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Title: Neotropical primates a newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCNSSC Primate Specialist Group
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Table of Contents
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Full Text

ISSN 1413-4703

A Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group
Editors: Anthony B. Rylands and Ernesto Rodrfguez Luna
PSG Chairman: Russell A. Mittermeier
PSG Deputy Chairman: Anthony B. Rylands




Neotropical Primates 6(2), June 1998 Page 35

Anita Christen

Goeldi's monkey (Callimico goeldii) is one of the most
enigmatic primates in the Amazon basin. In spite of its
large distribution, from southern Colombia in the north,
over eastern Peru and south-western Brazil to north-west-
ern Bolivia in the south (Hershkovitz, 1977), little is known
of its present-day distribution or behavioral ecology in
the wild. The only recent sightings are documented from
the Pando Department in north-western Bolivia. The
Pando is part of the upper Amazon basin, and covers an
area of about 63,000 km2. It has a very low human popu-
lation density of about 0.9 inhabitants per km2. The for-
ests, mostly seasonally dry tropical rain forest, are exploited
for Brazil nuts, sorva gum, and rubber. Annual rainfall is
1600-1900 mm and the mean annual temperature is 24.7"C
(Montes de Oca, 1989). For a more detailed description of
the region see Christen and Geissmann (1994).
Field Surveys
During two surveys, in February-July, 1991 and July-De-
cember, 1996, 18 localities in the Pando were visited and
explored specifically to locate Callimico goeldii. In the
1996 survey, Goeldi's monkeys were found around the
locality of Virazon, Rio Acre, on the frontier with Brazil,
and about six to nine hours by boat from Cobija. A rudi-
mentary camp site was set up there, and we carried out
daily surveys along 6 km of seringa trails (paths of the
rubber tappers) as well as 4-5 km of new trails cut by us,
from August 23 to December 13, 1996 (Fig. 1). The seringa
trails were walked for 6-7 hours each day in search of
Goeldi's monkey groups (Fig. 1). Vegetation analyses were
carried out in two areas where Callimico was observed
most frequently. All trees with a diameter of more than 5
cm were recorded and identified (Table 4, Fig. 2).
The home range of the main study group overlapped the

Table 1: The behaviours and activities of the main study group on first
being sighted.
Behaviour/activity No of sightings
Calling (spontaneous) 7
Grooming 4
Foraging and eating' 10
Running, climbing, leaping 25
Resting 5
Calling (reply to playback) 3
Flight 4
Tongue clicking 4
Staring at observer 3
' mushroom (species not identified) (1), grasshopper (1), fruits ofCecropia
sp., Theobroma cacao, Eschweilera coriacea and "capela de cuchilla"
species not identified (8).

home ranges of at least two groups of saddleback tama-
rins, S. fuscicollis. Red-bellied tamarins, S. labiatus, on
the other hand were rarely observed in the area. The main
Callimico study group was occasionally observed eating
in the same or neighboring trees with S. fuscicollis, but
after feeding, the two groups separated and travelled alone.
Agonistic behaviour was observed among S. fuscicollis
group members, but never between S. fuscicollis and
On August 25, I recorded a possibly pregnant female sit-
ting quietly on a branch, 3-5 m high (Fig. 1: point 4), and
a month later, on September 26, a female was seen carry-
ing a very small infant while sitting on a tree at a height
of about 6-8 m in a nest-like entanglement of branches.
The female and two other group members were sitting
together and grooming each other and their own tails, and
the impression was gained that the infant had just been
born. The other group members were climbing, jumping
and sitting around nearby, in an area covering about 15 x
20 m. The group was observed at this location several
times (Fig. 1: point 5), and a few weeks later, a second
female was also seen carrying an infant. There was just
one, easily recognized, adult male in the group. On No-
vember 5, when the infants were about 6 weeks old and
measured about 12-15 cm, head-to-tail, they were still
being carried. On November 23, the infants were seen
running about and climbing on their own. One infant was
also present in a neighboring group, and on occasion
when the four adults saw me, they ran away and left their
two-month old infant behind in spite of its distress calls.
Other primate species were also seen with new born in-
fants at this time. On 1 October new-born infants were
observed in groups of Saguinus fuscicollis, Saimiri
boliviensis and Pithecia irrorata.
Towards the end of November, there were more fruits in
the home range, and on one occasion it was possible to
follow the main study group from 06:00 in the morning
until mid-day (Fig. 1: points 32 + 33). During that 6-hour
period, they travelled a distance of about 1 km. Table 1
summarises the behavioral activities of the study group
seen each time it was sighted, and Table 2 shows the habi-
tat and substrate preferences of the main study group.
Despite the similarity of their long calls, saddleback tama-

Table 2: Habitat and substrate preferences of the main study group.
Habitat No of sightings
River edge forest 35
Disturbed forest 6
River edge forest with palm trees 5
Height above ground(m)
1-4 5
5-9 27
11-15 7
Substrate diameter (m)
0.10-0.14 18
0.15-0.19 10
>0.20 10

Cover photograph by Alice GuimarAes: Buffy-headed marmoset, Callithrixflaviceps, at the Caratinga Biological Station, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Neotropical Primates 6(2), June 1998

Page 35

Neotropical Primates 6(2), June 1998

Fig. 1. Home range of the study group at Virazon, Department of Pando. A stream runs through the home range. Numbers 5 and 11 are defined tree sample
areas. Hatched plots are "chacos" (agricultural plantings). Symbols: numbered circles = sightings of Goeldi's monkey, group 8; asterisks = sightings of
Goeldi's monkey group 4; lines = already existing seringa trails; dotted lines paths marked and cut during the 1996 survey; S: possible sleeping sites;
bananas = bunches of banana used as bait. Virazon = camp site.

rins and Goeldi's monkey appeared to differ in several
aspects of their behaviour (Table 3). The trees identified
in sample areas 5 and 11 are listed in Table 4. Sample
area 5 (Fig. 2, area 5) was close to a bamboo patch. Vis-
ibility was poor. It contained trees with heights of 4-25 m
(two emergents with big crowns were about 30 to 40 m
tall). Sample area 11 (Fig. 2, area 11) contained trees of
4-30 m height, lianas, few bamboos and several fruit trees.
Visibility was fair to excellent, with no dense ground veg-
etation. Callimico often met Saguinus fuscicollis in this

The main study group of 10 animals included two adult
females, each carrying an infant and two juveniles of about
the same age. This suggests that births in the study group
occurred during the end of September and the beginning

Fig. 2. Vertical structure of the rain forest along a portion of transect 20 x 2
m in Area I (left) and Area 5 (right).

Table 3: Some behavioral differences between saddleback tamarins (Saguinusfuscicollis) and Goeldi's monkeys
(Callimico goeldii).
Variable Saguinusfuscicollis Calimico goeldii
Activity level more active less active
Inquisitive behaviour curious shy
Self-grooming less frequent frequent, especially tail grooming
Descent head first mostly tail first (like cebids), occasionally head first
Foraging with frequent vocalisations very quietly
Threat call chatter with nose wrinkling tongue-clicking
Long call similar, shrill similar, softer

Page 36

Neotropical Primates 6(2), June 1998 Page 37

Table 4: Plant species identified in sample areas 5 and 11, both habitats of
Callimico goeldii.
Species Area 51 Family
Rollinia sp. Annonaceae
Cordia goeldiana Boraginaceae
Hevea brasiliensis Euphorbiaceae
Hura crepitans Euphorbiaceae
Bambusa sp. Graminae
Unidentified Lecythidaceae
Unidentified Mimosaceae
Neea sp. Nyctaginaceae
Capirona decorticans Rubiaceae
Leonia racemosa Violaceae
Rinoreocarpus ulei Violaceae
Species Area 11
Aspidosperma ramiflorum Apocynaceae
Philodendron sp. Araceae
Terminalia amazonica Combretaceae
Dyospyros melinoni Ebenaceae
Sloanea sp. Elaeocarpaceae
Bambusa sp. Graminae
Rheedia achachairu Guttiferae
Eschweilera albiflora Lecythidaceae
Eschweilera coriacea Lecythidaceae
Inga sp. Mimosaceae
Batocarpus amazonicus Moraceae
Castilla ulei Moraceae
Cecropia sp. Moraceae
Maquira coriacea Moraceae
Neea sp. Nyctaginaceae
Theobroma cacao Sterculiaceae
'34 additional species in Area 5 remain unidentified.
of October. This agrees with the observations of Masataka
(1981a): Two births, one in September and the other in
The status of Callimico goeldii is difficult to judge, al-
though the evidence suggests that populations are declin-
ing in the Pando. During the surveys in 1991, no Goeldi's
monkeys were found at Triunfo and Mucden (Christen,
1994; Christen and Geissmann, 1994), although they were
sighted and studied there during earlier surveys
(Buchanan-Smith, 1991; Izawa, 1979; Masataka, 1981a,
1981b; Pook and Pook, 1981, 1982). Similarly, during the
1996 survey, no Goeldi's monkeys were found in any of
the five areas where I had observed them in 1991. Local
people informed me that they chase adult Goeldi's mon-
keys away in order to capture their infants (see above).
The infants are kept as pets or sold, but most of them die.
The study was financed by grants from Protection of Ani-
mals Ziirich (Ziircher Tierschutz), Basel Zoological Gar-
den, George and Antoine Caraz-Foundation, A. H.
Schultz-Foundation, and the Zoological Society of Zurich.
I thank the Ministerio de Desarollo Sostenible y Medio
Ambiente, of La Paz and of Cobija and La Colecci6n
Boliviana de Fauna (La Paz) for permission to carry out
the field study and for their help and support. Special
thanks are due to Teresa Tarifa of the Colecci6n Boliviana
de Fauna for her friendly help with all the formalities be-
fore and during my stay in Bolivia and to Josd Luis Izursa
of the Centro de Investigaci6n in Cobija. For their com-
panionship and essential help in the field I am grateful to

my children Ruth, Thomas and Kasper, to Leila Porter
(SUNY-Stony Brook, USA), Beatrice Niinlist (CH), Mark
Brayshaw (Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, Jersey), the
Bolivian students Carolina Caceres, Angela Nufiez and
Aldo Vallejos Silva. I thank all who helped with the iden-
tification of the plants at the Botanical Institute in La Paz.
I would like to acknowledge the help and advice of Don
Galindo and his son Jorge (Cobija), the friendly hospital-
ity of the family in Virazon and of all the people in the
forest of the Pando. I thank Dr. Eckhard Heymann and
Dr. Thomas Geissmann for useful advice and comments
on my project and for kindly reading and commenting on
the manuscript. I am especially grateful to Prof. R. D.
Martin for critically reading the manuscript, helping with
the English text, and providing the facilities to do this

Anita Christen, Anthropological Institute, Universitit
Ziirich-Irchel, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Ziirich,
Buchanan-Smith, H. M. 1991. Field observations of
Goeldi's monkey, Callimico goeldii, in northern Bolivia.
Folia Primatol. 57: 102-105.
Christen, A. 1994. Goeldi's monkey, Callimico goeldii,
in Northern Bolivia. In: Current Primatology, Vol. 1:
Ecology and Evolution, J. J. Roeder, B. Thierry, J. R.
Anderson and N. Herrenschmidt, (eds.), pp.73-78.
University Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg.
Christen, A. and Geissmann, T. 1994. Primate survey in
northern Bolivia with special reference to Goeldi's mon-
key, Callimico goeldii. Int. J. Primatol. 15: 239-274.
Hershkovitz, P. 1977. Living New World Monkeys
(Platyrrhini), vol. 1, With an Introduction to the Pri-
mates. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Izawa, K. 1979. Studies on peculiar distribution pattern
of Callimico. Kyoto University Overseas Research Re-
ports of New World Monkeys 1: 1-19.
Masataka, N. 1981a. A field study of the social behaviour
of Goeldi's monkeys (Callimico goeldii) in north Bo-
livia. I. Group composition, breeding cycle, and infant
development. Kyoto University Overseas Reports ofNew
World Monkeys 2: 23-32.
Masataka, N. 1981b. A field study of the social behaviour
of Goeldi's monkeys (Callimico goeldii) in north Bo-
livia. II. Grouping pattern and intragroup relationship.
Kyoto University Overseas Reports of New World mon-
keys 2: 33-41.
Montes de Oca, I. 1989. Geografia y Recursos Naturales
de Bolivia. 2nd edition. Ministerio de Educaci6n y
Cultura, La Paz.
Pook, A. G. and Pook, G. 1981. A field study of the socio-
ecology of the Goeldi's monkey (Callimico goeldii) in
northern Bolivia. Folia Primatol. 35: 288-312.
Pook, A. G. and Pook, G. 1982. Polyspecific association
between Saguinus fuscicollis, Saguinus labiatus,
Callimico goeldii and other primates in north-western
Bolivia. Folia Primatol. 38: 196-216.

Neotropical Primates 6(2), June 1998

Page 37

Page 38 Neotropical Primates 6(2), June 1998

Clara B. Jones
In 1975, Wilson considered howler monkeys (Alouatta)
worthy of attention by sociobiologists because their com-
munication is "primarily vocal", implying that non-dam-
aging signals and displays dominated their communica-
tion system. Indeed, most students of the genus have been
impressed with the vocal repertoire of howlers (e.g.,
Baldwin and Baldwin, 1976; Whitehead, 1995; Sekulic,
1982), and vocalizations appear to facilitate highly com-
munal behavior and the resolution of interindividual con-
flicts of interest (e.g., Jones, 1982). As their name sug-
gests, howlers are usually characterized by the sonorous
roars of the adult male (e.g., Whitehead, 1995). Except
for these long-distance vocalizations, the functions of
howler calls are not well known (Whitehead, 1995). The
spectrographic characteristics of howler vocalizations have
been described by Baldwin (1976), Whitehead (1995), and
others, however, providing a baseline for the following
observations. This note describes a broad-band contact call
(see Bradbury and Vehrencamp, 1998) emitted by female
mantled howler monkeys (A. palliata Gray) in apparently

related contexts.
In his discussion of primate vocal communication, Seyfarth
(1987) concluded that "there is a direct relation between
the function of a call and its acoustic properties" (p. 445).
Low-frequency sounds traveling through tropical forests
are less attenuated than high-frequency sounds, for in-
stance, and Waser and Waser (1977) have shown that
sounds in the range of 500 and 1,500 Hz exhibit relatively
low attenuation as a function of distance. Figure 1 is a
sonogram of the vocalization described in this note, the
characteristics of which are consistent with expectation for
a call specialized for long-distance transmission, such as
contact calls employed by forest primates (see Seyfarth,
1987, pp.445-446). This broad-band call may be equiva-
lent to the "Wrah-ha, Type K" call described by Baldwin
and Baldwin (1976, pp.100-101; J. Whitehead, pers.
comm.). These authors identified this call as a contact
vocalization given by adult females "when they became
separated from their troops". Baldwin and Baldwin deter-
mined that the call was audible for about 100 m through
the forest, and they had the impression that females emit-
ting this vocalization were unaware of the location of their
My observations differ somewhat from those of Baldwin
and Baldwin. My subjective impression of the call was

0 .5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 .0
Time: ec
DF: 1 Hz DT: 5.1 me Tnc: 26.2 m FFT: 12 Wind:HANN
HI-FIt: OFF Lo:-40 db H: db Ampl:LOG Int:MED
Figure 1. Broad-band contact call emitted by female mantled howler monkeys for mid- to long-range communication. Recordings were made at close range
with a portable Panasonic tape recorder and hand-held microphone. Spectrogram digitized at a rate of 22.6 Khz (Gateway 486/33 computer, DT2821 A/D
board) using SIGNAL sound analysis software (Engineering Design, Belmont, MA, USA).



,0 1.0 1.5 2.0 is &0

Page 38

Neotropical Primates 6(2), June 1998

Neotropical Primates 6(2), June 1998 Page 39

that it was a raspy bark audible for >100m. I agree with
Baldwin and Baldwin that "there was a moderate amount
of variance in the call, in both intonation and intensity.
The first syllable was almost always the louder, and the
second appeared to be an inhaled tone." (p.100). I heard
this call 61 times in >1,000 h of focal and ad libitum ob-
servation, and censusing of animals and trees at Hacienda
La Pacifica, Cafias, Guanacaste, Costa Rica in 1976 and
1977. The forest there is classified as "tropical dry", and
two groups were studied in two different habitats, ripar-
ian (Group 5, 402 h) and deciduous (the patchier, drier,
and presumably more stressful area, Group 12, 114 h).
Frankie et al. (1974) provided a detailed description of
the environment, and Jones (1980) a description of the
The broad-band call shown in Fig. 1 was emitted non-
randomly by context. It was given 19 times during group
movement, 22 times in sexual contexts, six times in the
midst of a female group (including one juvenile vocal-
izer), five times during foraging and feeding (see note at
end of text), and on nine occasions the context was not
recorded. Thus, I witnessed the call most often when the
group was moving from one location to another (i.e., from
one feeding site to another), and in association with re-
productive activity. Middle-aged or old females were the
most frequent callers, accounting for 28 of the 34 occa-
sions when the vocalizer was identified individually (see
Jones, 1996). The call was given at about the same rate in
both habitats, 49 times in the riparian forest group (0.12/
h), and 0.11/h in the deciduous forest group. In some in-
stances, the call appeared to be responsible for changes in
the direction of group movement, and it is interesting to
note that on three occasions in the deciduous forest group,
two or more females emitted this call in synchrony.
It is my impression that the contact call is intimately as-
sociated with food, both during group movements, in
sexual contexts, and when females forage independently
or in small parties. It is also possible that females employ
this call in sexual contexts to "incite" male-male compe-
tition during a process of "female choice". Sex, food, and
group dispersion are closely linked in mantled howlers
because females seem to prefer males who will defend a
food source for them (Jones, 1995a), and it is likely that
selection has acted upon the vocal repertoire of the spe-
cies to produce a call with complex utility. Boinski and
Mitchell (1977), for example, have demonstrated that
"chuck vocalizations" in Saimiri sciureus identify the caller
and transmit information about food. Vocal signals may
supplement visual and chemical signals in the identifica-
tion of howler individuals in addition to communicating
location (and quality?) of food.
What effect will increased deforestation have on the ex-
pression of this contact call? In my study, the contact call
was emitted at about the same rate in both habitats. This
observation is consistent with howlers' resilience under
changing conditions (e.g., Jones, 1995b) and suggests that
the call has been favored in a variety of physical condi-

tions. Other calls, however, may be less effective with in-
creasing habitat fragmentation. This possibility raises the
issue of the role of behavioral, including vocal, adapta-
tions in the conservation of primate species. Species whose
repertoires of response are most highly adapted to wet for-
est conditions may experience fitness deficits in heteroge-
neous regimes due to an inability to respond genetically,
physiologically, and behaviorally in a manner or at a rate
necessary to sustain effective population size (N.). Such
species will go extinct or require continued management
and husbandry.
Note. On four occasions in the riparian forest I witnessed
a delicate, owl-like ("whoooo-whoooo") call, twice emit-
ted by the old female SS (see Jones, 1996) sitting in a
small tree. These and other opportunistic sightings of lone
females separated from their groups reinforce my impres-
sion that females may forage alone for patchy resources. I
once observed the group recruited by this call toMuntingia
calabura, and K. E. Glander and I have discussed the
possibility that the use of these small trees may serve as
assays for hard times for howlers in riparian forest at La
Pacifica (see Fleming et al., 1985).
Acknowledgments: I thank J. Whitehead for critical input
and advice, and M. Chaiken for producing the sonogram,
for advice, and for critically reading an early draft of this
note. The W. Hagnauer family kindly permitted me to work
on their ranch intermittently from 1973-1980.
Clara B. Jones, Community Conservation Consultants,
Gays Mills, WI 54631, USA. Address for correspondence:
Livingstone College, Department of Psychology, 701 West
Monroe Street, Salisburg, North Carolina 28144, USA.
Baldwin, J. D. and Baldwin, J. I. 1976. The vocalizations
of howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in southwestern
Panama. Folia Primatol. 26: 91-108.
Bradbury, J. W. and Vehrencamp, S. L. 1998. Principles
of Animal Communication. Sinauer Associates,
Sunderland, Massachusetts
Fleming, T. H., Williams, C. F., Bonaccorso, F. J. and
Herbst, L. H. 1985. Phenology, seed-dispersal, and colo-
nization in Muntingia calabura, a neotropical tree. Am.
J. Bot. 72: 383-391.
Frankie, G. W., Baker, H. G., and Opler, P. A. 1974. Com-
parative phenological studies of trees in tropical wet and
dry forests in the lowlands of Costa Rica. J. Ecol. 62:
Jones, C. B. 1980. The functions of status in the mantled
howler monkey (Alouatta palliata Gray): Intraspecific
competition for group membership in a folivorous Neo-
tropical primate. Primates 21:389-405.
Jones, C. B. 1982. A field manipulation of spatial rela-
tions among male mantled howler monkeys. Primates
Jones, C. B. 1995a. Alternative reproductive behaviors in
the mantled howler monkey (Alouatta palliata Gray):
Testing Carpenter's hypothesis. Boletin Primatoldgico

Neotropical Primates 6(2), June 1998

Page 39

Page 40

Latinoamericano 5:1-5.
Jones, C. B. 1995b. Howler monkeys appear to be pre-
adapted to cope with habitat fragmentation. Endangered
Species Update 12:9-10.
Jones, C. B. 1996. Temporal division of labor in a pri-
mate: Age-dependent foraging behavior. Neotropical
Primates 4:50-53.
Sekulic, R. 1982. Daily and seasonal patterns of roaring
and spacing in four red howler (Alouatta seniculus)
troops. Folia Primatol. 39:22-48.
Seyfarth, R. M. 1987. Vocal communication and its rela-
tion to language. In: Primate Societies, B. B. Smuts, D.
L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham, and T. T.
Struhsaker (eds.), pp. 440-451. University of Chicago
Press, Chicago.
Waser, P. and Waser, M. S. 1977. Experimental studies of
primate vocalizations: Specializations for long-distance
propagation. Z Tierpsychol. 43:239-263.
Whitehead, J. M. 1995. Vox Alouattinae: A preliminary
survey of the acoustic characteristics of long-distance
calls of howling monkeys. Int. J. Primatol. 16:121-145.
Wilson, E. 0. 1975. Sociobiology. Harvard University
Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Alcides Pissinatti
Adelmar E Coimbra-Filho
Anthony B. Rylands
Until the 1980's, information on the muriqui, or woolly
spider monkey, was restricted to the geographic survey of
Aguirre (1971) and observations and reports by Coimbra-
Filho (1972). However, discovery of a population at what
is now the Caratinga Biological Station by C6lio Valle
and Ney Carnevalli, then of the Federal University of
Minas Gerais, in 1977, resulted in the pioneer work of
Nishimura (1979, 1988) and .inspired an extraordinary
interest in the species. The ecology and behavior of
Brachyteles has since been the subject of numerous stud-
ies of demography, behavior, ecology, and reproduction
and reproductive physiology (see, for example, Milton,

Table 1: Copulations and births. Male CPRJ-1091 and female CPRJ-924.
Copulations Births CPRJ-924
09 January 1991

10 September 1991- CPRJ-1245
30 September 1991
12 November 1991
03 June 1992 CPRJ-1335
20 September 1992
02 November 1992
27 April 1993
16 July 1993*
12 October 1993 CPRJ-1430
24 June 1994 CPRJ-1488

Neotropical Primates 6(2), June 1998

1984; Fonseca, 1985, 1986; Strier, 1986, 1991, 1992, 1996,
1997, Nishimura et al., 1988). Strier (1996) discussed
specifically the reproductive ecology of muriquis at the
Caratinga Biological Station, including seasonal birth
peaks and interbirth intervals, and Strier and Ziegler
(1997) provided information on ovulatory cycles, the dis-
crete copulation periods observed for females, and gesta-
tion lengths from data obtained through fecal steroid analy-
ses, which were validated with urine from females at the
CPRJ (Ziegler et al., 1997). Oddlia-Rfmoli and Otta (1997)
reported on a study of the development of infant muriquis
at the Caratinga Biological Station. All observations to
date have been for muriquis in the wild. Only recently
have muriquis been bred in captivity (Coimbra-Filho et
al. 1993; Pissinatti etal., 1994), and here we provide some
observations on births and reproductive behavior in ex
situ conditions: a colony established at the Rio de Janeiro
Primate Center (CPRJ-FEEMA). We emphasize that the
observations are preliminary, and the conclusions arising
should be subject to corroboration, most especially on wild
The Captive Group at CPRJ
The muriquis are maintained in a large cage, especially
designed for them, and described in detail in Coimbra-
Filho et al. (1993). The original group was composed of
two adults and a young female from the state of Minas
Gerais. Two immature males from Sao Paulo were intro-
duced shortly afterwards. With the recognition of two dis-
tinct forms (Vieira, 1944; Torres de Assumpgqo, 1983;
Coimbra-Filho 1990, 1992a, 1992b; Lemos de Sa et al.,
1993; Coimbra-Filho etal. 1993), the group was then com-
posed of two male B. a. arachnoides (from Slo Paulo),
and three female B. a. hypoxanthus (from Minas Gerais).
The offspring born into this group are therefore hybrids.
For the exact origin of each of these animals see Coimbra-
Filho et al. (1993), who also described the formation of
the group and the births resulting (see also Pissinatti et
al., 1994).
The females (CPRJ-850, 891, and 924) were introduced
to the cage on 15 May 1989. In the same month, a juve-
nile male (CPRJ-1012) was obtained, which had been
caught in the Serra da Bocaina, in the region of the state
boundary between Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo. It was

Table 2: Copulations and births. Male CPRJ-1091 and female CPRJ-891.
Copulations Births CPRJ-891
22 October 1990
02 May 1991
30 September 1991
30 October 1991 CPRJ-1286
12 November 1991
30 December 1991
08 October 1992
15 October 1992
02 November 1992
10 November 1992
16 July 1993
25 April 1994 CPRJ-1475
Obs: On 10 August 1989, the female CPRJ-891 attempted mounting the
female CPRJ-924. There were no males in the colony at the this time.

* On this day the male CPRJ-1012 also copulated with the female CPRJ-

Neotropical Primates 6(2), June 1998

about four months-old when it arrived, and in very poor
condition. After a period of intensive care, it was fully
recovered and introduced to the females. Another male
(CPRJ-1091) arrived in January 1990, aged about eight
months, and evidently quite healthy, and therefore intro-
duced after only a short quarantine. Both were accepted
by the female group without any problem. The subsequent
development of the male CPRJ-1091 was remarkable, and
contrasted with that of the first male CPRJ-1012, which
having suffered health problems was more retarded.
The first copulation observed occurred between the male
CPRJ-1091 and the female CPRJ-891 on 22 October 1990.
The first offspring was born, however, on 10 September
1991, as a result of a mating between this male and an-
other female, CPRJ-924.
The belief has been that male muriquis reach sexual ma-
turity at four to five years. However, the male CPRJ-1091
arrived at the Center at about eight months old and was
first observed to copulate at 18 months. Given the condi-
tions described, it can be seen that sexual maturity is
reached considerably earlier. There have been no evident
agonistic interactions between the two males, even now,
when both are fully adult. This might not be true of the
females, especially during estrus, although all have copu-
lated. If there is some sort of hierarchical dominance in
females, it is difficult to detect because at estrus, when it
might be manifested, they are, under any circumstances,
extremely restless. Although based on few observations,
the behavior of estrus and non-estrus females coincides
with the descriptions of Lindberg (1987) and Strier (1987,
The muriqui births at CPRJ have shown a clear seasonal-
ity (Tables 1 and 2), in accordance with numerous other
primate species in south-east Brazil (Coimbra-Filho and
Maia, 1979; Lindberg, 1987). They have occurred during
September/October, the beginning of the rainy season, and
the tail end of the annual birth peak recorded by Strier
(1996) for females at the Caratinga Biological Station,
Minas Gerais.
Female CPRJ-924
The first birth of the female CPRJ-924 (primiparous) oc-
curred on 10 September 1991 (Table 1). The father was
the male CPRJ-1091, and the infant was given the num-
ber CPRJ-1245. This female came to the Center in ex-
tremely poor condition, having been kept in very restric-
tive and precarious conditions.
During the birth, the female was restless, moving about,
lying down on its left side, on the ground and on the poles
in the cage, but mainly in a birth position on its back,
with its legs drawn back and forcing the abdominal mus-
culature to expel the fetus, which was already appearing
in the birth canal. On occasion, the male who was not the
father (CPRJ-1012) would approach and inspect her geni-

Page 41

The female was evidently having difficulty in giving birth.
This situation continued during the entire morning and
part of the afternoon. After more than eight hours of la-
bor, we decided that a cesarean was necessary, but as we
were preparing for this, the female went up onto a plat-
form, more than 4 m up, and managed to expel the fetus,
which fell to the ground, hitting its head on the cement
boundary. Ten minutes later, the female, evidently sore
and tired, descended to pick up the new-born, covered
with sand and detritus, and which showed no effort to
hold on to its mother. Observing that the infant's reflexes
were abnormal, it was taken to the infirmary, cleaned up
with warm physiological solution, dried off, and placed in
a soft towel. It was given 0.5 ml physiological solution
orally. It was agitated and vocalized constantly, and was
taken to the cage to see if the mother would still show
interest. It was left there for thirty minutes, but the mother
failed to pick up the infant. It was decided that at least
temporary hand-rearing was necessary. Each hour it was
given 1 ml of Nestogen (Nestle) for new-born babies, dis-
solved in physiological solution in equal parts. The infant
was kept at a temperature of 320C.
The infant, a female, was cared for in this manner until
the afternoon of the following day, when after a bout of
intense vocalizations it died in convulsions (Pissinatti et
al., 1997). The recovery of the female was rapid after the
second day, although she was withdrawn and eating very

Figure 1. The female CPRJ-924 with her male infant CPRJ-1488.

Page 42

little, probably due to the tiredness resulting from the pro-
longed birth.
The cause of death was respiratory insufficiency. The post-
mortem indicated that the pulmonary vein had been rup-
tured following its fall. There were pulmonary lesions,
with diffuse hemorrhaging, and a serious, acute, fibrin-
opurulent broncho-pneumonia. It weighed 315 g, with a
total length of 480 mm, tail 284 mm, foot 61 mm, ears 20
x 24 mm, and the thumb 2.5 mm.
Twenty days later, the same female copulated again, and
subsequently gave birth on 3 June 1992, quite normally,
to another offspring, CPRJ-1335. In October 1993, this
same female, gave birth for the third time, and again had
problems. It was apparent that it was due to the excep-
tionally large size of the fetus. Birth was at night, the in-
fant (CPRJ-1430) was stillborn and found on the floor of
the cage in the morning, in large part eaten, probably by
opossums. Only part of the head and limbs were found.
During the births described here, there was no manifesta-
tion of interest or collaboration on the part of the other
group members, excepting quick inspections of the
female's genitals by the juveniles. After eight and a half
months, the female CPRJ-924 gave birth again, at six in
the morning, to a fourth and healthy infant CPRJ-1488
(Fig. 1).
Female CPRJ-891
The female CPRJ-891 first gave birth on 30 October 1991,
one month after the first birth of the female CPRJ-924
(Coimbra-Filho et al., 1993) (Table 1). This infant was
registered with the number CPRJ-1286, and developed
extremely well. Thirty months later, on 25 April 1994,
CPRJ-891 gave birth again, to a second offspring CPRJ-
1475. The gestation and births of both were normal, de-
spite the fact that the mother, like CPRJ-924, had suffered
seriously in terms of poor nutrition and cruel handling as
an infant, when kept as a pet.
Behavior and Development of the Offspring
Of the six infants born at CPRJ to date, four have sur-
vived, a male and three females. The two infants which
succumbed were unsexed. The offspring are fully depen-
dent on their mothers until about five months of age. Play
is limited to the juvenile stage, as was observed by
Nishimura et al. (1988). They generally showed interest
in copulating adults, sometimes approaching closely but
being abruptly pushed away, as was observed in the young
male CPRJ-1407 when he was first introduced to the group
and one of the females was in estrus. During births, the
juveniles would approach and inspect the genitals of the
female in labor, but would run away at any movement on
her part.
Regarding the first offspring of female CPRJ-891, a fe-
male (CPRJ-1286, 6/2 years old in April 1998), following,
the birth, the infant clung to the mother immediately and
attempted to suckle while the female was cleaning it. Dur-

ing the first three months it clung to the mother's ventrum.
Attempts to pick up food were observed at one month.
From the fourth to fifth months it generally rode on the
mother's back, and attempted its first steps alone, although
always near to the mother, and holding on to her with its
At this time, the pelage is pale gray, shiny on the back,
but with the abdomen a drab yellow. From birth, the face
was blackish. It has the rudimentary thumb typical of the
subspecies B. a. hypoxanthus (see Coimbra-Filho et al.,
1993). Suckling continued until the infant was aged 15
months, and weaning occurred slowly without evident
trauma, as has been observed in the wild by Strier (1986).
At nine months it was locomoting independently, and ex-
ploring the entire cage on its own, and occasionally tak-
ing food from the hands of the females and the adult males.
Its play frequently involved provoking the adults, includ-
ing pulling their tails, but they were evidently never put
out. No alloparental behavior was observed.
The second infant of the female CPRJ-924, a female CPRJ-
1335, was born normally, and also had a dark face and the
rudiment of a thumb. It showed similar development and
behavior to CPRJ-1286, but was a little more precocious,
and in the third month it was riding on the base of the
back of the mother, and on occasion going about around
the cage on its own. The pelage of the infant was more of
a drab-yellow than CPRJ-1286, and more similar to that
of the adults. In the sixth month it was parasitized by bot-
flies, which was cured quickly, and in the tenth month it
suffered an extensive lesion and inflammation on its knee,
which, although cured, affected its development at that
The second infant of the female CPRJ-891, a male CPRJ-
1475, was born normally. Its fur was shiny and very pale
on the forearm and legs, and pale straw-colored on the
rest of the body, similar to adults. As with the other in-
fants, it was born with a fully pigmented face and a rudi-
mentary thumb. The infant CPRJ-1488 was the fourth of
the female CPRJ-924, and showed a similar phenotype to
the rest (Fig. 1).
The development of the infants in captivity complies in
general with that observed in the wild. Odalia-Rfmoli and
Otta (1997) observed that infants were carried in the ven-
tral position until the 2nd or 3rd months, and only by six
months would they move up to 2 m from the mother. At
one year old, they would still spend about 50% of their
time in contact with the mother. As in captivity, weaning
was observed to begin at about 15 months (Oddlia-Rfmoli
and Otta, 1997).
Interactions between Adult Males
The two adult males were introduced to the cage together
when they were very young. The development of the male
CPRJ-1012 was severely impaired due to health problems,
in contrast to that of the male CPRJ-1091 which has oc-
cupied the dominant position in the group, and remains

Neotropical Primates 6(2), June 1998

Neotropical Primates 6(2), June 1998

extremely well-developed and healthy. The first male,
CPRJ-1012, is the more active of the two, but it is pos-
sible to detect the dominance of the second through cer-
tain subtle behaviors. No agonistic behavior has been ob-
served between the two males, and CPRJ-1012 copulated
with a female, even though she was in the last stages of
her gestation.
On being introduced into the group, a third young male of
about six months CPRJ-1407, was perfectly well-accepted
by the group members until a moment when female in
estrus was copulating with the male CPRJ-1091. On ap-
proaching the female, the infant was repelled violently by
the male, and suffered several wounds. The male had to
be removed from the group for treatment. It was subse-
quently maintained in a smaller cage, near to the group,
in the hopes that it could be re-introduced. Its presence,
however, caused considerable disturbance amongst the
group members, calling and showing pilo-erection, and
even causing aggression between them, especially the fe-
males. The removal of the infant resulted in the group
returning to their normal behavior. This causes us to con-
sider the possibility that the cage is already too small to
introduce more animals, especially with regard to the lack
of space for individuals to maintain sufficient distance,
when necessary, from the other group members, as they
would in the wild.
Interactions between Adult Females
When in estrus, and lacking an adult male, the females
try to mount other females, a behavior which has never
been recorded, for example, amongst the numerous
callitrichids kept in the Center. When two females are in
estrus at the same time, there is no evident competition
between them regarding the sexual attention of the males.
Both merely vocalize and follow the male.
Alloparental care (or at least carrying) has never been
observed, the females maintain exclusivity in the care of
their young. In only one situation have dependent infants
been observed on the backs of the males. This happens
during copulation. For example, on occasions when the
male CPRJ-1012 attempted to copulate with the female
CPRJ-924 carrying the infant CPRJ-1488, he first pushed
the infant onto his back. The infant vocalized, but both
mother and infant consented.
Interactions between Adult Males and Females
Conflict between males and females is unusual (Milton,
1984; Mendes, 1990; Strier, 1992). Embracing displays
occur between females, occasionally between males and
females, and rarely between the adult males. In the wild,
male-male embraces are frequent (Mendes, 1990; Strier,
1992). We have never observed embracing between juve-
niles. Food snatching has been observed between the
young. Sexual interactions are relaxed, as observed by
Strier and Ziegler (1997), both outside of and during es-

Page 43

Considering the relatively small size of the group, it is
difficult to establish any comparative basis with regard to
the frequency of copulations and the number of males
which copulate with each female, although the patterns
appear to be similar to those recorded in the wild (Aguirre,
1971; Milton, 1984, 1985; Strier, 1996). During all but
one of the births, the group members remained at a dis-
tance, only rarely approaching the mother. We believed
that this may have been due to the disparate origins and
lack of genetic relationship between the muriquis during
the development of the group. However, on the occasion
of the sixth birth (to the female CPRJ-924), we were able
to observe intense and evidently emotional interactions
between the males and the mother. They remained close
to her, emitting low vocalizations and touching and strok-
ing her while she was lying on her back in the feeding
compartment of the cage. Only right at the moment of
birth did the other female CPRJ-891 approach, and touch
and embrace the female. This affiliative behavior is a clear
characteristic of this remarkable primate.
Interactions between Females and Young
Muriquis are extremely attentive and tender mothers.
Agonism towards the young was never observed, even
during play. They stay away from the cage netting when
someone approaches during the first days after birth. Suck-
ling is always relaxed and only rarely does the infant ap-
pear to cause discomfort.
Preliminary observations in captivity allow us to conclude
that: a) maternal care is never transferred to other females
or group members; b) the births show seasonality similar
to other primates of south-east Brazil; c) it would appear
that birth intervals are shorter than is typical for wild popu-
lations (Strier, 1991, 1997); d) during birth, the relations
between the juveniles and the mother are less significant
than between the mother and other group members, espe-
cially the adult males who stay near the mother, vocaliz-
ing, touching and stroking her; e) a male at 18 months is
sexually mature and capable of successful copulation; f)
by the third month the infants are capable of riding on
their mother's back; and g) attempts at food handling by
infants are observed in their first month; and h) the hy-
brid offspring all have the rudimentary thumb typical of
B. a. hypoxanthus, which indicates that the southern,
nominate form is the derived subspecies (see Coimbra-
Filho et al., 1993).
The authors extend their gratitude to Wildlife Preserva-
tion Trust International (WPTI) for financing the construc-
tion of the cage for the muriquis. The Grupo Coffin
(Refrigerantes Niter6i S. A. Coca-Cola), Niter6i, have
provided considerable support in the maintenance of nu-
tritional supplies for the primate colonies at the Center.
Our thanks to our colleagues at the Rio de Janeiro Pri-
mate Center (CPRJ-FEEMA), all of whom have contrib-

Page 44 Neotropical Primates 6(2), June 1998

uted significantly to the success of the muriqui breeding
program. We also thank Dr. Russell Mittermeier for his
ongoing support and encouragement, and finally we are
grateful to the administrators of the Parque Ecol6gico e
Turistico Alto Ribeira (PETAR), Sio Paulo, to Rosa Maria
Lemos de Sd (WWF-Brasflia), and the Zoology Depart-
ment of the Federal University of Minas Gerais, who kindly
supplied the founder animals for the colony. Karen B. Strier
kindly reviewed an earlier draft of this article.
Alcides Pissinatti, Director, Centro de Primatologia do
Rio de Janeiro (CPRJ), Fundagao Estadual de Engenharia
do Meio Ambiente (FEEMA), Caixa Postal 23011, Campo
Sao Crist6vao, 20940-200 Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro,
Adelmar F. Coimbra-Filho, Associate Member of the
Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, Rua Artur Araripe 60/
901, GAvea, 22451-020 Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro,
and Anthony B. Rylands, Departamento de Zoologia,
Institute de Ciencias Biol6gicas, Universidade Federal de
Minas Gerais, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais,
and Program Associate, Conservation International do
Brasil, Avenida Ant6nio Abrahao Caram 820/302, 31275-
000 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
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Philip Kessler
In December 1995, a new Natural Reserve of 100,000 ha
was created around the Research Station of Nouragues
(UPS 656/CNRS) near the Arataye river in French Guiana
(Fig. 1). Seven primate species are known to occur in the
reserve: Alouatta seniculus, Ateles paniscus, Cebus apella,
Cebus olivaceus, Pithecia pithecia, Saimiri sciureus and
Saguinus midas. The common squirrel monkey (Saimiri
sciureus) has been observed along the Arataye and
Approuague rivers, but never in the vicinity the Nouragues
Research Station (Charles-Dominique, 1993). A number
of studies have been conducted on primate ecology at
Nouragues over the last 10 years (e.g., Julliot, 1992; Zhang,
1995; Kessler, 1995a). Two studies have reported on popu-
lation densities for Alouatta and Saguinus at Nouragues,
both derived from estimates of home ranges and group
size during detailed studies (Julliot, 1992; Kessler, 1995b).
Here I report on censuses carried out to obtain basic data
on primate abundance in the region, a necessary basis for
further studies and comparisons of primate ecology be-
tween Nouragues and other regions.
The census was conducted between June and October 1997
in the Natural Reserve of Nouragues in French Guiana.
The area contains uninhabited primary rain forest. Data
were collected using a transect census technique. A small,
rarely used, forest trail was chosen as the transect line. A
section of 4 km was marked every 20 m and censused
once a week between 0700 and 1200 am, yielding a total
of 15 censuses. For each census the observer walked qui-
etly (average speed: 1 km/h) and stopped every 20 m to
look and listen more intensively for monkeys. When a
monkey group was detected, it was observed for up to a
maximum of 10 minutes to determine the species and
number of individuals. Animal-to-transect distance was
calculated on the basis of the trigonometric relationship
of animal-observer distance and sighting angle to the
transect. The total strip width was determined by the maxi-

Figure 1: Location of the Natural Reserve of Nouragues in French Guiana.
Map provided by author.
mal animal-to-transect distance of all first sightings for
each species (National Research Council, 1981). Popula-
tion densities expressed in individuals/km2 and observed
group sizes should be considered as minimal estimations
because it is probable that not all group members could be
detected during the 10 minutes of observation. Howler
monkey densities are probably undestimated due to their
discreet behaviour. Likewise, C. apella groups are often
dispersed over up to 100 m, and therefore group sizes are
probably underestimated.
Population density estimates and minimum group sizes
are shown in Table 1. There are no data for Pithecia
pithecia and Cebus olivaceus. These two species are
present in the reserve, but were never seen during the 15
transect censuses. The data on group sizes for these two

Table 1: Estimation of minimal group sizes and population densities of the
primate population in the Natural Reserve of Nouragues, French Guiana.
Species No. of Minimum Density2 Density2
groups group size' (groups/km2) (ind/km2)
A. seniculus 9 5.1 1.4 2-3 (2.50) 11-15 (12.78)
A. paniscus 10 3.6 1.8 2-3(2.28) 7-10(8.57)
C. apella 7 7.7 + 2.9 1-3(1.94) 13-17 (15.00)
C. olivaceusO 6 13.2 4.4
P pithecia3 4 2.8 1.0
S. midas 13 4.2 1.5 5-6(5.42) 20-25 (22.92)
' mean standard deviation.
2 range of95% confidence interval, mean in parentheses.
group sizes estimated by sightings outside transect censuses.

Neotropical Primates 6(2), June 1998

Page 45

Page 46 Neotropical Primates 6(2), June 1998

species are derived from other sightings.
Minimum estimates of density and group sizes in Saguinus
midas are similar to those found during intensive studies
at the same study site by Kessler (1995b): 16.5 ind/
km2,4.81.5 ind/group, n=4. Julliot (1992) calculated a
higher density for Alouatta seniculus (17-22 ind/km2, 6.32
ind/group n=6) than estimated in the present study. This is
best explained by the fact that howler groups are often missed,
and, when resting, are difficult to count. Estimates from
another study site in the Guianan region (Raleighvallen-
Voltzberg Reserve, Surinam) forAlouatta seniculus (17 ind/
km2), Ateles paniscus (7.1 ind/km2) and Saguinus midas
(23.5 ind/km2) are comparable to results of the present study
(Mittermeier, 1977; Van Roosmalen, 1980).
Observed group sizes of Ateles paniscus refer to foraging
units rather than to social units. Spider monkeys are known
to form social groups of up to 15-20 individuals, but for-
age in small sub-groups of 2-3 animals (Klein and Klein,
1979; Van Roosmalen, 1980). This pattern was also typi-
cal at Nouragues. The lack of data for Cebus olivaceus
and Pithecia pithecia probably reflects very low densi-
ties. Pithecia is also a very shy and quiet species, and
difficult to detect (pers. obs.).
Hunting pressure evidently exerts the major impact on
primate populations in French Guiana, especially along
large rivers such as the Approuague. Cebus, Ateles and
Alouatta are the most-hunted primates (Roussilhon, 1988).
Comparing data from two localities, Raleighvallen-
Voltzberg Nature Reserve and Brownsberg Nature Park
in Surinam, with no hunting pressure, with a heavily
hunted area in French Guiana (Satil) (Mittermeier et al.
1977), the population densities estimated for the Natural
Reserve of Nouragues indicate that hunting pressure is
absent or light.
I am most grateful to Dr. Pierre Charles-Dominique for
his-assistance and permission to work in the Natural Re-
serve of Nouragues, to Prof. Robert D. Martin for his help
during the preparation of my study, to Sophie Mounier
and Pie Miller for their help during my fieldwork, and to
Alexandra Miiller and Christophe Soligo for helpful com-
ments on the manuscript. This study was kindly supported
by the A.-H. Schultz Foundation.
Philip Kessler, Anthropologisches Institut, Universitat
Ziirich-Irchel, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Ziirich,
Charles-Dominique, P. 1993. Speciation and coevolution:
an interpretation of frugivory phenomena. In: Frugivory
and Seed Dispersal: Ecological and Evolutionary As-
pects, T. H. Fleming and A. Estrada (eds.), pp.75-84.
Kluwer Academic Publishers, Belgium.
Julliot, C. 1992. Utilisation des resources alimentaires

par le singe hurleur roux, Alouatta seniculus (Atelidae,
Primates), en Guyane: Impact de la dissemmmination
des Graines sur la reg6n6ration forestiere. These de
doctorate, Universit6 de Tours.
Kessler, P. 1995a. Preliminary field study of the red-handed
tamarin (Saguinus midas) in French Guiana. Neotropi-
cal Primates 3: 184-185.
Kessler, P. 1995b. Revierverhalten, Ernihrungsstrategie
und HabitatprAferenzen des Rothandtamarins (Saguinus
midas midas) in Franzosisch-Guayana. M.Sc.thesis,
University of Ziirich-Irchel, Zurich.
Klein, L. L. and Klein, D. J. 1979. Social and ecological
contrasts between four taxa of Neotropical Primates. In:
Primate Ecology: Problem Oriented Field Studies, R.W.
Sussman (ed.), pp. 107-131. John Wiley and Sons, New
Mittermeier, R. A. 1977. The Distribution, Synecology
and Conservation of Surinam monkeys. PhD thesis, Uni-
versity of Harvard, Cambridge.
Mittermeier, R. A., Bailey, R. A. and Coimbra-Filho, A.
F. 1977. Conservation Status of the Callitrichidae in
Brazilian Amazonia, Surinam, and French Guiana. In:
The Biology and Conservation of the Callitrichidae, D.
G. Kleiman (ed.). pp. 137-146. Smithsonian Institution
Press, Washington D.C.
National Research Council (US), Committee on Nonhu-
man Primates, and Subcommittee on Conservation of
Natural Populations. 1981. Techniques for the Study of
Primate Population Ecology. National Academy Press,
Washington, D.C.
Van Roosmalen, M. G. M. 1980. Habitat Preferences. Diet,
Feeding Strategy and Social Organization of the Black
Spider Monkey (Ateles paniscus paniscus Linnaeus
1758) in Surinam. Ph.D. thesis, Wageningen.
Roussilhon, C. 1988. The general status of monkeys in
French Guiana. Primate Conservation (9): 70-74.
Zhang, S.-Y. 1995. Activity and ranging patterns in rela-
tion to fruit utilization by brown capuchin monkeys
(Cebus apella) in French Guiana. Int. J. Primatol. 16:

Milene M. Martins
Adelaide H. P Silva
Vocal communication is important for forest primate spe-
cies with structural features of the environment limiting
visual contact. Long-distance calls, often produced by pri-
mates and used in intra and inter-group signalling, may
have spacing and other coordinative functions (Chivers,
The titi monkeys, genus Callicebus, are distributed in the
Brazilian Atlantic coastal forest and forested areas of the
basins of the Rios Amazonas, Orinoco and Paraguai
(Kinzey, 1988). Callicebus monkeys emit loud calls de-

Neotropical Primates 6(2), June 1998

Page. 46


Neotropical Primates 6(2), June 1998 PaRe 47

scribed as long vocal sequences of varying phrases
(Moynihan, 1966; Robinson, 1979). These vocalizations
are frequently uttered by a reproductive pair. Robinson
(1979) described duetting for Callicebus moloch as coor-
dinated vocalizations between a mated male and female
with individuals producing identical sequences.
The analysis of the acoustic properties of long-distance
calls of neotropical cebid primates are almost entirely re-
stricted to the howler monkeys Alouatta (Baldwin &
Baldwin, 1975; Bonvicino, 1989; Drubbel & Gautier,
1993; Whitehead, 1995) and squirrel monkeys Saimiri
(Newman, 1985; Boinski & Newman, 1988). Robinson
(1979) documented the structural variations in loud vo-
calizations of Callicebus moloch. Here, we present a tem-
poral and spectrographic analysis of the long-calls of free-
ranging Callicebus personatus nigrifrons.
Study Site and Methods
The study was carried out in a 17-ha forest fragment of a
privately-owned farm in Monte Belo, Minas Gerais, Bra-
zil (21 23'S, 460 15'W), c. 820 m above sea level. The
vegetation is secondary, tropical, semideciduous forest with
a discontinuous canopy reaching a height of up to 30m.
The fragment is surrounded by coffee and sugar-cane plan-
tations and pasture. The data were obtained during a long-
term study on the feeding ecology of a buffy-tufted-ear
marmoset group, Callithrix aurita. Two adults and a ju-
venile C. personatus were resident in the area and fre-
quently observed. In August 1994, only one of the adults
and the young were seen, and in August 1995 another
adult joined these two individuals and was apparently ac-

Duration and time of long-distance c
between May 1994 and January 1995.
location and the posture of the callers
recording (<3m) of a loud-call emitte
young masked titi monkey was obtain
Panasonic RQ-L307 recorder of freq
0.2 to 6 kHz. The call was recorded
1994 at 2:12pm.
Selected plots of the call were digitiz

--+--t---,-^ -i > r


1 2 3 4
Time (sec)
Figure 1. Spectrographic analysis of a long-di
personatus A) initial phase B) "duet" phase.

programs were generated on SpectroGram 3.2 in the Labo-
ratory of Biology, Ecology and Bioacoustics of Amphib-
ians (LABEBA) of the State University of Campinas
(Unicamp). We used a resolution of 16bit, and frequency
scale of 1024 FFT over a temporal scale of 6 seconds.
Terminology used follows Robinson (1979) and White-
head (1995): a syllable is an uninterrupted spectrographic
tracing and the emphasized or dominant frequency is the
band of greatest energy (blackest part of a spectrogram).
Intersyllable intervals, the period between the end of one
syllable and the beginning of the next, were measured.
These correspond to the pause in Robinson's study.
Results and Discussion
Twenty-five long-distance calls were registered. Fifteen
were heard between 0700 and 0900 h, seven between 0900
and 1100 h, two between 0500 and 0700 h and one be-
tween 1300 and 1500 h. The titi family, therefore, showed
a peak of calling early in the morning as has been found
forAlouatta seniculus (Sekulic, 1982; Drubbel & Gautier,
1993). Callers usually positioned themselves on the top of
a tree, facing another forest fragment where another
Callicebus group had been heard on several occasions.
During the call recording, however, both animals were
about 2 m above the ground. The younger titi did not al-
ways participate in calling. Unfortunately, it was not pos-
sible to determine which calls belonged to which sex. The
shortest call lasted 28 seconds and the longest 12 minutes
and 19 seconds. Average duration was 3 minutes and 27
seconds, which is very similar to the 3 minutes and 28
seconds reported for A. seniculus (Drubbel & Gautier,

ls were registered The acoustic measurements may have been affected by
Weneverssibe the low frequency range (0.2 to 6 kHz) offered by the re-
were recorded. Close corder used in the present study. Thus, as frequency range
d by an adlt ad a above 10 kHz is poorly sampled, the spectrogram must be
ed by an adult and a
ned using a portable interpreted with caution. An average maximum frequency
uency rain from of 6917.9 332.1 Hz was registered for the adult titis
on 11th, December while for the younger animal, the average maximum fre-
quency was 2073.6 684.6 Hz. Maximum dominant fre-
quency of the adult titi was at 750.7 25.96 Hz and for
ed at 30 kHz. Spec- the younger at 458.7 44.2 Hz. These values correspond
to the range of 300 and 1000 Hz of howlers roars recorded
twt,-Lk IMt L by Whitehead (1995), and, as pointed out by the author,
I r, VY ff fits a window in the ambient noise spectrum, thus im-
proving sound propagation in arboreal environments.
The recorded call lasted 4 minutes, and was composed of
i. two sequences with an interval of 17 seconds of silence
between them. Robinson (1979) described seven sound
categories based on acoustic characteristics, but the limi-
tations of the present study make categorization difficult.
Spectrographic analysis showed two structurally distinct
5 6 7 phases. The initial phase (Fig. 1A), produced only by the
older individual, was characterized by short syllables which
I B I may correspond to the moaning phase cited by Robinson
stance call of Callicebus (1979). The second phase (Fig. 1B) corresponds to a "du-
etting sequence" in which both individuals participated,

Neotropical Primates 6(2), June 1998

Page 47

Page 48 Neotropical Primates 6(2), June 1998

but the sequences produced by each one are totally differ-
ent, not corresponding to a normal duet. The sequence
produced by the older seems to alternate between pants
and bellows, such as was registered for C. moloch by
Robinson (1979).
In the recorded call, the rhythm of syllables emitted by
the older titi varied between phases. During the initial
phase, intersyllable intervals were, on average, 345.6
57.8 msec (N = 15 intervals). Close to or during the "duet"
sequence, the rhythm was accelerated (141.2 52.1 msec;
N = 5). Absence of similar data in the literature precludes
comparisons with a conventional duet. On the other hand,
discernible structural differences between the syllables
produced by the older and the younger individuals, be-
sides the major degree of definition presented by the older
one, is indicative that participation in "duets" with one or
both parents may be a way of learning vocal signs. Time
intervals between syllables may function as a clue to coor-
dinate vocalization.
This study is dedicated to the late Dr. AdAo Cardoso. We
are most grateful to Dr. Francisco Mendes for critical com-
ments. Marcos Grid Pappi, Nancy Sierra and Cinthia
Brasileiro provided helpful advice.
Milene M. Martins, Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto
de Biologia, and Adelaide H. P. Silva, Departamento de
Fon6tica, Instituto de Estudos Linguisticos, Universidade
Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp), 13083-970 Campinas,
Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Baldwin, J. D. and Baldwin, J. I. 1975. The vocal reper-
toire of howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in south-
western Panama. Library of Natural History Sounds,
Laboratory of Ornithology, Cornell University, Ithaca,
Boinski, S. and Newman, J. D. 1988. Preliminary obser-
vations on squirrel monkey (Saimiri oerstedi) vocaliza-
tions in Costa Rica. Am. J. Primatol. 14: 329-343.
Bonvicino, C. R. 1989. Ecologia e comportamento de
Alouatta belzebul (Primates: Cebidae) na mata Atlantica.
Rev. Nordestina Biol. 6(2): 81-108.
Chivers, D. J. 1969. On the daily behaviour and spacing
in howling monkeys groups. Folia Primatol. 10: 48-102.
Drubbel, R. V. and Gautier, J.-P. 1993. On the occurence
of nocturnal and diurnal loud calls, differing in struc-
ture and duration, in red howlers (Alouatta seniculus)
of French Guyana. Folia Primatol. 60: 195-209.
Kinzey, W. G. 1988. The Titi Monkey, Genus Callicebus.
In: Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical Primates, vol.
1, A. F. Coimbra-Filho and R. A. Mittermeier (eds.),
pp. 241-276. Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, Rio de
Moynihan, M. 1966. Communication in the titi monkey
Callicebus. J. Zoo., Lond. 150: 77-127.
Newman, J. D. 1985. Squirrel monkey communication.

In Handbook of Squirrel Monkey Research, L.
Rosenblum (ed.), pp. 99-126. Plenum Press, New York.
Robinson, J. G. 1979. An analysis of the organization of
vocal communication in the titi monkey Callicebus
moloch. Zeit. Tierpsych. 49(4): 381-403.
Sekulic, R. 1982. Daily and seasonal patterns of roaring
and spacing in four red howlerAlouatta seniculus troops.
Folia Primatol. 39:22-48.
Whitehead, J. M. 1995. Vox Alouattinae: a preliminary
survey of the acoustic characteristics of long-distance
calls of howling monkeys. Int. J. Primatol. 16: 121-144.

Sandra Steinmetz
Monica de Souza
The sexual behavior of primates varies considerably from
species to species. In some, copulation is performed rap-
idly, preceded by little or no courtship, and completed in
just a few seconds, in others copulation is more elaborate,
lasting for several hours, with courtship continuing over
several days. Copulation usually takes place in a dorsal-
ventral position, the male mounting the female from the
rear (Chalmers, 1979). Mendes (1985) observed eight
copulations of Alouattafusca clamitans, all of them in a
dorsal-ventral position. Other species ofAlouatta have also
been observed with the same postural copulatory pattern,
for example, A. palliata Bernstein (1964), Carpenter
(1965); A. belzebul Bonvicino (1989); A. caraya -
Calegaro-Marques (1992); and A. seniculus Neville
(1972). Here, we describe an unusual mount posture of
the howler monkey A. fusca clamitans.
The observations were made while conducting a field study
on the feeding ecology of neotropical squirrels (Sciurus
ingrami) at the Cantareira State Park (23*22'S and
46*26'W), north of Sao Paulo, Brazil. On February 26th,
1998, at 09:32 h, we observed a couple of howler mon-
keys approximately 15 m above us. The female was dark
brown and adult in size. The male was red-brown and
bigger than the female. When we arrived, both individu-
als were seated side-by-side. After a few minutes, the fe-
male leaned back on the branch, with slightly flexed legs
wide opened sideways. The male approached and, facing
the female, took an almost seated position between her
legs. The male then stood quadrupedally over her with
his legs slightly flexed, and began a pelvic thrusting last-
ing 10 seconds. Meanwhile, the female remained still with
her head sideways observing us. Intromission and ejacu-
lation could not be reliably seen; difficult to ascertain in
howler monkeys in general (Carpenter, 1965). The ejacu-
lation in some copulations is determined by an interval
between the thrusting pelvic movements of the male
(Hanby and Brown, 1974).
After the ventro-ventral position mount and pelvic thrust-
ing, the couple remained together embracing each other

Page 48

Neotropical Primates 6(2), June 1998

Neotropical Primates 6(2), June 1998 Page 49

with their muzzles touching. Then a group of howler
monkeys arrived (one adult male, two females and three
infants) and stopped approximately 50 m away and at the
same height in the forest as the couple. The adult male in
the group began to roar and was joined by one of the fe-
males. While both howler monkeys roared, the couple
stayed quietly for some moments and then at 09:45 h they
disappeared through the trees. The group stopped roaring
at 09:47 h.
This kind of ventro-ventral position is very rare in pri-
mates, only described in humans and bonobos (Pan
paniscus). Ventro-ventral copulations constitute between
26% and 38% of the heterosexual copulations observed in
field studies of bonobos in Wamba and the Lomako For-
est, Zaire (de Waal, 1989). In heterosexual pairs it usually
occurs with the male in the active role, on top of the fe-
male, but exceptions do occur (de Waal, 1989). Some stud-
ies have noted that young monkeys and apes assume a
ventro-ventral posture while thrusting. For example,
Bingham (1928) and Goodall (1968) describe this for
chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, and Hanby and Brown
(1974) observed it in Japanese macaques, Macacafuscata.
This pattern often disappears with age or experience, but
is reminiscent of the relation between close maternal con-
tact, ventro-ventral embraces, and genital stimulation
(Hanby, 1976).
Social experience is very important in the development of
primates, and behaviors that we think of as primarily
sexual (e.g., mounting) are engaged by primates in a wide
variety of other social situations (Hanby and Brown, 1974).
In spite of the importance of such socio-sexual behaviors,
their development needs to be studied further, especially
in Neotropical primates.
Sandra Steinmetz and M6nica de Souza, Departamento
de Zoologia, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao
Paulo, Rua do MatIo Travessa 14, 321, Cidade
Universitaria, 05508-900 Sio Paulo, Slo Paulo, Brazil.
E-mail: Sandra Steinmetz , M8nica de
Souza < ticoteco@usp.br>.
Bernstein, I. S. 1964. A field study of the activities of
howler monkeys. Anim. Behav. 12: 92-97.
Bingham, H. C. 1928. Sex development in apes. Comp.
Psych. Monog. 5: 1-161.
Bonvicino, C. R. 1989. Ecologia e comportamento de
Alouatta belzebul (Primates: Cebidae) na Mata Atlantica.
Rev. Nordestina Biol. 6: 149-179.
Calegaro-Marques, C. 1992. Comportamento social de um
grupo de Alouatta caraya (Primates, Cebidae) em
Alegrete, R.S., Brasil. Unpublished Master's thesis,
Universidade de Brasilia, Brasilia.
Carpenter, C. R. 1965. The howlers of Barro Colorado
Island. In: Primate Behavior: Field Studies of Monkeys
and Apes, I. DeVore (ed.), pp. 250-291. Holt, Rinehart
& Winston, New York.

Chalmers, N. R. 1979. Social Behavior in Primates. Ed-
ward Arnold, London.
Goodall, J. Van Lawick. 1968. The behaviour of free-liv-
ing chimpanzees in the Gombe Stream Research. Anim.
Behav. Monog. 1: 165-311.
Hanby, J. 1976. Sociosexual development in primates. In:
Perspectives in Ethology 2, P. P. G. Bateson and P. H.
Klopfer (eds.), pp. 1-67. Plenum Press, New York.
Hanby, J. P. and Brown, C. E. 1974. The development of
sociosexual behaviours in Japanese macaques Macaca
fuscata. Behaviour 49: 152-196.
Mendes, S. L. 1985. Uso de espago, padres de atividades
diArias e organizaio social deAlouattafusca (Primates,
Cebidae) em Caratinga, MG. Unpublished Master's the-
sis, Universidade de Brasilia, Brasflia.
Neville, M. K. 1972. Social relations within troops of red
howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus). Folia Primatol.
18: 47-77.
de Waal, F B. M. 1989. Behavioral contrasts between
Bonobo and Chimpanzee. In: Understanding Chimpan-
zees, P. G. Heltne and L. A. Marquardt (eds.), pp. 154-
175. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachu-

Aguirre (1971), relacionou seis exemplares deBrachyteles
arachnoides, procedentes de Mambucaba, municfpio de
Angra dos Reis, estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (Fig. 1),
coletados entire 11 e 14 de setembro de 1942, associando-
os & FundacAo Rockefeller. Em nota, comentou que era
desconhecido o paradeiro desses esp6cimes.
Anos mais tarde, conversando com o Sr. Aguirre, soubemos
que foi atrav6s de fichas individuals que ele obteve
informa96es sobre os animals. O Sr. Aguirre conseguiu,
no final da d6cada de 1960, encontrar num dep6sito do
antigo pr6dio ocupado pela Fundaio Rockefeller, no cam-
pus do entio Instituto Osvaldo Cruz, uma considerivel

Figura 1. Mapa do estado Rio de Janeiro, corn a localizao de Mambucaba,
municipio de Angra dos Reis (23*01'S, 4431 'W).

Neotropical Primates 6(2), June 1998

Page 49

Page 50

Tabela 1. Relag o de esp6cimes mencionados por Aguirre (1971),
provenientes de Mambucaba, Angrados Reis, Rio de Janeiro.
N Museu (MNRJ) Data Sexo Material N Campo
24115 12.09.1942 M cranio 14206
30189 12.09.1942 M cranio 14205
30193 14.09.1942 M crinio, esqeleto 14210
31304. 14.09.1942 F esqeleto 14211
31321 14.09.1942 M crinio, esqueleto 14209
Obs. Da relagio original, apenas o exemplar cor ndmero de campo 14204
continue desaparecido.

quantidade de mamfferos silvestres taxidermizados e
documents relatives a capture dos mesmos.
Posteriormente (1970), esse material foi transferido e
incorporado ao acervo do Museu Nacional (MNRJ).
Entre 1935 e 1949, o Servico de Estudos e Pesquisas sobre
a Febre Amarela (SEPSFA), em cooperaAo cor a Divisdo
International de Sadde da Fundag~ o Rockefeller, realizou
diversas investigacqes de campo envolvendo a capture de
vertebrados silvestres em varios pontos do Brasil.
Reorganizando a colecgo de primatas do Museu Nacional
(MNRJ), tivemos a atencao atrafda para duas caixas corn
a inscriqdo "guariba?". Examinado-as, verificamos que ao
inv6s de conterem Alouatta, ambas guardavam cranio e
parties do esqueleto de esp6cimes de Brachyteles.
Curiosamente, os ndmeros das plaquetas do campo eram
os mesmos figurados no trabalho do Sr. Aguirre.
Posteriormente, tres outros cranios, cor as mesmas
caracteristicas, tamb6m foram encontrados.
A localizagao desses exemplares (Tabela 1) represent nio
somente o reencontro cor esp6cimes que nio se tinha
notfcias ha muito tempo, mas a prova material da
ocorrencia passada de Brachyteles arachnoides, nessa
parte da Serra do Mar.
A present nota 6 dedicada a mem6ria do engenheiro-
agr6nomo Alvaro Coutinho Aguirre, ilustre amigo que
dedicou parte da sua vida a preservaaio da vida selvagem
do Brasil.
S6rgio Maia Vaz, Museu Nacional, Seqo de Mamfferos.
Quinta da Boa Vista, Sao Crist6vio, 20940-040 Rio de
Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.
Aguirre, A. C. 1971. O mono Brachyteles arachnoides (E.
Geoffroy). Situafdo atual da Especie no Brasil.
Academia Brasileira de Ci8ncias, Rio de Janeiro. 53pp.
Gilmore, R. M. 1943. Mammalogy in an epidemiological
study of jungle yellow fever in Brazil. J. Mammal. 24:

A recent issue of the Publicafoes Avulsas do Museu
Nacional (number 70, 1997) provides an annotated list-
ing of the 72 mammal type specimens in the collection of
the Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. The primates which

Neotropical Primates 6(2), June 1998

are listed are all callithrichids, as follows: Callithrix
argentata marcai Alperin, 1994 holotypee MN2856, and
two paratypes); Hapale coelestis Miranda Ribeiro, 1924
(lectotype MN2825, and two paralectotypes); Mico
melanoleucus Miranda Ribeiro, 1912 (lectotype MN2835);
Hapale petronius Miranda Ribeiro, 1924 (lectotype
MN2824, and one paralectotype); Leontocebus
melanoleucus acrensis Carvalho, 1957 (paratype
MN23868); Leontopithecus caissara Lorini & Persson,
1990 holotypee MN28861); and Saguinus fuscicollis
primitivus Hershkovitz, 1977 holotypee MN22908).
Alfredo Langguth, Departamento de SistemAtica e
Ecologia CCEN, Universidade Federal da Parafba,
58059-900 JoAo Pessoa, Parafba, Brazil, Vania Luciane
Alves G. Limeira and Stella Franco, Museu Nacional,
SeqFo de Mamfferos, Quinta da Boa Vista, Slo Crist6vao,
20940-040 Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.
Avila-Pires, F. D. de. 1968. Tipos de mamfferos recentes
no Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. Arq. Mus. Nac.,
Rio de Janeiro 53: 161-192.
Langguth, A., Limeira, V. L. A. G. and Franco, S. 1997.
Novo catAlogo do material-tipo da coleFio de mamfferos
do Museu Nacional. Publ. Avuls. Mus. Nac., Rio de
Janeiro (70): 1-29.
Miranda-Ribeiro, P. 1955. Tipos das esp6cies e subesp6cies
do Prof. Alfpio de Miranda-Ribeiro depositados no
Museu Nacional. Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro 42:

Foi concluida a primeira etapa da reorganizagio da colecao
de primatas do Museu Nacional (MNRJ). Esse fase
envolveu as Familias Lemuridae, Daubentoniidae,
Lorisidae, Tarsiidae e Callitrichidae. No tocante, a dltima
famflia citada foram inventariados 1.766 esp6cimes, assim
distribufdos: Callimico goeldii (1), Callithrix argentata
(18), C. leucippe (5), C. marcai (3), C. melanura (16), C.
humeralifera (7), C. chrysoleuca (16), C. intermedia (1),
C. aurita (37), C. flaviceps (6), C. geoffroyi (75), C.
jacchus (206), C. penicillata (217), C. kuhlii (954),
Cebuella pygmaea (4), Leontopithecus caissara (1), L.
chrysomelas (14), L. chrysopygus (1), L. rosalia (39),
Saguinus b. bicolor (6), S. b. martinsi (1), S. fuscicollis
acrensis (1), S. f avilapiresi (3), S. f fuscicollis (7), S. f
fuscus (1), S. f melanoleucus (5), S. f primitivus (1), S.f.
weddelli (18), S. imperator (2), S. labiatus (3), S. leucopus
(1),S. midas midas (28),S. m. niger(46),S. mystaxmystax
(14), S. m. pileatus (6), S. geoffroyi (1), S. oedipus (1).
S6rgio Maia Vaz, Museu Nacional, Seglo de Mamfferos,
Quinta da Boa Vista, Sao Crist6vao, 20940-040 Rio de
Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.



Neotropical Primates 6(2), June 1998 Page 53

in the state of Espfrito Santo, including his recent discov-
ery of new populations. Ulysses Seal then gave a tremen-
dous pep-talk concerning the psychology of such work-
shops, and outlined the basic procedures and methodolo-
gies involved. He emphasized, however, that his now con-
siderable experience in such exercises has allowed him to
conclude that each is different, and not only the species,
which have ranged from minute goblin ferns to Florida
panthers, to gorillas and (now) muriquis, but the quirks
of the people and nations involved in each mean that no
two are alike, and each workshop creates its own way of
dealing with the problems and tasks at hand. The next
two and a half days were given over to dealing with prob-
lems and tasks in a way that only those involved in muriqui
conservation and research would imagine, overseen sub-
limely by Ulysses Seal, providing excellent suggestions,
and on only a few occasions firmly pulling participants
back onto the right path. There were four working groups.
They dealt with a review of the distribution of the known
and suspected remaining populations, with aspects of re-
search, management and protected areas, with environ-
mental education and socioeconomic aspects, and with the
running of the VORTEX PHVA analyses, based on Karen
Strier and her student's research on muriquis at the
Caratinga Biological Station over the last 15 years.
Some discussion was given to the taxonomic status of the
southern and northern populations. Some now regard them
as different species (hypoxanthus in the north and
arachnoides in the south), while others are doubtful, but
under any circumstances it was recognized that the two
populations (Minas Gerais, Espfrito Santo, Bahia on the
one hand, and Sao Paulo, Parand, Rio de Janeiro on the
other) need to be considered separately, not only in ge-
netic terms but also because the conservation problems
are rather different for each. In the south, notably Sao
Paulo, there are large protected areas, with poorly known
but apparently very low population densities, whereas in
the north there are some small areas with high popula-
tions, but without adequate protection. One of the major
conclusions reached was the need for a long-term survey
of the status and distribution. There are numerous locali-
ties documented by Aguirre in the 1970s where muriquis
may or may not still survive and, in the south especially,
numerous localities where recent reports of their occur-
rence are restricted to hearsay or the sighting of just a few
animals, with no reliable estimate of any sort of the total
populations. As pointed out by Ulysses Seal, the excel-
lence of the demographic data available, on a par only
with that for the whooping crane, meant that the VOR-
TEX analyses were exceptionally useful in predicting sce-
narios for the fate of the different populations identified.
The document arising from this workshop will be pub-
lished by the CBSG, and will guide and stimulate new
efforts for the conservation of Brachyteles, hopefully es-
pecially resulting in further research in new areas in the
south, to date restricted mainly to the Fazenda Intervales
and Carlos Botelho State Parks. As pointed out by Russell

Mittermeier and Cdlio Valle, key figures in stimulating
conservation efforts for the muriqui in the late 1970s and
1980s, the workshop will also hopefully result in the
muriqui taking more of the limelight as a flagship species
for the Atlantic forest, attracting renewed interest for its
conservation throughout its range.
Anthony B. Rylands, PSG Deputy Chairman, c/o Con-
servation International do Brasil, Avenida Ant6nio
Abrahlo Caram 820/302, 31275-000 Belo Horizonte,
Minas Gerais, Brasil.

A new Primate Liste-server "Primfocus" was announced
on "Primate-talk" by Rick Bogle. The purpose of primfocus
is to: 1. Provide an open forum for discussions about pro-
tecting of primates; 2. Provide a bulletin board for post-
ing news items regarding primates; and 3. Share infor-
mation relating to primates. Primfocus is an unmoderated
open list. The list owners request that discussions remain
civil and germane to primate protection and other pri-
mate issues. The list owners reserve the right to remove
anyone from the list who repeatedly fails to honor the above
statements. To subscribe to PrimFocus, send a message to
with the following message (and no
subject line): subscribe primfocus. For the digest version,
use the following text: subscribe primfocus-digest. To post
messages to PrimFocus send your news item or discus-
sion topic to .

The goal of the IUCN/SSC Wildlife Trade Programme is
to promote the conservation of wild species subject to trade
by assessing the effect of trade on the status of species and
generating appropriate recommendations and conserva-
tion strategies.
The work of IUCN's Species Survival Commission (SSC)
on the status of wild species in trade started over 10 years
ago. The programme ran initially under the auspices of
the Trade Specialist Group, established to enhance the
SSC's scientific input to CITES (Convention on Interna-
tional Trade in Wild Fauna and Flora), and later as the
Wildlife Trade Programme, co-ordinated by the SSC Sec-
retariat. Gradually, the focus has broadened to encompass
a wide range of trade issues. A major focus has been to
identify species threatened by trade and to recommend
actions to address these threats. This has involved work-
ing with Specialist Groups to monitor the status of spe-
cies in trade and prioritise species for conservation ac-
tion. Information is then relayed to decision makers within
the international conservation community. The programme
has, therefore, acted as a two-way process, encouraging
the exchange of information between scientists and policy-
The Wildlife Trade Programme works in collaboration

Neotropical Primates 6(2), June 1998

Page 53

Page 54

with its partner organizations, the TRAFFIC Network and
WCMC (World Conservation Monitoring Centre). SSC
formally recognizes TRAFFIC as its primary source of
expertise on trade data, and TRAFFIC recognizes SSC as
its primary source of expertise on the biological status of
species in trade. By combining the data produced by the
two organizations, the impact of trade on wild species can
be assessed.
The Programmes objectives are as follows: 1) To identify
situations where trade in wild species appears unsustain-
able or detrimentally affects the status of non-target spe-
cies; 2) To focus on gaps in knowledge of the biology and
status of species in trade; 3) To develop and promote those
actions and/or mechanisms necessary to ensure the con-
servation of species detrimentally affected by trade; 4) To
ensure that the SSC's expertise is used to influence the
decisions of CITES and other relevant agreements; 5) To
provide scientific support and capacity building to the
Parties to CITES (and other relevant international agree-
ments) in implementing conventions at national and re-
gional levels and: To increase understanding about CITES
and other relevant agreements within the SSC network.
Priority Action
* Identify a focal point for trade issues in each taxo-
nomic Specialist Group to ensure that SSC can pro-
vide high-quality information to policy makers.
* Support for Specialist Group Action Planning to iden-
tify species affected by trade which may be of conser-
vation concern.
* Determine where further information is needed on
these species and stimulate the information collection.
* Work with interested parties to promote appropriate
conservation action for species identified.
* Provide general assistance to the CITES Secretariat
and Parties between the meetings of the Conference of
Parties (COP).
* Provide specific assistance to the Parties for the meet-
ings of the COP by publishing: CITES: A Conserva-
tion Tool, A Guide to Amending the Appendices to
CITES. This publication provides guidance through
the Convention's articles and resolutions governing
the submission, presentation and adoption of propos-
als to amend the appendices.
* The Analyses of Proposals to Amend the CITES Ap-
pendices, produced in collaboration with the TRAF-
FIC Network, providing an independent assessment
of the information provided in the proposals.
* Support the CITES Significant Trade process by iden-
tifying species subject to 'significant' levels of trade
and development of conservation and management
programmes for species in trade in their country of

Neotropical Primates 6(2), June 1998

* Assist CITES Parties to review and, where it is neces-
sary, to strengthen the capacities of their Scientific Au-
thorities to undertake the monitoring and assessment
procedures for wild species in trade.
* Contribute to policy documents, e.g., CITES Guide-
lines for the Disposition of Confiscated Specimens,
IUCN Re-introduction Guidelines and IUCN Guide-
lines for the Prevention of Biodiversity Loss due to
Biological Invasion.
The Wildlife Trade Programme aims to expand its work
in three theme areas of particular conservation concern:
trees, marine organisms, and medicinal plants and ani-
mals. The SSC tree networks are being further developed
in conjunction with WCMC. Further emphasis is being
placed on marine organisms. The Medicinal Plant Spe-
cialist Group is very active and a number of medicinal
issues are of concern to animal Specialist Groups as well.
Further information is available from: IUCN The World
Conservation Union: ; IUCN Species
Survival Commission: ;
IUCN/SSC Wildlife Trade Programme: themes/ssc/programs>; TRAFFIC Network:
; Convention on International Trade in
Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora:
Information on CITES, list of Parties, information on the
meetings of the Conference of the Parties, Text of the
Convention, Appendices, Reservations, Resolutions and
information on publications are available at the World Con-
servation Monitoring Centre: , or
contact the Wildlife Trade Programme directly: IUCN/
SSC Wildlife Trade Programme, 219c Huntingdon Road,
Cambridge CB3 ODL, UK, Tel: +44 (0)1223 277966, Fax:
+44 (0)1223 277845, e-mail: .

The Annual meeting of the International Committees for
the Recovery and Management of the Lion Tamarins,
Leontopithecus, was held this year at the headquarters of
the non-governmental organization IPt Instituto de
Pesquisas Ecol6gicas, Nazar6 Paulista, SAo Paulo, hosted
by Suzana and Claudio Padua, from 27-29 May. The meet-
ings were chaired by the head of the Wildlife Department
of the Brazilian Environment Institute (Ibama), Maria
lolita Bampi. Routine business included status reports on
current field projects, discussion of future projects and
proposals, the status of the captive population and the in-
clusion of new zoos and captive breeding institutions in
the breeding programs, as well as the status of fund-rais-
ing efforts, particularly through the Lion Tamarins of Bra-
zil Fund. There was reason for some celebration, land-
marks over the past year including: the increase in the
size of the Superagiii National Park, home to the black-

Neotropical Primates 6(2), June 1998 Page 55

faced lion tamarin (Leontopithecus caissara), now cover-
ing a larger part of the island as well as part of the adja-
cent continent; Guadelupe Vivekananda, Director, reported
that funding had been secured for drawing up the man-
agement plan for the Superagiii National Park, and that
there were positive signs regarding the resolution of the
presence of Indian families there; the success of the trans-
location program run by Cecilia Kierulff (currently fin-
ishing her doctorate at the University of Cambridge with
David Chivers) and Paula Proc6pio de Oliveira (begin-
ning her doctorate with Gustavo Fonseca at the Federal
University of Minas Gerais); the legal protection of the
forest at the Fazenda Unigo, site of the translocation pro-
gram, which was converted into a Federal Biological Re-
serve on 22 April 1998; and Saturnino Neto de Souza,
Director, reported on the completion of the Management
Plan for the Una Biological Reserve (L. chrysomelas), and
also informed that compensation would soon be available
for the removal of the few remaining squatter families.
Jon Ballou (National Zoological Park, Washington, D. C.)
and his co-authors were congratulated on the completion
of the final report of the PHVA Workshop for the genus,
held during the 1997 meeting in Belo Horizonte (see "Re-
cent Publications"). Bengt Olson (Copenhagen Zoo) re-
ported on alternatives for fund-raising amongst the Euro-
pean zoo community and his preparations for a meeting
to report on and promote the cause of lion tamarin con-
servation. Kristin Leus (Antwerp Zoo), studbook keeper
for L. chrysomelas, reported on current progress in tech-
niques and research for controlling reproduction in cap-
tive colonies. Other notable reports were given by Claudio
Valladares-Padua concerning progress on the
metapopulation management program for L. chrysopygus
as well as plans, with Fabiana Prado (IPE), for the con-
tinuation of the distribution and population survey for L.
caissara in Parand and Sao Paulo; by Gabriel Rodrigues
dos Santos (Instituto de Estudos Socio-ambientais do Sul
da Bahia IESB, Ilh6us) on his extension work with land-
owners, promoting the protection of forests surrounding
the Una Biological Reserve; and by James Dietz (Univer-
sity of Maryland), concerning his research program on
the demography and ecology and behavior of L.
chrysomelas, as well studies of mixed-species groups with
Callithrix kuhlii (by Becky E. Raboy, University of Mary-
Admiral Ibsen de GusmAo Cimara (FundaSio Brasileira
para a Conservacao da Natureza (FBCN), Rio de Janeiro)
retired as Co-chair of the Committee for Leontopithecus
caissara in 1997, and Jeremy Mallinson (Jersey Wildlife
Preservation Trust, Jersey) proposed a most sincere vote
of thanks for his remarkable efforts, dedication, and suc-
cess in running the committee since 1990. Anthony
Rylands (Conservation International do Brasil, Belo
Horizonte) was appointed Co-Chair of the L. caissara com-
mittee in his place.


A A Funda9ao Boticario de
Proteco A Natureza apoiou 19
projetos na segunda etapa de
selegao de 1997, de seu
Program de Incentivo h Conservaiao da Natureza. Os
projetos sao divididos em tres categories: Unidades de
conservagio (sete projetos); Pesquisa e proteaio da vida
silvestre (nove projetos); e Areas verdes (tr8s projetos).
Um dos projetos aprovados 6 do Instituto de Pesquisas
da Mata Atl&ntica IPEMA, Diretor Geral, Paulo de
Marco, Jr., Santa Teresa, Espirito Santo. O projeto -
"CaracterizagIo molecular de populag6es de duas
esp6cies de primates endemicos da Mata Atlantica e
de seus possiveis hfbridos" constituird a tese de
mestrado em Gen6tica da Universidade Federal de
Vigosa, Minas Gerais, de Fabiano Rodrigues de Melo,
sendo seu orientador Ldcio Antonio de Oliveira Cam-
pos, e co-orientador, S6rgio Lucena Mendes, do Museu
de Biologia Mello Leitao, Santa Teresa. O projeto
estudari a gendtica de populacqes selvagens de
Callithrix aurita e Callithrixflaviceps nas regi6es dos
municipios de Vicosa, Alfenas, Alfredo Chaves e
Carangola em Minas Gerais, e Santa Teresa, Espirito
Santo, entire outros, e as populag~es em cativeiro do
Museu de Biologia Mello Leitao e o Centro de
Primatologia do Rio de Janeiro (CPRJ/FEEMA). O
objetivo do projeto 6 a identificag~o de marcadores
gen6ticos, usando-se a t6cnica de RAPD, que
caracterizem e diferenciem populag6es de aurita das
deflaviceps e de ambas de seus hfbridos. Os resultados
tamb6m poderao ser dteis na avaliagAo da extensAo da
zona de hibrida$go entire as esp6cies.
Miguel Serediuk Milano, Diretor T6cnico, Fundaqao
O Boticario de Protecio A Natureza, Avenida Rui
Barbosa 3450, 83065-260 Sao Jos6 dos Pinhais, Parand,

Since the inception of this annual appeal to all holders of
lion tamarins outside Brazil, the Lion Tamarins of Brazil
Fund (LTBF) has raised in excess of US$100,000 in sup-
port of in situ conservation work. As has recently been
highlighted, the initiation of the LTBF in 1991 repre-
sents the first time that an international fund has been
established by which all holders of individuals of an
endangered genus, held outside the country to which
it is endemic, are requested to contribute annually to
aid the conservation of the remnant wild populations.
The annual LTBF appeal letter reiterates that it is very
much hoped that all holders of Leontopithecus outside
Brazil will be able to provide some financial support,
no matter how small, in order for the fund to generate

Neotropical Priniates 6(2), June 1998

Page 55

Page 56

sufficient money to continue and increase its support
for these model in situ conservation programmes. As
recorded at the foot of the LTBF Appeal Form, zoos in
North and South America are requested to send their
donations to Dr. Jonathan Ballou or Dr. Devra Kleiman,
Department of Zoological Research, National Zoologi-
cal Park, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.,
20008 USA. Zoos in Africa, Asia, Australasia and
Europe are requested to submit them to Jeremy J.C.
Mallinson, Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, Les
Augres Manor, Trinity, Jersey, JE3 5BP, British Chan-
nel Islands.
The June 1996 May 1997 LTBF Appeal, which was
mailed to over 150 holders of Leontopithecus, realized
total contributions of US$ 19,347. This sum does not
include the amount of US$5,000 by Copenhagen Zoo,
in sponsorship of a family group of golden lion tama-
rins. At the 24th May, 1997 meeting of the Interna-
tional Recovery and Management Committees it was
decided, as in previous years, that the funds raised
should be shared equally between the four Lion Tama-
rin Committees. It is the responsibility of the respec-
tive IRMC Chairpersons to distribute the amounts to
the most appropriate in situ lion tamarin projects that
come under their jurisdiction.
The 1997 grants from the LTBF were made in support
of: 1) the Golden Lion Tamarin Conservation
Program's L. rosalia translocation programme, 2) re-
search on the ecology, behaviour and population vi-
ability of L. chrysomelas in the Una Biological Re-
serve, 3) the L. chrysopygus metapopulation manage-
ment programme, and 4) field surveys on L. caissara
on the Island of Superagiii, Parana.
During the period June 1996 May 1997 donations to
the LTBF were gratefully received from the following
zoos: Adelaide Zoological Gardens, Australia;
Apenheul Primate Conservation Trust, The Nether-
lands; Baltimore Zoo, Maryland, USA; Belfast Zoo-
logical Gardens, UK; Cleveland Metroparks Zoo, Ohio,
USA; Colchester Zoo, UK; Copenhagen Zoo, Denmark;
Fort Worth Zoological Park, Texas, USA; Jersey Wild-
life Preservation Trust, British Isles; Lisbon Zoo, Por-
tugal; Marwell Zoological Park, UK; Melbourne Zoo,
Australia; Oklahoma City Zoological Park, Oklahoma,
USA; Paignton Zoological and Botanical Gardens, UK;
Penscynor Wildlife Park, UK; Phoenix Zoo, Arizona,
USA; Racine Zoological Garden, Wisconsins, USA;
Riverbanks Zoological Park & Botanical Gardens, SC,
USA; Roger Williams Park Zoo, Rhode Island, USA;
Sedgwick County Zoo Gardens, Kansas, USA;
Singapore Zoological Gardens, Singapore; Taronga
Park Zoo, Sydney, Australia; World of Birds, South
Africa, Twycross Zoo, UK; Zoo La Palmyre, France;
The Zoological Society of London, Whipsnade, UK;
Zurich Zoo, Switzerland.

Neotropical Primates 6(2), June 1998

Jeremy J.C. Mallinson, Director, Jersey Wildlife
Preservation Trust, Les Augrbs Manor, Trinity, Jersey,
JE3 5BP, British Channel Islands.

This note was first published in Tamarin Tales, Newsletter of the In-
ternational Committees for Recovery and Management of
Leontopithecus rosalia, L. chrysopygus, L. chrysomelas, and L.
caissara, 1998, 2: 14-15.

The Lincoln Park Zooo Scott Neotropic Fund was initi-
ated by the Lincoln Park Zoological Soiety and Lincoln
Park Zoological Gardens in 1986 in support of in situ con-
servation efforts throughout Latin America and the Car-
ibbean. The aim is to support young conservation biolo-
gists working in their own countries, assisting a new gen-
eration of researchers in becoming the environmental de-
cision-makers of tomorrow and strengthening the core of
conservation leadership throughout the Americas. The
following projects were approved for 1998.
Primate translocation as a tool for species preservation
and community conservation in northwest Ecuador Amy
Galloway, University of Georgia; Waterhole use by mam-
mals in Santa Rosa National Park, Guanacaste, Costa Rica
- Jaime Andrds Cabrera, Universidad Nacional de Costa
Rica; Evaluation of factors potentially contributing to the
decline of the endangered Patagonian deer, the huemul -
JoAne Smith-Flueck, Universidad Nacional del Comahue,
Argentina; A "common garden" experiment to determine
local adaptations in green iguanas Martin Wikelski,
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama; A study
of the habitat requirements, abundance, movements and
strategies for conservation of a population of jaguars in
Costa Rica Roberval Tavares de Almeida; Effect of for-
est-pasture edges on a neotropical herpetofauna Marin
Schlaepfer, Cornell Univesity; Forest fragmentation and
land use in the landscape mosaic of the Una region, south
Bahia: Effects on the terrestrial mammal community -
Renata Pardini, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil; Conser-
vation biology of the lowland tapir at Morro Diabo State
Park Emflia Patrfcia M6dici, IPl-Instituto de Pesquisas
Ecol6gicas, Brazil; James' and Andean flamingos
(Phenicoparrus jamesi and P andinus): Abundance and
characteristics of their habitats in the high Andean lakes
of northwest Argentina Sandra Caziani; Habitat use and
seed dispersal activities of bats in a fragmented Neotropi-
cal landscape Michelle Evelyn, Stanford Univesity;
Translocation of isolated groups of golden lion tamarins,
Leontopithecus rosalia Maria Cecilia Kierulff Univer-
sity of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK; Molecular and mor-
phological systematics of the fruit bat Sturnira
(Stenodermatini, Chiroptera) Carlos Alberto ludica,
University of Florida.
For more information: Lincoln Park Zoo Scott Neotropic
Fund, Director of Conservation and Science, 2001 North
Clark Street, Chicago, Illinois 60614-3895, USA.

Neotropical Primates 6(2), June 1998 Page 57

The dates for the XVII Congress of
the International Primatological So-
ciety, University of Antananarivo,
Antananarivo, Madagascar have
changed. It will now take place from
10-15 August, 1998. Note also that
telephone and facsimile numbers have changed. To call
from abroad or to send a fax, the new number is (261)-
20-22-five digits. To call the Congress Secretary, the
number is now: (261)-20-22-66048 or (261)-20-22-
26991, ext. 24. (Reported in IPS Bulletin 25(1):2, May

In 1993, The International Primato-
logical Society published the "IPS In-
ternational Guidelines for the Acqui-
sition, Care and Breeding of Nonhu-
man Primates" in a special issue of
Primate Report. It was edited by
Trevor B. Poole for the IPS Captive Care and Breed-
ing Committee (Primate Report, vol. 25, January,
1993). Contents: Part I: Outline of General Principles.
Introduction; Capture from the Wild; International
Shipments; Institutional Policies; Primate Housing;
Animal Care and Health; Breeding in Captivity; Ex-
perimental/Ethical Considerations; Annexes. Part II:
Codes of Practice 1-3. Members of the IPS Captive
Care Committee 1988-1992; Preface; 1. Housing and
Environmental Enrichment; 2. Levels of Training for
Care-Giving Staff; 3. Health Care. For more informa-
tion: Dr. Cobie Brinkman, IPS Vice-President for Cap-
tive Care, Division of Psychology, Australian National
University, GPO Box 4, Canberra, ACTY 0200, Aus-
tralia, Tel: 61 6 249 2803, Fax: 61 6 249 0499, e-mail:

Number 64, February 1998, of the Pri-
mate Society of Great Britain's newslet-
ter, Primate Eye (Editor Dr William Sell-
ers, University of Edinburgh, UK), in-
cluded the supplement on "Current Pri-
mate Field Studies" (the seventeenth issue of the
supplement), results of a world-wide survey carried out
in 1997. Compiled by Julia M. Casperd (University of
Liverpool, UK), this supplement provides information
on 148 field studies, including: country, field site, the
species and their IUCN categorisation as to their con-

servation status, the date the project started, duration
and status of the project (planned, ongoing or com-
pleted), a brief description of the project's aims, and
addresses. Julia Casperd also provides some critical
analyses of the results of the survey, and compares them
with those obtained for the 1996 survey. In the 1998
survey, 32% of the studies are in the Americas; 19 stud-
ies deal with Callitrichidae and 68 with Cebidae. Over-
all, 28% of the primates in the 1996 IUCN Red List of
Threatened Animals are the focus of conservation re-
lated field research. The following countries were listed
for the Americas: Argentina (four studies); Belize
(two); Bolivia (one); Brazil (20); Colombia (three);
Costa Rica (six); French Guiana (two); Mexico (four);
Panama (one); Peru (one); Suriname (one); Trinidad
(one); Venezuela (two). An appendix provides a full
listing of the threatened primates in the 1996 IUCN
Red List.
The Primate Eye "Current Primate Field Studies"
supplement is available from the PSGB Treasurer, Dr
Charlie Evans, Department of Biological Sciences,
Glasgow College of Technology, Cowcaddens Road,
Glasgow G4 OBA, UK, Tel: +44 (0)141 331 3209, Fax:
+44 (0)141 331 3208 or 3242, e-mail:
, at a price of 5.00.

SAt the AGM of the PSGB in April, 1998,
the President, Hilary Box, retired after
four dedicated years in office. Phyllis Lee
was elected as the new President. Geoff
Hosey retired as Treasurer, and Charlie
Evans was elected to replace him. Hannah Buchanan-
Smith and Kate Hill were re-elected as Hon. Secretary
and Membership Secretary, respectively. Contact de-
tails are given below. Applications to join the Society
can be obtained from the Membership Secretary or elec-
tronically on the WWW site: PSGB/>. President: Dr. Phyllis Lee, Department of
Biological Anthropology, Downing Street, Cambridge
CB2 3DZ, UK, Tel: (0)1223 335459, Fax: (0)1223
335460, e-mail: ; Hon. Secre-
tary: Dr. Hannah Buchanan-Smith, Department of
Psychology, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA,
UK, Tel: (0)1786 467674, Fax: (0)1786 467641, e-mail:
; Hon. Treasurer: Dr. Charlie
Evans, Department of Biological Sciences, Glasgow
College of Technology, Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow G4
OBA, UK, Tel: (0)141 331 3209, Fax: (0)141 331 3208
or 3242, e-mail: ; Membership
Secretary: Dr. Kate Hill, Department of Anthropol-
ogy, University of Durham, 43 Old Elvet, Durham DH1
3HN, UK, Tel: (0)191 374 7206, Fax: (0)191 374 7527,
e-mail: .

Neotropical Primates 6(2), June 1998

Page 57

Page 58

The lion tamarins, Leontopithecus, and the
muriqui, Brachyteles, are the subjects of two
important publications produced recently by
the IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Special-
ist Group (CBSG). The first, "Leontopithecus
II, Final Report. The Second Population and Habitat Vi-
ability Assessmentfor Lion Tamarins (Leontopithecus)',
compiled by Jonathan D. Ballou, Robert C. Lacy, Devra
Kleiman, Anthony Rylands and Susie Ellis (1998) is the
final report of the PHVA Workshop held in Belo Horizonte,
Minas Gerais, Brazil, 20-22 May 1997. The Workshop
was a collaborative effort of the Conservation Breeding
Specialist Group (CBSG) and the Primate Specialist Group
(PSG). It was organized by the Fundagio Biodiversitas,
Belo Horizonte, in collaboration with the Brazilian Insti-
tute for the Environment (Ibama), Conservation Interna-
tional, Washington, D. C., Conservation International do
Brasil, Belo Horizonte, The US Fish and Wildlife Ser-
vice, and the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, and was
also sponsored by the Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foun-
dation, and the Brazilian airline Co. Transbrasil. The
report details recommendations concerning future action
for the conservation of the genus, and also describes the
results of VORTEX analyses on the captive populations
and those in protected areas. Contents: Executive sum-
mary; Introduction; Working group reports
(Metapopulation, Habitat and Research, Communication,
Population modeling, and funding); Updates on lion tama-
rin captive breeding program; and the following appendi-
ces List of participants, BLT Metapopulation Manage-
ment Plan, Agenda for the Leontopithecus Silver Anni-
versary Symposium, Tamarin Tales newsletter (vol. 2), and
the members of the Lion Tamarin International Recovery
and Management Committees.
The second is "Population and Habitat Viability Assess-
ment Workshop for the Muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides):
Briefing Book", compiled by the IUCN/SSC Conserva-
tion Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG) (1998). This is a
compilation of information on Brachyteles, prepared for
the Muriqui PHVA Workshop held in Belo Horizonte,
Minas Gerais, 23-26 May, 1998; a collaborative effort of
the CBSG and PSG, organized by the Fundagio
Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte, in collaboration with Con-
servation International do Brasil, and the Brazilian Insti-
tute for the Environment (Ibama), and sponsored by the
Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation. It is a most valu-
able compilation of published articles and documents con-
cerning Brachyteles. Contents: Workshop invitation and
tentative agenda; An introduction to the PHVA process;
The genetics and taxonomy of Brachyteles arachnoides;
Distribution and range; Reproductive and social behav-

ior; Life history and demography; Diet and habitat char-
acteristics; Conservation and management strategies; Cap-
tive populations; IUCN guidelines; and VORTEX techni-
cal reference.
The price of these publications is US$35.00 each (checks
payable to CBSG on a US Bank, Mastercard and Visa
also accepted). They are available from: IUCN/SSC Con-
servation Breeding Specialist Group, 12101 Johnny Cake
Ridge Road, Apple Valley, MN 55124, USA, Fax; +1 612
432 2757, e-mail: < cbsg@epx.cis.umn.edu>.

More than one out of eight plant species worldwide is at
risk of extinction, according to the most comprehensive
scientific assessment ever assembled on the status of the
world's plants: the 1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened
Plants. The IUCN Red List reveals that 12.5%, or 34,000,
of the world's vascular plant species are threatened with
extinction. The Red List is the result of a 20-year effort by
a unique coalition of scientists, conservation organizations,
botanical gardens and The World Conservation Union
(IUCN), and compiled by the World Conservation Moni-
toring Centre (WCMC), Cambridge, UK. Conservation
assessments were provided by numerous scientists and
conservationists with major input from the Smithsonian
Institution's Department of Botany, The Nature Conser-
vancy, Environment Australia and CSIRO, The National
Botanical Institute (South Africa), The Royal Botanical
Gardens, Kew and Edinburgh, and the New York Botani-
cal Garden.
Of the estimated 270,000 known species of vascular plants,
which include ferns, fern allies, gymnosperms (including
conifers and cycads), and flowering plants, 33,798 were
found to be at risk of extinction. These plants are found in
369 families and are scattered through 200 countries. Of
the plant species named in the Red List, 91% are found
only in a single country. In addition, islands or island
groups, which also have high rates of endemicity, face
high levels of threat to their flora. Seven of the top ten
areas listed according to percentage of threatened floras
were islands: St. Helena, Mauritius, Seychelles, Jamaica,
French Polynesia, Pitcairn, and Reunion. A great number
of plant species known to have medicinal value are at risk
of disappearing. For instance, 75% of the species from
the yew family, a source of important cancer-fighting com-
pounds, are threatened. The willow family, from which
aspirin is derived, has 12% of its species threatened. Nu-
merous other species whose medicinal value has not yet
been studied also are at risk.
The Red List shows that 380 species have become extinct
in the wild, with an additional 371 species listed as Ex-
tinct/Endangered. Over 6,500 species are categorized as
Endangered, indicating their numbers have been so dras-
tically reduced to a critical level that they are deemed to
be in immediate danger of extinction. Threat assessments

Neotropical Primates 6(2), June 1998

Neotropical Primates 6(2), June 1998 Page 59

are according to the pre-1994 IUCN threat categories. The
introduction to the book details the purpose and history of
the project, an explanation of the information and an analy-
sis of the list, including valuable tables on threatened plants
in each country by IUCN category and by major taxa and
families. Publication of the IUCN Red List of Threatened
Plants marks a turning point for conservation. The book,
an important new conservation tool, provides baseline
information to measure conservation progress and serves
as a primary source of data on plant species. Most impor-
tantly, it provides the building blocks on which to base
worldwide efforts to conserve plant species and the eco-
systems they inhabit. FromBiological Conservation News-
letter, Smithsonian Institution, Department of Botany.
April/May 1998, No. 178.
The 1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants is avail-
able for US$45 (plus shipping and handling) from the
New York Botanical Garden, Scientific Publications,
Bronx, NY 10458-5126, USA, Tel: +1 (718) 817-8721;
Fax: +1 (718) 817-8842; e-mail: .

Recently published was the second issue (Vol. 2, 1998) of
the Newsletter of the International Committees for Re-
covery and Management of Leontopithecus rosalia, L.
chrysopygus, L. chrysomelas and L. caissara Tamarin
Tales. This newsletter, produced by the Jersey Wildlife
Preservation Trust, Jersey, and edited by J. D. Ballou,
National Zoological Park, Washington, D. C., provides
up-dates and short reviews on the conservation and breed-
ing efforts worldwide for the four lion tamarin species,
and is aimed particularly at the contributors to The Lion
Tamarins of Brazil Fund. Volume 2 contains the follow-
ing articles: PHVA: 1997 Population and Habitat Viabil-
ity Assessment Workshop, pp.1-2; Current status of
Leontopithecus: Update from the PHVA Anthony B.
Rylands, pp.2-4; The captive populations, pp.2-5; Wanted!
Zoos for the expanding black lion tamarin L. chrysopygus
population, p.5; Research update: Reproductive success
and how Mom allocates her resources Karen Bales, pp.5-
6; The Segunda Agua Group Bengt Hoist, pp.6-7;
Golden-headed lion tamarins in Antwerp Zoo: Current
highlights of research Kristel de Vleeschouwer, Kristin
Leus, and Linda van Elsacker, pp.7-9; Metapopulation
management and translocations of black lion tamarins -
C. Padua, pp.9-10; Conservation of protected areas through
community participation examples from the Brazilian
Atlantic forest Suzana M. Padua and Marlene F. Tabanez,
pp.10-12; Golden lion tamarin translocation. Breeds suc-
cess! Maria Cecilia Kierulff, Paula Proc6pio de Oliveira,
Edsel Amorim Moraes, Jr., Marina Janzatti Lapenta and
Vanessa Veruli, pp.12-13; Update from the field: Golden-
headed lion tamarins lead the way in mixed species asso-
ciations Becky E. Raboy, pp.13-14; Landowner's Envi-
ronmental Education Programme surrounding Una Bio-
logical Reserve, Bahia Gabriel Rodrigues dos Santos and

Joaquim Blanes, p. 14; The Lion Tamarins of Brazil Fund
- Jeremy J. C. Mallinson, pp.14-15.
Jonathan D. Ballou, Editor Tamarin Tales, National
Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.
C. 20008, USA. E-mail: .

Tropical Biodiversity is a scientific journal published three
times a year by the Indonesian Foundation for the Ad-
vancement of Biological Sciences. The journal is dedi-
cated to disseminating research results about the ecology
and conservation of tropical ecosystems throughout the
world. Based in a megadiversity country, Tropical
Biodiversity fills a unique niche in the world of ecologi-
cal publications through its commitment to publishing the
work of scientists from developing countries. The issue of
Vol. 4(3) has just been published, marking the comple-
tion of the journal's fourth volume. With a worldwide dis-
tribution, and increasing readership and paper submis-
sions, Tropical Biodiversity has established itself as an
important forum for papers concerning tropical ecology
and conservation issues. Editor: Dr. Jatna Supriatna, e-
mail: or .
Address: TropicalBiodiversity, Yayasan Bina Sains Hayati
Indonesia (YABSHI), The Indonesian Foundation for the
Advancement of Biological Sciences (IFABS), Jl. Tanah
Baru Raya 98, Depok 16421, Indonesia, Tel/Fax: +62 (021)

The Fundag&o Brasileira para o Desenvolvimento
Sustentavel (FBDS) is a non-governmental orga-
nization, based in Rio de Janeiro, which, as its
name suggests, works to promote the rational use and con-
servation of natural resources in Brazil. In 1998, FBDS
initiated a publication series Cadernos para o
Desenvolvimento Sustentdvel FBDS.
The first volume, entitled Conservafao da Biodiversidade
no Amazdnia Brasileira: Uma Andlise do Sistema de
Unidades de Conservacdo (1998, 65pp., in Portuguese),
was written by Anthony B. Rylands and Luiz Paulo de S.
Pinto, both of Conservation International do Brasil, Belo
Horizonte, Minas Gerais. It contains an analysis of the
protected areas system in the Brazilian Amazon and in-
cludes the following chapters: 1) Introduction; 2) History
and evolution of the protected areas system in the Brazil-
ian Amazon; 3) Bases for planning a protected areas sys-
tem in the Brazilian Amazon; 4) Current situation of the
protected areas; 5) Protected areas and biodiversity con-
servation in the Brazilian Amazon.
The second volume of Cadernos FBDS publishes the pro-
ceedings of the Workshop: Forest Policies and Sustain-
able Development in the Amazon (1998, 159pp., in Por-
tuguese and English), organized by FBDS in collabora-

Neotropical Primates 6(2), June 1998

Page 59

Page 60

tion with the United Nations Development Program
(UNDP), and held in Rio de Janeiro, 14-16 July, 1997.
Volume 2 includes the following chapters: Preface Israel
Klabin, President, FBDS, and Ralph Schmidt, Director,
Forest Programme Sustainable Energy and Environment
Division, UNDP, pp.3-4; Executive Summary Angelo
A. dos Santos, Milagre Nuvunga and Eneas Salati, pp.7-
14; Economic considerations pertaining to the expansion
of logging in the Amazon Jeffrey R. Vincent, pp.15-24;
Impact of international tropical timber trade on the Ama-
zon Rainforest M. L. Joshi, pp.25-39; Mercado national
de madeiras tropicais Ivan Tomaselli, pp.41-49; Geraiao,
disponibilidade e uso de informaq9es para manejar florestas
na Amaz6nia Paulo Barreto, pp.51-59; Certificagao
socioambiental, bom manejo florestal e polfticas pdblicas
- Virgflio M. Viana, pp.61-70; Forest concession policies
and sustainable forest management of tropical forests -
John A. Gray pp.71-112; Polftica florestal coerente para
Amazonia Adalberto Verfssimo and Carlos Souza Jdnior,
pp. 113-118; Some suggested contract provisions for for-
estry contracts on land owned by the Federative Republic
of Brazil David N. Smith, pp. 119-134; Annotated bibli-
ography Namrita Kapur, pp.135-155. For further infor-
mation please contact Angelo Augusto dos Santos at the
address below.
Angelo Augusto dos Santos, Coordinator for External
Affairs, Fundagio Brasileira para o Desenvolvimento
Sustentivel (FBDS), Rua Golf Club 115, Sao Conrado,
22610-040 Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Tel:
(0)21 322-4520, Fax: (0)21 322 5903, e-mail: <
Livro Vermelho das Espicies Ameafadas de Extingdo
da Fauna de Minas Gerais, edited by Angelo B. M.
Machado, Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca, Ricardo B. Machado,
Ludmilla M. de S. Aguiar, and Livia V. Lins, 1998, 605pp.,
33 color plates. Fundadio Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte.
In Portuguese. Price: Paperback US$35 (+p&p). A beau-
tifully produced book describing 178 threatened animals
of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, including 40 mam-
mals, 83 birds, 10 reptiles, 11 amphibians, three fishes,
27 insects, one onychophore and three oligochaetes. Con-
tents: Preambulo Angelo B. M. Machado, pp.11-12;
Apresentag~o Secretaria de Estado da Educaleo,
Secretaria de Estado do Meio Ambiente, Instituto Estadual
de Florestas & Fundagao Biodiversitas, p.13; Prefcio -
C6lio de Murilo de Carvalho Valle, pp.15-16; Organizagao
geral do livro, pp.21-25; Panorama geral da fauna
ameagada de Minas Gerais Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca,
pp.27-30; Ha doze mile anos: A grande extingio Castor
Cartelle, pp.31-35; Mamfferos, pp.37-169; Aves, pp.173-
391; R6pteis, pp.417-443; Anfibios, pp. 445-475; Peixes,
pp.477-491; Insetos, pp.493-561; Onic6foros, pp.563-569;
Oligoquetas, pp.571-583; Indice remissiva de nomes
populares, pp.585-587; Indice de nomes cientfficos,
pp.589-591; indice de ilustracSes, p.593; Glosdrio, pp.595-

Neotropical Primates 6(2), June 1998

605. For each species there are summary data sheets (in-
cluding categorization in other national and international
threatened species lists, and their occurrence in protected
areas) and sections on general information (description,
distribution, and natural history), the principal threats and
the principal strategies necessary for their conservation,
and a distribution map. Species of primates included are:
Callithrix kuhlii, C. flaviceps, C. aurita, Leontopithecus
chrysomelas, Callicebus personatus (including the sub-
species nigrifrons, melanochir and personatus), Cebus
xanthosternos, Alouatta fusca fusca and A. f clamitans,
and Brachyteles arachnoides. A most valuable reference.
Available from: Fundagao Biodiversitas, Avenida do
Contorno 9155, lto. Andar, Caixa Postal 1462, 30110-
130 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Tel: +55 (0)31 291
9673, Fax: +55 (0)31 291-7658, e-mail: horizontes.com.br>.
A Field Guide to the Mammals of Central America
and South-East Mexico, by Fiona A. Reid, 1997, xvii +
334pp. Oxford University Press, New York. ISBN 0 19
506400 3, hardback, and ISBN 019 506401 1, paperback.
Price: Hardback 45.00, paperback 22.50. This field
guide provides detailed accounts and range maps for all
species of terrestrial and aquatic mammals of Central
America and southern Mexico. With 48 color plates illus-
trating 85% of the species, 11 line drawings, an extensive
bibliography, and sections on how and where to find mam-
mals. Primates pp.173-181. Available from: Order Depart-
ment, Oxford University Press, Saxon Way, West Corby,
Northamptonshire NN18 9ES, UK, 24-hour credit card
hotline +44 (0)1536 454534, Fax: +44 (0)1536 454518,
e-mail: .
L'Alimentation en For&t Tropicale: Interactions
Bioculturelles et Perspectives de Developpement, ed-
ited by Claude Marcel Hladik, Annette Haldik, H6lene
Pagezy, Olga F Linares, Georgius J. J. Koppert and Alain
Froment, 1996. Editions UNESCO, Man and the Bio-
sphere (MAB), Paris. ISBN 92 3 203381 X. Editions in
French (1996) and English (1993). Contents of the French
edition: Volume I. Les resources alimentaires: produc-
tion et consommation. 1. Introduction: le context actuel
des recherches sur l'utilisation des resources des forts
tropicales C. M. Hladik, O. F. Linares, H. Pagezy, A.
Hladik, A. Semple & Alain Froment. Part 1. Les resources
alimentaires des forts tropicales en relation avec les
tendances ivolutives et le peuplement des diffirentes blocs
continentaux. 2. Resources alimentaires des forests
tropicales: une mise en perspective des tendances
dvolutives et de I'impact du peuplement human D.
McKey, O. F. Linares, C. R.Clement & C. M. Hladik; 3.
Fluctuations majeures de la fort dense humide africaine
au course des vingt deriers mill6naires J. Maley; 4. Le
peuplement de l'Am6rique Centrale et de l'Am6rique du
Sud et les adaptations aux forts tropicales avant la
colonisation europdenne R. G. Cooke & D. Piperno; 5.
Fragments pour une histoire de la fort africaine et de son
peuplement: les donn6es linguistiques et culturelles S.

Neotropical Primates 6(2), June 1998 Page 61

Bahuchet; 6. Les plants alimentaires des forts humides
intertropicales et leur domestication: examples africains
et am6ricains J.-L. Guillaumet; 7. Importance des
especies semi-domestiqu6es en Amazonie: impact sur la
flore et la faune de leur dissemination par les Indiens
Kayap6 et ses consequences sur les systems de gestion -
D. A. Posey; 8. Composition biochimique des fruits et
perception gustative: interactions et tendances 6volutives
dans les forts tropicales C. M. Hladik; 9. tcologie et
evolution des products secondaires du manioc et relations
avec les systemes traditionnels de culture D. McKey &
S. Beckerman; 10. Rdponses des Dayak de Kalimantan
aux fructifications massive et comportement du sanglier
barbu: une analyse des analogies entire Nature et Culture -
M. R. Dove. Part 2. Production et valeur nutritionnelle
des esp&ces spontanees et semi-domestiquies des forces
tropicales. 11. Production des resources alimentaires des
forts tropicales: context et dommdes rdcentes A. Hladik,
E. G. Leigh, Jr. & F. Bourlibre; 12. Fruits et graines de la
fortt amazonienne: composition, production et utilisations
pour un d6veloppement durable C. R. Clement; 13. Les
palmeraies amazoniennes: resources alimentaires et
management des 6cosystemes forestiers F. Kahn; 14.
Les ignames spontan6es des forts denses africaines,
plants A tubercules comestibles A. Hladik & E. Dounias;
15. Int6r6t nutritionnel et socio-economique du gere
Gnetum en Afrique central F Mialoundama; 16. Les
plants alimentaires de la fort dense du Zaire, au nort-
est du Pare National de la Salonga M. M. Dhetchuvi &
J. Lejoly; 18. Les Pygmdes camerounais face A
l'insuffisance des products alimentaires v6g6taux de la forget
6quatoriale J.-F Loung; 19. Les resources v6g6tales de
la fort dense humide du Sri Lanka et leurs utilisations -
M. I. U. A. Gunatilleke & S. C. V.Gunatilleke; 20. Les
resources alimentaires de la fort d'une region tropical
de montagne: la Mixteca (Mexique) E. Katz; 21. R6le
des insects dans l'alimentation en fort tropical J.
Ramos-Elorduy; 22. Utilisation des resources forestieres
et variations locales de la density du gibier dans la fort
du nort-east du Gabon S. A. Lahm; 23. Chasse et con-
servation des especes animals dans les forces neotropicales
- K. H. Redford. Part 3. Aspects adaptatifs e la
consommation alimentaire et de la ddpense dnergdtique.
24. Aspects adaptatifs de la consommation alimentaire et
de la d6pense 6nergdtique: acquis et perspectives A propos
des regions forestibres tropicales P. Pasquet, A. Froment
& R. Ohtsuka; 25. Changements alimentaires et
nutritionnels chez les Gidra des plains de Papouasie-
Nouvelle-Guin6e R. Ohtsuka; 26. Le cost energdtique
de la fabrication du sagou en Papouasie-Nouvelle-Guinde:
le travail en vaut-il la peine? S. J. Ulijaszek & S. P.
Poraituk; 27. Ressources alimentaires et mode de vie des
Hagahai de Papouasi-Nouvelle-Guin6e C. Jenkins & K.
Milton; 28. Consommation alimentaire dans trois popu-
lations forestibres de la region c6tibre du Cameroun: Yassa,
Mvae et Bakola G. J. A. Koppert, E. Dounias, A. Froment
& P. Pasquet; 29. Budget-temps et ddpense dnergdtique
chez les essarteurs forestiers du Cameroun P. Pasquet &

G. J. A. Koppert; 30. Les consequences bioculturelles de
la consommation du manioc (Manihot esculenta) sur le
metabolisem et la micro-6volution de l'Homme F L. C.
Jackson; 31. Sel de cendre, manioc et goitre: changement
de regime alimentaire et d6veloppement du goitre
end6mique chez les Azande d'Afrique central A. Prinz;
32. Anthropm6trie nutritionnelle des Am6rindiens: aspects
biologiques et sociaux du deficit statural R. Holmes;
33.Bien manger, vivre bien: 6tat nutritionnel et sant6 des
populations forestieres du Cameroun A. Froment, G. J.
A. Koppert & J.-F. Loung; 34. Importance des resources
naturelles dans l'alimentation du jeune enfant en fort
tropical inond6e (Zaire) H. Pagezy. 35. Variation
saisonniere du regime alimentaire et 6tat nutritionnel des
enfants dans les villages du Kwango-Kwilu (Zaire) L.
Kukwikila, L Mashoko M., F. Kwilu & T. Mbemba .; 36.
Relations entire modules de consommation et etat
nutritionnel des enfants, en fort inond6e du nord du Congo
- I. Goma, F. Tchibindant & S. Mianzenza; 37. Variations
saisonniere de la production alimentaire, statut
nutritionnel, foction ovarienne et fdconditd en Afrique
central M. R. Jenike, R. C. Bailey, P. T. Lellison, G. R.
Bentley, A. M. Harrigan & N. R. Peacock; 38. La d6pense
dnergdtique au course d'activitds jorunalibres de villageois
Les6 de la forest de l'Ituri (Zaire) A. Bisschop, M. R.
Jenike, E. Nkiama & J. Ghesquiere. Volume II. Bases
culturelles des choix alimentaires et strategies de
ddveloppement. Part 4. Strategies alimentaires en milieu
forestier 39. Les strategies alimentaires en fort tropical:
context et probl6matique O. F Linares, H. Pagezy & P.
Grenand; 40. Strategies de subsistence en Amazonie: Les
principaux modules et leur variability S. Beckerman; 41.
Des fruits, des animaux et des hommes: strategies de chasse
et de peche chez les Waylpi de Guyane P. Grenand; 42.
La gestion des resources dans les &cosystemes oligotrophes
du Rio Negro (Amazonie V6n6zudlienne) L. E.Sponsel
& P. C. Loya; 43.Le manioc amer dans les basses terres
d'Amerique tropical: du mythe A la commercialization -
F. Grenand; 44. Modalit6s de transformation et de
consommation du manioc dans les diff6rentes zones
6cologiques du Congo S. Trbche & J. Massamba; 45.
Strategies de gestion des resources par les Indiens Siona
et Secoya W. T. Vickers; 46. L'exploitation des resources
naturelles chez les Yanomami: une strategic culturelle
global J. Lizot; 47. Ddterminismes 6cologiques et
culturels des choix alimentaires des chasseurs-cueilleurs
Mbuti du Zaire M. Ichikawa; 48. Strategies de subsistence
et apports en prot6ines du regime alimentaire des
cultivateurs Ngandu et Boyela de la Cuvette Central du
Zaire J. Takeda & H. Sato; 49. Ecologie et alimentation
des chasseurs-cueilleurs Onge des miles Andaman D.
Venkatesan; 50. Strategies de susbsistance des chasseurs-
cueilleurs Penan des forts de Sarawak (Malaisie) J. P.
Brosius. Part 5. Les choix alimentaires dans leur context
socioculturel. 51. Facteurs culturels et choix alimentaires:
generalitds- I. de Garine, S. Hugh-Jones & A. Prinz; 52.
Les concepts "aliment" et droguee" des populations du
nord-ouest de I'Amazonie S. Hugh-Jones; 53.Place de

Neotropical Primates 6(2), June 1998

Page 61

Page 62 Neotropical Primates 6(2), June 1998

1'alimentation dans la th6rapeutique des Pygm6es Aka de
Centrafrique- E. Motte-Florac, S. Gahuchet, J. M. C. Tho-
mas & A. Epelboin; 54. Preferences alimentaires et
resources de la fort camerounaise I. de Garine; 55. La
douceur de l'amertume: une rd-6valuation des choix du
manioc amer par les Indiens Tukano d'Amazonie D. L.
Dufour & W. M. Wilson; 56. La conservation du manioc
chez les Indiens Tukano: technique et symbolique C.
Hugh-Jones & S. Hugh-Jones; 57. Les dimensions
6conomique et symbolique d'un choix: vin de palme ou
huile de palme? O. F. Linares; 58. Le vin de palme et la
noix de kola: nourritures paradoxales, m6diateurs de la
communication avec les dieux C. Haxaire; 59. Sauvage
ou cultiv6? La paraculture des ignames sauvages par les
Pygm6es Baka du Cameroun E. Dounias; 60. L'esprit,
I'igname et 1'616phant: essai d'interpr6tation symbolique
d'un rituel chez les Pygm6es Baka du Sud Cameroun D.
V. Joiris; 61. Plantes alimentaires et identity culturelle chez
les Marrons Boni (Aluku) de Guyane Frangaise M.
Fleury; 62. Valeur symbolique des aliments en provenance
de la fort chez le Kelabit de Sarawak (Est-Malaisie) M.
R. H. Janowski; 63. Un aliment du corps social chez les
Ankave-Anga de Papouasi-Nouvelle-Guin6e: le Pangium
edule P. Bonnembre; 64. L'anguille chez les Ankave-
Anga de Papouasie-Nouvelle-Guin6e: mat6rialit6 et
symbolique du pi6geage P. Lemonnier. Part 6. Lefutur
des forces tropicales: amelioration et valorisation des
productions animals et vigetales. 65. Gestion et future
des forces tropicales: une mise en perspective des systhmes
d'am6lioration et de valorisation R. A. A.Oldeman, C.
R. Clement, M. Hadley & A. Hladik; 66. Les potentialit6s
de l'exploitation durable et de 1 6levage du gibier en zone
forestiere tropical F. Feer; 67. La d6couverte des
phytopratiques tropicales traditionnelles F. Hall6; 68.
ttablissement et gestion des agrofor8ts paysannes en
Indon6sie: quelquer enseignements pour l'Afrique
forestiere H. De Foresta & G. Michon; 69. Les agroferets
Mvae et Yassa du Cameroun littoral: foctions
socioculturelles, structure et composition floristique E.
Dounias & C. M. Hladik; 70. L'arboriculture et son im-
pact 6conomique et nutritionnel: une option pour reverdir
le centre de l'Inde U. Pingle; 71. Gestion 6tatique et
d6clin des resources alimentaires dans les forts de
l'Uttarra Kannada (inde) M. D. S. Chandran & M.
Gadgil; 72. Biodiversity et problemes de reconstitution
des forts tropicales au Bengale Occidental (Inde) K. C.
Malhotra; 73. La valorisation des sous-produits
agroferestiers au Laos: une alternative pour le
d6veloppement durable F. Chagnaud; 74. Amelioration
des espces autochtones d'Oc6anie A usage alimentaire -
V. Lebot; 75. Utilisation des connaissances des popula-
tions indigenes dans la gestion des resources des divers
6cosystmmes amazonies E. F. MorAn; 76. L'extractivisme:
une valorisation contest6e de l'dcosysthme forestier J.-P.
Lescure & F. Pinton; 77. Extractivisme et agriculture: le
choix d'une population riveraine du Rio Solimoes H.
dos Santos Pereira & J.-P. Lescure; 78. L'afai (Euterpe
precatoria), palmier alimentaire de la forSt amazonienne

- A. de Castro; 79. Extractivisme et agriculture dans la
region du Moyen Rio Negro (Amazonie Br6silienne) L.
Emperaire & F. Pinton; 80. Aspects socio-6conomiques
de I'extractivisme en Amazonie, dans le Pare National de
Jai N. C. Sizer; 81. Un "6cosysteme forestier de la vie"
en Amazonie Peruvienne: I'aguajal J. Ruiz M. & J.
Levistre Ruiz; 82. La conservation de La Nature par la
commercialization des resources M. I. Evans; 84. Vers
de nouvelles regles juridiques pour la gestion des forts
tropicales: l'exemple des pays membres de l'Organisation
Africaine du Bois G. Humbert; 86. Les peuples des forces
tropicales humides et les problemes de conservation face
au monde moderne E. G. Leigh, Jr. The English lan-
guage edition Tropical Forests, People and Food.
Biocultural Interactions and Applications to Development,
C. M. Hladik, A. Hladik, O. F. Linares, H. Pagezy., A.
Semple & H. Hadley (eds.), 1993, Vol. 13. Man and the
Biosphere Series (editor J. N. R. Jeffers), UNESCO, Paris,
and The Parthenon Publishing Group, Carnforth, UK.
Available from: The Parthenon Publishing Group, UK
Office, Casterton Hall, Carnforth, Lancashire LA6 2LA,
UK, Tel: +44 (0)15242 72084, Fax: +44 (0) 15242 71587:
USA Office, One Blue Hill Plaza, P.O.Box 1564, Pearl
River, NewYork 10965, USA, Tel: +1 914 73 9363, Fax:
+1 (914)735 1385. Web site: .
Timber Production and Biodiversity Conservation in
Tropical Rain Forest, by Andrew G. Johns, 1997, xxi +
225pp. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
ISBN 0 521 57282 7. Price: Hardback 40.00. Timber
production is often the most economic form of land use in
areas of tropical forest. The area of tropical forest reserved
for timber production exceeds that of National Parks and
other preserved areas by a ratio of at least 8:1. Although
often poorly managed to date, production forests have the
potential to support a high percentage of natural forest
biodiversity. They have a vital role to play in conservation
strategies. This book attempts to bridge the current gap
between conservation requirements and commercial in-
terests, indicating the possibilities for integrated manage-
ment of tropical forests. The aim is to develop a justifica-
tion and practical approach for the management of pro-
duction forest as a supplement to totally-protected forest
in the conservation of tropical biodiversity. Andrew Johns
has worked for many years in the Amazon, including study
sites in southern Pard (Tucuruf, Gurupi and Carajds), and
near Tef6, Amazonas, Brazil, as well as S. E. Asia. Con-
tents: Foreword Jeffrey Burley; Preface; Explanatory
Note; 1. The Issues; 2. The History and Development of
Tropical Forestry; 3. Changes in the Physical Environ-
ment; 4. Forest Regeneration and Gap Dynamics; 5. Re-
sponses of Individual Animal Species; 6. Responses of
Species Assemblages; 7. Using Ecological Data in Forest
Management Planning; 8. Intervention to Maintain
Biodiversity; 9. Field Procedures; 10 The Future; Bibli-
ography; Index. Available from: Rachel Chalklin (UK),
Cambridge University Press, The Edinburgh Building,
Shaftesbury Road, Cambridge CB2 2RU, UK, Fax: +44

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Neotropical Primates 6(2), June 1998 Page 63

(0)1223 325959, e-mail: ,
Karen White (International), Fax: +44 (0)1223 325151,
e-mail: .
Floresta Amaz6nica: Dindmica, Regeneragdo e
Manejo, edited by Claude Gascon and Paulo Moutinho,
1998, 373pp. Institute Nacional de Pesquisas daAmaz6nia
(INPA), Manaus, and the Conselho Nacional de
Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnol6gico (CNPq),
Brasilia. In Portuguese. Price: US$25.00 (+p & p). The
results of a Workshop on Forest Regeneration, held in
Manaus in July 1994, organized by the National Institute
for Amazon Research (INPA), the Smithsonian Insutution,
and the Global Climate Change Program of US/AID, Bra-
zil. Contents: 1. Introdugao Virgflio Viana, pp.15-23;
Sedao I. Processes e Padroes. 2. Fenologia de esp6cies
arb6reas tropicais na Amaz6nia Central Jurandyr da Cruz
Alencar, pp.25-40; 3. Aplicaglo de m6todos de anAlise do
padrao espacial em oito esp6cies arb6reas da floresta tropi-
cal dmida Luiz M. B. Rossi & Niro Higuchi, pp.41-59;
4. Composig~o floristica, biomassa, e estrutura de florestas
tropicais em regenera9lo: uma avaliagio por
sensoriamento remote Richard M. Lucas et al., pp.61-
82; 5. Sobrevivencia p6s-dispersdo de sementes e plantulas
de tries esp6cies de palmeiras em rela lo a presenga de
objetos naturais na Floresta Amaz8nica Renato Cintra,
pp.83-98; 6. Biomassa e estoque de carbon de florestas
tropicais primArias e secundarias Rafael de Paiva
SalomAo, Daniel C. Nesptad & Ima Cl6ia G. Vieira, pp.99-
119; 7. Profundidade minima de enraizamento das florestas
na Amazonia brasileira Gustavo H. de Negreiros, Daniel.
C. Nepstad & Eric. A. Davidson, pp.121-129; 8.
Estrat6gias de drvores pioneiras nos Neotr6picos G. Bruce
Williamson, Rita de Cassia G. Mesquita, Kalan Ickes &
Gislene Ganade, pp.131-144. Segao II. Impactos. 9.
Recuperagao do sistema radicular profundo em uma
floresta secunddria na Amaz6nia oriental Teresa G.
Restom, pp.145-153; 10. Impactos da formaglo de
pastagens sobre a fauna de formigas: conseqii8ncias para
recuperaqdo florestal na Amazonia oriental Paulo R.
S.Moutinho, pp.155-170; 11. Efeitos da herbivoria por
satlvas (Atta laevigata) sobre a regeneraq~ o florestal em
uma area agrfcola abandonada da Amaz8nia central -
Heraldo L. Vasconcelos & J. Malcolm Cherrett, pp.171-
178; 12. Regeneracgo florestal em pastagens abandonadas
na AmazOnia central: competiqio, predaqAo, e dispersao
de sementes Maria N. Miriti, pp.179-191; 13. Barreiras
ao estabelecimento de drvores em pastos abandonados na
Amaz6nia: banco de sementes, predagao de sementes,
herbivoria, e seca Daniel C. Nepstad, Christopher Uhl,
Cissio A. Pereira & J. M. C. da Silva, pp.191-218; 14. A
comunidade de anffbios da Amaz6nia central: diferengas
na composigio especifica entire a mata primAria e pastagens
- Mandy D. Tocher, pp.219-232. Sefdo III. SoluFges. 5.
Alguns aspects da ecologia de sementes de duas esp6cies
de plants invasoras da Amaz6nia brasileira: implicagaes
para o recrutamento de plantulas em areas manejadas -
Moacyr B. Dias-Filho, pp.233-248; 16. Crescimento de

arvores de valor econ6mico em areas de pastagens
abandonadas no nordeste do Estado do Pard CAssio A.
Pereira & Christopher Uhl, pp.249-260; 17. O impact
da remogao do dossel em florestas secunddrias sobre o
crescimento de duas esp6cies de arvores de importancia
econ6mica Rita de Cassia G. Mesquita, pp.261-275; 18.
Ecologia e manejo da castanha do Para em reserves
extrativistas no Xapurf, Acre -Virgflio M. Viana et al.,
pp. 277-292; 19. Agro-silvicultura na political de
desenvolvimento na Amaz6nia brasileira: a importancia
e os limits de seu uso em areas degradadas Philip M.
Fearnside, pp.293-312; 20. Uma abordagem integrada de
pesquisa sobre o manejo dos recursos florestais na
Amaz8nia brasileira Christopher Uhl et al., pp.313-331;
Sfntese Claude Gascon & Paulo Moutinho, pp.333-337;
Bibliografia, pp.339-373. For more information: Claude
Gascon, Projeto Dinamica Biol6gica de Fragmentos
Florestais, Departamento de Ecologia, Instituto Nacional
de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA) Caixa Postal 478,
69011-970 Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, e-mail:
The Encyclopaedia of Ecology and Environmental
Management, editor-in-chief Peter Calow, 1998, 832pp.,
303 illustrations. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Ox-
ford, UK. Hardback. ISBN 0865428387. Price 95.00
(+2.50 in the UK, 3.00 in Europe, and 5.00 for other
countries, p&p). Cheques in sterling payable to "Marston
Book Services". AMEX, Visa, Eurocard and Mastercard
accepted. This encyclopaedia is designed to to provide a
complete one-stop reference guide to the core definitions
and issues in modern ecology. Available from: Anna Riv-
ers, Blackwell Science Ltd., Osney Mead, Oxford OX2
0EL, UK, Tel: +44 1865 206206, Fax: +44 (0)1865
Handbook of Environmental Risk Assessment and
Management, edited by Peter Calow, 1997, 592pp., 71
illustrations. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.
ISBN 0865427321. Price: Hardback 99.50 (+2.50 in
the UK, 3.00 in Europe, and 5.00 for other countries,
p&p). Cheques in sterling payable to "Marston Book Ser-
vices". AMEX, Visa, Eurocard and Mastercard accepted.
This authoritative handbook covers the way that scien-
tific methodologies are used to assess risks from human
activities, and the resulting objects and wastes, for the
environment and for people in the environment. Contents:
Part 1. Risk assessment; Part 2. Risk assessment in legis-
lation; Part 3. Balancing risks with other considerations;
Part 4. Risk management. Available from: Anna Rivers,
Blackwell Science Ltd., Osney Mead, Oxford OX2 OEL,
UK, Tel: +44 1865 206206, Fax: +44 (0)1865 206096.
A Neotropical Companion: An Introduction to the Ani-
mals, Plants and Ecosystems of the New World Trop-
ics, by John Kricher, illustrated by William E. Davis, Jr.
2nd edition, revised and expanded, 1997. Princeton Uni-
versity Press, New Jersey. ISBN 0 691 04433-3. An enter-
taining, informative, attractive and interesting book. Avail-

Neotropical Primates 6(2), June 1998

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able from: Princeton University Press, 41 William Street,
Princeton, New Jersey 08540, USA.

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Bayart, F. and Pages, E. 1998. Ecological and social cor-
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human predation in Tai National Park, Ivory Coast.

Page 68 Neotropical Primates 6(2), June 1998

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Heymann, E. W. The number of males in callitrichine
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Wrangham, R. Influence of travel cost on male grouping
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Wrogemann, D., Lindemann, A., Radespiel, U. and
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Neotropical Primates 6(2), June 1998 Page 69

Z8belein, H. Dominance, reproductive success and fitness
of male European rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus L.

Society for Conservation Biology Meeting 1998, 13-16
July, 1998, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia. For
more information: Dr. R. Frankham, School of Biological
Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Aus-
tralia, Tel: +61 2 850 8186, Fax: +61 2 850 8245.
Foraging/98, 21-24 July, 1998, University of California,
Santa Cruz, USA. Organized by Dave Stephens, Marc
Mangel, and Don Kramer. Includes sessions on Mecha-
nisms of Foraging (organized by Sara Shettleworth), In-
dividual Foraging Behavior (Ronald Ydenberg), Social
Foraging and Foraging Games (Luc-Alain Giraldeau), and
Foraging Ecology (Michael Rosensweig). For further in-
formation: Foraging/98, Department of Ecology, Evolu-
tion and Behavior, University of Minnesota, 100 Upper
Buford Circle, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA, e-mail:
; web: nash.cbs.umn.edu/foraging>.
VII International Congress of Ecology, New Tasks for
Ecologists after Rio 92, 19-25 July 1998, Centro Affari
& Palazzo Internazionale Congressi, Florence, Italy. Or-
ganized by the International Association for Ecology
(INTECOL) in conjunction with the Italian Ecological
Society (SItE). Themes include: Perspectives in global
ecology; Perspectives for the ecological management of
natural resources; Problems and perspectives in Mediter-
ranean ecosystems; Diversity concepts at different scales;
Perspectives in ecological theory and modeling; Key is-
sues in aquatic ecosystems; Perspectives in landscape ecol-
ogy; Perspectives in sustainable land use; Key issues in
microbial ecology; Patterns and interactions in popula-
tions and communities; Perspectives in environmental
chemistry and ecotoxicology; Integrating ecology into eco-
nomic and social development; Ecological engineering;
Progresses in ecological education. Contact: Almo Farina,
Vice-President INTECOL, Secretariat VII International
Congress of Ecology, Lunigliana Museum of Natural His-
tory, Fortezza della Brunella, 54011 Aulla, Italy, Tel: +39
187 400252, Fax: +39 187 420727, e-mail: afarina@
tamnet.it, web site: http://www.tamnet.it/intecol.98.
Euro-American Mammal Congress, 20-24 July, 1998,
University of Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain.
Organized under the auspices of the American Society of
Mammalogists (ASM), Societas Europea Mammal6gica
(SEM) and the Sociedad Espafiola para la Conservaci6n y
el Estudio de los Mamiferos (SECEM). Also participat-
ing: University of Santiago de Compostela (USC) through
its Colleges of Sciences and Pharmacy as well as the
Consejeria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, y Montes of the
local government (Xunta de Galicia) through the inter-
mediacy of its Direcci6n General de Montes y Medio

Ambiente Natural. The meeting will emphasize the cut-
ting edge and little known aspects of scientific knowledge
of mammalian species, and communities and ecosystems
of the Holarctic. However, contributions of interest relat-
ing to mammals from other regions will also be welcomed.
Contributions will be grouped in sessions that will-cover
general subjects, symposia or workshops. General mat-
ters currently projected: Behavioral Ecology, Biogeogra-
phy, Community Ecology, Conservation, Development,
Molecular Systematics, Morphology and Morphometrics,
Natural History, Paleontology, Parasites and Diseases,
Physiology, Population Dynamics, Population Genetics,
Systematics and Evolution, and Wildlife Management. The
organizers request that electronic mail be used for contact
whenever possible. For more information, all queries and
requests: galemys@pinarl.csic.es. Circulars will also be
sent by electronic mail, and distributed through a variety
of distribution lists and list servers. Postal address: Euro-
American Mammal Congress, Laboratorio de
Parasitologia, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de
Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela,
Spain, Fax: (34) 81 593316.
7th International Behavioral Ecology Congress, 27 July
- 1 August, 1998, Asilomar Conference Center, Monterey
Peninsula, California, USA. For further information con-
tact: Walt Koenig, e-mail: ,
or Janis Dickinson, e-mail: edu>. International Society for Behavioral Ecology web
site: .
XVII Congress of the International Primatological So-
ciety, 10-15 August, 1998, University of Antananarivo,
Antananarivo, Madagascar. The theme of the Congress
is: Taking Responsibility for our Future through Conserv-
ing Biological Diversity such as Primates". Deadline for
registration and free communications abstracts is 1 Feb-
ruary 1998. Materials must be received by this date. Dead-
line for abstracts for symposia, workshops and roundtable
discussions: 31 October 1997. Registration fees are
US$300 for regular IPS members, US$100 for IPS stu-
dent members, US$350 for non-members, and US$100
for accomanying persons. Registration includes the open-
ing and closing receptions, as well as the program and
abstract booklets, lunches and shuttles. After 1 February
1998, all rates will increase by US$50. On site registra-
tion will be more. The official languages will be French
and English. Two plenary lectures will be given on topics
relevant to human responsibilities for World Survival and
to the significance of primate conservation. Contact: Sec-
retariat XVII IPS Congress, Madame Berthe
Rakotosamimanana, Facult6 des Sciences, Batement P,
Porte 207, BP 906, Antananarivo 101 Madagascar. Tel:
261 20 22 26991 ext.24, Fax: e-mail: refer.mg>. Development Committee: Marlene
Rakotomalala, Tel: 261 20 22 26991 ext.13, Scientific
Committee: Hantanirina Rasamimanana, e-mail:
. Coordinator and for infor-
mation: Soava Rakotoarisoa, Tel: 261 20 22 26991 ext.24.

Neotropical Primates 6(2), June 1998

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Common fax: 261 20 22 31398.
Measuring Behavior '98,2nd International Conference
on Methods and Techniques in Behavioral Research,
18-21 August, 1998, Center for Biological Sciences, Uni-
versity of Groningen, Haren, The Netherlands. The Con-
ference host is Prof. Dr. J.M. Koolhaas. The program will
consist of oral papers, poster sessions, demonstrations,
training sessions, user meetings, scientific tours, post-con-
ference excursions, and a pleasant social program. All
presentations will deal with innovative methods and tech-
niques in behavioral research. Validation of a new tech-
nique is an acceptable subject for a paper or poster. How-
ever, papers discussing applications of proven techniques
do not belong at Measuring Behavior '98. Presentations
on physiological techniques are welcome, as long as there
is a clear link with behavior. Contributions are welcome
on the following topics: Behavioral Recording, Behavior
and Physiology, Behavioral Analysis, and Behavioral
Models. "Measuring Behavior '98" will devote special
attention to the integration of advanced behavioral research
with physiological measurements. Deadline for submis-
sion of abstracts: 1 April 1998. Notification of acceptance
of abstracts: 1 June 1998. Deadline for early registration
(reduced fee): 15 June 1998. For further information: The
Conference Secretariat, Measuring Behavior '98, Attn:
Rosan Nikkelen, P.O. Box 268, 6700 AG Wageningen,
The Netherlands, Tel: +31 (0)317 497677, Fax: +31 (0)317
424496, e-mail: . Web: www.noldus.com/events/mb98/mb98.htm>.
Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour -
Intraspecific Variation in Behaviour, 2-4 September,
1998, University of Urbino, Italy. Organized in conjunc-
tion with the Societa Italiana di Ethologia, by Giorgio
Malacame and Tim Roper. Plenary lectures will address
four main themes: the role of social learning and culture
in producing intraspecific variation in behaviour; intraspe-
cific variation in social and mating behaviour in verte-
brates as a function of population density and other vari-
ables; alternative strategies; and individual differences in
behaviour. For more information: Prof. Giorgio Malacame,
Department of Sciences and Advanced Technologies,
Borsalino 54, 15100 Alessandria, Italy, e-mail:
, or Dr Tim Roper, School
of Biological Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1
9QG, UK, e-mail: .
VII Congreso Nacional and IV Congreso
Latinoamericano de Etologia, 7-10 September, 1998,
University of Vigo, Spain. For more information: Dr.
Adolfo Cordero, Departamento de Ecologfa e Biologfa
Animal, Universidad Vigo, EUET Forestal, 36005
Pontevedra, Spain, Tel: +34 (9)86 801-926, Fax: +34 (9)86
801907, e-mail: , web: http://
Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG) An-
nual Meeting 1998, 8-11 October, 1998, Pacifico
Yokohama Conference Center, Yokohama, Japan. Orga-

nized by the CBSG, Zoological Gardens of the City of
Yokohama, and the Japanese Association of Zoological
Gardens and Aquariums. For further information: Secre-
tariat of the 1998 CBSG Annual Meeting, c/o ATEION
Co., Ltd., Room #401, Toranomon Sangyo Bldg., 1-2-29
Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 105-0001 Japan, Tel:+81
3 3593 2565, Fax: +81 3 3593 1088, e-mail: 3web.ne.jp>.
IV Congress Latinoamericano de Ecologia, H Congreso
Peruano de Ecologia, 20-25 de Octubre de 1998,
Arequipa, Perd. El IV Congreso Latinoamericano de
Ecologfa y II Congreso Peruano de Ecologfa son
importantes foros cientificos en los que los ec6logos y otros
profesionales o investigadores relacionados, se rednen para
intercambiar informaci6n, ponerse de acuerdo para
emprender actividades multinacionales, actualizar
conocimientos y discutir los problems ambientales de la
regi6n, para buscarles alternatives de soluci6n. Estos son
los prop6sitos que guiaron a los organizadores del Primer
Congress Latinoamericano de Ecologfa, que se realiz6 en
Montevideo en 1989 y que han seguido dirigiendo la
programaci6n de la Segunda y Tercera version, realizados
en Campinas, Brasil, en 1992 y M6rida (Venezuela) en
1995. El Primer Congreso Peruano de Ecologia, se realiz6
en Marzo de 1997 en Lima, Peri, y la Asociaci6n Peruana
de Ecologfa lo organizard anualmente, para incentivar la
investigaci6n y el intercambio de informaci6n entire los
ec6logos peruanos. En el IV Congreso Latinoamericano
de Ecologfa, seguiremos los lineamientos de los tres
congress anteriores, pero enfocados al andlisis de los
problems ambientales mAs importantes para el Perd y
para America Latina, por lo que, los Simposios centrales,
tratarin sobre el uso de las neblinas para la recuperaci6n
de los ecosistemas degradados de zonas dridas y sobre la
conservaci6n y el uso de la diversidad Biol6gica de
America Latina, en el Tercer Milenio. Durante el IV CLAE
y II COPE se realizarAn las siguientes actividades: 1.
Comunicaciones Cientificas Bajo la modalidad de
exposiciones orales y en panels, (carteles o "posters"),
en los siguientes temas o secciones: Autoecologia; Ecologia
de Poblaciones y Comunidades; Ecologfa del Paisaje;
Ecosistemas AcuAticos; Ecologfa Te6rica y Modelos;
Ecofisiologfa; Ecologfa del Comportamiento e
Interacciones Ecol6gicas; Cambio Climitico Global;
Biologfa de la Conservaci6n; Ecologia Urbana,
Contaminaci6n y Toxicologfa; Educaci6n y Legislaci6n
Ambiental. 2. Simposios: "Recuperaci6n y Uso Sostenible
de las Lomas del Desierto Costero Peruano-Chileno,
Utilizando el Agua de las Neblinas", Proyecto de la Uni6n
Europea-Universidad de San Agustfn de Arequipa; "El
Niiio 97-98. Proyecto RIBEN-OEA-CONCYTEC",
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologfa del Perti; "La
Biodiversidad y la Agricultura Sostenible", Red en
Alternatives a los Agroqufmicos en la Agricultura
(RAAA); "El Monitoreo Ecol6gico en Biodiversidad y
Medioambiente", Center for Conservation Biology,
Stanford University. Nota: Se solicita que se sugieran o
propongan Simposios. Los proponents tendran apoyo

Neotropical Primates 6(2), June 1998

Neotropical Primates 6(2), June 1998 Page 71

administrative y logfstico para organizarlos. No ofrecemos
apoyo economic, pero si ayudar en la gesti6n para
obtenerlo. 3. Cursos: Curso RAP (Conservation Interna-
tional, Washington, D. C.); III Curso Internacional
M6todos Cuantitativos para el Manejo de la Diversidad
Biol6gica, Center for Conservation Biology, Stanford
University. 4. Mesas Redondas: "Desarrollo Sostenible",
Consejo Nacional del Ambiente del Perd (CONAM) por
confirmar. Conferencistas Invitados: Antonio Brack,
Tratado de Cooperaci6n Amaz6nica; Francisco Diaz,
Pineda Universidad Complutense; Louise Emmons, Con-
servation International ; Ram6n Folch, Facultad
Latinoamericana de Ciencias Ambientales (FLACAM-
Argentina); Robin Foster, Conservation International;
Carlos Galindo, Center for Conservation Biology, Stanford
University; Julio Guti6rrez, Universidad de La Serena;
Russell Mittermeier, Conservation International; Jos6
Sarukhan, CONABIO, Universidad Nacional Aut6noma
de M6xico; Tom Schulenberg, Conservation International;
Javier Simonetti, Universidad de Chile; Josd Luis Telleria,
Universidad Complutense; John Terborgh, Center for
Tropical Conservation, Duke University; Juan Torres,
Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Actividades de
Campo Se esta contemplando realizar visits a los
principles ecosistemas de los alrededores de Arequipa,
bajo program especial, previa inscripci6n y pago del costo
respective. Actividades Sociales Se realizarA una
recepci6n en la inauguraci6n. Se estdn planificando otras
actividades sociales que se hardn conocer en el segundo
anuncio. Fechas Importantes: Limite de inscripci6n con
descuento 31 de agosto de 1998; Recepci6n de Resfmenes
- Hasta el 12 de septiembre de 1998; Aviso de aceptaci6n
de resdmenes y tipo de exposici6n 28 de septiembre de
1998. Nota: S61o se considerarAn resdmenes de estudiantes
de pregrado que se acompafien de la recomendaci6n de
aceptaci6n, de uno de sus profesores de la especialidad.
S61o los estudiantes ponentes (de pre y postgrado), tendrdn
derecho a participar en las actividades sociales. Informes:
IV Congress Latinoamericano de Ecologia y II Congreso
Peruano de Ecologia, Casilla 985, Arequipa, Peri, Telefax:
+51(54)288971, e- mail: .
Forest 98 V Congresso e Exposigio Internacional sobre
Florestas, 25-28 de novembro de 1998, Centro de
Conveng6es de Curitiba, Parand, Brasil. Promog~o:
Sociedade Brasileira para a Valorizagao do Meio Ambiente
- BIOSFERA. TemArio preliminary: Silvicultura, manejo,
sustentabilidade e conservacao da biodiversidade;
Industrializaq o e comercializaqlo de produtos florestais;
Ensino, pesquisa e extensdo florestal; Polfticas, legislag9o
e geopolftica florestal; Arborizacgo urbana, paisagismo e
unidades de conservacgo. Coordenador Geral: Prof.
Mauricio Balensiefer, Escola de Engenharia Florestal,
Universidade Federal do Parand, Rua Bom Jesus 650,
80035-010 Curitiba, Parand, Tel: (041) 232 9084 (UPPR),
(041) 322-1611 (SEMA), Fax: (041) 232 3636, e-mail:
Primate Society of Great Britain (PSGB) Winter Meet-

ing Current Contributions of Zoos to Primate Con-
servation and Biology, 2 December, 1998, Zoological
Society of London, Regent's Park, London, U.K. Includes
the Osman Hill Memorial Lecture to be given by Prof.
Christopher Stringer on "The Origin of Our Species".
Organized by Dr Miranda Stevenson and Dr Bryan Carroll.
Contact: Dr Miranda Stevenson, Marwell Zoological Park,
Colden Common, Winchester, Hants S021 1JH, England,
U.K. Tel: 01962 777407, Fax: 01962 777511, e-mail:
Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour The
Genetic Analysis of Behaviour, 3-4 December, 1998,
Zoological Society of London, London. Organized by Mike
Ritchie and Bambos Kyriacou. For more information: Dr
M. G. Ritchie, Environmental & Evolutionary Biology,
Bute Medical Building, University of St. Andrews, Fife
KY16 9TS, UK, Fax: +44 (0)1334 463600, e-mail:
, or Dr Bambos Kyriacou, De-
partment of Genetics, Adrian Building, University of Le-
icester, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK, Fax: +44 (0)1162 523378,
e-mail: .

Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour, Easter
Meeting, 29-31 March, 1999. University of Newcastle,
UK. Organized by Sue Healy and Marion Petrie. A gen-
eral meeting with no specific theme. Invited speakers in-
clude: Naomi Pierce (Harvard University), Margo Wilson
(McMaster University) and John Krebs (Oxford Univer-
sity). A workshop "Advice to Postgraduate Students" will
be held in conjunction with the meeting, on 29 March
1999. For more information: Dr Sue Healy, Department
of Psychology, University of Newcastle, Newcastle-upon-
Tyne NEl 7RU, UK, Fax: +44 (0)191 2225622, e-mail:
II International Wildlife Management Congress "Wild-
life, Land and People: Priorities for the 21" Century",
28 June- 2 July 1999, G6d6ll6, Hungary. Organized by
The Wildlife Society with the Hungarian co-sponsor and
host, the University for Agricultural Sciences in G6d6116,
Hungary. Deadline for proposals of one-half-day work-
shops, symposium, and special poster session proposals:
30 June 1998. Workshops, symposia, and special poster
sessions should focus on topics of wildlife science, man-
agement, sustainable development, education and out-
reach, or laws and policy within the broad theme of the
Congress. Each day will begin with a morning plenary
session followed by related concurrent sessions, symposia
and workshops in the afternoon. Themes for the five-day
congress are (1) Sustainable Development and Wildlife
Conservation; (2) Landscape Linkages: Ecosystem Sci-
ence and Management; (3) Issues in Wildlife-Human Con-
flicts; (4) Education, Outreach, and Human Dimensions
in Wildlife Conservation; and (5) Techniques for Moni-
toring Wildlife Populations. Symposia, and, where appro-
priate, workshop presentations will be considered for pub-
lication in a Congress proceedings; organizers will be re-

Neotropical Primates 6(2), June 1998

Page 71

Page. 72

quired to provide an initial edit and evaluation of submit-
ted papers. The proceedings will be published in English;
oral presentations will be in English or possibly Hungar-
ian depending on the availability of translators. More in-
formation on preparing proposals for workshops, sympo-
sia, and special poster sessions can be found in the March-
April 1998 issue of The Wildlifer, and on The Wildlife
Society website , or
guidelines may be requested from Co-Chair of the Pro-
gram Committee, W. Daniel Edge at his e-mail address.
Deadline for submission of papers and posters: 15 Octo-
ber 1998. Electronic (e-mail or internet form) submissions
are preferred. Electronic submissions of contributed pa-
pers and posters should be sent to the Program Co-Chair
at the e-mail address below. Please, no telephone inquir-
ies related to abstract submission or acceptance. Direct all
other inquiries to The Wildlife Society office at Tel: (301)
897-9770, Fax: (301) 530-2471, e-mail:
. Decisions concerning acceptance of
papers and posters will be made by 30 November 1998.
The abstract submission form can be found on the TWS
webpage . Dr. W.
Daniel Edge, Co-Chair, Program Committee, Department
of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, 104
Nash Hall, Corvallis, Oregon 97331-3803, USA, e-mail -
, , also
IV Congress de Manejo de Fauna Amazonica, 4 al 8 de
octubre de 1999, Asunci6n, Paraguay. Este important
event, iniciado en 1992, resume en breves dias los
resultados de todos los esfuerzos aplicados en pos de la
conservaci6n de la fauna de toda la regi6n amazonica. En
esta oportunidad se fortalecera la pluriparticipaci6n, la
discusi6n de estrategias y la elaboraci6n de planes de acci6n
apuntando a una conservaci6n protagonizada por los
pobladores rurales, beneficiaries director de un uso
sostenible del recurso faunistico. La organizaci6n de este
event es el resultado de un esfuerzo conjunto entire la
Oficina CITES-Py, La Gobernaci6n del Departamento
Central y la organization ambientalista Fundaci6n Moises
Bertoni para la Conservaci6n de la Naturaleza. Misi6n:
Trabajar en forma pluriparticipativa y en acci6n
coordinada para la optimizaci6n de las political de uso,
tecnicas y estrategias de manejo de la vida silvestre
amazonica para fomentar el desarrollo socio-economico
sostenible y la conservaci6n de la naturaleza. Los trabajos
seran recibidos hasta el 1 de marzo de 1999. Se podran
enviar por correo electronic, o en impression en papel
blanco tamano carta con una copia archivada en diskette.
Unicamente se recibiran los siguientes formats: WP5.1,
Microsoft Word 6.0 o textos en ASCII (DOS IBM).
Invitaci6n a events: La comisi6n organizadora desearia
recibir propuestas para la organizaci6n de simposios,
talleres, cursos, mesas redondas y otras reuniones
relacionadas a la tematica propuesta para el Congreso.
Los interesados en organizer o en participar de algunos
de estos events pueden comunicarse con el Comite

Neotropical Primates 6(2), June 1998

Organizador. Inscripciones: Hasta el 31 de marzo de 1999,
estudiantes: US$30, profesionales: US$60; Hasta el 30 de
setiembre de 1999, estudiantes: US$50, profesionales:
US$100; Inscripciones tardias (durante el Congreso),
estudiantes: US$60, profesionales: US$120. Los idiomas
oficiales del Congreso seran Espanol y Portugues, no se
haran servicios de traducci6n simultanea. Comisi6n
Organizadora, IV Congreso de Manejo de Fauna
Amazonica, Fundaci6n Moises Bertoni, C.C. 714,
Asunci6n, Paraguay, Tel: (595-21) 608 740, 600 855, Fax:
(595-21) 608 741m, e-mail: .
Visitenos en internet (a partir de julio):

We would be most grateful if you could send us information
on projects, research groups, events (congresses, symposia,
and workshops), recent publications, activities of
primatological societies and NGOs, news items or opinions
of recent events and suchlike. Manuscripts should be
double-spaced and accompanied by the text in diskette
for PC compatible text-editors (MS-Word, Wordperfect,
Wordstar). Articles, not exceeding six pages, can include
small black-and-white photographs, high quality figures,
and high quality maps, tables and references, but please
keep them to a minimum.
Please send contributions to: ANTHONY RYLANDS, c/o
Conservation International do Brasil, Avenida Ant6nio
Abrahro Caram 820/302, 31275-000 Belo Horizonte,
Minas Gerais, Brazil, Tel/Fax: +55 (31) 441 17 95 or
ERNESTO RODRIGUEZ-LUNA, Parque de La Flora y Fauna
Silvestre Tropical, Instituto de Neuroetologfa, Universidad
Veracruzana, Apartado Postal 566, Xalapa, Veracruz
91000, Mexico, Fax: 52 (28) 12-5748.
LILIANA CORT S-ORTIZ (Universidad Veracruzana) provides
invaluable editorial assistance.
Correspondence, messages, and texts can be sent to:


NEOTROPICAL PRIMATES is produced in collaboration
Suite 200, Washington DC 20037, USA, andFuNDACAO
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ISSN 1413-4703
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Anthony Rylands/Ernesto Rodriguez Luna, Editors
Conservation International
Avenida Ant6nio Abrahlo Caram 820/302
31275-000, Belo Horizonte
Minas Gerais, Brazil

0 ODDgER ] A DMselon of the Houdon
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This issue ofNeotropicalPrimates was kindly sponsored by the Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foun-
dation, 432 Walker Road, Great Falls, Virginia 22066, USA, the Houston Zoological Gardens Con-
servation Program, General Manager Donald G. Olson, 1513 North MacGregor, Houston, Texas
77030, USA and the Grupo de Trabalho em Biodiversidade (GTB), through the Brazilian National
Science Research Council (CNPq), Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca, Coordenador do GTB, c/o Conserva-
tion International do Brasil, Avenida Ant6nio Abrahdo Caram 820/302, 31275-000 Belo Horizonte,
Minas Gerais, Brazil.
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