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Title: Neotropical primates
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098814/00023
 Material Information
Title: Neotropical primates a newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCNSSC Primate Specialist Group
Abbreviated Title: Neotrop. primates
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
Conservation International
Center for Applied Biodiversity Science
Publisher: Conservation International
Place of Publication: Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Publication Date: December 1997
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Primates -- Periodicals -- Latin America   ( lcsh )
Primates -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Wildlife conservation -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: review   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Brazil
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Language: English, Portuguese, and Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Mar. 1993)-
Issuing Body: Issued jointly with Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, <Dec. 2004->
General Note: Published in Washington, D.C., Dec. 1999-Apr. 2005 , Arlington, VA, Aug. 2005-
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 13, no. 1 (Apr. 2005).
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Volume ID: VID00023
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 28561619
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Table of Contents
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    Back Cover
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Full Text

ISSN 1413-4703

A Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group
Editors: Anthony B. Rylands and Ernesto Rodriguez Luna
PSG Chairman: Russell A. Mittermeier
PSG Deputy Chairman: Anthony B. Rylands



.- .- .








Volume 5
March December 1997

Primate translocation in French Guiana a preliminary report. J.-C. Vi6 and C. Richard-Hansen................... 1-3
An eastern extension of the geographical range of the pygmy marmoset, Cebuella pygmaea.
M. G. M. van Roosmalen and T. van Roosmalen ......................................................................................... 3-6
Hybridization in free-ranging Callithrixflaviceps and the taxonomy of the Atlantic forest
m arm osets. S. L. M endes ................................................. .................................................................................. 6-8
Terrestrial travel in muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides) across a forest clearing at the Estagdo
Biol6gica de Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brazil. L. R. T. Dib, A. S. Oliva and K. B. Strier ................................8-9
Hybridization between Callithrix geoffroyi and C. penicillata in southeastern Minas Gerais, Brazil.
M. Passamani, L. M. S. Aguiar, R. B. Machado and E. Figueiredo ......................................................9-10
Crossing the great barrier: Callicebus cupreus discolor north of the Napo River.
D. M Brooks and L. Pando-Vasquez .......................................................................................................... 11
Philip H ershkovitz ............................................................................................................................................... 11
Comparative studies on handedness in marmosets and tamarins. S. S. Singer and M. H. Schwibbe ........... 11-12
The first European studbook for the white-faced Saki, Pithecia pithecia. S. S. Waters ............................. 12-13
Studbook for the Central American spider monkey, Ateles geoffroyi. K. Pingry .............................................. 13
1995 studbook for the golden lion tamarin. J. D. Ballou..........................................................................13-14
Foreign aid and conservation of tropical Forests: An action plan for change.
C Oren and T. T. Struhsaker ..................................... .............................................................................. 14-15
Fundo Brasileiro para a Biodiversidade ................................................................................................ 16-17
The Ford Motor Company and Conservation International Honor Adelmar F. Coimbra-Filho.
G A B da Fonseca........................................................................................................................................ 15-16
Curso Ecologia da Floresta Amaz8nica. C. Gascon ................................................................................... 17-18
Projeto DinAmica Biol6gica de Fragmentos Florestais Chamado para Propostas. C. Gascon.................. 19-20
Marenco Biological Reserve, Costa Rica. N. Vega J ................................................................................20-21
Fundagio O Boticdrio de Protegio h Natureza Projetos 1997. M. S. Milano................................................... 21

Neotropical Primates Index

Position Available Field Station Manager in Costa Rica............. ........................................................... 21
EstAgio em Primatologia. J. C. Bicca-Marques............................................................................................... 21
Animal Behavior Society. B. D. Chepko-Sade ........................................................................................21-22
Graduate Program in Population Biology, Ecology, and Evolution: Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia ....... 22
2nd EUPREN/EMRG Winter Workshop Abstracts ................................................................................... 22
Conservation International, Washington, D. C. Change of Address........................................... .......... ... 22
Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia. C. Alonso .....................................................................................22-23
Primate Society of Great Britain Napier Memorial Medal 1997 ................................................. ............ 23
Officers of the Primate Society of Great Britain (PSGB) ............................................................................ 23-24
RECENT PUBLICATIONS ..................................................................................................................................24-30
M EETING S ................................................................................................................................................ ..... 3 1-33

NUMBER 2 (JUNE 1997)
Prudence Hero Napier. D. Brandon-Jones and C. Brandon-Jones .............................................. ........... .... 34
Philip Hershkovitz 1909-1997 ...................................................................................................................... 34
Philip Hershkovitz. A. F. Coimbra-Filho .......................................................................................................34-35
Philip Hershkovitz Some Publications .................................................................................................... 35-36
Biometry and stomach contents of some Atlantic forest primates, with a note on Brachyteles tooth
replacement. F. Olmos, G. A. D. C. Franco and P. Auricchio .......................................................................36-39
Comportamiento social en aulladores: El caso de la emigraci6n de una hembra sub-adulta
en Alouatta caraya. A. M. Giudice ........................................................................................................... 39-43
La dentici6n de Callicebus y el morfotipo ancestral de los platirrinos. M. F. Tejedor ...............................43-46
Subspecific differences in vulva size between Alouatta palliata palliata and A. p. mexicana:
Implications for assessment of female receptivity. C. B. Jones ...................................................................46-48
Population genetics and conservation of owl monkeys (Aotus azarai) in Argentina: A promising
field site. E. Fernandez-Duque and S. P. Bravo .............................................................................................48-50
Utilizagao de radio telemetria em sauas, Callicebus personatus, resgatados durante a implantagio da
Usina Hidrel6trica Nova Ponte, Minas Gerais. F. M. Neri, A. B. Rylands, V. T. Fraiha e M. B. Ferreira ... 50-52
A study on social structure and social dynamics of male muriqui monkeys (Brachyteles arachnoides).
L R T eixeira ................................................................................................................................................. 52-53
Influence of affiliative interactions on the mating success of captive tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysomelas
and Leontopithecus chrysopygus) pairs. V. H. Diego and S. F. Ferrari........................................ ............ .. 53
A PHVA fot he Brazilian lion tamarins ..................................................................................................... 53-55
The Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center newsletter ................................................................... 55
Wildlife Conservation Society Research Fellowship Program..................................................................55-56
Frugivory in New World primates ...................................................................................................................... 56
American Society of Mammalogists, announcement Latin American Fellowship .......................................... 56
Australasian Primate Society .........................................................................................................................56-57
Associazione Primatologica Italiana (API) ................................................................................................... 57
RECENT PUBLICATIONS ................................................................................................................ .................. 57-63
M EETIN G S ....................................................................................................................................................... 63-66

Vol. 5, March December, 1997

Philip Hershkovitz: A remembrance. R. A. Mittermeier ..................................................... ................. 68
Philip Hershkovitz: O iltimo que conheceu toda nossa diversidade de mamfferos. A. Langguth................68-71
Recent observations of Nicaraguan primates and a preliminary conservation assessment.
C. M. Crockett, R. D. Brooks, R. Crockett Meacham, S. Crockett Meacham and M. Mills ....................... 1-74
Two howler species in southern Piaui, Brazil? M. Chame and F. Olmos.................................................... 74-77
Capuchin monkeys in the caatinga: Tool use and food habits during drought. A. Langguth and
C .A lonso ......................................................................................................................................................... 77-78
Common woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha) feeding on Chrysophyllum colombianum
(Sapotaceae) in southern Ecuador. E. P. Toyne .................................................................................................. 78
A new locality for Brachyteles arachnoides and the urgency of finding new directions for muriqui
conservation. P. A uricchio ...................................................................................................................... 78-80
Alouatta vulval and scrotal sizes. C. B. Jones .............................................................................................. 80
Ecology and behavior of the brown howling monkey, Alouattafusca. D. de A. Gaspar .......................... 80-81
1996 European studbook for the emperor tamarin. E. B. Ruivo .......................................................... 81
1996 golden lion tamarin studbook. J. D. Ballou and A. Sherr ...............................................................81-82
Studbook for European black howlers. N. A. Quinton ..................................... ... ... ......... 82
Jeremy Mallinson Recipient of the 1997 ASP Senior Biology and Conservation Award ... ................. 82-83
ASP Conservation Award Juan Carlos Serio-Silva ..................................................... .............................. 83
Distance sampling e-mail discussion list ...................................... ................ ................... 83
Laboratory Primate Newsletter Primates de Las Americas La Pagina ........................... ... ......... 84
A Re-introduction Practitioners Directory ............ .......................................................... ................. 84
Estagigrios para o Projeto de Translocaglo de micos-le6es-dourados ..................................... ........... ... 84
Announcement M Sc in wild anim al health ................................................................................................... 84
Announcement Field course in Venezuela ............................................................................... ................84-85
VIII Congresso Brasileiro de Primatologia. C. Alonso................................................................................ 85
Nova diretoria da Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia .................................................. ............ 85
American Society of Primatologists Conservation and Distinguished Service Awards 1997. R. Kyes ..... 85-86
PSGB W working Party for Conservation ................................................................................... ................... 85-86
RECENT PUBLICATIONS .................... ................................. 86-98
M EETING S ............................................................................................. .................................................98-100

Preliminary field observations of golden-mantled tamarins, Saguinus tripartitus, in eastern
Ecuador. C E. Kostrub .............................................................................................. ................ .. .......102-103
Methods of assessing dietary intake: A case study from wedge-capped capuchins in Venezuela.
L. E. M miller ................................. ............................ ......................... ......... ................. ........................104-108
Cambios en la actividad de juego en infants y j6venes de mono aullador (Alouatta seniculus).
J. A C abrera .............................................................................................................. .......................... 108-112
Aggressive response toward intruders by captive male Leontopithecus chrysomelas.
A. C. de A. Moura, S. Porffrio and C.Alonso ................................................................................... 114-116

Neotropical Primates Index 3

A study of the black uakari, Cacajao melanocephalus melanocephalus, in the Pico da Neblina
National Park, Brazil. J. P. Boubli ...........................................................................................................114-116
Monkey fossils unearthed in Jamaica ........................................................................................................ 116-117
Vocalizations in Atlantic forest marmosets, Callithrix. S. L. Mendes..................................................... 116-117
Behavioral ecology of Alouattafusca clamitans in a degraded Atlantic forest fragment in
Rio de Janeiro. V. L. A. G. Limeira .......................................................................................................117-118
A new reserve in the Brazilian Amazon ....................................... ........................................................... 118
Old World primates New species and subspecies ...............................................................................118-119
The Monkey Sanctuary. J. Casamitjana..................................................................................................119-120
Review of literature and information on the biology of the uakaris, genus Cacajao. A. Barnett ............... 120
World Directory of Primatologists WDP. L. Jacobsen and P. DuBois.................................................... 120-121
Annual Course "Biodiversity Measuring, Monitoring, and Research Certification" SI/MAB
B biodiversity Program ....................................................................................................................................... 121
Breeding and Conservation of Endangered Species JWPT Summer School.......................................... .. 121
The L. S. B. Leakey Foundation Grants awarded in 1996-1997 ........................................................... 121-122
Chicago Zoological Society Small Grants ........................................................................................................ 122
El Fondo Neotr6pico Scott del Zool6gico Lincoln Park....................................................... 123-124
International Primatological Society Awards 1997 ..................... .................... .............. 124
Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia. A. Pissinatti .......................................................................................... 124
Field Studies Supplement Primate Society of Great Britain ......................................................................... 124
IVth Winter Workshop of the European Marmoset Research Group ...................................................... 124-125
Junta Directiva de la APE Asociaci6n Primatol6gica Espafiola ....................................................... 125
RECENT PUBLICATIONS ............................ ............................ .................................................................. 125-133
M EET ING S ............................................................................................................................................... 13 3-135

4 Vol. 5, March December, 1997

Page 102

Little is known about the natural history and behavior of
the golden-mantled tamarin, Saguinus tripartitus. Pub-
lished accounts of golden-mantled tamarins in the wild
are limited to short reports on geographic distribution and
group sizes observed during brief censuses (Albuja 1994;
de la Torre, 1996; Aquino and Encarnaci6n, 1996).
Golden-mantled tamarins occur in lowland humid forest
in eastern Ecuador and northern Peru, inhabiting a lim-
ited geographic range, thought to be bounded by the Rio
Napo and the Rio Putumayo in the north and the Rio
Curaray in the south (Albuja, 1994; Aquino and
Encarnaci6n, 1996). In Ecuador, most, if not all, of the
range of the golden-mantle tamarin lies within the bound-
aries of the Parque Nacional Yasuni and the Reserva
Indigena Huaorani, areas that, until recently, were remote
and largely inaccessible to researchers.
Between July 1994 and September 1996, I spent a total of
five months locating and observing wild golden-mantled
tamarins in eastern Ecuador: 1) six weeks in July-August
1994, as part of a survey of primate communities along
the Pompeya Sur Rio Iro road in the Parque Nacional
Yasuni, 2) eight weeks in July-September 1995, at the
Proyecto Primates Study Site in the Parque Nacional
Yasunf (near 76033'W, 048'S, A. DiFiore, pers. comm.),
and 3) six weeks in August-September 1996, at the
Universidad San Francisco de Quito's Tiputini Biodiversity
Station (76020'W, 0040'S), which lies on the north bank
of the Rio Tiputini and immediately north of the Parque
National Yasuni.
Study methods involved searching for golden-mantled
tamarins while walking along trails and waiting for tama-
rins near specific trees, usually fruit or nectar sources or
resting/sleeping trees, where tamarins had been previously
observed. When groups were encountered, they were fol-
lowed, both on and off trails, for as long as possible. Data
on tamarin behavior were collected ad libitum. During
longer follows, scan sampling at 5-minute intervals was
used to record the behavior of all visible individuals. How-
ever, the number and temporal distribution of samples were
insufficient to provide a meaningful description of the time
budgets of golden-mantled tamarins at this time.
During the 1994 study period, golden-mantled tamarins
were encountered on two of 20 days spent exploring the
forest at various locations along the Pompeya Sur Rio
Iro road. I also followed and observed a specific group of
golden-mantled tamarins residing near kilometer 37 of
the Pompeya Sur Rio Iro road on seven different days.
At the Proyecto Primates Study Site in 1995, I encoun-
tered golden-mantled tamarins, belonging to at least three

Neotropical Primates 5(4), December 1997

different groups, on 15 (45%) of 33 search days. These
encounters were usually brief, as the tamarins were
unhabituated and often fled into areas of dense liana growth
where they could not be followed. At the Tiputini
Biodiversity Station, I encountered the tamarins on 25
(81%) of 31 study days. The tamarins observed at this site
comprised at least five different groups. Several of them
were already partially habituated to the presence of hu-
man observers, and I was able to follow them for extended
periods of time. The four longest continuous follows, in-
volving three different groups, were 2, 22, 7, and 9 hours.
Groups ofS. tripartitus for which I obtained reliable group
counts ranged in size from four to seven individuals (N =
9), with a mean size of 5.8 individuals. These data are
consistent with group sizes reported for S. tripartitus by
Albuja (1994) and de la Torre (1996) and with those re-
ported for other tamarin species in general (Sussman and
Kinzey, 1984).
On one occasion during the 1995 study at the Proyecto
Primates Study Site, I encountered a group of 10 S.
tripartitus individuals that traveled together for a few
minutes and then split into two groups of five individuals
each, which fled in different directions. Since only groups
of five individuals were seen in this area both prior to and
subsequent to this observation, I concluded that the group
of 10 was a temporary association. During the observed
period of association, I did not see any aggression between
individuals. This incident is of interest because most tama-
rins, like most primates, have aggressive intergroup rela-
tionships (Goldizen, 1987; Garber, 1993, Peres, 1989).
Tolerant intergroup relationships and the formation of tem-
porary, non-aggressive associations (also called "large
groups"), where two or more neighboring groups travel
and feed together, have been reported to date in only two
other tamarin species: S. nigricollis (see Izawa, 1978; de
la Torre etal., 1995) and some populations of S.fuscicollis
(see Izawa, 1976; Castro and Soini, 1977).
In my observations of golden-mantled tamarins, the tem-
porary association described above was the only intergroup
interaction observed. Thus, there is not yet sufficient in-
formation to determine whether intergroup tolerance and
the formation of temporary associations between groups
is a general feature of the social organization of golden-
mantled tamarins, or whether the observed incident rep-
resents a rare occurrence of this behavior in this species.
If intergroup tolerance proves to be the norm in golden-
mantled tamarins, a study of the relationship of this un-
usual trait to other features of golden-mantled tamarin
social organization and ecology would increase our un-
derstanding of the ecological causes and the social and
reproductive consequences of different patterns of inter-
group relationships in tamarins and other primates.
My observations of S. tripartitus suggest that its diet is
qualitatively similar to those reported for other tamarin
species (Sussman and Kinzey, 1984; Garber, 1993), in-
cluding fruits, insects, and nectar. During all three study

Cover photograph by Jean Philipe Boubli: Black-headed uakari, Cacajao melanocephalus melanocephalus.

Neotropical Primates 5(4), December 1997

years, subjects were observed feeding at the flowers of Ster-
culia sp. and/or Matisia (formerly Quararibea) spp., in-
cluding M. longiflora and M. obliquifolia. The fact that
tamarins did not remove or visibly damage flowers dur-
ing feeding suggests that they were engaged in nectar (and/
or pollen) extraction from these sources. Nectar feeding
has been reported in numerous studies of other tamarin
species, though the species of plants used as sources of
nectar vary between study populations (e.g., S. fuscicollis:
Terborgh, 1983; Peres, 1993; S. imperator: Terborgh,
1983; S. mystax: Peres, 1993). With respect to Sterculia
and Matisia, Anne Savage (pers. comm.) has observed S.
oedipus feeding from Sterculia sp. flowers in Colombia,
and Terborgh (1983) reported seasonal nectar feeding by
S. fuscicollis and S. imperator from several plant sources,
including Matisia (formerly Quararibea) cordata, at
Cocha Cashu in Manu National Park, Peru.
For the tamarins at Cocha Cashu, M. cordata nectar is a
major food source during late July and August, Cocha
Cashu's dry season, when fruit availability is low
(Terborgh, 1983; Terborgh and Stern 1987). The time of
year, July through September, in which I observed nectar
feeding by golden-mantled tamarins in eastern Ecuador
coincides with the period of heavy use of nectar resources
by tamarins at Cocha Cashu. However, since the feeding
behavior of golden-mantled tamarins has not been stud-
ied at other times of the year, no conclusions can yet be
drawn about the extent to which nectar feeding is sea-
sonal, nor about potential relationships between nectar
feeding and seasonality in fruit availability for golden-
mantled tamarins.
My observations of golden-mantled tamarins to date re-
veal that this previously unstudied species resembles other
tamarins in general characteristics of its group size, diet,
and behavior, at least during the months of July through
September, and that this species may show the relatively
uncommon characteristic of non-aggressive intergroup
relationships. A long-term study of golden-mantled tama-
rins in the wild is necessary to further determine the ex-
tent to which this species resembles and differs from other
tamarin species, including its well-studied and closely-
related congener S. fuscicollis (e.g., Soini, 1987; Garber,
1988; Goldizen et al., 1996). Further study of golden-
mantled tamarins will expand our knowledge of the ex-
tent of variation in social behavior and ecology among
callitrichids and may reveal novel combinations of traits
that would allow us to test hypotheses about the ultimate
and proximate factors underlying the unusual features of
social organization, such as cooperative breeding and vari-
ability in mating patterns, that characterize these primates.
Acknowledgments: I would like to thank Lars Rosengreen
and Brian Smith for their assistance identifying plants
used as nectar sources by golden-mantled tamarins in this
Chelsea E. Kostrub, Department of Anthropology, Uni-
versity of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

Albuja, L. 1994. Nuevos registros de Saguinus tripartitus
en la Amazonia Ecuatoriana. Neotropical Primates 2:
Aquino, R. and Encarnaci6n, F. 1996. Distribuci6n
geogrAfica de Saguinus tripartitus en la Amazonia del
Peru. Neotropical Primates 4: 1-4.
Castro, R. and Soini, P. 1977. Field studies on Saguinus
mystax and other callitrichids in Amazonian Peru. In:
The Biology and Conservation of the Callitrichidae, D.
G. Kleiman (ed.), pp.73-78. Smithsonian Institution
Press, Washington, D.C.
Garber, P. A. 1988. Diet, foraging patterns, and resource
defense in a mixed species troop of Saguinus mystax
and Saguinus fuscicollis in Amazonian Peru. Behaviour
105: 18-34.
Garber, P. A. 1993. Feeding ecology and behaviour of the
genus Saguinus. In: Marmosets and Tamarins: System-
atics, Behaviour and Ecology. A. B. Rylands (ed.),
pp.273-295. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Goldizen, A. W. 1987. Tamarins and marmosets: com-
munal care of offspring. In: Primate Societies. B. B.
Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham
and T. T. Struhsaker (eds.), pp.34-43. The University of
Chicago Press, Chicago.
Goldizen, A. W., Mendelson, J., van Vlaardingen, M. and
Terborgh, J. 1996. Saddle-back tamarin (Saguinus
fuscicollis) reproductive strategies: evidence from a thir-
teen-year study of a marked population. Am. J. Primatol.
38: 57-83.
Izawa, K. 1976. Group sizes and compositions of mon-
keys in the upper Amazon basin. Primates 17: 367-399.
Izawa, K. 1978. A field study of the ecology and behavior
of the black-mantle tamarin (Saguinus nigricollis). Pri-
mates 19: 241-274.
Peres, C. A. 1989. Costs and benefits of territorial de-
fense in wild golden lion tamarins, Leontopithecus
rosalia. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 25: 227-233.
Peres, C. A. 1993. Diet and feeding ecology of saddle-
back (Saguinusfuscicollis) and moustached (S. mystax)
tamarins in an Amazonian terra firme forest. J. Zool.,
Lond. 230: 567-592.
Soini, P. 1987. Ecology of the saddle-back tamarins
Saguinus fuscicollis illigeri on the Rfo Pacaya, north-
eastern Peru. Folia Primatol. 49: 11-32.
Sussman, R. W. and Kinzey, W. G. 1984. The ecological
role of the Callitrichidae: A review. Am. J. Phys.
Anthropol. 64: 419-449.
Terborgh, J. 1983. Five New World Primates: A Study in
Comparative Ecology. Princeton University Press,
Terborgh, J. and Stern, M. 1987. The surreptitious life of
the saddle-backed tamarin. Am. Scientist 75: 260-269.
de la Torre, S. 1996. Notes on the distributions of the Ec-
uadorian callitrichids. Neotropical Primates 4: 88.
de la Torre, S., Campos, F and de Vries, T. 1995. Home
range and birth seasonality of Saguinus nigricollis graellsi
in Ecuadorian Amazonia. Am J. Primatol. 37: 39-56.

Page 103

Pae14NorpclPiae () eebr19

Many socioecological models are founded upon variance
in foraging success (see, for example, Wrangham, 1980).
It is widely recognized that what an animal eats may have
a profound impact upon other facets of its ecology and
social behavior, such as ranging patterns (Isbell, 1991),
group size (Janson, 1988; Terborgh and Janson, 1986),
rates of aggression (Janson, 1985; Whitten, 1983), and
frequency of allomothering (McKenna, 1979).
Despite their importance, precise measures of food intake
tend to be elusive. A few studies have successfully used
analyses of fecal samples (Goodall, 1977; Tutin and
Fernandez, 1993) or stomach contents (Charles-Domin-
ique, 1974; Gautier-Hion, 1980; Hladik, 1977). However,
most investigations have relied solely upon observations
to estimate intake. Two methods are commonly employed.
First, researchers have assessed the proportion of total feed-
ing time that subjects devote to ingesting different types
or species of foods (Chapman and Fedigan, 1990; Chivers,
1977; Garber, 1993; Hladik, 1977; Janson, 1985; Kinzey,
1977; Klein and Klein, 1977; Milton, 1980; Norconk,
1996; Richard, 1977; Robinson, 1986; Rodman, 1977;
Strier, 1991; Terborgh, 1983). Second, studies have noted
the proportion of feeding bouts in which subjects exploit
different species or types of foods (Defler and Defler, 1996;
Fossey and Harcourt, 1977; O'Brien and Kinnaird, 1997;
Oates, 1977; de Ruiter, 1986; Sussman, 1977; Waser,
While these methods provide an initial assessment of diet,
they may not accurately indicate the quantity of different
foods ingested (Clutton-Brock, 1977; Durland and Gaulin,
1987; Hladik, 1977). Those foods that are consumed rap-
idly may be underestimated; those that require more time
to gather and process may be overestimated. For example,
five minutes of gathering and feeding on ripe fruits will
likely result in greater food intake than will five minutes
of foraging for insects. Even different animals feeding in
the same tree may have different rates of harvest and there-
fore intake. Such disparities are rarely accounted for in
simple measurements of time spent feeding. Only under
the most auspicious viewing conditions can measures of
gross food intake me made (Gaulin and Gaulin, 1982;
Hladik, 1977; Miller, 1996; Stacey, 1986; Watts, 1988).
Without them, however, inter- and intraspecies compari-
sons are likely to be flawed (Baron, 1992).
The work presented here provides a case study of three
methods of dietary assessment. Based upon a two-year
investigation of a population of wedge-capped capuchins
(Cebus olivaceus), diet was estimated by three different
methods. (1) Daily activity budgets were used to indicate
the proportion of time devoted to foraging for plant ver-

sus animal matter. (2) Feeding records showed the fre-
quency with which subjects fed on plant versus animal
matter. (3) Estimates were made of the actual volume of
plant versus animal food consumed. A comparison of re-
sults will demonstrate the disparate pictures of diet that
these three measures provide.
The Subjects
Wedge-capped capuchin monkeys (Cebus olivaceus) are
small-bodied platyrrhines native to Venezuela, the
Guyanas, Surinam, and northern Brazil (Wolfheim, 1983).
They are opportunistic foragers, relying heavily upon ripe
fruit and invertebrate matter, but also occasionally exploit-
ing young leaves, seeds, and vertebrate prey (Robinson
and Janson, 1987; see also Miller, in press). Group size is
variable, with assemblages as small as eight and as large
as 50 (Robinson, 1988a, 1988b; Miller, 1991, 1992). The
species is best known from studies by John Robinson and
his colleagues at Hato Masaguaral (Fragaszy, 1990;
O'Brien, 1991; Robinson, 1981, 1984, 1986, 1988a,
1988b; de Ruiter, 1986; Srikosamatara, 1987; Valderrama
et al., 1990). More recent research at Hato Pifiero, which
lies some 60 km northwest of Hato Masaguaral, has supple-
mented our understanding of this species' socioecology
(Miller, 1996, 1998, in press, and in review, a and b). The
subjects for this investigation were two groups of capu-
chins, one large (LG = approximately 36 animals) and
one small (SG = approximately 16). Both were fully ha-
bituated to observer presence within three meters. (For
greater detail on this species or these groups, see Miller,
1992, 1996.)
The Study Site
The research was carried out at Hato Pifiero, a nature re-
serve in the llanos of Venezuela, owned and operated by
the Fundaci6n Branger. Because the capuchins have ex-
perienced no molestation (e.g., through hunting or habi-
tat destruction) for nearly 50 years, they were easily ha-
bituated. The vegetation is a mosaic of open grassland
and semideciduous dry tropical forest. The climate is sea-
sonal, with approximately 200 mm per month of rainfall
during the wet season (May through October) and 30 mm
per month during the dry season (November through
April). Many tree species drop their leaves in the dry sea-
son, and so viewing during these months is excellent. In
the wet season, however, the foliage is dense, making ac-
curate observation more difficult. The study site is a 270
ha plot in the middle of several thousand hectares of con-
tiguous forest. There are approximately 45 km of trails
forming a grid of 125 x 125 m sections. (For greater de-
tail on the study site, see Miller, in press.)
Data Collection and Analysis
Preliminary observations were made from April 1989 to
May 1990. During this time, focal groups were chosen,
and subjects were habituated and identified. Intensive data
collection took place from June 1990 to June 1991. The

Page 104

Neotropical Primates 5(4), December 1997

Neotropical Primates 5(4), December 1997

study groups were followed on an opportunistic basis, with
efforts made to gather data during all months of the year
and all hours of the day. Data were collected in focal ani-
mal samples of 30 s duration. All samples in which view-
ing was obscured or interrupted were discarded. No sub-
ject was observed more than once per half-hour. Observa-
tions focused on adult females, but efforts were made to
sample all age-sex classes. The emphasis on the activities
of adult females might introduce a bias to accurate mea-
sures of mean food intake per individual. However, the
same data set was used for all three methods of dietary
assessment, and thus the analysis presented here should
be largely unaffected by this inequity. This study is based
upon 485 hours of observation, 265 with the large group
and 220 with the small group. In this time, 3841 behavior
samples were obtained.
Among the data collected with each focal animal sample,
the following are pertinent to this analysis: (1) the time,
(2) the subject's activity, operationally defined as feeding
(gathering and ingesting plant matter), foraging (actively
searching for and ingesting animal matter), moving (mov-
ing from one place to another without also foraging or
engaging in some other activity), moving and foraging
(moving along while also searching for prey), resting (e.g.,
sitting, lying down, sleeping), or social behavior (e.g.,
playing, fighting); (3) the type of any food item ingested
(plant or animal, and species if known); and (4) the num-
ber of items ingested (e.g., of individual fruits, or bites of
a very large fruit). (For greater detail on data collection
and analysis, see Miller, 1996.) These data were used to
assess diet in the following ways.
Daily activity budgets: The proportion of time subjects
devoted to feeding on plant matter was indicated by the
percentage of time spent feeding. Ingestion of animal
matter occurred during both foraging and moving and
foraging time, therefore these categories were combined.
Daily activity budgets were assessed as mean values, av-
eraging across groups, subjects, days and times, with analy-
sis controlling for the influence of diurnal activity pat-
terns. (For greater detail, see Miller, 1996.)
Frequency of use: Each focal animal sample included an
assessment of the food type consumed, which allowed es-
timation of the frequency with which subjects exploited
each different species (Miller, in press). For the purposes
of this analysis, all data points (for all subjects over all
days and times of observation) were grouped and simply
stratified by plant versus animal matter.
Volume ingested: Data collection included precise evalua-
tion of the quantity of food items each subject ingested
during each sample (in numbers of fruits or numbers of
bites). From there, simple estimates of volume ingested
per sample were made. These data were then used to ex-
trapolate the mean volume (averaged across subjects, days
and times of observation) of plant and animal food eaten
per day.
The volume of each plant food item was estimated from

Page 105

its dimensions, minus any large seeds which were known
to be discarded. Animal foods were more difficult to iden-
tify and quantify. Their volumes were estimated based upon
the category into which they fell: Small prey items were
those which were eaten in a single bite, such as termites
licked off of a tree limb or small grubs picked out of a
twig; medium items were those which were eaten in one
to two bites, such as spiders or flying arthropods; large
items, such as cicadas or grasshoppers, could usually be
identified and their volumes were estimated accordingly.
(For greater detail, see Miller, 1996 and in review, a.)
Data analysis required considerable averaging (e.g., across
subjects, group sizes, seasons) and therefore the follow-
ing values must be considered as approximations. Never-
theless, it is clear that the three means of assessing di-
etary composition yielded three significantly different re-
Daily activity budgets: Based upon the proportion of time
spentfeeding, the subjects devoted approximately 17% of
their daily activity budgets to collecting and ingesting plant
matter. The time engaged in foraging was 19%, and mov-
ing and foraging was 22%, for a total of 41% of the day
spent seeking, capturing and consuming prey items. An-
other way to look at these data is that, of total time spent
feeding, 29% was devoted to plant matter and 71% to
animal matter. For further reference, mean time spent
moving was approximately 15% of the day; resting, 25%;
and social behavior, 2%.
Frequency of use: Of the samples accumulated, 1312 re-
corded the subject feeding, 673 (51%) on plant food and
639 (49%) on animal matter.
Volume ingested: The subjects consumed, on average, ap-
proximately 2000 cc of food per day. Of this, roughly 1300
cc (65%) were plant matter and 700 cc (35%) were ani-
mal matter.
Discussion and Conclusions
This analysis clearly demonstrates that different methods
of dietary evaluation can yield dramatically different re-
sults. The percentage of feeding time exploiting different
food types suggests that these subjects consumed 29% plant
matter and 71% animal matter. However, as a quantita-
tive measure of food intake, this method is weak. Feeding
represents only the time spent actually harvesting and in-
gesting plant food, but does not indicate the time spent
moving from tree to tree. Conversely, moving and forag-
ing includes not only harvesting and ingesting animal
foods, but also travel time between "patches". Thus, this
method tends to underestimate the intake of plant foods
and overestimate animal foods. In order to make the mea-
sures more congruent, the time spent acquiring plant foods
might also include time traveling between patches. In this
case, moving might be added tpfeeding, for a total of 32%
of the daily activity budget, or 44% of total feeding time
(leaving 56% of feeding time to animal matter). However,

Neotropical Primates 5(4), December 1997

moving surely serves purposes other than food location,
such as traveling to water sources or sleeping sites, and
thus, this simply introduces further error.
Errors such as these can be ameliorated by taking data in
very long focal animal samples (Altmann, 1974) or in
delineating behavioral categories that allow fine discrimi-
nation between activities (Chivers etal., 1984). However,
the nature of capuchin foraging, in which various activi-
ties are carried out simultaneously, makes it difficult to
discern accurately the proportion of the daily activity bud-
get devoted to acquiring different foods. This is probably
true for most primate species. Therefore, estimates of food
intake via foraging time, while straightforward in prin-
ciple, are complicated in practice, and are likely to lead to
inaccurate measures of intake.
According to the proportion of feeding bouts focused on
the major food types, these subjects consumed 51% plant
matter and 49% animal matter. However, this method also
provides dubious measures of dietary intake, particularly
if the data are collected in long samples. Because of dif-
ferent rates of locating and processing food items, one
observation of prey consumption represents lower food
intake than does one observation of fruit consumption. A
five-minute focal animal sample in which a single grass-
hopper was consumed would count as one use of animal
matter; a five-minute sample in which 25 fruits were eaten
would count as one use of plant material. The two samples
would, however, clearly represent different amounts of food
ingested. Thus, this method also tends to overestimate the
importance of invertebrate matter and underestimate the
proportion of plant matter in the diet. This bias can be
ameliorated by collecting data in very short scans
(Altmann, 1974).
A volumetric assessment surely provides a more accurate
measure of dietary intake, and also serves to support the
evaluations of the other two methods. By volume, these
subjects consumed approximately65% plant matter, which
is higher than the 29% indicated by time and 51% by
frequency of use. Animal matter represented 35% of in-
take, lower than the 71% by time and 49% by frequency
of use.
Volumetric estimates such as those made here, may also
be subject to bias if viewing conditions vary for different
activities, for example, if subjects feeding on fruit are easy
to see but obscured from view while foraging for prey items
(Harcourt and Stewart, 1984). Thus, viewing conditions
may play a large role in determining the optimum length
of focal animal samples and whether or not accurate esti-
mates of intake can be made.
Volumetric assessments are especially valuable because
they facilitate precise analyses of nutrient intake. Various
studies have collected samples of foods exploited by their
subjects and, by combining accurate data on feeding with
chemical analyses of each food's nutritional composition,
have been able to produce remarkably detailed profiles of
dietary intake (see, for example, Altmann et a., 1987;

Barton etal., 1993; Rogers etal., 1990). This type of analy-
sis is necessary for determining, for example, the role of
plant phytochemistry in food choices of different species
or individuals (Davies et al., 1988; Mowry et al., 1996).
Accurate measures of diet are essential for testing the hy-
pothetical relationships between food intake and social
variables such as group size, age and sex class, and social
In conclusion, quantitative measures of food intake, such
as volume or fresh weight, are extremely important. How-
ever, a complete assessment of feeding activity is perhaps
best obtained by employing several different methods of
data collection and analysis simultaneously. Each method
offers insight into a different aspect of the subjects' feed-
ing activities. For example, a comparative approach may
reveal the relative importance of different food types to
the subjects' well-being. As a case in point, the volumet-
ric data alone from this study might indicate that protein
(in the form of animal matter) is of lesser importance than
is carbohydrate (in the form of plant matter), given that
the food volumes were 35% and 65% respectively. How-
ever, the majority of feeding time is devoted to foraging
for prey. This suggests that protein is an essential compo-
nent of the diet, so important, in fact, that it receives sig-
nificant time and energy expenditure. This relationship
comes to light only through a comparison of different
measures of feeding and diet.
My thanks to Sr. Antonio Julio Branger for his help and
hospitality at Hato Piiiero; to Dr Robert Harding, for in-
troducing me to Hato Pifiero; and to all of those who helped
with data collection and analysis: Dr. L. Aristiguieta, G.
Cantrell, R. Dowhan, Dr. A. Harcourt, D. Harding, Drs.
S. and S. Miller, Dr. P. Rodman, and A. Shevchenko-
Lynne E. Miller, Department of Anthropology, Univer-
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Abstract: Play behavior is an important factor for the nor-
mal development of young animals in different species.
Some authors argue that the frequency and duration of
play depend only on chance. I observed the play behavior
of the young members of a howler monkey troop for four
months in the Tinigua National Park (Colombia). The
results suggest that among the individuals of the same
troop there is a pattern in which solitary play always ap-
pears before social play. There were no significant differ-
ences in the duration of play among individuals of the
same age.
Juego es cualquier actividad improvisada y compuesta por
variaciones de acciones motors y de comunicaci6n, las
cuales se presentan en contextos diferentes a donde estas
acciones especificas aumentarfan el 6xito reproductive del
individuo (Fagen, 1993). El juego asf definido, es
considerado como una actividad de especial importancia
para el desarrollo de las relaciones sociales y de las
capacidades motrices y de comunicaci6n de ciertas
En primates y carnfvoros el juego es parte important del
process de aprendizaje y socializaci6n durante el period
sensible, que tiene lugar en las edades tempranas de cada
individuo (Sacketty Ruppenthal, 1973; Mendl, 1988). Pese
a su importancia, parece no existir un patr6n rigido en la
duraci6n y frecuencia de la actividad de juego dentro de
cada una de las species que lo practican. Segdn Lee (1983)
tanto el tiempo como la frecuencia del juego dependent
dnicamente de las oportunidades que se le presented a
cada individuo para practicarlo antes de Ilegar a la edad
Este trabajo sugiere la existencia de un patr6n general en
la duraci6n media de las sesiones dejuego social y solitario
de los infants (Alouatta seniculus) de una misma tropa y
en la aparici6n secuencial de dos condiciones generals

Neotropical Primates 5(4), December 1997

de juego, solitario y social.


Entre los meses de junio de 1990 y enero de 1991 observe
la tropa MN-3, compuesta por 14 individuos de Alouatta
seniculus, en un bosque himedo tropical dentro del Centro
de Investigaciones Ecol6gicas la Macarena (CIEM),
Parque Nacional Natural Tinfgua-Colombia (20N 7500).
Gracias a que esta tropa ha sido estudiada desde 1989,
pude conocer la edad exacta (en meses) de cada uno de los
infants y juveniles (C.A. Mejia, corn. per.). Basindome
en esta informaci6n agrup6 a los individuos por edades,
siguiendo un criterio parecido al utilizado por Carpenter
(1965) para clasificar los individuos de Alouatta palliata
que observ6 en Barro Colorado (Panami). Tom6 como
infants a individuos entire 0 y 12 meses y como juveniles
a individuos entire los 13 y 24 meses. La tropa estaba
formada por 8 adults (4 machos, 4 hembras), 2 j6venes
(1 hembra ,1 macho) y 4 infants (2 hembras, 2 machos).
Durante los meses de octubre de 1990 a enero de 1991,
llev6 a cabo 228 horas de observaciones focales continues
de una hora, completando 153 horas observando infants
y 75 horas observando j6venes. Realic6 las observaciones
desde las 06:00 hasta las 18 :00 horas ; sin embargo, este
period no fue continue, ya que descansaba una hora en-
tre una y otra sesi6n.

Las categories de comportamiento que registry fueron:
descanso, alimentaci6n, movimiento, juego solitario
balancee, paseo de exploraci6n) y juego social
(persecuci6n y lucha). Para analizar los datos obtuve la
duraci6n media por focal por mes de cada una de estas
categorfas. Luego compare estas medias por medio de
pruebas de Kruskal Wallis (KW) para determinar si
existian diferencias significativas en la duraci6n de las
diferentes categorfas de juego entire los meses de

Resultados y Discusi6n

Aunque los individuos observados emplearon diferentes
proporciones de tiempo en cada una de sus actividades
diarias (Tabla 1), el tiempo empleado en cada una de las
actividades registradas no cambi6 significativamente du-
rante los meses de observaci6n, para cuatro de los cinco
individuos observados. Sin embargo, para el infante
Melian, quien naci6 en el segundo mes de observaci6n, y
era el menor del grupo, cambi6 significativamente la
duraci6n del descanso, el juego solitario y el juego social
(KW para descanso = 24.03, gl = 2, p<0.0001; KW para
juego solitario = 15.71, gl = 2, p<0.0001; KW para juego

Melian Arwen Sindar
19 27 20 12 12 10 3 12 17 11

1 2 3 7

11 8 10 7

12 13 14 15

8 9 8 9 10 11

10 9 8 12

20 21 22 23

* Juego Social
0 Juego Solitarlo
M Movimlento
E Descanso
] Alimentaci6n

Edad (meses)
Figura 1. Porcentaje promedio de tiempo empleado en cada actividad, en
funci6n de laedad. El niimero de focales que corresponde al promedio de
cadames esta indicado sobre la grfica. a) Infantes; b) J6venes.

social = 7.5, gl = 2, p<0.05). Este cambio se manifest
como una disminuci6n en el tiempo dedicado al descanso,
que en un principio fue del 100% pero que al segundo
mes di6 lugar al juego solitario a manera de balance y
paseos de exploraci6n y a una baja proporci6n de juego
social (Fig. la).

Aunque dentro de la tropa existian cuatro infants, s6lo
tome datos de tres de ellos. Al infante Liliput no lo tuve
en cuenta debido a que a la edad de 7 meses, despu6s de
haberse lesionado un brazo en una cafda de un drbol du-
rante una sesi6n de juego social, disminuy6 de manera
repentina su desarrollo y el repertorio de actividades
diarias. Tres meses despu6s no le volvi a ver con la tropa
ni fuera de ella. En los demis individuos, dentro de la
actividad de juego, la categorfa que predomin6 durante la
infancia fue el juego solitario, que paulatinamente va
disminuyendo en duraci6n al mismo tiempo que aparece
el juego social.

El tiempo empleado en juego social fue aumentando con
la edad, aunque nunca super el tiempo empleado en juego
solitario (maximo juego solitario 15.7 %; maximo juego
social 3.9%), un patr6n similar fue observado por Baldwin
y Baldwin (1978), en un studio sobre A. palliata De
hecho, durante los cuatro meses de este studio, el juego

Tabla 1.Porcentajes de tiempo empleado en cada una de las actividades, por cada individuo durante los cuatro meses
de observaci6n. "Otros" se refiere a actividades sociales como acicalamiento propio o a otros individuos del grupo y
sesiones de vocalizaci6n ante la presencia de estfmulos extemos como otra tropa cercana, luvia y el amanecer.
Individuo Alimentacidn Descanso Movimiento Juego solitario Juego social Otros No.horas focales
Melian (inf.) 0 91.0 0.7 3.9 0.05 3.9 65
Arwen (inf.) 16.7 58.8 6.1 15.7 1.5 1.2 34
Sindar(inf.) 22.0 42.9 15.0 18.0 2.1 0 43
Laura (juv.) 28.4 52.1 15.3 0 3.9 0.3 35
Daniel (juv.) 24.4 57.0 15.6 0 2.8 0.2 39


Page 109

* Juego solitario infants
* Juego social infants
* Juego Social

Oct Nov Dic Ene
Flgura 2. Media y barradeerroresestandardeladuraci6ndeljuego solitario
y social de tres infantiles y dos juveniles, para cada mes de observaci6n.
Cada punto represent la media de tires o dos valores respectivamente. El
juego solitario para j6venes no se muestra en la grafica, pues no fue
identificable (vertexto).
solitario siempre present cerca del triple del tiempo
utilizado en juego social por los infants (Fig. 2), tal vez
debido a que el juego social depend de la casualidad de
que un individuo encuentre un compafiero de juego cercano
al lugar donde se encuentra, lo cual en infants depend
de la localizaci6n de su madre, de quien pocas veces se
alejan mis de diez metros.
Para los j6venes no identifiqu6 la ocurrencia de juego
solitario, ya que su balance siempre tuvo como objetivo
alcanzar algtin objeto o comida, de manera que no se
ajustaba a la definici6n dejuego segtn Fagen (1993). Los
paseos que observe enj6venes, tampoco los consider como
juego ya que siempre tenfan el objetivo de buscar alimento
o un lugar donde descansar. Su actividad de juego se cen-
tra entonces por definici6n, en interacciones sociales que
casi siempre fueron iniciadas por infants durante sus
A lo largo del rango de edades que ofrecen los individuos,
desde reci6n nacido (Melian) hasta juvenile de 23 meses
(Daniel), se puede observer la siguiente tendencia. Hay
una disminuci6n en el tiempo de descanso y un aumento
en el tiempo de alimentaci6n y juego (solitario y social)
durante los primeros diez meses de vida (Fig.la). MAs
adelante, hacia los 12 meses comienza a disminuir el
tiempo de juego y aumenta el de descanso y alimentaci6n
(Fig.lb). Sin embargo, no hubo diferencias notorias en la
proporci6n de tiempo dedicada alas diferentes actividades
entire un juvenile de 12 y otro de 20 meses de edad.
La proporci6n de juego y descanso en cada una de las
edades puede guardar cierta relaci6n con la cercanfa de la
crfa con su madre y el tipo de alimentaci6n (leche ma-
terna vs. hojas). En los primeros meses de vida, los infants
s6lo se alimentan de leche, la cual les provee gran cantidad
de energfa ficil de metabolizar y utilizar en actividades
con alta demand energdtica como el juego. A media
que las crias crecen y se independizan de su madre, su
dieta cambia gradualmente a hojas que son un material
dificil de digerir y con menos energfa disponible (Milton,
1980). Esta condici6n se ve reflejada en el aumento del
descanso y la disminuci6n en el juego solitario despu6s
del mes 12 (Fig.lb). Tambi6n es possible que las actividades

Page 110

Neotropical Primates 5(4), December 1997

cotidianas asociadas con la alimentaci6n y descanso
independiente de los juveniles reemplacen el ejercicio
motriz que represent el juego solitario de los infants y a
causa de esto, se vea una disminuci6n en el juego solitario.
No existen diferencias significativas entire los tiempos
empleados por los infants en eljuego social (KW = 3.71,
gl = 3, p>0.2) ya que la ocurrencia de esta clase de juego
en un infante no es independiente de la ocurrencia de esta
misma actividad en los demis infants de la tropa. Esta
dependencia se debe a que todos los infants de una misma
tropa son compafieros de juego y se buscan mutuamente
para tener sesiones de juego social. Para el juego indi-
vidual, tampoco encontr6 diferencias significativas entire
los individuos de la misma tropa (KW = 7.19, gl = 3,
p>0.05), debido a que todos los infants de una misma
tropa tienen las mismas oportunidades de llevar a cabo
juegos solitarios (las actividades del grupo estAn
sincronizadas y por lo general todos se encuentran en el
mismo 6rbol a la misma hora). A pesar de estas diferencias,
existe un patr6n secuencial en el cual primero aparece el
juego solitario, que disminuye al mismo tiempo que
aumenta el tiempo empleado en otras actividades como
juego social y alimentaci6n.
Es possible que el juego represent una ventaja evolutiva
para aquellos individuos que lo practiquen mAs
frecuentemente (Bekoff, 1981). En los aulladores infants
existe la tendencia a emplear el tiempo en las actividades
de juego solitario y social sin diferencias significativas
durante cada una de las edades por mi definidas; asimismo
se tiende a seguir un patr6n en el que primero aparece el
juego solitario. Lo que ocurri6 con el infante Liliput, hace
pensar que el tiempo empleado en esta clase de juegos
solitarios es un buen indicador de estado de desarrollo de
las habilidades motors y de comunicaci6n en el individuo,
las cuales son importantes para que 6ste logre alcanzar la
edad adulta.
Jaime A. Cabrera, Programa Regional en Manejo de Vida
Silvestre, Universidad Nacional, Apartado 1350-3000
Heredia, Costa Rica, .
Baldwin, J. D. y Baldwin, J. I. 1978. Exploration and play
in howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata). Primates 19(3):
Bekoff, M. 1981. Mammalian sibling interactions: genes,
facilitative environments and the coefficient of famil-
iarity. En: Parental Care in Mammals, D. J. Guberick
y P.H. Klopfer (eds.), pp.307-346. Plenum Press, New
Carpenter, C. R. 1965. Howlers of Barro Colorado Island.
En: Primate Behavior I. de Vore (ed.), pp.250-272. Holt,
Rinehart and Winston, New York.
Fagen, R. 1993. Primate juveniles and primate play. En:
Juvenile Primates, M. Pereira (ed.), pp.182-196. Ox-
ford University Press, Oxford.
Lee, P. C. 1983. Play as a means for developing relation-
ships. En: Primate Social Relationships, R.A. Hinde

Page 111

(ed.), pp.81-88. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Ox-
Mendl, M. 1988. The effects of litter-size variation on the
development of play behaviour in the domestic cat: lit-
ters of one and two. Anim. Behav. 36: 20-34.
Milton, K. 1980. The Foraging Strategy of Howler Mon-
keys. A Study in Primate Economics. Columbia Univer-
sity Press. New York.
Sackett, G. P. y Ruppenthal, G. C. 1973. Development of
monkeys after varied experience during infancy. En:
Ethology and Development, J. Barnett (ed.), pp 52-87.
Spastics International Medical Publications, London.

Among callitrichid primates, aggression between residents
and intruders of the same sex has been documented in
several studies in captive settings. Usually, the pattern of
responses is interpreted in terms of the maintenance of
the pair bond and monogamy, territorial defense, and the
exclusion of competitors (Anzenberger, 1985; Aradjo and
Yamamoto, 1994; Epple, 1978; French and Inglett, 1989;
French and Snowdon, 1981). In these earlier studies, there
was considerable variation in the responses against in-
truders of the same sex. For example, in Callithrixjacchus
both males and females attacked an intruder; in Saguinus
oedipus the male exhibited attack behavior while the fe-
male increased rates of marking behavior; and in
Leontopithecus rosalia the females demonstrated high
levels of agonistic behavior and the males exhibited lower
levels of aggression in the presence of intruders. These
response differences among species may be attributable to
differences in the mechanisms of reproductive suppres-
sion among subordinates, and, possibly, to differences in
the systems of pair-bond maintenance (Aradjo and
Yamamoto, 1994; French and Inglett, 1991; Snowdon,
1990). Other factors may also regulate the responses to
intruders, including kin discrimination (Harrison and
Tardif, 1988), familiarity with intruders (Koenig and
Rothe, 1994; French et al., 1995), and the size of the group
(French and Inglett, 1989; Schaffner and French, 1997).
Overall, the factors that are associated with variation in
responses to intruders have not been extensively studied.
The work presented in this report describes: (1) cases of
strong aggression toward males in golden-headed lion
tamarinss (Leontopithecus chrysomelas), which differ from
observations in L. rosalia; and (2) differences in the re-
sponses of the resident breeding male, and an apparent
relationship with the size of the group.
The data reported in this paper come from observations of
the reactions of members of a captive family group to en-
counters with unfamiliar, reproductively-aged males that
had escaped from neighboring groups in L. chrysomelas

(Table 1). Two encounters were noted on separate occa-
sions. We used an observation protocol based on ad libi-
tum sampling, which continued until the escaped animals
were captured. The animals that participated in these
events were housed at the Laboratorio Tropical de
Primatologia (LTP) of the Universidade Federal da Parafba.
The family group was maintained in a large wire enclo-
sure (2.7 x 2,7 x 5,45 m), with natural branches, plat-
forms, and nest boxes. Visual contact with other social
groups in neighboring enclosures was minimal since there
was dense foliage blocking visual access. The LTP is situ-
ated in the interior of an "island remnant" of the Atlantic
coastal forest and the enclosures were subject to normal
environmental and climatic conditions.

Table 1. Composition of the family group during the two aggressive inci-
dents. A = Adult, Sa = Subadult, J= Juvenile.
Date Animals Sex Age
19 Oct 1995 Clotilde (Clo) F A
Gorbi(Go) M A
David (Da) M A
Thais (Th) F Sa
Marina (Ma) F J
Mariana (Mr) F J
12 Oct 1996 Clotilde F A
Gorbi M A
David M A
Thais F A

Results and Discussion
At 09:10 h on 19 October 1995, the adult male Mi es-
caped from his enclosure and approached that containing
the focal family group. He hung on to the wire of the en-
closure and displayed agonistically toward the animals in
the group. The adult-aged son Da then attacked Mi, and
attempted to bite and grab the intruder male through the
wire of the enclosure. Da continued to attack the intruder
even after the daily food rations had been provided. At
09:40 h, the reproductive adult male resident Go initiated
his participation in the attacks on the intruder, while Da
continued to attack, displaying vocalizations and arch-
displays (see Rathbun, 1979). The breeding Go and Da
attacked the intruder simultaneously, jumping at the wire
mesh and attempting to grab him. However, aggression
by the son Da was more frequent and more intense than
that of the adult male. The other animals in the group did
not display aggressive interactions towards the intruder.
In an attempt to capture the escaped male, we placed his
female mate in a small cage near the enclosure of the fo-
cal family group. The resident reproductive female Clo
vocalized and displayed agonistically toward the unfamil-
iar female, with the apparent intention of attacking her.
At 09:55 h, the observations were terminated.
In the second instance of aggression we observed, another
adult male (Aureo) escaped from a different enclosure at
approximately 09:30 h. For 5-10 minutes he remained
close to his home cage, and then approached the enclo-
sure containing the focal family group and began to inter-
act aggressively with the resident animals. The reproduc-
tive male Go and his son Da became actively involved in

Neotropical Primates 5(4), December 1997

Page 112 Neotropical Primates 5(4), December 1997

attacks directed toward the intruder, similar to the behav-
ior we described above. However, in this case the father
and son initiated their attacks together. The intruder male
ran back and forth on top of the enclosure, attempting to
bite both resident males. In this interaction, the females
also participated in the aggressive attacks on three occa-
sions, although it was not possible to determine whether
the mother, daughter, or both were involved in the attacks.
The intruder attempted to chase and fight with both males
(Go and Dal for a total of 10 minutes. In this second ago-
nistic event the adult male Go was more active than his
son Da, and he received serious injuries to his hands dur-
ing the fight. At 10:00 h the observations were terminated.
In these two opportunities to study a confrontation be-
tween intruding males and the residents of a single social
group, the resident males responded aggressively, but the
responses of the males differed. In the first case, the sub-
ordinate male initiated the attack and exhibited higher
rates of aggressiveness. In the second case it was the domi-
nant breeding male that exhibited higher aggression, when
both males attacked simultaneously. In the two situations,
the responses of the individuals may have been influenced
by the size of the group, with 6 and 4 animals in the first
and second case, respectively. This point will be explored
In our observations, the patterns of aggressiveness of the
adult male differ from the results reported by French and
Inglett (1989) for L. rosalia, in which resident males re-
mained tolerant in the presence of intruding males. In our
experience with other escapes in our colony, we have also
noted male-male aggression. It is possible that in L.
chrysomelas, male-male competition for reproductive
dominance is more intense than it is in L. rosalia, a spe-
cies which is known to reside in stable polyandrous groups
in the wild (Baker et al., 1993). Recently, Baker and Dietz
(1996) described cases of aggression by resident males
against intruders in wild groups of L. rosalia, but in some
cases the intruder male was tolerated by the resident male.
Familiarity of males with the intruder reduces aggressive-
ness toward the intruder (Koenig and Rothe, 1994; French
et al., 1995), a possibility that Baker and Dietz (1996)
considered as a reasonable explanation for the low levels
of aggression toward intruding males in L. rosalia reported
by French and Inglett (1989).
It is interesting that the response of the adult breeding
male was different in the two occasions that he was con-
fronted with an unfamiliar male. When the size of the
group was large, the participation of the adult male was
low and the majority of the aggression was carried out by
the older son. With a smaller group size, the male was the
primary participant in aggressive interactions: Koenig and
Rothe (1991, p.192) reported similar observations in C.
jacchus, and proposed that there is a division of labor
among the members of the group with increasing family
size. Non-reproductive males in large groups, then, may
selectively engage in aggressive interactions that could
maintain or increase territory size. However, alternative

interpretations could explain the differences in aggres-
sion in the two resident males during the two events re-
ported here.
The reproductive state of the female is an important fac-
tor that might regulate the responses of males to intrud-
ers, but none of the published studies on captive animals
have analyzed the influence of this variable. The repro-
ductive state of the female apparently elevates the level of
intrasexual competition in males. In wild groups that are
demographically polyandrous (contain at least 2 adult
males) in Cebuella pygmaea (v. Soini, 1987) L rosalia
(v. Baker et al., 1993) and Saguinus mystax (v. Heymann,
1996), levels of aggression among males within the group
are higher throughout the period of female receptivity. It
is possible in the second case we report here that the fe-
male was in estrus, which may explain the fact that the
reproductive male exhibited higher aggression toward the
intruder. This aggression would minimize the opportu-
nity for a sexual encounter between the resident female
and the intruding male.
Another aspect worthy of discussion is the behavior of the
intruder relative to the residents. In the second case, for
example, the intruder appeared to behave more aggres-
sively. This might be the reason that the resident adult
male showed higher aggression in this case. It is impor-
tant to keep in mind that the majority of other studies
with the intruder paradigm (e.g., Araidjo and Yamamoto,
1994; Epple, 1978) were conducted under different con-
ditions than those reported here. For example, the intruder
is typically kept in a small cage, which is not his normal
"territory". If, under these conditions, the intruder exhib-
ited exclusively submissive behavior, this would reduce
the aggressive behavior of the adult male resident. It is
interesting to note, in this light, that in wild groups of L.
rosalia intruder males can be accepted permanently into
groups as subordinates (Baker et al., 1993), which would
produce benefits for both residents and intruders.
Dominant females in L. chrysomelas only show height-
ened aggression against other females, as revealed by ob-
servations during other escapes at our facility, and judg-
ing by the reactions of Clo toward male intruders. One
interesting observation is the low level of participation of
the daughter Th in the defense of the group. If a strange
male is successful in establishing his territory, then it is
possible that the daughter will usurp the reproductive po-
sition. Thus, the low levels of aggression toward intrud-
ing males by subordinate daughters may be advantageous
for them. On the other hand, the intense participation of
the son in the defense of the group is more difficult to
explain. In accordance with Baker and Dietz (1996) males
that disperse together have a higher probability of suc-
cessfully entering a new territory (but see McGrew and
McLuckie, 1986). Thus, why should sons defend family
territories? It is possible that in helping their fathers de-
fend the territory, sons are gaining indirect fitness ben-
efits. The size of our sample is small, and does not permit
broad generalizations, but it is worthwhile to pose three

Neoi-ropical Primates 5(4), December 1997

Page 112

Page 113

questions: 1) What is the nature of the daughter's reac-
tion if the intruder is a female? Since it is possible that the
daughter might inherit the reproductive position (Baker
and Dietz, 1996) then daughters should show high levels
of aggression toward potential female competitors: 2) What
is the nature of the son's reaction if the intruder is a fe-
male? 3)Does the son also react aggressively in this con-
The majority of research on aggression has dealt princi-
pally with aspects of the relationships that deal with mat-
ing systems and pair-bond formation (e.g., Anzenberger,
1985; Aradjo and Yamamoto, 1994; Epple, 1978; French
and Snowdon, 1981). However, the behavioral responses
described here indicate the need for further research in
this area, especially as regards the influence of group size
and composition, reproductive state of the female, and the
participation of the sons and daughters in agonistic en-
counters with intruders.
We thank Drs. Jeffrey A. French and Cristina V. Santos
for their translations of the manuscript and their critical
reading. We also thank the Brazilian Higher Education
Authority (CAPES) for providing financial support
(ACAM and SP).
Ant6nio Christian de A. Moura, Simone Porfirio, and
Carmen Alonso, Departamento de SistemAtica e Ecologia
- CCEN, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, 58059-900 Jodo
Pessoa, Paraiba, Brazil.
Anzenberger, G. 1985. How stranger encounters of com-
mon marmosets (Callithrix jacchus jacchus) are influ-
enced by family members: the quality of behavior. Folia
Primatol. 45: 204-224.
Aradjo, A. and Yamamoto, M. E. 1994. Reagao a intrusos
da mesma esp6cie em Callithrixjacchus: influ8ncia do
status social. In: A Primatologia no Brasil 4. M. E.
Yamamoto and M. B. C. Sousa (eds), pp. 15-34.
Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia, Natal.
Baker, A. J. and Dietz, J. M. 1996. Immigrations in wild
groups of golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia).
Am. J. Primatol. 38: 47-56.
Baker, A. J., Dietz, J. M. and Kleiman, D. G. 1993.
Behavioural evidence for monopolization of paternity
in multi-male groups of golden lion tamarins. Anim.
Behav. 46: 1091-1103.
Epple, G. 1978. Notes on the establishment and mainte-
nance of the pair bond in Saguinus fuscicollis. In: The
Biology and Conservation of the Callitrichidae, D. G.
Kleiman (ed.), pp.271-280. Smithsonian Institution,
Washington, D. C.
French, J. A. and Snowdon, C. T. 1981. Sexual dimor-
phism in response to unfamiliar intruders in the tama-
rin, Saguinus oedipus. Anim. Behav. 29: 822-829.
French, J. A. and Inglett, B. J. 1989. Female-female
aggression and male indifference in response to unfamil-
iar intruders in lion tamarins. Anim. Behav. 37: 487-

French, J. A. and Inglett, B. J. 1991. Response to novel
social stimuli in callitrichid monkeys: a comparative
perspective. In: Primate Responses to Environmental
Change, H. O. Box (ed.), pp. 275-294. Chapman and
Hall, London.
French, J. A., Schaffner, C. M., Shepherd, R. E., and
Miller, M. E. 1995. Familiarity with intruders modu-
lates agonism toward outgroup conspecifics in Wied's
black tufted-ear marmoset (Callithrix kuhli). Ethology
99: 24-38.
Harrison, M. L. and Tardif, S. D. 1988. Kin preference in
marmosets and tamarins: Saguinus oedipus and
Callithrix jacchus (Callitrichidae, Primates). Am. J.
Phys. Anthropol. 77: 377-384.
Heymann, E. 1996. Social behavior of wild moustached
tamarins, Saguinus mystax, at the Estaci6n Biol6gica
Quebrada Blanco, Peruvian Amazonia. Am. J. Primatol.
38: 101-113.
Koenig, A. and Rothe, H. 1991. Social relationships and
individual contribution to cooperative behavior in cap-
tive common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Primates
32: 183-195.
Koenig, A. and Rothe, H. 1994. Effects of familiarity on
the behaviour towards intruders in captive common
marmosets (Callithrixjacchus). Primates 35: 89-93.
McGrew, W. C. and McLuckie, E. C. 1986. Philopatry
and dispersion in the cotton-top tamarin, Saguinus (o.)
oedipus: an attempted laboratory simulation. Int. J.
Primatol. 7: 401-422.
Rathbun, C. D. 1979. Description and analysis of arch
display in the golden lion tamarin, Leontopithecus
rosalia rosalia. Folia Primatol. 32: 125-148.
Schaffner, C. M. and French, J. A. 1997. Group size and
aggression: 'recruitment incentives' in a cooperatively
breeding primate. Anim. Behav. 54(1): 171-180.
Snowdon, C. T. 1990. Mechanism maintaining monogamy
in monkeys. In: Contemporary Issues in Comparative
Psychology, D. A. Dewsbury (ed.), pp.225-251. Sinauer
Associates. Sunderland, MA.
Soini, P. 1987. Sociosexual behavior of a free-ranging
Cebuella pygmaea (Callitrichidae, Platyrrhini) troop
during pospartum estrus of its reproductive female. Am.
J. Primatol. 13: 223-230.

Following preliminary surveys in 1991 (Boubli, 1994),
from June 1994 to October 1995, I conducted the first
long-term field study of the ecology of the black uakari
monkey, Cacajao melanocephalus melanocephalus, in the
Pico da Neblina National Park (PNNP), Brazil (01010'N
to 0026'S, 65003'W to 66052'W) (Boubli, 1997). Pico
da Neblina is the second largest National Park in Brazil,
with an area of 2,200,000 ha, and is located on the left
bank of the Rio Negro, in the extreme north-western part

Neotropical Primates 5(4), December 1997

Page 114 Neotropical Primates 5(4), December 1997

of Brazilian Amazonia, on the border of Brazil and Ven-
ezuela. Annual rainfall is around 3,000 mm (RADAM,
1978), evenly distributed throughout the year, and there
is practically no temperature fluctuation from month to
month. Altitudes ranges from 100 to 3,014 m above sea
level. The biological diversity protected in Pico da Neblina
is believed to be the highest of any of Brazil's National
Parks (Gentry, 1986; see also, for example, Brewer-Carias,
Most of the area of the Park overlaps with the Yanomami
Indigenous Reservation which is managed by the Brazil-
ian National Indian Foundation (FUNAI). Inside the res-
ervation, the Yanomami carry out their subsistence ac-
tivities which include hunting, fishing and clear-cutting
of forest for cultivation. More recently, the Yanomamis
have begun gold-mining.
For the study of the black uakaris, I established a perma-
nent site on the right bank of the Rio Cauaburi, the main
river in the Park, where I opened up a trail system through
an area of 483 ha and carried out a detailed botanical in-
ventory. Four forest types were represented in the study
site: chavascal (swamp forest), terra firma (upland for-
est), yuacana and cunuri caatinga (two forest types on
white sand soils). There was no seasonally flooded forest
(igap6) at the site. Two tree species dominated the forest:
Eperua leucantha (Caesalpinoideae) and Hevea cf.
brasiliensis (Euphorbiaceae).
The black uakaris traveled fast and ranged over a very
large area, often going beyond the limits of the trail sys-
tem. For this reason, it was difficult to locate them and,
when found, to follow them for more than a few hours.
The study group consisted of an estimated 70 individuals
which traveled together but were generally widely dis-
persed. They lived in multi-male/multi-female social
groups with approximately the same numbers of males
and females. Fission-fusion, as observed in the white uakari
C. calvus (Ayres, 1986), was never seen in the study group.
Individual monkeys carried out their daily activities quite
independently from one another, but would keep track of
the whereabouts of other group members by constant con-
tact calls. In fact, one of the most remarkable features of
black uakaris in the wild is their non-stop contact calling
in the form of "keeks" and "chirps". Another peculiar fea-
ture of black uakaris is that they wag their tails constantly
while moving and feeding. This also occurs in Chiropotes
but the meaning of this behavior is unclear.
During the entire study period, black uakaris were seen to
use 120 different tree species for food, the most important
being Micrandra spruceana (Euphorbiaceae), Eperua
leucantha (Caesalpinoideae), Eperua purpurea
(Caesalpinoideae) and Hevea cf. brasiliensis
(Euphorbiaceae). Young seeds were the single most im-
portant food eaten by the monkeys (Boubli, 1997). The
study group used all four forest types (yuacand and cunuri
caatingas, chavascal and terra firma).
Black uakaris are found throughout the Park, including

the mountains at altitudes of up to 1,500 m (altitude mea-
sured with a GPS handheld device). Apart from C.
melanocephalus, the following primate species are also
present: Ateles belzebuth, Aotus sp., Alouatta seniculus,
Callicebus torquatus, Cebus albifrons and Chiropotes sp.
These species are not under any threat from hunting or
habitat destruction in this part of Amazonia, except in the
vicinity of the Yanomami village of Maturaca, where all
primates have been hunted to near extinction.
With the advent of gold mining by non-indigenous people
(garimpeiros), serious habitat disturbance is underway on
the highlands of the Park (altitudes above 2,000m).
Though such activities do not affect the black uakaris di-
rectly, the gold miners have recently begun hiring
Yanomamis to hunt game animals, including all monkey
species, as well as pacas, peccaries, tapir, deer, anteaters,
and armadillos. If not halted in the near future, this may
represent a serious threat to not only uakaris but all of the
game species.
The Pico da Neblina National Park was created in 1979
by the Brazilian Institute for the Environment (formerly
IBDF, now Ibama) in order to preserve Brazil's highest
mountain (Pico da Neblina, 3,014 m) and its endemic veg-
etation. Eighteen years after its creation, it remains largely
unprotected. The Park still lacks a management plan.
Placer gold-mining is rudimentary and destructive. The
gold-miners wash off the top soil from the high altitude
plateaus, destroying the streams and small rivers, and


Figure 1. Location of the Pico da Neblina National Park, State of Amazonas,

Page 114

Neotropical Primates 5(4), December 1997

Neotropical Primates 5(4), December 1997 Page 115

sometimes set fire to the vegetation to facilitate prospect-
The high altitude ecosystem of Pico da Neblina is very
fragile and cannot recover after the thin layer of soil has
been removed (such topsoil was formed over a very long
period of time and is solely the result of the decomposi-
tion of dead vegetation that accumulates year after year).
Many plants and animals present on the tops of these pla-
teaus are endemic and still unknown to science (Gentry
1986); their disappearance will represent a great loss to
Acknowledgments: This study formed part of the require-
ments for a doctoral thesis for the University of Califor-
nia, Berkeley. I am most grateful to my supervisor Dr.
Katherine Milton. The research was funded by grants from
The L. S. B. Leakey Foundation, The National Geographic
Society, the National Science Foundation, the New York
Zoological Society and the World Wildlife Fund. Logistic
support was kindly provided by the Brazilian Army, the
Brazilian National Indian Foundation (FUNAI) and the
Brazilian Institute for the Environment (Ibama).
Jean Phillipe Boubli, Department of Anthropology, Uni-
versity of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.
Ayres, J. M. 1986. Uakaris and Amazonian Flooded For-
est. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Cambridge University,
Cambridge, UK.
Boubli, J. P. 1994. The black uakari in the Pico da Neblina
National Park. Neotropical Primates 2(3): 11-12.
Boubli, J. P. 1997. Ecology of the black uakari monkey
Cacajao melanocephalus melanocephalus in Pico da
Neblina National Park, Brazil. Unpublished Ph.D. the-
sis, University of California, Berkeley.
Brewer-Carias, C. (ed.). 1988. Cerro de la Neblina.
Resultados de la Expedici6n 1983-1987. Fundaci6n para
el Desarrollo de las Ciencias Fisicas, Matemiticas y
Naturales, Caracas.
Gentry, A. 1986. Exploring the mountains of the mists.
Science Year (1986): 124-139.

A team of scientists from the American Museum of Natu-
ral History, New York, and Claremont Mckenna College,
California, announced the discovery of the only monkey
known to have gone extinct in the past 500 years. The
fossils, known as Xenothrix mcgregori, were recovered
during a paleontological expedition to Jamaica led by
Donald A. McFarlane, Associate Professor of Biology at
Claremont, and Ross D. E. MacPhee, Chairman and Cu-
rator of the Department of Mammalogy at the Museum.
The discovery is important for several reasons. It was only
recently suspected that Jamaica once supported a native

population of primates. (Monkey species living in the West
Indies today are descendants of African or South Ameri-
can monkeys introduced in the 18th century or later). A
small group of primate fossils had been discovered in Ja-
maica in the 1920s, but was not identified as belonging to
a new, native species until the 1950s. The researchers dis-
covered a partial skull with several teeth preserved, a piece
of an upper jaw and one of the bones of an arm in a cave
shaft named Mantrap Hole.
Xenothrix, related to Cebus, was an unusual primate. Its
limb bones suggest that it was a slow-moving animal with
very mobile joints. A startling aspect of the discovery was
the age of the fossils. Other fragments of the monkey were
found sandwiched between strata bearing jaw bones of
the European black rat, first brought to the New World
aboard Columbus's ships. Xenothrix evidently became
extinct after European contact.

From Biological Conservation Newsletter (166), April 1997, p.1.

In October 1997, S6rgio Lucena Mendes successfully de-
fended his doctoral thesis "Biogeographic and vocal pat-
terns of eastern Brazilian marmosets, Callithrix jacchus
group (Primates: Callitrichidae)", at the Campinas State
University (UNICAMP), Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The
thesis was supervised by Dr. Jacques Viellard and An-
thony B. Rylands, and financed and supported by the
Museu de Biologia Mello Leitao, Santa Teresa, Espfrito
Santo, the Fundagio MB/FUNCAMP, Campinas, and the
Brazilian Higher Education Authority (CAPES), Brasilia.
The following is an abstract of the thesis.
The study presents a revision of the taxonomic data for
marmosets of the Callithrixjacchus group based on pub-
lications over the last 20 years, and discusses the validity
and phylogeny of the following taxa: aurita, flaviceps,
geoffroyi, jacchus, kuhli, and penicillata. A revised list of
localities where these taxa occur is provided on the basis
of information derived from the literature along with new
field data. The distribution of each taxon, its affinity to
different vegetation formations, and the distribution pat-
terns were examined by plotting all localities on a map of
Brazilian vegetation types. The available data indicate that
the six Callithrix taxa studied are valid because they are
discrete entities with identifiable morphologies and dis-
tinct geographic distributions. The variability within each
taxon appears to be related to population polymorphism.
On the basis of morphological, genetic, biogeographic,
and vocal characters, the jacchus group can be separated
into two monophyletic subgroups, aurita (aurita and
flaviceps) and jacchus (geoffroyi, jacchus, kuhli, and
penicillata). The taxa of the jacchus group are typically
parapatric, generally replacing each other geographically
in zones of ecological transition, where hybridization oc-
curs. The hybridization zones appear to be narrow, sug-

Neotropical Primates 5(4), December 1997

Page 115

Neotropical Primates 5(4), December 1997

gesting the action of mechanisms that limit the flux of
genes between populations. The distributions of aurita,
flaviceps, geoffroyi, and kuhli are restricted, basically, to
the Atlantic Forest region of eastern Brazil. The taxon
that predominates in the Cerrado region is penicillata,
and in the Caatinga region is jacchus. The latter also lives
in the Northeastern Brazilian Atlantic Forest, and
penicillata appears to be the only taxon of the jacchus
group that does not occur naturally in the coastal Atlantic
The long calls of the six taxa in the jacchus group were
recorded in the field, and their vocal structures were com-
pared. The acoustic parameters were analyzed with a digi-
tal sonograph, and treated statistically using analysis of
variance (ANOVA). The acoustic analysis demonstrated
that it is possible to differentiate each taxon on the basis
of its long call structure, using principally the first note of
the call. The vocal structure corroborates the division of
thejacchus group into two subgroups (aurita andjacchus).
There are temporal and frequency parameters within each
subgroup that can differentiate all taxa. The acoustic dif-
ferences between the taxa of the subgroupjacchus are not
clearly related to the supposed phylogenetic distances based
on morphological data. It is possible that the vocal differ-
ences are related to the biogeographic history of the taxa
in contact zones. Vocal divergence may be a result of se-
lection pressures on the segregation of populations oper-
ating as a mechanism of reproductive isolation. The vocal
structure of hybrids and of a specimen housed without
acoustic contact with its own taxon suggest a strong ge-
netic role in the structure of vocal communication in
Callithrix. This study suggests that vocal signals are char-
acters that can supplement the traditional techniques used
in deciphering the taxonomy of Callitrichidae, but must
be used with care in phylogenetic applications.
Sergio L. Mendes, Museu de Biologia Mello Leitao,
Avenida Jos6 Ruschi 4, 29650-000 Santa Teresa, Espfrito
Santo, Brazil.
Mendes, S. L. 1997. Padres Biogeograficas e Vocals em
Callithrix do Grupo Jacchus (Primates, Callitrichidae).
Unpublished doctoral thesis, Curso de P6s-Graduagqo
em Ecologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas,
Campinas, Slo Paulo.

In August 1996, the Master's thesis entitled'"Feeding
Behavior, Activity Patterns and Use of Space by Alouatta
fusca clamitans (Primates, Platyrrhini) in a Degraded
Fragment of Atlantic forest in the State of Rio de Janeiro",
was defended by Vania Luciane A. Garcia Limeira at the
National Museum/Federal University of Rio de Janeiro.
The research was supervised by Dr. Luiz Flamarion B. de

Oliveira of the Department of Vertebrates, Mammal Sec-
tion, of the National Museum/UFRJ, and sponsored by
the Companhia de Laniffcio Alto Boa Vista. A summary
of the thesis follows.
From March 1993 to August 1994, the behavioral ecol-
ogy of a group ofAlouattafusca (one adult male, one sub-
adult male and two adult females) was studied in order to
evaluate feeding behavior, activity patterns and ranging
behavior in relation to the diversity, availability and dis-
tribution of food resources in a fragment of semideciduous
forest (Mata Boa Vista) of 80 ha, located in the munici-
pality of Comendador Levy Gasparian, Rio de Janeiro (22*
02'30" S, 43011'30" W).
The study group was followed from drawn to dusk, five
days a month, during 12 uninterrupte(months. Behav-
ioral data was collected by scan sampling every seven
minutes, with each scan lasting three minutes, recording
the identity, activity, location and height of each visible
individual of the group. A total of 59 days (700 hours)
was spent in direct observation of the animals, and 4.198
scans containing 13.175 registers were obtained. The daily
routes of the groups were measured at the end of the day's
observation. Data on the structure of vegetation and other
ecological variables were obtained between April and
August 1994. A phenological study of 320 trees was car-
ried out concurrent with the behavioral observations.
The annual diet of the group was composed of leaves
(72%), fruits (12%), and flowers (10%). Significant dif-
ferences between the percentages of time spent in the con-
sumption of each item and the season were observed only
in the consumption of leaves and flowers. Leaves com-
prised a larger portion of the feeding records in autumn
and winter than in spring and summer, while the con-
sumption of flowers was higher in spring and summer.
The monthly availability of new leaves was positively cor-
related with the contribution of new leaves in the diet of
the group. Two tree species, Apuleia leiocarpa and
Brosimum guianense, were the most important in the diet.
Both represented 55% of the time spent in feeding and
were followed by Platypodium elegans with 11%. The
remainder (34%) was distributed among another 34 spe-
cies. The importance of A. leiocarpa and B. guianense
could have been a consequence of the loss of plant diver-
sity caused by fragmentation and degradation of the area,
the high density of these species in the study area, and
probably due to the chemical/fiber content of their leaves,
since other plants, although abundant in the home range
of the group were seldom used.
The study group spent 73% of their day resting, 13% feed-
ing, 11% moving, 0.5% in social activities, 0.1% drink-
ing, 0.1% vocalizing, and 0.8% engaged in others activi-
ties. Although the results give a very similar picture to
those of other studies of the species (Mendes, 1989 and
Chiarello, 1992), a different behavioral strategy was evi-
dent when considering seasonal variation in the time spent
in resting, feeding and locomotion. During summer the

Page 116

Page 117

group rested less, spent more time feeding and traveled
less, while in winter the group ate less and rested and
moved more.
The size of the home range of the group was 11.6 ha, the
largest observed for the species. During winter and spring,
the number of 25 m x 25 m quadrats used was signifi-
cantly higher than during summer and spring. On aver-
age, the distance traveled by the group per day was 608
m, range 235 to 1.527 m. Monthly and seasonal variation
in ranging were correlated with the consumption of ma-
ture leaves, new leaves and the phenological characteris-
tics of the trees.
This study demonstrated that the availability, distribution
and density of some food resources were the main factors
influencing the behavior patterns observed. It was sus-
pected that a reduction in the diversity of food species
available resulting from the fragmentation of their Atlan-
tic forest habitat, was being successfully compensated by
a restricted diet, by changing their activity patterns and
adjusting the size of their home range according to the
density, distribution, availability and compound chemis-
try of the food plants.
Vania Luciane A. G. Limeira, Rua Hon6rio de Barros,
20/607, Flamengo, 22250-120 Rio de Janeiro, Rio de
Janeiro, Brazil.
Chiarello, A. G. 1992. Dieta, Padrao de atividade e area
de vida de um grupo de bugios (Alouatta fusca) na
Reserva de Santa Genebra. Unpubl. Master's thesis,
Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, Slo
Limeira, V. L. A. G. 1996. Comportamento alimentar,
padrAo de atividades e uso de espago porAlouattafusca
(Primates, Platyrrhini) em um fragmento degradado de
Floresta Atlantica no estado do Rio de Janeiro. Unpubl.
Master's thesis, Universidade Federal do Rio Janeiro,
Rio de Janeiro. 137pp.
Mendes, S. L. 1989. Estudo ecol6gico de Alouattafusca
(Primates: Cebidae) na Esta9go Biol6gica de Caratinga,
MG. Rev. Nordestina Biol. 6(2): 71-104.

A new State reserve in the Brazilian Amazon was an-
nounced on the 27th October 1997. The Amana Sustain-
able Development Reserve of 2,350,000 ha, decreed by
the Amazonas State Government, is the second largest
protected area in the Brazilian Amazon: the Roraima
National Forest covers 2,664,685 ha. It is about the size
of Belgium, and contiguous with (connects) the Mamiraua
Sustainable Development Reserve of 1,124,000 ha (see
Neotropical Primates 4(2): 64-65, June 1996) and the Jau
National Park of 2,272,000 ha. In the east, the Jau Na-
tional Park also connects with the Rio Negro State Park
(436,042 ha;), and the Environmental Protection Areas
of the Left Bank of the Rio Negro (740,757 ha) and the

Right bank of the Rio Negro (554,334 ha) (see Neotropi-
cal Primates 3(2): 53-54, June 1995). Together these six
areas provide a continuous corridor of protected tropical
forest of 7,477,133 ha, stretching west to east from the
Rio Japurd, to the east bank of the Rio Negro, north of the
Rio Solim6es-Amazonas.
It was decreed in connection with the Rainforest Corri-
dors Project of the Pilot Program for the protection of the
Rainforest, funded by the G-7 nations, and proposed by
biologists linked with the Sociedade Civil Mamiraud,
Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), and the Brazil Pro-
gram of Conservation International, in collaboration with
the Brazilian Ministry of the Environment and the Bra-
zilian Institute for the Environment and Renewable Natu-
ral Resources (Ibama). The Reserve was designed by sci-
entists working with Sociedade Civil Mamiraua, an NGO
based in Tef6 which Conservation International helped to
establish in the early 1990's.
The human population in the Amana Reserve is approxi-
mately 2,000 people. The category of the 'Sustainable
Development Reserve', created in 1996, allows for the
permanence of human populations, and encourages local
participation in its management and protection. The Re-
serve protects a highly significant sample of Amazonian
wildlife including such as jaguars, manatees, tapirs, and
harpy eagles. Primates with geographic distributions cov-
ering the area include: Saguinus inustus, Callicebus
torquatus lugens, C. t. purinus (in the west), Saimiri
sciureus cassiquiarensis, Aotus vociferans, Cebus apella,
Cebus albifrons, Cacajao melanocephalus ouakary,
Lagothrix lagothricha lagothricha, and Alouatta

A number of new taxa of Old World primates have been
discovered recently. Paul Honess (1996, 1997) discovered
two species of bushbabies or galagos, which were also
described and illustrated in The Kingdon Field Guide to
African Mammals (Kingdon, 1997). The small Rondo
galago, Galagoides rondoensis Honess, 1996, was found
in remnant forests patches on the seaward rim of the Rondo
plateau in the Lindi region of eastern Tanzania. The
Matundu galago, Galagoides udzungwensis Honess, 1996,
comes from low-lying secondary growth forest below the
Uzungwa Mountains in the Morogoro region, Tanzania.
The two species were described by their distinct morphol-
ogy (cranial and penile), pelage, hair structure, and vo-
calizations. Honess (1996) also revalidated two other spe-
cies, Grant's galago, Galagoides granti (Thomas and
Wroughton, 1907) and the mountain galago, Galagoides
orinus (Lawrence and Washburn, 1936), also both from
Tanzania. A talk given by Simon Bearder at the Winter
meeting of the Primate Society of Great Britain (PSGB),
"New Perspectives on Nocturnal Primates", held at the
Zoological Society of London in December 1997, discussed

Neotropical Primates 5(4), December 1997

Page 118

the probability that many more nocturnal primate species
will be discovered in the near future. Galagos and other
lorisoid primates may contain numerous cryptic species
identifiable only by such as hair structure, penile mor-
phology, vocalizations, and molecular genetics (Bearder,
1997; Bearder etal., 1995, 1996; Bayes etal., 1997). Also
reported at this PSGB meeting was a new species of mouse
lemur, Microcebus ravelobensis, discovered by Elke
Zimmerman in the north-western dry deciduous forest in
the area of Ampijoroa, Madagascar (Zimmerman, 1997).
Controversy continues over the description of one or even
two new species of slow loris, Nycticebus. Nycticebus in-
termedius was described by Dao (1960) from the forest of
Hoa Binh, north-west Vietnam, but its validity has been
questioned (Groves, 1993). Alterman and Freed (1997),
however, described a distinct form from Central Laos,
which they believe may correspond to the species identi-
fied by Dao (1960). A new subspecies of leaf monkey was
described by Brandon-Jones in 1995. Wulsin's ebony leaf
monkey, Semnopithecus auratus ebenus Brandon-Jones,
1995, was described from a skin collected by F. R. Wulsin
in 1924 during the National Geographic Central China
Expedition, and preserved in the National Museum of
Natural History, Washington, D.C. It is known only from
its type locality, believed to be the vicinity ofLai Chau, or
(more probably according to Brandon-Jones) the Fan Si
Pan mountain chain in China. Finally, Tilo Nadler has
described a new subspecies of odd-nosed langur, Pygathrix
nemaeus cinereus Nadler 1997; the grey-shanked douc
langur from Play Ku vie, Province of Gia Lai, in the south-
eastern part of the Central Highlands of Vietnam.
Alterman, L. and Freed, B. Z. Description and survey of
three Nycticebus species in Bolikhamxay Province, Laos.
Primate Eye (63): 16. (Abstract).
Bayes, M. K., Bearder, S. K. and Bruford, M. W. 1997.
Phylogenetic relationships among the prosimians: Un-
derstanding primate origins and evaluating cryptic spe-
cies. Primate Eye (63): 17-18 (Abstract).
Bearder, S. K. 1997. Redefining nocturnal diversity:
Prosimian primates and other mammals. Primate Eye
(63): 17 (Abstract).
Bearder, S. K., Honess. P. E. and Ambrose. L. 1995. Spe-
cies diversity among galagos with special reference to
mate recognition. In: Creatures of the Dark: The Noc-
turnal Prosimians, L. Alterman, M. K. Izard and G. A.
Doyle (eds.), pp.331-352. Plenum Press, New York.
Bearder, S. K., Honess, P. E., Bayes, M., Ambrose, L. and
Anderson, M. 1996. Assessing galago diversity a call
for help. African Primates 2(1): 11-15.
Brandon-Jones, D. 1995. A revision of the Asian pied leaf
monkeys (Mammalia: Cercopithecidae; Superspecies
Semnopithecus auratus), with a description of a new
subspecies. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 43(1): 3-43.
Dao Van Tien. 1960. Sur une nouvelle espdce de
Nycticebus au Vietnam. Zoologischer Anz. 164: 240-
Groves, C. P. 1993. Order Primates. In: Mammal Species

of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference,
D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder (eds.), pp. 243-277.
Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Honess, P. E. 1996. Speciation among Galagos (Primates,
Galagidae) in Tanzanian Forests. Unpublished doctoral
thesis, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, UK.
Honess, P. E. 1997. Taxonomic revision of the galagos:
Academic indulgence or practical necessity?Primate Eye
(63): 21. (Abstract).
Kingdon, J. 1997. The Kingdon Field Guide to African
Mammals. Academic Press, San Diego.
Nadler, T. von. 1997. A new subspecies of douc langur,
Pygathrix nemaeus cinereus ssp. nov. Zool. Garten N.
Z. 67(4): 165-176.
Zimmerman, E. 1997. Diversity and speciation in noctur-
nal Malagasy lemurs: An integrative approach. Primate
Eye (63): 22. (Abstract).

The Monkey Sanctuary in Looe, Cornwall
(U.K.) is home to a single colony of Ama-
zonian woolly monkeys, Lagothrix
lagothricha. The Sanctuary was established
in 1964 as a reaction against the cruel and prolific pet
trade at the time. A large indoor and outdoor territory was
provided where woolly monkeys, rescued from lives of
isolation as pets, were able to re-establish their natural
social groups and relearn foraging, climbing and commu-
nication skills.
This process of rehabilitation has continued over the last
thirty years; the monkeys have become a successful breed-
ing colony and their social behaviour now closely reflects
that of their wild counterparts. As the group has expanded
(there are now 22 individuals, all born at the Sanctuary)
their territory (comprising a number of large intercon-
nected indoor and outdoor enclosures) has been increased
and every effort has been made to. provide an environ-
ment where the monkeys are able to move and forage in
the manner they would in their natural habitat, the canopy
of the Amazon rain forest. Female monkeys and their
young also have the opportunity to leave the enclosed ter-
ritory and climb and forage in the trees in the Sanctuary
gardens. This also gives family groups the chance of physi-
cal and social space from the rest of the colony.
The keepers' interference with the monkeys' social
organisation is kept to a minimum. There is a recognition
of the importance of the social, physical and psychologi-
cal needs of each individual and an over-riding aware-
ness of the shortcomings of life in captivity. The territory
and daily routines have been designed to minimise the
stresses of captivity, to provide a rich and stimulating en-
vironment, and to enable each individual monkey to suf-
fer as little as possible of the negative effects of captivity.
Healthcare is holistic and tries to be non-invasive wher-
ever possible. Homeopathic and herbal treatments of ail-
ments are preferred.

Neotropical Primates 5(4), December 1997

Neotropical Primates 5(4), December 1997

Since 1973, the importation of woolly monkeys into Brit-
ain has been strongly restricted and for several years there
have been no newcomers into the group, resulting in a
stable, mature but genetically isolated colony. This fact,
together with an ethical disapproval of captivity has en-
couraged Sanctuary keepers to seek a protected park or
reserve in the Amazon rain forest where the monkeys will
be able to continue their process of rehabilitation. A suit-
able site would also be available for the rehabilitation of
other primates. The principal aims of the project are as
1. To give the captive-born monkeys the chance of a new
life in their natural forest environment.
2. To establish a sanctuary for woolly monkeys confis-
cated from illegal pet markets. The orphaned mon-
keys are often scarred psychologically by their experi-
ences and need a great deal of care. We can help to
rehabilitate these traumatised wild-born monkeys by
providing emotionally stable and socially developed
3. To demonstrate to the state authorities the worthiness
of enforcing monkey trade laws if confiscated mon-
keys can be provided with a viable future.
4. To focus on education in order to promote an under-
standing of cultural traditions and environmental and
conservation issues; the project can only succeed with
the support of the local population.
5. To work with other conservation groups with related
The project has already received widespread support,
publicity and interest, and several preliminary visits to
Brazil have been made to present the project and develop
contacts and search for potential sites on which to estab-
lish a new sanctuary. Keepers are encouraged by the
progress that has been made.
The Monkey Sanctuary is owned and run by the group of
long-term keepers as a non-profit-making co-operative
company. It is financed through the admission charges of
summer visitors and there is a strong emphasis on educa-
tion covering animal welfare and conservation issues. The
Sanctuary grounds are managed to provide rich foraging
for the monkeys but also as a natural habitat for Cornwall's
native wildlife. Many schools, students and conservation
groups also spend time at the Sanctuary. An associated
registered charity, the Monkey Sanctuary Trust, has been
established to promote the conservation and welfare of all
primates and, in particular, woolly monkeys.
For more information, please write to: The Monkey Sanc-
tuary, Looe, Cornwall PL13 1NZ, UK, Tel/Fax: 01503
262532, e-mail: com>, Home Page: homepages/monkeysanctuary_uk/>.
Jordi Casamitjana, The Monkey Sanctuary, Looe,
Cornwall PL13 1NZ, UK.

Page 119

I am preparing a review of the biology of all members of
the genus Cacajao. It is intended as a compilation of all
current information on the genus (including natural his-
tory, social organisation and ecology, diet and feeding ecol-
ogy, anatomy, physiology, phylogeny and biogeography).
Data on captive and wild animals is being included. It
will not revise the taxonomy of the genus. If you have any
unpublished information or observations on wild or cap-
tive uakaris then I would be very grateful to receive it.
Similarly, I would welcome copies of unpublished reports
or small circulation documents (any language) dealing
with these animals. If you have uakaris on your field study
site, I would be very pleased to know. All participants will
be fully acknowledged. Thank you. Please send correspon-
dence to: Adrian Barnett, 114 Petrie Avenue, Bryn Mawr,
PA 19010, USA. Tel: 610-525-8077, Fax: 610-525-2539,
e-mail: .
Adrian Barnett, School of Life Sciences, The
Roehampton Institute, West Hill, London SW15 3SN,
England, UK.

The Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center
WRPRC, University of Wisconsin Madison, has con-
verted the Primate-Talk Directory into the World Direc-
tory of Primatologists. People currently in the Primate-
Talk Directory have been automatically moved to the new
location. Everyone who has an entry please check the
accuracy of information in the WDP: www.primate.wisc.edu/pin/wdp/>. There are currently
1300 entries.
The purpose of the World Directory of Primatologists
(WDP) is to provide a convenient Internet source of con-
tact information for people in the field of primatology.
The WDP and other outreach programs of the Wisconsin
Regional Primate Research Center (WRPRC) are funded
under grant RR00167 from the National Institutes of
Health, National Center for Research Resources.
Who should place an entry in this Directory? Those whose
career interests involve or relate to primate research, con-
servation, education or veterinary medicine should sub-
mit an entry. It is necessary to have an e-mail address.
How does this Directory work? To place an entry in the
directory click on the ENTRY FORM link and fill in all
pertinent information. Once the entry information is en-
tered correctly, click on the SUBMIT ENTRY button. You
are also offered the options of revising or removing an
entry. The directory entries have a "species of interest"
field. You can fill this in to indicate which primates you're
interested in, which may be of use for people trying to
find those of like mind. If you already have an entry but
want to add this field, you can submit an entry revision

Page 120

using the Web form. (Just fill in your name and e-mail
address, and the species field.). To look for someone in
the directory, click on SEARCH DIRECTORY. You may
search names alphabetically by clicking on the correspond-
ing letter. You may search on areas of interest (such as
anatomy), location, species, or any other keyword. Is there
a cost to participating in the directory? There are no costs
involved in participating in the directory. Note it is not a
listserve, i.e., it will not generate mail messages.
Participants are expected to keep their entries current and
should alert the WDP Administrator to any listing prob-
lems. The Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center
assumes no responsibility for the accuracy of information
submitted by participants. Contact information: Larry
Jacobsen, WDP Coordinator, e-mail: wisc.edu>, Paul DuBois, WDP Administrator, e-mail:
The WDP is intended as a convenient Internet source of
contact information for people in the field of primatology
and we would encourage those not currently in the WDP
to create an entry for themselves. The scope of the P-T
directory was unnecessarily limiting, i.e., listing only
people who joined Primate-Talk. The WDP is open to
anyone whose career or work involves or relates to non-
human primates. You can view the directory using the
URL printed below or by clicking on People, a hot button
on the Primate Info Net home page www.primate.wisc.edu/pin>. While Larry Jacobsen is co-
ordinating the WDP, the principal person on this project
is Paul DuBois who has developed the Web interface and
will handle questions relating to entries. We will send
periodic reminders about WDP to Primate-Talk. This is
an opportunity to create a very useful communications tool
and we would urge all of you to take five minutes to be-
come part of the directory.
Larry Jacobsen, WDP Coordinator, and Paul DuBois,
Primate-Talk Administrator, Wisconsin Regional Primate
Research Center, University of Wisconsin, 1220 Capitol
Court, Madison, Wisconsin, 53715-1299, USA.

The Smithsonian Institution/Man and the Biosphere (SI/
MAB) Biodiversity Program will hold its annual course,
"Biodiversity Measuring, Monitoring, and Research Cer-
tification" from 10 May-12 June 1998 at the Smithsonian
Conservation and Research Center, Front Royal, Virginia.
This intensive five-week course provides a unique oppor-
tunity for professionals to gain expertise in current meth-
odology for developing, carrying out, and maintaining
long-term biodiversity inventory, monitoring, and research
programs. To date, over 110 participants from 45 coun-
tries have been trained through this course. The training
will assist the participant to incorporate his work and ideas

Neotropical Primates 5(4), December 1997

with the measuring and monitoring framework established
by SI/MAB. In addition, techniques and examples of other
biodiversity monitoring programs will be discussed. For
more information, contact: SI/MAB Biodiversity Program,
Smithsonian Institution, S. Dillon Ripley Center, 1100
Jefferson Drive S.W., Washington, D. C. 20560, USA. Tel:
202-357-4792, Fax: 202-786-2557, e-mail: si.edu>, see simab>.

The Summer School "Breeding and Con-
O servation of Endangered Species", of the
Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, Jersey,
will be held from 20 July to 7 August 1998.
It is suitable for students, zoo and veteri-
nary staff and others with an interest in
conservation and captive breeding. The course offers an
overview of how the JWPT and other organizations have
integrated conservation in captivity and the wild; lectures;
study projects; practical instruction and workshop sessions;
and other demonstration sessions by zoo staff and invited
experts. The Course Directors are the Trust Training Of-
ficer, Dr. John E. Fa, and two internationally recognised
scientists. The course tutor is Dr. Anna Feistner, Trust
Research Officer, and the coordinator is Mr Chris Clark,
Assistant Training Officer. Closing date for applications:
31 January 1998. For application forms please write to:
The Summer School Co-ordinator, Jersey Wildlife Pres-
ervation Trust, Trinity, Jersey JE3 5BP, Channel Islands,
British Isles, or Tel: +44 1534 864666, Fax: +44 1534

AWARDED IN 1996-1997
The L. S. B. Leakey Foundation awarded 59 grants in the
fiscal year 1996-1997, divided amongst the categories:
Cultural Anthropology (1); Primatology (15); Fossil-Re-
cover (4); Morphology (12); Prehistory (16); Publications,
Geology and Paleoecology (3); and the Franklin Mosher
Baldwin Memorial Fellowships (8). A number of the
grants in Primatology were particularly concerned with
Neotropical primates. They included: Natal dispersal and
reproductive strategies in Callicebus moloch in Manu Na-
tional Park Francis Bossuyt; Reproductive biology of the
black-handed spider monkey: Integrating behavior and
endocrinology Christina Campbell; The role of learning
in Pithecia pithecia's foraging strategy Elena
Cunningham; Food-associated calls in tufted capuchin
monkeys (Cebus apella) Mario Di Bitetti; and Competi-
tion and bonding among male white-faced capuchin mon-
keys, Cebus capucinus Susan Perry.
For further information (note new address): The L. S. B.
Leakey Foundation, P. O. Box 29346, Presidio Building

Neotropical Primates 5(4), December 1997

1002A, O'Reilly Avenue, San Francisco, California 94129-
9911, USA. Tel: (415) 561-4646, Fax: (415) 561-4647.
For membership information, please call (415) 561 4646
or e-mail: .

Every June, the Chicago Zoological Society awards small
grants to a number of field conservation projects. The pro-
posals are considered by the Society's Chicago Board of
Trade Endangered Species Fund Advisory Committee and
approved by its Board of Trustees in July. This year, the
Committee is requesting proposals from Specialist Groups
for projects that are contained in final or draft Action Plans.
While projects not found in Action Plans will be consid-
ered, the proposal would need to document that the project
is a formal priority of the Specialist Group.
Grants will be in the range of US$1000 US$3000. Pref-
erence will be given to complete projects of this size, but
the Committee will consider proposals that are part of a
larger project ($10,000 range). Groups should only sub-
mit projects where there is a high likelihood that they will
be implemented within one or two years if they were to
receive support from this fund.
Proposals should be just one page in length, and should
describe the research project, including the budget and a
brief background description. The proposal should clearly
demonstrate that the project is a priority for the Specialist
Group, referencing an Action Plan where appropriate, and
be submitted on behalf of the Group. If additional back-
ground material on the project is available, please pro-
vide that as well. The Committee makes the grants avail-
able in the middle of July and would like a progress re-
port, if not a final report, on the project by the following
June. Proposals are due May 1, 1998. Please submit pro-
posals to Elizabeth McCance, preferably by e-mail
. Address: Chicago Zoological So-
ciety, Brookfield, IL 60513, USA, Tel: +1 708 485 0263 x
304, Fax: +1 708 485 6320.

El Fondo Neotr6pico Scott fue fundado em el aflo 1986
por la Sociedad Zool6gica y el Zool6gico Lincoln Park
para apoyar los esfuerzos en el campo de la conservaci6n
del medio ambiente en Latinoam6rica y el Caribe. El fondo
emplea el apoyo de los bi6logos j6venes dedicados a la
conservaci6n en sus proprios pauses como instrument para
asistir a la nueva generaci6n de investigadores a convertirse
en los arquitectos futures de la political del medio ambiente.
De esta manera el fondo fortalece el liderazgo central en
el campo de la conservaci6n del medio ambiente a lo largo
y ancho de las am6ricas. El fondo enfatiza el apoyo de
nuevas iniciativas en el campo de la conservaci6n,
prestando atenci6n en especial a los proyectos que muestren
las caracterfsticas siguientes:

Page 121

* un impact director en la conservaci6n del medio
ambiente o en la biologfa de la conservaci6n,
* la participaci6n direct de estudiantes que est6n por
graduarse, y/o de estudiantes de posgrado,
* la participaci6n de estudiantes y/o auxiliares de campo
* o vinculos con la colecci6n de animals del Zool6gico
Lincoln Park o con los intereses del personal
administrative del mismo en el campo de la
Conservacidn a travds de las Americas: Desde su
establecimiento, el Fondo Neotr6pico Scott del Zool6gico
Lincoln Park ha otorgado mas de 86 becas en diecisiete
pauses de Latinoam6rica y el Caribe. Cada afio, el fondo
apoya entire cinco y quince projects, si se incluyen los
proyectos que son reanudados por un segundo afio. Los
premios rara vez sobrepasan 7,500 d6lares, y por lo gen-
eral el monto de las beca otorgadas se encuentra entire
3,000 y 5,000 d61ares. La duraci6n maxima de la ayuda
inicial es doce meses desde la fecha en que se otorga el
premio, y la duraci6n maxima de ayuda total es dos afios.
Alguns de los proyectos becados en los afios 1992-1993:
En Argentina
* Los efectos de la intervenci6n humana en poblaciones
murci61agos en la selva subtropical
* Evaluaci6n de condici6n de la especie de loro Tucamdn
Amazonas, que esti em riesgo de extinci6n
* El uso de tierras privadas y piblicas como refugio para
la zorra culpea en la Patagonia.
En Belice
* La protecci6n del habitat riberefio de los monos
auyadores negros.
En Bolivia
* Un proyecto de studio y entrenamiento para la
conservaci6n de la Pampa Puna en Bolivia, Perd, y
En Brasil
* Una resefia de los mamiferos terestres y acuAticos en
la Estaci6n Ecol6gica Caetetus de SAo Paulo
* El uso del habitat por parte de los mamiferos carnivores
en el Parque Nacional de Iguazd
* La evaluaci6n de los programs de educaci6n
comunitaria de apoyo al tamarin-leon de cabeza dorada
En Chile
* El impact de la predaci6n de las zorras indigenas en
las dltimas poblaciones naturales de chinchillas
La medici6n de la densidad de aves rapaces y del uso
del habitat a lo largo del rio Bio-Bio.
En Colombia
* El manejo y la cosecha de pacas en fragments de selva
tropical en el norte de Colombia

Page 122

* El desarrollo de un program educativo en la
conservaci6n del medio ambiente para el Zool6gico
de Cali
En Ecuador
* El comportamiento reproductive de los flamingos en
las islas Galapagos
En MWxico
* La evaluaci6n de la distribuci6n de aves y habitats en
el Bosque Lacandona
* La evaluaci6n de la distribuci6n de mamfferos grandes
y habitats en el Bosque Lacandona
* Estudios a largo plazo de la fragmentaci6n forestal en
En Venezuela
* La distribuci6n de los osos andinos y la interacci6n
entire los osos y d6 hombre en los parques nacionales
de Venezuela.
Los proyectos son solicitados y evaluados anualmente por
medio de un pedido de propuestas que es mandado por
correo a aquellas instituciones, organizaciones e individuos
que tengan interns en la flora y fauna latinoamericana;
por medio de avisos en boletines y diaries profesionales; y
a trav6s de la intervenci6n direct por parte del personal
administrative del zool6gico con personas que trabajan
en Latinoam6rica.
Critdrios de Evaluaci6n y Mitodos para la Presentaci6n
de Solicitudes. 1) Evaluaci6n depropuestas: Los proyectos
deben hacer contibuciones directs a la conservaci6n de
una especie o habitat individual, a la educaci6n en
conservaci6n, a la biologia aplicada de la conservaci6n o
al apoyo de politicas conservacionistas. El rigor cientifico
y la probable aplicaci6n de los resultados tienen la mas
alta importancia. Cada propuesta sera evaluada a base de
sus m6todos investigativos, factibilidad y en t6rminos de
su importancia como contribuci6n en el campo de la
biologfa de la conservaci6n. Se prefieren proyectos que se
relacionen con la colecci6n del Parque Zool6gico Lincoln.
Cada propuesta sera evaluada en t6rminos de su mdrito y
calidad con respect a todas las propuestas en gesti6n. La
alocaci6n de fondos debe centrarse en el apoyo de
acad6micos, estudiantes, y ayudantes de campo
latinoamericanos y tambi6n en el apoyo logistico brindado
por estudiantes Norteamericanos. Aunque ciertos costs
de campo pueden ser franqueados, el fondo por lo general
no paga salaries o compra equipo permanent. 2) Fecha
de entrega: Las solicitudes deben estar mataselladas con
fecha anterior al primeiro de septiembre. Los propuestas
tardfas no seran gestionadas sino que serin devueltas para
que puedan ser presentadas nuevamente. 3) C6mo
Presentar Solicitudes. Se require que 15 copias de la
propuesta sean enviadas a: Lincoln Park Zoo Scott
Neotropic Fund, Director of Conservation and Science,
2001 North Clark Street, Chicago, IL 60614 U.S.A. 4)
Cada Propuesta Debe Contener:

* Una pdgina titular con el el nombre del aplicante, su
direcci6n complete, su afiliaci6n, su cargo, el titulo
acad6mico que desea alcanzar o tftulo acad6mico mas
avanzado que haya obtenido, su ntmero de c6dula de
seguro social, nacionalidad, ndmero de tel6fono,
ndmero de fax y su direcci6n de correo electr6nico.
* Literature citada
* Un curriculum vitae no t6cnico de uma pagina,
estableciendo su prop6sito, objetivos, procedimeintos,
resultados anticipados, factibilidad y la importancia
global del proyecto con respect a la conservaci6n del
medio ambiente en Latinoam6rica. Tambi6n debe
incluir el tftulo del proyecto, nombre del solicitante,
afiliaci6n institutional y su cargo/titulo en la parte
superior de la pagina. Al pie de la misma debe contener
la fecha en que se propone empezar, el presupuesto
total y la contidad que se solicita del Fondo Neotr6pico
Scott del Zool6gico Lincoln Park.
* Una breve introducci6n al proyecto, que expiique su
razonamiento fundamental y su hipotesis, que liste los
resultados anticipados y que exponga la importancia
global del proyecto con respect a la conservaci6n del
medio ambiente en Latinoam6rica.
* Una secci6n narrative, que defina metas y objetivos
especificos para el proyecto, los fundamentos para el
desarrollo de hip6tesis, y aplicaciones especfficas de
los resultados en la conservaci6n del medio ambiente
en general y/o en la conservaci6n del medio ambiente
en general y/o en la conservaci6n biol6gica en
LatinoamBrica; que justifique y describe el disefio del
studio proporcionando los siguintes detalles: 1)
nimero de muestras, 2) andlisis de estadisticas, 3)
duraci6n del studio, 4) metodologfa general, 5)
adecuacia de los m6todos, 6) pruebas de la factibilidad
de obtener las metas deseadas con la metodologfa
propuesta, y 7) planes para la implementaci6n de los
resultados a trav6s de la political o la acci6n.
* Una secci6n de m6todos y materials, que explique en
detalle 2) el uso de y el contact con animals, 2) los
detalles de cualquier m6todo para la recaudaci6n de
datos que sea tnico y/o inusualmente complejo, 3) la
manera en la cual el personal del Zool6gico Lincoln
Park sera involucrado, si esto es pertinente y 4) nombres
y direcciones de todos los estudiantes, colabororadores
y patrocinadores acad6micos.
* Un program de trabajo para el proyecto, incluyendo
1) fecha de iniciaci6n del proyecto, 2) un program
para la colecci6n y andlisis de informaci6n, 3) la fecha
en que se complete el proyecto, y 4) la fecha en que se
anticipa obtener la licenciatura o el doctorado, si esto
es es pertinente.
* Un sumario del presupuesto de operaciones para el
proyecto entero, que no incluya los fondos solicitados
del Fondo Neotr6pico Scott de Zool6gico Lincoln Park.
* Un presupuesto detallado, que incluya justificaciones
para cada cantidad requerida del Fondo Neotr6pico
Scott del Zool6gico Lincoln Park en cada categoria
presupuestaria. Los costs asignados a el alojamiento,

Neotropical Primates 5(4), December 1997

Neotropical Primates 5(4), December 1997

la tarifa area, al alquiler de vehiculos, la gasoline, las
provisions y el equipo permanent deben ser
identificados individualmente.
Los articulos siguientes son de gran importancia y deben
ser presentados como parte de la solicitud:
* Pruebas de. que todos los permissos necesarios, como
visas y permisos de investigaci6n, han sido o pueden
ser obtenidos para la duraci6n del proyecto.
* Un curriculum vitae de dos piginas para cada uno de
los investigadores principles.
* Por lo menos dos cartas de recomendaci6n por parte
de bi6logos dedicados a la conservaci6n del medio
ambiente que se hayan familiarizado con la propuesta
y quienes conozcan a los solicitantes.
La propuesta entera, excluyendo cifras, tablas y los cur-
riculum vitae, no debe exceder quince paginas escritas a
maquina en espacio sencillo y con un miximo de cinco
letras por centimetro.

I ]1 lThe M. J. Galante Conservation Fellow-
< D l ship is an .annual award given to a mem-
Research ber of IPS from a developing country, and
Cervaon provides around US$2,500 for training in
conservation. In 1997, it was awarded to Ariel Rodrfguez
Vargas, a Panamanian studying Wildlife Conservation and
Management at the Universidad Nacional, Heredia, Costa
Rica. He has been working with Aotus and Saguinus in
Costa Rica and will carry out his Master's thesis work
with Saimiri oerstedi. The International Journal of Pri-
matology Subscription Awards were given to Mukesh
Kumar Chalise (Nepal) and Carmen Alonso (Federal
University of Parafba, Brazil). From: IPS Bulletin, 24(2):
2, December, 1997.

l A Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia
(SBPr) ter o novo enderego da homepage:
IVines/6444/sbpr.htm>. Por favor, nao deixe
de visitd-la. Al6m de encontrar um boletim sobre a reunido
da nova diretoria e noticias, hi tamb6m um formuldrio
para recadastramento na Sociedade. O preenchimento
desse formuldrio 6 muito important, pois nao temos sequer
enderego de contato cor um grande ndmero de s6cios. Se
voce conhecer o e-mail de algum s6cio que nao estd em
contato com a SBPr, por favor, entire em contato com
. Se voc8 no tiver acesso A rede,
nao se preocupe, pois enviaremos os mesmos comunicados
para os s6cios pelo correio.
Foi publicado o livro A Primatologia no Brasil 5. Os

Page 123

anais do VI Congresso Brasileiro de Primatologia,
realizado na Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio
de Janeiro, 24-29 de julho de 1994, editados pelos Drs.
Stephen F. Ferrari e Horacio Schneider, ambos da
Universidade Federal do Para, Bel6m. A Primatologia no
Brasil 5 inclui artigos completes em Ingl8s e Portugu8s,
e resumes de outros trabalhos apresentados no Congresso
(todos cor versBes em Ingl8s e Portugu8s) (ver "Recent
Publications"). Para obter um exemplar do livro, entire em
contato cor: Stephen F. Ferrari, DEGE/UFPa, Caixa
Postal 8607, 66.075-150 Bel6m, Para, Brazil, Fax: +55
(0)91-211-1662, e-mail: .
Prego R$20,00 (+R$2,00 postagem national; R$5,00
postage international).
Alcides Pissinatti, Presidente da SBPr, Centro de
Primatologia do Rio de Janeiro (CPRJ), Fundaq~o Estadual
de Engenharia do Meio-Ambiente (FEEMA), Rua Fonseca
Teles 121/1624, Caixa Postal 23011, Sdo Crist6vio, 20940-
200 Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

Julia Casperd is preparing the next issue of
the Current Primate Field Studies Supple-
ment to the PSGB newsletter Primate Eye.
We urge all those who are currently carrying
out field studies, or completed a field study during 1996-
1997, to send the following information for inclusion in
the listing:
Name: Director of Research Project: Research Project Title:
Field Site: Country: Research Team:Correspondence ad-
dress: e-mail: Status (Current/Concluded/Planned): Date
field work started: Duration: Species studied: Project aims:
(A sentence only).
Please send the information to: Julia M. Casperd, Depart-
ment of Psychology, University of Liverpoool, P. O. Box
147, Eleanor Rathbone Building, Liverpool L69 3BX, UK,
e-mail: .


F The European Marmoset Research
Group (EMRG) held their IVth Win-
ter Workshop in Paris, December 1-3,
1997. The organizers were Dr. Leah
Scott, and Dr. Christian Schnell. The meeting focused on
the world-wide problem of availability of common mar-
mosets for research and the means to resolve it, on the
appropriateness of common marmosets superseding the
macaques as the major primate in biomedical research
(currently happening in Europe), and on the future devel-
opment of the EMRG. The meeting had several produc-
tive outcomes. (1) The distribution of the publication Hand-
book of Marmosets and Tamarins in Biological and Bio-

Page 124 Neotropical Primates 5(4), December 1997

medical Research, edited by Christopher Pryce, Leah Scott
and Christian Schnell, and published by DSSD Imagery,
Salisbury, UK, 1997 (see "Recent Publications"). (2) The
establishment by EMRG of a new Internet discussion net-
work for those with interests in callitrichid research. This
new network is called "calli-talk" and you can subscribe
to it by sending the message: subscribe calli-talk Email address> to the e-mail address:
. Jens Kerl from GWDG in
G6ttingen, Germany is the calli-talk administrator. His
personal e-mail is:. Copies of the ab-
stracts for the Paris 1997 meeting of EMRG should be
available electronically from Jens Kerl shortly. (3) An in-
ternational meeting on callitrichid biology was proposed
for Paris in the autumn of 1999. (4) A reminder of the
web site location of EMRG's home page, access to which
is available through the sub-directories of the home pages
of the German Primate Centre or the Wisconsin Regional
Primate Research Center, or directly via:>.
Information supplied by Dr David Abbott, Physiological
Ethology Research Group, Department of Obstetrics and
Gynecology, Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Cen-
ter Madison, on the WRPRC Primate-Talk.

President Honorario: Jordi Sabater Pi, Departamento
de Psiquiatria y Psicobiologia Clinica, Facultad de
Psicologfa, Universidad de Barcelona, Passeig de la Vail
d'Hebron 171, 08035 Barcelona. Tel/Fax: (93) 4021080-
3058. President: Fernando Colmenares, Departamento
de Psicobiologfa, Facultad de Psicologfa, Universidad
Complutense de Madrid (Somosaguas), 28223 Madrid,
Tel: (91) 3943075, Fax: (91) 3943189. email:pspsc06@sis.
ucm.es. Vicepresidente: Joaquim Vea Bar6,
Departamento de Psiquiatrfa y Psicobiologfa Clfnica,
Facultad de Psicologfa, Universidad de Barcelona, Passeig
de la Vail d'Hebron 171, 08035 Barcelona, Tel: (93)
4021080-3057, Fax: (93) 4021584. email:jvea@psi.ub.es.
Secretdrio General: Fernando Peliez, Area de
Psicobiologia, Facultad de Psicologia, Universidad
Aut6noma de Madrid, 28049-Madrid, Tel: (91) 3974658,
Fax: (91) 3975215, email: fpelaez@auam.es. Tesorero:
Carlos Gil-Biirmann, Area de Psicobiologfa, Facultad de
Psicologia, Universidad Aut6noma de Madrid, 28049-
Madrid, Tel: (91) 3974115, Fax: 3975215, email:
cgil@uam.es. Vocales de Conservacidn y Manejo: Anna
Omedes Regas, Passeig Sant Joan 81-83, 08009-
Barcelona, Tel: (93) 4590869; Fax. (93) 3104999, y
Carmem Mate, Departamento de Psiquiatria y
Psicobiologfa Clfnica, Facultad de Psicologfa, Universidad
de Barcelona, Passeig de la Vail d'Hebron 171, 08035-
Barcelona. Tel: (93) 4021080, Fax: 4021584, email:
cmate@psi.ub.es. Vocales de Educacidn: Federico
Guill6n Salazar, Facultad de Veterinaria, Centro

Universitario San Pablo (CEU), 46113 Moncada, Valencia.
Tel: (96) 1391616 (255), Fax: (96) 1395272, e-mail:
fguilleneu.upv.es, y Mateo Escobar, Departamento de
Psiquiatrfa y Psicobiologfa Clinica, Facultad de Psicologia,
Univerisdad de Barcelona, Paseig de la Vail d'Hebron 171,
08035 Barcelana, Tel: (93) 4021080-3054, Fax. (93)
4021584, email: mescobar@psi.ub.es. Vocales de
investigaci6n: Maribel Baldellou, c/ Guillermo Tell, 20,
08066-Barcelona, Tel: (93) 2197897, y Marta Martin,
Departamento de Psicobiologfa, Facultad de Psicologia,
Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Somosaguas), 28223
Madrid, Tel: (91) 3943075, Fax: (91) 3943189,
email:pspscz3 @sis.ucm.es.

Folia Primatologica (Editor, R. H. Crompton, Liverpool
University. UK), is the Official Journal of the European
Federation of Primatology, and as such publishes abstracts
of the meetings of Federation's Societies and, on occa-
sion, the full proceedings. This was the case for a special
edition of Folia Primatologica, Volume 68, numbers 3-5,
which is dedicated to the "Biology and Conservation of
New World Primates"; the result of a most successful one-
day meeting of the Primate Society of Great Britain (PSGB)
held at the Zoological Society of London, on 29 Novem-
ber 1995. The Guest Editors were Hilary O. Box (Read-
ing University, UK, President of the PSGB) and Hannah
M. Buchanan-Smith (Stirling University, UK, Honorary
Secretary of the PSGB), who organised the meeting. This
special edition of Folia contains original and excellent
papers on a wide range of conservation and research ar-
eas, including captive and field.studies. Contents: Edito-
rial H. O. Box and H. M. Buchanan-Smith, p.117-119;
Mate preferences of wild muriqui monkeys (Brachyteles
arachnoides): Reproductive and social correlates K. B.
Strier, pp.120-133; Conservation of Neotropical primates:
Threatened species and an analysis of primate diversity
by country and region A. B. Rylands, R. A. Mittermeier
and E. Rodrfguez-Luna, pp.134-160; Geographic distri-
bution of the golden-headed lion tamarin, Leontopithecus
chrysomelas: Implications for its management and con-
servation L. P. de S. Pinto and A. B. Rylands, pp.161-
180; Uncertain conservation status of squirrel monkeys
in Costa Rica, Saimiri oerstedi oerstedi and Saimiri
oerstedi citrinellus S. Boinski and L. Sirot, pp.181-193;
Feeding behaviour and predation of a bat by Saimiri
sciureus in a semi-natural Amazonian environment L.
L. Souza, S. F Ferrari and A. L. C. B. Pina, pp.194-198;
Effects of habitat quality and hunting pressure on arbo-
real folivore densities in Neotropical forests: A case study
of howler monkeys (Alouatta spp.) C. A. Peres, pp. 199-
222; The ecology, biogeography and conservation of the

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Neotropical Primates 5(4), December 1997

Neotropical Primates 5(4), December 1997 Page 125

uakaris, Cacajao (Pitheciinae) A. A. Barnett and D.
Brandon-Jones, pp.223-235; Experimental field study of
spatial memory and learning in wild capuchin monkeys
(Cebus capucinus) P. A. Garber and L. M. Paciulli,
pp.236-253; Can spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) dis-
criminate vocalisations of familiar individuals and strang-
ers P. Teixidor and R. W. Byrne, pp.254-264; Social
memory in saddle-back tamarins (Saguinus fuscicollis) -
G. Epple and H. Niblick, pp.265-271; Tamarin mixed-
species groups: An evaluation of a combined captive and
field approach H. M. Buchanan-Smith and S. M. Hardie,
pp.272-286; The relationship between body size and mixed
species troops of tamarins (Saguinus spp.) E. W.
Heymann, pp.287-295; Foraging strategies among male
and female marmosets and tamarins (Callitrichidae): New
perspectives in an underexplored area H. O. Box, pp.296-
306; Autonomic balance in Saimiri sciureus and
Callicebus moloch: Relation to life-style S. P. Mendoza
and W. A. Mason, pp.307-318. For information on how
to obtain a copy: S. Karger AG, P. O. Box, CH-4009, Basel,
Switzerland, Fax: +41 61 306 12 34, e-mail:
, . The
journal's home page is at: fpr/fprdes.htm>.

A new interdisciplinary primate journal in primatology
was recently created under the auspices of the Societd
Francophone de Primatologie (SFDP). The main objec-
tives of Primatologie are to develop contacts between
French-speaking primatologists from around the world,
and to promote the development of primatology in gen-
eral. Primatologie will be published yearly. Each issue
will be devoted to empirical and theoretical papers from
various fields of primatology, including physical anthro-
pology, behavioral sciences, biological and biomedical
sciences, cognition, conservation, ecology, neuroscience,
paleontology, and welfare. Papers will be published mainly
in French, including, however, an abridged version of 2-3
pages in English. Papers in English will be published oc-
casionally. For more information, there is a "Primatologie"
web page: ,
which provides information on the journal, its scope, and
the editorial board. The editor is Dr. Joel Fagot, CNRS-
LNF 1, Un. de Neurosciences Cognitive, 31 Chemin Jo-
seph Aiguier, Marseille cedex 09, 13402 France, Tel: 33
91164 306, Fax: 33 91 774 949, e-mail: mrs.fr>.

The journal Natural Resources and Development is a bi-
annual collection of recent German contributions concern-
ing the exploration and exploitation of natural resources.
It is edited by the Institute for Scientific Co-operation
(Institut fir Wissenschaftliche Zusammenarbeit) in con-
junction with the Federal Institute for Geosciences and
Natural Resources (Bundesanstalt ffir Geowissenschaften

und Rohstoffe), Hannover, and numerous members of
German universities. ISSN 0340-2797. The editors are
W. Ernst, J. H. Hohnholz and A. Bittner, in conjunction
with K.-H Jacob, Berlin, and W. Gocht, Aachen. The aim
of the series is to keep earth scientists, administrative of-
ficers, and relevant institutions in other countries informed
on German studies in the field of applied geology. Vol-
ume 45/46, 1997, has the title Focus: Tropical Forests.
Contents: Introduction: Aspects of the focal theme Alfred
Bittner; Biodiversity and sustainable management of tropi-
cal forests Karl E. Linsenmair; Structure, function and
diversity of Central Amazonian ecosystems Ernst J
Fittkau; Gene conservation in tropical forests Hans H.
Hattemer; A study of forest dynamics and wood produc-
tion in flooded forests (vdrzea) in the Amazon basin, Bra-
zil, using growth ring analyses for developing sustainable
management systems Martin Worbes; Early regenera-
tion and recolonization of cultivated areas in the shifting
cultivation system employed in the eastern Amazon re-
gion, Brazil Gudrun Clausing; Effects of selective log-
ging on the diversity of tree species in a tropical moist
deciduous forest in Venezuela Ludwig Kammesheidt;
Enrichment planting in the tropical rain forest of Sumatra
- a silvicultural challenge Uwe Muuss; Protection of the
rainforest in eastern Zaire: The Kahuzi-Biega National
Park Giinter Merz. For more information: Institut fuir
Wissenschaftliche Zusammenarbeit, Vogtshaldenstrasse
24, D-72074 Tiibingen, Germany. Information kindly pro-
vided by PSG member Eckhard W. Heymann of the
Deutsches Primatenzentrum, Gdttingen, Germany.


Handbook: Marmosets and Tamarins in Biological
and Biomedical Research, edited by Christopher Pryce,
Leah Scott and Christian Schnell, 1997. European Mar-
moset Research Group (EMRG), Salisbury. 216pp.
Spiralbound. Price: 15.00 + postage and packaging. The
proceedings of the EMRG Workshop held in Paris in De-
cember 1994. This handbook provides researchers, tech-
nicians, and veterinarians with a comprehensive overview
of the biology, housing and husbandry, nutrition and
health, and physiology and behaviour of callitrichids, as
well as some varied examples of their successful applica-
tion in biomedical research. Twenty authors, with a broad
and in-depth collective experience of research with
callitrichids, contributed to the chapters. Contents: The
Callitrichidae: a biological overview A. B. Rylands, pp.
1-22; Housing and Husbandry. Current practice in main-
taining marmosets: results of a UK survey R. C. Hubrecht,
pp.24-38; Integrating marmoset husbandry and research
- C. R. Pryce and N. A. Samson, pp.39-46; Environmen-
tal control: an important feature of good captive callitrichid
environments H. M. Buchanan-Smith, pp.47-53; Physi-
cal environment and its influence on behaviour in captive
common marmosets A. Dettling, pp.54-59; Response to
a novel object by socially-housed common marmosets -
A. Vitale, F. Santamaria and A. Queyras, pp.60-64. Nu-
trition and Health. Experimental development of the com-

Neotropical Primates 5(4), December 1997

Page 125

Page 126

plete marmoset diet A. M. Thornhill, pp.66-69; A com-
parative summary of the nutritional adaptations and needs
of callitrichids and application to captive management -
J. B. Carroll, pp.70-77; Veterinary care of callitrichids -
T. J. Gatesman, pp. 78-101; Comparative pathological-
clinical aspects of captive callitrichids at the Jersey Wild-
life Preservation Trust N. Robert and J. B. Carroll,
pp.102-109. Physiology and Behaviour. Callitrichid so-
cial biology and its significance for captive management -
H. O. Box, pp. 111-118; Evolutionary and comparative
biology: their significance for callitrichid research C. R.
Pryce, pp.119-127; Circadian rhythms in the marmoset:
their significance for fundamental and applied research -
H. G. Erkert, pp.128-144; Quantitative analysis of mar-
moset vocal communication B. S. Jones, pp.145-151;
Application of urinary oestrogen in monitoring and con-
trol of reproduction in captive common marmosets C.
Nievergelt, pp.152-156; Neurotransmission in the com-
mon marmoset J.-P. Ifornung, pp.157-162. Applications.
Behavioural conditioning in marmosets L. Scott, pp.164-
169; Haemodynamic measurements by telemtry in con-
scious unrestrained marmosets, and responses to stress
events C. R. Schnell, pp.170-180; The relative merits of
the marmoset in toxicological testing P. A. McAnulty,
pp.181-191; The relative merits of the marmoset as a model
in reproductive medicine S. F. Lunn, pp. 192-207. Index
and author's addresses. Available from: Leah Scott, Biol-
ogy Division, CBD Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire SP4
OJQ, UK, Tel: +44 (0) 1980 613392/613093, Fax: +44
(0)1980 613741.
A Primatologia no Brasil 5, edited by Stephen F.
Ferrari and Horacio Schneider, 1997. Sociedade Brasileira
de Primatologia and the Universidade Federal do Pari,
Bel6m, Brazil. Articles in Portuguese and English. 364pp.
ISBN 85 247 0173 0. Price US$20.00 (+ postage and pack-
ing US$2.00 in Brazil, US$5.00 elsewhere). The proceed-
ings of the VI Congresso Brasileiro de Primatologia, held
at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro,
24-29 July 1994. All articles in Portuguese have English
summaries. The abstracts are also in Portuguese and En-
glish. Contents: Seaio 1 Trabalhos de Campo. A relag~o
espacial entire mae-infante como media do process de
independencia do filhote muriqui (Brachyteles
arachnoides) A. Odalia-Rfmoli & E. Otta, pp.15-27;
Comportamento agressivo em um grupo de bugios-pretos,
Alouatta caraya (Primates, Cebidae) C. Calegaro-
Marques & J. C. Bicca-Marques, pp.29-38; Estrategias
de forrageamento de um grupo de muriquis (Brachyteles
arachnoides, Primates, Cebidae) da Estag~o Biol6gica de
Caratinga MG J. Rimoli & C. Ades, pp.39-57; Estudo
dos ritmos biol6gicos da catag~o no sagiii comum
(Callithrix jacchus) em ambiente natural; C. S. S. de
Castro, A. A. L. Menezes, J. W. de Queiroz & L. F. S.
Moreira, pp.59-70; Mudangas no tamanho e na composig9o
de grupos sociais de Callithrixjacchus em ambiente natu-
ral M. A. O. Monteiro da Cruz & C. Scanlon, pp.71-80;
Os indios Guaji e os primatas da Amazonia maranhense:

Um caso de sustentabilidade de caga? H. L. Queiroz &
R. Kipnis, pp.81-94; Padr6es de interagao vocal do muriqui
(Brachyteles arachnoides) D. C. Mendes, pp.95-118;
Reintrodugao do sagiii-de-cara-branca (Callithrix
geoffroyi) em fragments da Mata Atlantica no Sudeste
do Brasil M. Passamani, S. L. Mendes, A. G. Chiarello,
J. A. Passamani & R. R. Laps, pp.119-128; Vocalizagqes
de Alouatta caraya (Primates, Cebidae) C. Calegaro-
Marques & J. C. Bicca-Marques, pp.129-140. Resumos.
Activity patterns, diet and social behavior in howler mon-
keys in Corrientes, Argentina A. M. Giudice, pp.141-
142; Alometria em Callithrix jacchus silvestres: Uma
aplicaqao da teoria dos grafos M. A. O. Monteiro da
Cruz & T. Sato, pp.142-143; Aspecto de contetdo
nutricional da dieta e comportamento alimentar de
Brachyteles arachnoides no Parque Estadual de Carlos
Botelho SP M. T. Gomes, pp.143-144; Aumento na
area de uso e diversificago da dieta em Callithrixjacchus:
um estudo comparative C. C. Figueiredo Filho, M. L. C.
B. Campelo, M. A. O. Monteiro da Cruz & L. C. O. Melo,
pp. 144-145; Como os muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides)
usam o seu espago: os efeitos do tamanho do grupo e as
implicacges de suas preferencias de habitat para sua
conservaqao L. P. Oliveira, pp.145-146; Comportamento
social e conservagao do muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides)
- F. D. C. Mendes, pp. 146-147; Densidade e biomassa de
primatas na Amazonia Oriental M. Aparecida Lopes,
p.148; Diferengas sazonais no comportamento dos
carregadores de um grupo de sagiiis-da-serra (Callithrix
flaviceps) na Estag~o Biol6gica de Caratinga (EBC) MG
- V. H. Diego & S. F. Ferrari, p.149; Disponibilidade
alimentar e padres de distribuigao espacial de esp6cies
utilizadas pelo muriqui no Parque Estadual de Carlos
Botelho, Sio Paulo P. L. R. Moraes, pp.150-151; Ecologia
e comportamento de fameas de muriqui (Brachyteles
arachnoides) em diferentes estagios reprodutivos C. P.
Nogueira, pp.151-152; Ecologia e comportamento do
mono-carvoeiro (Brachyteles arachnoides) na Fazenda
Intervales, Serra de Paranapiacaba, Sao Paulo L. M.
Petroni, p.152; Ecologia e comportamento do mono-
carvoeiro, Brachyteles arachnoides, no Parque Estadual
Carlos Botelho (PECB) SP O. de Carvalho Jr., p.153;
Evaluaci6n de la estacionalidad reproductive en el mono
aullador negro (Alouatta caraya, Primates, Cebidae) en
el noreste de la Argentina G. E. Zunino, pp.153-154;
Habitat and population characteristics of the black howler
monkey (Alouatta caraya) in northern Argentina G. E.
Zunino; S. Bravo; F. M. Ferreira & C. Reisenman, p.155;
Levantamento das populacges de Brachyteles arachnoides
(muriqui) na parte norte de sua distribuidao geogrifica -
L. P. de S. Pinto; C. M. R. Costa & L. I. Tavares, p.156;
Novas pespectivas sobre a ecologia, comportamento e
taxonomia dos sagiiis do gSnero Callithrix (Simp6sio) -
S. F Ferrari, p.157; O filhote muriqui: Aspectos gerais do
seu desenvolvimento A. O. Rimoli, pp.157-158; O
forrageamento dos muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides
Geoffroy, 1806): O papel de sua organizaiao social na
dispersdo e semeadura de esp6cies arb6reas da Mata

Neotropical Primates 5(4), D~ecember 1997

Neotropical Primates 5(4), December 1997 Page 127

Atlintica J. Rimoli, pp.159-160; O uso de "play-back"
para o levantamento de populag6es de mico-ledo-dourado
(Leontopithecus rosalia), M. C. M. Kierulff; D. G.
Kleiman & E. M. dos Santos, pp.160-161; Padr6es da dieta
de Alouatta fusca em period seco e dmido em um
fragmento da floresta estacional semidecidual do vale do
Rio Parafba do Sul, Rio de Janeiro V. L. A. G. Limeira
& L. F B. Oliveira, pp.161-162; Primatas das areas
litorineas da Regido Norte do Brasil (Primates, Platyrrhini)
- S. Iwanaga & J. S. Silva Jr., pp.162-163; Simp6sio sobre
as pesquisas e conservagco do muriqui (Brachyteles
arachnoides) K. B. Strier, pp.163-164. Secao II -
Trabalhos de Cativeiro/Laborat6rio. A comparative analy-
sis of dental anomalies in three species of Leontopithecus
Lesson, 1840 in captivity (Callitrichidae, Primates) C.
H. F. Burity, M. U. Alves, A. Pissinatti & J. B. da Cruz,
pp.167-173; Adenoma of the mammary gland in Cebus
apella J. T. Borda, J. C. Ruiz & M. S. Negrette, pp.175-
178; A simulacrum of Saguinus bicolor ochraceus
Hershkovitz, 1966, obtained through hybridising S. b.
martinsi and S. b. bicolor (Callitrichidae, Primates) A.
F. Coimbra-Filho, A. Pissinatti & A. B. Rylands, pp.179-
184; Aspectos clinicos, patol6gicos e tratamento de
muriquis, Brachyteles arachnoides, em cativeiro
(Ceboidea Primates) A. Pissinatti, J. B. da Cruz & A.
F Coimbra-Filho, pp.185-194; As primeiras sete semanas
de coabitaqdo em casais rec6m-formados deLeontopithecus
chrysomelas (Primates: Callitrichidae) C. Alonso, J. C.
L. Leite & N. Schiel, pp.195-204; Back-crossing and the
preservation of the buffy-headed marmoset, Callithrix
auritaflaviceps (Callitrichidae, Primates) A. E Coimbra-
Filho, A. Pissinatti & A. B. Rylands, pp.205-215; Benign
prostatic hyperplasia in the nonhuman primate
Leontopithecus (Lesson, 1840), Callitrichidae Primates
- B. R. Ferreira, G. H. Bechara, A. Pissinatti & J. B. da
Cruz, pp.217-225; Capilariose hepitica em Callithrix
jacchus (Linnaeus, 1758), Callitrichidae Primates W.
A. Chagas, A. Pissinatti, S. R. M. Jorge & M. A. Chagas,
p.227-232; Cuidado parental em Callithrix kuhli e
Callithrix geoffroyi C. V. Santos, pp.233-247; Influencia
de abundancia alimentar sobre a estrutura de espagamento
interindividual e relacges de dominncia em um grupo de
macacos-prego (Cebus apella) P. Izar & T. Sato, pp.249-
267; Influ8ncia de fatores sociais no ritmo circadiano de
catagao de sagiii comum (Callithrixjacchus) em cativeiro
- C. V. M. de Azevedo, K. R. G. Braga, L. C. da Silva, R.
P. da Silva, A. A. L. Menezes & L. F. S. Moreira, p.269-
277; Ocorrencia de poliginia, incesto e expulsIo do ma-
cho reprodutor em um grupo cativo de Leontopithecus
chrysomelas C. Alonso, S. Porffrio & A. C. A. Moura,
p.279-287; On the taxonomic position of Saguinus midas
niger and an experimental hybrid with Saguinus bicolor
bicolor (Callitrichidae, Primates) A. F. Coimbra-Filho,
A. Pissinatti & A. B. Rylands, pp.289-298; Perfil
comportamental da interacgo de pares em idade
reprodutiva do sag6i comum, Callithrix jacchus M. B.
C. Sousa, G. H. G. A. Silva, C. S. P. Machado, S. C. Gomes
& M. T. Mota, pp.297-314; Systematics of the platyrrhines

- H. Schneider, I. Sampaio & M. P. C. Schneider, pp.315-
324; The cebid grooming claw: description and prelimi-
nary analysis S. F. Ferrari & E. A. K. Krause, pp.325-
333; Valores hematol6gicos normais emSaimiri boliviensis
de diferentes idades F. P. Rodrigues, J. C. Ruiz, A. G.
Ver6n & C. E. S. Verona, pp.335-349. Resumos. A
evoluqAo do genero Alouatta: dados sobre polimorfismo
prot6ico em A. belzebul e A. seniculus I. Sampaio; M. P.
C. Schneider & H. Schneider, p. 351; A radiagco adaptativa
dos atelideos vista sob uma abordagem molecular:
concordancias e controv6rsias I. Sampaio, M. P. C.
Schneider, A. Pissinatti, A. F. Coimbra-Filho, M.
Goodman & H. Schneider, p.352; Bibliografia sobre
primatas da Amaz6nia (Primates, Cebidae) A. D. R. P.
Azevedo & S. Iwanaga, p.353; Body size growth in three
marmosets of the genus Callithrix Erxleben, 1777
(Callitrichidae, Primates) C. H. F. Burity, C. A.
Mandarim-de-Lacerda & A. Pissinati, p.353-354; Carci-
noma hepatocelular en Saimiri boliviensis (Primate) J.
T. Borda, J. C. Ruiz & M. S. Negrette, pp.354-355;
Compartilhamento de alimento entire Leontopithecus
chrysomelas e Saguinus midas midas no cativeiro A. C.
de A. Moura & C. Alonso, pp.355-356; Crianza manual
de Saimiri boliviensis (Primate) en CAPRIM E. M.
Patifio, J. C. Ruiz & J. T. Borda, pp.356-357; Cuidado
parental em Saguinus midas midas, Callithrix kuhli e
Leontopithecus chrysomelas nas seis primeiras semanas
de vida C. Alonso & S. H. M. Silva, pp.357-358;
Dimorfismo sexual en las relaciones materno-filiales de
Saimiri boliviensis durante los primeiros 5 meses de edad
- A. S. Milani & J. C. Ruiz, pp.358-359; Factors affecting
captive breeding performance in lion tamarins, genus
Leontopithecus J. A. French, A. Pissinatti & A. F.
Coimbra-Filho, pp.359-360; Radiaqao e especiagio do
g8nero Ateles analisadas sob o ponto de vista
cromossOmico M. A. A. Medeiros, M. Ponsi, M. Garcia,
F. Garcia, J. C. Pieczarka, C. Y. Nagamachi, J. Egozcue
& R. M. S. Barros, pp.361-362; Variabilidade
cromossSnica em quatro esp6cies de Alouatta (Primates,
Cebidae) M. Lima, I. Sbalqueiro, M. Pinheiro & E. H.
Oliveira, pp.362-363; VariaqAo crAnio-dental em
populaq6es naturais e de cativeiro do Leontopithecus
rosalia Linnaeus, 1766 (Primates, Callitrichidae) T. M.
L. Sant'Anna & L. M. Pessba, pp.363-364. Available from:
Stephen F. Ferrari, DEGE/UFPa, Caixa Postal 8607,
66.075-150 Bel6m, Pard, Brazil, Fax: +55 (0)91-211-1662,
e-mail: .
Primates: The Amazing World of Lemurs, Monkeys,
and Apes, photography by Art Wolfe, text by Barbara
Sleeper, 1997. Chronicle Books, San Francisco. 176pp.
ISBN 0 8118 1434 3. Price: $24.95 paper (200 full-color
photographs). Foreword by Dr. Russell A. Mittermeier.
The 73 species presented in the book are grouped accord-
ing to the four geographic areas in which they live: Mada-
gascar, Africa, Asia, and the Neotropics. Within each re-
gion, the species are listed from the most primitive le-
murs, lorises, pottos, bushbabies, and tarsiers to the more

Page 127

Neotropical Primates 5( ), December 1997

Page 128 Neotropical Primates 5(4), December 1997

evolutionarily advanced monkeys, gibbons, and apes. The
200 full-color photographs were selected to show the great
diversity in size, coloration, habitat preference, and so-
cial structure of the Order Primates. All of the photos are
new for this book, including some species rarely captured
by the camera. The accompanying natural history text gives
an overview of the fascinating social behavior, ecology,
and critical habitat requirements that characterize non-
human primates around the world. "What a treat! Pri-
mates: The World ofLemurs, Monkeys, and Apes not only
illustrates more than one hundred species in two hundred
superb photos, but reveals some of the most recently dis-
covered and extremely rare. It is both fascinating and
moving to gaze at so many strange, often strangely beau-
tiful, faces and figures built to the same general plan as
our own. That this is the first book on primates so richly
illustrated reflects the exceptional difficulty of finding and
photographing our disappearing kin." William Conway,
President, Wildlife Conservation Society (Publisher's press
release). "World populations of nonhuman primates are
in trouble in all of the ninety-two countries in which they
live," writes Russell Mittermeier. "Primates are threat-
ened by the destruction of their forests (90% of all pri-
mates are found in the world's tropical rain forests) and
other natural habitats, by hunting as food (especially se-
vere in West and Central Africa and part of Amazonia),
and by live capture for export. A lot of work needs to be
done if primates in countries such as Madagascar are to
continue to enrich our lives and teach us about ourselves.
More books like this one are urgently needed to stimulate
interest in conservation both in the United States and in
the tropical countries where so many of this planet's ani-
mals and plants live" (From the Foreword). Available from:
Chronicle Books, 85 Second Street, 6th Floor, San Fran-
cisco, California 94105, USA, Tel: +1 415 537 4257, Fax:
+1 415 537 4470.
Roteiro Metodoldgico para Elaboracdo de Listas de
Espdcies Ameacadas de Extinfdo, Contendo a Lista
Official de Fauna Ameagada de Extincdo de Minas
Gerais, por Lfvia Vanucci Lins, Angelo B. M. Machado,
Cldudia M R. Costa and Gisela Herrmann, 1997, 50pp.
Funda9 o Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte. ISBN 85 85401
10 9. Prego: US$10,00. PublicaFoesAvulsas da FundaFao
Biodiversitas No. 1. Em 1995, a Fundacqo Biodiversitas
recebeu do Instituto Estadual de Florestas de Minas Gerais,
a solicitaqao de elaborar a lista de esp6cies da fauna
ameagada de extinqgo do estado. Para isso criou uma
metodologia envolvendo um grande ntmero de
especialistas, tendo como etapa fundamental a formaqao
de uma base de dados sobre as esp6cies candidates a lista,
de modo a subsidiary a decisdo final por especialistas
reunidos em um workshop. Mais recentemente, esta
mesma metodologia foi tamb6m adotada pela Biodiversitas
na elaboragao da lista de esp6cies ameagadas de extingao
da flora do estado de Minas Gerais, atualmente em
tramitaiio nos 6rgdos ambientalistas do governor para
aprovaSio final. 0 roteiro metodol6gico desenvolvido pela

Biodiversitas na elaboragao dessas listas e apresentado
nesta publicagio, que marca o nimero 1 da s6rie
Publicao6es Avulsas da Fundafao Biodiversitas, na qual
a Fundaglo pretend divulgar os trabalhos que vem
realizando em sua Area de atuaaio. Incluida tamb6m 6 a
Lista Oficial de Esp6cies Ameaqadas de Extinqdo da Fauna
do Estado de Minas Gerais (Deliberaqao Copam 041/95),
juntamente cor a lista de espeqies presumivelmente
ameaqadas. Embora esta iltima ndo seja official. Maiores
informag6es: Fundaqco Biodiversitas, Av. Contorno 9155,
110 Andar, Prado, 30110-130 Belo Horizonte, Minas
Gerais, Brasil, Tel: (0)31 291 9673, Fax: (0)31 291 7658,
e-mail: cdcb@gold.horizontes.com.br.
The Conservation Atlas of Tropical Forests: The
Americas, edited by Caroline S. Harcourt and Jeffrey A.
Sayer, 1996. Simon and Schuster, New York, pp.335. ISBN
0 13 340886 8. Price: 70.00. An excellent and vital ref-
erence, this volume, covering the Caribbean, Central
America (including Mexico) is the third and final one in
the series The Conservation Atlas of Tropical Forests, with
Asia and the Pacific having been published in 1991, and
Africa in 1992. The threats to the forests of tropical
America have been the center of international concern for
some years, with the 1992 United Nations Conference on
the Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro high-
lighting the complexities of factors that lead to deforesta-
tion throughout the tropics. Although the forests in the
Americas are by far the most extensive remaining in the
humid tropics, with large areas of forest in the Amazon
and Orinoco basins being more or less intact, other areas
have suffered devastating deforestation in recent decades.
In particular, the Pacific coasts of Colombia and Ecuador
and many parts of Central America and Caribbean have
lost much of their natural habitat this century, while the
Atlantic forest of Brazil was depleted even earlier. As in
other volumes, this Atlas is divided into two parts, the
first dealing with subjects that are relevant to the region
in general and the second examining each country in de-
tail. It is evident from chapters in part one that knowl-
edge exists of many of the sites and management regimes
needed to conservebiodiversity in the Americas and overall
many of the authors are optimistic about the prospects for
the conservation and rational use of the forests in the re-
gion. Nevertheless, the detailed analysis of each country
makes it evident that in many cases, in spite of the sophis-
ticated technology available, there is still considerable
controversy about the areas of forest present and the rate
at which deforestation is occurring. Much more research
is evidently needed and data of the sort provided here are
unavoidably out of date almost as soon as they are pro-
duced, but waiting for the definitive answers will mean
that many solutions come too late. It is hoped that the
facts and analysis within this Atlas will ultimately assist
with the conservation and sustainable management of the
remaining forests with the Americas and that this vital
resource can be preserved for future generations. Avail-
able from IUCN Publications Services Unit, 219c

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Neotropical Pfimates 5(4), December 1997

Neotropical Primates 5(4), December 1997

Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3 ODL, UK, Tel: +44
1223 177894; Fax: +44 21223 277175; e-mail: iucn-
Centres of Plant Diversity, Volume 3: The Americas.
A Guide and Strategy for their Conservation, edited
by S. D. Davis, V. H. Heywood, O. Herrera-MacBryde, J.
Villa-Lobos, and A. C. Hamilton, 1997, 562pp. The World
Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and IUCN The World
Conservation Union. IUCN Publications Unit, Cambridge.
ISBN 2 8317 0199 6. Price: 45.00. This volume, dealing
with the Americas, was prepared (with the exception of
the Caribbean) under the co-ordination of the Smithsonian
Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Depart-
ment of Botany. Volume 3 contains six sites in North
America, 20 in Middle America, 46 in South America,
and three in the Caribbean. The sites were selected partly
on the basis of floristic studies, but especially with refer-
ence to the detailed knowledge of over 100 botanists fa-
miliar with this region. The Data Sheet for each site is set
within a regional context, outlining wider patterns of plant
distributions, threats and conservation efforts. Additional
sites are mentioned in each of the regional overviews. The
introduction includes very useful tables giving informa-
tion on species richness and endemism, floristic diversity
and endemism by region, and degree of threat to CPD
sites. The rationale for the ten-year project, which has so
far also included Europe, the Atlantic Islands, Africa and
the islands of the Western Indian Ocean (Vol. 1 Europe,
Africa, South West Asia and the Middle East), and the
rest of Asia, Australasia and the Pacific Islands (Vol. 2 -
Asia, Australasia and the Pacific) is the concern about
the rapid global loss and degradation of natural ecosys-
tems and the urgent need to highlight areas of pristine
botanical importance, with the hope that these will re-
ceive adequate levels of resources to ensure their protec-
tion. This work is essential reading for all those concerned
with planning land use strategies for conservation and
appropriate development. It is WWF and IUCN's hope
that this global assessment will be followed by further as-
sessments at the local level, so that the vital tasks of con-
servation of plant diversity can be well integrated in de-
tail into national and regional conservation and develop-
ment strategies. To order: If ordering from the U.S. and
Canada Island Press, Box 7, 24850 East Lane, Covelo,
CA 95428, USA, Tel: +1 800 828-1302, Fax: +1 707 983-
6414, e-mail: ipwest@igc.apc.org; for other countries -
IUCN Publications Services Unit, 219c Huntingdon Road,
Cambridge CB3 ODL, UK, Tel: +44 1223 177894; Fax:
+44 21223 277175; e-mail: iucn-psu@wcmc.org.uk.
Uma Estratigia Latino-Americana para a Amaz6nia,
editado por Crodowaldo Pavan, 1996, em tres volumes.
Fundago Memorial da Am6rica Latina e Fundagdo
Editora da UNESP, Sao Paulo. Vol. 1. ISBN 85 85373 11
3, 348pp., Vol. 2. ISBN 85 85373 14 8, 382pp., Vol. 3.
ISBN 85 85373 15 6, 332pp. Os tres volumes desta s6rie
reproduzem na integra as palestras, os depoimentos e os
documents cientificos debatidos na conferencia

Page 129

international do mesmo nome, promovida pelo Memorial
da America Latina em marco de 1992. Representam valiosa
contribuigio as instituiq6es governamentais e privadas
interessadas no future da Amaz6nia, servindo de alerta
sobre as possibilidades e dificuldades que programs ou
projetos de desenvolvimento da regido devem enfrentar.
Volume 1 reune textos sobre os seguintes temas:
biodiversidade; unidades de conservag~o; a ci6ncia dos
fndios e caboclos no manejo dos recursos naturais; e a
educago ambiental e as ciencias ambientais. Volume 2
reune textos sobre os seguintes temas: colaborag6es
cientificas; clima e vegetaqgo; recursos minerals da
Amazonia e sua problemAtica; cooperaqio institutional;
e o papel da iniciativa privada no desenvolvimento da
Amaz8nia. Volume 3 reune textos sobre os seguintes temas:
colaborag6es cientfficas; a importancia estrat6gica da
Amaz6nia sul-americana; os significados politico e
econ8mico da Amaz6nia para a Am6rica Latina; e
conservacao, preservag~o e desenvolvimento: propostas
integradas. Maiores informagBes: Fundagdo Memorial da
Am6rica Latina, Departamento de Publica96es, Avenida
Mirio de Andrade 664, Barra Funda, 01156-060, Sio
Paulo, Brasil, Tel: (011) 823 9611, Fax: (011) 825 7545.

Aden, D. D. 1997. 1996 North American Regional Stud-
book of the Pygmy Marmoset (Callithrix pygmaea).
Denver Zoological Gardens, Denver. 114pp. (Data
through 31 December 1996).
Frampton, T. Complete North American Regional Stud-
book for the White-faced Saki (Pithecia pithecia). Roger
Williams Park Zoo, Providence, Rhode Island. (Data
through 31 December 1996).
Agoramoorthy, G. 1997. Apparent feeding associations
betyweenAlouatta seniculus and Odocoileus virginianus
in Venezuela. Mammalia 61(2): 271-273.
Alvard, M. S., Robinson, J. G., Redford, K. H. and Kaplan,
H. 1996. The sustainability of subsistence hunting in
the Neotropics. Conserv. Biol. 11(4): 977-982.
Anonymous. 1997. Brazil's new monkey. Science
277(5330): 1207.
Anonymous. 1997. Fire in Pogo das Antas Reserve. Lab.
Prim. Newsl. 36(4): 18.
Barnett, A. 1997. A monkey could make it: Capuchins
like to play around with clay but is it art? New Scien-
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Barroso, C. M. L., Schneider, H., Schneider, M. P. C.,
Sampaio, I. Harada, M. L., Czelusniak, J. and Goodman,
M. 1997. Update on the phylogenetic systematics of New
World monkeys: Further DNA evidence for placing the
pygmy marmoset (Cebuella) within the genus Callithrix.
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Brandon-Jones, D. 1997. Prudence Hero Napier (1916-
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Buchanan-Smith, H. M. 1997. Considerations for the hous-
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V. Reinhardt (ed.), pp.75-84, 8th Edition. Animal Wel-
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Burity, C. H. de, Alves, M. U. and Pissinatti, A. 1997.
Dental changes in three species ofLeontopithecus main-
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Charlin, L. L. and French, J. A. 1994. Transfer of food by
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Cilia, J. and Piper, D. C. 1997. Marmoset conspecific con-
frontation: An ethologically-based model of anxiety.
Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 58(1): 85-91.
Di Bitetti, M. S. 1997. Evidence for an important social
role of allogrooming in a platyrrhine primate. Anim.
Behav. 54(1): 199-211.
Dolan, J. M., Jr. The mammal collection of the Zoologi-
cal Society of San Diego: A historical perspective. Zool.
Garten 67(3): 121-140.
Einspanier, A., Jurdzinski, A. and Hodges, J. K. 1997. A
local oxytocin system is part of the luteinization process
in the preovulatory follicle of the marmoset monkey
(Callithrix jacchus). Biol. Reprod. 57(1): 16-26.
Einspanier, A., Zarreh-Hoshyari-Khah, M. R., Balvers,
M., Kerr. L., Fuhrmann, K. and Ivell, R. 1997. Local
relaxin biosynthesis in the ovary and uterus through the
oestrus cycle and early pregnancy in the female marmo-
set monkey (Callithrix jacchus). Hum. Reprod 12(6):
Figueiredo, R. A. de and Longatti, C. A. 1997. Ecological
aspects of the dispersal of a Melastomataceae by mar-
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Fonseca, G. A. B. da, Pinto, L. P. de S. and Rylands, A. B.
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Forget, P.-M. and Sabatier, D. 1997. Dynamics of the seed-
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French, J. A., Pissinatti, A. and Coimbra-Filho, A. F. 1994.
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Neotropical Primates 5(4), December 1997

Gittleman, J. L., Anderson, C. G., Kot, M. and Luh, H.-
K. 1996. Phylogenetic liability and rates of evolution: A
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Guidetti, P. A. Gold, K., Frampton, T. L. and Arkway, A.
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Hoogesteijn, R. and Chapman, C. A. 1997. Large ranches
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Marques, M. A., Vasconcellos, H. A. de, Queiroz, S. and
Pissinatti, A. 1997. Morphological and morphometric
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Spring Meeting of the Primate Society of Great Brit-
ain (PSGB), 23-24 March, 1998, Bristol, UK. Day 1 will
be on the "The Impact of Bushmeat Hunting on Primates
in Africa" and day 2 is for more general papers. The event
is being organized by John Fa, Elizabeth Rogers and Ian
Redmond. For more information: Dr John Fa, Jersey Wild-
life Preservation Trust, Les Augrbs Manor, Trinity, Jersey
JE3 5BP, British Isles, Tel: (0)1534 864666 ext.233, Fax:
(0)1534 864592, e-mail: itc@itl.net.
Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour Eas-
ter Meeting, 2-3 April 1998, University of Glasgow, Scot-
land. Organized by Felicity Huntingford and Neil Metcalfe.
Invited speakers include Geoff Parker (Liverpool Univer-
sity), Liselotte Sundstrim (Helsinki University), and Heinz
Richner (Bern University). For more information: F. A.
Huntingford, Division of Environmental & Evolutionary
Biology, Graham Kerr Building, Glasgow University,
Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK, Fax: +44 (0)141 330 5971, e-
European Federation for Primatology Workshop 1998,
16-18 April, 1998, at the Station Biologique de Paimpont,
University de Rennes, France. Organisers: Bertrand L.
Deputte (Chair), Robin Crompton, Annie Gautier-Hion
and Nelly Menard. Theme: "Diet, foraging behavior and
time-budgets in nonhuman primates: how field studies may
help improving the welfare of captive primates?". The aim

of this workshop is to provide the European Commission
and the Council of Europe with sound advice to improve
the welfare of captive primates in European primate labo-
ratories, with special reference to feeding and time-bud-
gets. This workshop will review evidence from field stud-
ies about diet, foraging behavior and time budgets in dif-
ferent primate species especially those, or closely related
to those, commonly used in laboratory experiments. Other
issues include food processing, food palatability and at-
tractiveness, and digestibility. Social constraints on feed-
ing behavior and feeding devices designed to provide en-
vironmental enrichment will also be discussed. Field stud-
ies on a large number of primates species outline the di-
versity of diets among species, the flexibility of feeding
and foraging behavior at a specific level related to differ-
ences in vegetation composition between sites and to sea-
sonal variations in food availability at a given site. In cap-
tivity such wildlife constraints are absent, leading to a
considerable reduction in the importance of foraging be-
havior within primate time-budgets. Although manage-
ment in laboratories generally provides primates with their
basic energetic requirements and leads to a normal, or
even supra-normal, growth whether in groups, paired or
single, captive primates might show physiological and psy-
chological impairments which relate to a highly modified
and routine time-budget and standardized and monoto-
nous diet. The Workshop will include oral presentations
by invited speakers, and oral communication and posters
from participants. Provisional list of invited speakers: R.
Crompton (UK), R. Dunbar (UK), A. Gautier-Hion (Fr),
D. Hill (UK), H. Kummer (Ch), N. M6nard (Fr), L. Scott,
(UK), E. Sterck (The N), P. Teubner (Ger), C. Tutin (UK),
A. Vitale (It). For further information, registration and
abstract forms please contact: Workshop EFP'98 Station
Biologique, 35380 Paimpont. France, e-mail:
or rennesl.fr>.
New World Primate Symposium, 26 April 1998, in con-
junction with The Eastern Regional Conference of the
AZA in Boston, Massachusetts. This year's topic is "Cebid
Conservation and Management." Registration for the one-
day symposium is US$30.00. Please contact: Lee Nesler,
General Curator, Pittsburgh Zoo, Tel: (412) 665-3651, Fax:
(412) 665-3925, e-mail: to se-
cure registration and abstract/poster submission forms or
other information.
21st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Pri-
matologists, 28 June 1 July, 1998, Southwestern Uni-
versity, Georgetown, Texas. Co-hosted by the Southwest-
ern University and The University of Texas M. D. Ander-
son Cancer Center, Science Park, Bastrop, Texas. For fur-
ther information: Steven Schapiro, University of Texas
M.D Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Veterinary
Research, Rte2, Box 151-B1, Bastrop, Texas 78602, USA.,
Tel: 512 321 3991, Fax: 512 322 5208, or Evan Zucker,
Chair ASP Program Committee, Department of Psychol-
ogy, Loyola University, New Orleans, LA 70118, USA,

Neotropical Primates 5(4), December 1997

Page 133

Tel: 504 865-3255, e-mail: . Web
site: .
1998 Meeting of the Society for Conservation Biology,
13-16 July, 1998, Macquarie University, Sydney, Austra-
lia. For more information; Dr R. Frankham, School of
Biological Sciences. Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW
2109, Australia, Tel: +61 2 850 8186, Fax: +61 2 850
Animal Behavior Society Annual Meeting, 18-22 July,
1998, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois.
For further information: Dr Lee Drickamer, Department
of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL
62901, USA. Web site: abs.html>.
VII International Congress of Ecology, New Tasks for
Ecologists after Rio 92, 19-25 July, 1998, Centro Affari
& Palazzo Internazionale Congressi, Florence, Italy. Or-
ganized by the International Association for Ecology
(INTECOL) in conjunction with the Italian Ecological
Society (SItE). Themes include: Perspectives in global
ecology; Perspectives for the ecological management of
natural resources; Problems and perspectives in Mediter-
ranean ecosystems; Diversity concepts at different scales;
Perspectives in ecological theory and modeling; Key is-
sues in aquatic ecosystems; Perspectives in landscape ecol-
ogy; Perspectives in sustainable land use; Key issues in
microbial ecology; Patterns and interactions in popula-
tions and communities; Perspectives in environmental
chemistry and ecotoxicology; Integrating ecology into eco-
nomic and social development; Ecological engineering;
Progresses in ecological education. Contact: Almo Farina,
Vice-President INTECOL, Secretariat VII International
Congress of Ecology, Lunigliana Museum of Natural His-
tory, Fortezza della Brunella, 54011 Aulla, Italy, Tel: +39
187 400252, Fax: +39 187 420727, e-mail: afarina@
tamnet.it, web site: http://www.tamnet.it/intecol.98.
Euro-American Mammal Congress, 20-24 July, 1998,
University of Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain.
Organized under the auspices of the American Society of
Mammalogists (ASM), Societas Europea Mammal6gica
(SEM) and the Sociedad Espafiola para la Conservaci6n y
el Estudio de los Mamiferos (SECEM). Also participat-
ing: University of Santiago de Compostela (USC) through
its Colleges of Sciences and Pharmacy as well as the
Consejeria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, y Montes of the
local government (Xunta de Galicia) through the inter-
mediacy of its Direcci6n General de Montes y Medio
Ambiente Natural. The meeting will emphasize the cut-
ting edge and little known aspects of scientific knowledge
of mammalian species, and communities and ecosystems
of the Holarctic. However, contributions of interest relat-
ing to mammals from other regions will also be welcomed.
Contributions will be grouped in sessions that will cover
general subjects, symposia or workshops. General mat-
ters currently projected: Behavioral Ecology, Biogeogra-
phy, Community Ecology, Conservation, Development,

Molecular Systematics, Morphology and Morphometrics,
Natural History, Paleontology, Parasites and Diseases,
Physiology, Population Dynamics, Population Genetics,
Systematics and Evolution, and Wildlife Management.
Those interested in organizing a symposium should con-
tact a member of the Steering Committee. Deadlines for
proposals 11 March 1997. The organizers request that elec-
tronic mail be used for contact whenever possible. For
more information, all queries and requests:
galemys@pinarl.csic.es. Circulars will also be sent by
electronic mail, and distributed through a variety of dis-
tribution lists and list servers. Postal address: Euro-Ameri-
can Mammal Congress, Laboratorio de Parasitologia,
Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Santiago de
Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain, Fax:
(34) 81 593316.
XVII Congress of the International Primatological So-
ciety, 9-14 August, 1998, University of Antananarivo,
Antananarivo, Madagascar. The theme of the Congress
is: "Taking Responsibility for our Future through Con-
serving Biological Diversity such as Primates". Deadline
for registration and free communications abstracts is 1
February 1998. Materials must be received by this date.
Deadline for abstracts for symposia, workshops and
roundtable discussions: 31 October 1997. Registration fees
are US$300 for regular IPS members,US$100 for IPS stu-
dent members, US$350 for non-members, and US$100
for accomanying persons. Registration includes the open-
ing and closing receptions, as well as the program and
abstract booklets, lunches and shuttles. After 1 February
1998, all rates will increase by US$50. On site registra-
tion will be more. The official languages will be French
and English. Two plenary lectures will be given on topics
relevant to human responsibilities for World Survival and
to the significance of primate conservation. Contact: Sec-
retariat XVII IPS Congress, Madame Berthe
Rakotosamimanana, Faculte des Sciences, Batement P,
Porte 207, BP 906, Antananarivo 101 Madagascar. Tel:
261 2 26991 ext.24, e-mail: .
Development Committee: Marlene Rakotomalala, Tel: 261
2 26991 ext.13, Scientific Committee: Hantanirina
Rasamimanana, e-mail: .
Coordinator and for information: Soava Rakotoarisoa, Tel:
261 2 26991 ext.24. Common fax: 261 2 31398.
7th International Behavioral Ecology Congress, 27 July
- 1 August, 1998, Asilomar Conference Center, Monterey
Peninsula, California, USA. For further information con-
tact: Walt Koenig, e-mail: ,
or Janis Dickinson, e-mail: edu>. International Society for Behavioral Ecology web
site: .
Measuring Behavior '98,2nd International Conference
on Methods and Techniques in Behavioral Research,
18-21 August, 1998, Center for Biological Sciences, Uni-
versity of Groningen, Haren, The Netherlands. The Con-
ference host is Prof. Dr. J.M. Koolhaas. The program will
consist of oral papers, poster sessions, demonstrations,

Neotropical Primates 5(4), December 1997

Page 134

training sessions, user meetings, scientific tours, post-con-
ference excursions, and a pleasant social program. All
presentations will deal with innovative methods and tech-
niques in behavioral research. Validation of a new tech-
nique is an acceptable subject for a paper or poster. How-
ever, papers discussing applications of proven techniques
do not belong at Measuring Behavior '98. Presentations
on physiological techniques are welcome, as long as there
is a clear link with behavior. Contributions are welcome
on the following topics: Behavioral Recording, Behavior
and Physiology, Behavioral Analysis, and Behavioral
Models. "Measuring Behavior '98" will devote special
attention to the integration of advanced behavioral research
with physiological measurements. Deadline for submis-
sion of abstracts: 1 April 1998. Notification of acceptance
of abstracts: 1 June 1998. Deadline for early registration
(reduced fee): 15 June 1998. For further information: The
Conference Secretariat, Measuring Behavior '98, Attn:
Rosan Nikkelen, P.O. Box 268, 6700 AG Wageningen,
The Netherlands, Tel: +31 (0)317 497677, Fax: +31 (0)317
424496, e-mail: . Web: www.noldus.com/events/mb98/mb98.htm>.
Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour In-
traspecific Variation in Behaviour, 2-4 September, 1998,
University of Urbino, Italy. Organized in conjunction with
the Societa Italiana di Ethologia, by Giorgio Malacame
and Tim Roper. Plenary lectures will address four main
themes: the role of social learning and culture in produc-
ing intraspecific variation in behaviour; intraspecific varia-
tion in social and mating behaviour in vertebrates as a
function of population density and other variables; alter-
native strategies; and individual differences in behaviour.
Offers of talks or posters relevant to these or other aspects
are invited. Posters on any other aspect of animal behaviour
are also welcomed. For more information: Prof. Giorgio
Malacame, Department of Sciences and Advanced Tech-
nologies, Borsalino 54, 15100 Alessandria, Italy, e-mail:
, or Dr. Tim Roper, School
of Biological Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1
9QG, UK, e-mail: .
Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour The
Genetic Analysis of Behaviour, 3-4 December, 1998,
Zoological Society of London, London. Organized by Mike
Ritchie and Bambos Kyriacou. For more information: Dr
M. G. Ritchie, Environmental & Evolutionary Biology,
Bute Medical Building, University of St. Andrews, Fife
KY16 9TS, UK, Fax: +44 (0)1334 463600, e-mail:
, or Dr Bambos Kyriacou, De-
partment of Genetics, Adrian Building, University of Le-
icester, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK, Fax: +44 (0)1162 523378,
e-mail: .

We would be most grateful if you could send us information
on projects, research groups, events (congresses, symposia,
and workshops), recent publications, activities of
primatological societies and NGOs, news items or opinions
of recent events and suchlike. Manuscripts should be
double-spaced and accompanied by the text in diskette
for PC compatible text-editors (MS-Word, Wordperfect,
Wordstar). Articles, not exceeding six pages, can include
small black-and-white photographs, high quality figures,
and high quality maps, tables and references, but please
keep them to a minimum.
Please send contributions to: ANTHONY RYLANDS, C/O
Conservation International do Brasil, Avenida Ant6nio
Abrahao Caram 820/302, 31275-000 Belo Horizonte,
Minas Gerais, Brazil, Tel/Fax: +55 (31) 441 17 95 or
ERNESTO RODRIGUEZ-LUNA, Parque de La Flora y Fauna
Silvestre Tropical, Instituto de Neuroetologfa, Universidad
Veracruzana, Apartado Postal 566, Xalapa, Veracruz
91000,.M6xico, Fax: 52 (28) 12-5748.
LILIANA CORTiS-ORTIZ (Universidad Veracruzana) provides
invaluable editorial assistance.
Correspondence, messages, and texts can be sent to:
a.rylands @conservation.org.br


NEOTROPICAL PRIMATES is produced in collaboration
Suite 200, Washington DC 20037, USA, andFUNDArAO
BIODIVERSITAS, Av. do Contorno, 9155/11*. andar -
Prado, Belo Horizonte 30110-130, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Design and Composition: ALEXANDRE S. DINNOUTI -
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Neotropical Primates 5(4), December 1997

Neotropical Primates 5(4), December 1997 Page 135



FAUNA' r 997--
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Neotropical Primates 5(4), December 1997

Page 135

ISSN 1413-4703



A ODMSIn o0 te Houston
Parks and Recreation Department

This issue of Neotropical Primates was kindly sponsored by the Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foun-
dation,432 Walker Road, Great Falls, Virginia 22066, USA, the Houston Zoological Gardens Con-
servation Program, General Manager Donald G. Olson, 1513 North MacGregor, Houston, Texas
77030, USA, the Grupo de Irabalho em Biodiversidade (GTB), through the Brazilian National Sci-
ence Research Council (CNPq), Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca, Coordenador do GTB, c/o Conservation
International do Brasil, Avenida Antonio Abrahao Caram 820/302, 31275-000 Belo Horizonte, Minas
Gerais, Brazil, and the Primate Sotiety of Great Britain (PSGB), President Hilary O. Box, Depart-
ment of Psychology, University of Reading, Reading RG6 2AL, Berkshire, UK.

Anthony Rylands/Ernesto Rodriguez Luna, Editors
Conservation International
Avenida Ant6nio Abrahao Caram 820/302
31275-000, Belo Horizonte
Minas Gerais, Brazil

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