A Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group
Editors: Anthony B. Rylands and Ernesto Rodriguez Luna
PSG Chairman: Russell A. Mittermeier
PSG Deputy Chairman: Anthony B. Rylands
PmLIP HERSHKOVITz: A REMEMBRANCE
by Russell A. Mittermeier
My first personal encounter with Philip Hershkovitz came
more han 20 years ago when I was a graduate student at
Harvard. I had written a term paper on marmoset tax-
onomy based on some skull measurements of several spe-
cies and a multivariate statistical analysis of the relation-
ships among them. Like many term papers, it was largely
inconclusive, but like many graduate students I had more
confidence than good sense and decided to publish it. Phil's
response was swift and merciless. He tore it to shreds, and
suggested as a title for his response, "The Untaxonomy of
Brazilian Marmosets". I was temporarily devastated, but,
as was so often the case, Phil was right. He understood
Neotropical mammals, and especially Neotropical pri-
mates, better than anyone else and he had little patience
for work that did not meet his high standards.
When Phil died on Febraary 15, 1997, it was a great loss
for all of us working on Neotropical primates and it cre-
ated a gap that is unlikely ever to be filled. He was a field
mammalogist of the old school, with tireless energy and
an understanding of the creatures on which he worked
that only comes from decades of hands-on work in nature
and in the museum. The many sophisticated biochemical
techniques and the endless array of computer programs
increasingly available today are extremely useful in sys-
tematics, but they can never replace the deep, almost in-
stinctual understanding of the relationships between ani-
mals that comes from working intimately with them for
so many years. Phil had this kind of knowledge, and it
enabled him to sort through the nearly two centuries of
mistakes and confusion in Neotropical primate taxonomy
and create a framework upon which all of us today base
our own work. He was able to take the marmosets and
tamarins, for example, and turn their taxonomy from a
chaotic mess into a clear and understable system that
greatly clarified the relationships among these animals.
His classic work, Living New World Monkeys (Platyrrhini,
Vol. 1), is one of the truly great publications in the history
of mammalogy, and many of us have built careers around
updating and expanding upon it. Without the enormous
amount of work done by Phil to provide this solid founda-
tion, we would likely still be unclear as to what we were
dealing with in terms of species and subspecies of the
Callitrichidae and the other Neotropical genera on which
Lest anyone doubt the significance of Phil's work for Neo-
tropical primatology, he or she need only look at the cur-
rent situation with Old World monkeys, where much con-
fusion still exists as to the numbers of species and subspe-
cies. Without the benefit of a Hershkovitz to sort out the
200 years of names and descriptions, Old World prima-
tology is simply not as advanced as its Neotropical coun-
terpart. This is a barrier not just to scientific research, but
also to conservation, since it is very difficult to put effec-
tive conservation plans into effect when one is not certain
what organisms one is dealing with.
Unfortunately, Phil never completed his overview of the
Neotropical monkeys, and never did publish volume 2 of
Living New World Monkeys, although he did revise six
other genera (Aotus, Saimri, Callicebus, Pithecia,
Chiropotes and Cacajao) in addition to the five covered
in the callitrichid volume. For some reason, he shifted
attention to non-primate mammals in the last few years of
his life, a gain for those working on rodents and marsupi-
als but a major loss for those of us working on monkeys.
He never completed the five prehensile-tailed genera,
Cebus, Alouatta, Ateles, Lagothrix and Brachyteles, and
predictably, with the exception of Brachyteles, which has
only two taxa, these remain the most poorly understood
Neotropical genera in taxonomic terms.
Despite his reputation for being ornery and combative and
the fact that he was basically a loner (very few of his pa-
pers are co-authored), he was very responsive to anyone
interested in his work. He would reply immediately to cor-
respondence, and if you were fortunate enough to visit his
office in the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago,
he would pull out as many specimens as you might want
to see and give you hours of detailed explanation on the
taxonomy of whatever genus or species might be of inter-
est. He was as charming and delightful as he was ornery,
and I for one always left a meeting with him with that
unusual, uplifting feeling that one gets on those very rare
occasions when one has the chance to be in the presence
of a truly great man.
Phil's enormous career output included some 160 sciefi-
tific papers and 100 non-technical publications spanning
50 years, and, in my opinion, he must be considered the
greatest Neotropical mammalogist of our century. All of
us working on Neotropical primates owe him a great deal,
and there is no doubt that he will be sorely missed.
Russell A. Mittermeier, Chairman IUCN/SSC Primate
Specialist Group, c/o Conservation International, 2501 M
Street N. W., Suite 200, Washington, D.C. 20037, USA.
PHILIP HERSHKOVITZ: 0 rLTIMO QUE CONHECEU
TODA NOSSA DIVERSIDADE DE MAMIFEROS
by Alfredo Langguth
Philip Hershkovitz nasceu em Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania,
EUA em 1909. Casou em 1946 com Anne Marie Pierrette
Hershkovitz a quem conheceu na Franca durante a
Segunda Guerra Mundial, enquanto servia na "Office of
Strategic Services" (1943-46). Deixou tres filhos, Francine,
Michael Dode e Mark Alan.
Como cientista Hershkovitz tinha uma mente aberta.
Percebeu logo que a informagao de todas as areas da
biologia podia ser sintetizada na sistemAtica e que, sem
uma boa base de nomenclatura zool6gica, era diffcil
navegar no mar da biodiversidade. Dominava a morfologia
e estava num meio f6rtil para isto, por ter Chicago uma
escola traditional em morfologia e, pr6ximo dele, no Field
Museum, estar uma das maiores autoridades da Anatomia
Cover photograph by Adelmar F. Coimbra-Filho: Callithrix geoffroyi gouging, Centro de Primatologia do Rio de Janeiro (CPRJ).
Neotropical Priinates 5(3), September 1997
Neotropical Primates 5(3), September 1997
Comparada dos mamfferos, Dwight D. Davis (ver sua obra
prima sobre o Urso Panda em Fieldiana, Zool. Mem. 3,
Naturalmente, a biogeografia era uma parte substantial
do seu trabalho. A media que a informa9do foi sendo
publicada pelos citogeneticistas passou a considerar
tamb6m a cariologia. Todavia, apesar de sempre ter
fornecido medidas dos esp6cimes estudados, ignorou a
estatfstica e chegou tarde demais para embarcar na
cladfstica e na biologia molecular. Hershkovitz teve uma
compreensio profunda dos processes evolutivos em
mamfferos e hip6teses evolutivas permearam seus
trabalhos. Como taxonomista foi inicialmente umrn
"lumper" que acreditava que a diversidade descrita na
6poca nao tinha fundamento factual. Esta posigio,
comentou-me uma vez, foi uma reaqo aos splitterss" da
geragdo anterior, principalmente Oldfield Thomas, o
pesquisador que mais esp6cies descreveu da Neotr6pica.
Mais tarde, reconheceu que o mar da diversidade Neotro-
pical era bern maior sob a superffcie do que se imaginava
e transformou-se num "splitter". Mesmo tendo sido
inicialmente um "lumper" chegou a descrever e publicar
75 novas esp6cies e subesp6cies.
Hershkovitz tinha uma habilidade particular para a
comunicagao escrita. Suas publicagces caracterizam-se por
um estilo limpo, enxuto, fAcil de compreender e muito
preciso. Al6m disso, seus trabalhos contem relativamente
poucos erros e um grande acfimulo de informagao. Tinha
um conhecimento enciclop6dico da literature sobre a
mastofauna Neotropical sendo o seu "Catalog of Living
Whales" um exemplo disto, tanto para as obras antigas
quanto para as mais recentes. Uma das principals
contribuig6es de Hershkovitz foi sua s6rie de revises
taxon6micas de varios grupos de roedores e primatas.
Comeqou em 1941 corn o genero Reithrodontomys
seguindo Nectomys (1944), Holochilus (1955), Oecomys
(1960), os filotinos (1962), os scapteromyinos (1966), e a
s6rie de revises de v6rios g8neros de platirrinos que inclui
sua obra prima "Living New World Monkeys" (1133pp.
publicada em 1977), uma monografia de todo o
conhecimento disponfvel sobre os Callitrichidae, sua
revisdo taxon~mica e um tratamento abrangente da
morfologia dos primatas em geral. A quantidade de
conhecimento contida neste volume 6 deslumbrante.
A na d6cada de 60 que comegam a cristalizar suas
principals teorias. Sua mente era muito criativa,
enriquecendo corn valiosas hip6teses e teorias o campo da
evolugqo dos mamfferos neotropicais. Vale a pena
mencionar suas teorias sobre a evolugio do molar nos
Sigmodontinae, a do metacromismo, a da hist6ria
biogeogrifica dos roedores cricetfdeos, da evolug9o da
dentiggo nos marsupials.
Hershkovitz nao foi contaminado pelo vfrus da cladfstica,
mas o interesse pela filogenia esteve subjacente na maioria
dos seus trabalhos, expressando-se em Arvores filogen6ticas
intuitivas e em propostas de classificacao baseadas em
hip6teses filogen6ticas. Foi talvez o interesse pela hist6ria
das linhagens filogen6ticas que o levou a se envolver corn
a paleontologia. Tambdm para isto, ele esteve no lugar
certo pois, no Field Museum trabalhava Bryan Patterson,
seu interlocutor, paleontologist que fez importantes
contribuicges A hist6ria dos mamnfferos Neotropicais.
Para navegar no mar da biodiversidade Neotropical era
fundamental um conhecimento profundo da nomenclatura
e, portanto, das obras dos primeiros naturalistas (ver sfntese
de 1987). Este conhecimento, adquirido principalmente
na primeira metade de sua carreira cientifica, permitiu-
Ihe, por exemplo, limpar o emaranhado da nomenclature
dos platirrinos, o que mereceu o agradecimento e
admiraqao dos primatologistas neotropicais.
Em mim, esta admirago vem de longa data. Quando
adolescent e iniciante no campo da mastozoologia na
Universidade de Montevid6u, escutei falar muito do grande
especialista nos mamfferos de America do Sul, que acabara
de identificar espdcies raras de roedores da fauna Uruguaia.
A partir daquela data at6 hoje, Hershkovitz tornou-se para
mim um referencial de conhecimento, de eficiencia, de
criatividade e, em certo sentido, de autoridade e poder
cientffico. Quarenta anos depois, ele com 83 anos, ao
partilharmos uma expedigao a uma das montanhas mais
altas do Brasil, Capara6, existia em mim o mesmo
sentiment para com o Mestre. Talvez seja o titfnico
esforqo individual realizado por Hershkovitz (dos aprox.
160 trabalhos cientfficos por ele publicados, somente tres
foram em colaboragao), que provoca em n6s uma
admiragio especial pela sua pessoa.
t claro que uma obra dessa magnitude nao se faz sem
ajuda. Valerie G. Connor foi ati 1974 sua secretdria e
assistente tdcnico. A sua esposa Anne Marie o acompanhou
na segunda expedicao A Colombia e foi muito important
na preparagao da monografia sobre os platirrinos. Mais
recentemente, Barbara Brown colaborou corn ele como
assistente t6cnico, no trabalho de campo no Brasil, e deu
nos dltimos anos, corn a devida paciencia, valioso apoio a
Hershkovitz tinha um temperament Aspero, mas de bom
coragao. No fundo parece que se divertia em ser rude,
usando isso como uma esp6cie de mascara. Era uma pessoa
hospitaleira, disposta a alojar na sua casa os visitantes do
Sul e brindar-lhes corn uma comida deliciosa. Quem teve
a sorte de se hospedar no seu apartamento em Chicago ou
de acompanhi-lo no trabalho de campo, pbde admirar suas
habilidades como cozinheiro. Os medalhles de fil6 mi-
gnon fritados na manteiga e devidamente temperados, os
seus molhos saborosos, eram mais um motivo de
admiracao. E que Hershkovitz nao era uma personalidade
monofac6tica, e apesar de sua dedicaqao intensive ao
trabalho mastozool6gico, era uma pessoa muito culta,
interessada tanto nas artes plasticas quanto na
antropologia. Particular destaque merece seu interesse pela
mdsica clissica. Uma coisa pouco conhecida era a sua
habilidade como violinist. Cedo na vida teve que escolher
entire ser um misico professional ou um bi61logo. Tendo
optado pelo dltimo desistiu at6 mesmo de ser um interpreted
occasional. No entanto sua sensibilidade pela mdsica
perdurou atW o fim. Possufa uma cadeira permanent na
Opera de Chicago, onde compareceu geralmente
acompanhado de sua filha Francine.
Hershkovitz graduou-se em Zoologia pela Universidade
de Pittsburgh e concluiu o mestrado na Universidade de
Michigan (1940), onde comegou o doutorado que
interrompeu para conduzir trabalho de campo na
Col6mbia. Ao seu regresso, uma oferta de emprego como
curador no Departamento de Zoologia do Field Museum,
cargo que ambicionava e al6m disso resolvia seus
problems econ6micos, fez corn que perdesse o interesse
no doutorado. Ele nao foi formalmente um professor
universitario, e apenas uma vez orientou na p6s-graduagao.
Todavia, estava disposto a ajudar as pessoas que o
procuravam, partilhando corn paixao seus conhecimentos
corn quem o visitava. Foi assim comigo na primeira vez
que nos encontramos, no Field Museum, e foi assim corn
todos os estagiirios do Museu Nacional e seus
colaboradores de campo durante suas visits ao Brasil.
Seu entusiasmo era tal que nao dava chance de falar ao
seu interlocutor. Hershkovitz trabalhava duro, seu
expediente no Museu de Chicago era de 9 horas e o trabalho
continuava em casa. Possufa uma energia inesgotAvel e
uma forga de vontade exemplar.
Hershkovitz teve uma enorme experiencia de campo. No
Equador (1933-37) coletou mamfferos para o Museu de
Zoologia da Universidade de Michigan, na Colombia
(1941-43) para o United States National Museum, e em
1948-52 para o Field Museum e a partir de 1986, em vdrias
oportunidades, no Brasil. Ele era excelente coletor, sabia
muito bem onde e como procurar os mamrferos e seu
catdlogo de campo chegou a mais de 10.000 registros.
Todavia, o seu interesse estava mais na diversidade e na
anatomia do que no comportamento e na ecologia, sendo
poucas as observag6es pessoais sobre a biologia dos animals
por ele capturados que publicou nos seus trabalhos.
A primeira visit de Hershkovitz ao Brasil, de meu
conhecimento, data de 1976. De 26 de Julho a 7 de agosto
examinou calitriquideos em nossos museus e voltou ao Brasil
em 1982 para trabalhar nas cole56es do Museu Nacional.
Em 1984, regressou para examiner novamente material nas
colei8es, visitar o INPA em Manaus tentando, sem sucesso,
participar do inventario de fauna na area da UHE de Tucuruf,
Rio Tocantins. Ali, no mes de margo, encontrei corn ele pela
segunda vez. Nao foi um encontro amigdvel: eu, preocupado
em manter no Brasil o material coletado na Area do
reservat6rio e ele obviamente, querendo levar para Chicago
tanto quanto possfvel do material que eventualmente
coletasse. Este foi sempre um interesse fundamental na sua
carreira e um indicador de sucesso do seu trabalho de campo.
Naturalmente, como cada um defendesse os interesses de
seu pais e de sua instituigao, nao houve espano para uma
maior aproximagno, trocando apenas palavras rispidas.
Em 1986, Hershkovitz trabalhou no campo na regido de
Brasilia, onde contou corn a colaboraqAo inestimAvel do
seu amigo Scott M. Lindbergh. Tamb6m o ajudaram no
campo Miguel Marini e Christopher Tribe, este tltimo j i
conhecido de suas visits ao Museu Nacional. Desta vez,
trabalhou, entire outros locais, na reserve do IBGE e no
Parque Nacional de Brasflia. Foi principalmente neste
Parque que coletou material importantissimo: varias
esp6cies nao descritas de sigmodontinos e algumas formas
de transigao de grande importancia evolutiva. Mais uma
vez o seu faro o tinha levado a um lugar de grande
importancia para entender a mastofauna do Brasil.
Todavia, sua tentative de localizar o desaparecido
Juscelinomys candango foi em vdo. Continuando esta linha
de busca das origens e evolugao da mastofauna interessou-
se pelo trabalho na Mata Atlantica e, nos dois anos
seguintes, visitou o PETAR em SAo Paulo trabalhando
novamente nas coleqoes.
A partir daf, preocupou-se pela Mata Atlantica, a qual
pensava ser um important centro de origem de mamfferos.
Ele queria coletar nas serras que, como Capara6 permitiam
obter amostras a diferentes altitudes e em diferentes habi-
tats dando subsfdios para entender a hist6ria da mastofauna
deste bioma. Na 6poca Professor da UFRJ e responsAvel
pela coleqAo de mamfferos do Museu Nacional, fui
procurado pelo seu dedicado amigo Scott Lindbergh e
minha colega Cibele Bonvicino para participar da
expediq9o ao Parque Nacional de Capara6 como
representante do Brasil. Em 1992 esta expedi95o
cristalizou-se e Hershkovitz conseguiu realizar seu prin-
cipal trabalho de campo na Mata Atlntica. Esta expedi9ao
conjunta do Museu Nacional corn o Field Museum s6 se
concretizou graqas ao estfmulo e habilidade de articulaqao
de Scott Lindbergh. Ela foi financiada em parte pelo Bar-
bara E. Brown Fund for Mammal Research do Field Mu-
seum (que tamb6m financiou outras viagens de
Hershkovitz ao Brasil), pelo IBAMA e pela UFRJ.
Resolvido o problema dos esp6cimes (80% para o Museu
National e 20% para o Museu de Chicago) dedicamo-nos
ao trabalho de campo corn paixao. Os resultados foram
inesperados: vdrias esp6cies ainda nao descritas, que
Hershkovitz se props a estudar, abundantes mamfferos
nas armadilhas e informaq6es sobre as prefer8ncias de
habitat e a distribui9qo altitudinal de pequenos mamiferos
que elucidaram vdrios aspects da hist6ria da fauna de
Mata Atlantica. Todavia, para mim, o mais interessante
foi o convfvio corn Philip. JA o havia encontrado duas
vezes. A primeira em 1972, quando o visitei no Field
Museum, foi essencialmente professional. A segunda em
Tucuruf foi pouco agradivel. Agora, em Capara6, eu teria
durante 42 dias a oportunidade longamente esperada de
ter um contato mais estreito corn Philip. 0 Hershkovitz
que eu descobri naquelas serras era uma pessoa diferente,
mas a forqa de sua personalidade manteve acesa a chama
de minha admiraqlo por ele. Era um home velho, (seu
830 aniversdrio foi comemorado no campo), fisicamente
deteriorado mas corn uma forga de vontade e de espirito
capaz de superar qualquer dificuldade. Ele acompanhou a
Neotropical Primates 5(3), September 1997
Neotropical Primates 5(3), September 1997 Page 71
expedigAo atd o acampamento mais alto. Embora tenha
precisado se deslocar em lombo de burro enquanto as outras
pessoas iam a p6, ele chegou lA. Nesta viagem o apoio de
Barbara Brown foi mais uma vez muito important. 0 que
mais me impressionou neste convfvio foi sua mente jovem,
f6rtil e criativa. Hip6teses e explica56es flufam de sua cabega
sem parar, A media que as descobertas se acumulavam. Corn
o desaparecimento de Philip Hershkovitz (1909-1997)
encerra-se um perfodo na mastozoologia Neotropical que
se caracterizou pela tentative individual de conhecer
globalmente a diversidade dos mamfferos baseando-se na
morfologia, na biogeografia e com s61lida base de
Tr8s pesquisadores de museu destacam-se neste perfodo.
Oldfield Thomas foi o mais prolffico (1090 trabalhos
publicados, 2900 novos generos, esp6cies ou subesp6cies
descritos), mas Angel Cabrera e Philip Hershkovitz
realizaram um trabalho mais profundo, mais abrangente
e corn Wnfase no aspect evolutivo. Cabrera morreu em
1960 e, nesse moment, a mastozoologia estava comegando
a incorporar conhecimentos de outros campos emergentes
da Biologia, particularmente a sistemAtica filogen6tica, a
citogen6tica, a biologia molecular e tamb6m a ecologia,
ficando cada vez mais diffcil o conhecimento individual
de toda a biodiversidade de mamfferos de uma region.
Hershkovitz foi, assim, o uiltimo dos grandes pesquisadores
que conseguiu, individualmente, ter uma visio global da
diversidade de nossos mamfferos.
Philip Hershkovitz foi, portanto, uma pessoa admirAvel
que nos deixou um exemplo a ser seguido, pelas novas
geraq6es, de forqa de vontade, perseveranga, dedicagio &
ci8ncia, de mente pronta a procurar explicag6es, e
simultaneamente, de sensibilidade para a cultural e outros
aspects da natureza humana.
Alfredo Langguth, Departamento de SistemAtica e
Ecologia, CCEN, Universidade Federal da Parafba, 58059-
900 Joao Pessoa, Parafba, Brazil.
RECENT OBSERVATIONS OF NICARAGUAN PRIMATES
AND A PRELIMINARY CONSERVATION ASSESSMENT
Published information on the status of primate popula-
tions in Nicaragua is scarce. No recent accounts were cited
in the Mesoamerican Primate Action Plan (Rodrfguez-
Luna et al., 1996a). Nicaragua is one of three Central
American countries (along with El Salvador and Hondu-
ras) for which no primate field studies were located in an
extensive literature search (Rodrfguez-Luna etal., 1996b).
Based on general distributions, Nicaragua's primate fauna
is expected to include one subspecies of howler monkey
(Alouatta palliata palliata), one or two subspecies of ca-
puchin (Cebus capucinus limitaneus and possibly C. c.
imitator), and two subspecies of spider monkey (Ateles
geoffroyi geoffroyi, A. g. frontatus) (Konstant et al., 1985;
Wolfheim, 1983). One of these taxa (A. g. frontatus) is
-categorized as Vulnerable and the rest as Lower Risk ac-
cording to the Mace-Lande classification (Rodrfguez-Luna
et al., 1996b; Rylands et al., 1995). Because recent pub-
lished information on any of these primates in Nicaragua
is lacking, we report sightings of nonhuman primates and
information collected from residents during our recent trav-
els (CC, RB, RM and SM: November-December, 1996;
MM: November 1996-May 1997). The local people re-
ferred to the howlers as Congoo" or "mono congo," the
Cebus as "mono carablanca" (white-faced monkey), and
the spider monkey as "mono colorado" (red monkey)
(Querol et al., 1996).
The information below is keyed to numbers in Fig. 1; num-
bers (N#) in parentheses refer to protected areas listed in
the Mesoamerican Primates Action Plan (Rodrfguez-Luna
et al., 1996a).
Area #1, Selva Negra, is located at 12060'N, 85055'W,
about 15 km north of Matagalpa. The owners of the Selva
Negra Hotel and its cloud forest preserve descended from
German immigrants who founded the adjacent Hammonia
Coffee Plantation in 1889. Nature observation is actively
promoted and trail maps are provided to tourists. The
owners have protected the forest for years and are trying
to acquire more of the connected forest. From what we
saw from the top of the ridge (the present boundary of the
privately protected property), the cloud forest beyond is
patchily distributed. The mantled howler (A. palliata)
population at Selva Negra appears moderately dense. We
saw three different groups and heard at least several more
based on the directions of their howling bouts. One group
seen in a huge fig tree in the forest comprised at least 20
individuals including four adult males (one perhaps sub-
adult) and two infants, one less than one month old. A
second group of at least 4-5 was seen on a steep slope near
the top of the ridge. A third group of at least 13, including
Fig 1. Localities visited during expeditions from November December
1996 (CC, RB, RM and SM) and November 1996 May 1997 (MM).
Neotropical Primates 5(3), September 1997
two adult males, one subadult male, and two infants, were
in trees next to an agricultural clearing. The howlers were
dark brownish-black with very long golden hairs on their
The owner of the coffee plantation and hotel (E. Kuihl)
said that although many howlers had died in the yellow
fever epidemic of the 1950s the population on his prop-
erty has been recovering. He also said that a neighbor's
forest does not have howlers (we suspected that their ab-
sence was due to hunting). A popular travel guide men-
tioned the presence of howlers here but also erroneously
reported that spider monkeys are in the Selva Negra for-
est (Keller et al., 1994). According to the owners no wild
spider monkeys have been seen there. Rather, the spider
monkeys are caged near the dining room of the hotel. These
spider monkeys were pets given to the owners' mother
while the owners were in the U.S. during the revolution
(E. and M. Kilhl, pers. comm.). The spider monkeys ap-
peared to represent at least two species or subspecies (some
very dark and others reddish), and their origin was un-
known. The region is within the distribution of Ateles
geoffroyi frontatus or A. g. geoffroyi (see Konstant et al.,
Area #2, forest patches near Matagalpa along the high-
way toward Managua. Some people said there were howl-
ers there, but others argued for their absence. Our assess-
ment, as viewed from a bus, was that the habitat could
support howlers but they would be vulnerable to hunting.
Area #3, Laguna de Apoyo, near Masaya (N2). About 11
howlers were seen in a very large tree and then two others
in a closer, smaller tree were seen from a trail that passed
through a farm and headed up the drainage below the town
of Catarina and above the lake. Another group was heard
howling from the same trail. A local woman explained
that residents see the howlers often and sometimes en-
counter a "white-faced monkey," but she could not iden-
tify it as either a capuchin or a spider monkey from pho-
tos shown to her. Based on published distribution maps,
Masaya forests could potentially include Ateles geoffroyi
but no Cebus species (Konstant et al., 1985; Rodrfguez-
Luna et al., 1996a; Wolfheim, 1983).
Area #4, Mt. Mombacho Volcano Reserve (N27), near
Granada. Some local people said there were howlers on
Mt. Mombacho. An ecologist working for AID also re-
ported the presence of howlers (Byron Walsh,. pers.
comm.). In May 1997, howlers were heard by MM on Mt.
Area #5, San Juan del Sur/Rivas. Howlers were reported
by the bus attendant to be in the forest between San Juan
del Sur and Rivas "in the morning." The report seemed
credible, as the forest closer to the sea seemed to be suit-
able howler habitat. However, we did not hear any howl-
ing on our two morning walks at San Juan del Sur in
December 1996. In April 1997, MM saw two howler mon-
keys in a tree over the dirt road between a beach south of
San Juan del Sur and the main road to San Juan del Sur.
Howlers were also reported to be in an area called Velen
de Rivas, probably in the general vicinity of Area #5 (Byron
Walsh, pers. comm.). Closer to Rivas, forest is scarce and
agricultural and grazing land predominate.
Area #6, Isla de Ometepe, Ometepe Island, Lake Nicara-
gua. This 8-shaped island is formed by two impressive
volcanoes joined into a single island by lava flows. Its
wildlife, including howler and white-faced monkeys, are
mentioned in a travel guide (Keller et al., 1994) and show-
cased in a small museum in Altagracia which displayed
photos of Alouatta palliata. The museum staff said that
there were only two monkey species on the island. Al-
though we never saw any, we presume that the "white-
faced" monkey refers to Cebus capucinus although pub-
lished maps would place Ometepe within the distribution
of Ateles geoffroyi and outside of the distribution of Cebus.
An active conservation program exists on the island, in-
cluding signs encouraging the local people to preserve
trees. Although there is considerable farming and graz-
ing on the lowlands, native forest strips are preserved to
the lake shore where "pefias", old lava flows, create a
jumbled rocky substrate too difficult to clear. Extensive
forests grow up the slopes of the volcanoes, except where
obliterated by landslides and lava flows. On the Volcan
Concepci6n side of Ometepe, we heard howlers in a pefia
area near Pul, a few kilometers west of Altagracia, as well
as up the volcano slopes on the outskirts of Altagracia. A
local farmer said that white-faced monkeys and occasion-
ally howlers raid corn but not bananas. On another day
we saw one howler in a tree by the road between La Uni6n
and Urbaite. In the isthmus of Ometepe Island, at Santo
Domingo, we saw in a pefia area on two successive days a
troop of at least six howlers, including one adult male and
a 4-6 month-old infant. White-faced monkeys also were
reported to occur in the Santo Domingo pefia.
On the Volcan Maderas side of Ometepe Island we visited
Hacienda Magdalena, nearBalgile. Hiking in forest on slopes
of the volcano, we saw two different howler groups and heard
others; one group included an infant. Our guide at Haci-
enda Magdalena said that howler monkeys are never hunted
but occasionally white-faced monkey mothers are in order
to obtain infants for pets. The white-faced monkeys are found
higher up the slopes of Maderas and tend to run away from
people, he reported. On another day, we drove along the dirt
road skirting the south-east coast of Volcan Maderas. From
the road we saw seven different howler groups in approxi-
mately 25 km, between Punta El Congo (Howler Point) and
San Pedro, where the road was washed out by landslides
from the volcano. In most cases, a farm or small village was
within sight of the howlers, and the monkeys appeared to be
very habituated. The two largest of the seven groups were
10 and 11 individuals (more could have been present). In-
fants in the groups were of various ages: less than one month,
several months of age, and around one year old. Most groups
were near the lake shore but one was about 200 m from the
lake. One group was in same tree as a huge boa constrictor
that was coiled up, apparently asleep.
Neotropical Pfimates 5(3), September 1997
Neotropical Primates 5(3), Septemb4r 1997
Area #7, Solentiname Archipelago, southeastern Lake
Nicaragua (included in N32a). Several howlers were re-
leased onto a small island between Mancarr6n and San
Fernando islands. The island is more than half forested
and includes at least one house and a small farm. The
howlers reportedly came from the southern shore of Lake
Nicaragua, probably near Area #8 (Juan Antonio Ricci,
pers. comm.). Several were released approximately 25
years ago, and the current population is estimated to be
around 30 howlers. From a boat we saw a troop of at least
12 individuals including three infants in the part of the
island with natural forest, located only a few 100 m from
Mancarr6n. About 100 m away from them was a solitary
adult male. All of these howlers looked very healthy. We
heard them howling from Mancarr6n on several occasions
during our stay. No monkeys are apparently native to the
Solentiname Archipelago, yet these islands are included
in the maps of the Mesoamerican Primate Action Plan as
protected areas for Alouatta p. palliata and Ateles g.
geoffroyi (Rodriguez-Luna et al., 1996a, pp.58 and 63).
Area #8, Papaturro wildlife area (included in N32a). The
Papaturro River flows from Costa Rica. The river's mouth
is marshy, with flooded forest and palms. A narrow strip
of riparian forest flanks the river. Farther upstream, there
is terra firma forest, farms, and recent deforestation. We
saw and heard howlers all along the approximately 10 km
of river traveled by small motor boat. We saw at least four
different troops and a solitary howler (probably an adult
female), and we heard at least five additional troops howl-
ing. Some were in the riparian trees by the marsh and
others in terra firma forest. In Papaturro there are also
supposed to be Cebus and spider monkeys. Cebus are said
to run away when they see people.
Area #9, Rio San Juan, San Carlos to El Castillo de la
Concepci6n (some areas included in N32a and b). We saw
one group of howlers on the south bank and saw three
groups, and heard a fourth, on the north bank. One of the
boat attendants reported that he regularly saw Cebus in
the mornings as they came to the river to drink. At Sabalo,
on the north shore, new development including logging
seems to be occurring in the area. There is some defores-
tation in the vicinity of El Castillo, which is on the south
bank and is only reachable by boat, and the north bank
across from El Castillo is almost completely deforested.
On the return trip several days later, we saw howlers on
the north bank, several kilometers west of Sibalo. Farther
west, howlers were seen in a thin strip of trees separating
the river from marsh vegetation along the south bank.
Close to San Carlos, howlers were seen on the north bank.
Two more howler groups were seen along the river from
San Carlos to Los Chiles, Costa Rica.
Area #10, Refugio Bartola/Reserva Indio-Mafz (included
in N32 b or c). The Bartola River joins the Rio San Juan a
few kilometers east of El Castillo. Here, Costa Rica is on
the south bank of the San Juan. The Rio Bartola forms the
eastern boundary of Refugio Bartola, one of several re-
search areas established by Guiises Montafia Experimen-
tal (Querol et al., 1996). The Bartola River is the western
boundary of the large Indio-Mafz reserve (c. 300,000 ha),
which extends north of the Rio San Juan to its mouth in
the Caribbean. This lowland humid forest reserve is said
to be relatively undisturbed and is very remote. We trav-
eled most of the marked trails in Refugio Bartola. We
glimpsed one howler in the Refugio and heard them sev-
eral times, both in the Refugio, and across the rivers in
Costa Rica and in the Indio-Mafz reserve. We saw four to
seven different spider monkeys on three occasions during
three days at Bartola. As we arrived by boat, we saw an
adult, a juvenile and possibly a third spider monkey in a
tree next to the Rio San Juan, less than 200 m west of the
Rio Bartola. While hiking in the forest, we saw an adult
female and very small infant spider monkey about 50 m
from the Rio Bartola; two hours later we saw an adult and
medium-to-large juvenile about 300 m from the location
of the female and infant, and about 350 m from the river.
These spider monkeys were distinctly reddish on the back
and on the top of the tail; the ends of the limbs were dark.
The local name, "mono colorado," means "red monkey."
The face of a pet spider monkey at the Refugio closely
resembled a published photograph of Ateles geoffroyi
(Rowe, 1996, p.114, left column). Cebus are also present,
although we did not see them. Alouatta palliata, Ateles
geoffroyi, and Cebus capucinus were "seen daily at close
range" by students in a field ecology course held at Bartola
in April and May, 1994 (Cody, 1994) and were listed
among the mammals of Rio San Juan (Queroletal., 1996).
Area #11, Bosawas Biosphere Reserve (N31). This im-
mense reserve, more than 1,000,000 ha, is located along
the north-central border of Nicaragua. The area is remote
and almost exclusively accessed by river travel. Four or
five individual howler monkeys were seen by MM in a
tree over the Rio Coco, on the Honduran side, several hours
by boat upriver from San Carlos. Howlers were also heard
along the Coco upriver a short distance from Raiti.
Bosawas should also contain one or two subspecies of ca-
puchin (Cebus capucinus limitaneus and C. c. imitator)
(Rodrfguez-Luna et al., 1996a). It is unclear from pub-
lished distribution maps whetherAteles is expected to exist
in Bosawas (Konstant et al., 1985). The indigenous
Miskitos hunt monkeys within the Reserve for food.
We can offer only a preliminary assessment of the conser-
vation status of Nicaraguan primates as relatively few ar-
eas were visited and we were unable to collect detailed
information on the degree of protection provided. Mantled
howlers were seen in a variety of habitat types, including
those in close proximity to human settlements. The pres-
ence of this species in so many places suggests that it is of
"Lower Risk" status in Nicaragua. In comparison, mantled
howlers may be extinct in nearby El Salvador (Crockett,
in press). The various ages of howler infants seen indicate
year-round births. The lack of strongly seasonal breeding
appears typical of howler species, although howlers tend
to give birth less often in the wet season (Crockett and
Rudran, 1987; Fedigan and Rose, 1995). We can make no
definitive statement about the status of Cebus capucinus
in Nicaragua, although it definitely exists in one or two
very large reserves, relatively protected by their remote-
ness (Rio San Juan-Bartola-Indio-Maiz area and probably
Bosawas). Because we never actually saw Cebus
capucinus, we could not verify its presence in several ar-
eas where "white-faced" monkeys were reported, although
its presence seems likely in the southwestern part of Nica-
ragua, west of published distributions. Spider monkeys
also occur in at least one large reserve (Bartola-Indio-Mafz
area). The identification of the subspecies seen in Bartola
was not verified. It is supposed to be A. g. geoffroyi, but is
redder than a published illustration (Konstantetal., 1985).
Because Nicaragua is the largest nation in Central
America, it has an important role in the conservation of
the region's flora and fauna. The recent election of a new
president, Arnoldo Alemdn, is likely to be accompanied
by new economic development. One rumored development
is a major rail line to transport goods from the Pacific to
the Caribbean, as an alternative to the Panama Canal. Such
a massive project could have a major impact on the rela-
tively large forested areas remaining in eastern Nicara-
gua. It is important to determine the status of potential
areas for nature protection before critical areas are lost,
and to conduct more systematic censuses of the primates
and other fauna. For the moment, Nicaragua still has suf-
ficient numbers of wild primates to be observed by tour-
ists and primatologists on vacation.
Acknowledgments: We thank the helpful and friendly Nica-
raguan people for sharing information about the local pri-
mates. C. M. Crockett received incidental support from
the Regional Primate Research Center, University of Wash-
ington (NIH Grant RR00166) during manuscript prepa-
Carolyn M. Crockett, Regional Primate Research Cen-
ter, Box 357330, University of Washington, Seattle, WA
98195-7330, USA, Robert D. Brooks, Aerospace and
Energetics, Box 352250, University of Washington, Se-
attle, WA 98195-2250, USA, Ryan Crockett Meacham,
U. S. Peace Corps, Apartado Postal 3256, Managua, Nica-
ragua, Sally Crockett Meacham, 8&861 Lawrence Ave.,
Westminster, California 92683, USA, and Melanie Mills,
Alistar Foundation, MGA: 0111, P. 0. Box 025362, Mi-
ami, Florida 33102, USA.
Cody, M. L. 1994. Introduction to Gran Reserva
Biol6gica "Rio Indio-Mafz": Site, Flora and Fauna.
In: Refugio Bartola and the Gran Reserva Bioldgica
"Rio Indio-Maiz": Field Ecology Reports, Lowland
Tropical Rainforest, Southeastern Nicaragua, M. L.
Cody (ed.), pp.4-31. Department of Biology, U.C.L.A,
Crockett, C. M. In press. Conservation biology of the ge-
nus Alouatta. Int. J. Primatol.
Crockett, C. M. and Rudran, R. 1987. Red howler mon-
key birth data I: Seasonal variation. Am. J. Primatol.
Fedigan, L. M. and Rose, L. M. 1995. Interbirth interval
variation in three sympatric species of neotropical mon-
key. Am. J. Primatol. 37: 9-24.
Keller, N., Brosnahan, T., Rachowiecki, R., Honan, M.
and Schwartz, S. 1994. Central America: A Lonely
Planet Shoestring Guide, 2nd Edition. Lonely Planet
Publications, Hawthorne, Victoria, Australia.
Konstant, W., Mittermeier, R. A. and Nash, S. D. 1985.
Spider monkeys in captivity and in the wild. Primate.
Conservation (5): 82-109.
Querol, D., Diaz, M., Campos, J., Chamorro, S., Grijalva,
S., Rueda, R., Morales, P. etal. 1996. Especies tiles de
un bosque hdmedo tropical: Giiises Montafna Experi-
mental, Rio San Juan, Nicaragua. F. Campod6nico F.,
Industria GrAfica S. A., Lima, Peru.
Rodriguez-Luna, E., Cort6s-Ortiz, L., Mittermeier, R. A.
and Rylands, A. B. 1996a. Plan de Acci6n para los Pri-
mates Mesoamericanos: Borrador de Trabajo. IUCN/SSC
Primate Specialist Group, Universidad Veracruzana,
Rodrfguez-Luna, E., Cort6s-Ortiz, L., Mittermeier, R. A.,
Rylands, A. B., Wong-Reyes, G., Carrillo, E.,
Matamoros, Y., Nufiez, F. and Motta-Gill, J. 1996b.
Hacia un plan de acci6n para los primates
Mesoamericanos. Neotropical Primates 4(suppl.): 119-
Rowe, N. 1996. The Pictorial Guide to the Living Pri-
mates. Pogonias Press, East Hampton, New York.
Rylands, A.. B., Mittermeier, R. A. and Rodrfguez-Luna,
E. 1995. A species list for the New World Primates
(Platyrrhini): Distribution by country, endemism, and
conservation status according to the Mace-Lande sys-
tem. Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.): 113-164.
Wolfheim, J. H. 1983. Primates of the World. University
of Washington Press, Seattle.
Two HOWLER SPECIES IN SOUTHERN PIAUI,
In a review of the distribution of the red-handed howler
monkey, Alouatta belzebul, in northeastern Brazil,
Coimbra-Filho et al. (1995) brought to light the overlooked
record made by Neiva and Penna (1916, p. 106), who ob-
served groups of black howler monkeys with yellowish
hands at Angico, left margin of the Rio Parahim, munici-
pality of ParnaguA, state of Piauf, and also reported col-
lecting one individual (p. 202) whose whereabouts are
unknown. This record is the southernmost for the species
in northeastern Brazil, and apparently the first for Piauf,
although Ihering (1914) suspected its presence in the for-
ested northern region.
From the description made by Neiva and Penna (1916)
there can be little doubt as to the identity of the howlers
they observed, although a specimen would be desirable.
Parnagud lies in a transition area between the Cerrado
and Caatinga domains, although still dominated by
Neotropical Primates 5(3), September 1997
Neotropical Primates 5(3% September 1997 Page 75
semideciduous species. Taller forests are to be found along
the rivers, otherwise the vegetation is mostly "Agreste"
(RADAMBRASIL, 1989). This habitat is quite unlike the
mangrove, "brejo" montanee) and semideciduous forests
where Alouatta belzebul is known to occur in northeast-
ern Brazil (Langguth et al., 1987).
Besides Alouatta belzebul, another howler species is
known from Piauf, although in a different ecological con-
text. Chame et al. (1985) recorded a relictual population
of Alouatta caraya at the Serra da Capivara National Park
(around 0826'50"S 4245'51"W), a 1,200 km2 reserve
in a Caatinga-dominated region but not far from the tran-
sitional belt with the Cerrado, about 120 km to the west
(Emperaire, 1989). There is no perennial water course in
the park, the whole region being subject to catastrophic
On 21 July 1986, Chame observed a group of fourAlouatta
caraya (one adult male and three females) resting in a
narrow ravine between the canyons Esperanga and Pedra
Furada, in the southern sector of the park. This was the
only sighting made during several trips to the park be-
tween 1984 and 1994.
During 1991, while conducting extensive fieldwork in the
park, Olmos found that "guaribas" (a common name for
howler monkeys throughout northeastern Brazil) were well
known to local people, although considered scarce. The
local howlers were always described as being either com-
pletely black or straw-colored ("blond"), some hunters
identifying the black animals as the males. Nidde Guidon
(pers. comm.), who has worked in the area of the park
since the early 70's recalls that it was common to hear the
howler monkeys calling during the morning 20 years ago,
but thinks the species is now very
scarce. Calls were never recorded by
us until 1996, despite spending thou- Maranhi
sands of field-hours in areas known
to be used by the monkeys.
Cordia rufescens ("grAo de galo" Boraginaceae) and lots
of black hair. The faeces also had eggs of Trypanoxiurus
sp., a common parasitic Oxiuridae (Nematoda) found in
the intestines of Cebus and Alouatta (Chame et al., 1992).
Olmos found many howler feces in a canyon (Baixio do
Meio) near Pedra Furada, comprised mostly of the half-
digested tough leaves of Tabebuia impetiginosa ("pau
d'arco" Bignoniaceae), a common tree in the broader
canyons, and with many seeds ofPouteria sp. ("magAzeira"
- Sapotaceae), a canyon-restricted species.
In 1995, Ni6de Guidon (pers. comm.) observed a group of
three individuals at Serra Branca, a broad valley with for-
est patches at the base of sandstone cliffs and in canyons
cut into them, the first record from this area since a fire
burnt the entire valley in 1985. Chame found howler faeces
and tracks during several visits to the park in 1996, at-
tributable to a minimum of four different groups in 12
different localities scattered along the north-west, north-
east, south and central regions of the park.. Some locali-
ties are at least 20 km apart and/or isolated by terrain
unlikely to be traversable by the monkeys. Footprints show
the howlers will move on the ground for about 1 km in the
canyons, sometimes crossing narrow rocky outcrops
("chapadas") separating one canyon from the other.
Pouteria seeds, plus Hymenaea spp. seeds (jatobi -
Caesalpinoideae) and the remains of insects (ants, crick-
ets and grasshoppers) were also present in feces attrib-
uted to howlers found by Chame in November 1996. These
also had Trypanoxiurus eggs.
The finding of more howler signs in 1996 compared to
previous years, and the recent record of vocalizations by
park workers and guides, suggests the population may be
increasing from very low levels. Two factors may explain
Howler monkeys have been recorded
from the forested canyons that cut the
rocky cliffs that make up the south-
ern and western borders of Serra da N .
Capivara. These canyons, deeply cut
on the sandstone plateau ("chapada")
of the Serra da Capivara, are forested
islands, with trees up to 30 m high, /T \f
surrounded by the dry thorn scrub of .
the Caatinga (see Emperaire 1989 for
a description of the local vegetation). S..am CS,...
In contrast to the xeric Caatinga, these
forests keep their leaves even during
the dry season, and water accumulates Ba h
in natural depressions in the canyon eat,
walls ("cal' -' es"), providing food
and water during the droughts. Dur-'
ing several trips to the park between 1984 and 1994, Figure 1. Southern Piauf and adjacent regions of Bahia, Maranhflo and
Chame (1992) found howler feces with many seeds of Tocantins states, showing localities mentioned in the text and major water
Neotropical Primates 5(3), September 1997
that. Annual rainfall in 1995 was 737 mm and 554 mm
during 1996, above average, and extended for a longer
period compared to the previous 10 years (for example,
250 mm in 1994), .restoring water supplies and allowing
a greater availability of food. The greening of the Caatinga
may also have allowed monkeys to cross the "chapadas"
more easily. Second, the FundaqAo Museu do Homem
Americano (FUMDHAM), which has been working on
behalf of the park since 1989, has successfully imple-
mented education, health and alternative activities' pro-
grams aimed at the populations living around the park,
resulting in a lessening of the human pressures on the
park's natural resources. FUMDHAM has also hired war-
dens, providing increased vigilance in the area, and has
purchased land bordering the park to relieve pressure on
its habitats and fauna. Mango trees in the areas purchased
now have their fruit safely eaten by the monkeys, an
unprobable occurrence before.
Although hunting and habitat destruction very probably
played a role in limiting the local howler population, the
fact that the monkeys are restricted to the forested can-
yons, the surrounding Caatinga being an unsuitable habi-
tat during the frequent droughts, implies that the popula-
tion has always been small and may have been in natural
decline. A similar situation has been found with the local
population of pacas, Agouti paca, also restricted to the
canyons and currently very small. A paca skull from the
park, now in the Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro
(MNRJ) shows dental abnormalities that may indicate
Two other primates occur at the Serra da Capivara. A very
variable population of capuchin monkeys Cebus apella
(individuals ranging from chocolate-brown to pale yel-
low) live in the canyons and along the rocky walls that
limit the chapada. They descend from the almost vertical
walls to feed on the trees below. Common marmosets,
Callithrix jacchus are more widespread, but seem com-
monest where there are groves of angico trees,
Anadenanthera macrocarpa, which provide gum for them
as well as. the local people.
Considering the proximity of the Serra da Capivara to the
extensive Cerrado belt of western Piauf, the presence of
black howlers is unsurprising, although this might well
be a historic range extension resulting from the widespread
changes in the predominant vegetation of the region
through human activities (see Coimbra-Filho and Camara,
1996). Further research in this region, that harbors some
potentially interesting areas such as the Uruguf-Una Eco-
logical Station and the Chapada das Mangabeiras Envi-
ronmental Protection Area, a region with lushier forest
and several perennial rivers, would be worthwhile.
Alouatta caraya has been reported from at least two lo-
calities in northwestern Bahia, close to the border with
Piauf and to the ParnaguA area: Santa Rita de C6ssia
(present-day Ibipetuna, 1150'S 44052'W) and Cotegipe
(1150'S 44012'W; Hirsch et al., 1991; Gregorin, 1996).
Neotropical Primates 5(3), September 1997
Like ParnaguA, both are in a transitional area, with arbo-
real Caatinga growing on the tops of the hills and along
the flatter, broader valleys, while taller CerradAo-like for-
est occurs on the hillsides and in narrower valleys and
canyons, and semideciduous forest on the limestone out-
crops. Palm groves and river edge forest grow along the
perennial rivers (RADAMBRASIL, 1989; pers. obs.). Con-
sidering the similarity of habitats and proximity between
southern Piauf and northwestern Bahia, a contact zone
between Alouatta caraya and A. belzebul, if the latter has
not become locally extinct, is probably located somewhere
in this general area, with greater chances in the forested
patches of the Gurgu6ia valley, where the Parahim drains,
and along the headwaters of Parnafba river at the Chapada
das Mangabeiras, where Alouatta caraya has also been
recorded at Alto Parnafba, southern Maranho (09006'S
45058' W; Gregorin, 1995) probably also extending into
Marcia Chame, Departamento de Endemias, Escola
National de Sadde Ptiblica / FIOCRUZ, Rua Leopoldo
Bulhfes 1480, Manguinhos, 21041-210 Rio de Janeiro,
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and Fibio Olmos, Secgo de
Animais Silvestres, Instituto Florestal, Caixa Postal 1322,
01059-970 Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Chame, M., Aradjo, A., and Ferreira, L. F. 1985. Premieres
observations sur la faune de la Serra da Capivara, Sud-
est du Piauf, Br6sil. Atudes Amdricanistes
Interdisciplinaires II1(4): 33-40.
Chame, M. 1992. Diagn6stico experimental de fezes e
copr61itos nio-humanos no Parque Nacional Serra da
Capivara, Piauf. In: Paleopatologia e Paleoepidemio-
logia Estudos Multidisciplinares, Araujo, A. J. G. and
Ferreira, L. F (eds.), pp.185-211. Editora Panorama,
ENSP, Rio de Janeiro.
Emperaire, L. 1989. Vegetation et gestion des resources
naturelles dans la Caatinga du Sud-Est du Piaui, Brisil.
Editions d'ORSTROM, Paris, TDM 52.
Coimbra-Filho, A. F. and Camara, I. de G. 1996. Os
Limites Originais do Bioma Mata Atldntica na Regido
Nordeste do Brasil. Fundagio Brasileira para a
Conservaago da Natureza (FBCN), Rio de Janeiro.
Coimbra-Filho, A. F., Camara, I. de G. and Rylands, A.
B. 1995. On the geographic distribution of red-handed
howling monkey, Alouatta belzebul, in North-east Bra-
zil. Neotropical Primates 176-179.
Gregorin, R. 1996. Variapdo Geogrdfica e Taxonomia das
Espicies Brasileiras do G~nero AlouattaLacdpkde 1798,
Primates Atelidae. Unpubl. M.Sc.Thesis, Instituto de
Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo.
Ihering, H. von. 1914. Os bugios do genero Alouatta
(Mammif.). Rev. Museu Paulista 9: 231-256.
Langguth, A., Teixeira, D. M., Mittermeier, R. A. and
Bonvicino, C. 1987. The red-handed howler monkey in
northeastern Brazil. Primate Conservation (8): 36-39.
Neiva, A. and Penna, B. 1916. Viajem cientffica pelo norte
da Bahia, sudoeste de Pernambuco, sul do Piauhf e de
norte a sul de Goids. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 8(8): 74-
RADAMBRASIL. 1989. Folha SD. 23 Brasflia:
Geomorfologia, Pedologia, VegetaqAo e Uso Potencial
da Terra. Ministerio das Minas e Energia, Rio de Janeiro.
CAPUCHIN MONKEYS IN THE CAATINGA: TOOL USE
AND FOOD HABITS DURING DROUGHT
In the interior of the state of Parafba, about 300 km east-
wards from Jodo Pessoa and about 10 km north of the
small town of Desterro de Malta, there is a small moun-
tain range inhabited by a few groups of Cebus apella. The
region is part of the Caatinga biome. We visited this place
in November 1983, in the advanced dry season. That year
was particularly dry. We had been formerly invited by the
Brazilian Forestry Development Institute (IBDF), to check
reports that capuchin monkeys were starving because of
the strong drought depriving them of their food resources.
We learnt later that only one old animal, with heavily-
worn teeth, had been found dead, and that people of the
vicinity were feeding the animals with boiled or dry corn
and bananas. After a reconnaissance of the area, we con-
cluded that the animals were solving the problem of
drought in several ways and that the inhabitants of the
neighborhood were probably projecting their own neces-
sities and hard life on the wild monkeys.
Local people reported that lactating infants had been seen
three months earlier, and that although they were very
shy they had entered one of the isolated houses in their
range on which occasion an infant had been captured. They
were reported to feed on very common lizards, on the seeds
of manigoba (Manihot sp.), to suck the juice of crushed
coconuts of the catol6 palm (Syagrus oleracea), and also
to chew the juicy macambiras (Encholirium spectabilis).
We walked up the mountain range to the area were the
capuchins lived. The vegetation was leafless with a gen-
eral gray appearance. From time to time, green trees drew
our attention (pau-pedra, pitombeira = Tallisia sp., oiticica
= Licania rigida, feijao bravo = Capparis sp. and
espinheiro =Acacia sp.). After a while we discovered sev-
eral thickets of macambira where the plants had been
Fig. 1. A macambira thicket, Encholinium spectabilis, with scattered leaves
chewed by Cebus apella.
Fig. 2. The rock used as a mortar, with Syagrus nuts beside it.
pulled out of the ground and the leaves chewed at their
white bases, where they are more tender and juicy. This
had been done in a disorderly fashion, as would be ex-
pected of a capuchin (see Fig. 1).
A little further on we stopped at a large flat, bare rock
("lagedo") where several crushed catol6 coconuts were
spread around on the ground. Close to them there was a
round, about one kg, heavy pebble that on closer exami-
nation showed an area were the surface was rough as if it
had been recently stricken against a rock. At 10:00 am.
we heard stones falling four times, and on several occa-
sions the noise of stones knocking. A short time later we
found a group of monkeys that received us by shaking
branches. The group was formed of an adult of light pel-
age, two adults of dark pelage, two young and an adult
female with an infant on her back. We have no doubt that
the capuchins were using a rock as a mortar, and a stone
(pestle) to hit the palm nuts placed on it (see Fig. 2).
The case of the Desterro de Malta capuchins shows that
the species is able to survive even under very hard condi-
tions, due to the plasticity of their diet and their rich be-
havioral repertoire. Nut-cracking behavior by pounding
has been observed in captivity several times, but very rarely
in the wild. Izawa and Mizuno (1977) described
Astrocaryum palm nut-cracking behavior by capuchin
monkeys in Colombia, but in this case by striking the fruit
against a bamboo stalk. Cebus albifrons and C. olivaceus
likewise pound hard fruits such as brazilnut pyxidia
(Bertholetia excelsa, Lecythidaceae),Phenakospermum sp.
(Musaceae), and Duroia aquatica (Rubiaceae), and smash
palm nuts against branches, although not as efficiently as
C. apella (M. G. M. van Roosmalen, in Rylands, 1987).
None of these cases involved, however, the manipulation
of a tool as such, although Struhsaker and Leland (1977)
observed a tufted capuchin bashing a palm nut held in its
hand with another, rather than on a branch or bamboo
stalk. Visalberghi (1990) provides an important review of
tool use in this genus. Visalberghi (1987) and Anderson
(1990) described experiments in captivity where Cebus
apella used stones as tools for nut-cracking. As pointed
out by the first author, the chances for arboreal monkeys
of manipulating stones and finding horizontal surfaces
on which to pound them are scarce. Desterro de Malta,
however, offered the appropriate scenario, and the predic-
Neotropical Primates 5(3), Septembqr 1997
tion of Visalberghi (1987) that field observations of capu-
chin monkeys in the adequate environment will show tool-
use for nut-cracking has here been confirmed for the first
Acknowledgments: We thank Ant6nio Christian A. Moura
for the identification of the plants and valuable comments.
Alfredo Langguth and Carmen Alonso, Departamento
de Sistematica e Ecologia, CCEN, Universidade Federal
da Paraiba, Campus Universitfrio, 58059-900 Joao Pessoa,
Anderson, J. R. 1990. Use of objects as hammers to open
nuts by capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Folia
Izawa, K. and Mizuno, A. 1977. Palm fruit cracking be-
havior in wild black-capped capuchin (Cebus apella).
Primates 18(4): 773-792.
Rylands, A. B. 1987. Primate communities in Amazonian
forests: their habitats and food resources. Experientia
Struhsaker, T. T. and Leland, L. 1977. Palm-nut smash-
ing by Cebus a. apella in Colombia. Biotropica 9(2):
Visalberghi, E. 1987. The acquisition of nut-cracking
behaviour by 2 capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Fo-
lia Primatol. 49: 168-181.
Visalberghi, E. 1990. Tool use in Cebus. Folia Primatol.
COMMON WOOLLY MONKEYS (LAGOTHRIX
LAGOTRICHA) FEEDING ON CHRYSOPHYLLUM
COLOMBIANUM (SAPOTACEAE) IN SOUTHERN
On the 5th December 1990, whilst at the end of a pre-cut
trail running through the upper-tropical forest (elevation:
1100 m) approximately 3 km south of the Bombuscara
Visitor Centre, Podocarpus National Park (04 08'S 78
58' W), Colin Taylor and I encountered a troop of six
woolly monkeys. The monkeys were foraging in the canopy
(25-30m tall). The group separated, but three individuals,
including one juvenile remained in the tall tree that they
were eating from. They were screaming and clearly dis-
turbed by our presence and the adults threw fruit they were
eating at us. The monkeys had accurate and strong throws,
forcing us to dodge the flying fruit. We observed them
through binoculars, at a distance of 40 m for five minutes
before they moved off. The fruit, about the size of a small
peach, and leaves from the tree were collected. Professor
Terry Pennington of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK,
kindly identified species as Chrysophyllum colombianum
(Aubreville), a Sapotaceae (v. Gentry 1993). Fruits from
the family Sapotaceae are common monkey foods
(Pennington, in litt. 1991) and there are 43 species in the
genus Chrysophyllum (v. Gentry 1993). Chrysophyllum
colombianum was previously known to occur from Costa
Rica to Colombia, so with the help of the woolly monkeys
we have extended its range by approximately 1500 km
(Pennington, in litt. 1991). The true status of the woolly
monkey, known locally as Chrongo, in Podocarpus Na-
tional Park is unknown due to a lack of surveys, but they
are considered rare as the park is in the foothills of the
Andes, the extreme western edge of their range. However,
they were not present further east in the Rio Nangaritza
valley, Cordillera del Condor (040 20'S, 780 40'W), which
is adjacent to the park, during a brief survey in 1994
(Balchin and Toyne, in press). Indeed, no primates were
encountered, presumably due to pressures from hunting
by the local Shuar Indians. Elsewhere in the Cordillera
del Condor they have been encountered further north at
Comainas (c. 1700 m) in Peru (Emmons and Pacheco,
I thank the Ministerio de Agricultura in Quito and Loja
for permission to work in the Podocarpus National Park
and for the licence to collect plant material. I also thank
Prof. Pennington at Kew and Colin Taylor for their help.
This note is an output of the Imperial College of Science,
Technology and Medicine (University of London) Parrots
in Peril expeditions (1990, 1992 and 1994).
E. P. Toyne, World Wide Fund for Nature WWF-UK,
Panda House, Catteshall Lane, Godalming GU7 1XR, UK.
Balchin, C. S. and Toyne, E. P. In press. Avifauna and
conservation status of the Rio Nanagaritza, southern
Ecuador. Bird Conservation International.
Emmons, L. H. and Pacheco, V. 1996. Mammals of the
Upper Rio Comainas, Cordillera del Condor. In: The
Cordillera del Condor Region of Ecuador and Peru: A
Biological Assessment, T. S. Schulenberg and K. Awbrey
(eds.), pp.192-194. Conservation International, Wash-
Gentry, A. H. 1993. A Field Guide to The Families and
Genera of Woody Plants of Northwest South America
(Colombia, Ecuador, Peru) with Supplementary Notes
on Herbaceous Taxa. Conservation International, Wash-
A NEW LOCALITY FOR BRACHYTELESARACHNOIDES
AND THE URGENCY OF FINDING NEW DIRECTIONS
FOR MURIQUI CONSERVATION
The muriqui, Brachyteles arachnoides, is an endangered
Brazilian Atlantic forest endemic (Strier, 1992a, 1992b),
surviving in highly fragmented forests, mostly in the states
of Sio Paulo and Minas Gerais. A number of new locali-
ties have been reported in the last two years (Antonietto
et al., 1994; Martuscelli et al., 1994; Oliveira, et al, 1996;
Fontes et al, 1996), but for the majority the groups com-
prise only a few individuals, and some of them are thought
to be already extinct (Martuscelli et al., 1994).
On January 20, 1996, during our first survey of the Fazenda
Neotropical Primates 5(3), September 1997
Neotropical Primates 5(3), September 1997
Escorregosa in the region of the Sertao do Poruba, three
dead muriquis were found with poachers; one adult fe-
male, one subadult male, and another of unidentified sex.
The region is of difficult access, reaching altitudes of ap-
proximately 800 m. No muriqui or other primate species
were ever seen in the lowlands and valley bottom forests
of Sertao do Poruba, barely 3 km in a straight line from
the mountains where the monkeys were killed, despite
several years of work there.
Information on the animals was very difficult to obtain, as
the poachers knew that hunting muriquis was illegal. They
eventually told us, however, that they are very difficult to
find, but once located "it is possible to kill the entire group
because they are sluggish and very slow to escape. When
you shoot one you have enough time to shoot another".
They also reported that they successfully hunt muriquis at
least once a year. They killed four individuals in 1995,
and in the previous year they had caught seven at once.
This is of course a sad but expected story. Cases such as
this are much more common than we think, and the rea-
sons are to be expected. Hunting in this region does not
occur because the local people are starving, and is related
more to social than to survival reasons. After getting ac-
quainted with the Poruba residents, I realized that they
place great value on hunting a single individual of a "pro-
hibited" and large animal when compared to other more
common species such as wood quails, tinamous
(Cripturellus), agoutis or paca, much easier to find and
said to taste better. Hunting a large animal such as the
muriqui, which is "protected" to boot, is a question of
prestige amongst the local communities. Due to this, con-
vincing them not to hunt muriquis is very difficult, being
as it is a form of social affirmation. It would seem to me
that education programs would not change this in the short
term, and protection of the low numbers of muriquis will
require strong coercive measures, such as an effective
fiscalization in the area. This situation is in contrast with
that in the vicinity of Tef6 in Amazonia, where hunting is
first of all a question of survival, and social affirmation
merely a secondary consequence.
Muriquis occur at low densities in all known localities,
even in the protected areas referred to below (Pinto et al.,
1994). As stated by Mendes (1994), new directions are
urgently required for muriqui conservation, with empha-
sis on identifying the obstacles and limiting factors to the
growth of the surviving populations so that practical and
effective measures can be taken. I list below some sugges-
Protection of native areas and translocation
There are three protected areas where research and con-
servation efforts have been concentrated: The Fazenda
Intervales and the Carlos Botelho State Park in Sao Paulo,
and the Caratinga Biological Station, Minas Gerais. Other
smaller populations are known from protected areas such
as the Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca, the Parque Estadual
do Rio Doce, and the Mata do Sossego Biological Station
Fig. 1. Hunter with a muriqui at the
Fazenda Escorregosa, Sertlo do Poruba,
state of Smo Paulo. January 1996.
in Minas Gerais, as well as on pri-
vate land that has been proposed
for conservation, such as Spo
Sebastiio do Ribeirao Grande,
Pindamonhangaba, Swo Paulo,
where a management plan has
been prepared (see Oliveira,
1996). Further protected areas are
needed for this species.
However, it is fortunate that muriquis already occur in a
number of reserves, and the key to future action lies in
their consolidation and active management, with translo-
cation being an important option for the future. The popu-
lations of the nominate subspecies in Carlos Botelho and
Intervales are large enough for a long-term survival pro-
gram. Sio Francisco Xavier is an area where efforts could
be intensified to create a new protected area between the
Serra do Mar and the Serra da Mantiqueira, which would
also serve as an adequate site for translocation of small,
isolated and threatened populations elsewhere. Populations
of the subspecies hypoxanthus are small and isolated. The
largest protected areas are the Rio Doce State Park in Minas
Gerais, and the Augusto Ruschi Biological Reserve in
Espfrito Santo, but densities in these sites are very low,
indicating that they too could benefit from translocating
groups from other areas (for example, the threatened popu-
lation in the Fazenda Esmeralda, Rio Casca, confined to
Programs involving translocation to protected areas or for
increasing the captive population should consider the fol-
lowing: a) the size and composition of the groups involved
(Mendes 1994); b) the size and status of the population;
c) if there are poachers in the area; d) the benefits in de-
mographic and genetic terms and e) the options for the
creation of new protected areas, as stated above. It is evi-
dent that some muriqui populations are so small that wait-
ing three or more years to decide on management options
will not be possible.
Translocation to zoos or primate centers is rarely consid-
ered. However, today the maintenance and reproduction
of muriqui in captivity is not the problem it was (Valle et
al., 1983; Coimbra-Filho et al., 1994). They are being
kept successfully at the Rio de Janeiro Primate Center
(FEEMA/CPRJ), the Sdo Paulo Zoo, and in a private col-
lection in Parand. CPRJ is, however, the only governmen-
tal institution to be successful in breeding them, and rela-
tively little research has been carried out on their hus-
bandry and care in captivity. Careful consideration should
be given to the convenience or otherwise of supplement-
ing conservation efforts in the wild with an organized cap-
tive breeding program.
Some protected areas maintain environmental programs
which focus on the muriqui, and they have had excellent
results. Programs of this sort should be extended to other
areas, notably Poruba, with one of the main goals being
the establishment of a tradition in which it becomes so-
cially unacceptable to hunt muriquis for whatever reason.
With the considerable amount of data available from re-
search efforts in the wild (see, for example, Nishimura et
al., 1988; Strier, 1992a, 1992b), the growing numbers in
captivity, and the relatively high proportion of localities
where muriquis are merely suspected or reported in ex-
tremely low numbers, the creation of a database for the
species would facilitate the organization of strategies for
Whatever the measures to be taken, there is considerable
urgency, because, at least in the Poruba region, it is quite
probable that there will soon be no muriquis at all to serve
even as status symbols.
Acknowledgments: I thank Fdbio Olmos for his comments
and the Brazil Science Council (CNPq) for its support,
also Anthony B. Rylands for the revision of this note.
Paulo Auricchio, Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de
Bioci8ncias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do MatAo,
Travessa 14 #321, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Bra-
Antonietto, L. A. and Mendes, F. D. C. 1994. Sao Fran-
cisco Xavier: A new site for primatological research and
conservation in the Brazilian Atlantic forest. Neotropi-
cal Primates 2(3): 3-4.
Coimbra-Filho, A. F., Pissinatti A. and Rylands, A. B.
1994. Muriquis at the Rio de Janeiro Primate Center.
Neotropical Primates 2(1) 5-7.
Fontes, M. A. L., Oliveira Filho, A. T. and Galetti, M.
1996. The muriqui in the Parque Estadual de Ibitipoca,
Minas Gerais. Neotropical Primates 4(1):23-25.
Martuscelli, P., Petroni, L. and Olmos F. 1994. Fourteen
new localities for the muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides).
Neotropical Primates 2(2): 12-15.
Mendes, F. D. C. 1994. Muriqui Conservation: the urgent
need for an integrated management plan. Neotropical
Primates 2(2): 16-19.
Nishimura, A., Fonseca, G. A. B., Mittermeier, R. A.,
Young, A. L., Strier, K. B. and Valle, C. M. C. 1988.
The muriqui, genus Brachyteles. In: Ecology and Be-
haviorofNeotropical Primates, Vol. 2, R. A. Mittermeier,
A. B. Rylands, A. F. Coimbra-Filho and G. A. B. Fonseca
(eds.), pp.577-610. World Wildlife Fund, Washington,
Oliveira, M. F. and Manzatti, L. 1996. New locality for
the muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides) in the state of
Sao Paulo, Brasil. Neotropical Primates 4(3):84-85.
Olmos, F., Franco, A. D. C. and Auricchio, P. 1997. Bi-
ometry and stomach contents of some Atlantic forest
primates, with a note on Brachyteles tooth replacement.
Neotropical Primates 5(3), September 1997
Neotropical Primates 2(5):36-39.
Pinto, L. P. de S., Costa, C. M. R, Strier, K. B. and Fonseca,
G.A.B. 1993. Habitat density and group size of primates
in a Brazilian tropical forest. Folia Primatol. 61: 135-
Strier, K. B. 1992a. Faces in the Forest: The Endangered
Muriqui Monkeys of Brazil. Oxford University Press,
Strier, K. B. 1992b. Demography and conservation of an
endangered species, Brachyteles arachnoides. Conserv.
ALOUATTA VULVAL AND SCROTAL SIZES
Dr. Clara B. Jones would like to receive descriptions of
relative vulval sizes (in particular the presence or absence
of female genital hypertrophy) and relative scrotal size
for Alouatta species. She is particularly interested in re-
ports on A. fusca and A. belzebul, but all responses will
be appreciated and acknowledged. Thank you for any at-
tention. Please write to: Clara B. Jones, Ph.D., 1406 East
Front Street, Plainfield, New Jersey 07062, USA, e-mail:
ECOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR OF THE BROWN HOWLING
MONKEY, ALOUATTA FUSCA
In July 1997, Denise de Alemar Gaspar completed her
Master's Dissertation in Zoology at the Universidade
Estadual Paulista (Unesp), at Rio Claro, state of Sdo Paulo,
Brazil. She studied the ecology and behavior of a group of
eight brown howlers, Alouattafusca clamitans (Geoffroy,
1812), between April 1995 and March 1996, in the
Ribeiro Cachoeira forest (234 ha), near Campinas, Sao
Paulo. The research was supervised by Prof. Nivar Gobbi
(Unesp) and Dr. Eleonore Z. F. Setz (Unicamp), and was
financed by the Brazil Science Council (CNPq), the Bra-
zilian Higher Education Authority (Capes) and the
Campinas State University Teaching and Research Fund
(Fundo de Amparo a Ensino e Pesquisa da Unicamp -
Faep). Scan sampling was used to examine the activity
patterns and diet on each sample day, with scans of three
minutes at ten-minute intervals, and the "all occurrences"
method was used to sample behavior. Seed germination
tests were conducted on samples of feces to determine the
role of the howlers as seed dispersers. The home range
was estimated by mapping daily travel paths. The phenol-
ogy of 200 trees was followed in order to determine sea-
sonal variation in food resources. Twenty-four complete
days of observation were analyzed, yielding 228 hours of
animal-observer contact, 1754 scans and 1894 feeding
records. The study group was composed of an adult male,
a subadult male, two juvenile males, three adult females
and one juvenile female. On average, the group rested for
63% of the day, and feeding, travelling and other behav-
Neotropical Primates 5(3), September 1997 Page 81
iors (social and maintenance behavior) occupied 16%, 16%
and 3%, respectively. The group's diet was composed of
leaves (74%), flowers (9%), fruits (12%) and undetermined
items (6%). Although not significant, flowers and fruits
were consumed more in the wet season. Mature leaves
were the most consumed item all year round, except at the
beginning of spring, when new leaves were preferred.
Leaves of trees were consumed more than those of lianas.
Lutzelburgia auriculata (Fabaceae) was the most impor-
tant food species (15%). For seeds recovered in feces, ger-
mination rates were low for Syagrus romanzoffiana (22%)
and Celtis tala (24%), and greater for Rauvolfia sellowii
(56%) and Eugenia cerasiflora (67%). The ingestion of
young leaves, flowers and fruits was positively correlated
to the availability of these items in the forest, although
the correlations were not significant for flowers and fruits.
The group's home range (8.5 ha) was larger in the wet
season (7.1 ha) than in dry season (6.3 ha), and 15% over-
lapped with those of others groups. Grooming behavior
was more frequently performed by adult females to males;
play occurred between juveniles and the subadult; howl-
ing was performed by the adult male and other group
members; body rubbing was more frequently performed
by adults and water drinking only by adults. The results
agree with other studies on Alouatta fusca, with some
variations related to features of the study area.
Denise de Alemar Gaspar, Rua Emerson Jos6 Moreira
1818, Campinas 13070-040, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Gaspar, D. A. 1997. Ecologia e Comportamento do Bugio
Ruivo (Alouatta fusca, Geoffrey, 1812, Primates:
Cebidae), em Fragmento de Mata de Campinas, SP.
Unpublished Master's thesis, Instituto de Biociencias,
Universidade Estadual Paulista "Julio de Mesquita
Filho", Rio Claro, Sao Paulo.
1996 EUROPEAN STUDBOOK FOR THE EMPEROR
The 3rd edition, 1996, of the studbook for the European
captive population of the emperor tamarin, Saguinus
imperator, has been published by the Lisbon Zoological
Garden. The keeper is Eric Bairrao Ruivo, assisted by
Maria Manuela Nunes, Maria Manuela Vieira and Or-
lando Silva. The population is comprised almost entirely
of the subspecies S. i. subgrisescens. Just one female S. i.
imperator remains in the Frankfurt Zoo, and the stud-
book for this subspecies will be discontinued. On the 31
December 1996, S. i. subgrisescens numbered 114 indi-
viduals with an evenly balanced sex ratio (55.52.7), main-
tained in 32 institutions. This is based on 48 founders, 36
wild born and 12 animals of unknown origin. Four
founders are still alive. Seven institutions still maintain
15 hybrids (7.7.1), but they will all be transferred to
Peaugres, where management procedures will be carried
out to stop them breeding (three single births in 1996).
The studbook includes information on the structure, ac-
tivities and organisation of the breeding programme, a
table of the status and development of the population in
1996, minutes of the 3rd Emperor Tamarin EEP Meeting
in Dou6-la-Fontaine in 1997, and reports on two research
projects at Lisbon Zoo, on reproductive physiology by Dr.
Rui Marques LeitAo; and social behaviour involving the
Lisbon Technical University and graduate projects under
the supervision Catarina Casanova. The studbook includes
a full historical list of both subspecies and the hybrids,
and listings of births, deaths and transfers, and live ani-
mals by location in 1996, management recommendations
for participating institutions, and an analysis of the stud-
book in terms of captive born and wild born contributions
of each sex, population censuses dating back to 1964, and
demographic analyses, including the evolution of the S. i.
subgrisescens population, the age/sex distribution, mor-
tality (total and neonatal), and analyses of fecundity, in-
breeding coefficients, founder representation and mean
kinship. Finally there is a list of addresses of 38 partici-
pating institutions, and seven candidate institutions for
Problems with the programme include the fact that repro-
ductive success is still low; 62% of the animals born in
1996 did not survive. There is a lack of females, and trans-
fers are proving difficult to organise due to bureaucracy.
Husbandry guidelines resulting from questionnaires will
hopefully be published by the end of the year.
Eric Bairrfo Ruivo, Co-ordinator of the Saguinus
imperator EEP, Lisbon Zoological Garden, Estrada de
Benfica 158-160, 1500 Lisboa, Portugal.
Ruivo, E. B., Nunes, M. M., Vieira, M. M. and Silva, 0.
1966. European Studbook for the Emperor Tamarin
Saguinus imperator Goeldi 1907. Number 3. Lisbon
Zoological Garden, Lisbon. 99pp. Data through 31 De-
1996 GOLDEN LION TAMARIN STUDBOOK
The 1996 International studbook for the golden lion tama-
rin, Leontopithecus rosalia, has been published by the stud-
book keeper for species, Jonathan D. Ballou, with the help
of Abigail Sherr. The number of living animals in captiv-
ity on 31 December 1996 was 476, and there has been no
growth since 1994. The number of institutions participat-
ing in the breeding program is 137. The population is
based on 45 founders, three of which were still alive at the
time. The management of this population is exemplary. It
exceeded 500 animals in the early 1990s, but has been
reduced and maintained successfully around the target
population size of 480 since 1992, with 96.5% of the ex-
pected heterozygosity retained. The studbook includes a
full listing of the participating institutions, special man-
agement notes with a report on lion tamarin diseases (in
English and Portuguese), and a table of the breeding his-
tories and 1996 collection changes for institutions own-
Neotropical Primates 5(3), Septembgr 1997
Page 82 Neotropical Primates S(3), September 1997
ing and holding golden lion tamarins. The studbook proper
includes listings of the living animals by institution, the
births in 1996, the transactions in 1996, and the living
animals sorted by studbook number.
Jonathan D. Ballou and Abigail Sherr, Department of
Zoological Research, National Zoological Park,
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 20008, USA.
Ballou, J. D. and Sherr, A. 1997.1996 International Stud-
book Golden Lion Tamarin, Leontopithecus rosalia. Sep-
tember 1997. National Zoological Park, Smithsonian In-
stitution, Washington D. C. Data as of 31 December
STUDBOOK FOR EUROPEAN BLACK HOWLERS
Natalie Quinton, of the Bristol Zoological Gardens, UK,
has taken over from Darren Webster as European Stud-
book keeper for the captive population ofAlouatta caraya.
The third studbook for the species was published in June
1997. A total of 34 black howlers (16.15.3) were regis-
tered in six zoos (Apeldoorn, The Netherlands; Banham,
Howletts, Bristol, and Twycross in the UK; and Kassel in
Germany) on 31 December 1996. The studbook includes
a full list of living animals, a historical listing (from 1969),
the colonies of the participating institutions, births, deaths,
and transfers, and age pyramids for the total populations
and each sex.
Natalie A. Quinton, Bristol Zoological Gardens, Clifton,
Bristol BS8 3HA, UK,
Quinton, N. 1997. European Studbook for Black Howlers
(Alouatta caraya). Number 3. Bristol Zoo Gardens, Bristol.
UK. 16pp. Data current through 31 December 1996.
JEREMY MALLINSON RECIPIENT OF THE 1997
ASP SENIOR BIOLOGY AND CONSERVATION AWARD
It is a great pleasure to report that PSG member Jeremy J.
C. Mallinson, Director of the Jersey Wildlife Preservation
Trust (JWPT), Jersey, was most deservedly awarded the
American Society of Primatologists (ASP) top recogni-
tion the 1997 Senior Biology and Conservation Award.
His work at JWPT, maintaining the world-leading role in
conservation and captive breeding begun by Gerald
Durrell, has been so important in the captive breeding
and conservation of numerous threatened primate species
(including Daubentonia, lemurs, Macaca nigra, orang-
utans, gorillas, and callitrichids). The JWPT international
training courses and summer schools have provided train-
ing for numerous primatologists now active in primate
conservation in their home countries.
Particularly concerning New World primates, Jeremy
Mallinson has played a most significant role in the estab-
lishment and resulting activities of the International Man-
agement Committees for the four species of lion tama-
rins. He is founding Co-chairman for the Committees for
the golden-headed lion tamarin, Leontopithecus
chrysomelas, and the black-faced lion tamarin,L. caissara,
and also serves on those for the other two species, rosalia
and chrysopygus. Most remarkable has been his work in
favor of the conservation of L. chrysomelas. On request
from the Brazilian Government (demonstrating the pres-
tige he maintains in that country) he set up an Interna-
tional Recovery and Management Committee, which re-
sulted in the return of the title of some 50-60 animals
contrabanded in 1983/1984 to Belgium, France, Japan,
and Hong-Kong, and which subsequently formed the be-
ginning of an international captive management
programme and studbook for all captive populations. The
captive breeding programme has been very successful, now
numbering more than 600 animals. In 1990, Jeremy took
an active part in the organization of aLeontopithecus PVA
Workshop, and one result of this was the formal recogni-
tion of the lion tamarin committees by the Brazilian Insti-
tute for Environment (Ibama), and the expansion of their
mandate to include their management in the wild. He was
a key player in raising funds for and organizing the pur-
chase (on two occasions) of forests to expand the Una Bio-
logical Reserve, southern Bahia, the only protected area
for L. chrysomelas.
Due to his remarkable abilities to act as intermediary, Jer-
emy Mallinson has on numerous other occasions played a
most important role in promoting conservation action for
the lion tamarins, especially on behalf of the Brazilian
Government. He was the moving force, with Dr. Devra
Kleiman of the National Zoological Park, Washington,
D. C., behind the creation of the "Lion Tamarins of Brazil
Fund" established by the International Management Com-
Jeremy Mallinson (right) with Saturnino de Sousa, Director of the Una
Biological Reserve, holding a plaque commemorating the purchase and
subsequent donation to Ibama of a tract of forest providing a corridor between
the eastern and western portions of the reserve.
Neotropical Primates 5(3), September 1997
Neotropical Primates 5(3), September 1997 Page 83
mittees in 1991, and which has already raised significant
amounts of money for lion tamarin conservation
programme in the wild from institutions maintaining the
species in captivity. He is an Honorary Director of Wild-
life Preservation Trust International, which has financed
numerous primate conservation projects round the world,
including notably Brazil on behalf of the lion tamarins.
Jeremy Mallinson has also for many years been particu-
larly active in the conservation and captive breeding of
gorillas. In 1974, during an expedition to the Zaire River,
he studied eastern lowland gorillas in the Kahuzi-Biega
National Park. He was subsequently a founder member,
in 1976, of the Anthropoid Ape Advisory Panel of Great
Britain and Ireland, and chaired the first meeting of zoos
holding gorillas in the region. He has served on the Board
of Trustees of the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund-Europe and
on the Fund's USA/Europe International Coordinating
Committee. In Dr. Eric Edroma's (Director of Uganda
Wildlife Authority) official invitation to Jeremy to par-
ticipate in the December 1997 Kampala PHVA Workshop
for Mountain Gorillas, he stated: "Your participation will
be vital as a political conservation networker, as you will
be able to aid in the dilution of territorialism between the
The above gives only a small glimpse of some aspects of
the work and dedication of Jeremy Mallinson for the con-
servation of primates, most particularly with regard to the
role of zoos and the establishment of purposeful links be-
tween programmes in situ and ex-situ. In an interview by
the Jersey Evening Post, Jeremy was reported to have said
"You could liken my role to that of a bartender making
survival cocktails!", and attributed the award to JWPT -
"We have done a lot of work both in South America and
with gorillas in Zaire, and I could not be more delighted
on behalf of the Trust. A lot of my time is taken up with
the politics of conservation, trying to break down barriers
and acting as a catalyst to get different people together,
but all I am doing is implementing the conservation mis-
sion of the JWPT'. He received the sum of US$500 along
with the award, which he donated to support the co-ordi-
nation of mountain gorilla conservation programmes in
ASP CONSERVATION AWARD JUAN CARLOS
PSG member Juan Carlos Serio-Silva was the recipient of
the 1997 American Society of Primatologists Conserva-
tion Award. Juan Carlos graduated from the Faculty of
Biology of the Universidad Veracruzana Zona Cordoba,
Mexico, in 1992, with a thesis on the activity budgets and
feeding ecology of the Mexican howler, Alouatta palliata.
In 1996 he defended his Master's thesis at the same Uni-
versity in the Institute of Neuroethology on the quality of
foods consumed by semi-free-ranging howlers. At present
he is working on his doctorate in Ecology and Natural
Resource Management at the Institute of Ecology, super-
vised by Dr. Victor Rico-Gray, Dr. Katharine Milton and
Dr. Rodolfo Dirzo Minjarrez. His research for the thesis
is examining frugivory and seed dispersion by howling
monkeys in contrasting habitats. He is evaluating espe-
cially the impacts of habitat fragmentation on the key role
that howlers play in seed dispersion in Mexican tropical
His research interests have centered on the behavioral ecol-
ogy of Mexican primates, applied particularly to their con-
servation. Over nine years he has worked in various re-
gions in Mexico, but most importantly in Los Tuxtlas, in
the south of the state of Veracruz. He is currently studying
howler groups between the cities of Vega de Alatorre and
Nautla (in the north of the state), probably comprising the
northernmost populations for the species, and besides this
he is including in his research the Coatzacoalcos-Las
Choapas area in southernmost Veracruz, the site of one of
the last large tracts of forest in the country. The award
was in recognition of his efforts for the conservation of
primate habitats, based on an understanding of their ecol-
ogy and behavior. Juan Carlos attributes niuch of his suc-
cess in his research to the support and encouragement he
has received from his colleagues in the Institutes of
Neuroethology and Ecology at the Universidad
Veracruzana, notably Dr. Ernesto Rodriguez-Luna, Direc-
tor of the Insititute of Neuroethology, and Dr. Victor Rico-
Gray of the Institute of Ecology. Our congratulations to
Juan Carlos for this well-deserved award.
DISTANCE SAMPLING E-MAIL DISCUSSION LIST
The distance sampling e-mail discussion list is a new fo-
rum for the sharing of ideas and information among re-
searchers and practitioners interested in distance sampling
survey methods. What is distance sampling? Distance sam-
pling is a widely-used technique for estimating the abun-
dance of biological populations. Distance sampling meth-
ods include line transects, point transects (variable circu-
lar plots), cue counting, trapping webs and migration
counts. How does the list work? Members send e-mail
messages to a central location from where they are dis-
tributed to everyone else on the list. Topics for discussion
include: Questions about survey design and analysis (and
answers!); discussion of new methodological develop-
ments; advice on the use of software tools (program DIS-
TANCE and other packages); news about up-coming meet-
ings, workshops and conferences where distance sampling
methods will be discussed; jobs in distance-sampling fields.
How do you join? Send an e-mail message to the address
with the following in the
message body: "join distance-sampling yourfirstname
yourlastname stop (e.g., join distance-sampling Joan
Smith). How do Ifind out more? Mail questions about the
list to the list administrator at
Neotropical Primates 5(3), September 1997
Neotropical Primates 5(3), September 1997
LABORATORY PRIMATE NEWSLETTER PRIMATES DE
LAS AMERICAS LA PAGINA
En el mundo existen mas de 360 millones de series
humans que se comunican en Espafiol. Otra lengua muy
important, el Portugu6s, tambi6n posee un destacado
ndmero de parlantes en America; es por lo anterior, que
es de reconocerse la oportunidad que Judith S. Schrier,
Editor de Laboratory Primate Newsletter brinda a todos
los Primat6logos hispanoparlantes a fin de difundir dentro
de una revista cientifica de calidad, y que tradicionalmente
se public en el idioma ingles, los anuncios, noticias,
proyectos y resumenes de investigacones producidas por
los Primat6logos en su lengua native.
Asi, "Primates de las Amiricas La pdgina.... ", intent
captar a los Primat61logos que deseen, mediante su
participaci6n en esta pagina, regresar a sus distintos pauses
(en sus propios idiomas), el conocimiento que han obtenido
por medio de sus studios con los primates Americanos.
Los lineamientos para la preparaci6n de los resumenes,
notas y/o anuncios, deberin ser iguales a los que Labora-
tory Primate Newsletter utiliza para su edici6n en Ingles,
aunque para esta secci6n en Espafiol y/o Portugu6s, se
sugiere el que las dimensions de las contribuciones sean
breves y que de preferencia no excedan una pagina.
Toda la correspondencia relacionada con "Primates de
las Amdricas La pdgina.... ", deberi dirigirse a: Juan
Carlos Serio Silva, Departamento de Ecologfa Vegetal,
Doctorado en Ecologia y Manejo de Recursos Naturales,
Institute de Ecologfa, A.C. AP 63, CP 91000, Xalapa,
Veracruz, M6xico, Tel: 52 (28) 42 18 00 ext. 1201 1204,
Fax: 52 (28) 42 18 00 ext 1204, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
conacyt.mx, 6 Elva Mathiesen c/o Judith Schrier, Psychol-
ogy Department, Box 1853, Brown University Providence,
Rhode Island 02912, USA., Tel: 401 863 2511, Fax: 401
863 1300, e-mail: email@example.com.
A RE-INTRODUCTION PRACTITIONERS DIRECTORY
The IUCN/SSC Re-introduction Specialist Group (RSG)
is preparing a Re-introduction Practitioners Directory in
collaboration with the National Commission for Wildlife
Conservation and Development (NCWCD) in Saudi
Arabia. This directory will include information on spe-
cies, organizations, and individuals involved in re-intro-
duction projects. RSG would appreciate receiving infor-
mation in the following format for inclusion in this direc-
tory: 1) Taxa, Species (latin name, common name, local
names), 2) Organisation (address, country, fax, telephone,
e-mail) and 3) Staff (Lastname, Firstname, title, telephone,
fax, e-mail). Please send to: IUCN/SSC Re-introduction
Specialist Group (RSG), African Wildlife Foundation, P.O.
Box 48177, Nairobi, Kenya, Fax: 254 2 710372, e-mail:
awfnrb @ form-net. com.
ESTAGIARIOS PARA 0 PROJETO DE TRANSLOCACAO
O projeto "Translocaqao dos grupos de micos-leoes-
dourados, Leontopithecus rosalia" estA precisando de
bi61logos para participar das pesquisas que estdo sendo
desenvolvidas corn os grupos de micos-le6es-dourados
translocados para a fazenda Uniao, localizada em Rio das
Ostras, RJ. Oferecemos: remuneracgo, alojamento,
alimentacgo e treinamento em radiotelemetria, coleta de
dados no campo e coleta de dados de fenologia. E
necessario que o candidate tenha curso de graduacgo
complete, disponibilidade para participar do projeto du-
rante um ano e carteira de habilitagao. Os candidates
devem enviar Curriculum Vitae, duas cartas de
apresentagao e uma carta de interesse para: Cecilia
Kierulff, Coordenadora de Projeto de Translocag9o, Caixa
Postal 109.995, Casimiro de Abreu, 28.860-000 Rio de
Janeiro. As inscrig6es serao aceitas atd o dia 15 de
dezembro de 1997 e nao serao incluidos na selegao
candidates com documentagio incomplete.
ANNOUNCEMENT MSc IN WILD ANIMAL HEALTH
The Institute of Zoology (Zoological Society of London)
and the Royal Veterinary College (The University of Lon-
don) have set up a 12-month course for European and
overseas graduates in veterinary and relevant sciences
making a career in wild animal health. The course in-
cludes practical and theoretical instruction in the hus-
bandry and nutrition of wild animals, taxonomy, popula-
tion biology, conservation genetics, welfare and ethical
aspects, sustainable use of wildlife, epidemiology, immu-
nology, infectious and non-infectious diseases, disease in-
vestigation, restraint, preventive medicine and surgery,
together with an individual research project. Training will
be given by staff at The Institute of Zoology and the Royal
Veterinary College, as well as invited speakers from other
veterinary and zoological centres. Applications are now
invited for the 1998/99 and/or 1999/2000 courses start-
ing in October 1998 and October 1999, respectively.
Full particulars and an application form are available from:
The Registrar, The Royal Veterinary College, Royal Col-
lege Street, London NW1 OTU, England, UK, Tel: +44
(0)171 468 5000, Fax: +44 (0)171 388 2342.
ANNOUNCEMENT FIELD COURSE IN VENEZUELA
The Cleveland Metroparks Zoo and Cleveland State Uni-
versity will be offering a course entitled "Field experience
in Tropical Ecology and Conservation Biology" during
the period December 1-19, 1997. The course is taught in
the tropical dry forest of western Venezuela. Primate spe-
cies occurring at the sight include red howlers, spider mon-
keys, and white-fronted capuchins. Students can study
habitat use and activity patterns of these monkeys as well
Neotropical Primates 5(3), September 1997
as participate in other studies. Program costs are approxi-
mately US$2000/student which includes airfare, lodging,
ground transportation and most meals. For more infor-
mation, contact: Tammie Bettinger, Research Coordina-
tor, Cleveland Metroparks Zoo, (216) 661-6500 ex. 214,
VHIII CONGRESS BRASILEIRO DE PRIMATOLOGIA
- Entre os dias 10 e 14 de agosto, na cidade
de Joao Pessoa foi realizado o VIII
Congress da Sociedade Brasileira de
Primatologia. 0 congress foi um dos
maiores realizados at6 o moment, corn 190 participants.
Foram ministradas sete conferencias, quatro mini-cursos,
tres mesas redondas, oito simp6sios, 42 comunica95es
orais, 58 paineis, e quatro sess5es de video. 0 ndmero de
participants e de trabalhos apresentados evid8ncia que a
Primatologia brasileira teve um considerdvel crescimento,
e que esta se consolidando cada vez mais no pafs. As
sessoes cientificas foram de um excelente nivel. Houve
uma exposigao de fotos da EstaqAo Ecol6gica de Maraca,
Roraima, cedida pelo IBAMA. Criangas da cidade de
Patos, Parafba, apresentaram desenhos de macacos, que
foram expostos no hall central. No dia 13 de agosto se
realizou a Assembleia Geral da Sociedade e as eleicges
para a nova diretoria da SBPr. Por 61timo, no dia 15 se
realizou uma excursdo h Fazenda Pacatuba, um dos locais
onde existem as melhores condiq9es de observagao de
guaribas, Alouatta belzebul, na Parafba, e7 h Reserva
Biol6gica de Guaribas, onde os participants foram
convidados a conhecer o trabalho de manejo que se esta
desenvolvendo nesse local.
Exemplares do livro de resumes do Congresso ainda sao
disponiveis. Prego: R$10,00. Escreve para: Patricia Izar,
Departamento de Psicologia Experimental, Instituto de
Psicologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Avenida Profes-
sor Mello Moraes 1721, 05508-900, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo,
A SBPr tern um home page no Internet: http://
O IX Congresso Brasileiro de Primatologia seri realizado
em julho de 1999, no Espfrito Santo. Quem tiver alguma
sugestao para o Congresso deve entrar em contato com:
S6rgio Lucena Mendes, Museu de Biologia Mello Leitao,
Avenida Jos6 Ruschi 4, 29650-000 Santa Teresa, Espfrito
Santo, Brasil, Fax: (027) 259-1182, e-mail: mbml@npdl.
Carmen Alonso, Departamento de Sistemdtica e Ecologia
- CCEN, Universidade Federal da Paralba, 58059-900 Joao
Pessoa, Parafba, Brazil.
NOVA DIRETORIA DA SOCIEDADE BRASILEIRA DE
SA reunido annual da SBPr foi realizada no
dia 13 de agosto de 1997, durante o VIII
Congress Brasileiro de Primatologia. Foi
eleita a nova diretoria para o bienio 1997-
1999, que ficou assim formada: Presidente Alcides
Pissinatti (Centro de Primatologia do Rio de Janeiro, Rio
de Janeiro); Vice-Presidente S6rgio Lucena Mendes
(Museu de Biologia Mello Leitdo, Santa Teresa, Espfrito
Santo); 1a. Secretaria Cristina V. Santos (Departamento
de Psicologia Experimental, Universidade de Sao Paulo,
Sao Paulo); 2". Secretdria Patricia Izar (Departamento
de Psicologia Experimental, Universidade de Sao Paulo,
Sao Paulo); 1". Tesoureira Adriana Rimoli
(Departamento de Psicologia Experimental, Instituto de
Psicologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo); e 2.
Tesoureiro Jos6 Rimoli (Departamento de Biociencias,
Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, Uberlandia). 0
enderego eletr8nico da SBPr 6: firstname.lastname@example.org.
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF PRIMATOLOGISTS -
CONSERVATION AND DISTINGUISHED SERVICE
A P The annual awards of the American Society
of Primatologists (ASP) were announced
during the 20th Annual Meeting of the
Society. The Distinguished Service Award was presented
to Larry Jacobsen for his long-standing commitment to
library services at the Wisconsin Regional Primate
Research Center, his significant contribution to the field
of primatology and his pioneering initiatives to disseminate
information worldwide. The Senior Biology and
Conservation Award went to two outstanding nominees:
Nancy Czekala-Gruber of San Diego, California, for her
extensive work on the reproductive biology of primates
which has provided important and fundamental
contributions in the area of primate conservation biology,
and to Jeremy J. C. Mallinson, Director of the Jersey
Wildlife Preservation Trust, Jersey, UK, for three and a
half decades devoted to the development of meaningful
conservation strategies of the Wildlife Preservation Trusts
and the role of modem zoos in the conservation of primates
worldwide. The Conservation Award went to Juan Carlos
Serio-Silva of the Universidad Veracruzana, Mexico, for
his efforts to preserve the habitats and primates of Mexico
through his field research, teaching and outreach. Five
Conservation Small Grants were funded as follows:
Kimberley A. Phillips of Hiram College, Ohio, for the
conservation of capuchin and howling monkeys in
Trinidad; Zhaoyuan Li of China, for the impacts of habitat
fragmentation on the behavior and social structure of the
white headed langur, Presbytis leucocephalus; Rondang
S. E. Siregar of Indonesia for assessing the the behavioral
competence of rehabilitant orangutans reintroduced to the
Meratus Forest, East Kalimantan; Joanna E. Lambert of
the University of Florida, Gainesville, for the status of red
colobus (Procolobus badius) populations in regenerating
areas of Kibale National Park; and Julio Cesar Bicca
Marques of the University of Illinois, Urbana (and the
Federal University of Acre, Brazil) for the cognitive aspects
of foraging decisions in Saguinus. The American Journal
of Primatology Subscription Awards were given to the
following: Julio Cesar Bicca Marques, Brazil, Mewa
Singh, India, and Arun Srivastava, India. From: ASP
Bulletin, 21(3): 1-2, September 1997.
Randall Kyes, ASP Conservation Committee Chair,
Washington Regional Primate Research Center, Univer-
sity of Washington, SJ-50, Health Sciences Building, Se-
attle, Washington 98195, USA.
PSGB WORKING PARTY FOR CONSERVATION
T The Convenor of the Primate Society of Great
Britain's Working Party for Conservation, Dr.
Sian S. Waters (Scientific Officer, Bristol Zoo
Gardens, UK) retired in September 1997, to
join a field project on the highly endangered Tonkin snub-
nosed monkey, Rhinopithecus avunculus, in Vietnam. Dr.
David A. Hill, who is currently studying Japanese
macaques, Macaca fuscata yakui, on Yakushima Island,
Japan, will be taking over. His address is: School of Bio-
logical Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton,
Sussex BN1 9QG, U.K., Tel: 01273 606755 ext. 2755,
Fax: 01273 678433, e-mail: email@example.com. We
wish Sian Waters the best of luck and success in Vietnam,
home to so many critically endangered primates, and like-
wise David Hill in running the PSGB's conservation ac-
FIELD STUDIES OF FAUNA AND FLORA, LA
Volume 11 (1997) of the Monbusho International Scien-
tific Research Progam (No. 07041124) Reports Field
Studies of Fauna and Flora, La Macarena, Colombia was
published earlier this year. It contains the following ar-
ticles: Social changes within a group of wild black-capped
capuchins, V Kosei Izawa, pp. 1-10; Co-feeding relation
of woolly monkeys, Lagothrix lagotricha, within a group
at La Macarena Akisato Nishimura, pp.11-18; Social
changes within a group of red howler monkeys, VI Kosei
Izawa, pp.19-34; Males' life history and their social rela-
tions of wild red howler monkeys Koshin Kimura, pp.35-
40; Stability of the home range of red howler monkeys -
Kosei Izawa, pp.41-46; Distribution patterns of seedlings
ofPharus virescens Doell (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) in the
Neotropical rain forest of La Macarena and Tinigua Na-
tional Parks, Colombia Mikio Kobayashi and Kosei
Izawa, pp.47-56; Stem size date of some mono-species
dominated forests in La Macarena, Colombia Akihide
Takehara and Pablo R. Stevenson, pp.57-71. The editor
of the report is Kosei Izawa, Miyaga University of Educa-
tion, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980, Japan.
A NEW PERIODICAL: THE SINGAPORE JOURNAL OF
Blackwell Publishers launched a new journal in 1997: The
Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography. It is interna-
tional, multidisciplinary, and published twice a year (June
and December). Its aim is to provide a forum for discus-
sion relating to problems and issues in the tropical world,
and includes theoretical and empirical articles that deal
with the physical and human environments and develop-
mental issues from geographical and inter-related disci-
plinary viewpoints. The journal welcomes contributions
from geographers as well as scholars from the humani-
ties, social sciences, and environmental sciences with an
interest in tropical research. Recent papers include: The
Resource Curse Thesis: Minerals in Bolivian Development
1970-1990 R. M. Auty; The Tropics: Environments and
Human Impacts Understood and Reinterpreted I. Dou-
glas; Granite Weathering in an Urban Environment: An
Example from Rio de Janeiro B. J. Smith and R. W.
Magee; Forest Fragmentation in the Humid Tropics: A
Cross-National Analysis Tom Rudel and Jill Roper; and
a special issue on Gender and Urban Space in the Tropi-
cal World. For information on subscriptions: Blackwell
Publishers Journals, P. 0. Box 805, 108 Cowley Road,
Oxford OX4 1FH, England, UK., Tel: +44 (0)1865
244083, Fax: .+44 (0)1865 381381. Guidelines for con-
tributors, please write to: The Editor, Dr. Brenda Yeoh,
Singapore Journal of Geography, National University of
Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 119260,
Tel: +65 772 3853, Fax: +65 777 3091, e-mail:
firstname.lastname@example.org. Sample copies are available via e-mail:
email@example.com. For full details
about the Journal, and others produced by Blackwell Pub-
lishers, log on to: http://www/blackwellpublishers.co.uk.
Primate Conservation: The Role of Zoological Parks,
edited by Janette Wallis, 1997, American Society of Pri-
matologists (ASP), Norman, Oklahoma. Special Topics
in Primatology, Volume 1, of the American Society of Pri-
matologists, Series Editor: H. Dieter Steklis. Price:
US$25.00 + US$2.50 in the US, US$5.00 elsewhere for
shipping and handling. ISBN 0 9658301 0 1. This book
provides detailed descriptions of in situ primate conser-
vation projects sponsored by U. S. zoological parks. As
the first volume in the American Society of Primatolo-
gists' (ASP) Book Series, it will be a valuable asset to
conservationists, zoo personnel, and all primatologists
working to strengthen the relationship between univer-
sity researchers and zoo biologists in primate conserva-
tion. Contents: Forward Russell A. Mittermeier; Preface
Neotropical Primates 5(3), September 1997
Neotropical Primates 5(3), September 1997 Page 87
- Janette Wallis; From Ancient Expeditions to Modern
Exhibitions: The evolution of primate conservation in the
zoo community Janette Wallis; The role of North Ameri-
can zoos in primate conservation Robert J. Wiese and
Michael Hutchins; Zoos and in situ wildlife conservation
- Fred W. Koontz; The conservation role of primate ex-
hibits in the zoo Kenneth C. Gold; Multi-disciplinary
strategic planning for gibbon conservation in Thailand
and Indonesia Ronald Tilson, Katherine Castle, Jatna
Supriatna, Kunkun Jaka Gurmaya, Warren Brockelman,
and Schwann Tunhikorn; Developing a conservation ac-
tion program for the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedi-
pus) Anne Savage, Humberto Giraldo, and Luis Soto;
Steady-state propagation of captive lion-tailed macaques
in North American zoos: A conservation strategy Donald
G. Lindburg, John laderosa, and Laurence Gledhill; Part-
ners in conservation: Establishing in situ partnerships to
aid mountain gorillas and people in range countries -
Charlene Jendry; Bonobo conservation: The evolution of
a zoological society program Gay E. Reinartz and Gil-
bert K. Boese; Drills (Mandrillus leucophaeus): Research
and conservation initiatives, 1986-1996 Cathleen R. Cox;
The Gateway Zoo Program: A recent initiative in golden
lion tamarin reintroductions Tara Stoinski, Benjamin
Beck, Mary Bowman, and John Lehnhardt; Zoo-based con-
servation of Malagasy prosimians Sukie Zeeve and Ingrid
Porton; Appendix: Primate conservation resources on the
World Wide Web. Checks payable to "American Society
of Primatologists". Payment must be in U. S. funds, pay-
able on a U.S. bank. Sorry, no credit cards accepted. Avail-
able from: Steve Schapiro, ASP Treasurer, UTMD Ander-
son, Science Park, Rt. 2, Box 151-B1, Bastrop, TX 78602,
The Evolving Female: A Life-History Perspective,
edited by Mary Ellen Morbeck, Alison Galloway and
Adrienne L. Zihlman. 1997. Princeton University Press,
Princeton, NJ. 344pp. Price: Cloth $60.00 (ISBN: 0-691-
02748-X), Paper $27.95 (ISBN: 0-691-02747-1). The
Evolving Female offers an outlook integrating life history
with an intimate examination of female life paths. Behav-
ior, anatomy and physiology, growth and development,
cultural identity of women, the individual, and the society
are among the topics investigated. A human female is born,
lives her life, and dies within the space of a few decades,
but the shape of her life has been strongly influenced by
50 million years of primate evolution and more than 100
million years of mammalian evolution. How the individual
female plays out the stages of her life-from infancy, through
the reproductive period, to old age-and how these stages
have been formed by a long evolutionary process, is the
theme of this collection. Written by leading scholars in
fields ranging from evolutionary biology to cultural an-
thropology, these essays together examine what it means
to be female, integrating the life histories of marine mam-
mals, monkeys, apes, and humans. The result is a fasci-
nating inquiry into the similarities among the ways fe-
males of different species balance the need for survival
with their role in reproduction and mothering. Contents:
Part I. Perspectives on Life-History Studies. 1. Life his-
tory, the individual, and evolution Mary Ellen Morbeck;
2. Changing views of female life histories Linda Marie
Fedigan. Part II. Natural History and Life-History Stud-
ies: The Mammals. What It Means to Be a Mammal; 3.
Sea lions, life history, and reproduction Kathryn Ono; 4.
Life history and reproductive success of female northern
elephant seals Joanne Reiter. Part III. Natural History
and Life-History Studies: The Primates. What It Means to
Be a Primate; 5. Social relationships and life histories of
primates Barbara B. Smuts; 6. Development of sex dif-
ferences in nonhuman primates Mariko Hiraiwa-
Hasegawa; 7. The social life of female Japanese monkeys
- Mary S. McDonald Pavelka; 8. Natural history of apes:
Life-history features in females and males Adrienne L.
Zihlman. Part IV. Anatomy, Physiology, and Variation:
The Catarrhines. What It Means to Be a Catarrhine. 9.
Reading life history in teeth, bones, and fossils Mary
Ellen Morbeck; 10. The cost of reproduction and the evo-
lution of postmenopausal osteoporosis Alison Galloway;
11. The biological origins of adipose tissue in humans -
Caroline M. Pond; 12. Female primates: Fat or fit? Robin
McFarland. Part V. Women in Human Societies. What It
Means to Be a Human; 13. Women's bodies, women's
lives: An evolutionary perspective Adrienne L. Zihlman;
14. Sex differences in human populations: Change through
time Silvana M. Borgognini Tarli and Elena Repetto;
15. Growing up female in a farmer community and a for-
ager community Gilda A. Morelli; 16. Institutional, evo-
lutionary, and demographic contexts of gender roles: A
case study of !Kung bushmen Patricia Draper; 17.
Women's work and energetic: A case study from Nepal -
Catherine Panter-Brick; 18. Flexibility and paradox: The
nature of adaptation in human reproduction Virginia J.
Vitzthum. Part VI. Life History, Females, and Evolution;
19. Social intelligence and sexual reproduction: Evolu-
tionary strategies Alison Jolly; 20. Life history, females,
and evolution: A commentary Beverly McLeod. Avail-
able from: Princeton University Press, c/o California/
Princeton Fulfillment Services, Inc., 1445 Lower Ferry
Road, Ewing, NY 08618, USA. For further information,
contact: Michelle McKenna, Tel: +1 800 777 4726, Fax:
+1 609 258 1335, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
edu. PUP Web site: http://pup.princeton.edu.
Manejo e Conservagao de Vida Silvestre no Brasil,
editado por Claudio Valladares-Padua, Richard E. Bodmer
e Laury Cullen Jr., Minist6rio de Ciencia e Tecnologia
(MCT), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientffico
e Tecnol6gico (CNPq), Sociedade Civil Mamiraud,
Brasilia. Publicagoes Avulsas do Mamiraud. Esse livro
apresenta os trabalhos do workshop com o mesmo titulo,
realizado em Bel6m em 1992, mas foi melhorado pelo
acr6scimo de novos artigos de autores convidados. Como
resultado, oferece o que hd de melhor sobre o tema no
Brasil. Esta obra, rica em estudos de casos, tornou-se ainda
melhor pela maneira diddtica como alguns autores
Neotropical Primates 5(3), September 1997
descreveram seus m6todos de pesquisa. Os t6picos
abordados incluem a exploraqAo sustentAvel de esp6cies
cineg6ticas, o manejo conservacionista da fauna e a
educagao ambiental. Numa divisdo por grupos
taxon6micos, ha oito capftulos sobre mamfferos, tr8s sobre
r6pteis e um sobre peixes, al6m de quatro capftulos de
carter mais geral. Este volume vem preencher uma la-
cuna na literature t6cnico-cientffica do Brasil, e serve de
referencia para pesquisadores, estudantes e planejadores.
Sua leitura seri muito tltil ainda para todos aqueles que se
preocupam com o uso sustentado e a conservaqao da
biodiversidade. Sumirio:Introduqao; A floresta vazia -
Kent H. Redford; Uso de levantamentos a6reos para o
manejo de populaqbes silvestres Guilherme M Mourao
& William Magnusson; Uma pesquisa em educaqio
ambiental: A conservacgo do mico-leao-preto
(Leontopithecus chrysopygus) Suzana M. Padua; Manejo
da vida silvestre em comunidades na Amaz6nia Richard
E. Bodmer & James W. Penn Jr.; Recomendaqces para
um modelo de pesquisa em felfdeos Neotropicais- Peter
G. Crawshaw Jr.; Manejo e criaqao do Caiman crocodilus
yacare do Pantanal Mato-Grossense Eli6zer Jos6 Marques
& Elias Villela Lemos Monteiro; 0 manejo do caitetu
(Tayassu tajacu) e do queixada (Tayassu pecari) em
cativeiro S6rgio Lufs G. Nogueira-Filho & Abel
Lavorenti; Estimativa da populagao de cervos-do-pantanal
no rio Parand utilizando levantamento a6reo Laurenz
Pinder; Anilises de sustentabilidade do modelo de caga
traditional, no pantanal da Nhecolandia, CorumbA, MS -
Reinaldo Francisco Ferreira Lourival & Gustavo A. B. da
Fonseca; A pesca na Amaz6nia: Problemas e perspectives
para o seu manejo Ronaldo Borges Barthem, Miguel
Petrere Jr. Victoria Isaac, Mauro Cesar L. de Brito Ribeiro,
David G. Mcgrath & Italo Jos6 Araruna Vieira, Mauricio
Valderrama Barco; Tecnicas de manejo de capivaras e
outros grandes roedores na Amazonia Jos6 Roberto
Moreira & David W. Macdonald; Manejo extensive de
jacar6s no Brasil William E. Magnusson & Guilherme
Mourao; Manejo e conservagao dojacar6-de-papo-amarelo
(Caiman latirostris) no estado de Sao Paulo Luciano
Martins Verdade; Manejo de fauna cineg6tica na Reserva
Indfgena Xavante de Pimentel Barbosa, Mato Grosso -
Frans Leeuwenberg; M6todos para estudos de ecologia,
manejo e conservaq~o de primatas na natureza Laury
Cullen Jr. & Claudio Valladares-Padua; Queixadas e
palmeiras na Ilha de MaracA Jos6 Manuel Fragoso.
Maiores informac6es: Claudio Valladares Padua, IPt -
Instituto de Pesquisas Ecol6gicas, SHIS QL28, Conjunto
8, Casa 11, 71652-285 Brasilia, D. F., Brasil.
Primate Cognition, by Michael Tomasello and Joseph
Call (Department of Psychology and Yerkes Primate Cen-
ter, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia), 1997. Oxford
University Press, Oxford. Paper: US$35 ISBN 0-19-
510624-5, Cloth: US$75 ISBN 0-19-510623-7. This book
attempts to review all that is scientifically known about
nonhuman primate cognition. The primary audience is
thus students of animal behavior and cognition, and at
least some students of human evolution, who hopefully
Neotropical Primates 5(3), September 1997
will view this topic as interesting and important in its
own right. The topic will also be of interest to students of
human cognition. Although mainstream cognitive science
has discovered much about the cognitive processes of adult
human beings and the computer programs they create, it
has not been much concerned with the phylogenetic ori-
gins of these processes. As the limitations of artificial in-
telligence become increasingly apparent, cognitive science
would do well to pay more attention to forms of natural
primate cognition that serve to situate the human version
in its appropriate evolutionary context. Contents: 1) In-
troduction, Historical Background, The Ecological Ap-
proach to Cognition, Primates and Their Lives, Plan of
the Book. Part I Knowledge of The Physical World: 2)
Space and Objects, 3) Tools and Causality, 4) Features
and Categories, 5) Quantities, 6) Theories of Primate
Physical Cognition. Part II Knowledge of The Social
World: 7) Social Knowledge and Interaction, 8) Social
Strategies and Communication, 9) Social Learning and
Culture, 10) Theory of Mind, 11) Theories of Primate
Social Cognition. Part III A Theory of Primate Cogni-
tion: 12) Nonhuman Primate Cognition, 13) Human Cog-
nition, 14) Conclusion, Theory, Research, The Preserva-
tion of Primates. Appendix, Author Index, Species Index,
and Subject Index. Available from: Oxford University
Press, Inc., 2001 Evans Road, Cary, NC 27513, USA, Fax:
919-677-1303, Tel: 1-800-445-9714.
Social Influences on Vocal Development, edited by
Charles T. Snowdon and Martine Halsberger. 1997. Cam-
bridge University Press, Cambridge. Price: US$90. For
at least 30 years, there have been close parallels between
studies of bird song development and those of the devel-
opment of human language. Both song and language re-
quire species-specific stimulation at a sensitive period in
development and subsequent practice through subsong and
plastic song in birds and babbling in infant humans, lead-
ing to the development of characteristic vocalizations for
each species. This book illustrates how social interactions
during development can shape vocal learning and extend
the sensitive period beyond infancy and how social com-
panions can induce flexibility even into adulthood. Social
companions in a wide range of species, including not only
birds and humans but also cetaceans and nonhuman pri-
mates, play important roles in shaping vocal production,
as well as the comprehension and appropriate usage of
vocal communication. Contents: 1. Introduction C. T.
Snowdon and M. Hausberger; 2. Social interaction and
sensitive phases for song learning: A critical review D.
A. Nelson; 3. Social interaction and vocal Development
In Birds Luis F. Baptista and Sandra L. L. Gaunt; 4.
Building a social agenda for the study of bird song -
Meredith J. West, Andrew P. King and Todd M. Freeberg;
5. Field observations, experimental design, and the time
and place of learning bird songs Robert B. Payne and
Laura L. Payne; 6. Vocal learning in wild and domesti-
cated zebra finches: Signature cues for kin recognition or
epiphenomena? Richard Zann; 7. What birds with com-
plex social relationships can tell us about vocal learning:
Neotropical Primates 5(3), September 1997
Vocal sharing in avian groups Eleanor D. Brown and
Susan M. Farabaugh: 8. Social influences on song acqui-
sition and sharing in the European starling (Sturnus vul-
garis) Martine Hausberger; 9. Social influences on the
acquisition of human-based codes in parrots and nonhu-
man primates Irene Maxine Pepperberg; 10. Vocal learn-
ing in captive bottlenose dolphins: A comparison with
humans and nonhuman animals Brenda McCowan and
Diana Reiss; 11. Vocal learning in cetaceans Peter L.
Tyack and Laela S. Sayigh; 12. Social influences on vocal
development in New World primates Charles T.
Snowdon, A. Margaret Elowson and Rebecca S. Roush;
13. Some general features of vocal development in non-
human primates Robert M. Seyfarth and Dorothy L.
Cheney; 14. Social influences on vocal learning in hu-
man and nonhuman primates John L. Locke and
Catherine Snow; 15. The resilience of language in hu-
mans Susan Goldin-Meadow; 16. Reciprocal interactions
and the development of communication and language be-
tween parents and children Annick Jouanjean-L'Antoine;
17. Crafting activities: Building social organization
through language in girls' and boys' groups Marjorie
Harness Goodwin. Available from: Andrew Kirszner,
Department AK, Cambridge University Press, 40 W. 20th
Street, New York, NY 10011, USA, Tel: 1-800-872-7423
(Toll Free), Fax: +1-212-691-3239; E-Mail:
The Last Frontier Forests: Ecosystems and Econo-
mies on the Edge, by Dirk Bryant, Daniel Nielsen and
Laura Tangley, 1997, 42pp. Forest Frontiers Initiative,
World Resources Institute (WRI), Washington, D. C. Con-
tributing authors: Nigel Sizer, Marta Miranda, Paige
Brown, Nels Johnson, Andrew Malk and Kenton Miller.
Data collaborators: World Conservation Monitoring Cen-
tre (WCMC), Cambridge, UK, and the World Wildlife
Fund (WWF), Washington, D. C. This report describes
for the first time the location and status of the world's
frontier forests the large ecologically intact, and rela-
tively undisturbed natural forests that still remain. It is
the opening salvo of WRI's Forest Frontiers Initiative, a
five-year, multi-disciplinary effort to promote stewardship
in an around the world's last major frontier forests by in-
fluencing investment, policy and public opinion. For each
forest frontier region in Amazonia, Central Africa, Asia,
North America and Russia WRI is building a network of
policy-makers, activists, investors, and researchers to pro-
mote alternatives to forest destruction that take advantage
of the full economic potential of forests, not just immedi-
ate revenue from logging and forest clearing. As part if
this effort WRI will help build the capacity of local orga-
nizations to carry on this work independently. Contents:
Why Do Forests Matter?; What Do We Know About the
World's Forests; WRI's Frontier Forests Assessment; Fall-
ing Frontiers; Today's Threats; Destruction's Roots; The
Frontier Forest Index; Regional Overviews; The Closing
Frontier: A Call to Action. The full text of The Last Fron-
tier Forests is available on WRI's website at
wri.org/wri/ffi/>. The printed version is available from:
The World Resources Institute, 1709 New York Avenue,
N. W., Washington, D. C. 20006, USA, Tel: 202 638 6300,
Fax: 202 638 0036.
World Health Organization Travel Health Manual,
World Health Organization, 1997. WHO International
Travel and Health Vaccination Requirements and Health
Advice, 1997 Edition. 106pp. (available in English and
French). ISBN 92 4 158022 4. Price: Sw.fr. 17.96 / US
$15.30 (in developing countries: Sw.fr. 11.90); Order No.
1189700. This booklet is addressed to national health ad-
ministrations and to the practising physicians, tourist agen-
cies, shipping companies, airline operators, and other bod-
ies who are called upon to give health advice to travellers.
In addition to summarizing the vaccination requirements
of individual countries, the booklet indicates the main ar-
eas where malaria transmission occurs and where Plas-
modium falciparum is resistant to drugs. The recom-
mended chemoprophylactic regimen is also given for each
country with malarious areas. Other chapters cover cer-
tain health hazards to which the traveller may be exposed,
and indicate the areas in. which these hazards are most
likely to occur. The booklet also recommends a number of
precautions that the wise traveller should take when visit-
ing unfamiliar places. For further information, contact:
Jacqueline Rossel .
Ballou, J. D. and Sherr, A. 1997. 1996 International Stud-
book Golden Lion Tamarin, Leontopithecus rosalia. Na-
tional Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institution, Wash-
ington D. C. Data as of 31 December 1996.
Newland, K. (comp.). 1997. North American Regional
Studbook for South American Spider Monkeys, Ateles
belzebuth, A. fusciceps, A. paniscus All Subspecies:
1996 Update. Sedgwick County Zoo, Wichita. Data
through 31st December 1996.
Quinton, N. 1997. European Studbook for Black Howlers
(Alouatta caraya). Number 3. Bristol Zoo Gardens,
Bristol. UK. 16pp. Data current through 31 December
Ruivo, E. B., Nunes, M. M., Vieira, M. M. and Silva, 0.
1966. European Studbook for the Emperor Tamarin
Saguinus imperator Goeldi 1907. Number 3. Lisbon Zoo-
logical Garden, Lisbon. 99pp. Data through 31 Decem-
Abbott, D. H., Saltzman, W., Schultz-Darken, N. J. and
Smith, T. E. 1997. Specific neuroendocrine mechanisms
not involving general stress mediated social regulation
of female reproduction in cooperatively breeding mar-
moset monkeys. Ann. N. Y Acad. Sci. 807: 219-238.
Aiello, L. C. 1997. Brains and guts in human evolution:
The expensive tissue hypothesis. Brazil. J. Genet. 20(1):
Ballou, J. D. 1997. Genetic and demographic modeling
for animal colony and population management. ILAR
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Bodmer, R. E. and J. W. Penn Jr. 1997. Manejo da vida
silvestre em comunidades na Amazonia. In: Manejo e
Conservafgo de Vida Silvestre no Brasil, C. Valladares-
Padua, R. E. Bodmer and L. Cullen Jr. (eds.), pp.52-69.
Minist6rio de Ciencia e Tecnologia (MCT), Conselho
Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientffico e Tecnol6gico
(CNPq), Sociedade Civil Mamiraud, Brasflia.
Bolen, R. H. and Green, S. M. 1997. Use of olfactory cues
in foraging by owl monkeys (Aotus nancymae) and ca-
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mammals as pollinators. Trends in Ecology and Evolu-
tion 12(3): 104-108.
Corr8a, H. K. M. and Coutinho, P. E. G. 1997. Fatal at-
tack of a pit viper, Bothrops jararaca, on an infant buffy
tufted-ear marmoset (Callithrix aurita). Primates 38(2):
Cullen, L., Jr. and C. Valladares Padua. 1997. M6todos
para estudos de ecologia, manejo e conservagao de
primatas na natureza. In: Manejo e Conservacao de Vida
Silvestre no Brasil, C. Valladares-Padua, R. E. Bodmer
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Sociedade Civil Mamiraud, Brasilia.
Cuar6n, A. D. 1997. Conspecific aggression and preda-
tion: Costs for a solitary mantled howler monkey. Folia
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De Lillo, C., Visalberghi, E. and Aversano, M. 1997. The
organization of exhaustive searches in a patchy space
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Dietz, J. M., Peres, C. A. and Pinder, L. 1997. Foraging
ecology and use of space in wild golden lion tamarins
(Leontopithecus rosalia). Am. J. Primatol. 41(4): 289-
Dixson, A. F. 1997. Evolutionary perspectives on primate
mating systems and behavior. Ann. N. Y Acad. Sci. 807:
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in Saimiri sciureus (Cebidae) and its alteration by nutri-
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Dunbar, R. I. M. 1997. The monkey's defence alliance.
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Gould, L., Fedigan, L. M. and Rose, L. M. 1997. Why be
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Neotropical Primates 5(3), September 1997 Page 91
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D. M. 1997. Genetic relatedness and alloparental
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Kierulff, M. C. 0 uso das t6cnicas de reintrodugqo e
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Leontopithecus rosalia. p.225.
Kowalewski, M. M., Zunino, G. E. and Bravo, S. P. Efecto
de la deforestaci6n sobre un grupo de aulladores negros
(Alouatta caraya). p.63.
Lazaro-Perea, C., Porfirio, S. and Arruda, M. E Scent-
marking behavior non-associated to gum eating in wild
groups of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).
Lima, E. M, Pina, A. L. C. B. and Ferrari, S. F. Behaviour
of the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus, Platyrrhini,
Cebidae) at the Fazenda Monte Verde, Peixe-Boi, Pard.
Limeira, V. L. A. G. Amplitude e uso do espago por um
grupo de Alouatta fusca em um fragmento degradado
de floresta Atlantica no estado Rio de Janeiro. p. 124.
Limeira, V. L. A. G. Ecologia comportamental deAlouatta
fusca em um fragmento degradado de floresta Atlantica
no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. p.230.
Lopes, F. A., Medeiros, I. S., Delgado, K. V. C. and
Yamamoto, M. E. Fatores envolvidos na manifestagio
da prioridade acesso alimentar de Callithrix jacchus:
Uma avaliaqao preliminary. p.82.
Mamede-Costa, A. C. and Valladares-Padua, C. Uso do
habitat por um grupo de micos-le6es-pretos
(Leontopithecus chrysopygas) em mata ciliar na Fazenda
Rio Claro. Lenq6is Paulista SP. p.132.
Marques, A. A. B. and Ades, C. Varia96es sazonais de
atividades didrias de Alouattafusca clamitans (Primates:
Cebidae) na Estaqgo Ecol6gica de Aracuri, RS. p.43.
Marques, S. W., Hirano, Z. M. B., Wanke, E. and Silva, J.
C. Comportamento e hdbitos dos bugios (Alouattafusca)
Primates, Cebidae, do Morro Geisler (Indaial SC -
Martins, C. S. and Martins, M. M. Ecologia alimentar e
sazonalidade em primatas neotropicais: Leontopithecus
e Callithrix. p.203.
Martins, M. M. Ecologia alimentar e sazonalidade em
primatas neotropicais: Callithrix. p.198.
Neotropical Primates 5(3), September 1997
Page 96 Neotropical Primates 5(3), September 1997
Martins, S. S., Limeira, V. L. A. G. and Rodrigues, M. L.
A. Comportamento de defecagao e ocorrencia de
endoparasitas nas amostras fecais deAlouattafusca num
fragmento de mata semidecfdua no estado do Rio de
Mello, M.T. Horizontes da Primatologia na Am6rica
Melo, F.R and Mendes, S.L. Comportamento vocal de
Callicebus personatus nigrifrons. p.33.
Melo, L. C. 0., Monteiro da Cruz, M. A. 0. and Silva, V.
L. Distribuigao horAria da marcagao-de-cheiro em
Callithrix jacchus na EstagAo do TapacurA, PE Brasil.
Melo, W. F., Rodrigues, A. and Ulle, A. C. Bugio preto na
regiao do Forte Coimbra. p.125.
Mendes, F. D. C. and Ades, C. Variabilidade e gramAtica
generativa em intercambios seqiienciais de muriquis
(Brachyteles arachnoides hypoxanthus). p.187.
Mendes, S. L. A vocalizagio como carter taxon6mico
em Callithrix do grupo jacchus. p.192.
Mendes, S. L. Heranga gen6tica e aprendizagem vocal em
callitrichidae: 0 exemplo de Callithrix. p.213.
Mendes, S.L. Hibridagco natural em Callithrix do grupo
Miranda, G. H. B. and Faria, D. S. Aspectos da ecologia
do mico-estrela (Callithrix penicillata) em cerrado e
cerrado denso do planalto central brasileiro. p.135.
Miranda, G.H.B. and Faria, D.S. Aspectos do
comportamento do mico-estrela (Callithrix penicillata)
em cerradao e cerrado denso do Planalto Central
Monteiro da Cruz, M.A.O. Flexibilidade social x
variabilidade gen6tica em Callithrix jacchus. p.216.
Monteiro, R. M., Albuquerque, F. S. and Arruda, M. F.
Compara~io metodol6gica do estudo do cuidado ao
filhote em um grupo silvestre de Callithrix jacchus.
Moreira, M. A. M. and Seuinez, H. N. Pseudogenes
mitocondriais e rela95es filogen6ticas entire Cebuella e
Callithrix (Platyrrhini, Primates). p.238.
Mota, M. T. S. and Sousa, M. B. C. Relagao entire a
experi8ncia no cuidado aloparental e nfveis plasmAticos
de prolactina no sagtii, Callithrix jacchus. p.151.
Moura, A. C. A. and Alonso, C. Comportamento de
forrageio e vigilancia em Saguinus midas midas
(Callitrichidae) no cativeiro. p.81.
Moura, A. C. A. and Langguth, A. Estudo da partilha de
alimento em Leontopithecus chrysomelas no cativeiro.
Muniz, J. A., Brigido, M. C. and Ferreira, H. S. Centro
Nacional de Primatas: Uma experi8ncia em Primatologia
na Am6rica Latina. p.254.
Nascimento, M. C. L. and Arruda, M. F. Atividades dos
cuidadores em um grupo silvestre de Callithrixjacchus:
Fatores que as influenciam. p.143.
Nascimento, M. D., Pissinatti, A. and Xavier, M. S. Valores
de proteinograma de Cebus apella xanthosternos (Wied,
1820) Cebidae Primates. p. 118.
Nascimento, M. D., Pissinatti, A., Xavier, M. S. and
Azevedo, A. L. C. Valores hematol6gicos de Cebus
apella xanthosternos (Wied, 1820) Cebidae Primates I
Eritrograma e plaqueta. p.115.
Nascimento, M.D., Pissinatti, A., Xavier, M. S. and
Azevedo, A. L. C. Valores hematol6gic6s de Cebus
apella xanthosternos (Wied, 1820) Cebidae Primates
II Leucograma. p.116.
Neri, F. M. and Rylands, A. B. Tamanho da drea de uso e
distancias percorridas por sauds, Callicebus personatus,
regilo do TriAngulo Mineiro. p.42.
Nogueira, C. P. Dieta e padrao de atividade de femeas de
muriqui, Brachyteles arachnoides (Primates: Cebidae).
Noronha, M. A. 0 trabalho realizado pelo Centro de
Reabilitaago de Primatas da Amazonia CRPAM. p.242.
Oddlia-Rfmoli, A. and Otta, E. Atividade materna e a
relagdo espacial mde-infante no muriqui (Brachyteles
Oliveira, D. A. G. and Ades, C. DistAncias sociais e
intera9ges no bugio (Alouattafusca clamitans). p.126.
Oliveira, D. A. G. and Ades, C. Vocalizacges de long
alcance do bugio (Alouattafusca clamitans) no P.E. da
Cantareira (Sao Paulo, SP). p.193.
Oliveira, E. H. C. and Lima, M. M. C. Estudos
cromossomicos comparativos no genero Cebus. p.100.
Oliveira, M. M. Dificuldades e estrat6gias para
conservaqAo dos primatas do nordeste. p.224.
Oliveira, M. S., Lopes, F. A., Silva, T. B., Souza, C. C.,
Aradjo, R. A.. P. and Yamamoto, M. E. Participacgo da
mde no cuidado h prole em duas esp6cies de
Oliveira, M. S., Lopes, F. A, Silva, T. B., Souza, C. C.,
Aradjo, R. A. P. and Yamamoto, M. E. Modificagao do
padrio de grooming e contato fisico em virtude da
presenga de filhotes em duas esp6cies de calitriqufdeos.
Oliveira, R. S., Tavares, M. C. H. and Boere, V.
Sazonalidade no nascimento de filhotes do Centro de
Primatologia da Universidade de Brasilia. p.152.
Palma, A. R. T. and Boere, V. Um novo modelo de
dispensador continue de alimentos para primatas criados
em cativeiro. p.91.
Paula, L., Avelar, R. P. and Boere, V. Casuistica e
tratamento de doenga peridontal em macacos-de-cheiro
(Saimiri ustus) em cativeiro. p.111.
Peregrino, H. A. S., Yamamoto, M. E. and Sousa, M. B.
C. Efeito do enriquecimento ambiental sobre a frequencia
e distribuigAo do comportamento em Callithrixjacchus.
Pereira, P., Silva, L., Alonso, C. and Beltrao, E. Descrigao
do comportamento de brincar em duas esp6cies de
calitriqufdeos (Primates: Callitrichidae). p.149.
Pessoa, V., Aguiar, M. C., Gomes, U., Tavares, M. C. and
Tomaz, C. Aprendizagem de discriminagdo de cores no
macaco prego (Cebus apella): Evidencia de
Pessoa, V., Gomes, U., Aguiar, M. C., Tavares, M. C. and
Neotropical Pfimates 5(3), September 1997
Neotropical Primates S(3), September 1997 Page 97
Tomaz, C. Percepeao de cores no macaco prego (Cebus
apella) diagnosticada atravds do teste de Ishihara. p.72.
Peters, V. M., Silva, G. G. M., Maganha, J., Lirdi, L. C.
and Guerra, M .0. Sazonalidade dos nascimentos de
sagiiis em cativeiro. p. 153.
Pieczarka, J. C., Nagamachi, C. Y. and Barros, R. M. S.
Evoluqao cromossomica em Aotus. p.177.
Pissinatti, A. Manejo integrado de primatas: Campo x
Pissinatti, A. and Nascimento, M. D. Ocorr8ncia de dia-
betes mellitus em Cebus apella xanthosternos (Wied,
1820) Cebidae Primates. p.119.
Pissinatti, A., Nascimento, M.D. and Xavier, M.S. Alguns
valores bioqufmicos e enzimiticos s6ricos de Cebus apella
xanthosternos (Wied, 1820) Cebidae Primates. p. 117.
Pontes, A. R. M. Dispersdo de sementes pela comunidade
de primatas da Ilha de Maraci Roraima. p.166.
Prado, F. and Valladares-Padua, C. Orgamento temporal
de um grupo de mico-leao-da-cara-pretaLeontopithecus
caissara Lorini and Persson, 1990 (Platyrrhini, Primates,
Callitrichidae) no Parque Nacional do Superagtii,
Guaraquegaba PR. p.49.
Printes, R. C., Strier, K.B. and Rylands, A. B.
Transferencia de femeas entire dois grupos de muriquis
(Brachyteles arachnoides) em um fragmento isolado de
Mata Atlantica em Minas Gerais. p.39.
Reis, M. L., Bizerril, M. X. A. and Louzada da Silva, D.
Registro de primatas recebidos pelo Jardim Zool6gico
de Brasilia e suas indicag6es e implicaq6es na
conservagqo. p. 158.
Rey, M. P. Comunicaci6n vocal desde la perspective de
las actividades, estructura social y context
comportamental en Callicebus cupreus ornatus. p.191.
Rfmoli, J. and Ferrai, S. F. Comportamento e ecologia de
macacos-prego (Cebus apella nigritus, Goldfuss, 1809)
na Estagdo Biol6gica de Caratinga (MG). p.231.
Rodriguez-Luna, E. Fragmentaci6n del habitat de los pri-
mates mexicanos, manejo de poblaciones in situ. p.221.
Ruiz, J. C. Salud humana, salud animal y fragmentaci6n
del habitat: El caso de Alouatta caraya en la Argentina.
Ruiz, J. C. Situaci6n de la Primatologfa en la Argentina.
Salles, L. 0. and Guedes, P. G. Filogenia dos primatas do
novo mundo e a evoluqdo do aparelho mastigat6tio
(Platyrrhini, Primates). p.176.
Santos, C. V., Otta, E. and French, J. A. Tempo de
acasalamento e Status reprodutivo da femea: A dinamica
das relaq6es afiliativas e sociossexuais em Callithrix
Santos, E. M. and Monteiro da Cruz, M. A. 0. Roubo e
contestacgo de alimento, envolvendo filhtes e outras
classes de idade, no Callithrix jacchus, na natureza.
Santos, E. M., Abreu, G. R. and Monteiro da Cruz, M. A.
0. Flores visitadas por Callithrixjacchus (Callitrichidae,
Primates)na Estagao Ecol6gica do Tapacurd, PE: Um
provivel caso de polinizagdo. p.133.
Schiel, N. and Souto, A. Aspectos do comportamento so-
cial de Saguinus midas midas no cativeiro (Primates,
Schitz, C. H. S. and Guerra, R. F. Habilidade manual de
duas esp6cies de calitriqufdeos (Callithrix jacchus e C.
penicillata) em testes comportamentais e atividades
Setz, E. Z. F. and Boubli, J. P. Ecologia alimentar e
sazonalidade em primatas neotropicais: Pithecia,
Chiropotes e Cacajao. p.202.
Setz, E. Z. F. Ecologia alimentar e sazonalidade em
primatas neotropicais: Introduqgo. p.197.
Seudnez, H. N. Uso da gen6tica na Primatologia. p.237.
Silva Jr, J. S. and Silva, R. C. Variacgo geogrifica dePithecia
pithecia Linnaeus, 1766 (Primates Cebidae). p.65.
Silva, A., Schneider, R., Sampaio, I., Gonqalves, E., Ruiz,
J. C. and Schneider, M. P. C. Molecular approaches ap-
plied to the taxonomy of owl monkeys (Platyrrhine, Pri-
Silva, R. B., Anaruma Filho, F. and Kawazoe, U.
Identificagao e andlise de endoparasitas intestinais de
Alouattafusca clamitans (Cabrera, 1940) de uma floresta
tropical urbana de Campinas, Sdo Paulo, Brasil. p. 108.
Snowdon, C. T. Communication of neotropical primates:
An overview. p.188.
Sousa, M. B. C. and Ximenes, D. R. Influencia da
experiencia do par e da condigao reprodutiva da famea
no cuidado parental em grupos cativos do sagiii,
Callithrix jacchus. p.58.
Sousa, M. B. C., Cirne, M. F C., Peregrino, H. A. S. and
Mota, M. T. S. Sazonalidade reprodutiva em femeas de
Callithrixjacchus mantidas em cativeiro. p.56.
Sousa, M. B. C., Xavier, N. S. and Peregrino, H. A. S.
Preferencia no uso das maos em atividades
comportamentais espontaneas no sagiii, Callithrix
Sousa, M. B.C. and Ziegler, T. E. Perfil da excreqao fecal
de ester6ides no Callithrix jacchus: VariagAo diurna e
resposta ao estresse. p.181.
Souza, S. B. Ecologia alimentar e sazonalidade em
primatas neotropicais: Callicebus e Aotus. p.200.
Strier, K. B. Comparative perspectives on muriquis
(Brachyteles arachnoides): What we know and don't
know after 15 years. p.228.
Tagliaro, C. H., Schneider, M. P. C., Schneider, H. and
Stanhope, M. DNA sequence of transferring gene (exon
4 to exon 6) and phylogenetic relationships among sev-
eral genera of the subfamily callitrichinae (Platyrrini,
Takase, E., Santos, C. V. and Guerra, R. F. Cross-foster-
ing entire duas esp6cies de calitriqufdeos (Callithrix
jacchus e C. penicillata). p.160.
Tillman, L, Resende, M. C. Boere, V. and Tomaz, C.
Migragio, habituagao e uso do espaqo e um grupo semi-
selvagem de sagilis do cerrado (Callithrix penicillata).
Tomaz, C. 0 macaco prego (Cebus apella) como modelo
para o estudo da psicobiologia da mem6ria. p.207.
Neotropical Primates 5(3), September 1997
Valenga, M. M. and Monteiro da Cruz, M. A. 0.
Observaq6es preliminares sobre a temperature corporal
em Callithrix jacchus de vida livre na Estagao Ecol6gica
do Tapacura, Pernambuco Brasil. p.114.
Valenqa, M. M., Oliveira, J. B., Monteiro da Cruz, M. A.
0. and SA, M. E. P. Ocorrencia do parasitismo por
Trypanoxyuris sp em Callithrix jacchus de vida livre da
Estacao Ecol6gica do Tapacuri, Pernambuco-Brasil.
Vallinoto, M., Sena, L., Sampaio, L., Schneider, H. and
Schneider, M. P. C. Evidence of nuclear integration of a
mitochondrial gene in tamarins (Genus Saguinus). p.99.
Veracini, C. Habitat and forest levels preferences of
Callithrix argentata e Saguinus midas niger in the
Estaqao Cientffica Ferreira Penna, CaxiuanA MPEG/
Vieira, R., Sampaio, L., Schneider, H. and Goodman, M.
Relaq6es intergendricas na subfamilia atelinae
(Platyrrhini, primates) atrav6s do estudo do intron 11
do gene do fator de Von Willebrand. p.101.
Visalberghi, E. Laboratory experiments on learning pro-
cesses in capuchin monkeys. p.210.
Wehncke, E. Evaluaci6n del status social de individuos
de Cebus apella nigritus, por analysis de material fecal y
observaci6n direct. P.N. Iuazu, Misiones, Argentina.
Yamamoto, M. E. and Cavalcanti Jr., M. L. B. As
aparencias enganam? G8nero e desenvolvimento em
Callithrix jacchus. p.209.
Ziegler, T. E. Hormones and parental care in callitrichids.
XV Encontro Anual de Etologia, 5-8 de novembro de
1997, Biblioteca ComunitAria, Universidade Federal de
Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo, Brasil. Organizado pela Sociedade
Brasileira de Etologia (SBEt). Informacbes e inscrinqes:
Equipe do Grupo de Estudos em Etologia GETO,
Departamento de Psicologia, Universidade Federal de Sao
Carlos, Via Washington Luiz Km 235, Caixa Postal 676,
13665-905 Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo, Brasil, Tel: (016) 274
8499, Fax: (016) 274 8362, e-mail:
Congress Brasileiro de Unidades de Conservacio, 15-
23 de novembro de 1997, Audit6rio da Reitoria da
Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, Brasil.
Informac6es: UNILIVRE Universidade Livre do Meio
Ambiente, Rua Victor Benato 210, Curitiba, Parand, Brasil,
Tel: (041) 254 5548, Fax: (041) 335 3443, e-mail:
1997 Winter Workshop on Research Involving Non-
human Primates The Way Forward, 1-5 December
1997, organized by the European Marmoset Research
Group (EMRG) and the European Primate Research Net-
work (EUPREN), Hotel Forest Hill, 28 Avenue Corentin
Cariou, 75019 Paris. Items of particular interest to those
involved in research with marmosets and -tamarins will
be covered in the first part of the meeting (EMRG Winter
Workshop, 1-3 December), and more general primatologi-
cal topics will be addressed in the second section
(EUPREN Winter Workshop, 4-5 December). Abstracts
should be sent to Leah Scott before 6 October. The pro-
gram will be finalized and distributed by 20 October. Reg-
istration: EMRG Winter Workshop DM450 or 150, Un-
dergraduates DM300 or 100; EUPREN Winter Work-
shop DM350 or 110, Undergraduates DM220 or 70.
For further information: L. Scott, Department of Biomedi-
cal Science, CBD, Porton Down, Salisbury SP4 OJQ, UK,
Fax: +44 (0)1980 613741, or C. R. Schnell, NOVARTIS
AG, Klybeckstrasse 141, K-125.2.08, CH-4002 Basel,
Switzerland, Fax: +41 61 696 62 42.
Primate Society of Great Britain (PSGB), Winter Meet-
ing New Perspectives on Nocturnal Primates, 3 De-
cember 1997, The Meeting Rooms of the Zoological So-
ciety of London, Regent's Park, London. The aim of the
meeting is to introduce nocturnal primates to those not
working on nocturnal primates and to inform them of re-
search developments. For further information please con-
tact Dr Simon Bearder or Dr Paul Honess, Anthropology
Unit, School of Social Sciences and Law, Oxford Brookes
University, Oxford, OX3 OBP, U.K., Tel: (0)1865 483760/
484941, Fax +44 (0)1865 483937, e-mail: phones@
brookes.ac.uk. Please send e-mail address for further cor-
3rd International Conference on Wildlife Management
in Amazonia, 3-7 December, 1997, Santa Cruz, Bolivia.
Co-organized by the School of Agricultural Science of the
Universidad Autonoma "Gabriel Ren6 Moreno", the Natu-
ral History Museum "Noel Kempff Mercado", and the
Tropical Conservation and Development Program of the
University of Florida. This event will be a forum for prac-
titioners, students, researchers and other professionals from
all parts of Central and South America to evaluate ap-
proaches, share knowledge and exchange ideas about wild-
life and fisheries, conservation and management,
biodiversity, the environment, and sustainable develop-
ment, along with other themes intimately linked with Ama-
zonian wildlife. Since the problems of wildlife and fish of
the Amazon basin are similar to those of most Neotropi-
cal regions, we invite all those interested in these issues
to participate. Sharing experiences throughout the Ameri-
cas will be beneficial to all aspects of wildlife manage-
ment, conservation and sustainable development. The
Conference will be a forum to review recent research and
management programs and discuss how to integrate in-
formation on wildlife and fisheries population biology with
the socio-economic realities of rural people to insure sus-
tainable use. The conference will host a variety of sympo-
siums and workshops, including several IUCN/SSC Spe-
cialist Group Meetings and a workshop to evaluate com-
munity-based wildlife management in Amazonia. The
Conference builds on the success of the previous meet-
Neotropical Primates 5(3), September 1997
Neotropical Primates 5(3), September 1997
ings on Wildlife Management in Amazonia, which were
hosted in Bel6m, Brazil in 1992 and Iquitos, Peru in 1995.
Call for Papers: Persons interested in presenting papers
are requested to submit abstracts (maximum 200 words)
for review and selection by 1 June 1997. Please send ab-
stracts via e-mail to: email@example.com. Please do not send
as attachments. For more information. National partici-
pants and observers: National Conference Coordinator,
Dr. Mario SuArez Riglos, Facultad de Ciencias Agrfcolas,
Universidad Aut6noma "Gabriel Rend Moreno", Museo
de Historia Natural "Noel KempffMercado", Casilla 1321,
Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia, Tel/Fax: (591) 336-6574.
International participants and observers: International
Conference Coordinator, Dr. Richard Bodmer, Tropical
Conservation and Development Program, University of
Florida, P.O. Box 115531, Gainesville, FL. 32611-5531,
USA, Tel: (352) 373-3186, Fax: (352) 392-0085 ,e-mail:
firstname.lastname@example.org. For updated information, please visit the
conference web site at: http://www.tcd.ufl.edu./tcd/
ASAB Winter Meeting 1997 "Behaviour and Conser-
vation", 4-5 December, 1997, Zoological Society of Lon-
don, Regent's Park, London, UK. Association for the Study
of Animal Behaviour (ASAB). Organized by Morris Gos-
ling and Mark Avery. The organizers aim to use the meet-
ing as the basis for a multi-author book. Current ideas for
possible contents include links between mating systems/
dispersal and genetic structure of populations; dispersal
and other movements in relation to habitat fragmentation
and reserve design; individual foraging behaviour and
habitat carrying capacity; mate choice, signaling, and
manipulation of captive breeding; learning and pre-release
training; and practical use of behaviour in conservation
(e.g., use of songs for censusing). Contacts: Professor Mor-
ris Gosling, Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of
London, Regent's Park, London NW1 4RY, UK, Tel: +44
(0)171 449 6600, Fax: +44 (0)171 586 2870, e-mail:
email@example.com, or Dr. Mark Avery, RSPB, The Lodge,
Sandy, Beds. SG19 2DL, UK, Tel: +44 (0)1767 680551,
Fax: +44 (0)1767 692365, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
XVIth Annual Conference of the Australasian Primate
Society, 5-7 December 1997, Launceston, Tasmania. Sup-
ported by the Launceston City Council. Theme: Macaques:
Biology and Behaviour. Papers on this theme, or on any
other primate related topic, and abstracts should be sent
to: The Editor, Australasian Primate Society, P. 0. Box
500, One Tree Hill, South Australia 5114, Australia, Tel:
08 8280 7670. Deadline for abstracts: October 17, 1997.
Gittinger Freilandtage 1997. Primate Socio-ecology:
Causes and Consequences of Variation in the Number
of Males, 9-12 December, 1997, German Primate Center,
Gbttingen, Germany. A goal of the newly-founded Be-
havior and Ecology Division at the German Primate Cen-
ter is to organize regular international conferences on
timely topics in primate behavioral ecology. These meet-
ings should provide a forum for discussion and informa-
tion for interested students and professionals from Ger-
many and abroad. Feature presentations and round-table
discussions are by invited speakers, but opportunities for
contributed talks and poster presentations will be provided.
On the final day of the conference there will be a limited
number of 15 minute oral presentations. Posters can be
displayed throughout the conference. Speakers include:
Nick Davies (University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK),
Peter Kappeler (DPZ, G6ttingen), Eckhard Heymann
(DPZ, G6ttingen), Karen Strier (University of Wisconsin,
Madison), Marina Cords (Columbia University, New
York), Jeanne Altmann (University of Chicago, Chicago),
Tom Struhsaker (Duke University, Durham), Liesbeth
Sterck (Utrecht University, Utrecht), Volker Sommer (Uni-
versity College, London), David Watts (Yale University,
New Haven), Peter Jarman (University of New England,
Armidale), Richard Wrangham (Harvard University, Cam-
bridge, USA), John Mitani (University of Michigan, Ann
Arbor), Theresa Pope (Duke University, Durham), Robin
Dunbar (University of Liverpool, Liverpool), Thelma
Rowell (University of California, Berkeley), Jan van Hooff
(Utrecht University, Utrecht), Charles Janson (SUNY,
Stony Brook), Charles Nunn (Duke University, Durham),
Carel van Schaik (Duke University, Durham), Barbara
Smuts (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor), and Tim
Clutton-Brock (University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK).
Deadline for submission of abstracts (not exceeding 250
words) is 1 August, 1997. Deadline for registration for all
participants is 10 October, 1997. Registration fees are
DM100.- for professionals and DM 30.- for students.
Please send your completed registration form, including
proof of bank transfer or Eurocheque, to: "Gottinger
Freilandtage" (address below). For further information and
registration forms please contact: Dr. Peter Kappeler or
Dr. Michael Schwibbe, "G6ttinger Freilandtage", German
Primate Center DPZ, Kellnerweg 4, 37077 Gottingen,
Germany. See also .
2 Congress de la Asociaci6n Primatol6gica Espafiola
(APE), 18-21 December 1997, Los Narejos, Murcia, Spain.
Contact: Secretaria del Congreso, Departamento de
Ciencias Morfol6gicas e Psicobiologia, Universidad de
Murcia, Campus Espinardo, 30071-Murcia, Spain, Tel:
968 36 39 53/4, Fax: 968 36 39 55, e-mail:
um.es> or .
21st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Pri-
matologists, 28 June 1 July, 1998, Southwestern Uni-
versity, Georgetown, Texas. Co-hosted by the Southwest-
ern University and The University of Texas M. D. Ander-
son Cancer Center, Science Park, Bastrop, Texas. For fur-
ther information: Steven Schapiro, University of Texas
M.D Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Veterinary
Research, Rte 2, Box 151-B 1, Bastrop, Texas 78602, USA.,
Tel: 512 321 3991, Fax: 512 322 5208.
VII International Congress of Ecology, New Tasks for
Ecologists after Rio 92, 19-25 July 1998, Centro Affari
& Palazzo Internazionale Congressi, Florence, Italy. Or-
ganized by the International Association for Ecology
(INTECOL) in conjunction with the Italian Ecological So-
ciety (SItE). Themes include: Perspectives in global ecol-
ogy; Perspectives for the ecological management of natu-
ral resources; Problems and perspectives in Mediterranean
ecosystems; Diversity concepts at different scales; Perspec-
tives in ecological theory and modeling; Key issues in
aquatic ecosystems; Perspectives in landscape ecology;
Perspectives in sustainable land use; Key issues in micro-
bial ecology; Patterns and interactions in populations and
communities; Perspectives in environmental chemistry and
ecotoxicology; Integrating ecology into economic and so-
cial development; Ecological engineering; Progresses in
ecological education. Contact: Almo Farina, Vice-Presi-
dent INTECOL, Secretariat VII International Congress
of Ecology, Lunigliana Museum of Natural History,
Fortezza della Brunella, 54011 Aulla, Italy, Tel: +39 187
400252, Fax: +39 187 420727, e-mail: email@example.com,
web site: http://www.tamnet.it/intecol.98.
Euro-American Mammal Congress, 20-24 July, 1998,
University of Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain.
Organized under the auspices of the American Society of
Mammalogists (ASM), Societas Europea Mammal6gica
(SEM) and the Sociedad Espaftola para la Conservaci6n y
el Estudio de los Mamiferos (SECEM). Also participat-
ing: University of Santiago de Compostela (USC) through
its Colleges of Sciences and Pharmacy as well as the
Consejeria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, y Montes of the
local government (Xunta de Galicia) through the inter-
mediacy of its Direcci6n General de Montes y Medio
Ambiente Natural. The meeting will emphasize the cut-
ting edge and little known aspects of scientific knowledge
of mammalian species, and communities and ecosystems
of the Holarctic. However, contributions of interest relat-
ing to mammals from other regions will also be welcomed.
Contributions will be grouped in sessions that will cover
general subjects, symposia or workshops. General mat-
ters currently projected: Behavioral Ecology, Biogeogra-
phy, Community Ecology, Conservation, Development,
Molecular Systematics, Morphology and Morphometrics,
Natural History, Paleontology, Parasites and Diseases,
Physiology, Population Dynamics, Population Genetics,
Systematics and Evolution, and Wildlife Management.
Those interested in organizing a symposium should con-
tact a member of the Steering Committee. Deadlines for
proposals 11 March 1997. The organizers request that elec-
tronic mail be used for contact whenever possible. For
more information, all queries and requests:
firstname.lastname@example.org. Circulars will also be sent by
electronic mail, and distributed through a variety of dis-
tribution lists and list servers. Postal address: Euro-Ameri-
can Mammal Congress, Laboratorio de Parasitologia,
Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Santiago de
Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain, Fax:
(34) 81 593316.
Neotropical Primates 5(3), September 1997
XVII Congress of the International Primatological So-
ciety, 9-14 August, 1998, University of Antananarivo,
Antananarivo, Madagascar. Contact: Secretariat XVII IPS
Congress, Madame Berthe Rakotosamimanana, Faculte
des Sciences, Batement P, Porte 207, BP 906, Antananarivo
101 Madagascar. Tel: 261 (03) 805 70, e-mail:
ralaiari @ syfed.refer.mg.
We would be most grateful if you could send us information
on projects, research groups, events (congresses, symposia,
and workshops), recent publications, activities of
primatological societies and NGOs, news items or opinions
of recent events and suchlike. Manuscripts should be
double-spaced and accompanied by the text in diskette
for PC compatible text-editors (MS-Word, Wordperfect,
Wordstar). Articles, not exceeding six pages, can include
small black-and-white photographs, high quality figures,
and high quality maps, tables and references, but please
keep them to a minimum.
Please send contributions to: ANTHONY RYLANDS, c/o
Conservation International do Brasil, Avenida Ant8nio
Abrahao Caram 820/302, 31275-000 Belo Horizonte,
Minas Gerais, Brazil, Tel/Fax: +55 (31) 441 17 95 or
ERNESTO RODRIGUEZ-LUNA, Parque de La Flora y Fauna
Silvestre Tropical, Instituto de Neuroetologfa, Universidad
Veracruzana, Apartado Postal 566, X-alapa, Veracruz
91000, M6xico, Fax: 52 (28) 12-5748.
LILIANA CORTtS-ORTIZ (Universidad Veracruzana) provides
invaluable editorial assistance.
Correspondence, messages, and texts can be sent to:
NEOTROPICAL PRIMATES is produced in collaboration
with CONSERVATION INTERNATIONAL, 2501 m Street, NW,
Suite 200, Washington DC 20037, USA, andFUNDAInAO
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Design and Composition: ALEXANDRE S. DINNouTI -
INTERNATIONAL DO BRASIL.
.The Pictorial Guide to the Living Primates
? -- by Noel Rowe
Foreword by Jane Goodall and an Introduction by Russell
A. Mittermeier. 500 color photographs and 16 color illus-
trations, 8.5xl 1 inches, 274 pages, 235 range maps, glos-
sary, popular books and web Sites, 1020 references and
Special 10% discount to readers of Neotropical
Primates (good until Dec 31, 1997).
Save $6.00 with this flyer.
This beautiful book illustrates the diversity of the primate
order. Each species is treated separately with at least one
photograph or illustration for 234 species of primates.
Organized like a field guide, the reader can look at hand-
some color photographs, and find basic information and a
range map for each prosimian, monkey and ape. Follow-
ing the taxonomy of Professor Colin Groves, this book
includes the many new species which have been described
in the last decade. It has a strong conservation message
and provides the current level of endangerment for each
species. Anyone interested in primates should own this
Please send me: hard bound ($71.96)
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Neotropical Primates 5(3), September 1997
^ ^^ ^-^ '~^ ^^^^ ^^~ ~'^ ~^^ ~''^ ^^^ ~^^ ^^^ ^^^~ ^^~ ~ - 'I
Anthony Rylands/Ernesto Rodrfguez Luna, Editors
Avenida Ant6nio Abrahao Caram 820/302
31275-000, Belo Horizonte
Minas Gerais, Brazil
IOD ADiionof the Houston
FOUNDA ON Parks and Recrealltion Depadment
This issue of Neotropical Primates was kindly sponsored by the Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foun-
dation, 432 Walker Road, Great Falls, Virginia 22066, USA, the Houston Zoological Gardens Con-
servation Program, General Manager Donald G. Olson, 1513 North MacGregor, Houston, Texas
77030, USA, the Grupo de Trabalho em Biodiversidade (GTB), through the Brazilian National Sci-
ence Research Council (CNPq), Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca, Coordenador do GTB, c/o Conservation
International do Brasil, Avenida Ant6nio Abrahio Caram 820/302,31275-000 Belo Horizonte, Minas
Gerais, Brazil, and the Primate Society of Great Britain (PSGB), President Hilary 0. Box, Depart-
ment of Psychology, University of Reading, Reading RG6 2AL, Berkshire, UK.