, Veracruz
91000, M6xico, Fax: 52 (28) 12-5748.
LILIANA CORTS-ORTIZ (Universidad Veracruzana) provides
invaluable editorial assistance.
Correspondence, messages, and texts can be sent to:

saraguat@ speedy.coacade.uv.mx

SNEOTROPICAL PRIMATES is produced in collaboration
Suite 200, Washington DC 20037, USA, and FUNDAfAO
BIODIVERSITAS, Av. do Contorno, 9155/11. andar -
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Neotropical Primates 6(4), December 1998

ISSN 1413-4703


F U DAT 0 N Parks and Recreation Department

This issue of Neotropical Primates was kindly sponsored by the Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foun-
dation,432 Walker Road, Great Falls, Virginia 22066, USA, the Houston Zoological Gardens Con-
servation Program, General Manager Donald G. Olson, 1513 North MacGregor, Houston, Texas
77030, USA and the Grupo de Trabalho em Biodiversidade (GTB), through the Brazilian National
Science Research Council (CNPq), Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca, Coordenador do GTB, c/o Conserva-
tion International do Brasil, Avenida Ant6nio Abrahao Caram 820/302, 31275-000 Belo Horizonte,
Minas Gerais, Brazil.
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Anthony Rylands/Emesto Rodrfguez Luna, Editors
Conservation International
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31275-000, Belo Horizonte
Minas Gerais, Brazil

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