A Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group
Editors: Anthony B. Rylands and Ernesto Rodriguez Luna
PSG Chairman: Russell A. Mittermeier
PSG Deputy Chairman: Anthony B. Rylands
NUMBER 1 (MARCH, 1996)
E RRATUM ................ . .................. ........ ......... ...... ....... ..... ......... ..................................................... ...........
Distribuci6n geografica de Saguinus tripartitus en la Amazonia del Peri. Aquino, R. y Encarnaci6n, F. ...... 1-4
The early development of behavior and independence in howler monkeys, Alouatta palliata mexicana.
L yall, Z S ........................................................................................................................................................ 4-8
El trAfico de monos arafla en Mexico: el studio de un caso. Rodriguez-Luna, R., Cort6s Ortiz, L. y
C anales-Espinosa, D ....................................................................................................................................... 8-13
Evaluaci6n del estado de dos poblaciones de Saguinus leucopus para determinar areas potenciales de
conservaci6n en un sector del valle del Magdalena medio, Colombia. Vargas T., N. y Solano G., C. L..... 13-15
Some observations on primates in Paraguay. Brooks, D. M ...................................................................... 15-19
Emigration of a masked titi monkey (Callicebus personatus) from an established group, and the
foundation of a new group. M ller, K.-H ..................................................................................................... 19-21
Relative reproductive success in the mantled howler monkey: implications for conservation.
Jones, C B .................................................................................................................................................... 2 1-23
The muriqui in the Parque Estadual de Ibitipoca, Minas Gerais. Fontes, M. A. L., Oliveira Filho, A. T.
and Galetti, M .......................... ..... .............................. ....... ..................................... 23-25
Neotropical Primates Home Page .............................. ............. .................................................. 25
A newsletter for M exican prim atologists .......................................................................... .......................25
1994 Studbook for Leontopithecus rosalia. Ballou, J. D. .......................................................................... 25-26
The German Primate Center, G6ttingen. Lankeit, M. ..................................................................................26
Workshop Cientifico sobre a Mata Atlantica. Pinto, L. P. S ......................................................................... 26-27
Ecologia da Floresta A m az6nica. ....................................................... ........................ ........................... 27-28
Population Viability Analysis VORTEX Listserv. Lacy, R. C. ................................ ................. 28
Sophie Danforth Conservation Biology Fund ................................................... ..........................................28
Neotropical Primates Index 1
II N D E
Georgina D asilva Scholarship for 1996.................... ......................................................................................29
The L. S. B Leakey Foundation............................................... .................................... ...............................29
Primate Society of Great Britain Field Studies Supplement ...................................... ............. 30-31
R ECENT P UBLICAT IO NS ................................................................................................................................ 3 1-36
M EET IN G S........................... .................... ................................................................................................. 36 -3 8
NUMBER 2 (JUNE, 1996)
Taxonomic notes on Ateles geoffroyi. Silva-L6pez, G., Motta-Gill, J. and SAnchez HernAndez, A. I. ........ 41-44
Sistematica de los platirrinos: Una perspective filogen6tica. Tejedor, M. F .......................................... 44-46
Updating the two Pleistocene primates from Bahia, Brazil. Cartelle, C. and Hartwig, W. C..................... 46-48
Characteristics of two types of habitat and the status of the howler monkey (Alouatta caraya) in
northern Argentina. Zunino, G. E., Bravo, S., Ferreira, F. M. and Reisenman, C...................................... 48-50
Temporal division of labor in a primate: age-dependant foraging behavior. Jones, C. B. ......................... 50-53
Preliminary records of common marmosets (Callithrixjacchus) from the Sete Cidades National Park,
Piaui, Brazil. Digby, L., Ferrari, S. F. and Castro, A. A. J. F. ........................ ............................ 53-55
An unusual primate community at the Estaglo Ecol6gica Serra Dos Tres Irmaos, Rond6nia, Brazil.
Ferrari, S. F., Cruz Neto, E. H., Iwanaga, S., Corr8a, H. K. M. and Ramos, P. C. S.................................. 55-56
Predator (Mustela nivalis) responses in captive-bred Callithrixjacchus. Chamove, A. S ......................... 56-57
Wild primates natural reservoirs ofthermotolerant campylobacters in eastern Peru. Tresierra-Ayala, A.,
Espinoza, F. Bendayan, M. E., Bernuy A. and Romero, R. R. ............................................................... 57-58
Disocovery of a new species of marmoset in the Brazilian Amazon. Sousa e Silva Jr., J. de and
N oronha, M de A ............................................... .............. ...................... ........... 58-59
Consideraciones sobre la organizaci6n social y el sistema de pareamiento de un grupo de monos
aulladores (Alouattapalliata). Cortes-Ortiz, L. y Martinez-Morales, M. .................................................. 59-61
Urban Monkeys Alouattafusca in the municipality of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Buss. G............................. 61-62
A field study ofmuriquis in the Carlos Botelho State Park, Brazil. Talebi Gomes, M .............................. 62-63
Meeting of the International Committees for the lion tamarins............................. ................................63
PHVA for the Costa Rican squirrel monkey, Saimiri oerstedi .............................................................. 63-64
Bristol Zoo and its commitment to cebids. Waters, S. S. and Webster, D. A..................................................64
The Mamiraua Sustainable Development Reserve: A new category of protected area in the
Brazilian Amazon. Masterson, D......................................................... ... ......................... 64-65
New foundation dedicated to support for primate conservation. Mittermeier, R. A .................................. 65-66
International studbooks and registers. ....................................... ........ ....................... ........................... 66
Padres de distribuigao da biodiversidade da Mata Atlantica do sul e sudeste Brasileiro.
Pinto, L P. S. ......................... .......................... .. ....................................................................... 66-67
Anim al Behaviour Editorial Office................................. .......................................................................67
Biological bases of anim al social behavior ........................... .... ...................... ........ .................. 67
SBPr: A Primatologia no Brasil 5. Ferrari, S. F. ....................................................................................67
International Primatological Society Workshop on Methods of Primate Conservation........................... 67-68
American Society of Primatologists book series ........................................................................................68
R ECENT PUBLICATIONS .............................. ............... ................ .. .......................................... 68-72
M EETINGS............................... ................................................................ ............ ......................... 72-74
2 Vol. 4, March December, 1996
NUMBER 3 (SEPTEMBER, 1996)
An IUCN classification for the primates of Colombia. Defler, T. R. ........................................................ 77-78
The IUCN Conservation Status ofLagothrix lagothricha lugens Elliot, 1907. Defier, T. R. .................... 78-80
La primatologia en la Argentina: Estudios sobre evoluci6n, ecologia y manejo en cautiverio.
Mudry, M. D., Szapskievich, V., Hick, A., Giudice, A. M. y Zunino, G. E............................................... 80-83
New location for the muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides) in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.
O liveira, M de F. and M anzatti, L. ............................................ ................. ........................................... 84-85
Possible predation on two infant muriquis, Brachyteles arachnoides, at the Estag~o Biol6gica de
Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Printes, R. C., Costa, C. G. and Strier, K. B. .......................................... 85-86
Infanticide in a captive group of golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas).
D iego V H and Ferrari, S. F. ............................................... ............................. ............. 86-87
Notes on the distributions of the Ecuadorian callitrichids. Torre, S. de la. .............................................88
The PSG at the XVIth Congress of the International Primatological Society, XIXth Conference
of the American Society of Primatologists, Madison, Wisconsin. Mittermeier, R. A................................ 89-90
Mixed species in captivity: A Neotropical Primate Taxon Advisory Group (TAG) survey. Sodaro, V. ...........90
International Studbook for the Golden-Headed Lion Tamarin. De Bois, H .......................................... ........... 90
Ecology and behavior of brown howlers in Araucaria pine forest, southern Brazil.
M arques, A A B de ............................................................................ ................................................. 90-9 1
European Studbook for the Emperor Tamarin Update 1995. Ruivo, E. B. and Silveira, C ..................... 91-92
New semifree enclosure for common marmosets at the Institute of Anthropology,
University of Gttingen, Germany. Rothe, H. ............................ ..... .............................................92
Spider Monkeys in captivity in North America. Newland, K. ....................... ..................................... 92-93
A Biodiversity Working Group for Brazil. Fonseca, G. A. B. da.............................. .......................... 93
Sociedad Mesoamericana para la Biologfa y la Conservaci6n. Komar, ................................................. 93-94
Position available Evolutionary Morphologist, Duke University Medical Center.........................................94
Phytoecology in the N eotropics.................................................................................. ................................ 94
Research Assistant position available ................................................. 94
Est gio em ecologia de prim atas ...................................................................................... ............................94
AZA New World Primate Tag Conservation and Research Fund ......................... ......................... 95
Primates The journal of the Japan Monkey Center ................................................ ................................... 95
The Lincoln Park Zoo Scott Neotropic Fund ....................................................................................... 95-96
Elizabeth S. W atts Graduate Fellowship Award................................... ..................... ............................96
Fundag5o O Boticario de Protegao A Natureza Projetos 1996. Milano, M. S............................................. 96-97
Journal of M medical Primatology................................................................................................................ 97
XVIth Congress of the International Primatological Society, XIXth Conference of the American Society
of P rim atolog ists ........................................................ ...................................................................................9 8
New officers of the International Primatological Society (IPS) ......................................................98
New officers of the American Society of Primatologists (ASP) ..................... .......................... 98-99
A SP Conservation Aw yards. Rhine, R. ........................................................ ...............................................99
American Society of Primatologists in San Diego ....................................................... ..........................99
R ECENT P UBLICATIO N S .............................................................................................................................. 99-108
M EETING S .................................................................................. .................................................... 10 8-110
Neotropical Primates Index
SUPPLEMENT (DECEMBER, 1996)
E D ITO R IA L ....................................................................... ..............................................................................
Taller de Conservaci6n, Andlisis y Manejo Planificado para Primates Mexicanos.
Rodriguez-Luna, E., Cort6s-Ortiz, L., Ellis, S. y MacCance, E. ......................................................... 113-118
Hacia un Plan de Acci6n para los Primates Mesomaericanos. Rodriguez-Luna, E., Cortes-Ortiz, L.,
Mittermeier, R. A., Rylands, A. B., Wong-Reyes, G., Carrillo, E., Matamoros, Y., Nuflez, F. y
M otta-G ill, J. ............................................................................................................................................ 119-133
Analisis de Viabilidad de Poblaciones y de HAbitat para Alouatta palliata mexicana.
Cort6s-Ortiz, L., Rodriguez-Luna, E. y M miller, P. ................................................... ............................ 134-142
NUMBER 4 (DECEMBER, 1996)
Callitrichids at Belfast Zoological Gardens, Northern Ireland. Buchanan-Smith, H. M.,
Hardie, S. M ., Prescott, M ., Stronge J. and Challis, M .................................................................... 143-146
Predictability of plant food resources for mantled howler monkeys at Hacienda La Pacifica,
Costa Rica: Glander's dissertation revisited. Jones, C. B....................................................................... 147-149
Notes on a distributional river boundary and southern range extension for two species of Amazonian
primates. Wallace, R. B., Painter, R. L. E., Taber A. B. and Ayres, J. M............................................... 149-151
Platyrrhines in Pimenta Bueno, Rond6nia, Brazil. Ferrari, S. F., Iwanaga, S. and Silva, J. L. da............ 151-153
IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group Triennial Report 1994-1996. Mittermeier, R. A.,
Rylands, A. B., Eudey, A. A., Rodriguez-Luna, R. and Butynski, T. .................................................... 153-154
The Primate Center at the University of Brasilia. Tavares M. C. and Boere, V..................................... 154-155
Social and sexual relations of the muriqui at the Caratinga Biological Station, Minas Gerais.
C osta, C G ............................................ .................................................................................. . .......... 155-156
The diet of muriqui females, Brachyteles arachnoides, in different reproductive conditions.
N ogueira, C. P. ................................................................................................................ 156
Cytogenetic and phylogenetic studies of Alouatta from Brazil and Argentina. Oliveira, E. H. C. de...... 156-157
M esoamerican Biological Corridor Project ...................................................... ....................... 157-158
Ecuador's Maquipucuna Reserve invites visitors and researchers .................................................................. 158
W W W and Oryx W W W Sites .......................... ...... ...................... ............................. ............. 158
The Primate Information Center A premier information source ......................................................... 158-159
A SK PR IM A TE .......................................................................................... ...... .. ........................... 159-160
Measuring Behavior '96 Workshop Proceedings. Rousseau, J. ................................................................. 160
Volunteer Research Program Tambopata, Peru ............................. ............ ....................... 160
Breeding and Conservation of Endangered Species The JWPT Summer School ................................ 160-161
The Smithsonian Institution's Biological Conservation Newsletter ....................................................... 161-162
Duke University Visiting Assistant Professors ...................................................... ............................162
Andrew W M ellon Foundation............................................... ..... ............................................ .................... 162
IPS/ASP Conference. Jacobsen, L. and Hearn, J. P............................................................................ 162-163
Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia ................................................ 163-164
Primate Society of Great Britain Conservation Grants ......................... .......... ........................... 164
R ECENT P UBLICATIONS ............................................. ......................................................................... 164-174
M EETINGS ....................... ................ ........... .......... ......................... 174-176
Vol. 4, March December, 1996
Neotropical Primates 4(4), December 1996
CALLITRICHIDS AT BELFAST ZOOLOGICAL
GARDENS, NORTHERN IRELAND
Belfast Zoological Gardens has an excellent callitrichid
collection that includes representatives from all five
genera (see Table 1). Although the zoo has been at the
picturesque Cave Hill site since 1934, the development
of a new zoo began in 1977. Rather than modifying and
upgrading existing enclosures, the new zoo was started
from scratch higher up the hill. Careful research ensured
that the designs of the new enclosures met the
behavioral needs of the animals. Great emphasis has
also been placed on allowing optimum viewing for the
public. As a result, Belfast has excellent exhibits, and
this has been recognized by outside organizations, for
instance the gorilla house recently received an award
from the Universities Federation for Animal Welfare
(UFAW). The purpose of this article is to describe the
housing and husbandry of the callitrichid collection at
Belfast and to examine their breeding records over the
past 10 years.
Each group of callitrichids occupies its own indoor and
outdoor enclosure. The minimum sizes are 3.8 m3 and
7.9 m' for indoor and outdoor respectively, although
most groups live in much larger enclosures, with some
outdoor enclosures exceeding 200m3, and one being over
900m3. The housing varies between different exhibits
in the zoo but most indoor enclosures are off exhibit to
the public. They are furnished with branches, shelves, a
nest box and a heat lamp. Wood shavings cover the floor.
In situations where both indoor and outdoor enclosures
can be viewed by the public, there is dense vegetation
in both, which allows the monkeys to take cover should
they wish to. In all cases, the monkeys have constant
access between indoor and outdoor areas except during
routine cleaning and husbandry and for observational
research. Outdoor areas have a lot of vegetation, with a
great variety of diameters, orientations and springiness
of branches, providing as such ample environmental
complexity. Most enclosures have a large central pole,
or other vertical support, allowing the callitrichids
opportunities for vertical-clinging, a posture used
frequently in the wild and for which their claw-like nails
are adapted (Garber, 1991). By virtue of the amount of
flowering vegetation in the outside areas, numerous
insects are attracted, and the monkeys spend a large
proportion of the day foraging for them as they would
in the wild. The existence of natural branching is
especially important for Cebuella and Callithrix which
have a specialised dentition for gnawing holes to
stimulate the flow of gum (Coimbra-Filho, 1972;
Coimbra-Filho and Mitttermeier, 1978). Despite several
generations of being housed in captivity, this behaviour
continues in the absence of any food reward, although
artificial gum trees (see McGrew et al., 1986) have been
introduced recently to encourage the occurrence of this
natural activity. Although good enclosure design is the
most important form of "enrichment" for the
callitrichids, a number of specific enrichment devices
are given. These include novel objects and extractive
foraging devices such as boards, pineapple tops and other
objects in which mealworms and other "treat" foods are
hidden. The Cebuella pygmaea enclosure is situated
opposite the western lowland gorilla indoor area. The
contrast between the largest higher primate and the
smallest makes an interesting exhibit, and the gorillas
spend a considerable amount of time watching the
Eighteen groups of callitrichids are housed off exhibit
to the public. These are mainly ofSaguinus labiatus and
S.fuscicollis, a large number of which are kept at Belfast
forming as they do part of a research programme
examining the costs and benefits of mixed-species groups
Table 1. Callitrichid species currently kept at Belfast Zoo (1st October, 1996).
Species No. of Sex Conservation
groups Males Females Unknown Status*
Cebuella pygmaea 1 5 1 0 LR
Callithrix argentata 1 1 1 0 LR
Callithrix melanura 1 2 1 I LR
Callithrix geoffroyi 3 6 3 4 VU
Saguinus oedipus 2 4 5 0 .EN
Saguinus imperator subgrisescens 2 2 4 0 LR
Saguinus labiatus labiatts 8 10 10 6 LR
Saguinusfuscicollis weddelli 8 10 10 7 LR
Saguinus bicolor bicolor 2 2 2 0 EN
Leontopithecus rosalia 2 2 3 0 CR
Leontopithecus chrysomelas 2 3 6 0 EN
Callimico goeldii 2 1 4 1 VU
*The IUCN Mace-Lande categories (from Rylands et al., 1995): LR = Lower Risk, VU= Vulnerable,
EN = Endangered, CR = Critically endangered.
Cover photograph by Russell A. Mittermeier: Goeldi's monkey, Callimico goeldii.
Neotropical Primates 4(4), December 1996 Page 144
(Buchanan-Smith and Hardie, in press; Hardie, 1995a;
Hardie et al., 1993). A number of mixed groups have
been established that involve species which naturally
form associations in the wild. Currently, there is one tri-
specific group ofS. labiatus, S.fuscicollis and Callimico
goeldii and five mixed groups of the two tamarin species,
the largest of which consists of five S. labiatus
individuals and six S. fuscicollis. Details of how the
mixed-species groups are established can be found in
Hardie (1995a, in press). The key to the success of such
housing appears to be the provision of large enclosures
(mixed-species groups occupy at least double the area
occupied by single-species groups) along with resources
such as food, water and sleeping sites being provided at
multiple locations to reduce the potential for competition
There are two free ranging groups of callitrichids; one
ofLeontopithecus chrysomelas on exhibit in the zoo and
one mixed-species group of S.fuscicollis and S. labiatus
off exhibit. The L. chrysomelas group regularly go to
the ground to forage and play, and are often seen going
down prairie dog burrows!
Most of the callitrichid groups are fed twice daily. They
have a small feed in the early morning consisting of a
baby food ("Milupa"), peanuts in their shells, and raisins
or primate pellets. Their main feed is given arouna-
midday and consists of fruit and vegetables. A high
protein food such as marmoset jelly, eggs, chicken,
mealworms or crickets is included in each main feed
and is varied each day. Vitamin supplements are given
regularly. Water is constantly available.
The majority ofcallitrichid groups consist of an unrelated
male/female pair and their offspring. Once offspring are
at least 18 months old and have had experience with at
least two episodes of infant care-giving, they may be
removed to establish new groups or be sent to another
collection. There have been two exceptions to this
husbandry practice. The first was a Callimico goeldii
group documented by Hardie (1995b) in which two full
sisters were housed with an unrelated male. Both sisters
became pregnant and gave birth within 3 days of each
other. Due to aggression between the sisters, the infants
of the younger sister (who gave birth first) died and due
to continued aggression the younger sister had to be
The other case was of a Callithrix melanura group. It
was sent to Belfast from another zoo on 20 July 1993
and consisted of a father and a son (ages differed by
nearly six years) and an unrelated female. The older of
the two males was the presumed sire of twin female
infants born on 5 August 1993 which were raised
successfully. The next birth on 25 May 1994 was of a
singleton male, and on the day of birth the older male
(aged 9 years 1 month and presumed sire of the infant),
was attacked by the younger male. The older male died
from the injuries. he newborn infant was unharmed
and was reared successfully. The female was
impregnated by this younger male and gave birth to
triplets on 23 October 1994(151 days later). They were
premature and none survived. This younger male died
Table 2. Data extracted from the breeding records of the callitrichid collection at Belfast Zoo.
Species No. of Triplets: Sex ratio Sex ratio % Mean inter-birth Median Shortest
births twins: (male:female: surviving to surviving interval (days) inter-birth inter-birth
singletons unknown) weaning + s.e.m.(N) interval interval
Cebuella pygmaea 20 2:10:8 17:13:4 15:10:1 76% 2-47 27 216 138
Callithrix argentata 3 0:2:1 3:0:2 1:0:0 20%
Callithrix melanura 7 1:5:1 3:3:8 3:2:1 43% 191 34 160.5 160
Callithrix geoffroyi 15 3:11:1 11:13:8 8:11:4 72% 208 26 162 149
Saguinus oedipus 16 0:13:3 13:7:9 7:6:3 55% 308 50 245 160
Saguinus i. subgrisescens 10 0:8:2 3:5:10 1:3:0 22% 351 54 346 182
Saguinus 1. labiatus 15 2:11:2 6:4:20 4:1:7 40% 279 62 182 176
Saguinusf weddelli 32 1:20:11 16:20:18 11:16:9 67% 296 45 220 145
Leonlopithecus rosalia 10 3:5:2 15:6:0 10:5:0 71% 243 25 252 139
Leontopithecus chrysomelas 11 0:8:3 8:8:3 8:8:0 84% 203 26 162 127
Callimico goeldii 18 0:0:18 7:8:3 2:7:1 56% 295 47 262 171
(N = 8)
Neotropical Primates 4(4), December 1996
Page 145 Neotropical Primates 4(4), December 1996
on 4 December 1994, and a new male was introduced
on 31 January 1995, such that the group then consisted
of the new unrelated breeding male, a mother, her twin
daughters and her son. The mother gave birth on 9 July
1995 to mixed-sex twins, one of whom (the male)
survived. She had another twin birth on 17 December
1995. One of the infants died at 2 months 24 days, but
the other male twin survived. One of the twin daughters
was removed from the group on 23 December 1995
because she was not well integrated and there were signs
of aggression towards her. The unrelated male
impregnated both the mother and the remaining daughter
in the group. The occurrence of two breeding females
in captive callitrichid groups is unusual unless, as is the
case here, the breeding male is unrelated to both females.
The daughter, aged 2-years and 9 months at the time,
was the first to give birth on 19 May 1996, but neither
of the twins survived. They were found to be partially
eaten. The mother gave birth a week later on 26 May
1996, but both infants were found dead on the second
day after birth. They were unmarked at death. Both their
mother and the daughter who had given birth a week
earlier were seen to carry them on the first day. The
daughter was removed on 3 July 1996 to avoid
competition for the breeding position. On 27 July 1996,
the breeding male (five years old) was found dead as a
result of injuries. It appeared he had fought with the
oldest son in the group, aged 2 years 2 months at the
time, who was also injured but recovered. Despite the
increasing number of examples of polygynous and
polyandrous matings reported for wild Callithrix groups
(e.g., Digby and Ferrari, 1994; Ferrari and Lopes Ferrari,
1989), this description of aggression and the inability of
two related females or males to live peacefully together
in captivity with an unrelated opposite-sexed mate once
again suggests that the most compatible grouping in the
confines of captivity is that of a monogamous family.
The extent of successful breeding among the callitrichids
varies enormously both between species, and between
individuals (Table 2). The most successful breeding has
been with L. chrysomelas, who have raised 84% of 19
infants to weaning (2 months). Belfast also has extremely
good breeding records for C. pygmaea, C. geoffroyi and
L. rosalia. The records for S. labiatus are improving.
Belfast has recently acquired several new individuals in
its collection, whose rearing histories are unknown.
Compared to S. fuscicollis, this species has taken a
considerable period to settle down, and only recently
have several groups started to breed and rear
successfully. In S. labiatus and those other species where
infant survivorship is low, analysis of the records shows
that it is generally the case of one pairing continuously
failing to rear infants despite regular births. The role of
prior infant caregiving is known to be extremely
important for all callitrichids (although it may be more
important for Saguinus sp. than Callithrix sp., see Tardif
et al., 1984) and the lack of such experience is the most
probable cause of failure in these groups. In some pairs,
the breeding success has improved over consecutive
births, while in others, the husbandry practice of pairing
a female who fails to rear with a male who is a proven
breeder and caretaker has been more successful.
For marmosets and tamarins, twinning is the norm, and
in cases where triplets have been born on no occasion
have all three infants survived. There is no clear sex
ratio bias at birth for any of the species except for S.
oedipus, with a ratio of 13 males to 7 females.
Interestingly, the males were less likely to survive to
weaning resulting in a nearly identical sex ratio at this
It is impossible to determine gestation periods for
callitrichids in the Belfast collection, but data on
interbirth intervals (with live births) are of interest in
this respect (Table 2). The shortest IBI of 138 days for
Cebuella pygmaea is consistent with gestation periods
of 133-140 days given by Christen (1968) and Soini
(1988). The shortest IBI for C melanura is 160 days
and for C. geoffroyi it is 149 days. C.jacchus is reported
to have a gestation of 148 4.3 days (Hearn and Lunn,
1975). The IBI for C. geoffroyi suggests that the gestation
may be as short or shorter than C. jacchus.
The shortest IBI of 145 days for Saguinusfuscicollis is
as low as previous estimates of gestation (145-152 days:
Wolfe et al., 1975). As with the Cebuella and C. geoffroyi
described above it appears that the females must have
become pregnant very shortly after birth. The shortest
IBI's for the other Saguinus sp. are longer, and may be
in line with observations from the wild reported by Soini
and Soini (1982), that the smaller bodied S. fuscicollis
have a shorter gestation, IBI and weaning length than
the larger-bodied members of the S. mystax group. It is
interesting to note that the shortest IBI recorded for L.
chrysomelas of 127 days is in line with the gestation of
L. rosalia which is around 125-132 days (Kleiman, 1977)
and again this shows that the female became pregnant
very shortly after birth assuming gestation is of similar
duration in this species. The shortest IBI for Callimico
was 171 days. Gestation is estimated at 149 days (Ziegler
et al., 1989). There are insufficient data to analyse birth
seasonality in any of the species as yet, but birth clusters
are apparent for C. geoffroyi: 47% of the 15 births
occurred from September to December. There was also
a spring peak for S. oedipus, with 44% of the 16 births
occurring in April and May.
Zoological collections have the potential to play four
Neotropical Primates 4(4), December 1996
Neotropical Primates 4(4), December 1996 Page 146
main roles: in conservation, in education, in recreation
and in research. Belfast fulfils these four roles. A great
many of the animals in the Belfast collection are part of
National, European or Global Breeding Programmes.
For example 86% of the 59 mammal species kept at
Belfast are part of breeding programmes. In terms of
education, the combination of excellent signs informing
visitors about the animals on exhibit, the activities of
the education centre, particularly with school children,
and the regular special events concerned with education
and conservation issues ensures that Belfast plays a
strong role. Recreationally, many local people and
visitors to Belfast enjoy a day out at the Zoo. Finally,
the commitment of Belfast Zoo to research is
exceptional. Not only is there a large enough sample
size of monkeys of the same species for experimental
studies of behaviour but, in addition, these monkeys are
housed off exhibit to the public which minimises
disturbance during data collection. Should anyone wish
to study callitrichids, or any other animal at Belfast Zoo,
they should, in the first instance, contact John Stronge,
Director, at the address below.
Hannah M. Buchanan-Smith, Department of
Psychology, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA,
Scotland, Scott M. Hardie, School of Social Sciences,
Division of Psychology, University ofAbertay Dundee,
Marketgait House, 158 Marketgait, Dundee, DDI 1NJ,
Scotland, Mark Prescott, Department of Psychology,
University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA, Scotland, John
Stronge and Mark Challis, Belfast Zoological Gardens,
Antrim Road, Belfast, BT36 7PN, Northern Ireland.
Buchanan-Smith, H. M. and Hardie, S. M. In press.
Tamarin mixed-species groups: An evaluation of a
combined captive and field approach. Folia Primatol.
Christen, A. 1968. Haltung und Brutbiologie von
Cebuella. Folia Primatol. 8:41-49.
Coimbra-Filho, A. F. 1972. Aspectos in6ditos do
comportamento de sagiiis do genero Callithrix
(Callithricidae, Primates). Rev. Brasil. Biol. 32(4): 505-
Coimbra-Filho, A. F. and Mittermeier, R. A. 1978. Tree-
gouging, exudate-eating, and the "short-tusked" con-
dition in Callithrix and Cebuella. In: The Biology and
Conservation of the Callitrichidae, D. G. Kleiman
(ed.), pp.105-115. Smithsonian Institution Press,
Washington, D. C.
Digby, L. J. and Ferrari, S. F. 1994. Multiple breeding
females in free-ranging groups of Callithrixjacchus.
Int. J. Primatol. 15:389-397.
Ferrari, S. F. and Lopes Ferrari, M. A. 1989. A re-evalu-
ation of the social organisation of the Callitrichidae,
with special reference to the ecological differences
between genera. Folia Primatol. 52:132-147.
Garber, P. A. 1991. A comparative study of positional
behaviour in three species of tamarin monkeys. Pri-
Hardie, S. M. 1995a. The behaviour of mixed-species
tamarins groups (Saguinus labiatus and Saguinus
fuscicollis). Unpubl. Ph.D. thesis, University of
Hardie, S. M. 1995b. Do subordinate female Callimico
disperse from their social groups? Folia Primatol.
Hardie, S. M. In press. Mixed-species groups of sympa-
tric tamarins as a way of exhibiting tamarins. Int. Zoo
Hardie, S. M., Day, R. T. and Buchanan-Smith, H. M.
1993. Mixed species Saguinus groups at Belfast Zoo-
logical Gardens. Neotropical Primates 1(4):19-21.
Hearn, J. P. and Lunn, S. F..1975. The reproductive bi-
ology of the marmoset monkey, Callithrixjacchus. In:
Breeding Simiansfor Developmental Biology, Labo-
ratory Animal Handbook, No. 6, F. T. Perkins and P.
N. O' Donoghue (eds.), pp.191-202. Laboratory Ani-
mals Ltd., London.
Kleiman, D. G. 1977. Monogamy in mammals. Q. Rev.
Biol. 52: 36-69.
McGrew, W. C., Brennan, J. A. and Russell, J. 1986.
An artificial "gum-tree" for marmosets (Callithrixj.
jacchus). Zoo Biol. 5: 45-50.
Rylands, A. B., Mittermeier, R. A. and Rodriguez-Luna,
E. 1995. A species list for the New World primates
(Platyrrhini): Distribution by country, endemism, and
conservation status according to the Mace-Lande sys-
tem. Neotropical Primates, 3 (suppl.): 113-160.
Soini, P. 1988. The pygmy marmoset, genus Cebuella.
In: Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical Primates,
Vol. 2, R. A. Mittermeier, A. B. Rylands, A. F.
Coimbra-Filho and G. A. B. Fonseca (eds.), pp 79-
129. World Wildlife Fund, Washington, D.C.
Soini, P. and Soini, M. 1982. Distribuci6n geograficay
ecologia poblacional de Saguinus mystax (Primates,
Callitrichidae). Informe de Pacaya No. 6, Ordeloreto,
DRA/DFF, Iquitos, Peru.
Tardif, S. D., Richter, C. B. and Carson, R. L. 1984.
Effects of sibling rearing experience on future repro-
ductive success in two species of Callitrichidae. Am.
J. Primatol. 6: 377-380.
Wolfe, L. G., Deinhardt, F., Ogden, J. D., Adams, M. R.
and Fisher, L. E. 1975. Reproduction of wild-caught
and laboratory-born marmoset species used in bio-
medical research (Saguinus sp., Callithrixjacchus).
Lab. Anim. Sci. 25:802-813.
Zeigler, T. E., Snowdon, C. T and Warneke, M. 1989.
Postpartum ovulation and conception in Goeldi's mon-
key, Callimico goeldii. Folia Primatol. 52:206-210.
Neotropical Primates 4(4), December 1996
Neotropical Primates 4(4), December 1996
PREDICTABILITY OF PLANT FOOD RESOURCES
FOR MANTLED HOWLER MONKEYS AT HACIENDA
LA PACIFICA, COSTA RICA: GLANDER'S
Differential use of food resources is one of the principal
modes of coexistence among organisms. Groups of
mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata Gray) at
Hacienda La Pacifica, Cafias, Guanacaste, Costa Rica,
share an environment, tropical dry forest (see Frankie et
al., 1974), that is predictable ("autocorrelated") between
seasons (Janzen, 1967; Jones, in press), but the degree
of within-season predictability has not been evaluated.
Since measures of predictability will reflect the carrying
capacity of the environment at any time (see
Roughgarden, 1979), howlers might be expected to use
environmental cues to "track" temporal fluctuations in
resource levels. In a time-varying environment such as
that at La Pacifica, however, population parameters will
at times undershoott", at times "overshoot" carrying
capacity and, at other times, variations in population
parameters may be a function of environmental
stochasticity ("discontinuity") rather than predictability.
The purpose of this note is to document variation
(temporal heterogeneity) of food resources for mantled
howler monkeys at La Pacifica in order to test the idea
that where heterogeneity is "fine-grained" relative to
generation time (T), animals will "track" the
environment with behavioral and/or physiological rather
than genetic mechanisms (Slobodkin and Rapoport,
1974; Emlen, 1973). A "fine-grained" environment is
defined as one in which environmental variations are
shorter than T (i.e., occur several times in an organism's
lifetime). Based upon the census of mantled howlers at
La Pacifica by Dr. Norman J. Scott, Jr. (U.S. Fish and
Wildlife Service) and his assistants, including this author
(reported in Malmgren, 1979), I have estimated T to be
6.27 years (Jones, in press).
Tree Abundance and Species Used for Food
The foraging strategy of A. palliata at La Pacifica has
been described by Glander (e.g., 1975). His studies in
riparian habitat showed that the diurnal and wholly
herbivorous howlers spent about 24% of their yearly
activity "budget" feeding. Six plant families accounted
for about 75% of howler feeding time, and three of these
(Anacardiaceae, Mimosaceae, and Papilionaceae)
accounted for about 61% of total feeding time with about
18% of this total time spent feeding upon flowers
(including buds). Glander showed that flowers, in
addition to leaf flush and fruit, are a "preferred" food
type for howlers who eat, for example, inflorescences
of all six species of the Mimosaceae which they use for
nutrients and energy. Glander (see also 1978, 1981)
likewise demonstrated that five of these species (Albizzia
adinocephala, Enterolobium cyclocarpum, Inga vera
var. spuria, Pithecolobium longifolium, and P. saman)
are among the 25 species used most often for food by
howlers and that discriminative feeding may occur in
response to phenological patterns within and between
seasons, habitats, species, and individual trees that
produce qualitative and quantitative differences among
plant parts over time and space.
Glander (1975) identified every tree species used as food
by one group of mantled howlers in riparian habitat at
La Pacifica and classified each species by Family. The
Spearman Rank correlation coefficient (r) between the
number of species per Family used by these howlers
and the number of individual trees of that Family present
on the group's home range is positive (+0.79) and
significant (p<0.01), suggesting that animals are
primarily sampling from the most common Families of
trees that they useforfood.
Temporal Patterns of Food Available per Month
Glander (1975) reports the food available per month for
the top 25 species used most often by his group. Food
was categorized by tissue type new leaves, flowers,
and fruit the howlers' preferred diet. From Glander's
data it is possible to calculate the number of species out
of 25 producing new leaves, flowers or fruit each month.
Table 1 presents these data. In absolute terms, there are
more species producing new leaves than flowers, and
flowers than fruit in each month except June, July, and
August (wet season; see Frankie etal., 1974) when more
species are producing fruit than flowers. These
calculations do not take into consideration variation in
tree sizes or fluctuations in phenophases within and
between months or hierarchical food preferences which
might govern patterns of howler group dispersion over
time (see Hubbell, 1979). Nonetheless, these data permit
relative assessment of preferred plant tissue availability
Table 1. The number of species producing new leaves, flowers and
fruit per month for the top 25 preferred tree species (after Glander,
1975, Table 41).
Month New Leaves Flowers Fruit
January 10 6 5
February 16 13 7
March 17 13 6
April 17 11 7
May 18 8 8
June 11 4 7
July 11 4 5
August 11 2 4
September 13 5 4
October 15 4 4
November 11 5 2
December 12 5 4
Neotropical Primates 4(4), December 1996
On average, 13.5 + 2.9 (mean + standard deviation) of
the 25 top species are in new leaf phenophase per month,
per year; 6.67 + 3.73 species have flowers; and 5.67 +
1.3 have fruit. The coefficients of dispersion for these
phenophases are 0.62, 2.09, and 0.30, respectively.
Absolute diversity of new leaves is greater across months
than for flowers and fruit since more species exhibiting
new leaf flush are available every month, on average.
This pattern of preferred food availability may influence
food choice and group dispersion in howlers, although
these features of howler socioecology will also be
affected by the number of individual trees per species,
tree size and architecture, and food quality, as well as
other factors (e.g., Schoener, 1971; D. E. Wilson, pers.
Coefficients of dispersion for new leaves and fruit are
repulsed (more observations than expected around a
central tendency), whereas flower dispersion is clumped
(more observations than expected at tails of distribution).
What do these phenomena imply for howlers? Clumping
of species in flower shows that more of the 25 preferred
species were in flower or not in flower than one would
expect if flowering across species were independent.
This effect could be explained by flowering synchrony
within and between species and suggests that a similar
proximate cue triggers flowering at about the same time
across species across months. This cue is understood to
be the cessation of rainfall in Central American forests
(Janzen, 1967; Frankie et al., 1974).
The repulsed distributions of new leaves and fruit are
more difficult to interpret than the clumped distribution
for flowers, although repulsion does imply that new
leaves and fruit are more evenly dispersed across months
since about the same number of species exhibit new
leaves or fruit over time. Although the clumped
distribution of flowers imply that they are a highly
predictable food source to howlers when they are
available, it is not clear whether the relatively even
dispersion of new leaves and fruit translates into
temporal predictability for howlers. It is likely that one
advantage to organisms of foraging on a traditional home
range would be an increase in relative stability gained
from fine-tuned adjustment to the phenological rhythms
of a constant set of trees (see Jones, 1983).
A coefficient of variation (CV) was calculated for the
number of months preferred food (new leaves, flowers,
and fruit) was available for the 25 favored species. Not
every preferred tree species is used for each of the three
phenophases. New leaves, flowers, and fruit displayed
CV's of 0.30 (8.6 + 2.6 months), 0.87 (5.3 + 4.6), and
0.47 (6.3 + 2.98), respectively. Apparently, the
availability of flowers fluctuates more and new leaves
and fruit, less, per month than either new leaves or fruit,
consistent with the analysis of monthly species diversity
as a function of tissue type already reported.
Glander's (1975, Table 41) results on tree phenologies
also permit an evaluation of the relative degree of
temporal clumping or randomness of new leaves, flowers
and fruit for each species. A "runs test" (Siegel, 1956)
was performed on the pattern of availability of each
preferred phenophase for each of the 25 favored tree
species. Sixteen "runs" (8 new leaves, 6 flowers, and 2
fruit) for 14 species could not be evaluated due to
insufficient frequency of "runs". Twenty-five "runs" (9
new leaves, 11 flowers, and 5 fruit) of phenophases for
16 tree species exhibited a random pattern of plant tissue
availability for one or more of the three preferred
phenophases. Ten "runs" (1 new leaves, 5 flowers, and
4 fruit) of 9 of the 25 favored tree species exhibited
significant clumping in time (p<0.05). That one or more
phenophases of the 16 top tree species exhibited a
random distribution in time and of 9, a clumped
distribution in time, indicates that uncertainty and
resource clumping are constant components of the local
conditions in which howlers work to survive and
reproduce (e.g., Wittenberger, 1980).
A reanalysis of Glander's (1975) data leads to the
conclusion that howler populations at La Pacifica are
influenced by both predictable and unpredictable factors
related to the dispersion of their preferred food, within
and between seasons. Emlen (1973) proposes that
organisms in a "fine-grained" environment, such as that
of the howlers in Guanacaste, will respond to temporal
heterogeneity with behavioral and physiological
responses and a monomorphic genotype. Malmgren
(1979) has shown that howler genotypes are highly
monomorphic, implying a "generalist" strategy (Emlen,
1973). Numerous studies document the rich array of
behaviors (e.g., Jones, 1995) and physiological responses
(e.g., Glander, 1978) displayed by howlers. Studies of
the temporal heterogeneity ofA. palliata and other taxa
are important to basic as well as conservation ecology,
since an increase in temporal heterogeneity with habitat
fragmentation may lead to mortality, negative population
growth, and eventual extinction. This observation
implies that evolved strategies to the conditions
described in this note are eventually limited in their
ability to cope with environmental change.
I thank R. Thorington, Jr., D. Wilson, and P. Hertz for
input on a related draft of this note. I also appreciate the
support and advice of K. Glander during all phases of
my work at Hacienda La Pacifica.
Neotropical Primates 4(4), December 1996
Clara B. Jones, Institute of Animal Behavior, Rutgers
University Newark, 101 Warren Street, Newark, New
Jersey 07102, USA.
Emlen, J. M. 1973. Ecology: An Evolutionary Approach.
Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Reading, MA.
Frankie, G. W., Baker, H. G., and Opler, P. A. 1974.
Comparative phenological studies of trees in tropical
wet and dry forests in the lowlands of Costa Rica. J.
Glander, K. E. 1975. Habitat and Resource Utilization:
An Ecological View of Social Organization in Mantled
Howling Monkeys. Unpubl. Ph.D. Dissertation, Uni-
versity of Chicago, Chicago.
Glander, K. E. 1978. Howling monkey feeding behav-
ior and plant secondary compounds: A study of strat-
egies. In: The Ecology of Arboreal Folivores, G. G.
Montgomery (ed.), pp. 561-573. Smithsonian Institu-
tion Press, Washington, D.C.
Glander, K. E. 1981. Feeding patterns in mantled howl-
ing monkeys. In: Foraging Behavior: Ecological and
Psychological Approaches, A. Kamil and T. Sargent
(eds.), pp. 231-258. Garland Press, New York.
Hubbell, S. P. 1979. Tree dispersion, abundance and di-
versity in a tropical dry forest. Science 203:1299-1309.
Janzen, D. H. 1967. Synchronization of sexual repro-
duction of trees with the dry season in Central America.
Jones, C. B. 1983. Do howler monkeys feed preferen-
tially upon legume flowers at flower-opening time?
Jones, C. B. 1995. Dispersal in mantled howler mon-
keys: a threshold model. Mastozoologia Neotropical
Jones, C. B. Life history patterns of howler monkeys in
a time-varying environment. Boletim Primatol6gico
Latinoamericano, in press.
Malmgren, L. A. 1979. Empirical Population Genetics
of Golden Mantled Howling Monkey (Alouatta
palliata) in Relation to Population Structure, Social
Dynamics and Evolution. Unpubl. Ph.D. Dissertation,
University of Connecticut, Storrs.
Roughgarden, J. 1979. Theory of Population Genetics
and Evolutionary Ecology. Macmillan, New York.
Schoener, T. W. 1971. Theory of feeding strategies. Ann.
Rev. Ecol. Syst. 2:369-404.
Siegel, S. 1956. Nonparametric Statistics. McGraw-Hill,
Slobodkin, L. B. and Rapaport, A. 1974. An optimal
strategy of evolution. Quart. Rev. Biol. 49:181-200.
Wittenberger, J. F. 1980. Group size and polygamy in
social mammals. Am. Nat. 115:197-222.
NOTES ON A DISTRIBUTIONAL RIVER BOUNDARY
AND SOUTHERN RANGE EXTENSION FOR TWO
SPECIES OF AMAZONIAN PRIMATES
Despite over twenty years of intensive field research in
the Neotropics, new species of large mammals,
particularly primates, are still being discovered today
(e.g., Ferrari and Queiroz, 1994; Lorini and Persson,
1990; Mittermeier et al., 1992). However, from a
conservation viewpoint, new distribution records for
endangered and threatened species are as important, for
example, the significant population of giant otter,
Pteronura brasiliensis, recently encountered in eastern
Bolivia (Taber et al., in prep.). As further regions of the
vast Amazonian basin are explored it is vital to recognize
the scientific and conservation importance of publishing
sightings of rare and endangered species, particularly if
localities represent range extensions.
Recent analysis has demonstrated the importance of river
boundaries as limiting factors for the distribution of
Amazonian primates (Ayres and Clutton-Brock, 1992).
Intuitively, the low water width and annual discharge of
a given river are important factors to consider when
assessing the similarity of primate communities on each
bank, since both are likely to affect the river-crossing
ability of a given primate species. Ayres and Clutton-
Brock (1992) measured the width of a river during the
dry season at the midpoint of the river's length, and found
that body size and the ability to colonize vdrzea (white-
water inundated) or igap6 (black-water inundated) forest
habitats seem to be the most important interspecific
differences in how rivers affect different primate species'
The following observations were made whilst
conducting mammalian surveys and ecological research
at "Lago Caiman" (130 35.64' S, 600 54.74' W) in the
Flor de Oro region of the Noel KempffMercado National
Park, between September 1991 and December 1992, and
again from February to December 1995. This protected
area is situated on the edge of the Brazilian Shield in
north-eastern Santa Cruz Department, Bolivia. The
eastern limit ofthe park is the Guapord/Itefiez river which
is also the border with neighboring Brazil. At Flor de
Oro the dry season river width is between 100-150 m.
In early April 1992, two primates, identified as white-
faced bearded saki monkeys (Chiropotes albinasus) were
observed in igap6 forest at the river's edge in Brazil
(130 32.63' S, 600 56.49' W). Both individuals had a
striking red colouration around the nasal and genital
areas. This species was not encountered again during
this field season, probably because it predominantly
occurs in terrafirme forest, with only occasional reports
Neotropical Primates 4(4), December 1996
in flooded forest (Ayres, 1989). In 1995 we observed
groups of Chiropotes albinasus in igap6 forest on three
occasions between March and April, suggesting a
seasonal use of this habitat at the end of the wet season.
Previous distributional records suggest these sightings
represent a new southern limit for this threatened
Brazilian endemic (Ayres, 1989; Emmons, 1990; Ferrari,
1995; Hershkovitz, 1985), extending its known range
by about 129 km (see Fig. 1).
Similarly, between April and June 1992, bare-eared
squirrel monkeys, Saimiri ustus, were encountered on
three occasions during research activities, exclusively
in a 500 metre stretch of igap6 forest on the Brazilian
side of the river (13033.75' S, 60055.47' W). Group size
varied from 10 to 40 individuals, although further
undetected animals were probably present. Observed
individuals foraged along the lower level of the riverside
vegetation, once in association with a group of brown
capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). In 1995, Saimiri ustus
was encountered in the same area of igapd forest three
times between March and April, again suggesting a
seasonal use of this habitat. On a fourth occasion Saimiri
ustus was observed in close association with Chiropotes
albinasus. Following Hershkovitz (1984), these sightings
represent a southern range extension of about 130 km
for this taxon (see Fig. 1).
In the Flor de Oro region, primate communities residing
on either side of the Guapor6/Itefiez river appear to be
considerably different. On the Bolivian side of the river
the community includes Callithrix argentata melanura,
Aotus azarai, Cebus apella, Alouatta seniculus, A.
caraya, and Ateles chamek (Wallace et al., in prep.). All
of these, apart from Callithrix and Aotus, were recorded
on the Brazilian bank along with Callicebus brunneus,
Saimiri ustus, Pithecia irrorata and Chiropotes
albinasus. It should be noted that the Brazilian
observations were restricted to those primates
encountered whilst travelling on the river, whereas the
Bolivian information is a product of all sightings during
extensive field work. Using analytical techniques
adopted by Ayres and Clutton-Brock (1992), and
considering only species observed from the river (i.e.,
Aotus and Callithrix are not counted for Bolivia), the
area has a bank similarity index score of 75%, calculated
as: % species on side A common to side B + % on side
B common to side A, divided by two. In fact, reliable
anecdotal reports suggest that both Aotus sp. and
Callithrix sp. occur on the Brazilian side of the river (L.
Garcia, pers. comm.). Following Hershkovitz (1983),
the Guapor6 represents a boundary for A. azarai and the
Brazilian Aotus is probably A. nigriceps, though we have
no specimens. Also, according to previous distributional
information, the Callithrix on the Brazilian side is
probably C. argentata (Emmons, 1990). Using this rather
speculative approach results in a bank similarity score
I I- VNEZUELA 'q
Scimnl usft td6ibulon
Figure I. Hypothetical distribution maps for Chiropotes albinasus (v. Hershkovitz, 1985) and Saimiri ustus (v. Hershkovitz.
1984), and the location of the Lago Caiman study site. x marks closest previously known site for Saimiri ustus and + marks
the closest previously known site for Chiropotes albinasus.
Page 151 Neotropical Primates 4(4), December 1996
Both these bank similarity scores are lower than black
water rivers of similar width previously considered in
Amazonian Brazil (Ayres and Clutton-Brock, 1992).
Given the provisos that we have sampled extensively
only in one area, and that anecdotal reports suggest
Chiropotes may occur in Bolivia further east, it appears
that the Guapord/Itefiez represents a natural boundary
for several species of primate in this region. Previously
published distributional information regarding these
species, and the hypothetical range maps drawn up are
in agreement with this observation (Ayres, 1989;
Emmons, 1990; Hershkovitz, 1984, 1985, 1987).
Whether these species' distributions are limited purely
by the physical river boundary, which seems dubious
given the relatively large size of some of the taxa halted
and the narrowness of the river, or if vegetational
differences in the two banks also play an important role
remains to be investigated.
Reports from local Brazilian inhabitants of a primate
species known locally as "macaco barrigudo", suggest
that the interior forests of this region of Brazil also
include woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha). This
suggestion underlines the need for further primate
surveys in this region, especially on the Brazilian bank
where primate diversity appears to be high and includes
several threatened species (Chiropotes albinasus, Ateles
Chamek, and possibly Lagothrix lagotricha).
The study at Lago Caiman was supported by a grant to
A. Taber from the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS).
Considerable logistical support was received whilst at
Flor de Oro from Fundaci6n Amigos de la Naturaleza
(FAN) and their local employees. We also thank J.
Robinson for his comments on an earlier draft of this
R. B. Wallace, R. L. E. Painter, Wildlife Conservation
Society, 185th Street and Southern Boulevard, Bronx,
New York, 10460, USA, and Department of Psychology,
University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK, A. B. Taber
and J. M. Ayres, Wildlife Conservation Society, 185th
Street and Southern Boulevard, Bronx, New York,
Ayres, J. M. 1989. Comparative feeding ecology of the
uakari and bearded saki, Cacajao and Chiropotes. J.
Hum. Evol. 18:697-716.
Ayres, J. M. and Clutton-Brock, T. H. 1992. River
boundaries and species range size in Amazonian pri-
mates. Am. Nat. 140:531-537.
Emmons, L. H. 1990. Neotropical Rainforest Mammals:
A Field Guide. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Ferrari, S. F. 1995. Observations on Chiropotes
albinasus from the Rio dos Marmelos, Amazonas,
Brazil. Primates 36:289-293.
Ferrari, S.F. and Queiroz, H. L. 1994. Two new Brazil-
ian primates discovered, endangered. Oryx 28:31-36.
Hershkovitz, P. 1983. Two new species of night mon-
keys, genus Aotus (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): A prelimi-
nary report on Aotus taxonomy. Am. J. Primatol.
Hershkovitz, P. 1984. Taxonomy of squirrel monkeys
genus Saimiri (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): A preliminary
report with description of a hitherto unnamed form.
Am. J. Primatol. 6:257-312.
Hershkovitz, P. 1985. A preliminary taxonomic review
of the South American bearded saki monkeys genus
Chiropotes (Cebidae, Pla.tyrrhini), with the descrip-
tion of a new subspecies. Fieldiana, Zoology (N.S.)
Hershkovitz, P. 1987. The taxonomy of South Ameri-
can sakis, genus Pithecia (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): A
preliminary report and critical review with the descrip-
tion of a new species and a new subspecies. Am. J.
Lorini, M. and Persson, V. G. 1990. Nova esp6cie de
Leontopithecus Lesson 1840, do sul do Brasil (Pri-
mates, Callitrichidae). Bol. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro
Mittermeier, R. A., Schwarz, M., Ayres, J. M. 1992. A
new species of marmoset, genus Callithrix Erxleben,
1777 (Callitrichidae, Primates) from the Rio Mau6s
region, state ofAmazonas, central Brazilian Amazonia.
Goeldiana Zool. 14:1-17.
Taber, A. B., Tapia, C. and Fernandez, R. In prep. Giant
otters (Pteronura brasiliensis) and pink river dolphins
(Inia geoffrensis): Status and distribution in northern
Santa Cruz Department, Bolivia.
Wallace, R.B., Painter, R. L. E. and Taber, A. B. In prep.
Primate diversity, habitat preferences and population
density estimates in Parque Nacional Noel Kempff
Mercado, Santa Cruz, Bolivia.Platyrrhines in Pimenta
Bueno, Rond6nia, Brazil.
PLATYRRHINES IN PIMENTA BUENO, ROND6NIA,
The Pimenta Bueno Municipal Park (Parque Natural
Municipal de Pimenta Bueno) is part of one of the largest
and best preserved fragments of native forest habitat in
the vicinity of the BR-364 federal highway; pivot of
colonisation in southwestern Amazonia, in southern
Rond6nia (Fig. 1), but an area where the primate fauna
is still relatively poorly known (de Vivo, 1985). The
park was visited during four days at the beginning of
June 1996 as part of a survey of the state's mammalian
Neotropical Primates 4(4), December 1996
Neotropical Primates 4(4), December 1996 Page 152
fauna. Despite its relatively small size (the park itself
covers 532 ha, and adjoining areas of native habitat
encompass a further 500 ha), the forest apparently still
contains a number of large mammals, including tapirs
(Tapirus terrestris), peccaries (Pecari tajacu) and
atelines (Alouatta seniculus and Ateles chamek), which
suggests that hunting pressure is low (see e.g., Peres,
Ateles chamek is relatively common is Rond6nia, but
Pimenta Bueno is one of only a handful of sites at which
Alouatta has been recorded in the state (de Vivo, 1985;
Ferrari and Lopes, 1992; Ferrari etal., 1995, 1996). The
factors that determine the "patchy" distribution of howler
monkeys in southwestern Amazonia (Ferrari et al., 1996)
are still unclear, but it is hoped that data currently being
collected will throw some light onto this intriguing
Saguinusfuscicollis weddelli, the most widespread of
the numerous subspecies of saddle-black tamarins, was
observed at Pimenta Bueno, but no evidence was found
of the occurrence of marmosets (Callithrix sp.) in either
the park or surrounding areas. Their behaviour
(especially bark-gouging) and habitat preferences make
marmosets relatively conspicuous, and as there were no
reports from local residents, it seems reasonable to
conclude that these monkeys are absent from this region.
While the geographic range of S. f weddelli is thus
extended further south and east, that of Callithrix is once
again reduced. The available evidence now indicates that
S. f weddelli occurs throughout Rond6nia west of the
Rio JiparanA, and that the range of Callithrix is restricted
to a much smaller northern portion of this area, a situation
exactly opposite to that indicated by the data available
prior to 1995 (see Rylands et al., 1993).
Three other platyrrhines were observed in the park, and
a fourth (Pithecia sp.) was reported by local residents,
bringing the total number of diurnal species at the site
to seven. Mixed groups of tufted capuchins (Cebus
apella) and squirrel monkeys, apparently Saimiri
boliviensis, were encountered on a number of occasions.
The occurrence of S. boliviensis at this site was
unexpected, given that S. ustus has been recorded at all
others in Rond6nia south of the Madeira (Hershkovitz,
1984; Ferrari and Lopes, 1992; Ferrari et al., 1995).
A group oftiti monkeys was also observed in the park.
The animals were certainly not members of the
distinctively brown-coloured Callicebus brunneus, the
species found at other sites in Rond6nia, west of the
Jiparana (Hershkovitz, 1990; Ferrari and Lopes, 1992;
Ferrari et al., 1995), but were greyish in colour similar
to Callicebus moloch, the distribution of which has
Figure 1. Rond6nia, southwestern Brazilian Amazonia, showing
Pimenta Bueno and other sites mentioned in the text.
previously been restricted to the east of the Jiparand/
Madeira rivers (ibid.).
Overall, these records from Pimenta Bueno would appear
to indicate that important differences may exist in the
platyrrhine faunas of southern and northern Rond6nia
(west of the Rio Jiparand), although the exact nature of
these differences is still unclear. If, as suggested above
in the case of Callithrix, factors such as altitude and
related habitat preferences are relevant, then the Serra
dos PacaAs Novos, which rises to over 1,000 m above
sea level and virtually bisects the state (Fig. 1), may play
a fundamental role in these differences.
Clearly, the zoogeography of platyrrhines in
southwestern Brazilian Amazonia is more complex than
had been assumed previously. Additional data are
required not only for the identification of all the region's
primate species and the definition of their geographic
ranges, but also for a more systematic analysis of the
factors determining their distribution. To what extent it
will be possible to collect these data remains to be seen,
however, given the continuing onslaught of loggers and
ranchers in the state of Rond8nia and neighboring areas
of Amazonas and Mato Grosso.
The fieldwork reported here was supported by the United
Nations Development Programme (PNUD), Rond6nia.
We also thank Ernesto Cruz, and staff of the Baitard
Agricultural College, Pimenta Bueno.
Stephen F. Ferrari, Simone Iwanaga, Universidade
Federal do Para, Caixa Postal 8607, 66.075-150 Bel6m,
ParA, Brazil, and Jorge Lourenco da Silva, SEDAM/
PNUD, Porto Velho, Rond6nia, Brazil.
Neotropical Primates 4(4), December 1996
Page 153 Neotropical Primates 4(4), December 1996
Ferrari, S. F. and Lopes, M. A. 1992. New data on the
distribution of primates in the region of the confluence
of the JiparanA and Madeira rivers in Amazonas and
Rond6nia, Brazil. Goeldiana Zool. 11:1-12.
Ferrari, S. F., Cruz Neto, E. H., Iwanaga, S., Correa, H.
K. M. and Ramos, P. C. S. 1996. An unusual primate
community at the Estalo Ecol6gica Serra dos Tres
IrmAos, Rond6nia, Brazil. Neotropical Primates
Ferrari, S. F., Lopes, M. A., Cruz Neto, E. H., Silveira,
M. A. E. S., Ramos, E. M., Ramos, P. C. M., Tourinho,
D. M. and Magalhies, N. F. A. 1995. Primates and
conservation in the Guajard-Mirim State Park,
Rond6nia, Brazil. Neotropical Primates, 3(3):81-82.
Hershkovitz, P. 1984. Taxonomy of squirrel monkeys,
genus Saimiri (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): a preliminary
report with description of a hitherto unnamed form.
Am. J. Primatol. 7:155-210.
Hershkovitz, P. 1990. Titis, New World monkeys of the
genus Callicebus (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): a preliminary
taxonomic review. Fieldiana, Zool. 55:1-109.
Peres, C. A. 1990. Effects of hunting on western Ama-
zonian primate communities. Biol. Conserv. 54:47-59.
Rylands, A. B., Coimbra-Filho, A. F. and Mittermeier,
R. A. 1993. Systematics, geographic distribution, and
some notes on the conservation status of the
Callitrichidae. In: Marmosets and Tamarins: System-
atics, Behaviour, and Ecology, A.B. Rylands (ed.), pp.
11-77. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Vivo, M de. 1985. On some monkeys from Rond6nia,
Brasil (Primates: Callitrichidae, Cebidae). Papeis
Avulsos Zool., S. Paulo 36(11):103-110.
IUCN/SSC PRIMATE SPECIALIST GROUP
TRIENNIAL REPORT 1994-1996
The Primate Specialist Group has had a very successful
triennium, during which it consolidated the
reorganization that began in 1992, started a new
publication series, and saw a substantial increase in
fundraising success. Some of the highlights of the past
three years are briefly summarized here.
First of all, the group now numbers some 250 individuals
from more than 30 countries. These are divided into four
major geographic regions representing the principal areas
in which nonhuman primates live: the Neotropical
region, Africa, Asia and Madagascar. Given the large
size and many activities of the group, the decision was
reached to undertake substantial decentralization during
a meeting of the group at the International Primatological
Society Congress in Strasbourg, August 1992. This
restructuring has been underway for the past four years,
and is now almost complete, with Vice-Chairs and
regional newsletters in place in each region. Dr. Anthony
Rylands from Brazil and Dr. Ernesto Rodriguez-Luna
of Mexico are Co-Chairs of the Neotropical Section, Dr.
Ardith Eudey chairs the Asian Section, Dr. Thomas
Butynski of the Atlanta Zoo (and based in Nairobi) chairs
the African Section, each producing newsletters for their
respective regions. Dr. Jbrg Ganzhom of the German
Primate Center, has taken over the editing of the
newsletter for the Madagascar Section, Lemur News, and
is considering taking over the Vice-Chair position of
this section as well. Publication of Asian Primates has
been underway since 1991, Neotropical Primates and
Lemur News began in 1993, and African Primates was
inaugurated in 1995.
In addition, after serious consideration of the role of our
journal, Primate Conservation, which had been
backlogged for several years, we decided that there was
a continued role for this publication, and it was
subsequently brought up to date with the production of
three full issues in August, 1996. Editing of the journal
has now been turned over to Dr. Anthony Rylands, and
the next issue (No.17) is expected by the end of 1996.
The fourth of our PSG Action Plans was also produced
during this period, this one being the updated version of
the Action PlanforAfrican Primate Conservation: 1986-
90. The first African Action Plan, published in 1986,
was the first of the SSC Action Plans in their modem
form. Dr. John Oates wrote the original plan and
prepared the updated 1996 version as well. A draft of a
second action plan, Mesoamerican Primates, has been
completed and should be published shortly. It has been
prepared by Ernesto Rodriguez-Luna, Liliana Cort6s-
Ortiz, Russell Mittermeier and Anthony Rylands.
With support from Conservation International, we have
also launched a new Tropical Field Guide Series, the
first few of which will be dedicated to primates. The
first volume, Lemurs of Madagascar, has already
appeared, and other volumes are in preparation for
primates of the Guianas, the Atlantic forest of eastern
Brazil, Colombia, Peru, and Vietnam, with an additional
volume on marmosets and tamarins. The purpose of these
books is to summarize available information in a ready-
to-use format, with a particular eye towards ecotourism,
the idea being to stimulate a tradition of life-listing and
primate-watching comparable to that for birds.
The PSG also participated in the analysis of all primate
species using the new Red List criteria, published in the
Neotrapical Primates 4(4), December 1996
Neoroicl Pimte 44),Deemer199 Pge15
1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals (see
Neotropical Primates, 3 (suppl.), 1995). The results of
this analysis indicated that 95 out of275 primate species
fall into the critical, endangered and vulnerable
categories. This is almost certainly an underestimate,
given the fact that many animals were in the data
deficient category, which, as information, becomes
available, are likely to be added to the threatened list.
Furthermore, the PSG undertook an analysis of primate
status at the most basic taxon level (subspecies), since it
rapidly became obvious that the species level was not
adequate for fully understanding the conservation
situation of the Order Primates. This analysis indicated
that of the approximately 620 taxa of primates, fully 35
are in the critical category, 70 in the endangered
category, and another 101 in the vulnerable category.
Of particular concern are the 35 critically endangered
species, which are literally on the verge of extinction.
Although the Order Primates is the only large Order of
mammals that has not lost a single taxon in this century,
a record of which we are particularly proud, we may not
be so fortunate in the next century. Indeed, it is possible
that one subspecies, Miss Waldron's red colobus
(Procolobus badius waldroni) from Ghana and Cote
d'Ivoire, may already have gone extinct. Clearly these
critical primate taxa need very special attention from
the primate conservation community.
The PSG also organized a two day symposium at the
recent Congress of the International Primatological
Society, held in Madison, Wisconsin in August, 1996
(see Neotropical Primates, 4(3), 1996, pp.89-90). This
was the largest meeting of primatologists in history (1200
participants), and our symposium attracted a large
audience. Its principal objectives were to provide a
retrospective of what had been accomplished in primate
conservation over the past two decades (particularly the
activities of the PSG and Conservation Breeding
Specialist Group CBSG), and also a look at the future,
focusing on the critically endangered. More than 35
scientists gave presentations in the symposium and there
were more than 300 participants in this event, which
also included a closing roundtable looking at possibilities
for action in the 21st century. One of the conclusions
was that we might consider an Action Plan for the
Critically Endangered, to guide at least one portion of
our activities over the next few years. Several areas of
particular concern emerged, especially Vietnam, which
has a large number of critical and endangered species,
most of which are receiving little or no attention. Brazil,
Madagascar, Indonesia, China and parts of West Africa
emerged as major priorities once again, to no one's
surprise. The issue of the bushmeat trade in Central
Africa and its impact on primates was also raised and is
clearly a major issue in primate conservation with which
we will have to deal in the future.
At this meeting, we also announced the appointment of
Anthony Rylands as Deputy Chairman of the PSG,
replacing William Konstant who had served in that
position for almost a decade.
Finally, we are pleased to announce the creation of two
new foundations devoted specifically and exclusively
to primate conservation. The first of these, the Margot
Marsh Biodiversity Foundation, will provide several
hundred thousand dollars per year for priority primate
conservation projects. It is named after the late Margot
Marsh, a great supporter and friend of conservation
during her lifetime (see Neotropical Primates 4(2), 1996,
pp.65-66). PSG Chair, Russell Mittermeier, serves as
President of this new foundation. The other, entitled
Primate Conservation Inc.,'is headed by PSG member
Noel Rowe, and will provide several tens of thousands
of dollars for selected primate conservation projects (see
Neotropical Primates, 3(1), p.23, and 3(3), p.91, 1995).
We look forward to continued growth during the next
triennium, and to accompanying and participating in
further efforts to maintain the diversity of the Order
Russell A. Mittermeier, Chairman, IUCN/SSC Primate
Specialist Group, Conservation International, 1015
Eighteenth StreetN.W., Washington, D.C. 20036, USA,
Anthony B. Rylands, Conservation International do
Brasil, Avenida Ant6nio Abrahao Caram 820/302,
31275-000 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, Ardith
A. Eudey, 164 Dayton Street, Upland, California 91786-
3120, USA, Ernesto Rodriguez-Luna, Institute de
Neuroetologla, Universidad Veracruzana, Apartado
Postal 566, Xalapa, Veracruz 91000, Mexico, and
Thomas Butynski, Zoo Atlanta African Biodiversity
Conservation Programme, P. O. Box 24434, Nairobi,
THE PRIMATE CENTER AT THE UNIVERSITY OF
The Primate Center of the University of Brasilia
(CPUnB) was established over 20 years ago under the
leadership of Prof. Milton Thiago de Mello and has
played an important role in the development of
primatology in Brazil. During this time, the CPUnB,
working together with the Brazilian Primatological
Society (SBPr), has promoted six specialization courses
in Primatology, and hosted four SBPr congresses and
the 1988 Congress of the International Primatological
The CPUnB is currently in the process of being
reorganized, with the construction and refurbishment of
Neotropical Primates 4(4), December 1996
Page 155 Neotropical Primates 4(4), December 1996
the facilities, improvement of the breeding conditions
of the animals, development of new research programs,
and expansion of the staff. The main objective of the
Center is to provide a captive breeding colony of
Brazilian Primates for ethological and biomedical
The CPUnB is located in the Fazenda Agua Limpa (FAL)
about 30 km from the University of Brasilia (16 30' S
and 460 30' W). The FAL, a farm of 4.062 ha, is an
experimental station for agronomic, forestry, and
ecological research. About one half of the area is an
ecological reserve. Surrounding the FAL there are two
other reserves, the Brasilia Botanical Garden and the
Ecological Reserve of the Brazilian Institute for
Geography and Statistics (IBGE), together comprising
a continuous protected area of 10.000 ha.
The Center is within an area of 30 ha of Cerrado (tropical
savanna) vegetation with tropical semideciduous riverine
forest. Three primate species occur there naturally: the
marmoset (Callithrix penicillata), the black howler
monkey (Alouatta caraya), and the tufted capuchin
monkey (Cebus apella). The facilities include a
laboratory, offices, classroom, kitchen, quarantine
facilities, and 36 cages, each with indoor-outdoor
At present the colony has 50 individuals of five primate
species: Callithrix penicillata, Callithrix jacchus,
Saguinus midas, Saimiri ustus and Cebus apella. The
following research projects are currently undertaken with
these animals: learning abilities in capuchin monkeys;
color vision in capuchin monkeys and tamarins; temporal
and spatial memory in callitrichids; environmental
enrichment; spontaneous periodontal disease and diet
in squirrel monkeys; and cytoarchitecture of the visual
cortex in callitrichids. Research activities are partially
supported by Brazilian National Research Council
(CNPq) and are in accordance with the regulations
imposed by the Brazilian Institute for the Environment
and Renewable Natural Resources (Ibama). Furthermore,
one of the goals of the Center is the breeding of
endangered species along with the development of
research on reproductive behavior relevant to their
husbandry and management.
The staff is composed by two Senior researchers, four
Assistant Professors, two doctoral students, one Master's
student, 11 undergraduate students, and two caretakers.
The staff has a multidisciplinary background and
includes psychologists, physicians, veterinarians,
biologists, and dentists.
The CPUnB is maintained by the University of Brasilia.
The refurbishing of the old and the construction of the
new facilities have been supported by FAL and the
Centro de Eventos Especiais (CESPE-UnB). The Center
is willing to collaborate with researchers and other
academic institutions. Further information can obtained
from Prof. Maria Clotilde Tavares, Director of the
Maria Clotilde Tavares and Vanner Boere,
Laborat6rio de Neurobiologia, IBD-CFS, Universidade
de Brasilia, Caixa Postal 04631, 70919-900 Brasilia, D.
F., Brazil. Tel.: +55 (0)61'348 2175; Fax: +55 (0)61
SOCIAL AND SEXUAL RELATIONS OF THE
MURIQUIS AT THE CARATINGA BIOLOGICAL
STATION, MINAS GERAIS
Promiscuity in primates appears to be a female strategy
to increase the possibility of conception. Female
muriquis, Brachyteles arachnoides, often copulate with
more than one male, and there are a number of
indications that muriquis have particular preferences for
certain sexual partners (Strier, 1986, 1992, in press).
From 1 August 1995 to 30 July 1996, a study was carried
out at the Caratinga Biological Station, Minas Gerais,
Brazil, to clarify the dynamics of female mate choice,
observing whether males 'or females initiate sexual
interactions, and determining what the sexes do to attract
each other. Methods used included focal animal, scan
sampling and opportunistic behavior sampling. Nineteen
adult females from the Matao group were observed. The
focal animal method was used to record each adult
female's activities and her nearest neighbors, scan
sampling recorded the degree of group dispersion. All
rare events observed were recorded opportunistically.
The study was supervised by Dr Karen B. Strier,
Department of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin,
Madison, USA. It was supported by grants to her from
the U. S. National Science Foundation (Grant BNS
8958298), the Liz Claiborne and Art Ortenberg
Foundation, the Chicago Zoological Society, and the
Lincoln Park Zoo Scott Neotropic Fund, Chicago.
Claudia Guimaraes Costa, Estagio Biol6gica de
Caratinga, Caixa Postal 82, 36950-000 Ipanema, Minas
Gerais, Brazil. Current address: Rua das Merces 46,
Centro, 34505-490 Sabard, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Strier, K. B. 1986. ReproduAlo de Brachyteles
arachnoides (Primates, Cebidae). In: A Primatologia
no Brasil- 2, M. T. de Mello (ed.), 163-175. Sociedade
Neotropical Primates 4(4), December 1996
Neotropical Primates 4(4), December 1996 Page 156
Brasileira de Primatologia, Brasilia.
Strier, K. B. 1992. Faces in the Forest: The Endangered
Muriqui Monkeys of Brazil. Oxford University Press,
Strier, K. B. In press. Mate preferences of wild muriqui
monkeys (Brachyteles arachnoides): Reproductive and
social correlates. Folia Primatol.
THE DIET OF MURIQUI FEMALES, BRACHYTELES
ARACHNOIDES, IN DIFFERENT REPRODUCTIVE
In September, 1996, Claudio PereiraNogueira defended
his Master's thesis in Biological Sciences, comparing
the diets and activity budgets of female muriquis,
Brachyteles arachnoides, in different reproductive
conditions. The degree was awarded by the Faculty of
Applied Sciences of the University of Guarulhos, Sao
Paulo, Brazil. The research was supervised by Dr. Mario
Sergio GalvAo Bueno in collaboration with Dr. Karen
B. Strier of the Department of Anthropology, University
of Wisconsin, Madison, and was supported by grants
from the Liz Claiborne and Art Ortenberg Foundation,
and the Chicago Zoological Society NSF BNS 8958298
(through Karen B. Strier). The following is a summary
of the thesis.
From August 1992 to July 1993, a field study of a group
of 17 female muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides) was
carried out in the forest of the Biological Station of
Caratinga (Fazenda Montes Claros), Minas Gerais,
Brazil (see Strier, 1992). Behavioral data was obtained
from 1,764 focal samples (of 10 minutes each) of four
classes of females: nonreproductive, pregnant, lactating
with infant up to 12 months old, and lactating with
offspring more than 12 months old. The data indicated
that females spend an average of 51.6% of their time
resting, 36.0% feeding, 11.2% traveling, 0.5% in social
behavior and 0.3% drinking water. Females devoted an
average of 60.2% of their feeding time to leaves, 26.9%
to fruits, 9.3% to flowers and 3.6% to bamboo, bark and
ferns. The increase in time spent feeding compared to
other studies may be due to the increase in size of the
Matao group and the change in group composition, with
a larger number of females with greater energetic
requirements. Comparing the females in different
reproductive conditions revealed significant differences
in their activity budgets. Nonreproductive females
devoted an average of 57.6% of their time to resting,
31.4% to feeding, 10.3% to traveling, 0.6% to social
behavior, 0.1% to drinking and 64.4% of their feeding
time to leaves, 27.1% to fruits, 6.7% to flowers, 1.2% to
bamboo, 0.5% to bark and 0.1% to ferns. The pregnant
females devoted an average of 54.4% of their time to
resting, 31.4% to feeding, 13.2% to traveling, 0.3% to
social behavior, 0.1% to drinking and 56.1% of their
feeding time to leaves, 27.2% to fruits, 12.5% to flowers,
3.8% to bamboo and 0.4% to ferns. The lactating females
with infants up to 12 months old devoted an average of
50.3% of their time to resting, 38.8% to feeding, 9.7%
to traveling, 0.5% to social behavior, 0.7% to drinking,
and 58.2% of their feeding time to leaves, 30.5% to fruits,
8.2% to flowers, 1.6% to bamboo, 1.0% to barks and
0.5% to ferns. The lactating females with offspring over
12 months of age devoted an average of 47.2% of their
time to resting, 39.5% to feeding, 12.5% to traveling,
0.5% to social behavior, 0.3% to drinking water and
60.2% of their feeding time to leaves, 23.9% to fruits,
10.9% to flowers, 1.7% to bamboo, 2.6% to bark and
0.7% to ferns. The results indicated that the females with
lower energetic requirements (nonreproductive females)
spent less time feeding and adopted an energy-saving
strategy, spending less time in traveling and more time
in resting, while including a larger proportion of leaves
in their diet. The pregnant females spent less time in
feeding but consumed more high energy food and
avoided feeding competition by varying their diet. The
females with the highest energetic requirements
(lactating) spent more time in feeding and consumed
more high-energy food (fruits and flowers).
ClAudio Pereira Nogueira, Faculdade de Cidncias
Aplicadas, Universidade de Guarulhos, Slo Paulo,
Brazil. Current address: Rua Jose Bonificio 152, 12280-
000 Cagapava, Sio Paulo, Brazil.
Nogueira, C. P. 1996. Comparago entire as dietas de
femeas de muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides, Primates,
Cebidae) em diferentes estdgios reprodutivos. Unpubl.
Master's thesis, University of Guarulhos, Sao Paulo.
Strier, K. B. 1992. Faces in the Forest: The Endangered
Muriqui Monkeys ofBrazil. Oxford University Press,
CYTOGENETIC AND PHYLOGENETIC STUDIES OF
ALOUATTA FROM BRASIL AND ARGENTINA
Edivaldo Herculano Corrda de Oliveira completed his
Master's thesis on the cytogenetics of howling monkeys,
Alouatta, at the Federal University of Parand (UFPR),
Curitiba in May 1996. He was supervised by Dr Ives
Jose Sbalqueiro (UFPR), in collaboration with Prof.
Margarida M. C. de Lima (Federal University of Pard,
Bel6m). The research was financed by the Brazil
National Science Council (CNPq), the Brazilian Higher
Education Authority (CAPES), and the Federal
Neotropical Primates 4(4), December 1996
Neotropical Primates 4(4), December 1996
Universities of Parand and Para, Brazil.
The study comprised the first intrageneric (G, C and
NOR banding) and phylogenetic study of the genus
Alouatta (Primates, Atelidae), including representatives
of all four species found in Brazil and Argentina: A.
fusca, A. seniculus, A. belzebul and A. caraya. A.
palliata, was compared from the literature (Ma et al.,
1975). The aim was to characterize each species
karyologically, as well as to determine the different
chromosomal rearrangements involved in inter-and
intraspecific variation. The results were converted to
numerical data and submitted to cladistic analysis, which
was performed using the PAUP program. Cebus apella
and Chiropotes satanas were used as outgroups. The
platyrrhine ancestral karyotype proposed in the literature
was used in the polarization. The results obtained allowed
for the following conclusions.
1) Alouatta is very variable in its karyotype, both inter-
2) The most important chromosomal rearrangements
found in their karyotypic evolution were fusion/fission,
inversions, translocations and complex rearrangements.
3) Alouattafusca showed the greatest variation, having
diploid numbers of 45, 46, 49 and 52. The odd numbers
were due to Y-autosome translocations. The different
diploid numbers could be related to different geographic
4) Aloatta belzebul belzebul, from our samples, and A.
b. nigerrima, from the literature, had very different
karyotypes: although the both have the same diploid
number (2n = 50 in females), the G-banding pattern of
A. b. nigerrima was more similar to A. seniculus than to
A. b. belzebul.
5) Alouatta caraya showed the most conservative
karyotype:.All the specimens from anumberofdifferent
localities had 2n = 52.
6) The cladistic analysis clearly separates Cebus and
Chiropotes from Alouatta.
7) Alouatta could be divided into four different groups:
"Palliata" Group (Alouatta palliata, 2n = 54, with the
least derived karyotype); "Caraya" Group (Alouatta
caraya, 2n = 52); "Fusca" Group (Alouatta belzebul
belzebul and Alouatta fusca); and "Seniculus" Group
(Alouatta seniculus and Alouatta belzebul nigerrima).
8) On the basis of information obtained from
chromosomes, and taking into account the evolutionary
theories for platyrrhine monkeys, it was possible to
suggest that there is a tendency in Alouatta for a
reduction in the diplold number in the more derived
karyotypes found, probably due to fusions and complex
rearrangements such as multiple translocations and
Edivaldo H. Correa de Oliveira, Caixa Postal 19095,
81531-990 Curitiba, Parana, Brazil.
Ma, N. S. F., Elliot, M. W., Thorington, R. W., Jr, Miller,
A. and Morgan, L. 1975. Autossome translocation in
the howler monkey, Alouatta palliata. J. Med.
Primatol. 4: 299-307.
Oliveira, E. H. C. 1996. Estudos Citogendticos e
Evolutivos nas Especies Brasileiras e Argentinas do
Gdnero Alouatta LacdpBde, 1799 (Primates, Atelidae).
Unpubl. Master's thesis, Universidade Federal do
MESOAMERICAN BIOLOGICAL CORRIDOR
The "Regional Mesoamerican System of Protected
Areas, Buffer Zones, and Biological Corridors", better
known as the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, is
being created in the countries of the region. The project
is currently studying opportunities to fund the future
operation of a Mesoamerican corridor that will serve to
facilitate connections among the Regional System of
Protected Areas, and create a migratory route providing
some protection for the species that move from one
country to another. This is being undertaken by a project
developed by the Central American Commission for the
Environment and Development (CCAD), which received
funding from the Global Environment Facility (GEF),
channeled through the local offices of the United
Nations' Development Program (UNDP) in each
country, The project is coordinated by a regional
consultant based in Costa Rica and by national
consultants that serve as contacts with the responsible
national offices, since it forms part of the framework of
regional presidential obligations regarding the
environment, such as the Central American Biodiversity
Convention, the Central American Forests Agreement,
and the Alliance for Sustainable Development.
The Consultants held their first meeting in San Salvador
in March 1996, together with personnel from the Wildlife
Conservation Society (WCS). A second meting was held
in June 1996 at the Santa Rosa National Park, Costa
Rica. The Project is strongly supported by the
environment and natural resources ministries of the
Mesoamerican countries. It is also supported by UNEP,
Neotropical Primates 4(4), December 1996 Page 158
OAS and GTZ, and participation is being sought from
the governments of other countries, including Norway
The representatives for each of the Central American
countries are: Juan Carlos Godoy (Guatemala), Anselmo
Castafieda (Belize), Maria Luisa Reyna de Aguilar (El
Salvador), Jaime Incer (Nicaragua), Leonel Marifleros
(Honduras), Randall Garcia (Costa Rica), and Darlo
Tovar (PanamA). The project is coordinated by Mario
Boza, and advised by a team of experts from WCS: James
Barborak, Archie Carr III, Alejandro Grajal, George
Powell, and Bruce and Carolyn Miller: as well as
members of other institutions, such as Sigifredo Marfn
(MINAE, Costa Rica), Edgar Pifieda (UNDP
Guatemela), and members of the CCAD. For more
information, contact Mario Boza, Tel: (506) 224-9215,
Fax: (506) 225-7516. From Mesoamericana, 1(1): June
ECUADOR'S MAQUIPUCUNA RESERVE INVITES
VISITORS AND RESEARCHERS
Fundaci6n Maquipucuna, an Ecuadorian non-
governmental organization concerned with conservation
of biodiversity and sustainable use of natural resources,
has recently completed construction of ecotourist and
scientific facilities at the Maquipucuna Reserve. The
facilities are easily accessed by car, only two hours
northwest of Quito on the western slopes of the Andes.
Visitors of all types are encouraged to come to learn,
study and experience the tropical forest's diversity.
The Maquipucuna Reserve is 4,500 hectares, 80% of
which is undisturbed cloud forest, ranging from 1200
meters to 2800 meters in altitude. It is surrounded by an
additional 14,000 hectares of "protected forest", which
is adjacent to one of the world's top ten biodiversity
"hotspots", the Choc6 Bioregion. Like many cloud
forests, it is extremely rich in epiphytes, many of which
have not been identified. The total number of plant
species is close to 2000. In addition, the Reserve contains
at least 320 species of birds, 45 species of mammals,
and more than 250 species of butterflies. Other groups
are yet to be studied in detail. Finally, Maquipucuna
offers archaeological resources to those interested.
Ceramics, burial sites and buried pathways of Pre-Incaic
Indians are scattered throughout the region.
Accommodation and facilities include a tourist lodge
by a clean, free-flowing river and housing up to 20
people. In addition, there is a separate scientific research
station for 10 people and an adjoining laboratory. Public
space is available for meetings or instruction (the
Fundaci6n encourages educational programs and
courses). Meals are served to all visitors and are based
on local recipes. A network of trails allows tourists and
scientists to easily access a variety of natural habitats in
different stages of succession. Interpretive materials are
being developed for the Reserve, and library resources
are available at the Fundaci6n's office in Quito.
Information: Abigail Rome, Fundaci6n Maquipucuna,
Casilla 17-12-167, Quito, Ecuador. Tel: 593 2 507 200/
202; Fax: 593 2 507 20; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. From
Tropinet 7(3), 1996, pp.2-3.
WWF AND ORYX- WWW SITES
The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), the world's
largest independent conservation organization, has
launched its World Wide Web Site, the WWF Global
Network. This site provides comprehensive news and
information on all aspects of conservation and the
environment. Topics include: forests, climate change,
marine issues, pollution, species, and sustainable
development. The address is: http://www.panda.org.
The journal of Fauna and Flora International, Oryx,
edited by Dr. Jacqui Morris, also has a home page,
mounted on the Blackwell Science Ltd. Internet Server.
The address is: http://www.blacksci.co.uk/products/
THE PRIMATE INFORMATION CENTER A
PREMIER INFORMATION SOURCE
The Primate Information Center (PIC) is the world's
most comprehensive bibliographic service for literature
on nonhuman primate research. Since its founding in
the early 1960's, the PIC has ably served information
needs of researchers, educators, and students. The PIC
is a division of the Regional Primate Research Center at
the University of Washington, Seattle, one of seven such
centers established and funded by the National Institutes
of Health. The PIC indexes all scientific literature related
to nonhuman primates. Coverage encompasses
biomedical, behavioral, veterinary, primatological,
paleontological, genetic, and zoological studies. Indexed
material may focus on nonhuman primate biology and
behavior itself, or on the use of nonhuman primates as
animal models for human disorders. The PIC's database
of citations extends back to 1940. The strength of this
database resides both in its comprehensive coverage of
the literature and in the thoroughness of the taxonomic
indexing. Searches can be narrowed to the exact species,
and sometimes even subspecies.
Researchers, both in academia and business, require
literature searches when preparing grant applications or
Neotropical Primates 4(4), December 1996
Page 159 Neotropical Primates 4(4), December 1996
embarking upon new research projects. Colony
managers and veterinarians request references on topics
ranging from disease symptoms to enrichment practices.
Students find our services invaluable for class
assignments, and faculty use our bibliographies to help
prepare course lectures. Whether you are a
pharmaceutical researcher investigating the efficacy of
a new drug or a doctoral student about to head off to
Amazonia for behavioral research in the field, the PIC
can supply the needed bibliographic information.
Current Primate References (CPR): CPR is a monthly
bibliographic journal listing all the indexed books, book
chapters, dissertations, reports, newsletter items, and
journal articles most recently processed. Citations are
listed by broad subject categories along with reprint
request addresses when appropriate. Each issue contains
author and taxonomic indexes. A cumulative author
index is found in the December issue. CPR goes
worldwide to libraries and individuals on six continents.
Subscriptions can be started any time during the year.
Topical Bibliographies: The PIC publishes
bibliographies in a wide diversity of areas. When
appropriate, bibliographies have taxonomic indexes, and
some may contain short subject indexes. They are
reasonably priced. The list of available topical
bibliographies is very extensive. New topics are
announced in Current Primate References. The PIC
encourages requests from anyone wishing a current list
of titles and prices, and we would be happy to add your
name to our mailing list for announcements.
Retrospective Bibliographies: The PIC can produce
custom retrospective bibliographies to meet your
taxonomic and subject specifications. Our computer
database contains well over 100,000 citations from 1971
to the present. In addition, we have manually searchable
files that cover the 1940-1970 time period. Search
requests are best handled by calling the PIC and
consulting directly with the Literature Analyst
specializing in your area of interest. However, requests
are also accepted by mail, fax and e-mail. Subjects must
generally be defined narrowly enough that fewer than
200 citations are retrieved. Fees are based on number of
Monthly Custom Bibliographies: For researchers with a
long-term interest in a particular area, the PIC offers a
monthly current awareness service. A search strategy is
devised in consultation between the requester and
Literature Analyst. Each month, this strategy is run
against the most current indexing, and the tailored
bibliography is mailed to the requester automatically.
This service is available only on an annual subscription
basis. The service may be started any time during the
PRIMA TES Database: The PIC leases its bibliographic
database files from 1985 to the present to institutions
wishing to do on-site searching. This database runs on
DOS-based PCs with large hard drives. Access can be
through an individual computer or over a network.
Monthly updates, with complete indexing, are available
by yearly subscription. Contact the PIC manager for
Primate Information Center, University of
Washington RPRC Westlake Facility, 1101 Westlake
Avenue North, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA, Tel:
206 543 4376, Fax: 206 616 1540, e-mail: pic@bart.
ASKPRIMATE is an e-mail based international
reference service for basic questions dealing with
primates, primate organizations, or individuals in
primatology. It is a cooperative service managed by the
library of the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research
Center at the University of Wisconsin Madison. Queries
are relayed to a coalition of libraries including those at
the Oregon Regional Primate Research Center, the New
England Regional Primate Research Center, Brown
University and the Primate Information Center at the
Washington Regional Primate Research Center. Other
primate information agencies are encouraged to
participate. Sample questions: What is the average
weight of an adult male chimpanzee? What is the phone
number for the Jane Goodall Institute? What is the e-
mail address for Dr. Duane Rumbaugh? Are there any
videotapes that show sexual behavior in orangutans? Can
you recommend any children's books on mountain
gorillas? Questions should be as specific as possible. It
is recommended that users of this service explore local
resources, such as local public, school, or university
libraries, before consulting ASKPRIMATE. Primate-
related questions which are deemed to be outside the
scope of ASKPRIMATE may be forwarded to Primate-
Talk, an electronic forum for the exchange of information
related to primate research, conservation and education.
Requests for extensive bibliographic information will
be forwarded to the Primate Information
Center,Washington Regional Primate Research Center,
which is a fee-based service. Send your questions via e-
mail to: email@example.com. Questions are
also welcome by phone: (608) 263-3512, fax: (608) 263-
4031, or mail to: ASKPRIMATE, Primate Center
Library, 1220 Capitol Court, Madison, Wisconsin
Neotropical Primates 4(4), December 1996
Neotropical Primates 4(4), December 1996 Page 160
MEASURING BEHAVIOR '96 WORKSHOP
From 16-18 October, Measuring Behavior '96, the
international workshop on methods and techniques in
behavioral research, was held in Utrecht, The
Netherlands. The proceedings of the meeting are now
available on the world wide web. These include the
abstracts of all oral papers and posters, as well as short
descriptions of the instruments and computer programs
demonstrated during the meeting. The address is http://
Jacob Rousseau, Department of Medical
Pharmacology, Rudolf Magnus Institute for
Neurosciences, Utrecht University Stratenum,
Universiteitsweg 1003584 CG, Utrecht, The
Netherlands, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
VOLUNTEER RESEARCH PROGRAM
The Tambopata Reserve Society Research and
Monitoring Studies (TReeS-Ramos), a British non-
governmental organization, is presently organizing a
two-year study in the southern rainforests of Peru.
TReeS-Ramos, which has been working in this area for
the last 10 years (particularly in and around the rainforest
reserve of Tambopata/Candamo in the Department of
Madre de Dios), is undertaking research and funding a
number of local conservation and ethnobiological
initiatives, as well as lobbying for greater conservation
awareness of this area both nationally and internationally.
The rainforest reserve of Tambopata-Candamo extends
over 1.4 million ha of subtropical forest incorporating
seven distinct forest types. The reserve spans a wide
range of altitudes (250 m 3,500 m) and receives an
average of 2,500 mm of rainfall per year. It contains
exceptional biodiversity due to the biogeographic
characteristics of the area; its position at the foot of the
Andes and within the transition zone between evergreeen
rainforest and tropical savanna.
Project Tambopata will investigate the impact of tourism
on populations of primates, birds, amphibians and
reptiles in the reserve. A number of research volunteer
positions tenable for three-month periods beginning in
January 1997 through December 1998 are available. The
project will unite international research volunteers,
accepted from the United States and Europe, with
Peruvian counterparts. At the project's base camp near
the town of Puerto Maldonado, a small frontier town in
the heart of the Peruvian Amazon, the principal research
crew will begin the process of training volunteers in the
zoological monitoring methods used to investigate
rainforest fauna. After learning and practicing the
necessary skills, volunteers will participate in the
collection of zoological data in the field near a number
of established rainforest lodges/hotels which cater for
national and international tourists. Volunteers will be
supervised by members of the principal research crew
who are responsible for all field research. These
volunteer positions are ideal for those wishing to gain
or expand their experience in rainforest field-related
research techniques, as well as to learn more about the
biology and ecology of Amazonian fauna, and would
appeal to undergraduates or postgraduates (natural
sciences) as well as amateur biologists who are interested
in rainforest resource conservation. For further
information on Project Tambopata and the volunteer
research program, write to: Chris Kirkby, Project
Tambopata, 64 Belsize Park, London NW3 4EH, U.K.,
e-mail: email@example.com. From:
Biological Conservation Newsletter, Smithsonian
Institution, Washington, D. C., No. 160, October 1966.
BREEDING AND CONSERVATION OF ENDANGERED
SPECIES THE JWPT SUMMER SCHOOL
O The Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust,
established in 1963 by Gerald Durrell,
has at its zoo a unique centre for the
breeding of endangered animals as a
means of ensuring against their
extinction.The goal of endangered
wildlife conservation is pursued through: Establishing
controlled captive breeding programmes; Promoting
research on biology and ecology in captivity and in the
wild; Conducting reintroduction programmes; and
Providing professional training programmes in zoo
biology. The Trust maintains captive breeding colonies
of a wide variety of reptiles, birds and mammals, and
conducts in situ conservation field studies. The aim of
the three-week course is to provide an introduction to
practical aspects of investigation and management and
to supply detailed information relevant to conservation
and captive breeding direct from those with first-hand
The course will be based at the Trust's headquarters in
Jersey and will consist of morning and afternoon lectures,
discussion sessions and individually supervised research
exercises. The Summer School is suitable for students,
zoo and veterinary staff and others with an interest in
conservation and/or captive animals. The course and its
associated project work are flexible to suit most abilities
What the course offers you. 1. An overview of how the
Neotropical Primates 4(4), December 1996
Page 161 Neotropical Primates 4(4), December 1996
JWPT and other organizations have integrated captive
and wild conservation, and what the future strategy could
be. 2. Lectures which are a mixture of fundamentals and
provocative appraisals encouraging you to formulate
your own views about the conservation role of zoos,
based upon understanding of the issues involved. The
lectures are given by visiting professionals and specialist
staff at JWPT, each dealing with a field within their own
expertise. 3. Study projects which provide an opportunity
for you to gain first-hand experience of carrying out
research and analysing data. Projects are tailored to suit
your capabilities, interests and background, and types
of investigations possible include: Visitor surveys;
Behavioural research on selected animal groups;
Analysis of records and studbook data; Preparation of
an educational brief or display; Design of layout and
management plan; Nutritional analysis of a diet; and
Bibliographical reviews. 4. Practical instruction/
workshop sessions with demonstrations of systematic
data collection, based on appropriate experimental
design, and showing how to analyse the information
obtained. These sessions include: Methods of
behavioral observation; Analysis of zoo records and
studbooks; Statistical and graphical treatment of data;
and Quantitative analysis of diets. 5. Other demonstration
sessions in which zoo staff and invited experts explain
some of the practicalities of captive and field
management. These sessions will include: Visits with
keepers to individual animal sections; Visits to the
laboratory and veterinary centre accompanied by the
Trust biologist; Demonstration of the card and computer
record systems by the registrar; and Field visit to a local
Practical involvement in routine zoo work is not part of
the course, the primary objectives of which are to provide
a good theoretical foundation for future work and
insights into practical problems of captive breeding.
There will be video presentations and activities outside
the course timetable. All participants will be presented
with an official certificate at the end of the course. The
Course Directors are the Trust Training Officer, Dr John
E. Fa, and two internationally recognized scientists. The
Course Tutor is Dr Anna T. C. Feistner, Trust Research
Officer. The Course Coordinator is Mr Chris Clark,
Assistant Training Officer at the Trust.
Registration and accommodation. The fee per person
for the course is 995 (this includes 1990 free
membership to the Trust). Hotel accommodation (shared
rooms), all meals (breakfast, snack lunch, main evening
meal) are provided and the fee covers all the course
expenses. Optional field excursions to neighboring
islands and the French coast are available at an extra
cost of approximately 25. Accommodation will be
provided from Sunday 20th July to Friday 8th August
1997 inclusive. Extra nights will be the responsibility
of the participant. The course commences on Monday
21st July and ends on Friday 8th August. Departures
will be on Saturday 9th August. Participation in the
course is limited to a total of approximately 24 students,
with selection based on merit and suitability. Closing
date for application: 31 January 1997. Early application
is essential. Regrettably, the Trust is not able to offer
scholarships to Summer School participants; candidates
requiring financial assistance should seek alternative
sources at an early stage. For application forms: The
Summer School Coordinator, Jersey Wildlife
Preservation Trust, Trinity, Jersey JE3 5BP, Channel
Islands, British Isles, Tel: +44 1534 864666, Fax: +44
THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION'S BIOLOGICAL
The Biological Conservation Newsletter, produced by
the Department of Botany of the National Museum of
Natural History, Washington, D. C., editor Jane Villa-
Lobos, can now be accessed through the Smithsonian
Institution's World Wide Web site at http://
www.nmnh.si.edu, selecting "Botany" and then
"Publications". The most recent issue of the newsletter
is posted, along with the past 34 issues. The cumulative
conservation bibliography files, containing nearly
10,000 references to literature on conservation biology,
can be searched or browsed. These references have been
obtained from a weekly review of the new journals and
books received by the Smithsonian Institution's Botany
and Natural History libraries and from suggestions
submitted by subscribers to the newsletter.
There are two ways to search the conservation
bibliography. The "Search" option will retrieve all the
entries that meet the search criteria. Entries are returned
as individual documents. A list is presented showing the
first line of each entry. One must open each "document"
to view the complete text. The "Select" option builds a
single document with a maximum of 200 entries from
the bibliography. The document can be browsed on the
screen, downloaded as a file or printed. The master file
has been broken up into smaller files to facilitate
retrieval. These files are available for browsing and are
named for the issues of the Biological Conservation
Newsletter where they were first reported.
If any subscriber would rather access the newsletter
electronically as an alternative to the printed version,
please send a message to the editor at the following
address: Jane Villa-Lobos, c/o Biological Conservation
Newsletter, Department of Botany, NHB 166,
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 20560, USA,
Neotropical Primates 4(4), December 1996
Neotropical Primates 4(4), December 1996
Tel: (202) 357-2027, Fax: (202) 786-2563, e-mail:
DUKE UNIVERSITY VISITING ASSISTANT
The Department of Biological Anthropology and
Anatomy of Duke University, Durham, North Carolina,
anticipates filling several 1-3 year teaching/research slots
as Visiting Assistant Professors for Fall 1997, in the
following areas: Primate Behavior and Socioecology,
Primate Morphology, Primate or Human Evolution, and
Medical Gross Anatomy. Ph.D. or anticipated award of
Ph.D. within two months of appointment is required.
Salary competitive and commensurate with
qualifications. Starting date is September 1997. Send
letter of application, current CV and at least three letters
of reference to: Dr Richard F. Kay, Professor and
Chairman, Department of Biological Anthropology and
Anatomy, Box 3170, Duke University Medical Center,
Durham, NC 27710, USA. Deadline 15 February 1997.
ANDREW W. MELLON FOUNDATION
The Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STR) and
the Organization for Tropical Studies (OTS) announce
a second round of competition for Research
Enhancement Awards. Awards, supported by the
Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, will support summer
salary and travel for up to three years. Applications are
invited from established investigators in all fields of
ecological and evolutionary biology to conduct
comparative research between STRI and OTS field sites
in Panama and Costa Rica. Successful applicants are
expected to apply for (or to have in place) other sources
of research support. Long-term scientific interaction
across these sites is the expected benefit of this program.
Applications will be accepted until 31 December 96.
Proposals are limited to five pages of text. The text
should outline the significance of the scientific issue
being addressed by the research, briefly describe the
proposed methods, emphasize the importance of the
cross-site comparison for this issue and address the
potential for long-term interaction across the sites.
Previous research performed by the PI at any of the sites
should also be highlighted. In addition, each proposal
should include a brief summary of the project (one
paragraph), a budget, a budget justification approved
by the home institution of the PI, a timetable, a full CV,
a conflict of interest statement and an indication of what
other sources of funds are in place or will be sought.
Address inquiries to: Education Office, Smithsonian,
Apdo. 2072. Balboa, Ancon, Panama or Unit 0948, APO
AA 34002-0948, USA.
Mellon Research Exploration Awards in Tropical
Biology. Proposals are invited for comparative research
between OTS sites in Costa Rica and Smithsonian
Tropical Research Institute (STRI) sites in Panama.
Awards, supported by the the Andrew W. Mellon
Foundation, will support summer salary and travel for
up to three years for scientists at any level and range up
to $2000 for graduate students and up to $5000 for
postdocs and senior scientists. Researchers who have
data from one site may apply to study at a comparative
site. Travel to and from sites, station fees, and minor
equipment can be funded, and proposals are reviewed
by an OTS-STRI committee. Application instructions
and guidelines for use of fellowship funds can be
obtained from the North American Office, attention Dr.
Shaun Bennett. Send proposals to Box 90633, Durham,
NC 27708-0633 by 31 December 1996. From Tropinet
7(3), September 1996, p.3.
Folie a Deux (Madness For Two): Commemorative
The commemorative poster for the Primates in Art and
Illustration Exhibit and the XVIth Congress of the
International Primatological Society and XIXth
Conference of the American Society of Primatologists
held in Madison, Wisconsin, in August 1994 was based
on a painting by Mary Sims, and titled "Folie A Deux".
Copies are still available. It is possible to see what the
poster looks like on the Primate Information Network
PIN at http://www.primate.wisc.edu/pin/folie.html. The
price is US$10 plus US$2.50.for packaging and shipping.
The poster is of high quality and many people have had
it framed. Orders should be sent to Larry Jacobsen,
WRPRC, University of Wisconsin,1220 Capitol Court,
Madison, WI 53715-1299, USA, Tel: +1 608 263 3512,
e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. We can send and
bill if you prefer. Check should be made payable to "IPS/
IPS/ASP Conference Program and Abstract Booklets
Copies of our IPS/ASP Conference Program and
Abstract booklets are still available. To order, please
send a check for US$5.00 plus $2.50 for packaging and
shipping. Checks should be payable to the "IPS/ASP
Congress". Note that there are no plans to publish the
Conference Proceedings, but it is anticipated that several
Neotropical Primates 4(4), December 1996
publication will be forthcoming from the symposia and
workshops. These publications are being coordinated
independently by symposia/workshop organizers. Orders
should be sent to Edi Chan, Conference
Coordinator,Wisconsin Regional Primate Research
Center, 1220 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715-1299,
USA, e-mail: email@example.com.
If you would like to purchase a Congress T-shirt, please
send a check payable to the "IPS/ASP Congress" for
US$12 plus US$3 for packaging and shipping. Please
send your complete mailing address. Only the XL size
is available. Orders should be sent to Edi Chan,
Conference Coordinator,Wisconsin Regional Primate
Research Center, 1220 Capitol Court, Madison, WI
53715-1299, USA, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The plenary lectures given at the Conference were
videotaped and will be available on loan from the
WRPRC Audiovisual Archive.These lectures were given
by Robert Sapolsky (Stress, Stress-related Disease and
Personality: Studies of Wild Baboons); Toshisada
Nishida (Mahale Chimpanzee Studies: Past, Present and
Future); Patricia Goldman-Rakic (The Neurobiology of
Cognition: Facts and Concepts from the Study of the
Prefrontal Cortex in Non-human Primates); Peter Parham
(Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Class I
Molecules and the Immune System); and Anthony
Rylands (Towards a New Understanding of the Ecology
and Phylogeny of the Callitrichidae). Many excellent
videotapes were presented at the Congress. We hope that
the authors of these tapes will contact the WRPRC so
that quality copies can be added to the Audiovisual
Archive. For questions about the plenary lectures or
contributing video materials to the Archive, please
contact Ray Hamel, e-mail: email@example.com,
Tel: +1-608-263-3512. Six primatologists were
interviewed at the meetings for the upcoming Careers
in Primatology series. Those interviewed included Anne
Savage (Careers in zoo settings); Sue Boinski (field
work); Chris Abee (veterinary medicine); Richard
Stouffer (biomedical research); Jim Moore (education);
Linda Fedigan (edu/fw) and H. Dieter Steklis
(conservation). These tapes need editing and formatting
before they become available (completion date not set).
Larry Jacobsen, WRPRC Library and Information
Service, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, and John
Hearn, IPS/ASP Conference Chair, Wisconsin Regional
Primate Research Center, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
SOCIEDADE BRASILEIRA DE PRIMATOLOGIA
VIII Congresso Brasileira de
Primatologia: A Sociedade Brasileira
de Primatologia (SBPr) realizara o VIII
Congress Brasileira de Primatologia
na cidade de Joao Pessoa, Paraiba,
entre.os dias 27 de julho e 1 de agosto de 1997. A
programag~o incluird sess6es de comunica6es orais,
mini-cursos, paineis. conferencias e mesas redondas. Os
resumes podem ser enviados A Secretaria do Congresso
com data de postage at6 o dia 30 de abril de 1997. As
fichas de inscricao para s6cios serao enviadosjunto com
a 2a circular. Os valores da inscriqao para s6cios serao:
estudantes de graduagao R$20,00, estudantes de p6s-
graduaqao R$30,00, outros R$50,00, mini-cursos
R$10,00. Estes valores serao acrescidos em R$20,00
ap6s 31/04/96. HaverA um espago reservado para a
exposi9ao de fotografias de/ou sobre primatas. Contatos:
Secretaria do VIII Congresso Brasileiro de Primatologia,
Laborat6rio Tropical de Primatologia DSE CCEN,
Universidade Federal da Paralba, 58059-900 Joao
Pessoa, Paraiba, Brasil. Tel: (083)216 7471, Fax: (083)
216 7464, e-mail: email@example.com.
Curso de Estatistica para Primatdlogos: A SBPr junto
com o Curso de Mestrado em Cidncias Biologicas da
Universidade Federal da Paraiba realizou entire os dias
21-24 de novembro de 1996 um curso sobre "Tratamento
Estatistico de Dados de Comportamento e
Autoecologia". O Curso foi ministrado pelo Prof. Paulo
de Marco da Universidade Federal de Vicosa, e contou
com a presenga de estudantes a pesquisadores da
Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco,
Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte e da
Universidade Federal da Paraiba. Cerca de 73% dos
alunos que assistiram o curso trabalham com primatas
da Regiao Nordeste.
Recadastramento: A SBPr estA realizando o
recadastramento de todos os membros. Perdemos contato
com muitos s6cios. Os s6cios que nao receberam a ficha
de recadastramento deveriam entrar em contato cor a
Secretaria da SBPr, Simone Porfirio, Laborat6rio
Tropical de Primatologia DSE CCEN, Universidade
Federal da Paraiba, 58059-900 Joao Pessoa, Paraiba,
Brasil. Tel: (083) 216 7471, Fax: (083) 216 7464.
Precisamos nos comunicar com os seguintes colegas:
Alexia C. da Cunha, Diego Miguel Pdrez, Elke A. K.
Krause, Fernando J. O. de Souza, Gloria Maria B.
Cardoso, Juliana C. B. Cunha Lima, Karina L. de
Oliveira, Paulo Cesar R. Bastos, Paulo Henrique G. de
Castro, Roberta Bodini de Pepe e Vanner Boere Souza.
Anuidade: Pedimos aos s6cios que ainda nao pagaram
as anuidades correspondents aos anos 1995 e 1996 que
Neotropical Primates 4(4), December 1996 Page 164
o fagam o mais rdpido posivel. A Sociedade s6 pode
trabalhar cor sua colabora9qo. Lembramos que
Neotropical Primates 6 enviado somente aos s6cios que
estao em dia com a anuidade. O valor desta 6 R$15,00
para estudantes ou profissionais desempregados e
R$30,00 para profissionais cor vinculo empregaticio.
Os s6cios que moram no exterior podem mandar um
cheque nominal em d61ares. O enderego para envio de
cheque ou comprovante de dep6sito bancario na conta
No. 3 705 000, Banco Real, Agencia 0175, 6: Sociedade
Brasileira de Primatologia, Departamento de Sistematica
e Ecologia CCEN, Universidade Federal da Paraiba,
Campus Universitario, 58.059-900 Joao Pessoa, Paraiba,
Brasil, Tel: (083) 216 7471, Fax: (083) 216 7464, e-
PRIMATE SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN
The Primate Society of Great Britain
S(PSGB) often receives requests for grants
in support of primate studies through its
Conservation Working Party (CWP).
Recent awards have included 300 to the
Black Lemur Forest Project, Madagascar,
to employ a Malagasy education officer for six months,
and 300 for the regional Primate Specialist Groups in
India to facilitate communication between them. Because
the Society has only relatively small amounts available
in the Conservation Appeal Fund, we confine grants to
specific topics. If you are thinking of applying for funds,
the notes given below indicate how to apply and whether
you are eligible.
Proposals are invitedfor grants to assist: 1) Research
of benefit to primate conservation; 2) Short surveys to
identify locations of value for primate conservation; 3)
Projects involving primate conservation education.
Obligations of grantee: 1) To present a report on the
progress of the project within six months of
commencement; 2) To present a final report on
completion of the project to be used by PSGB at its
discretion, in publications, or in any way considered to
be of value to primate conservation; 3) Any publication
resulting from the project should acknowledge the
support received by PSGB. Copies of publications should
be sent to PSGB; 4) To produce slides and/or sound
recordings where appropriate to the project for non-
commercial use by PSGB or others to benefit primate
conservation. Grant basis: 1) Applications to be received
by 1st March or 1st September each year; 2) Individual
awards will be for a sum not typically exceeding
250.00; 3) Award applications will be considered by
the Conservation Working Party at its next meeting
following receipt of applications. If two or more
objections are raised by members of the CWP, the
Convenor may, if she/he thinks fit, request the applicant
to submit an amended application that addresses the
committee's reservations; 4) Grants will be awarded to
members of PSGB, or to citizens of primate range
countries who are sponsored by a PSGB member; 5)
Group training projects are not covered by this award
Application forms are available from: Sian S. Waters,
Convenor of the PSGB Conservation Working Party,
Bristol Zoo Gardens, Clifton, Bristol BS8 3HA, UK.
. . .:* ..... ...... : .... ,; :. : -,.
PLANT TALK A MAGAZINE ON PLANT
Plant Talk is a quarterly magazine, founded in 1995,
and published by the Botanical Information Co. Ltd.,
UK. The Director is Hugh Synge who, with Gren Lucas,
set up the Threatened Plants Unit of IUCN. The Editor
is Dr John Akeroyd, a freelance writer, botanist and
taxonomist. Each issue includes: A round up of news
from around the world and an update on threats to plants
and their habitats; An inspiring story where
conservationists are succeeding; A feature explaining
the techniques of plant conservation, for instance how
to set up a seed bank, or giving general advice, such as
how to write a successful grant application; An editorial
which provides a balanced assessment of a key issue;
Notice board of key events and people worldwide;
Reviews of Red Data Books; Reports on new Floras,
Checklists and Field Guides; Vital plant facts for
conservation campaigners; and letters from readers.
Subscription rates: Individuals 15, US$25, Sfr30,
DM37 or FF120; Organizations 35, US$60, Sfr70,
DM85 or FF280. Rates include air mail postage. Contact:
Plant Talk, PO Box 65226, Tucson, AZ 85728-5226,
USA (orders from the Americas), or Plant Talk, P.O.Box
500, Kingston-upon-Thames, Surrey KT2 5XB, UK (rest
of the world).
EVOLUTION OF COMMUNICATION
A new journal, entitled Evolution of Communication is
to be published by John Benjamins Publishers,
Amsterdam, under the general editorship of Sherman
Wilcox, Department of Linguistics, University of New
Mexico.t will be publishedtwice in 1997,to eventually
become quarterly, and will contain articles, review
articles, book reviews, short notes, and discussions. It
is a broadly-conceived journal covering not only the
Neotropical Primates 4(4), December 1996
Page 165 Neotropical Primates 4(4), December 1996
origins of human language but also the evolutionary
continuum of communication in general. The journal
therefore accommodates studies on various species as
well as comparative, theoretical, and experimental
studies. This multidisciplinary approach will integrate
research from a variety of disciplines, such as: linguistics,
evolutionary biology, artificial life, primatology,
ethology, neuroscience, cognitive science, biological and
developmental psychology, social and biological
anthropology, philosophy, and palaeontology. Evolution
of Communication will provide a forum in which
scholars from these rapidly expanding fields of evolution
and communication can share their research within a
multidisciplinary, international perspective.
Editorial Board: The editorial board includes two
Associate Editors: Barbara J. King (Dept. of
Anthropology, College of William and Mary), and Luc
Steels (Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Free
University Brussels). Scholars wishing to write book
reviews should contact David Armstrong (Book Review
Editor), Gallaudet University, Office of Budget &
Auditing, 800 Florida Ave. NE, Washington DC 20002.
In addition, the editorial board consists of: Bennett G.
Galef, Jr. (Department of Psychology, McMaster
University); Kathleen Gibson (Department of Basic
Sciences, University of Texas, Houston); John Haiman
(Linguistics Program, Macalester College); Christine M.
Johnson (Department of Cognitive Science, University
of California, San Diego); Michael J. Ryan (Department
of Zoology, University of Texas, Austin); Chris Sinha
(Department of Psychology, University ofAarhus); Eors
Szathmary (Collegium Budapest); Michael Tomasello
(Department of Psychology, Emory University); Aladdin
Yaqub (Department of Philosophy, University of New
Mexico); and Anne C. Zeller (Department of
Anthropology, University of Waterloo).
Editorial Policy: The journal encourages international
and interdisciplinary contributions, is open to a broad
variety of theoretical views, and will give preference to
work which integrates data with conceptual and
methodological concerns. Manuscripts should be
submitted in 4 copies to Sherman Wilcox, Department
of Linguistics, University of New Mexico, 87131. Tel:
505-277-6353, Fax: 505-277-6355. e-mail:
Subscriptions: For information about subscriptions,
contact John Benjamins Publishing Company, P.O. Box
75577,1070 AN Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Tel: +31
20 6762325, Fax: +31.20.6739773, e-mail:
Anke.Delooper@benjamins.nl. World Wide Web home
Contingent Valuation and Endangered Species:
Methodological Issues andApplications, by Kristin
M. Jakobsson and Andrew K. Dragun, September 1996,
304pp, hardback, ISBN 1 85898 464 5, Price: 49.95.
Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd., UK. This book provides
a comprehensive and rigorous examination of the
contingent valuation method as applied to the profound
social problem of biodiversity conservation. The
contingent valuation method allows the explicit
identification and valuation of the non-use values of
species in a way which has not been possible before.This
new book offers a rigorous state-of-the-art evaluation
of the theoretical and statistical issues central to the
contingent valuation method as well as a hands-on
account of the design, implementation and analysis of a
contingent valuation survey of species conservation
benefits. Includes a comprehensive account of efforts
for endangered species protection in Australia and New
Zealand as well as current developments in the United
States. Contents: Foreword (M. Hanemann), Part I:
Environmental Values: The Institutional and Biological
Setting for Species Conservation. 1. Introduction. 2. The
Institutional Setting: The Victorian Flora and Fauna
Guarantee Act. 3. Endangered Species in Victoria. Part
II: Welfare Economic Principles of Species
Conservation. 4. Welfare Economic Principles and
Issues. 5. The Economics of Species Conservation. Part
IIl: The Contingent Valuation Method. 6. The
Contingent Valuation Method. 7. Estimating Changes
in Welfare from Discrete Choice Surveys. Part IV: The
Survey Application to Species Conservation. 8. A
Contingent Valuation Survey of Endangered species in
Victoria. 9. Estimation of Willingness to Pay. Part V:
Conclusions. 10. Conservation Value: Estimation and
Methodological Inference. 11. From Contingent
Valuation to Species Conservation Policy. Available
from: Customer Services, Ashgate Distribution, Unit 3,
Lower Farnham Road, Aldershot, Hants GU12 4DY,
UK, Tel: +44 1252 317707, Fax: +44 1252 317446, http:/
Os Limites Originals do Bioma Mata Atlntica na
Regido Nordeste do Brasil, por Adelmar F. Coimbra-
Filho e Ibsen de Gusmao Camara, 1996, 86pp. Fundaggo
Brasileira para a Protelao da Natureza (FBCN), Rio de
Janeiro. Um livro que documenta cuidadosamente a
destruiggo da Mata Atlantica e outras florestas no
Nordeste do Brasil, desde a descoberta do pals em 1500.
"Este livro constitui uma contribuigao ao estudo de
causes que, principalmente nos tempos hist6ricos,
levaram a Regiao Nordeste A situagao present de
profunda e extensa degrada9go ambiental, nele
interpretada como de origem basicamente antr6pica. Os
autores, consolidando abundante materia informative em
Neotropical Primates 4(4), December 1996
Neotropical Primates 4(4), December 1996
numerosas publica9Ses ou obtida diretamente nas Areas
por eles visitadas, pretenderam alertar para as sdrias
consequencias do process ininterrupto de seculares
agress6es ao meio ambiente que, a continuar sem
control, levara a area hoje designada como Poligono
das Secas, a estAgios avangada de desertificagao, a exigir
no future medidas onerosissimas e complexes. O
exemplo das plagas nordestinos, resultado de quase meio
milenio de continuada desconsideragio ao uso sensato
do solo e a principios ecol6gicos elementares, evidencia-
se como grave advertencia acerca dos desvarios
comparAveis que vem sendo perpetrados em mOltiplas
paragens de nossa terra. Ainda que nelas as condi95es
climAticas possam mostrar-se menos several em relaglo
as prevalecentes no Nordeste, tal fato nSo impedirA que
o desrespeito aos ensinamentos da natureza, em flagrante
progressao, repita o dramatico quadro de amplo
empobrecimento biol6gico daquelas Areas dotadas
outrora de riquissima biota. Deliberadamente procurou-
se no trabalho tomar-lhe o texto ameno restringindo tanto
quanto possivel o uso de nomenclatura cientifica e de
dados estatisticos, exceto quando exigidos para clareza
dos arguments apresentados. Esperam assim os autores
atingir parcela mais abrangente da comunidade, cor o
prop6sito de ampliar o campo de discusses sobre um
tema por eles considerado de maior relevancia para o
Pafs." (Apresentag9o). Este livro 6 da maior importtncia
para um entendimento das desastrosas conseqtlencias
da destruigao da Mata Atlantica, e para uma visAo mais
realista sobre perda de biodiversidade no Brasil.
Altamente recomendado. Disponivel para compra na
Fundaqao Brasileira para Conservag9o da Natureza
(FBCN), Rua Miranda Valverde 103, Botafogo, 22281-
000 Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, Tel: (021)
537 7565, Fax: (021) 537 1343.
Mamiraud: Piano de Manejo, compiled by the
Sociedade Civil Mamiraua, Tef6 and Belem. 1996, 96pp.
illustrated. Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento
Cientifico e Tecnol6gico (CNPq), Brasilia, and Instituto
de Protecao Ambiental do Estado do Amazonas
(IPAAM), Manaus. In Portuguese. Foreword by Jose
Galizia Tundisi, President of CNPq, and Prefaces by
Eduardo S. Martins, President of the Brazilian Institute
for the Environment (Ibama), and Vicente Nogueira,
President of IPAAM. A beautifully presented executive
summary of the Management Plan for the Mamiraua
Sustainable Development Reserve at the mouth of the
Rio JapurA in the Brazilian Amazon, home to the white
uacari, Cacajao c. calvus, and the black-headed squirrel
monkey, Saimiri vanzolinii, amongst other primates. It
is based on extensive research on all aspects of the white-
water inundated forest (vdrzea) and the specific
ecological and socioeconomic characteristics of the area.
A management plan which can be considered exemplary
for the Amazonian protected areas (or for any protected
area for that matter). Chapters include: Introduction and
Objectives; A Short History of the Creation of the
Reserve; Environmental Aspects; Socioceconomic
Characteristics; Research on which the Management
Plan is Based; Mapping and Use of Resources; Norms
and Recommendations for the Sustained Use of Natural
Resources; Structure and Functioning of the Second
Phase; Fiscalization and Guards; Activities of the Second
Phase: Technical Assistance, Research and Monitoring;
along with lists of references, financing agents, and the
collaborators involved in drawing up the plan. Available
from: Sociedade Civil MamirauA, Projeto Mamiraua,
Coordenator Jos6 MArcio Ayres, Caixa Postal 038,
69.470-000 Tef6, Amazonas, Brazil.
The Food Web ofa Tropical Rain Forest, edited by
D. P. Reagan and R. B.Waide, 1996. University of
Chicago Press, Chicago. 628pp. illus. Price: Cloth
US$110, paperback US$39.95. This volume summarizes
studies relevant to describing the food web of the 40 ha
of forest surrounding the El Verde Field Station in the
Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. The work
coalesces 30 years of investigations at El Verde. The
food web construct is used to organize information on
the species of this tropical forest community and how
they relate to one another. There are chapters on plants,
microorganisms (primarily fungi), litter and arboreal
invertebrates, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals, and
the stream community. Termites and arboreal arachnids
are given special recognition with their own chapters,
reflecting their presumed importance as food web links.
Each chapter places the subject organisms within the
overall food web and then describes abundance and
biomass, as well as other important features of the group
such as population dynamics, food specialization,
consumption rates, and the principal predators. A final
chapter analyzes the structure of the El Verde food web
and compares it to those from other communities.
Available from: University of Chicago Press, Order
Department, 11030 South Langley Avenue, Chicago,
Illinois 60628, USA, Tel: 1-800-621-2736, Fax: 1-800-
World Resources 1996-7: A Guide to the Global
Environment, World Resources (WRI) in collaboration
with the United Nations Development Programme
(UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programme
(UNEP), and the World Bank, 1996. 365pp. Large
format paperback, ISBN 0 19 521161. Price: US$24.95
+ US$3.50 (handling). Database diskette, 3,5", IBM-
compatible, ISBN 1 56973 094 6. Price: US$99.95 +
US$3.50 (handling). Available from: WRI Publications,
P. O. Box 4852, Hampden Stations, Baltimore, MD
21211, USA, Tel: 1 800 822 0504 or 410 516 6963,
Fax: 410 516 6998, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Neotropical Primates 4(4), December 1996
Social Learning in Animals: The Roots ofCulture,
edited by Cecilia M. Heyes and Bennett G. Galef, Jr.,
1996, 360pp. ISBN 0 12 273 965 5. Academic Press,
London. Price: US$54.95. The increasing realization
among behaviorists and psychologists is that many
animals learn by observation as members of social
systems. Such settings contribute to the formation of
culture. The book is divided into two major sections
(social learning and imitation). It includes as key
features: the integration of the broad range of scientific
approaches being used in studies of social learning and
imitation, and society and culture; an introduction to the
field as well as a starting point for more experienced
researchers; succinct reviews of new discoveries and
progress in the past decade; statements of varied
theoretical perspectives on controversial topics; and
authoritative contributions by an international team of
leading researchers. Available from: Academic Press,
Inc., Order Fulfillment Department, 6277 Sea Harbor
Drive, Orlando, FL 32887, USA, or Academic Press,
Inc., Order Fulfilment Department, 24-28 Oval Road,
London NW1 7DX, UK. US and Canada toll free Tel:
1-800-321-5068, Fax: 1-800-336-7377, e-mail:
email@example.com. Europe toll free Tel: 0181 300-3322.
Guidefor the care and use of laboratory animals,
compiled by the Institute of Laboratory Animal
Resources, Commission on Life Sciences, National
Research Council, National Academy Press,
Washington, D.C. 1996. ISBN 0-309-05377-3. Price:
US$9.95 plus US$4.00 shipping and handling. A
respected resource for decades, the Guide for the Care
and Use of Laboratory Animals has been revised by a
committee of experts, on the basis of input from scientists
and the public. The Guide incorporates recent research
on commonly used species, including farm animals, and
includes extensive references. It treats the following
subjects: Insitutional policies and responsibilities;
Animal environment, husbandry, and management;
Veterinary care; and Physical plant. The book provides
a framework for the judgments required in the
management of animal facilities. It is a resource of
proven value, and has now been updated and expanded.
Available from: National Academy Press, 2101
Constitution Avenue, NW, Lockbox 285, Washington,
DC 20055, USA, Tel: 1-800-624-6242, Fax: 1-202-334-
2451, Internet: http://www.nap.edu.
Informe de la Reuni6n de la Red Latinoamericana
de Cooperaci6n Tecnica en Parques Nacionales,
otras Areas Protegidas, Flora y Fauna Silvestres,
1996, 51pp. In Spanish. Results of a meeting held at
Cancin, Mexico, 13-14 November 1995, organized by
the FAO Regional Office for Latin America and the
Caribbean as part of the activities of the Project FAO/
PNUMA FP/0312-94-14. Contents: Introducci6n;
Antecedentes de las reuniones previas; Objetivos de le
rueni6n; Participantes; Iniuguraci6n; Cuenta de las
actividades de la Red realizadas durante el period 1992-
1995; Necessidad de otras actividades para el period
1996-1997; AnAlisis del funcionamento de las redes
nacionales; Perfil de proyecto regional sobre criterios e
indicadores para el manejo de areas protegidas; Perfil
de proyecto regional (GEF u otras fuentes); AnAlisis del
reglamento de la red de parques; Elecci6n de la
Coordinaci6n Regional de la Red para el period 1996-
1997. Anexos: Lista de participants; Actividades de la
Red (Periodo 1992-1995); Propuestos de los grupos de
trabajo relatives al perfil de Proyecto Regional (GEF u
outras fuentes); Reglamento de la Red. Published by the
FAO Regional Office for Latin America and the
Caribbean, Available from: Kyran D. Thelen, Oficial
Regional Forestal, Bandera 150, Casilla 10095, Santiago,
Chile, Tel: 699-1005, Fax: 696 1121, 696 1124, e-mail:
Borda, J. T., Patiflo, E. M., Ruiz, J. C. and SAnchez-
Negrette, M. 1996. Ascorbic acid deficiency in Cebus
apella. Lab. Prim. Newsl. 35(4):5-6.
Brack, M. 1996. Gongylonematiasis in the common
marmoset (Callithrixjacchus). Lab. Anim. Sci. 46(3):
Carlson, A. A., Ginther, A. J., Scheffler, G. R. and
Snowdon, C. T. 1996. The effects of infant births on
the sociosexual behavior and hormonal patterns of a
cooperatively breeding primate (Cebuella pygmaea).
Am. J. Primatol. 40:23-39.
Chamove, A. S. 1996. Cage-cleaning: Interest or intru-
sion? Australian Primatology 11(1): 2-5.
Chiu, C-h., Schneider, H., Schneider, M. P. C., Sampaio,
I., Meireles, C., Slightom, J. L. Gumucio, D. L. and
Goodman, M. 1996. Reduction of two functional
gamma-globin genes to one: An evolutionary trend in
New World monkeys (Infraorder Platyrrhini). Proc.
Nat. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 93(13): 6510-6515.
Consigliere, S., Stanyon, R., Koehler, U., Agoramoorthy,
G. and Wienberg, J. 1996. Chromosome painting de-
fines genomic rearrangements between red howler
monkey subspecies. Chromosome Res. 4(4): 264-270.
Cubas, Z. S. 1996. Special challenges of maintaining
wild animals in captivity in South America. Revue
Scientifique et Technique Office International des
Epizooites 15(1): 267-287.
Dietz, L. A. H. and Nagagata, E. Y. 1995. Golden lion
tamarin conservation program: A community educa-
tional effort for forest conservation in Rio de Janeiro
State, Brazil. In: Conserving Wildlife: International
Education and Communication Approaches, S. K.
Jacobsen (ed.), pp.64-86. ColumbiaUniversitty Press,
Neotropical Primates 4(4), December 1996
Figueiredo, R. A. de. 1996. Vertebrates at Neotropical
fig species in a forest fragment. Trop. Ecol. 37(1):139-
Fleagle, J. G. and Reed, K. E. Comparing primate com-
munities: A multivariate approach. J. Hum. Evol. 30(6):
Fraiha Neto, H. and Muniz, J. A. P. C. 1993. Prelimi-
nary key for the identification of Microfilariae from
the blood of Neotropical monkeys. Bol. Mus. Para.
Emilio Goeldi, Ser. Zool. 9(2): 195-201. (In Portu-
Garlick, D. S., Marcus, L. C., Pokras, M. and Schelling,
S. H. 1996. Baylisascaris larva migrans in a spider
monkey (Ateles sp.). J. Med. Primatol. 25(2): 133-136.
Gieble, J., Souza, P. de, Rune, G. M. 1996. Expressions
of integrins in marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) ovary
during folliculogenesis. Tissue and Cell 28(4): 379-
Gilbert, K. A. and Stouffer, P. C. 1995. Variation in sub-
strate use by white-faced capuchins. Hum. Evol. 10(4):
Gillis, A. M. 1996. Andean fossils push back the age of
origin for modem ecosystems and species' lineages.
BioScience 46(8): 570-572.
Goodman, M. 1996. Epilogue. A personal account of
the origins of a new paradigm. Molec. Phylogen. Evol.
Hannaford, G. 1996. Feeding bowl height preferences
in captive common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus
jacchus). Australian Primatology 11(1): 5-13.
Hsu, M. J. and Agoramoorthy, G. 1996. Conservation
status of primates in Trinidad, West Indies. Oryx 30(4):
Isbell, L. A. and Van Vuren, D. 1996. Differential costs
of locational and social dispersal and their conse-
quences for female group-living primates. Behaviour
Jantschke, B., Welker, C. and Klaiber-Schuh, A. 1995.
Notes on breeding of the titi monkey Callicebus
cupreus. Folia Primatol. 65:210-213.
Kennedy, K. 1994. Adaptations of free-ranging family
of cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) to a natural
environment at Edinburgh Zoo. Ann. Report Royal
Zoo. Soc. Scotland 82:60-62.
Kilderling, 1., Morrell, J. M. and Nayudu, P. L. Collec-
tion of semen from marmoset monkeys (Callithrix
jacchus) for experimental use by vaginal washing. Lab.
Anim. 30(3): 260-266.
Lacreuse, A. and Fragaszy, D. M. 1996. Hand prefer-
ences for a haptic searching task by tufted
capuchins(Cebus apella). Int. J. Primatol. 17(4): 613-
Laska, M., Alicke, T. and Hudson, R. 1996. A study of
long-term odor memory in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri
sciureus). J. Comp. Psychol. 110(2):125-130.
Li, W.-H., Ellsworth, D. L., Krushkal, J., Chang, B. H.-
J. and Hewett-Emmett, D. 1996. Rates of nucleotide
substitution in primates and rodents and the genera-
tion-time effect hypothesis. Molec. Phylogen. Evol.
Lopes, M. A. and Ferrari, S. F. 1996. Preliminary ob-
servations on the Ka'apor capuchin, Cebus kaapori
Queiroz, 1992, from eastern Brazilian Amazonia. Biol.
Conserv. 76(3): 321-324.
Mares, M. A., Barquez, R. M., Braun, J. K. and Ojeda,
R. A. 1996. Observations on the mammals of TucumAn
Province, Argentina. I. Systematics, distribution, and
ecology of the Didelphimorphia, Xenarthra,
Chiroptera, Primates, Carnivora, Perissodactyla,
Artiodactyla, and Lagomorpha. Ann. Carnegie Mus.
Milton, K. 1996. Effects of bot fly (Alouattamyia baeri)
parasitism on a free-ranging howler monkey (Alouatta
palliata) population in Panama. J. Zool., Lond. 239(1):
Mitani, J. C., Gros- Louis, J. and Richards, A. F. 1996.
Sexual dimorphism, the operational sex-ratio, and the
intensity of male competition in polygynous primates.
Am. Nat. 147(6):966-980.
Miller, K.-H. 1995. Ranging in masked titi monkeys
(Callicebus personatus) in Brazil. Folia Primatol.
Newby, C. L. 1995. Hand-raising spider monkeys. Ani-
mal Keeper's Forum 22(9):360-362.
Nievergelt, C. and Pryce, C. R. 1996. Monitoring and
controlling reproduction in captive common marmo-
sets on the basis of urinary oestrogen matabolites. Lab.
Anim. 30(2): 162-170.
Osorio, D. and Vorobyev, M. 1996. Colour vision as an
adaptation to frugivory in primates. Proc. Roy. Soc.
Passamani, M. 1996. Uso de Arvores gomiferas por
Callithrix penicillata no Parque Nacional Serra do
Cip6, MG. Boletim do Museu de Biologia Mello Leitao
(N. sdr.) 4:25-31.
Pope, T. R. 1996. Socioecology, population fragmenta-
tion, and patterns of genetic loss in endangered pri-
mates. In: Conservation Genetics: Case Histories from
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Strier, K. B. and Fonseca, G. A. B. The endangered
muriquis of Brazil's Atlantic forest. #392.
Setz, E. Z. F. Foraging ecology of golden-faced sakis in
a forest fragment in central Amazon, #157.
Silver, S. C. and Ostro, L. The feeding ecology of trans-
located black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) in
Belize, Central America. #657.
Smith, T. E. and McGreer-Whitworth, B. Psychosocial
stress and urinary cortisol excretion in marmoset mon-
keys (Callithrix kuhli). #86.
Snowdon, C. T. and Ziegler, T. E. Mechanisms of re-
productive inhibition in tamarins. #61.
Solano, C. Activity pattern and action area of the night
monkey (Aotus brumbacki Hershkovitz 1993, (Pri-
mates: Cebidae), Tinigua National Park, Colombia.
Sousa, M. B. C. and Ximenes, D. R. L. Sociosexual be-
havior and parental care in relation to the occurrence
of post partum estrus in captive marmosets, Callithrix
Souza, S. B., Martins, M. M. and Setz, E. Z. F. Activity
pattern and feeding ecology of sympatric masked titi
monkeys and buffy tufted-ear marmosets. #155.
Stanford, C. B. and Janson, C. H. Predation and primate
social systems: Advances in theory and field data. #15.
Stevens, A. M. Exhibit use and behavior study on cap-
tive titi monkeys (Callicebus donacophilus. #669.
Talebi-Gomes, M., Mendes, F. D. C. and Ades, C. Re-
search and conservation of the Atlantic forest muriqui:
An update. #594.
Tardif, S. D. Costs and benefits of infant care behavior
for non-mothers in callitrichid primates. #543.
Torres, O. M., Enciso, S. P., Ruiz, F. J. and Yunis, I.
Cytogenetics of the genus Aotus in Colombia: Descrip-
tion of a new karyomorph and proposal for a nomen-
Vanderloop, J. A. Behavioral and adrenocortical corre-
lates of dominance within twin pairs of common mar-
Vargas, N. and Solano, C. Evaluation of the condition
of two populations of Saguinus leucopus Guenther
1817, in order to determine potential conservation ar-
eas in the middle Magdalena, Colombia. #373.
Vasarhelyi, K. Characterization of relatedness in the
captive Callimico goeldii population using
hypervariable DNA markers. #785.
Veracini, C. Preliminary observations on the ecology of
Callithrix argentata and its relationships with Saguinus
midas niger. #180.
Verbeek, P, and de Waal, F. B. M. Agonism and its af-
termath in a captive group of Cebus apella. #208.
Vick, L. G. and Taub, D. M. Feeding opportunism, so-
cial organization, and breeding peaks in spider mon-
keys (Ateles geoffroyi) at Punta Laguna, Mexico. #39.
Vi6, J.-C. and Richard-Hansen, C. Ecology and behav-
ior of white-faced sakis (Pithecia pithecia) in French
Guiana. Preliminary results. #37.
Visalberghi, E. Do they know what they do? Does it
Neotropical Primates 4(4), December 1996
Neotropical Primates 4(4), December 1996 Page 174
matter? # F.
Vitale, A. and Queyras, A. Influence of social context
on the consumption of novel food in common mar-
De Vleeschouwer and Chapoix, G. Formation and main-
tenance of the pairbond in golden-headed lion tama-
De Waal, F. B. M. Birds of a feather: The social
behaviour of capuchins and chimpanzees. #1B.
Weaver, A. Ch. F. Determinants of tantrums in captive
juvenile tufted capuchins, Cebus apella. #764.
Welker, C. Primate infant behavioral development. #250.
Westergaard, G. C. Hand preference for bimanual coor-
dination in tufted capuchins (Cebus apella) and rhesus
macaques (Macaca mulatta). #342.
Williams, L. E. and Yeoman, R. R. Measuring urinary
estradiol in Saimiri spp. to monitor the estrus cycle.
Wright, P. C. and Gursky, L. Alloparental care in the
New World monkeys and prosimians. #541.
Ximenes, D. R. L., Sousa, M. B. C., Raulino, F. C., Al-
buquerque, A. C. S. R., Oliveira, A. L. and Teixeira, 1.
C. D. Social interaction of the reproductive pair dur-
ing the first six weeks after parturition in captive mar-
mosets, Callithrixjacchus. #508.
Yamamoto, M. E., Arruda, M. F., Sousa, M. B. C. and
Alencar, A. I. Mating systems and reproductive strat-
egies in Callithrixjacchus females. #56.
Ziegler, T. E. and Snowdon, C. T. Physiological corre-
lates of male parental care in a New World primate,
the cotton-top tamarin. #544.
Zucker, E. L., O'Neil, J. A. S. and Harrison, R. M. Fecal
testosterone values for free-ranging male mantled
howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in Costa Rica.
Southern Connection Congress: Southern Temperate
Biota and Ecosystems: Past, Present and Future, 6-
11 January 1997, Valdivia, Chile. The II Southern
Connection Congress is being organized by the
Universidad de Chile and the Universidad Austral de
Chile, Congress Presidents: Mary T. Kalin Arroyo and
Antonio Lara. Southern Connection has rapidly become
the most important venue for interchange and the
discussion of biological research in temperate
ecosystems in the southern hemisphere. The congress
will be organized around special conferences.
symposium topics, contributed papers, and special
sessions on the science-development-policy interface.
These activities will be complemented with workshops,
displays, field trips and cultural activities. The main
themes to be treated in the congress are: History of the
southern continents and their biota the past, Ecosystem
composition, structure and dynamics the present; and
Perspectives for conservation and sustainability the
future. Contributed papers that describe the results of
original scientific research in taxonomy, evolution,
biogeography, history, ecophysiology, ecosystem
dynamics, population, reproductive and community
ecology of southern temperate ecosystems and biota will
be accepted. While the Congress will concentrate on
terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems, papers in marine
biology are welcome. The Congress language is English.
However to encourage the participation of young Latin
American graduate students, posters may be presented
in Spanish, with an English abstract. Final date for
abstracts is 30 September 1996. Information and
registration forms: Dr. Mary T. Kalin Arroyo, President,
II Southern Connection Congress, Fax: 56(2) 271-9171;
Tel: 56(2) 678-7331, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
2nd Annual International Wildlife Law Conference,
8 April, 1997, Washington, D.C. The conference,
sponsored by the American Society of International
Law's wildlife section, the GreenLife Society North
America, the Georgetown International Environmental
Law Review, the Colorado Journal of International
Environmental Law & Policy and the Detroit College
of Law-Michigan State University, will use the same
three panel format as at last year's conference. The panels
for the conference are as follows: 1. The precautionary
principle and International Wildlife Treaty Regimes; 2.
The International Whaling Commission and the
Aboriginal Whaling Exception; 3. The Impact of the
Convention on Biological Diversity: Present and Future.
Contact: GreenLife Society North America 700
Cragmont Ave. Berkeley, CA 94708 USA, Tel/Fax:
(510) 558-0620, e-mail: email@example.com. WWW: site:
VII Iberoamerican Congress for Biodiversity and
Vertebrate Zoology, 22-25 April, 1997, University of
Concepci6n, Concepci6n, Chile. The objective of the
congress is to bring together researchers from Spain,
Portugal and Latin America to discuss and exchange
information at the highest level on the directions and
advances concerning biodiversity, conservation, and
zoology of vertebrates. The Congress will cover the
following topics: Biology of Development, Biology of
Conservation, Decline of Species, Biodiversity, Ecology,
Ethology, Evolution, Physiology, Phylogenetics,
Genetics, Morphology, Paleontology, Parasitology,
Fisheries, Protection and Management of Wildlife,
Taxonomy and Zoogeography. The Proceedings will be
published in the journals Gayana and Boletin de la
Sociedad de Biologia de Concepci6n. Fees: Students
until 30/09/96 = US$25, until 31/12/96 = US$35, at the
Congress = US$50; Professionals until 30/09/96 =
Neotropical Primates 4/(4), December 1996
Neotropical Primates 4(4), December 1996
US$70, until 31/12/96 = US$85, at the Congress =
US$100. Payment: 1. Electronic transfer; Bank of
America 6550-1-28650. 2. Check made out to the
Universidad de Concepci6n. Electronic information
available from the homepage: http://buho.dpi.udec.cl/
-cibiozve/. Contact: Presidente Comite Organizador: Dr.
Juan Carlos Ortiz, VIII Congreso Iberoamericano de
Biodiversidad y Zoologiade Vertebrados, Departamento
de Zoologia, Universidad de Concepci6n, Casilla 2407,
Concepci6n, Chile, Tel: (56) 41 234985 x 2157 or 4152;
(56) 41 204672, Fax:(56) 41 243379, e-mail:
Italian Primatological Society Meeting, Spring, 1997.
Contact: Augusto Vitale, Section of Comparative
Psychology, Laboratorio di Fisiopatologia o.s., Instituto
Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena, 299, 00161
Rome, Italy, Tel.: 39-6-49902107, Fax: 39-6-4957821,
Primer Congreso Latinoamericano de Parques
Nacionales y otras Areas Protegidas, 21-28 del Mayo
de 1997, Santa Marta, Colombia. Entre los objetivos mis
importantes del Congreso, se encuentra el efectuar un
anAlisis de los progress alcanzados en la regi6n en los
6ltimos cinco aflos, desde febrero de 1992, y de las
experiencias mas exitosas de estos aflos. Asi mismo, el
event se propone elaborar un diagn6stico de la situaci6n
actual en parques nacionales y otras areas protegidas y
definir las prioridades asi como las estrategias para los
pr6ximos cinco aflos, antes del Congreso Mundial de
Parques Nacionales que ha de realizarse en Africa en
2.002. Minister del Medio Ambiente, Colombia,
Organizaci6n de las Naciones Unidas para la Agricultura
y la Alimentaci6n (FAO) Oficina Regional para
America Latina y el Caribe, Uni6n Mundial para la
Naturaleza (IUCN) Comisi6n Parques Nacionales y
Otras Areas Protegidas, Red Latinoamericana de
Cooperaci6n Tecnica en Parques Nacionales, Otras
Areas Protegidas, Flora y Fauna Silvestres. Informaci6n:
Secretaria Tecnica Internacional de la Red
Latinoamericana de Cooperaci6n T6cnica en Parques
Nacionales, Otras Areas Protegidas, Flora y Fauna
Silvestres, Kyran D. Thelen, Oficial Regional Forestal,
Oficina Regional de la FAO para America Latina y el
Caribe, Bandera No. 150, 7 a 10 piso, Casilla 10095,
Santiago, Chile, Tel: (562) 699 1005, Fax: (562) 696
1121, (562) 696 1124.
XX Meeting of the American Society of
Primatologists, 27-30 June 1997, Bahia Hotel, San
Diego, California. Hosted by California State Univiersity
at San Marcos. Deadline for abstracts: 15 January 1997
postmark. Program and abstracts will be published in
the June issue of the American Journal ofPrimatology,
42(2). Questions about the program should be directed
to the Chair of the Program Committee, Evan L. Zucker,
Department of Psychology, Box 194, Loyola University,
New Orlaens, LA 70118, USA, Tel: (504) 865 3255,
Fax: (504 834 4085, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. For
more information, contact: Nancy Caine, Psychology
Department, California State University, San Marcos,
California 92096, USA. Tel:.(619) 752-4145, Fax: (619)
752-4111, e-mail: email@example.com.
ASAB Summer Meeting "Biological Aspects of
Learning", 2-4 July, 1997, University of St. Andrews,
Scotland, UK. Association for the Study of Animal
Behaviour (ASAB). Organized by Peter Slater. It is
hoped to include talks on a wide variety of animal
groups,and ranging from neurobiological aspects of
learning to social learning and imitation. Main lectures
will be given by RandolfMenzel (Learning and memory
in the honey bee), Meredith West (Social development),
Peter Tyack (Vocal learning in cetaceans), and Andrew
Whitten (Imitation and social learning in primates).
Offers of talks or posters, the latter not necessarily
restricted to the main subject of the meeting, will be
welcomed, and should be sent to: Professor Peter Slater,
School of Biological and Medical Sciences, University
of St. Andrews, Bute Medical Building, St. Andrews
KY16 9TS, Scotland, UK, Tel: +44 (0)1334 463500,
Fax: +44 (0) 1334 463600, e-mail: pjbs@st-
The Royal Society Meeting, "Evolution of Biological
Diversity: From Population Differentiation to
Speciation", 9-10 July 1997. A discussion meeting at
The Royal Society, Carlton House Terrace, London, UK.
Organized by Robert May and Anne Magurran. Contact:
The Science Promotion Section, The Royal Society, 6
Carlton House Terrace, London SW1Y 5AG, UK, Tel:
+44 (0)171 839 5561, Fax: +44 (0)171 930 2170.
Fifth International Congress of Vertebrate
Morphology, 12-17 July, 1997, University of Bristol,
Bristol, UK. Organized by the International Society for
Vertebrate Morphologists. All those interested in
vertebrate morphology and related areas are invited to
attend. Suitable topics for discussion at the meeting
include all aspects of vertebrate morphology, including
anatomy, evolution, development, biomechanics and
locomotion, vertebrate palaeontology, ecological
morphology, morphological aspects of behaviour, cell
structure and function, neurobiology and neuroanatomy,
and morphometric and other methods. The closing date
for submissions is 16 December 1996. Contact: Professor
J. M. V. Rayner, School of Biological Sciences,
University of Bristol, Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 lUG,
UK, Fax: +44 (0)117 925 7374, e-mail: icvm97@bristol.
ac.uk, WWW: http://www.bio.bris.ac.uk/icvm.html.
Neotropical Primates 4(4). December 1996 Page 176
VIII Congresso Brasileiro de Primatologia, 27 July-
1 August 1997, JoAo Pessoa, Paraiba, Brazil. Deadline
for submission of abstracts: 30 April 1997. Contact:
Carmen Alonso, Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia,
Departamento de Sistematica e Ecologia CCEN,
Universidade Federal da Paraiba, 58059-900 Joao
Pessoa, Paraiba, Brazil, Tel: +55 (0)83 216 7471, Fax:
+55 (0)83 216 7464, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
XXV International Ethological Conference, 20-27
August, 1997, Vienna, Austria. This meeting will
highlight new synthetic approaches to problems in
animal behavior, and links between behavior and other
disciplines, including neurobiology, sensory physiology,
population ecology, conservation biology, and evolution.
For additional information about the meeting, contact
Dr. Michael Taborsky, Konrad Lorenz Institute fur
Vergleichende Verhalternsforshung, A- 160 Wien,
Savoyenstrasse 1A, Austria. The U.S. Ethological
Conference Committee has applied for a grant from NSF
for partial support of travel for younger scientists to
attend meeting. If this grant is funded, the US Ethological
Conference Committee (USECC) will provide travel
funds to younger U.S. scientists defined as those who
received their Ph.D. degree between 1992 and 1996, or
who will complete their Ph.D. during the 1996/97
academic year. To apply for a travel award, please submit
the following items to IEC XXV, c/o Dr. Judy Stamps,
Section of Evolution and Ecology, University of
California, Davis, California, 95616: (a) 7 copies of a 1-
2 page curriculum vitae, (b) 7 copies of the abstract you
will submit to the IEC program committee, and (c) 7
copies of two letters of recommendation sent separately
by the recommenders. For those who have not completed
their doctorate, it is desirable that the major professor
include an assurance that the degree will be completed
before July 1, 1997. Applications must be received by
15 December, 1996. We hope to notify all applicants of
the outcome of their applications by 15 Feb, 1997. Other
questions about this competition may be addressed to
Dr. Stamps at the address above (e-mail: jastamps@.
ASAB Winter Meeting 1997 "Behaviour and
Conservation", 4-5 December, 1997,Zoological Society
of London, Regent's Park, London, UK. Association for
the Study of Animal Behaviour (ASAB). Organized by
Morris Gosling and Mark Avery. The organizers aim to
use the meeting as the basis for a multi-author book.
Current ideas for possible contents include links between
mating systems/dispersal and genetic structure of
populations; dispersal and other movements in relation
to habitat fragmentation and reserve design; individual
foraging behaviour and habitat carrying capacity; mate
choice, signalling, and manipulation of captive breeding;
learning and pre-release training; and practical use of
behaviour in conservation (eg., use of songs for
censusing). Contacts: Professor Morris Gosling, Institute
of Zoology, Zoological Society of London, Regent's
Park, London NWI 4RY, UK, Tel: +44 (0)171 449 6600,
Fax: +44 (0)171 586 2870, e-mail: email@example.com,
or Dr. Mark Avery, RSPB, The Lodge, Sandy, Beds.
SG19 2DL, UK, Tel: +44 (0)1767 680551, Fax: +44
(0)1767 692365, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
i .... . ..' -.;.-i .
We would be most grateful if you could send us information
on projects, research groups, events (congresses, symposia,
and workshops), recent publications, activities of
primatological societies and NGOs, news items or opinions
of recent events and suchlike. Manuscripts should be
double-spaced and accompanied by the text in diskette
for PC compatible text-editors (MS-Word, Wordperfect,
Wordstar). Articles, not exceeding six pages, can include
small black-and-white photographs, high quality figures,
and high quality maps, tables and references, but please
keep them to a minimum.
Please send contributions to: ANTHONY RYLANDS, c/o
Conservation International do Brasil, Avenida Ant6nio
Abrahao Caram 820/302, 31275-000 Belo Horizonte,
Minas Gerais, Brazil, Tel/Fax: +55 (31) 441 17 95 or
ERNESTO RODRiGUEZ-LUNA, Parque de La Flora y
Fauna Silvestre Tropical, Instituto de Neuroetologia,
Universidad Veracruzana, Apartado Postal 566, Xalapa,
Veracruz 91000, Mexico, Fax: 52 (28) 12-5748.
LILIANA CORTES-ORTIZ (Universidad Veracruzana) provides
invaluable editorial assistance.
Correspondence, messages, and texts can be sent to:
NEOTROPICAL PRIMATES is produced in collaboration
with CONSERVATION INTERNATIONAL, 1015 18th Street
NW, Suite 1000, Washington DC 20036, USA, and
FUNDACAO BIODIVERSITAS, Av. do Contorno, 9155/110.
andar Prado, Belo Horizonte 30110-130, Minas
Design and Composition ALEXANDRE S. DINNOUTI -
International do Brasil.
Neotropical Primates 4(4), December 1996
Anthony Rylands/Ernesto Rodriguez Luna, Editors
; Conservation International
SAvenida Antnio Abrahao Caram 820/302
IUCN/SSC 31275-000, Belo Horizonte
Minas Gerais, Brazil
This issue of Neotropical Primates was kindly sponsored by the Margot Marsh Biodiversity
Foundation, 432 Walker Road, Great Falls, Virginia 22066, USA, the Houston Zoological
Gardens Conservation Program, General Manager Donald G. Olson, 1513 North MacGregor,
Houston, Texas 77030, and the Grupo de Trabalho em Biodiversidade (GTB), through the
Brazilian National Science Research Council (CNPq), Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca, Coordenador
do GTB, c/o Conservation International do Brasil, Avenida Ant6nio Abrahdo Caram 820/302,
31275-000 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.