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Title: Neotropical primates
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 Material Information
Title: Neotropical primates a newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCNSSC Primate Specialist Group
Abbreviated Title: Neotrop. primates
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
Conservation International
Center for Applied Biodiversity Science
Publisher: Conservation International
Place of Publication: Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Publication Date: March 1996
Frequency: quarterly
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Primates -- Periodicals -- Latin America   ( lcsh )
Primates -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Wildlife conservation -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: review   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Brazil
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Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Language: English, Portuguese, and Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Mar. 1993)-
Issuing Body: Issued jointly with Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, <Dec. 2004->
General Note: Published in Washington, D.C., Dec. 1999-Apr. 2005 , Arlington, VA, Aug. 2005-
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 13, no. 1 (Apr. 2005).
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098814
Volume ID: VID00015
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28561619
lccn - 96648813
issn - 1413-4705

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    Back Cover
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Full Text




NI'OTROPICAL
I M TE S VOLUME 4, NUMBER 1
P IMATES March, 1996
A Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group
Editors: Anthony B. Rylands and Ernesto Rodriguez Luna
APSG Chairman: Russell A. Mittermeier
-'" CPSG Deputy Chairman: William R. Konstant
2 ,'


CONSERVATION
INTERNATIONAL


SPECIES SURVIVAL
COMMISSION


r
FUNDAQAO
BIODIVERSITAS






Page 1


Erratum,

In the first article of Neotropical Primates 3(4),
December 1995, the name and address of the author was
unfortunately omitted. The author was Thomas J.
Masterson of the Department of Biology, James
Madison University, Harrisonburg, Virginia 22807,
USA.

The correct citation for this article is as follows:

Masterson, T. J. 1995. Morphological relationships
between the Ka'apor capuchin (Cebus kaapori
Queiroz,1992) and other male Cebus crania: a
preliminary report. Neotropical Primates 3(4): 165-169.

The editors apologize for this error.




Articles


DISTRIBUTION GEOGRAFICA DE SAGUINUS
TRIPARTITUS EN LA AMAZONIA DEL PERU


Introducci6n

En la media que las colleciones de especimenes, pieles,
osamentas y otras abarquen mayores extensions de la
Amazonia, el Area de distribuci6n geografica referido
por otros autores para los primates, en algunos casos,
no reflejan la realidad. Antes de 1990, el Area
comprendida entire la mArgen izquierda del rio Ucayali
y el curso inferior del rio Huallaga fue considerada como
parte de la distribuci6n de Saguinus mystax (v.
Hershkovitz, 1977, p.695). Posteriormente, Soini y Soini
(1990) constat6 in situ la ausencia de la especie. Caso
similar ocurri6 con Aotus vociferans, cuya distribuci6n
de acuerdo al mapa de Hershkovitz (1983) tambidn
comprendfa la mArgen izquierda del rio Marafi6n entire
los rios Tigre y Pastaza; sin embargo, Aquino y
Encarnaci6n (1988) constatan que aquella es habitada
solo por A. nancymae.

En relaci6n a la distribuci6n de S. tripartitus, Hershkovitz
(1977, p.658) consider como Area de distribuci6n la
cuenca del rio Napo, por el lado izquierdo desde la linea
fronteriza con el Ecuador, aguas abajo hasta la
confluencia con el rio Amazonas y, por el lado derecho
hasta la confluencia con el rio Curaray. Thorington
(1988), ademas de validar la especie, sostiene que habitat


en simpatria con S. fuscicollis lagonotus inicamente el
lado derecho del rio Napo hasta la confluencia con el
rio Amazonas. Ambos autores basan su interpretaci6n
en los especimenes de museo colectadas por Carlos
Olalla e hijos en los afios 1925 y 1926. En los
comentarios de Thorington (1988) no se precisa la
mArgen del rio donde estarfan, realmente, las localidades
de colecta que le motivaron su propuesta de area de
distribuci6n.

La confusion suscitada por las fuentes citadas nos motiv6
a intensificar las exploraciones y los registros que
iniciamos desde 1978 por la cuenca del rio Putumayo y
1983 por el rio Napo hasta la confluencia con el rio
Aguarico. El principal objetivo fue el inventario de
primates que habitan en el nororiente peruano, que
incluy6 la colecta de especimenes de museo como
material de referencia. El material biol6gico se encuentra
depositado en el Centro de Investigaciones Veterinarias
Tropicales y de Altura de la Universidad Nacional Mayor
de San Marcos con sede en Iquitos. El anAlisis detallado
de nuestros registros nos permit definir el Area de
distribuci6n para esta especie.

Areas Explorados

Comprenden las Areas entire los rios Napo-Putumayo,
Napo-Curaray y mArgen izquierda del rio Amazonas
(Fig. 1). Estas Areas segfin la terminologia utilizada por
Encarnaci6n (1993) correspondent a los bosques
inundables o de bajial y bosques de colina o de altura,
respectivamente. La Areas exploradas en los rios Mazan,
Yanayacu, Tamboryacu y Curaray en el Napo, Atacuari,
Peruat6, Apayacu y Ampiyacu en el Amazonas,
correspondent a los bosques inundables o de bajial;
mientras que los rios Tacsha, Curaray, curso superior
del Tamboryacu, Aushiri, Santa Maria y Aguarico en el
Napo y cabecera del Yuvineto en la cuenca del rio
Putumayo, a los bosques riberefios y de colina o altura.

Localidades de Registro y Colecta

Desde 1978 a 1993 fueron registrados 16 grupos de S.
tripartitus habiendo colectado tres especimenes y una
mascota para studios de sistematica. Catorce de los
grupos fueron observados en la cuenca del rio Napo y
dos en el Putumayo. En el Napo, ocho grupos fueron
observados en la mArgen derecha del curso superior del
rfo Napo, desde Pantoja hasta la confluencia con el rio
Curaray y seis en la mArgen izquierda del rio Curaray.
En el Putumayo, en la 6nica exploraci6n realizada,
fueron observados dos grupos en el rio Yuvineto. Las
localidades que correspondent a los registros y colectas
* estAn contenidas en el Cuadro 1. En las otras Areas
exploradas entire los rios Napo y Putumayo, con
excepci6n de S. tripartitus, fue registrado y colectado


Cover photograph by F. Medem: the silvery-brown bare-face tamarin, Saguinus leucopus (see page 13).


Neotropical Primates 4(1), March 1996






Neotropical Primates 4(1), March 1996 Page 2


Figura 1. Areas exploradas: (1) Rio Mazan, (2) Rio Yanayacu,, (3) Rio Tamboryacu, (4) Rio Curaray, (5) Rio Alto Mayo, (6) Rio Aguarico,
(7) Rio Atacuari, (8) Rio Peruatd, (9) Rio Apayacu, (10) Rio Ampiyacu, (11) Rio Tacsha Curaray, (12) Rio Santa Maria, (13) Rio Yuvineto
y (14) Rio Aushiri. Localidades de registry de Saguinus tripartitus: (a) Bellavista, (b, c, d) Puerto Elvira, (e) San Rafael, (1) Correviento, (g)
Soledad, (h) Aushiri, (i) Tempestad, (j) Ingano y (k) Puerto Arica.


Saguinus nigricollis nigricollis y en la mArgen derecha
del rio Napo desde Pantoja hasta la confluencia con el
rio Amazonas S. fuscicollis lagonotus y S. nigricollis
graellsi.

Interpretaci6n de la Distribuci6n Geogrifica

Basados en nuestros registros, la distribuci6n geografica
de S. tripartitus en el Per6, corresponde al curso superior
de ambas mArgenes del rio Napo y Putumayo. En la
margen izquierda, desde la linea fronteriza con Ecuador
y Colombia hacia el suroriente, hasta la cabecera del rio
Santa Maria en el Napo y rio Yuvineto en el mArgen
derecha del rio Putumayo, y por la margen derecha desde
la linea fronteriza con Ecuador hasta la confluencia con
el rio Curaray (Fig. 1), coincidiendo con Hershkovitz
(1977, p.658), Albija (1994) y parcialmente con
Thorington (1988).

Discusi6n

La distribuci6n asumida por Hershkovitz (1977, p. 658)


y Thorington (1988) estA basada en las colecciones de
pieles por Carlos Olalla e hijos. Una das localidades de
colecta que genera discrepancia y confusion es Puerto
Indiana, localidad situada en la ribera izquierda del rio
Amazonas y aproximadamente a 40 km al norte de la
ciudad de Iquitos. Alli, Olalla e hijos entire 1925 y 1926,
habrian colectado siete pieles de S. tripartitus.

El resultado de nuestras intensas exploraciones hacia los
bosques contiguos de Puerto Indiana, Francisco de
Orellana, este 61timo situado en la orilla del rio Napo y
cerca a la confluencia con el rio Amazonas, y Mazan,
en la ribera derecha del rio Napo fue el contact con
various grupos de S. fuscicollis lagonotus y S. nigricollis,
pero con ninguno de S. tripartitus. Ademas, MazAn es
una pequefia ciudad que desde hace mas de 20 aflos
permit unir el rio Amazonas por un camino o "varadero"
de s6lo 35 minutes un poco mas arriba de Indiana (Fig.
1). Para confirmar nuestros resultados, a los moradores
mas antiguos de esas localidades les mostramos una piel
preservada y una mascota, preguntAndoles si conocian
individuos similares por los alrededores; las respuestas







Page 3 Neotropical Primates 4(1), March 1996


Cuadro 1. Registro cronol6gico de grupos observados y especimenes
de Saguinus tripartitus en la Amazonia peruana.
Fecha Localidad Ubicaci6n No. Esp
geografica Grupos cc
Ago. 1978 Bellavista 02002'S 74o33'0 2
Rio Putumayo
Ene. 1983 Pto. Elvira 0202'S 7432'0 1
Rio Napo
Feb. 1983 San Rafael 02022'S 7408'0 3
Rio Curaray
Feb. 1983 Correviento 0215'S 7332'0 1
Rio Curaray
Feb. 1983 Soledad 0217'S 7425'0 2
Rio Curaray
Dic. 1983 Aushiri 0214'S 7444'0 1
Rio Napo
Nov. 1989 Pto. Elvira 0202'S 7432'6 2
Rio Napo
Dic. 1989 Tempestad 0115'S 7452'0 1
Rio Napo
Dic. 1991 Ingano 0208'S 7411 'O 2
Rio Napo
Ago. 1992 Pto. Elvira 0202'S 7432'0 1
Rio Napo
Ago. 1992 Puesto Arica 0128'S 7512'O -
Mascota, macho infante

fueron negatives. Algunos manifestaron que por primera
vez veian un especimen con esos colors de pelaje, otros
aseguraron haber observado entire los rios Napo y
Curaray. Los registros tomados y las respuestas recebidas
nos conducen a plantear las siguientes interrogantes:
Podria haberse extinguido la especie en el lado derecho
del rio Napo desde la confluencia con el rio Curaray
hasta la confluencia con el rio Amazonas, incluyendo
Mazin, Indiana y Francisco de Orellana, en un tiempo
relativamente corto? De ser asi, C6mo se explica la
presencia de las otras species de tamafio pequefio? Lo
anterior demuestra que Carlos Olalla e hijos no han
registrado las localidades correctamente. Por otro lado,
ellos fueron colectores masivos de pieles, que en su afAn
por lograr mayor cantidad y diversidad, algunas veces,
habrian adquirido de los cazadores, quienes
proporcionaron procedencia errada. Rolando Aquino ha
experimentado un suceso similar cuando exploraba en
el rio Pastaza. Alli, un cazador le ofreci6 una piel de
Aotus nancymae sefialando como procedencia la margen
derecha, cuando na realidad corresponde a la margen
izquierda.

Entre los factors que habrian ocasionado la extinci6n
local estAn la caza y la destrucci6n del habitat. En la
Amazonia existe una alta presi6n de caza, pero su
incidencia es mayor en los primates de tamafio grande y
median por el alto costo de los pertrechos; de modo
que S. tripartitus, con peso menor de 400 g queda
excluido del uso como fuente de protein animal. La
deforestaci6n con fines agropecuarios tradicionales en
el Area, no tiene rango de comparaci6n como en la selva
alta, donde el bosque fue arrasado. No obstante, en los
bosques remanentes y bosquetes afin viven algunas


colectados species de mamiferos arboricolas, por
c e ejemplo, en el Alto Mayo y el Huallaga
ecimenes
letados Central, se halla S. fuscicollis leucogenys
que incursionan en las chacras y cultivos con
frutales, y duermen en los pequefios
manchales de bosques remanentes. Tambi6n
1 en la selva baja, las mas altas densidades de
callitricidos se hallan en la periferia de las
chacras y purmas con frutales (Heltne y
Encamaci6n, 1990). En consecuencia, los
callitricidos en general se adaptan mej or en
I los bosques secundarios, "purmas" y cultivo
de frutales, donde existe alta disponibilidad
de alimentos, que garantiza la supervivencia
de ese tax6n. Por analogia, en las Areas
circundantes a las localidades asentadas en
1' el lado derecho del rio Napo, entire ellas
Santa Clotilde, Mazan y Francisco de
Orellana, asi como en Puerto Indiana,
r asentada en el lado izquierdo del rio
Amazonas, hemos registrado 6nicamente S.
fuscicollis lagonotus y S. nigricollis. Con
esas fundamentaciones se descarta toda posibilidad de
extinci6n local.

Conclusiones

S. tripartitus habitat, en simpatria, en la mArgen izquierda
del rio Napo y derecha del Putumayo, con S. nigricollis
nigricollis; y en la derecha del rio Napo con S. nigricollis
graellsi y S. fuscicollis lagonotus. La distribuci6n de S.
tripartitus comprende las cuencas de los rios Napo y
Putumayo, desde la linea fronteriza con Ecuador y
Colombia hasta la cabecera del rio Santa Maria y rio
Yuvineto y la confluencia del rio Curaray. La mArgen
derecho de los rios Curaray y Napo hasta la confluencia
con el rio Amazonas, incluyendo Puerto Indiana, estA
habitada por S. nigricollis graellsi y S. fuscicollis
lagonotus; mientrasque la mirgen izquierda del rio Napo,
desde el curso medio del rio Santa Maria hacia al sureste,
y la margen derecha del rio Putumayo, desde el sur del
rio Yuvineto hasta el rio Amazonas, es habitada por S.
nigricollis nigricollis.

Rolando Aquino y Filomeno Encarnaci6n, Centro de
Investigaci6n, Instituto Veterinario de Investigaciones
Tropicales y de Altura, Universidad Nacional Mayor de
San Marcos y Sociedad Peruano de Primatologia,
Apartado 575, Iquitos, Peri.

Referencias

Albdja, L. 1994. Nuevos registros de Saguinus tripartitus
en la Amazonia ecuatoriana. Neotropical Primates
2(2): 8-10.
Aquino, R. y Encamaci6n, F. 1988. Population densi-


Neotropical Primates 4(l), March 1996


Page 3







Neotropical Primates 4(1), March 1996 Page 4


ties'and geographic distribution of night monkeys
(Aotus nancymae and Aotus vociferans) (Cebidae, Pri-
mates) in northeastern Peru. Am. J. Primatol. 14: 375-
381.
Encarnaci6n, F. 1993. El bosque y las formaciones
vegetables en la llanura amaz6nica del Peru. Alma
Mater Rev. UNSM6:75-114.
Heltne, P.G. y Encarnaci6n, F. 1990. Evaluaci6n de
recursos primates en Madre de Dios, Peru: estado
corriente de primates y estrategias para investigaci6n
y manejo en el future. En: La Primatologia en elPeruf,
pp. 179-186. Proyecto Peruano de Primatologia (ed.),
Lima.
Hershkovitz, P. 1977. Living New World Monkeys
(Platyrrhini) With an Introduction to Primates, Vol.
1. Chicago University Press, Chicago.
Soini, P. y Soini, M. 1990. Distribuci6n geogrdfica y
ecologia poblacional de Saguinus mystax. En: La
Primatologia en el Perg, pp.272-313. Proyecto
Peruano de Primatologia (ed.), Lima.
Thorington Jr., R.W. 1988. Taxonomic status of
Saguinus tripartitus (Milne-Edwards, 1878). Am. J.
Primatol. 15: 367-371


THE EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF BEHAVIOR AND
INDEPENDENCE IN HOWLER MONKEYS,
ALOUATTA PALLIATA MEXICANA

Introduction

The growth of independence and the development of
behavior in howler monkeys, Alouatta palliata
mexicana, during the first few weeks of life has received
relatively little attention to date. While several studies
have been conducted on other subspecies of howler
monkeys (Carpenter, 1934; Altmann, 1959 and Baldwin
and Baldwin, 1973, 1978, concerning Alouattapalliata
palliata in Panama; Mack, 1979 and Neville, 1972
concerning Alouatta seniculus in Venezuela; and
Glander, 1975 and Clarke, 1990 concerning Alouatta
palliata palliata in Costa Rica), only two studies have
been conducted on Alouatta palliata mexicana,
(Cabrera-Rojas, 1993; Serio-Silva and Rodriguez-Luna,
1994), and only the second of these reports has been
published.

Both the studies on Alouatta palliata mexicana were
conducted on a habituated troop of howler monkeys
which were translocated to the Agaltepec Island,
Catemaco, Veracruz, Mexico, in a program conducted
by the Parque de la Flora y Fauna Silvestre Tropical of
the Universidad Veracruzana, in 1988 and 1989, when
nine individuals were introduced into this habitat
(Rodriguez-Luna et al., 1993). The program has been


successful and the group numbers continue to grow
steadily. The island offers good conditions for the
observation ofthese primates, which are now completely
habituated to the presence of human observers.

The objective of this research was to observe all the
behaviors exhibited by the infant and of its social
interactions with other group members, with the aim of
establishing when and how the infant becomes
progressively more independent ofthe mother in the first
few weeks of its life.

Methods

Study Site: Field work was conducted on the Agaltepec
Island ( 18 27'- 18 28' N and 950 02' 95 3' W; altitude
360-390 m), Lake Catemaco, Veracruz, Mexico. The
island covers approximately 10 ha (83,719 m2). All the
trees with a diameter at chest height of more than 30 cm
have been numbered and identified (L6pez-Galindo, in
press), making identification of the vegetation ingested
and of the established feeding routes of the monkeys
easy to record. The vegetation of the island consists of
patches of semi-evergreen tropical forest, gallery forest,
secondary growth, pastures and shoreline vegetation.
There are a series of paths running around the island
making the location of the primates simpler; combined
with the fact that the sides of the island are steep and the
canopy level low, and it is possible for the observer to
get close to the subjects during observations.

The climate is warm and humid, and there is a rainy
season between July and January, with most rain falling
between August and October (5%-10% of the winter
rain). The local annual precipitation is 4500 mm and
the mean annual temperature is 24C with a maximum
of36.5C and a minimum of 11 lC (Acosta et al., unpubl.;
Serio-Silva, 1992).

Subjects: At the time of this study there were
approximately 40 individuals on the island. They were
in the process of dividing into groups but were still nearly
always found in close proximity to one another.
Individuals could be identified by their natural markings
or by colored collars used to mark half of the eight
females first translocated to the island along with one
male in 1988 and 1989. The infants could be recognized
by their close proximity to the mother.

Two individuals were born just before and one during
the study period. The oldest two infants were born on
approximately 10 August, Infant-a (female) and Infant-
b (male), and the third, Infant-c (male) was born on
approximately the 16 September, 1995.

Procedures: The study period took place between 16


Neotropical Primates 4(l), March 1996


Page 4







Page 5 Neotropical Primates 4(1), March 1996


August and 20 October, comprising 11 weeks of data
collection and approximately 200 hours of observations,
and covered only the wettest months of the wet season.
Most observations could be taken with the naked eye
but, when necessary, Bushnell 7x35 binoculars were
used.

Daily observation covered 10 hours, between 08:00 hrs
and 18:00 hrs, although most observations were taken
in the morning. They consisted of ad libitum and focal
sampling. Focal samples lasted 5 hrs, and the focal
individuals were observed for equal sessions each week.
The "Observer Program" in a handheld computer (Psion
Organizer II, Model LZ64) was used to collect the data.
The observations were recorded onto a specific schedule,
which included locomotion, rest, feeding, play, and
social interactions with other members of the group. In
addition to data recorded within these categories,
supplementary notes were taken using the notebook in
the program and by hand.

Results

Locomotion on the Mother: During the first weeks of
life, locomotion is almost entirely on the mother, and
during the first three weeks the infant is almost
exclusively carried ventrally. The mother has long hair
on her sides and ventral surface which enables the infant
to maintain a firm grip on her when resting and traveling.
This effectively allows the mother to move with
relatively little care, and mothers were observed moving
rapidly and jumping large distances during troop
movements even with very young infants. With
increasing age, the infants become increasingly more
aware of their surroundings, and correspondingly by the
fourth week of age they begin to spend more time
traveling on the mother's side and back, which affords
them a better view. By the fourth week their prehensile
tails have become more functional and they begin to
use them to ensure a better grip, for example, wrapping
them around the mother's leg. By the eighth and ninth
week of life, during any major troop movements the
infants were observed traveling on the mother's tail. By
this age the infant's tails are large and strong enough to
wrap around the base of the mother's and from this
position they can sit up and observe their surroundings
more effectively than in any other position. When
traveling small distances, for example, when the mother
is feeding and the infant is off her back, when she begins
to move the infant will grab onto her wherever it can,
usually her back and may shift its position to the mother's
tail if she begins to travel for any long distance.

Independent Locomotion: The first time that an infant
was observed out of contact with the mother, traveling
independently, was at 5 weeks of age. At first this


independent travel was tentative, the infant exploring
only the environment around the mother and always
within reach of her. By 7 weeks of age the infants were
frequently observed to travel independently when the
mother was feeding. This independent travel was of an
exploratory nature and consisted of a "rubber-ball"
pattern of frequent leaving and returning. It tended to
occur only when the mother was feeding, and the infants
always returned to the mother when she began to move,
or they were retrieved by the mother before she
accompanied any major troop movements. During 8-11
weeks of age, independent travel increased
progressively, the infants moving greater and greater
distances from the mother and spending more time away
from her before returning. In the seventh week of life
independent locomotion comprised 16.8% of the
individual's time budget but was always observed within
1 m of the mother. By the eleventh week independent
travel increased to 34.4% of the infant's time budget,
when the furthest distance traveled was between 5-10 m
from the mother. This behavior reflected the
physiological changes that occurred in the infant because
with time the infants became progressively larger,
stronger and more capable of traveling on their own.

Interestingly, there existed a significant difference in the
behavior of the individuals. One infant spent far more
time traveling independently. Infant-a spent 45.5% of
time in independent locomotion in the eleventh week
compared to only 27.0% by Infant-b, climbing off the
mother as soon as she remained still for more than a few
seconds and exploring greater distances from the mother
for longer periods oftime. Correspondingly the behavior
of this infant's mother included aspects not observed in
the other. On several occasions this mother was observed
to increase her interindividual distance from the infant,
Infant-a, by moving in the opposite direction when it
was traveling independently and she was also observed
to push it away from her on several occasions.

Mother-infant movements were often coordinated by the
mother giving a stereotyped "present-neck" posture, to
which the infant responded by climbing onto her. She
may also start to move off very slowly, allowing the
infant to return to her and grasp onto her wherever it
could before she gained speed and started to move more
rapidly.

Rest: During the first three weeks of life the infant spends
most of its time resting ventrally on the mother. By the
fourth week, with an increasing awareness of the
environment comes an increase in the amount of time
spent resting dorsally, as opposed to ventrally, affording
the infant a better view of its surroundings. With an
increasing interest in its surroundings comes a
corresponding decrease in the amount of time spent


Neotropical Primates 4(1), March 1996


Page 5






Neotropical Primates 4(1), March 1996. Page 6


resting, particularly from the seventh week of age when
the infant begins to start exploring more and more during
independent locomotion. For example, 49% of the time
was spent resting on the mother during week 5, but by
week 7 this decreased to 28.5%.

Feeding: Infants nursed from the mothers throughout
the study period. The mother's nipples are generally 3-
4 cm long, which allows the infants to suckle from
several different positions on the mother's body, but
usually this was from her ventral side. From three weeks
of age the infants were observed "mouthing" leaves.

The earliest observation of independent feeding occurred
at the beginning of the fourth week of life. The infant
was observed eating mature leaves of Bursera simaruba.
Independent feeding continued to increase with
increasing age, particularly from the seventh (AO 0.1%)
to the eleventh (AO 1.5%) week, corresponding with
the increase in independent locomotion at this time. The
infants generally fed on the same vegetation,
simultaneously with the mother. Exploratory feeding
began in the tenth and eleventh weeks.

Exploration: Some exploration of the environment was
noted from the first week of life. As mentioned
previously, the infant begins to become significantly
more aware and interested in its surroundings by the
third and the beginning of the fourth week of life and it
is at this time that exploration increases significantly.
Exploration usually began with the infant clambering
around on the mother's body, particularly on her back,
testing its motor skills, which become greater with age
and corresponding physiological changes in size and
strength. By the fourth week the infant begins to explore
the external environment by touching and pulling nearby
leaves and branches and by "mouthing" leaves. This
behavior increases significantly into the fifth and sixth
weeks of life.

By five weeks of age the infant begins to travel
independently of the mother, constituting its first truly
independent exploration of the external environment.
This exploratory behavior increases with time. The
mother may encourage this behavior by resting or
feeding near to small branches, which offer an easier
environment for the infant to explore.

Play with Other Individuals: This was first observed in
the eleventh week (3.6% of time) and tended to substitute
time spent exploring the environment alone. The infants
were seen to initiate play themselves, but more frequently
other individuals initiated this behavior, which generally
involved chasing and being chased, as well as prodding
and tickling. This behavior was observed most frequently
with juveniles, generally a group of them. Play was also


observed to occur with adult females and with the
mother. These play bouts were not rough and did not
exceed more than 10 minutes.

Social Interactions Frequency: The presence of a new
infant in a troop of howler monkeys presents a great
attraction, and correspondingly the mother and infant
are frequently approached by juveniles, males and in
particular females who stare intently, sniff, lick and, if
possible, physically examine the infant. These females
are commonly termed "aunts". Interestingly there existed
differences in the amount of social interactions received
by each infant, some receiving many more contacts than
others.

Social Interactions Type: Nearly all interactions were
of an affiliative nature and resulted from interest or desire
to care for the infant on the part of the interactors. No
injurious interactions were observed in this study. The
infants were removed from their mothers, or voluntarily
left, in three different ways, namely: they were
kidnapped, taken or they were transferred. Kidnapping
was observed only once. Infant-b was forcibly removed
from the mother by another female, in the sixth week of
it's life. Throughout the period of this kidnap, which
lasted about 5 minutes, it emitted desperate vocalizations.
The mother closely followed the kidnapper baring her
teeth and emitting aggressive vocalizations at her. She
forcibly tried to retrieve her infant throughout this period.
When the kidnapper eventually gave up the infant, the
mother grasped it firmly to her ventral surface before
moving off to a safe distance and examining it.

Infants were taken by other individuals, this behavior
being observed from the first week of life in the most
recently born infant, Infant-c. However, on the whole,
this phenomenon was not common. This was chiefly
because the mother was observed to be protective of her
infant, often not allowing other individuals to touch it
for very long, and successfully preventing other
individuals from taking it by holding it protectively in a
ventral position or turning her back on interactors. This
was particularly obvious when adult males approached
the infants. Transfers became progressively more
frequent with time, generally not occurring frequently
until the ninth week. This behavior usually occurred in
response to a "present neck" posture by the interactor.
(By the ninth week of its life the infant's coat had
changed from a light gray coloring to the characteristic
dark brown of the adult's coat).

Social Interactions Responsiveness of the Infant:
During the first three weeks of life the infant is generally
noncommittal to interactions with other group members.
Negative reactions were generally not noted, except in
cases when another individual tried to remove the infant


Neotropical Primates 4(l), March 1996.


Page 6






Page 7 Neotropical Primates 4(1), March 1996


for example, in the case of the kidnapping. During the
seventh week of life the infants start to become more
positive to social interactions. By the seventh week they
also started to become emissors of social interactions,
actively reaching out for certain individuals within close
range. This behavior continued to increase with
increasing age. During the ninth, tenth and eleventh
weeks the infants were reacting positively to nearly all
interactions and transfers were fairly common.

Social Interactions Interactors: The interactors
encompassed all group members, but by far the most
common were adult females, including other mothers
with infants. Often a second female was observed
traveling in convoy with a mother and sitting close by
her whenever she stopped to rest, and when the female
would frequently try to touch the infant or display a
"present-neck" posture to it. Social interactions with the
infant tended to occur at periods when the troop was
either resting or feeding. They thus often occurred when
several individuals were near the mother. However it
was observed that group members interacted with an
infant individually or simultaneously with another
individual, but generally not in groups.

Conclusions

The pattern of the development of behavior and of the
growth of independence in howler monkey infants found
during this short study corresponds well with the two
other studies carried out on the group of howlers on the
Agaltepec Island (S6rio-Silva and Rodriguez-Luna,
1992; Cabrera-Rojas, 1993), as well as other studies of
the behavioral development of howler monkeys in
different study sites (for example, Clarke, 1990). The
infant's behavior and dependence develops gradually
with time and is positively correlated with physiological
changes, such as increase in size and strength which
allows it to explore its environment more and more; a
feature which goes hand-in-hand with an increase in the
desire of the individual to do so and in the encouragement
of this behavior by the mother and other group members.

The most obvious changes that occur within the group
with the presence of a new member is that the new infant
presents a powerful attraction which stimulates many
social interactions. Clarke (1990) has previously
suggested that predictions of behavior relating to this
phenomenon cannot be based on inclusive fitness, and
that interactions with infants do not function to bond
social groups because howler monkeys leave their natal
group as juveniles or young adults and migrate to new
groups, and thus share little or no genetic material by
descent with other adults within their group. However,
the study site of Agaltepec Island represents a very
special case because the monkeys are confined to the


island. The original eight females and one male make
up the entire genetic stock of this group of primates,
and therefore the majority of this group, which now
numbers approximately 40 individuals, does share
genetic material. Similarly, at present these howler
monkeys cannot migrate to other groups when older,
therefore suggestions that interactions with infants can
be explained by increasing inclusive fitness or
functioning to bond the social group are appropriate in
this case.

This study has revealed some important observations
not recorded in previous studies of this species. In
particular, the age observed for the first ingestion of solid
food (leaves of Bursera simaruba) by an infant in this
study, namely at the beginning of the fourth week of
life, is earlier than had been previously observed. The
age reported for the first instances of the "rubber ball"
pattern of frequent leaving and returning to the mother
are similarly earlier than previously documented.
Compared to the previous report of the subspecies,
Alouattapalliata mexicana, the observations of increased
positive responsiveness of individuals to other group
members, shown by behaviors such as an increased rate
of transfer and of play behavior were observed relatively
early.

An important point that has come to light, that has
possibly not been investigated in any depth in previous
studies involving larger sample sizes, but is very apparent
in a study such as this involving only a small sample, is
that of individual differences between the infants. For
example, between the two oldest infants who were the
same age, some very apparent differences existed. Infant-
a gained increasing independence much more quickly
than her contemporary Infant-b. For example Infant-a
ingested solid foods much earlier, was much more
responsive to social interactions, spent proportionally
more time in independent travel (during which it also
traveled further), and was observed playing more often.

There are several reasons to explain why these
differences might have occurred. The first and most
obvious is that these two individuals are of different
sexes. Clarke (1990) suggests that major differences exist
between the behavior of male and female howler infants.
She found that females were generally more adventurous
and reacted more positively to social interactions at an
earlier age than did male howler monkey infants. Apart
from sex differences, there are also several other reasons
why differences might arise between individual infants.
These most probably concern the mother. For example,
differences might exist between the sociability or position
in the social hierarchy of the mother which consequently
affects the frequency of social interactions received by
the infant. Differences may also occur between different


Neotropical Primates 4(l), March 1996


Page 7







Neotropical Primates 4(1), March 1996 Page 8


individual's mothering styles which either accelerate or
decelerate the development of behavior and of
independence in the infant. Further studies could easily
address these possibilities.

Acknowledgments

This work was made possible due to the collaboration
of the staff of the Parque de la Flora y Fauna Silvestre
Tropical of the Universidad Veracruzana, Veracruz,
Mexico. In particular I would like to thank Ernesto
Rodriguez-Luna, for his permission to conduct this work
and for his guidance throughout. I would also like to
thank Liliana Cort6s Ortiz for all her help, particularly
with the programming of the Psion Organiser. Special
thanks to Juan Carlos Serio-Silva for his kind guidance
and for introducing me to the howler colony. Many
thanks also to all those members of the Instituto de
Neuroetologia, Universidad Veracruzana, who helped
me in various ways to conduct this work.

Zoe S. Lyall, 16 Fitzroy Road, London NW1 8TX,
England, UK.

References

Acosta, P. R., HemrnAndez, C. P., Garcia-Ordufia, F., Villa-
Cafiedo, J. T. and Canales-Espinosa, D. 1987. Estudio
preliminary de la vegetaci6n de la Isla de Agaltepec,
Mpio. de Catemaco, Veracruz. Parque de la Flora y
Fauna Silvestre Tropical, Universidad Veracruzana,
Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico. Unpublished manuscript.
Altmann, S. A. 1959. Field observations of a howling
monkey society. J. Mammal. 40: 317-330.
Baldwin, J. D. and Baldwin, J. I. 1973. Interactions
between adult female and infant howling monkeys
(Alouatta palliata). Folia Primatol. 20: 27-71.
Baldwin, J. D. and Baldwin, J. I. 1978. Exploration and
play in howler monkeys (Alouattapalliata). Primates
19: 411-422.
Cabrera-Rojas, G. 1993. Socializaci6n y relaci6n madre-
infante de mono aullador (Alouattapalliata mexicana,
Merriam, 1902) en la isla de Agaltepec, Catemaco,
Veracruz, Mexico. B.Sc. Thesis, Facultad de Biologia,
Universidad Veracruzana. C6rdoba, Veracruz. 95 pp.
Carpenter, C. A. 1934. A field study of the behavior and
social relations of howling monkeys (Alouatta
palliata). Comp. Psychol. Monogr. 10: 1-168.
Clarke, M. R. 1990. Behavioural development and so-
cialization of infants in a free-ranging group of howl-
ing monkeys (Alouatta palliata). Folia Primatol. 54:
1-15.
Glander, K. E. 1975. Habitat and resource utilization:
an ecological view of social organization in mantled
howling monkeys. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of
Chicago, Chicago.


L6pez-Galindo, A. In press. Inventario floristico de la
Isla de Agaltepec, Catemaco, Veracruz, Mexico.
Parque de la Flora y Fauna Silvestre Tropical, Instituto
de Neuroetologia, Universidad Veracruzana. Xalapa,
Veracruz.
Mack, D. 1979. Growth and development of infant red
howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in a free-rang-
ing population. In: Vertebrate Ecology in the North-
ern Neotropics J. F. Eisenberg (ed.), pp.127-136.
Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D. C.
Neville, M. K. 1972. Social relations within troops of
red howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in Trinidad
and Venezuela. Folia Primatol. 17: 56-86.
Rodriguez-Luna, E., Garcia-Ordufia, F. and Canales-
Espinosa, D. 1993. Translocaci6n del mono aullador
Alouatta palliata mexicana: una alternative
conservacionista. In: Estudios Primatol6gicos en
Mixico, Vol. I, A. Estrada, E. Rodriguez-Luna, R.
L6pez-Wilchis and R. Coates-Estrada (eds.), pp. 129-
177. Biblioteca Universidad Veracruzana. Xalapa,
Veracruz.
Serio-Silva, J. C. 1992. Patr6n diario de actividades y
hibitos alimenticios de Alouatta palliata en
semilibertad. B.Sc. Thesis, Facultad de Biologia,
Universidad Veracruzana, C6rdoba, Veracruz. 66 pp.
Serio-Silva, J. C. and Rodriguez-Luna, E. 1994. Howler
monkey (Alouatta palliata) behavior during the first
weeks of life. In: Current Primatology II. Social De-
velopment, Learning and Behaviour, J. J. Roeder, B.
Thierry, J. R. Anderson and N. Herrenschmidt (eds.),
pp.309-316. Selected proceedings of the XIVth Con-
gress of the International Primatological Society,
University Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg.


EL TRAFICO DE MONOS ARA&lA EN MExico:
EL STUDIO DE UN CASO


Para los traficantes de fauna silvestre en M6xico, el mono
arafia (Ateles geoffroyi) constitute uno de los elements
con mayor valor commercial, debido a su popularidad y
demand tanto a nivel national como international.
Desafortunadamente para las poblaciones silvestres de
este primate, los animals que son vendidos como
mascotas continian siendo extrafdos de las selvas: los
capturadores no se interesan por los adults, pues resultan
agresivos y en ocasiones peligrosos, en contrast, los
infants se muestran temerosos y sus mordidas no pueden
causar un dafio grave, ademas de ser mis atractivos a
los potenciales compradores; por lo tanto, estos pequefios
son el objetivo final de la capture. La manera traditional
de obtener a estos infants es matando con arma de fuego
a madres que transportan a sus crias sobre el cuerpo.
Los infants son capturados y se convierten al poco
tiempo en mascotas.


Neotropical Primates 4(l), March 1996


Page 8






Page 9 Neotropical Primates 4(1), March 1996


No obstante queAteles geoffroyi es una especie declarada
"en peligro de extinci6n" por el gobierno mexicano y
exista una legislaci6n que prohibe su caza y capture
(SEDESOL, 1994), el trifico contintia afectando la
permanencia del mono arafia en su habitat natural
(Rodriguez-Luna et al., 1995).

A fin de evaluar el impact de esta practice illegal,
referiremos un caso reciente, suscitado en el Estado de
Veracruz, que mereci6 atenci6n international (IPPL,
1995). El 29 de mayo de 1995 fue interceptado un
vehiculo que transportaba ilegalmente animals de la
vida silvestre (29 monos arafia, A. geoffroyi y 2
cocodrilos, Crocodylus moreleti). La detenci6n fue
practicada por elements de la Procuraduria General de
la Reptiblica (PGR) quienes consignaron a los tripulantes
de la camioneta a la autoridad correspondiente (Agencia
del Ministerio Ptiblico de Acayucan, Veracruz).

Uno de los monos pereci6 inmediatamente despu6s del
decomiso; en tanto, los otros animals fueron remitidos
por la Procuraduria Federal de Protecci6n al Ambiente
(PROFEPA) a un parque ecol6gico privado (Nanciyaga,
en Catemaco, Veracruz) para su custodia temporal.
Debido al estado de salud de los animals y a las
condiciones de manejo a que fueron sometidos hasta
ese moment, murieron otros 4 monos. Entonces fue
requerida la intervenci6n de los primat6logos de la
Universidad Veracruzana (UV), que tienen su centro de
trabajo a pocos kil6metros del "Parque Nanciyaga". Los
monos fueron atendidos inicialmente en este parque, pero
las condiciones de manejo no permitian su tratamiento
adecuado. La PROFEPA decidi6 entonces otorgar los
monos en custodia a la Universidad Veracruzana.

Los animals fueron trasladados a las instalaciones de
la UV (Parque de la Flora y Fauna Silvestre Tropical),
en la ciudad de Catemaco y se determine su edad y estado
de salud individualmente, encontrandose que la mayoria
de los individuos presentaban lesiones fisicas causadas
durante la capture y el transport, diarrea, deshidrataci6n,
anemia, contaminaci6n por bacteria y hongos
pat6genos. Los mAs pequefios presentaron hipotermia
por falta de la fuente normal de calor que proporciona
la madre. Asimismo, se reconoci6 que el estrds fue una
de las causes mas importantes de deterioro en la salud
de los animals, principalmente en aquellos con pocos
dias de nacidos, para los cuales, los efectos de la
separaci6n de su madre fue letal en la mayoria de los

Tabla 1. Monos arafila otorgados en custodia a la Universidad
Veracruzana
Categoria de edad No. de individuos Hembras Machos
0-3 meses 5 3 2
4-6 meses 9 5 4
7-9 meses 5 2 3
10-12 meses 5 1 4


casos. En general, se calific6 como critic el estado de
los animals.

Los monos entregados a la UV se separaron en grupos
de acuerdo a su edad (Tabla 1)

El tratamiento para los monos de corta edad consisti6
inicialmente, en rehidrataci6n mediante el suministro de
suero oral cada 3 horas en dosis de 5 ml; en los casos
graves se utiliz6 soluci6n salina fisiol6gica via
subcutAnea en dosis de 10 ml/4 hrs. Durante la primera
semana de tratamiento, se indic6 una dieta para lactantes
basada en leche sin lactosa (para disminuir la posibilidad
de diarrea causada por el az6car de la leche), cereal y
agua. Al segundo dia el agua utilizada para la leche fue
sustituida por suero, para continuar con la rehidrataci6n
y disminuir las sesiones de manejo. En la segunda
semana la leche sin lactosa se sustituy6 por la formula
lActea con hierro SMA y se le agreg6 un suplemento
proteico (Sustagdn); esta formula fue proporcionada cada
4 hrs. En los animals que evolucionaron
satisfactoriamente se elimin6 el suero de la dieta.
Asimismo, de acuerdo a la sintomatologia presentada,
se utilizaron diferentes medicamentos: antibi6ticos
contra bacteria Gram (-) y Gram (+) principalmente de
acci6n prolongada, broncodilatadores, antimic6ticos,
antipirdticos, analgdsicos, antidiarreicos, protectores de
mucosa gastrica y reconstituyentes de flora bacteriana.

Debido a la dificultad para manejar a los animals de
mayor talla, la rehidrataci6n, cuando fue requerida, se
realize mediante el suministro de soluci6n salina
fisiol6gica via subcutAnea en dosis de 75 ml/12 hrs. La
alimentaci6n para este grupo de animals consisti6 en
frutas variadas, proporcionadas tres veces por dia. El
procedimiento seguido en los tratamientos se bas6 en la
sintomatologia presentada y los medicamentos utilizados
fueron los mismos que anteriormente se describieron
para los lactantes.

No obstante la atenci6n mddica permanent, 12 animals
fallecieron. Se realizaron necropsias y se encontr6 que
las principles causes de muerte fueron: neumonias,
septisemias hemorrAgicas, gastroenteritis y micosis.
Ademas, la separaci6n de la madre en los animals con
pocos dias de nacidos fue un factor decisive en las
muertes debidas a desnutrici6n, depresi6n y en un caso,
por broncoaspiraci6n dada la dificultad para succionar
adecuadamente la leche sustituta. Los agents etiol6gicos
causantes de la mayoria de las muertes fueron:
Pasteurella spp., Candida spp. y Aspergillus spp.

Finalmente, se logr6 estabilizar el estado de los 12
animals restantes en las siguientes categories de edad:
4 individuos de 4-6 meses, 4 de 7-9 meses y 4 de 10-12
meses; todos los monos de la categoria 0-3 meses habian


Page 9


Neotropical Primates 4(l), March 1996






Neotropical Primates 4(1), March 1996 Page 10


muerto. Posteriormente un mono de la categoria 7-9
meses muri6 por moniliasis provocada por Candida
albicans.

Un grupo de 4 monos fue enviado a la reserve biol6gica
del Parque de la Flora y Fauna Silvestre Tropical
(instalaciones exteriores de la UV) situada a 8 km
aproximadamente de la ciudad de Catemaco, y otro
grupo qued6 bajo cuidado mds intensive en la casa-
albergue de los investigadores. Lamentablemente, esos
4 animals fueron robados de los encierros de
cuarentena de la UV durante la noche; se hizo la
denuncia correspondiente sin encontrar a ningin
responsible, hasta la fecha. Este robo ejemplifica la
falta de control sobre los traficantes de vida silvestre,
quienes acttian libre e impunemente. Los 7 monos que
se mantienen en las instalaciones de la UV han sido
incorporados a un program de investigaci6n sobre
desarrollo de la conduct. Del caso anterior podemos
analizar los siguientes aspects:

Efecto del trAfico sobre poblaciones silvestres

El impact actual que la capture de monos tiene sobre
las poblaciones silvestres es grave. No todos los
animals sobreviven a la capture, algunos perecen al
golpearse con el suelo o las ramas de los arboles donde
fueron capturados, mientras que otros mueren al caer
la madre encima de ellos. Por otra parte, para obtener a
las crias, las madres regularmente son sacrificadas.
Considerando 6stas constituyen una parte important
de los individuos maduros (poblaci6n efectiva) dentro
de estos grupos y dado que las hembras de monos arafia
alcanzan la madurez sexual hasta aproximadamente los
6 afios (Eisenberg, 1973; 1976) y que los intervalos
entire nacimientos flucttian entire 2 y 3 afios (ver Milton,
1981); podemos pensar que la poblaci6n que pudiera
haber quedado en el area de capture (sesgada hacia
classes de edad y sexo con proporciones distintas de las
naturales) tardaria much tiempo en recuperarse. Esto
agudiza la situaci6n, ya critical de las poblaciones
silvestres de monos arafla en Mexico, que enfrentan
una reducci6n y transformaci6n aceleradas de las selvas
donde viven.

Haciendo un calculo conservador, consideramos que
para poder obtener un grupo de monos arafia infants
de 29 individuos, al menos perecieron otros 60
individuos entire la capture, el cautiverio temporal y el
transport; es decir, hubo una extirpaci6n de
aproximadameinte 100 animals. Esta inferencia surge
del siguiente razonamiento: los infants capturados
inicialmente debieron ser alrededor de 40 (tomando en
cuenta la probabilidad de fallecimiento, debido al
manejo inadecuado durante la capture y cautiverio
temporal); con seguridad, por cada infante capturado


se sacrifice a una hembra (por tanto, otros 40 animalss;
finalmente, con cierta confianza podemos estimar una
p6rdida de aproximadamente 20 animals mts en los
distintos grupos de monos que debieron ser afectados
por los capturadores, conociendo su forma de operaci6n.
Este ntimero se ha inferido de un solo caso de decomiso
reportado. Hay que destacar que como 6ste se presentan
various casos similares, durante el afio en Mexico, y no
todos son reportados.

Sistema de vigilancia gubernamental

Actualmente, para la conservaci6n del patrimonio natural
de Mexico se ha establecido un sistema de coordinaci6n
entire dos dependencias cuyas competencias convergen
en salvaguardar el interns de la naci6n, sus recursos
naturales, su biodiversidad: PGR y PROFEPA. La PGR
realize vigilancia de caminos y carreteras reconocidos
como ruta de trifico de animals silvestres, asi como
operatives especificos hacia los sitios posibles de
concentraci6n de fauna; la PROFEPA recibe denuncias
de trAfico o posesi6n illegal de fauna silvestre y actia en
el decomiso de los mismos por medio de inspectors
adscritos a ella. Asimismo, recibe los decomisos
efectuados por la PGR y tuma a las personas responsables
al Ministerio Pfblico Federal para que les sea aplicada
la sanci6n correspondiente. Finalmente, otorga la
custodia de los animals incautados a instituciones con
capacidad de mantenimiento y manejo y elabora un
report tdcnico del decomiso que es turnado a la
SEMARNAP (Secretaria de Medio Ambiente, Recursos
Naturales y Pesca).

En el caso reportado, se aprecia una adecuada
coordinaci6n entire la PGR y la PROFEPA; sin embargo,
no siempre se actia de manera integrada. Ademas, no
todos los agents responsables de la vigilancia de la PGR
estAn bien preparados para la detecci6n y canalizaci6n
eficiente de estos contrabandos. Por ello, los traficantes
esquivan los dispositivos de vigilancia y los animals
decomisados no son atendidos oportunamente.

Aun cuando se han detectado algunos de los principles
centros de acopio illegal de animals, la acci6n de las
autoridades gubernamentales no ha sido tan endrgica
como cabria esperar. Parece necesario que los
encargados de la vigilancia asuman un mayor
compromise con esta tarea, y que se disefien campafias
de vigilancia y decomiso mas efectivas.

Para asegurar la eficiencia de este sistema
gubernamental, se require la participaci6n decidida de
la sociedad civil, que a trav6s de denuncias y exigiendo
el cumplimiento de la ley podrd convertirse en un
element clave para la protecci6n de la vida silvestre


Neotropical Primates 4(l), March 1996


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Neotropical Primates 4(1), March 1996


Manejo de animals decomisados

Es convenient elaborar un protocolo de manejo para
animals decomisados, que abarque desde el moment
de la recepci6n, hasta que los animals se puedan
considerar como aptos desde el punto de vista clinic.
Debido a que los decomisos de monos arafia son events
que ocurren con alguna frecuencia en M6xico, seria
convenient crear un acervo de informaci6n sobre los
animals decomisados. Para ello seria indispensable
crear una ficha de registro que orientara el tipo de datos
a registrar. Estas fichas se integrarian en una base de
datos que permitiera evaluar el trAfico con esta especie,
las caracteristicas y estado general de los monos
decomisados, asi como el manejo de los mismos por el
personal de las dependencias encargadas. En estas fichas
se recomienda que a cada animal se le asigne un c6digo
inico que Io identifique en la base de datos, la cual debera
contener informaci6n colectada en tres fichas de registro:

a) Ficha individual de registro (inventario):
C6digo de acceso; Nombre cientifico; Nombre
comdn; Nombre asignado; Zona presunta de capture;
Fecha aproximada de capture; Fecha de decomiso;
Fecha de recepci6n; Nfimero de animals
decomisados; Caracteristicas del transport; F6rmula
dental; Edad estimada; Peso y morfometria; Grupo
de edad en que es colocado; N6mero de albergue4
Huellas dactilares; Fotografia(s).
b) Ficha de registro diaria:
Cambio de albergue o encierro; Dieta; Sliud animal;
Calidad de las heces; Comportamiento; Adaptaci6n
al albergue o encierro.
c) Registro medico:
Anestesia; Parasitologia; Rayos x; Patologia clinic
(Hematologfa y quimica sanguinea, Examen general
de orina y funci6n renal, Aislamiento e identificaci6n
bacteriol6gica, Virologia, Micologia); Tratamientos;
Histopatologia.

Al moment de recibir a los animals es necesario
implementar una series de acciones que nos ayuden a
resolver los problems inmediatos y los que se pudieran
presentar a largo plazo:

a) Registro de datos individuals:
Como primer paso se obtienen y registran todos los
datos incluidos en la ficha individual de registro. Se
debe colocar algin tipo de marca que identifique
individualmente a cada animal, esta puede ser una
caracteristica o deformaci6n fisica permanent, o
bien, por depilaciones, decoloraciones, collares,
bandas, pulseras y/o tatuajes.
b) Agrupaci6n de animals de acuerdo a categories de
edad:
Una vez que se calcula la edad aproximada por medio


de la formula dentaria, se alojan juntos los de edades
pr6ximas. Esto facilitarA el manejo posterior,
principalmente en cuanto a alimentaci6n
corresponde.
c) Inspecci6nfisica:
Cada animal debe ser objeto de una inspecci6n fisica
minuciosa, que incluya: lesiones o heridas, constantes
fisiol6gicas, calidad de pelo y piel, caracteristicas
de mucosas visible, caracteristica y cantidad de
exudados de orificios naturales y auscultaci6n de
aparatos respiratorio y digestive.
d) Exdmenes de laboratorio:
Antes de indicar cualquier tratamiento, es important
realizar studios sistemAticos de laboratorio para eada
animal (parasitologia, frotis, aislamiento e
identificaci6n bacteriol6gica, virologia, micologia,
hematologia y quimica sanguinea, general de orina
y funci6n renal), aun cuando no presented
sintomatologia.
e) Aplicaci6n de tratamientos preventivos:
Inmediatamente despuds de obtener las muestras
biol6gicas para los examenes de laboratorio, se
recomienda iniciar los tratamientos especificos de
acuerdo a la sintomatologia presentada por los
animals. En el caso de animals asintomAticos es
recomendable utilizar tratamientos preventivos, ya
que el sistema de transport que se utiliza durante el
trAfico (muchos individuos juntos enjaulas pequefias)
es un factor determinante para la alta morbilidad.
Estos tratamientos deben ser principalmente
antibacterianos y antimic6ticos, utilizando siempre
medicamentos de amplio espectro y acci6n
prolongada.
f) Uso de incubadora:
Todos los animals menores de sesenta dias de edad,
deberan ser colocados en incubadora, pues la falta
de la madre provoca hipotermia que en muchos casos
puede desencadenar la muerte de los individuos.
g) Alimentaci6n:
El trAfico de primates ocupa, en la mayoria de los
casos, s6lo infants y juveniles. Para el caso de monos
arafia el fin del period de lactancia se ha reportado
entire 18 y 23 meses (Eisenberg, 1973; Milton, 1981),
por ello la mayor parte de los animals que son
decomisados necesitan auin de la leche materna. Es
necesario elaborar dietas especificas para cada
categoria de edad en que son agrupados los animals.
Se recomienda iniciar con sustitutos de leche sin
la cosa para todos los individuos de corta edad y
po teriormente administrar f6rmulas lActeas con
hierro diferentes etapas (de acuerdo con la edad);
esta f6r ula debe ser mezclada con suplementos
proteicos y cereal y diluida en agua. Para la dieta de
animals mayores de 6 meses de edad se debe
aumentar la concentraci6n de la mezcla antes
mencionada y complementary con frutas variadas.


Page 11







Neotropical Primates 4(1), March 1996 Page 12


h) Alojamiento:
Los albergues donde estos animals vayan a ser
alojados, deberan ser suficientemente grandes y estar
enriquecidos con estructuras que permitan el
desarrollo de un amplio repertorio de actividades que
normalmente ocurren en condiciones naturales
(desplazamiento, refugio, alimentaci6n, juego). Del
mismo modo, se deben evitar sitios o materials que
permitan la propagaci6n o introducci6n de agents
pat6genos.
i) Necropsias:
Lamentablemente para muchos de estos animals,
la muerte es irremediable, debido principalmente a
las condiciones de capture, transport y manejo
previas al decomiso y a la falta de la madre. Por lo
tanto, se recomienda efectuar la necropsia y studios
histopatol6gicos correspondientes a cada uno de los
animals muertos, ya que los hallazgos realizados
serdn de gran valor para el manejo future de los
animals.
j) Monitoreo de animals:
Es important realizar un chequeo sistematico de los
animals manejados, puesto que es la (inica forma
de constatar la evoluci6n clinic deseada. Por lo tanto,
se recomienda realizar todos los examenes de
laboratorio, peso y morfometria, cada 2 meses.

Destino de animals capturados

Organismos internacionales preocupados por este tipo
de situaciones han elaborado una series de
recomendaciones que marcan posibles destinos para los
animals que han sido confiscados: eutanasia; uso del
cuerpo o sus parties para investigaci6n; cautiverio en el
pais de origen o en el extranjero para crear o fortalecer
programs educativos y establecer colonies
reproductivas; liberaci6n al medio natural. Cada una de
estas opciones tiene implicaciones negatives, y deberian
considerarse criticamente para cada caso particular
(Harcourt, 1987).

Probablemente, la liberaci6n de animals a su ambiente
natural es la acci6n que parecerfa mas adecuada a quienes
estan en contra del trafico y en favor de la persistencia
de las poblaciones silvestres. Sin embargo, no siempre
es la acci6n mas recomendable, ya que depend en gran
media de los requerimientos naturales de la especie en
cuesti6n, del tiempo en que los animals hayan
permanecido en cautiverio, de la condici6n de salud, de
la disponibilidad del habitat, de la protecci6n efectiva
que puedan tener estos animals reintroducidos y de otras
consideraciones particulares, para que sea factible y
exitosa una acci6n como 6sta; si no es bien planeada,
puede repercutir negativamente en las poblaciones
silvestres que ailn existen.


Estado de la especie

De acuerdo a la Lista Roja de Especies en Peligro de la
Uni6n Mundial para la Conservaci6n-IUCN
(Groombridge, 1993) Ateles geoffroyi se encuentra en
la categoria "Vulnerable". Con base en datos disponibles
se estim6 que A. g. vellerosus podria colocarse en Riesgo
Bajo, mientras que A. g. yucatanensis como
"Vulnerable" (Rylands et al 1995). En una reuni6n
reciente sobre Conservaci6n, Evaluaci6n y Manejo
Planificado (CAMP) para los primates mexicanos, se
detect que estas dos subespecies que se encuentran en
Mexico debian pertenecer a la categoria "Vulnerable"
(Rodriguez-Luna et al., 1995). Aunado a 6sto,
considerando la desaparici6n de A. g. vellerosus en el
Volcan de San Martin Tuxtla, Veracruz (Garcia-Ordufia
y G6mez-Marin, en prensa) y el fuerte impact que afin
tiene el trafico sobre las poblaciones silvestres, es factible
pensar en una recategorizaci6n a corto plazo, hacia un
nivel de mayor riesgo.

Recomendaciones

* Identificar las Areas donde se practice la extracci6n
constant de fauna silvestre, particularmente de
species amenazadas
* Implementar un sistema de vigilancia efectivo, por parte
de las autoridades correspondientes, reforzado en los
sitios donde puede existir saqueo intense y en todos
los caminos que provengan de 6stos, para detectar a
tiempo el trafico de vida silvestre.
* Aplicar medidas penales mas en6rgicas a quienes sean
identificados como parte de la cadena de trafico de estas
species: capturadores, intermediaries, vendedores.
* Realizar programs de concientizaci6n civil, que tengan
un fuerte impact (por ejemplo a trav6s de los medios
masivos de comunicaci6n) sobre quienes pretendan
mantener a los animals silvestres como mascotas,
exhortandoles a adoptar inicamente species
dom6sticas.
* Establecer centros regionales de rehabilitaci6n, en
estrecha colaboraci6n con las dependencias
gubernamentales pertinentes, en donde se reciba y se
trabaje con los animals confiscados. En este centro se
deberan desarrollar programs para mejorar la
condici6n de salud de los animals, para integrar
grupos adecuados, en cuanto a classes de edad y sexo
(en caso de que la especie lo amerite) y desarrollar y
aplicar protocolos de rehabilitaci6n que prepare a los
animals para vivir nuevamente en las condiciones
naturales de su especie, considerandose la liberaci6n
de los animals en Areas naturales protegidas, siempre
y cuando las condiciones ecol6gicas y de protecci6n
del Area de liberaci6n sean las adecuadas. Se debe
reconocer que atin falta investigaci6n que aporte
elements que hagan viable un program para esta


Ne4otropical Primates 4(l), March 1996


Page 12






Page 13 Neotropical Primates 4(1), March 1996


especie.
- En caso de no existir un centro- como el descrito
anteriormente, establecer convenios entire las entidades
gubernamentales encargadas de los decomisos y las
instituciones que cuenten con personal calificado para
desarrollar este tipo de trabajo, o que pudieran hacer
un uso adecuado de estos animals para investigaci6n.
* Es indispensable el establecimiento de convenios
formales de colaboraci6n entire las dependencias
gubernamentales y los centros o instituciones de
investigaci6n que recibirAn a los animals decomisados,
que estipulen con claridad compromises y
responsabilidades. En este sentido, se debe reconocer
las limitaciones operatives de las instituciones para
manejar a estos animals, debido a restricciones de
indole tdcnica y econ6mica.
* Capacitar a las personas encargadas de hacer los
decomisos a trav6s de seminarios y talleres. Asimismo,
se debe preparar a quienes se encargan de aplicar la
ley sobre los infractores, para que sean capaces de
identificar species que se encuentren en peligro de
extinci6n y valorar la importancia que tiene el trafico
en la reducci6n de poblaciones silvestres. De esta
forma, podrAn calificar adecuadamente los delitos
cometidos.

Agradecimientos

Los autores queremos hacer explicit nuestro
agradecimiento al M. en C. Gilberto Silva-L6pez por la
revision y comentarios al present report.

Ernesto Rodriguez-Luna, Liliana Cort6s Ortiz y
Domingo Canales Espinosa, Instituto de Neuroetologia,
Universidad Veracruzana, Apartado Postal 566, Xalapa,
Veracruz 91000, Mexico.

Referencias

Eisenberg, J. F. 1973. Reproduction in two species of
spider monkeys Ateles fusciceps and Ateles geoffroyi.
J. Mammal. 54(4): 955-957.
Eisenberg, J. F. 1976. Communication mechanisms and
social integration in the black spider monkey, Ateles
fusciceps robustus, and related species. Smithson.
Contrib. Zool. 213: 1-108.
Garcia-Ordufia, F. y G6mez-Marin, F. J. En prensa.
Demografia del mono aullador y el mono arafla en el
Volcan de San Martin Tuxtla, Veracruz, Mexico.
Resultados preliminares. En: Estudios Primatol6gicos
en Mexico III, Rodriguez-Luna, E., Cort6s-Ortiz, L.,
Canales-Espinosa, D. y Martinez-Contreras, J. (eds.).
Universidad Veracruzana. Veracruz.
Groombridge, B. (ed.). 1994 IUCN Red List of Threat-
enedAnimals. IUCN, Gland. 286pp.
Harcourt, A. H. 1987. Options for unwanted or confis-


cated primates- Primate Conservation (8): 111-113.
IPPL. 1995. 29 baby spider monkeys confiscated in
Mexico. Primate-Talk [Listserve, Wisconsin Regional
Primate Research Center. Junio 2Z, 1995].
Milton, K. 1981. Estimates of reproductive parameters
for free-ranging Ateles geoffroyi. Primates 22(4): 574-
579.
Rodriguez-Luna, E., Cort6s-Ortiz, L., Ellis, S., McCance,
E. y Miller, P. (eds.). 1995. Conservation Assessment
and Management Plan (CAMP)for Mexican Primates.
CBSG, AZCARM, U.V., AMP, PSG/SSC/IUCN
Mesomerican Section. 73pp.
Rylands, A.B., Mittermeier, R.A. y Rodriguez-Luna, E.
1995. A species list for the New World primates
(Platyrrhini): Distribution by country, endemism, and
conservation status according to the Mace-Lande Sys-
tem. Neotropical Primates 3(supl.): 113-160.
SEDESOL (Secretaria de Desarrollo Social). 1994.
Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-059-ECOL-1994.
Diario Oficial de la Federaci6n. Organo del Gobierno
Constitucional de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos.
Tomo CDLXXXVIII, 10. M6xico, D.F., pp.4-8.


EVALUACION DEL ESTADO DE Dos POBLACIONES
DE SAGUINUS LEUCOPUS PARA DETERMINAR
AREAS POTENCIALES DE CONSERVATION EN UN
SECTOR DEL VALLE DEL MAGDALENA MEDIO,
COLOMBIA.

Saguinus leucopus es una especie end6mica de Colombia
considerada en peligro de extinci6n (CITES Ap6ndice
I; UICN "Vulnerable", v. Rylands et al., 1995). Su
distribuci6n geografica (Figura 1) es la mAs restringida
del g6nero (Hernandez-Camacho y Cooper, 1975;
Hernandez-Camacho y Defter, 1983; Emmons y Feer,
1990) y afin no se conoce con exactitud el verdadero
limited sur de su distribuci6n (Herndez-Camacho, com.
pers.).

Su area de distribuci6n se encuentra bastante alterada
por la deforestaci6n, debido a la ganaderia extensive, la
agriculture y la apertura de la autopista Medellin-Bogota;
y se consider una "Area muy critical" (Andrade 1990),
pues los hAbitats naturales han sido fuertemente
afectados por la actividad humana, transformAndolos en
fragments e islas de bosque; que reduce en forma
alarmante el hAbitat de S. leucopus. A esta problemAtica
se suma el trAfico illegal que se realize con la especie,
pues es bastante atractiva como mascota.

Desafortunadamente S. leucopus no se encuentra
protegida en ninguna reserve o parque national y los
studios poblacionales son escasos. Con el fin de
proponer un Area potential para la conservaci6n de este


Neotropical Primates 4(l), March 1996


Page 13





Neotropical Primates 4(1), March 1996


primate se evaluaron los fragments de bosque
denominados "Arizona" y "San Antonio" en los
municipios de La Dorada y Samana (Departamento de
Caldas y Antioquia) (Figura 2) para estimar densidades
poblacionales y hacer una descripci6n de los habitats
disponibles para S. leucopus.

El fragmento de "Arizona" posee una extension de 79.8
ha y present tres tipos de vegetaci6n; bosqueprimario:
con alturas hasta de 40 m, diametros > de 50 cm y al
menos cinco estratos; bosque secundario maduro: con
alturas hasta de 25 m, dinmetros entire 5 y 20 cm y cuatro
estratos; bosque secundario de dos aios: con alturas
promedio de 7.5 m, diametros En este fragmento se encontraron cinco species de
primates: S. leucopus, Aotus lemurinus, Cebus albifrons,
Alouatta seniculus y Ateles belzebuth brunneus;
subespecie end6mica y con el mismo rango de
distribuci6n de S. leucopus (Hernmndez-Camacho y
Defler, 1983). Dentro de esta area se localizaron cuatro
grupos de S. leucopus, con una densidad de 2.2 grupos/
km2 y 7 individuos/km2 (Tabla 1).

El fragmento de "San Antonio" posee una extension de
196 ha, present cuatro tipos de vegetaci6n; bosque
primario: con alturas hasta de 40 m, diametros entire 15
y 45 cm y cuatro estratos; bosque maduro con
abundancia de palmas: con una altura promedio de 20
m, didmetros entire 15 y 45 cm, cinco estratos; bosque
secundario maduro: con alturas hasta de 20 m, diAmetros
entire 5 y 15 cm y cinco estratos; bosque secundario de
cuatro ahos: con altura promedio de 10 m, didmetros
entire 5 y 10 cm y tres estratos, este tipo de bosque
corresponde a franjas de borde y lugares dentro del
fragmento en process de regeneraci6n. Dentro de esta
Area s6lo se observ6 A. seniculus. Se encontraron 11
grupos de S. leucopus con densidades de 0.7 grupos/
km2 y 2.5 individuos/km2 (Tabla 1).

Para hacer una evaluaci6n cualitativa de la utilizaci6n
del habitat por S. leucopus se seleccionaron dos hAbitats:
bosque no intervenido y bosque intervenido, que
correspondent a bosque primario, bosque maduro con
abundancia de palmas, bosque secundario maduro y
bosques secundarios de dos y cuatro afios,
respectivamente.

Se observ6 que S. leucopus utiliz6 todos los habitats
establecidos y que existen diferencias altamente
significativas entire la utilizaci6n de los dos tipos de
hAbitat (G = 31.4, gl = 1, p < 0.001), encontrandose que

Tabla 1. Densidades de Saguinus leucopus en los dos fragments
evaluados.
Sector Area del fragmento Grupos/km2 Ind./km2
Arizona 0.79 km 2.2 7.0
San Antonio 19.60 km2 0.7 2.5


Hernmndez-Camacho y Cooper, 1976.


utiliz6 mis el bosque primario.

Los fragments de bosque que actualmente habitat S.
leucopus, se encuentran en su mayoria con algun grado
de intervenci6n; es possible que esta especie respond
satisfactoriamente, s6lo temporalmente, a habitats con
vegetaci6n secundaria. Segun las observaciones
realizadas durante este studio se concluye que esta es
una especie que utiliza diferentes tipos de hAbitat; bosque
primario y bosque secundario con diferentes afios de
regeneraci6n, utilizando con preferencia el bosque
primario. Hasta ahora se ha considerado a las species
de este gdnero capaces de sobrevivir en bosques
secundarios e inclusive en los que estan bastante
degradados, lo que ha dirigido los planes de
conservaci6n de las species a la protecci6n de zonas
boscosas degradadas. Este studio plantea que las
poblaciones de S. leucopus necesitan bosques poco
intervenidos para asegurar su sobrevivencia a largo
plazo.

Como conclusions generals en cuanto a la
potencialidad de los fragments evaluados para la
protecci6n de S. leucopus, los dos son apropiados para
la conservaci6n de esta especie, opinion tomada con base
en dos parametros:

1. Las caracteristicas ecol6gicas de esta especie con areas
de acci6n pequefias, tamafilo corporal pequefio, grupos
familiares, utilizaci6n de diferentes tipos de habitat,
dietas poco especializadas y por las densidades
encontradas.

2. Las caracteristicas de los fragments evaluados como
el tamaflo estimado, los tipos de vegetaci6n, la existencia


Page 14







Page 15 Neotropical Primates 4(1), March 1996


de corredores que los comunican con fragments mis
pequefios facilitando el intercambio de individuos de S.
leucopus entire poblaciones (factor fundamental en el
mantenimiento de la variabilidad gendtica de la especie)
parecen ser suficientemente adecuadas para sostener las
poblaciones encontradas.

Lo anteriormente mencionado se complement con el
studio de fotointerpretaci6n del Municipio de La
Dorada y nororiente del Municipio de Samana, donde
no existen otros fragments de igual tamafio y con las
mismas condiciones, raz6n important, a escala
municipal, para conservar estos bosques. La existencia
de poblaciones de otros mamiferos como Ateles
belzebuth brunneus, Cebus albifrons, Agouti paca,
Dasyprocta spp., Felis spp. (tigrillo), Eira barbara,
Atelocynus cf. microtis entire otros, require de acciones
de conservaci6n urgentes como la ampliaci6n de los
parches de bosque y de los corredores de migraci6n,
ademis disminuir la presi6n ejercida por actividades
humans como la deforestaci6n, la caza y la mineria que
actualmente ejercen gran presi6n sobre los altimos
fragments de bosque encontrados en esta zona. El Valle
del Magdalena es una zona de gran importancia
biogeogrAfica, en l61 se encuentra localizado el refugio
pleistocdnico del Carare, actualmente no existen zonas
protegidas y la presi6n ejercida por las actividades
humans reduce aceleradamente a un tamafio critic
los filtimos fragments de bosque existentes, provocando
a median plazo la extirpaci6n de species y para el peor
de los casos la extinci6n de species end6micas como S.
leucopus.

Finalmente hay que destacar que es urgente realizar un
anAlisis detallado sobre lo que permanece del Area


original de distribuci6n de S. leucopus y a partir de la
teoria de la fragmentaclon establecer mas acertadamente
la viabilidad de los fragments de bosque y de las
poblaciones de S. leucopus que en ellos ain subsisten.

Agradecimientos: Las autoras desean agradecer al
Program de Becas para la Investigaci6n en
Conservaci6n de la WCS FES GEA, asi como a la
Fundaci6n para la Promoci6n de la Investigaci6n y la
Tecnologia del Banco de la Repfblica, por el apoyo
financiero para la realizaci6n de este trabajo.

Nancy Vargas T. y Clara L. Solano G., Corporaci6n
Hylea, Apartado Aerea 51657, Santaf6 de BogotA,
Colombia.

Referencias

Andrade, G. I. 1990. Colombia: Megadiversidad o
megaextinci6n? Revista Ecologia 5:4 10.
Emmons, L. H. y Feer, F. 1990. Neotropical Rainforest
Mammals. A Field Guide. University of Chicago Press,
Chicago.
Hern~dez-Camacho, J. y Cooper, R. W. 1976. The non-
human primates of Colombia. In: Neotropical Pri-
mates: Field Studies and Conservation, R. W.
Thorington, Jr. y P. G. Heltne (eds.), pp.35-69. Na-
tional Academy of Sciences, Washington, D. C.
Hemrnndez-Camacho, J. y Defier, T. 1983. Algunos
aspects de la conservaci6n de primates no humans
en Colombia. In: La Primatologia en Latinoamirica.
C. Saavedra, R. A. Mittermeier y I. B. Santos (eds.),
pp.67-97. World Wildlife Fund, Washington, D. C.
Rylands, A. B., Mittermeier, R. A. y Rodriguez-Luna,
E. 1995. A species list for the New World primates
(Platyrrhini): distribution by country, endemism, and
conservation status according to the Mace-Lande sys-
tem. Neotropical Primates 3(supl.): 113-160.


SOME OBSERVATIONS ON PRIMATES IN
PARAGUAY


Although anecdotal recordings of primates in Paraguay
have dated as far back as 80 years (Bertoni, 1914), the
study of primate ecology and conservation was barely
initiated fifteen years ago within this country. Most
synecological studies were done by Jody Stallings
(1984), who did an extensive amount of work in the
Chaco. In 1982, Stallings and Mittermeier added a fifth
species, the black-tailed marmoset (Callithrix melanura),
to the country's nonhuman primate assemblage. Similar
to the ranges of the night monkey (Aotus azarae) and
dusky titi (Callicebus moloch), Callithrix is restricted
to the Chaco (Stallings et al., 1989), the region lying


Page 15


Neotropical Primates 4(l), March 1996





Neotropical Primates 4(1), March 1996


west of the Paraguay River. While studying hunting
patterns of Ache Indians, Hill and Hawkes (1983)
collected data on brown capuchins (Cebus apella), the
only Paraguayan primate restricted to the more tropical
orient (east of the Paraguay River). The southern black
howler monkey (Alouatta caraya) is the fifth species,
common to both biomes of Paraguay.

The primary objective of the study described here was
to obtain baseline information on the status and
abundance of the five primate species in Paraguay
subsequent to the earlier work of Stallings and others in
the 1980's. Field work was carried out during 1989/1990.
Anecdotal information on distribution, ecology, and
behavior is included in the species accounts.

Methods

Data were collected from August 1989 to August 1990
using three methods: 1) walking along transects or
through areas of varying extent to log recordings of
primate groups seen; 2) interviewing locals and
biologists familiar with the primates occurring within
their geographic area; 3) driving along road transects of
varying lengths to log recordings of wild primates seen.
More surveys were done in the morning and during
daylight hours than during the night; nocturnal surveys
may have been unnecessary, as the only nocturnal
species (Aotus) was detected during the day.


Figure 1. Map of Paraguay showing localities cited in the text. 1 Cerro LeOn; 2 30
Km South of Cerro San Miguel/Pt. 6; 3 Est. San Jos6; 4 Est. Madregadta; 5 Est.
Ferr6r; 6 Agua Dulce; 7 Bahia Negra; 8 Northeastern Boquer6n; 9 Ruta trans-
Chaco and Rio Monte Lindo; 10 Lower palm Chaco; 11 M'baracayt Region; 12 -
Curuguati; 13 I'taipu Dam; 14 Parana, Brasil; 15 Misiones, Argentina; 16 Outskirts
of Asuncion; 17 Y'bicui National Park; 18 South of Pilar.


Departamento Boqueron, Paraguay (Chaco) was
surveyed from September 1989 August 1990. The
I'guasu region (Parana, Brazil and Misiones, Argentina)
was surveyed in late January/early February 1990. The
Curuguaty region ofDepartamento Canindeyu, Paraguay
(Orient) was surveyed in early May 1990. The northern
Paraguayan Chaco and southeastern Santa Cruz, Bolivia
were surveyed in early July 1990.

Figure 1 shows the localities and regions mentioned in
the text. New localities were identified by overlaying a
reduction of Figure 1 onto the maps in Redford and
Eisenberg (1992). Range increases comprised those
localities beyond the previously documented
distributions within the Chaco, as determined by the
enclosed polygon of known localities.

Habitats

Habitats have been described elsewhere (e.g., Stallings
et al., 1989), but a brief description is provided as
follows. The lower Chaco is primarily a vast palm
savannah; historically a large body of water, and certain
areas are still seasonally inundated. There is a cline from
the middle Chaco to the upper Chaco: a low degree of
stratification, dense and thorny foliage, and low canopy
height in the middle Chaco to more stratified vegetation,
a greater abundance of broadleaf species, and a higher
canopy in the upper Chaco (Brooks, 1992).


The Orient is more mesic and tropical
than the Chaco, which harbors more
xeric forest. The southwestern Orient
is more typical of a seasonally
inundated area. Near the Rio Parand,
eastern Paraguay and adjacent Brazil
and Argentina are extensions of what
once formed the vast, continuous tract
of South Atlantic rain forest. There are
reports that woolly spider monkeys
(Brachyteles) inhabited this area 25
years ago (K. Benirschke, pers. comm.).
Further west in the interior of the
Paraguayan Orient, wet and dry seasons
are more defined than in the rain forest
adjacent to the Parand river basin.

Black-tailed Marmoset (Callithrix
melanura)

Stallings and Mittermeier (1982) first
described the occurrence of this species
in Paraguay. Marmosets were reported
to be rare in the Defensores del Chaco
National Park, not occurring south of
Cerro Leon (southern park boundary),


Page 16






Neotropical Primates 4(1), March 1996


and increasing in abundance north of Agua Dulce
(northern park boundary) (S. Gonzalez, pers. comm.).
Callithrix occurs in sympatry with Callicebus and Aotus
at Estancia San Jos6 (Sr. Insua, pers. comm.), which is
further north, along the Bolivian border. Reports indicate
that population densities increase towards the Bahia
Negra region, immediately west of the Rio Paraguay,
which comprises the southwestern Pantanal. Most likely,
this species dispersed westward into the Chaco along
tributaries of the Rio Paraguay. Although these reports
are not necessarily bona-fide they provide an idea of
the distribution of this species, which is naturally
restricted to the northeastern portion of the Chaco.

Night Monkey (Aotus azarae)

This species inhabits areas in the lower palm savannah
(P. Scharf, pers. comm.). Aotus is relatively scarce in
Departamento Boqueron, where maximum density
estimates are 1 ind./1 5 km2 (F. Colman, pers. comm.).
The major threat in the central Chaco is habitat
destruction for cattle ranching. Gaps between edges of
fragmented forest are increasing to the point where
adjacent forest plots may be too far apart for the monkeys
to disperse. The absence of dispersal corridors in the
dry Chaco, where riverine gallery forest is lacking,
results in isolated populations. In the northern Chaco
where development is less extensive, populations appear
to be stable.

A group of three individuals at Estancia San Jose
increased the known range to the north in Paraguay
(Brooks, 1993). This group comprised two adults
(presumably male and female) and a single juvenile, seen
foraging in the morning at 0820 hrs. Diurnal foraging
has been previously documented for Aotus ( Fernandes,
1993; Wright, 1983, 1985). The sky was completely
overcast when the group was observed, which may have
caused them to continue foraging through the morning
from the previous night. Another possible explanation
may involve metabolic constraints. The group was
observed in early July during the Paraguayan winter,
when the average temperature is approximately 20C. It
may be more energetically efficient for the monkeys to
be active during the day. Theories regarding how Aotus
became nocturnally active are: 1) to avoid predation by
large diurnal raptors and 2) to avoid direct interspecific
competition with larger cebids (Wright, 1985). In regions
such as the Chaco however, where large diurnal raptors
are rare, competing species of cebids are absent, and
great-horned owls (Bubo virginianus) (a nocturnal
predator large enough to predate upon Aotus) are present,
night monkeys may shift back to diurnal foraging
(Wright, 1985). In agreement with Wright's hypothesis,
the largest sympatric diurnal raptor observed at Estancia
San Jose was a savannah hawk (Helerospizias


meridionalis), possibly not large enough to be a predator
of night monkeys, although only two days were spent
there and rarer species may have been undetected. The
largest sympatric cebid was Callicebus, which would
not be considered a direct competitor, being no larger
than Aotus. Great horned owls were not encountered at
Estancia San Jos6, but one individual was heard 30 km
west at Point 6.

Upon encountering the group of night monkeys, the male
was about 40 m from the female and juvenile. The male
fled immediately. Locomotor skills of the juvenile were
not yet well-developed, and it clung to an intersection
of branches where it hid for several minutes before going
deeper into the forest. During the time the juvenile was
hiding, the female piloerected into an arch-posture
(Wright, 1978) before fleeing.

Dusky Titi (Callicebus moloch)

Like Callithrix, the range of Callicebus is restricted to
northeastern Paraguay albeit over a larger area (see
Stallings etal., 1989). Using conservative sample sizes,
maximum densities of familial groups were estimated
at 5 groups/km2 at Cerro Leon, 2.5 groups/km2 south of
Cerro San Miguel, and 1 group/km2 at Estancia San Jose.
Stallings et al. (1989) provided an estimate of 6.2 groups/
km2 at Agua Dulce, which is near the center of the three
aforementioned areas. Regrettably, time constraints
precluded an opportunity to sample Agua Dulce.
Stallings et al. (1989) indicated that the high density of
Callicebus at Agua Dulce was due to the more
botanically diverse and higher canopied vegetation of
the region. In addition, our methods of estimating density
may have differed. However, if the average density of
Cerro Leon, Cerro San Miguel, and Estancia San Jos6
(2.83 groups/km2) is indicative of the present density at
Agua Dulce, Callicebus may be below minimum
population levels for stability.

The presence of Callicebus at Point Six increases the
known range of localities in Paraguay to the north
(Brooks, 1993), and perhaps to the east in Bolivia
(Anderson et al., 1993). Duet calling as described by
Robinson (1977) was heard at 1020 hrs. at Cerro Leon,
0815 hrs. south of Cerro San Miguel, and 0730 hrs. at
Estancia San Jose.

Brown Capuchin (Cebus apella)

At a study site approximately 40 km north of Curuguaty,
Canindeyu, Hill and Hawkes (1983) compared shotgun
versus bow hunting of Ache indians during 165 hunting
days between March and July of 1980. Shotgun hunters
called for a bow when hunting Cebus, killing 7.8 kg
total at an average rate of 0.02 kg/man-hour of hunting.


Page 17





Neotropical Primates 4(1), March 1996


This comprised only 1% of all game taken, the lowest
mammalian biomass in the diet. In contrast, bow hunters
killed 484.2 kg total, at an average rate of 0.14 kg/man-
hour of hunting. This comprised 25.8% of all game taken,
the highest species biomass in the diet.

The species exists locally in the Y'bicui National Park,
and is abundant in the M'baracayu reserve (C. Yahnke,
pers. comm.). However, a survey in the Curuguaty region
of Departamento Canindeyu, just 40 km south of Hill
and Hawkes' (1983) study site, revealed no evidence of
the occurrence of Cebus, a mere ten years following their
study. With the presence of a major military station in
the area, hunting by soldiers is a major threat to all
species. Another potential threat is logging. Although
the surveys took place within tracts of primary rain forest,
chainsaws could be heard. Thus, forest fragmentation
and disturbance likely serve equally as threats. The
majority of the Orient is experiencing a tremendous surge
of development due to rapidly increasing human
populations.

Brief surveys in the I'guasu region of Parana, Brazil and
Misiones, Argentina revealed no trace of Cebus either.
The construction of the I'taipu dam on the Rio Parana,
30 km north of the I'guasu River, has most likely had a
serious affect on Cebus populations, although the Itaipu
captive breeding facility has been sucessfull in breeding
individuals rescued from the flood (F. Carbonar, pers.
comm.).

Southern Black Howler Monkey (Alouatta caraya)

Although prime howler monkey habitat was found in
the I'guasu region of Parani, Brazil and Misiones,
Argentina, Alouatta were not encountered. However,
howler monkeys were found in some prohibitive
neighborhoods, where hunting would not be considered
a threat, outlying the capital of Asuncion (D. Espinoza,
pers. comm.). Thus it appears that Alouatta are rare in
areas where extensive human 'traffic' is consistent
regardless of habitat type, but can apparently survive in
secondary habitat as long as the area is expansive,
naturally landscaped, and with at most minor hunting
pressure. The species is said to be common along the
lower Rio Parana, west of Encarnaci6n and south of Pilar
(P. Scharf, pers. comm.).

Alouatta is rare in the northern Chaco, where it is
infrequently encountered (S. Gonzalez, pers. comm.).
A female was reported in the southern Chaco at the
interchange of the Ruta-Trans Chaco and the Rio Monte
Lindo (R. Brooks, pers. comm.) in early February. This
species probably dispersed westward via riverine gallery
forest into the lower Chaco from the Orient.


Conclusions

Primates of the Paraguayan region appear to be
threatened in one area or another. Depending upon the
species, these major threats include a naturally restricted
range, habitat development for cattle ranching,
expanding human populations, and human disturbance.
Hope remains with recently increased interest in species
conservation in Paraguay.

Future studies are recommended in order to obtain a
better understanding of the status of the Paraguayan
primates and the threats to their populations, specifically
involving surveys using the same methods as those
employed by Stallings et al. (1989). Areas of particular
interest include Tte. Encisco, Agua Dulce, Chovoreca,
and Y'bycui.

Acknowledgments

My thanks to all the people that supported this work. I
remain indebted to K. Benirschke, R. Brooks, F.
Carbonar, F. Colman, D. Espinoza, S. Gonzalez, Sr.
Insua, P. Scharf, and C. Yahnke, for providing invaluable
information on primates in the areas with which they
were most familiar. Financial support was provided by
Dr. Kurt Benirschke and the Foundation for Endangered
Animals. Local logistics were provided by the Zoological
Society of San Diego's C.R.E.S. through support of
Proyecto Tagua. Thanks to J. U.-Peters (through support
from Lincoln Park Zoo) for providing logistics on the
trip to Bolivia, to Col. Paul Scharf, Sr. Lt. Vega, and
Gnrl. Eduardo for providing logistics on the trip to
Canindeyu, and to Anthony Rylands for encouraging
me to submit this article, and for his comments on an
earlier draft.

Daniel M. Brooks, Houston Zoological Gardens, 1513
N. MacGregor, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. Current
address: Department of Natural Sciences, University of
Houston Downtown, I Main Street, Suite 813-N,
Houston, Texas 77002, USA.

References

Anderson, S., Riddle, B. R, Yates, T. L. and Cook, J. A.
1993. Los mamiferos del Parque Nacional Amboro y
la region de Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia. Spec.
Publ. Mus. Southwest. Biol. 2: 1-58.
Bertoni, A. 1914. Catalogos sistematicos de los
vertebrados del Paraguay. Desc. Fis. y Econ. Para-
guay 59: 1-83.
Brooks, D. M. 1992. Notes on group size, density, and
habitat association of the pampas fox (Duscicyon
gymnocercus) in the Paraguayan Chaco. Mammalia
56(2): 314-316.


Page 18






Page 19 Neotropical Primates 4(1), March 1996


Brooks, D. M. 1993. Distribution, habitat, association;
and factors determining assemblage composition of
mammals in the*Paraguayan Chaco. M.S.,thesis, Texas
Tech University.
Fernandes, M. E. B. 1993. New field records of night
monkeys, Genus Aotus, in northern Brazil. Neotropi-
cal Primates 1(4): 6-8.
Hill, K. and Hawkes, K. 1983. Neotropical hunting
among the Ache' of Eastern Paraguay. I n: Adaptive
Responses of Native Amazonians, R. B. Hames and
W. B. Vickers (eds.), pp.139-188. Academic Press,
New York.
Redford, K. H. and Eisenberg, J. F. 1992. Mammals of
the Neotropics Vol. 2: The Southern Cone. University
of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Robinson, J. G. 1977. Vocal Regulation of Spacing in
The Titi Monkey Callicebus moloch. Ph.D. disserta-
tion, University of North Carolina.
Stallings, J. R. and Mittermeier, R. A. 1982. The black-
tailed marmoset (Callithrix argentata melanura) re-
corded from Paraguay. Am. J. Primatol. 4(2): 159-163.
Stallings, J. R. 1984. Conservation and status of Para-
guayan primates. M.A. thesis, University of Florida,
Gainesville.
Stallings, J. R. 1989. Status y conservaci6n de primates
en el Paraguay. In: La Primatologia en Latinoamirica,
C. J. Saavedra, R. A. Mittermeier, and I. B. Santos
(eds.), pp.133-151. World Wildlife Fund-US, Wash-
ington, D. C.
Wright, P. C. 1978. Home range, activity pattern, and
agonistic encounters of a group of night monkeys
(Aotus trivirgatus) in Peru. Folia Primatol. 29: 43-55.
Wright, P. C. 1985. Howling by the light of the moon:
why a day monkey has become a night monkey. In:
The Encyclopaedia of Mammals, D. R. Macdonald
(ed.), pp.364-365. George Allen and Unwin, London.


EMIGRATION OF A MASKED TITI MONKEY
(CALLICEBUS PERSONA TUS) FROM AN
ESTABLISHED GROUP, AND THE FOUNDATION OF
A NEW GROUP

Introduction

The territorial behavior of primates is frequently
associated with a monogamous or nuclear family pattern
of social organization (Clutton-Brock and Harvey, 1977;
Wittenberger and Tilson, 1980). In most cases such
groups are composed of the adult pair, which is the
reproductive unit, and their offspring of different ages,
as is the case in titi monkeys.

The number of members in a titi monkey family varies


ftonrtwo, after group founding, up to six, before a group
or individual separation occurs (Klnzey, 198 1; Pinto et
;ac., 1993). Under normal conditions, an infant is born
each year in a titi monkey family (Kinzey, 1981). As a
result a subadult monkey has to leave his group every
year or, after the founding a new group, within a four to
five year period.

In this paper, I report on the separation of a subadult titi
monkey from his family group as well as the founding
of a new group. Two different models of emigration and
group founding will be discussed: the gibbon- and the
titi model. Finally, I will show that territorial shifting, in
the sense of Easley and Kinzey (1986), is not the only
way for monogamous primates to secure new territories
for their offspring.

Methods and Study Site

The study site was a forest segment of about 100 ha at
the Estagao Experimental Lemos Maia (ESMAI), a
scientific field station of the local Cocoa Cultivation
Authority CEPLAC. It is located Una, south Bahia,
Brazil (150 18' S, 390 06' W). Details of the study site
and vegetation types have been described elsewhere
(Miller, 1995; Rylands, 1982).

Data were collected on the daily ranging pattern of two
nuclear family groups of Callicebus personatus
melanochir. Radio telemetry was used to accompany
the groups (Muller, 1994). The first group (Group I)
was observed between August 1992 and December 1992.
Data on the behavior of the second group (Group II)
were collected after the emigration and the founding of
the new group in December 1992. The observations took
place up to September 1993. Data were collected during
101 complete days by scan-sampling for ten seconds at
five minutes intervals (Altmann, 1974). Measuring,
mapping and calculation of the home range of Group I
and II have been described by Miller (1995).

Results

At the beginning of 1992, Group I consisted of six
animals: the adult pair, two subadults and two juveniles
(Fig. 1). The adult male, a subadult and a juvenile
subsequently disappeared, and the Group consisted of
three animals when the study was begun. In December
1992, the subadult male of this group, which had a radio
transmitter, emigrated. He founded a new group together
with an adult female and her infant, which was called
Group II. The emigration was not observed in detail,
because observations were made only one day before
and after the emigration of the subadult male. Before
the male left his group he was evidently neither


Page 19


Neotropical Primates 4(l), March 1996







Neotropical Primates 4(1), March 1996 Page 20


peripheralized nor showed or received' aggressive
behavior from the adult female of Group I. The:
separation, of the female from her group was not
observed, and her origin is unknown. The.new group
was founded in one day.

When emigration and group founding were complete,
some behavioral changes occurred, which may have an
important role in titi monkey group structure. Masked
titis normally use the same trees for sleeping. During
the four months of observations, Group I used a total of
22 different trees. The new Group II used only nine
different sleeping trees. Two of them were used on 82%
of the occasions when the sleeping site was recorded.
Following the emigration of the subadult male, Group I
no longer used the same sleeping trees as before.
Furthermore Group II never used any of the sleeping
trees of Group I, which were located within their
territory. In addition, the male of Group II did not
participate in caring for the infant (no carrying was
observed). Only when the infant began independent
locomotion did he start to play with it.

In January 1993, Group II used an area of 11 ha; 43% of
which had been taken over from Group I. During
February and March, they occupied a further 5 ha. By
September 1993, Group II occupied an area of a little
more than 24 hectares. By comparison: Group I used
about 23 hectares. Seven hectares of the territory were
taken from Group I. No contact or encounter between
the groups was observed, and it is not known whether
their ranges overlapped, although Group I was never
seen in the area occupied by Group II.

Discussion

Although the monogamous mating system is uncommon
in primates, lifestyles are remarkably similar among
those which have this mating system (Hrdy, 1981). They
are characterized by a group size that is always small.
Maximum group size in Callicebus is six animals
(Kinzey, 1981; Kinzey and Becker, 1983). What factors
keep the group size in this narrow range? In gibbons,
another well-studied monogamous primate, group size
is regulated by the parents. On becoming adult, a
subadult gibbon suffers same-sex aggression within the
group, and he is subsequently chased away by his
parents. The natal group prepares the territory for his
offspring (Aldrich-Blake and Chivers, 1973; Tilson,
1981). In contrast to the gibbon model, group size in
Callicebus is evidently regulated by the offspring. In
the beginning of 1992, when our study group comprised
six individuals, three members ofthe group disappeared.
In December 1992, a subadult male left his natal group
unexpectedly. Neither large group size nor limited


Group Structure of Masked Titi Group I and It
Group ___
Beginning of
1992
August
1992 g M'l 9 .A dl su.. Su.. d Ju..l. urnl.

Group I 1

December rUnkf Group
1992 ANI


resources could be causes leading to this emigration
because group size had been reduced beforehand. No
aggression, peripheralization or other behavioral changes
were observed prior to the subadult leaving his natal
group. Therefore, we conclude the mature offspring, in
this case, did not leave his natal group because of
agonistic behavior from the parents. It would seem that
intrinsic developmental changes in the offspring
themselves are the reason, possibly through hormonal
changes at subadulthood, leading to the needs to obtain
a mate and a territory of its own. This could be an
evolutionary successful mechanism to avoid incest.
Furthermore, and in contrast to gibbons, the emigration
and group founding observed were abrupt. Group
founding was completed within one day and no reversal
was recorded, as has been seen in gibbons (Tilson, 1981).

In a very detailed report, Easley and Kinzey (1986)
demonstrated a territorial shift in a group ofC. torquatus
over a period of seven years. The areas used by the group
at the beginning and end of the study were completely
different and not overlapping. Unfortunately they did
not observe emigration nor group founding of the mature
offspring, which left the natal group during their study.

Complementary to the observations of Easley and
Kinzey (1986), we have observed the emigration and
establishment of a territory for the first time in
Callicebus. Unfortunately, the duration of the study and
the restricted area in which it was carried out, made it
impossible to observe territorial shifting. Our
observations indicate, however, that the preparation of
a space for the mature offspring may involve another
process, which would seem to involve a territorial
stretching and retraction, as has been observed in
siamang (Aldrich-Blake and Chivers, 1973). Prior to the
departure of the mature offspring, the parent group
defended a larger area, but subsequently gave over part
of the territory. Unfortunately, we have no data on
whether the natal group of the female also prepared a


Neotropical Primates 4(l), March 1996


Page 20







Page 21 Neotropical Primates 4(1), March 1996


part of the newly established territory.

Klaus-H. Miller, Deutsches Primatenzentrum GmbH,
Kellnerweg 4, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany.

References

Aldrich-Blake, F. P. G. and Chivers, D. J. 1973. The
genesis of a group of siamang. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop.
38: 631-636.
Altmann, J. 1974. Observational study of behavior:
sampling methods. Behaviour 49: 227-267.
Clutton-Brock, T. H. and Harvey, P. H. 1977. Species
differences in feeding and ranging behaviour in pri-
mates. In: Primate Ecology: Studies of Feeding and
Ranging Behaviour in Lemurs, Monkeys and Apes.
T. H. Clutton-Brock (ed.), pp. 557-584. Academic
Press, London.
Easley, S. P. and Kinzey, W. G. 1986. Territorial shift
in the yellow-handed titi monkey (Callicebus
torqualus). Am. J. Primatol. 11: 307-318.
Hrdy, S. B. 1981. The Woman that Never Evolved.
Harvard University Press, Cambridge.
Kinzey, W. G. 1981. The titi monkey, genus Callicebus.
In: Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical Primates,
Vol. I., A. F. Coimbra-Filho and R. A. Mittermeier
(eds.), pp.241-276. Academia Brasileira de Ciencias,
Rio de Janeiro.
Kinzey, W. G. and Becker, M. 1983. Activity pattern
of the masked titi monkey, Callicebus personatus.
Primates 24: 337-343.
Muller, K. -H. 1994. Capture and radio-telemetry of
masked titi monkeys (Callicebus personatus
melanochir, Cebidae, Primates) in tropical rain for-
est. Neotropical Primates 2: 7-8.
Muller, K.-H. 1995. Langzeitstudie zur Okologie von
schwarzk6pfigen Springaffen (Callicebus personalus
melanochir, Cebidae, Primates) im atlantischen
Kustenregenwald Ostbrasiliens. Doctoral thesis, Freie
Universitat Berlin, Berlin.
Pinto, L. P. S., Costa, C. M. R., Strier, K. B. and
Fonseca, G. A. B. da. 1993. Habitat, density and group
size of primates in a Brazilian tropical forest. Folia
Primatol. 61: 135-143.
Rylands, A. B. 1982. The behaviour and ecology of
three species of marmosets and tamarins
(Callitrichidae, Primates) in Brazil. Ph.D. Disserta-
tion, University of Cambridge, Cambridge.
Tilson, R. L. 1981. Family formation strategies of
Kloss's gibbons. Folia Primatol. 35: 259-287.
Wittenberger, J. F. and Tilson, R. L. 1980. The evolu-
tion of monogamy: Hypotheses and evidence. Ann.
Rev. Ecol. Syst. 11: 197-232.


RELATIVE REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS IN THE
MANTLED HOWLER MONKEY: IMPLICATIONS
FOR CONSERVATION


Introduction

The structure of primate groups is thought to result from
the tendency of females to select rich patches of food
and that of males to select large aggregations of females
(Wittenberger, 1980; Emlen and Oring, 1977). Because
patch richness and the consequent number and quality
of females may vary, the relative reproductive success
(RRS) of females may also vary over space and time.
Relative reproductive success is a population parameter,
since it is one characteristic of demographic or life
history traits describing sub-units of a species within
and between environmental regimes (see Vehrencamp
and Bradbury, 1984). RRS is important to the field of
conservation biology since an increase in the variance
of reproductive success in a population reduces effective
population size (Primack, 1993). Information about RRS
facilitates viability analysis of population fluctuations
required for recovery from environmental perturbations.

Methods

This report analyzes relative reproductive success (RRS)
of mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata Gray) in
two Central American forests as the mean number of
juveniles plus infants (J + 1) per female group size per
site. This report uses data from several studies
(Carpenter, 1934; Mittermeier, 1973; Thorington, 1975;
Malmgren, 1979; Clarke et al., 1986; Glander, 1980;
Jones, unpubl., Table 1) at two research sites where
mantled howler monkeys have been studied most
intensively: Guanacaste (GTE), Costa Rica in a tropical
dry forest environment (Heltne et al.,1975) (n= 51
groups) and Barro Colorado Island (BCI) in a
semideciduous lowland tropical forest environment of
Panama (Heltne et al., 1975) (n= 73 groups). Mantled
howler monkeys, large cebids distributed throughout the
forests of Middle America and the Pacific coast of
northern South America, are classified as endangered
in the United States Endangered Species Act of 1991
(Groves, 1993).

Results and Discussion

Fecundity is thought to be related to group size (see
Pulliam and Caraco, 1984; Terborgh and Janson, 1986;
Wittenberger, 1980; Robinson, 1988). Results differ,
however, depending on methods of calculation.
Calculations of absolute values per group (i.e., the total
number of juveniles and infants per group compared to
the total number of adult females in a group) may exhibit


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Neotropical Primates 4(l), March 1996







Neotropical Primates 4(1), March 1996 Page 22


significant linear regressions. For the surveys used in
the present analysis, 6 out of 7 show a significant positive
correlation, with a mean correlation of +0.62 (P<0.05)
for the comparison just stated. Thus, within-group
productivity appears directly related to group size.

Table 2 exhibits relative reproductive success (RRS), a
between-group analysis, for different sized female
groups for the present sample. The number of females
per group ranges from 2-15. RRS at Guanacaste (GTE)
ranges from 0.55-1.00 (0.75+0.17) and at Barro
Colorado Island (BCI) from 0.17-1.23 (0.92+0.29).
There is no correlation between female group size and
RRS at either location (r = -0.15 and +0.06 for GTE
and BCI, respectively), suggesting that different groups
with the same number of adult females are not similarly
productive when different censuses are compared.
Further, RRS does not differ overall between the two
sites (Wilcoxon's Signed Ranks Test, P>0.05), possibly
due to an optimal birth rate, death rate, and/or dispersal
rate. Females in GTE, then, do as well as females at
BCI, on average. The range in RRS, however, is
significantly greater at BCI than at GTE (P<0.001,X2 =
24.64, df = 1), possibly reflecting greater carrying
capacity at BCI, the wetter site. Further, coefficients of
dispersion for RRS (0.22 and 0.21 for GTE and BCI,
respectively) show that the frequency distributions of
RRS at both sites are "repulsed" (more observations than
expected at the center of each distribution) and that the
standard deviation is less than one would expect by
chance alone.

Modal female group size is eight for both GTE and BCI.
The frequency distribution of female groups was
compared between sites and the mean (S.D.) number
of females per group is significantly larger in GTE
(8.383.24) than in BCI (7.102.58) (Randomization
Test, T = 2.58, df= 121, P<0.01), a result that might be
accounted for by the higher degree of seasonality and
consequent variance in resource patchiness in GTE (see,
Heltne et al., 1975), although both sites are characterized
by relatively moderate levels of primary productivity
(Whittaker, 1975). Howler populations, thus, appear to

Table 1. Results of the author's counts of 11 howler groups at various
locations throughout the Guanacaste Province, Costa Rica.
Group Ad.males (n) Ad.fem. (n) Juv. (n) Inf. (n) Total (n)
A 2 7 4 1 14
B 2 6 3 2 13
C 2 8 3 2 15
D 2 9 4 3 18
E 2 6 4 4 16
F 3 9 3 1 16
G 3 14 12 2 31
H 3 13 6 5 27
I 4 11 5 2 22
J 5 14 8 6 33
K 6 15 12 2 35
Total 34 112 64 30 240


Table 2. Relative reproductive success (RRS) as a function of group
size at two Central American howler monkey sites, Guanacaste (GTE),
Costa Rica, and Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama. (f) = number
of times a female group of a given size (n) occurred at BCI and at
GTE. RRS calculated as mean (X) number of juveniles plus infants
(J + I) per female group size per site (see Methods).
Females/ Mean J + I/Females/Group
Group (n) GTE BCI
RRS (f) RRS (0)
2 0.75 (2) 0.66 (3)
3 0.67 (1) 0.17 (2)
4 1.00 (2) 1.21 (7)
5 0.81 (4) 1.23 (7)
6 0.99 (4) 1.20 (11)
7 0.79 (6) 0.99 (10)
8 0.55 (10) 1.01 (15)
9 0.58 (8) 1.03 (8)
10 0.55 (2) 0.80 (4)
11 0.64 (1) 0.82 (1)
12 0.75 (1) 1.00 (2)
13 0.86 (5) 0.66 (2)
14 1.00 (2) 1.14 (1)
15 0.57 (2) (0)

be limited by environmental potential, with greater
potential for large group sizes in the more heterogeneous
GTE forests (see Heltne et al., 1975).

Extinction may occur where the rate of environmental
fluctuation (heterogeneity) outweighs a population's
ability to respond. Under these conditions, mortality may
outweigh reproduction. Knowledge of the determinants
of variation in howler RRS across habitats using the
simple method presented in this note would permit a
comparative viability analysis of populations as a
function of environmental regime. Such an
understanding would permit an assessment of a species'
adaptation across ecological conditions emphasizing
responses to habitat fragmentation, patchiness, or
heterogeneity. Differential quantification of RRS across
populations and microclimates could yield a robust level
of prediction for estimating population viability and for
generating workable conservation plans. This approach
underlines the importance of careful censuses comparing
source areas with disturbed and fragmented areas.

Acknowledgments

I thank E. Tobach, A. Harcourt, and M. Kalinichev for
constructively criticizing an earlier draft of this
manuscript. S. Vehrencamp provided stimulating
discussion of relative reproductive success. This work
was supported by The National Fellowships Fund.

Clara B. Jones, Institute of Animal Behavior, Rutgers
University Newark, 101 Warren Street, Newark, New
Jersey 07102, USA.

References
Carpenter, C. R. 1934. A field study of the behavior and


Neolropical Primates 4(l), March 1996


Page 22





Neotropical Primates 4(1), March 1996


social relations of howling monkeys. Comp. Psychol.
Monog. 10: 1-168.
Clarke, M. R., Zucker, E. L. and Scott, N. L. 1986.
Population trends of the mantled howler monkeys of
La Pacifica, Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Am. J. Primatol.
11: 79-99.
Emlen, S. T. and Oring, L. 1977. Ecology, sexual se-
lection and the evolution of mating systems. Science
197: 215-223.
Glander, K. E. 1980. Reproduction and population
growth in free-ranging mantled howling monkeys.
Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 53: 25-36.
Groves, C. P. 1993. Order Primates. In: Mammal Spe-
cies of the World (D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder
(eds.), pp.243-278. Smithsonian Institution Press,
Washington, D. C.
Heltne, P. G., Turner, D. C. and Scott Jr., N. J. 1975.
Comparison of census data on Alouattapalliata from
Costa Rica and Panama. In: Neotropical Primates:
Field Studies and Conservation, pp. 10-19. National
Academy of Sciences, Washington, D. C.
Jones, C. B. 1995. Howler subgroups as homeostatic
mechanisms in disturbed habitats. Neotropical Pri-
mates 3: 7-9.
Malmgren, L. A. 1979. Empirical population genetics
of golden mantled howling monkeys (Alouatta
palliata) in relation to population structure, social dy-
namics and evolution. Ph.D. Dissertation, University
of Connecticut, Storrs.
Mittermeier, R. A. 1973. Group activity and popula-
tion dynamics of the howler monkey on Barro Colo-
rado Island. Primates 14: 1-19.
Primack, R. B. 1993. Essentials of Conservation Biol-
ogy. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.
Pulliam, J. R. and Caraco, T. 1984. Living in groups:
Is there an optimal size? In: Behavioural Ecology:
An Evolutionary Approach, J. R. Krebs and N. B.
Davies (eds.), pp.122-147. Sinauer Associates, Inc.,
Sunderland, MA.
Robinson, J. G. 1988. Group size in wedge-capped ca-
puchin monkeys Cebus olivaceus and the reproduc-
tive success of males and females. Behav. Ecol.
Sociobiol. 23:187-197.
Robinson, J. G. and Ramirez C., J. 1982. Conservation
biology of Neotropical primates. In: Mammalian Bi-
ology in South America, M. A. Mares and J. G.
Genoways (eds.), pp.329-344. University of Pitts-
burgh Press, Pittsburgh.
Terborgh, J. and Janson, C. H. 1986. The socioecology
of primate groups. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 17: 111-136.
Thorington, R. W., Jr. 1975. Howler monkeys and their
resources. In: Environmental Monitoring and
Baseline Data, R. W. Rubinoff (ed.). Unpublished
report, Smithsonian Institution Environmental Sci-
ences Program, Washington, D. C.


Vehrencamp, S. L. and Bradbury, J. W. 1984. Mating
systems and ecology. In Behavioural Ecology: An
Evolutionary Approach, J. R. Krebs and N. B. Davies
(eds.), pp.251-278. Sinauer Associates, Inc.,
Sunderland, MA.
Wittenberger, J.F. 1980. Group size and polygamy in
social mammals. Am. Nat. 115:197 -222.


THE MURIQUI IN THE PARQUE ESTADUAL DE
IBITIPOCA, MINAS GERAIS


The report of Martuscelli et al. (1994) recording 14 new
localities for muriquis, Brachyteles arachnoides, inspired
further efforts to locate additional areas where this
endangered primate survives (Antonietto and Mendes,
1994; Cimara, 1995). Hirsch et al. (1994) recently
surveyed the Parque Estadual de Ibitipoca, state of Minas
Gerais, and recorded only three primate species:
Callicebus personatus, Alouatta fusca and Callithrix
penicillata. Although they did not observe capuchin
monkeys, Cebus apella, this species had been recorded
for the park previously (Drumond, 1987). Here we report
on the occurrence in the park of the muriqui Brachyteles
arachnoides, and provide further observations on the
capuchin monkeys.

The Ibitipoca State Park (1,488 ha) is located in the Serra
do Ibitipoca, municipality of Lima Duarte, Minas Gerais
(210 42'S; 430 53'W) (Fig. 1). The park is comprised
mainly of moorland vegetation (campos de altitude) and
riverine forests. The forested area of the park can be
classified as cloud forest, and the most common plant
families are Rubiaceae, Lauraceae, and Myrtaceae (M.
A. L. Fontes, unpubl. data). All the primates we observed
in this study were in an 80 ha forest fragment in the
center of the Park.

Brachyteles arachnoides: On 17 May 1995, at 1000 h, a
female muriqui was observed on a forested slope at 1500
m altitude. It was apparently traveling with a group of
three howler monkeys, Alouattafusca. On 13 July 1995,
at 1600 h, the same Alouatta group was found close to
where it was first seen. The female muriqui was observed
again. The group was composed of 6 to 8 howlers and
the one muriqui. On 16 October 1995, a female muriqui
was observed again in the same area. However, it was
alone and we believe it was another individual judging
by the marks on the face. Both muriquis were pink-faced,
confirming the subspecies B. a. hypoxanthus. In addition,
two tourists we interviewed confirmed the existence of
"large white monkeys", which were possibly muriquis,
inside the Park as well as in neighboring forest outside
the area of the Park.


Page 23







Neotropical Primates 4(1% March 1996 Page 24


Cebus apella: On 14 July 1995, at 0830h, a group of
eight capuchins was observed in the same area where
we saw the muriquis (Fig. 2). On 6 September, at 0740
h, the same group was contacted for few minutes. On 7
September, at 1134h, one lone individual was observed
in the same forest fragment.

Muriquis have a low density in large protected reserves
(Pinto et al,. 1994; M. Galetti unpubl. data) and they are
more sensitive to hunting than to forest fragmentation
(see Lane, 1990). New localities of muriquis certainly
add to their current distribution but, except in the Serra
do Mar in Sao Paulo, their occurrence is restricted mainly
to forest fragments. The known population of
Brachyteles arachnoides is estimated to be
approximately 700 monkeys (Martuscelli et al. 1994).
However, if we consider Brachyteles arachnoides
hypoxanthus as a distinct subspecies, or even species
(see, for example, Rylands et al., 1995), urgent plans
are required to establish large protected areas for both
(Mendes, 1995). Few areas support a viable
metapopulation (mainly of B. a. hypoxanthus), and
translocation programs must be a priority (Mendes and
Chiarello, 1994).

In terms of conservation status, it would seem that B. a.
arachnoides is better off than B. a. hypoxanthus because
there is still plenty of suitable habitat in such localities
as the Serra de Paranapiacaba in Sao Paulo (although
hunting is still common),the stronghold of B. a.
arachnoides (Martuscelli et al. 1994). We believe that
there is a pressing need for a translocation program to
save minute, isolated and probably doomed populations,
similar to that being carried out by Kierulff and Oliveira
(1994) with golden lion tamarins in Rio de Janeiro.
However, first it is necessary to find a "safe" reserve
where muriquis can be translocated and protected


Gerais.


effectively. Nowadays most of the reserves in the
Atlantic forest of Brazil are understaffed and poorly
equipped to secure such protection.

More research is required to obtain a full understanding
of the status of muriquis in the Parque Estadual de
Ibitipoca, and to decide what is best for this isolated
population. The presence of muriquis outside the Park,
calls for a detailed study of the possibilities of including
these neighboring forests by expanding the Park
boundaries.

Marco Aurilio L. Fontes, Ary T. Oliveira Filho,
Departamento de Ciencias Florestais, Universidade
Federal de Lavras, 37200-000, Lavras, Minas Gerais,
Brazil, and Mauro Galetti, Wildlife Research Group,
Department of Anatomy, University of Cambridge CB2
3DY, UK, and Departamento de Botanica, Universidade
Estadual de Sao Paulo (UNESP), Caixa Postal
199,13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

References

Antonietto L. A. and Mendes, F. D. C. 1994. Sao Fran-
cisco Xavier: a new site for primatological research
and conservation in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Neo-
tropical Primates 2(3): 3-4.
Bernardes, A. T., Machado, A. B. M. and Rylands, A.
B. 1990. Fauna Brasileira Ameagada de Extinqao.
Fundagao Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte.
Camara, I. de G. 1995. Muriquis in the Itatiaia National
Park, Brazil. Neotropical Primates 3(1): 19.
Drumond, M. A. 1987. InventArio preliminary de
mamiferos do Parque Estadual de Ibitipoca, Lima
Duarte, M. G. In: 1 Encontro sobre Unidades de
Conservaqgo, Instituto Estadual de Florestas. DIPRE,
Institute Estadual de Florestas, Belo Horizonte.
Hirsch, A., SubirA, R. J. and Landau, E. C. 1994.
Levantamento de primatas e zoneamento das matas
na regiio do Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca, Minas
Gerais, Brasil. Neotropical Primates 2(3): 4-6.
Kierulff, M. C. and Oliveira, P. P. 1994. Habitat preser-
vation and the translocation of threatened groups of
golden lion tamarins, Leontopithecus rosalia. Neotro-
pical Primates 2(suppl.): 15-18.
Lane, F. 1990. A hunt for "monos" (Brachyteles
arachnoides) in the foothills of the Serra de
Paranapiacaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Primate Conserva-
tion 11: 23-25.
Matuscelli, P., Petroni, L. and Olmos, F.. 1994. Four-
teen new localities for the muriqui Brachyteles
arachnoides. Neotropical Primates 2(2): 16-19.
Mendes, F. D. C. 1994. Muriqui conservation: the ur-
gent need of an integrated management plan. Neotro-
pical Primates 2(2): 16-19.
Mendes, S. L. and Chiarello, A. G. 1994. A proposal for


Neotropical Primates 4(l), March 1996


Page 24







Page 25 Neotropical Primates 4(1), March 1996


the conservation of the muriqui in the state of Espirito
Santo, southeastern Brazil. Neotropical Primates 1(2):
2-4.
Pinto, L. P. Costa, C. M. R., Strier, K. B. and Fonseca,
G. A. B. 1993. Habitat, density and group size of pri-
mates in a Brazilian tropical forest. Folia Primatol.
61: 135-143.
Strier, K. B. 1993. Faces in the Forest. Oxford Univer-
sity Press, Oxford.
Rylands, A. B., Mittermeier, R. A. and Rodriguez-Luna,
E. 1995. A species list for the New World primates
(Platyrrhini): distribution by country, endemism, and
conservation status according to the Mace-Lande sys-
tem. Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.): 113-160.


News


NE TROPICAL PRIMATES HOME PAGE

http://www.primate.wisc. edu/pin/
newslett.html

Thanks to the collaboration of the staff of
the library of the Wisconsin Regional Primate
"- Research Center, Madison, as from Volume
3(4), December 1995, Neotropical Primates is now
included amongst the newsletters available in the Primate
Info Net (PIN) on the Internet World Wide Web.
Unfortunately, the electronic edition will lack graphs,
tables, maps and photographs due to the considerable
investment required in terms of time for their
independent formatting in HTML, but the texts of the
articles and news items, and the listings of recent
publications and meetings are all reproduced in their
entirety. Thanks are due to Larry Jacobsen, Sue Carlson,
Melinda Carr and Ray Hamel of the Wisconsin Regional
Primate Center.

Other newsletters currently available in the WWW
Primate Information Network include: African Primates,
Asian Primates, Australian Primatology, A WIC
Newsletter, Chinese Primate Research and Conservation
News, Clara Clarion, Gorilla Conservation Newsletter,
IPPL Quarterly Newsletter, Laboratory Primate
Newsletter, Laboratory Primate Newsletter archives, Old
World Monkey TAG Newsletter, ONCenter (Oregon
Regional Primate Research Center), Pan Africa News,
Primate Library Report: Audio-Visual Acquisitions,
PSYeta Newsletter (July 1995) and the Sulawesi Primate
Newsletter.


A NEWSLETTER FOR MEXICAN PRIMATOLOGISTS


The Universidad Veracruzana (Parque de la Flora y
Fauna Silvestre Neotropical, Instituto de Neuroetologia)
have begun a newsletter Hablando de Monos: Noticias
sobre Primatologia en Mexico, about the primate studies
there, first begun in 1979. The first number (January-
June 1995) includes, amongst other items, articles on
illegal traffic in spider monkeys (Liliana Cortes Ortiz),
biodiversity in the region of Los Tuxtlas (Jorge Morales
MAvil), howling monkey conservation (Ernesto
Rodriguez-Luna and Liliana Cort6s Ortiz) and the Isla
de los Changos colony of Macaca arctoides. The
newsletter is produced with the support of the Patronato
Pro-Universidad Veracruzana, A.C. Those interested in
the primatological studies at the Universidad
Veracruzana should write to: Parque de la Flora y Fauna
Silvestre Tropical, Instituto de Neuroetologia,
Universidad Veracruzana, A. P. 566, C. P. 91000,
Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico. Tel/Fax: (28) 12 57 48.



1994 STUDBOOK FOR LEONTOPITHECUS ROSALIA


The 1994 studbook for the golden lion tamarin,
Leontopithecus rosalia, has been published by Jonathan
D. Ballou, National Zoological Park, Washington, D.
C. It contains a complete historical chronology of the
captive population, beginning with all registered captive
animals alive on 1 January 1960 (when sufficient
information on arrivals, births and deaths first became
available). It encompasses all known events through 31
December 1994. The studbook includes information on
animal identities and locations, sex, parentage,
ownership, and genetic relationships. In addition, data
are presented on juvenile's parental care experience,
proven breeders, hand rearing, and evidence for
diaphragmatic hernias or other medical conditions. The
studbook contains two listings; 1) all specimens, alive
on 31 December 1994, sorted by holding institution; and
2) a historical listing of all specimens as of 31 December
1994.

The number of living animals on December 31, 1994,
was 484, with a 1.4% growth rate since 1992. The
number of participating institutions was 130, and the
number of founders 48, with two still alive. The number
of founder genome equivalents was 13.56, and 96.3%
of the expected heterozygosity has been retained. The
age structure of the living population and the distribution
of the mean kinship in animals of reproductive age were
also analyzed.


Page 25


Neotropical Primates 4(l), March 1996






Neotropical Primates 4(1), March 1996 Page 26


Other reports available through the studbook keeper
include the Husbandry Protocol for golden lion tamarins
(in English and Portuguese) and a lion tamarin
bibliography. Additional information on the captive
population or the Golden Lion Tamarin Conservation
Program can be obtained by contacting the studbook
keeper directly.

Jonathan D. Ballou, Department of Zoological
Research, National Zoological Park, Washington, D. C.
20008. Tel: (202) 673-4815, Fax: (202) 673-4686.



THE GERMAN PRIMATE CENTER, GOTTINGEN


Prof. Dr. Hans-Jirg Kuhn who has been the scientific
director of the German Primate Center (DPZ) since its
founding in 1977 retired from the directorship on 29
February 1996. He was the principal force behind of
the idea of a national primate center in Germany. The
institute, with its primate keeping facilities, laboratories
and offices, was built on the campus of the University
of Gottingen during the period 1979 to 1984. The
scientific work of the center comprises the departments
of virology and immunology, reproductive biology,
neurobiology and pathology, along with the research
groups of ethology, biocommunication and experimental
pathology. Currently there are about 200 people working
at the DPZ, about 70 of whom are scientists. The Center
keeps about 1,000 primates often species.

Prof. Dr. Hans-Jirg Kuhn was honored in a public
ceremony on March 21. The new scientific director of
the DPZ will be Prof. Dr. Gerhard Hunsmann. He was
born in 1943 and carried out his PhD at the University
of Wtirzburg in 1971. From 1971 to 1975 he worked as
a post-doctoral scientist at the Max-Planck-Institut fiur
Virusforschung in Tilbingen, and from 1975-1978 he
was head of a research group in the Max-Planck-Institut
fir Immunbiologie in Freiburg. From 1979 to 1983, he
headed a research group at the Institut fir Immunbiologie
at the University of Freiburg. Prof. Dr. Gerhard
Hunsmann has been head of the department of virology
and immunology at the DPZ since 1983. His main
interests are in AIDS-research, hepatitis and prion
diseases. A new department of genetics is planned to
enlarge the scientific scope of the Center.

Michael Lankeit, Administrative Director, Deutsches
Primatenzentrum GmbH, Kellnerweg 4, D-37077
G6ttingen, Germany.


WORKSHOP CIENTIFICO SOBRE A MATA
ATLANTICA


Foi realizado nos dias 22 e 23 de janeiro, o Workshop
Cientifico sobre a Mata AtlAntica, cujo objetivo foi
discutir os limits de abrangencia da Mata Atlantica e
as diretrizes para o estabelecimento de uma Politica
Nacional para a utilizacao e conservacao deste bioma.
0 Workshop foi promovido pelas Secretarias de Estado
de Meio Ambiente de Minas Gerais e Sao Paulo e por
nove organizag6es nio-governamentais ambientalistas,
dentre elas a Conservation International do Brasil,
Fundaggo Biodiversitas e o Conselho Nacional da
Reserva da Biosfera da Mata Atlantica.

A regiao da Mata AtlAntica 6 uma das Areas de maior
biodiversidade no mundo, compreendendo as florestas
ao long do leste brasileiro. A Area original da Mata
AtlAntica correspondia a 1,1 milhao de km2, mas estima-
se que jA tenha perdido mais de 90% de sua cobertura.
A regiao foi a primeira a ser colonizada no Brasil, e
hoje concentra os maiores centros urbanos e industrials
do pais, o que a coloca entire as dez regimes mais
ameagadas do mundo.

Devido A inquestionAvel importancia da Mata Atlantica,
varios instruments legais para a normatizagao da sua
exploragao e conservagAo foram criados. Dentre estes
se destacam: a Constituiqdo Brasileira de 1988, que no
capitulo que trata do meio ambiente, declara a Mata
Atlantica como patrim6nio national; e o Decreto 750/
93, instrument legal que disp6e sobre os limits e as
normas de utilizagio e conservagao deste bioma. Apesar
da importancia do Decreto 750/93, entende-se que a
regulamentagao do dispositivo constitutional sobre a
Mata Atlantica deveria ocorrer sob a forma de Lei. A
discuss sobre esta mat6ria acabou gerando polemicas
de ordem tdcnica, como a proposta governmental,
encaminhada pelo Ministdrio do Meio Ambiente, na
forma de minute de Anteprojeto de Lei, estabelecendo
novos limits e regulamenta96es de exploragao para a
Mata Atlantica. Se aprovada a proposta do governor, a
Mata AtlAntica passard a ser reconhecida legalmente
como a Floresta Ombr6fila Densa (a mata litoranea),
excluindo-se as formagqes vegetacionais interioranas,
o que reduz em cerca de 70% a abrangencia do bioma.

Durante o Workshop, estiveram reunidos 40 especialistas
de diferentes Areas temAticas fauna, flora, aspects
geoambientais e politicas- legislagao. Al6m de apontar
importantes aspects para o delineamento de uma
Political Nacional para a Mata Atlntica, o encontro
permitiu a convergencia de informafes capazes de
sustentar o conceito da Mata Atlantica sensu latu, como
um mosaico de tipologias vegetacionais integradas.


Neotropical Primates 4(l), March 1996


Page 26







Page 27 Neotropical Primates 4(1), March 1996


Sendo assim, foi sugerida a manutengao. da area
geogrAfica da Mata AtlAntica com base no Mapa de
Vegetagao da Fundagao Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia
e Estatistica (IBGE) de 1988, ou seja, abrangendo suas
diversas tipologias: Floresta Ombr6fila Densa,
Ombr6fila com AraucAria, Florestas Estacional Decidual
e Semidecidual, incluindo os ecossistemas associados
como ilhas oceAnicas, restingas, manguezais, florestas
costeiras e campos de altitude.

Luiz Paulo de Souza Pinto, Conservation International
do Brasil, Avenida Ant6nio Abrahao Caram 820/302,
31275-000 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.



ECOLOGIA DA FLORESTA AMAZONICA


"Ecologia da Floresta Amaz6nica, um curso intensive
em nivel de p6s-graduagao, sera realizado pela quarta
vez no period de 13 de julho a 14 de agosto de 1996.
O curso visa a capacita9ao de cientistas e pesquisadores
para investigar e interpreter, em varios niveis, fen6menos
ecol6gicos em contextos naturais e prever efeitos da
intervengao humana, para fins de manejo e conservago.
O curso segue o modelo da discipline de p6s graduagao
ministrada pela Organizag9o para Estudos Tropicais
(OET), "Biologia Tropical: uma Abordagem
Ecol6gica", que corn sua forte enfase na problemritica
da biodiversidade tropical, al6m de ser um grande
sucesso como iniciaiao A pesquisa de campo, ajudou a
catalisar o mundialmente reconhecido program de
conservagao, em conjunto corn ecoturismo, atualmente
praticado na Costa Rica.

O curso serA oferecido pela OET um cons6rcio de 55
institui96es norte-americanas e centro-americanas
promovendo cursos de campo em espanhol e em ingles
desde 1962 e os Programas de Ecologia da
Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP corn
dezoitos anos de experiencia em cursos de campo no
Brasil) e do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amaz6nia
(INPA). Estas instituic6es contam corn a ajuda das infra-
estruturas do INPA e do Projeto Dinamica Biol6gica de
Fragmentos Florestais (PDBFF), da Smithsonian
Instituition.

Objetivos: o curso tern como objetivos gerais prover os
seguintes t6picos: (1) a biodiversidade excepcional dos
organismos da floresta Amaz6nica, (2) a
heterogeneidade de habitats dentro das florestas 6imidas
incluindo das de terra firme, varzea e igap6, (3) a gama
de metodologias empregadas para conduzir pesquisas
ecol6gicas no ambiente tropical itmido, e (4) a aplicagao
dos m6todos e principios cientificos em situages em


que o conhecimento prdvio e apoio logistico sao
minimos.

Organizagdo: o curso 6 realizado inteiramente no campo.
Possui pesquisas didrias, corn etapas de planejamento,
coleta e anAlise de dados, e apresentacao vespertina dos
resultados. Os alunos compartilham condi9qes simples
e rdsticas nas bases principals do INPA (Reserva Ducke,
Estaqao Experimental de Silvicultura Tropical, e os
barcos) e do PDBFF. 0 curso culmina com um projeto
individual de pesquisa de oito dias.

Inscricao: candidates ao curso de qualquer pais devem
apresentar at6 15 de abril de 1996 os seguintes itens: (1)
Ficha de pr6-inscri9ao padrao preenchida; (2) Carta de
exposiqao de motivos, (3) Curriculo atualizado (4)
Hist6rico escolar de graduaqio, (6) Duas cartas de
recomendagao de professors ou profissionais de sua area
de interesse (uma deve ser do orientador de tese, se tiver),
(7) Esbogos curtos de dois projetos alternatives para
desenvolver num prazo de oito dias (com introdugao e
justificativa, hip6teses a serem avaliadas, metodologia,
referencias, e lista de materials necessarios, indicando
aqueles que podem ser fornecidos pelo pr6prio aluno).

Selegdo: o curso tem 20 vagas. preferencia 6 dada para
alunos com pelo menos um ano de p6s-graduagZo em
ecologia ou numa Area relacionada de trabalho nos
neotr6picos. Os alunos aceitos poderao se matricular
como alunos especiais no Curso de P6s-Gradua9go da
UNICAMP e receber 5 cr6ditos (= 255 horas de
atividades) academicos. 0 curso serA realizado em
portugues.

Corpo docente: em 1996, os coordenadores sao Dr.
Renato Cintra, pesquisador em Ecologia Animal e
Vegetal, Dra. Rita Mesquita, pesquisador em Ecologia
.vegetal, ambos da Coordenagao em Ecologia do INPA,
e varios professors convidados participarao por periods
variAveis.

Custos: o curso fornece alimentaqao, redes de dormir,
alojamento e transport local enquanto no campo. 0
curso tambdm tenta providenciar a cada participate dos
paises neotropicais uma passage area de ida e volta
da cidade da instituigio A qual o aluno estA vinculado
at6 Manaus. Durante os deslocamentos entire localidades
,gastos com alimentagao e demais despesas serao da
responsabilidade cada aluno. Cada participate deve
levar consigo itens de uso pessoal, equipamentos e
bibliografia especializados referentes a sua pesquisa
individual e dinheiro para gastos pessoais (U$100,00,
devem ser suficientes). No caso de alunos matriculando-
se para cr6ditos, a UNICAMP fornece, mediante
pagamento de uma taxa nominal, um Hist6rico Escolar-
Certificado ap6s a conclusao da discipline.


Page 27


Neotropical Primates 4(l), March 1996






Neotropical Primates 4(1), March 1996 Page 28


Coleqdes Biol6gicas: durante a discipline, nao sera
permitida a coleta de material biol6gico para terceiros,
No caso de precisar coletar grupos especificos para fins
de pesquisa, o aluno deve indicar o(s) grupo(s) de
interesse e a natureza da pesquisa na correspond6ncia e
inscrigao. Em qualquer caso, o aluno deve obter todas
as autorizag6es exigidas pelo IBAMA para as coletas
pretendidas. Nas reserves do INPA e do PDBFF e
necessaria tamb6m a permissao destas institui9ges.

Prazos: as inscri95es devem ser postadas atd o dia 15 de
abril de 1996. A divulgagao do resultado da selegao
ocorrerA at6 o dia 15 de maio de 1996.

Enderego para corresponddncia: Dr. Claude Gascon,
PDBFF/INPA, CoordenagAo de Pesquisas em Ecologia,
Institute Nacional de Pesquisas da Amaz6nia (INPA),
Caixa Postal 478, 69011-970 Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil.
Tel.:(092) 642 11 48; Fax: (092) 642 20 50; e-mail:
pdbff@cr-am.mp.br.



POPULATION VIABILITY ANALYSIS VORTEX
LISTSERVER


Dr. Robert Lacy announces the creation of a VORTEX
e-mail discussion group listservv). The VORTEX
Listserv will facilitate the exchange of ideas, questions,
answers, and suggestions among the many users of the
VORTEX population modeling program. It was created
because questions were frequently received about the
use of VORTEX, as well as suggestions for changes from
users. Often several people asked similar questions (the
manual is a bit sparse on technical details), and it was
assumed that many other people were facing similar
problems without knowing how to obtain an answer.
Helpful hints were also received from users about
efficient ways to use the program. People are also using
various versions of VORTEX (the most recent is Version
7.0), and with this listserv it will be possible to make
announcements of updates, bug fixes, and suggestions.
To sign up for the VORTEX Listserv, send an email
message to: vortex-request@bio-3.bsd.uchicago.edu.
The subject of the message should be just the word
SUBSCRIBE. After signing up, it is possible to send
messages to the list at: vortex@bio-3.bsd.uchicago.edu
(note that this address is slightly different from the one
to which the initial subscribe request is sent.). Messages
will be distributed to everyone on the list. The list is
unmoderated and open to anyone who wishes to
participate. As list administrator, Robert Lacy will
eliminate and permanently block any subscribers who
send offensive messages, extraneous messages that
would obviously be of no interest to VORTEX users, or


advertisements for products (other than perhaps
VORTEX add-ons and upgrades). Feel free to make
suggestions about the listserv itself. Please send in
questions, suggestions, reports of exciting applications
of VORTEX, or anything which would be of particular
interest to other VORTEX users, or simply sign up and
passively watch the flow of ideas contributed by others.
To unsubscribe, send a message with Subject:
UNSUBSCRIBE to vortex-request@bio-3.bsd.uchicago
.edu. Setting up this Listserve was possible due to the
generous help of the Academic Computing Center of
the University of Chicago Biological Sciences Division.

Robert C. Lacy, Department of Conservation Biology,
Brookfield Zoo, Brookfield, Illinois 60513, USA.



SOPHIE DANFORTH CONSERVATION BIOLOGY
FUND


The Sophie Danforth Conservation Biology Fund was
established by the Roger Williams Park Zoo and the
Rhode Island Zoological Society to help protect the
world's threatened wildlife. Each year grants are
awarded to individuals or institutions working in
conservation biology of up to US$1,000. Projects and
programs that enhance biodiversity and maintain
ecosystems receive the highest funding priority. Field
studies, environmental education programs,
development of techniques that can be used in a natural
environment and captive propagation programs that
stress an integrative and/or multidisciplinary approach
to conservation are also appropriate. Proposals for single
species preservation, initial surveys, or seed money for
technique development are not appropriate. Recipients
are required to acknowledge the Roger Williams Park
Zoo and the Rhode Island Zoological Society in any
publications that result from the project. Recipients must
also submit a progress report which includes an update
on the status of the project. This report is due one year
after funding. Limit your application to the form supplied
on request and a two page curriculum vitae. All proposals
must be submitted by May 1 1996. Applications will be
reviewed by a committee of zoo, zoo society, and outside
advisors. Grants will be awarded in July 1996.

For further information and application forms for the
Sophie Danforth Conservation Biology Fund, contact:
Dr. Anne Savage, Director of Research, Roger Williams
Park Zoo, Elmwood Avenue, Providence, Rhode Island
02905, USA. Tel: (401) 785-3510 x 335, Fax: (401) 941
- 3988, e-mail: bi599132@brownvm.brown.edu.


Neotropical Primates 4(l), March 1996


Page 28






Page 29 Neotropical Primates 4(1), March 1996


GEORGINA DASILVA SCHOLARSHIP FOR 1996


Donations collected in memory of Dr. Georgina Dasilva
will make it possible to offer a grant of 1500 (approx.
US$2250) for the academic year 1996-97. The recipient
must: (a) be a citizen of a Third World country where
primates occur and (b) be studying (or about to study)
for a higher degree (MSc or PhD) in any subject relevant
to the biology and conservation of primates at an
institution of higher education in the United Kingdom.
Courses within the general topics of zoology, biology,
conservation biology, forestry, biological anthropology
and related disciplines will be considered relevant at the
discretion of the Committee.

The grant is not intended to cover the full costs of a
degree course at a UK institution, but rather to
supplement existing sources of funding so as to provide
the recipient with additional opportunities to purchase
books and/or equipment, to attend conferences or to
facilitate the undertaking of a research project in
connection with the degree.

Candidates who wish to be considered for the 1996
bursary should submit: 1) a full Curriculum Vitae, 2) a
statement of not more than 500 words explaining how
their proposed degree course will be relevant to the future
of primate conservation in their country, 3) letters of
recommendation from an academic sponsor in their
higher education stating that the candidate has been
accepted for a place on a higher degree course, and 4) a
statement of their sources of funding for the course.

Applications should be sent to: Professor R. I. M.
Dunbar, Georgina Dasilva Fund Committee, c/o
Department of Psychology, University of Liverpool,
P.O. Box 147, Liverpool L69 3BX, England.
Applications should be posted in time to be received in
Liverpool not later than 1 October 1996. Faxed
applications will not be accepted. Candidates will be
notified of the results of their application via their UK
sponsor as soon as possible thereafter.



THE L.S.B. LEAKEY FOUNDATION


The L. S. B. Leakey Foundation was formed to further
research into human origins, behavior, and survival.
Recent priorities have included research into the
environments, archaeology, and human paleontology of
the Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene; into the


behavior, morphology, and ecology of the great apes
and other primate species; and into the behavioral
ecology of contemporary hunter gatherers. Other areas
of study related to human evolution have been funded
occasionally.

The Foundation provides the following grants: General
Research Grants; Special Research Grants including a
Fellowship for Great Ape Research, a Fellowship for
the Study of Foraging Peoples, and a Paleoanthropology
Award; and the Franklin Mosher Baldwin Memorial
Fellowships.

General Grants: For advanced pre-doctoral students as
well as established scientists. Priority is normally given
to the exploratory phases of promising new projects that
most closely meet the stated purpose of the Foundation.
Although the majority awarded to pre-doctoral students
are between US$3,000-US$7,000, larger grants,
especially to senior scientists, are also funded up to
US$12,000. If a candidate is unsure that a project
proposal falls within the Foundation's goals he should
contact the office before applying (a month ahead). The
most recent application forms should be used, available
from the office. Six copies of the application and
attachments should be sent to the Foundation's office
by the stated deadline: 15 August or 2 January.
Notification of status will be the beginning of December
and the beginning of May, respectively.

Special Research Grants: For post-doctoral and senior
scientists for the study of great apes, research into
hunting and gathering, or multidisciplinary
paleoanthropological research. Potentially these awards
may be renewed for additional years. Applicants should
submit the following by the 15 October deadline: a) a
two-page statement of the research goals; b) an estimate
of total budget requirement and the amount to be
requested from the Leakey Foundation; and c) a
projected schedule for data collection and analysis.
Attach a curriculum vitae. Potential applicants may be
asked to submit a full proposal for the 2 January deadline.
Notification of status by mail is in the beginning of May.
Fellowship for Great Ape Research. This special award
promotes long-term research on the behavior and
ecology of wild populations of great apes, especially if,
in addition to the basic scientific goals of the project,
the work contributes to the development of testing
models of human evolution. Both continuing and new
projects are considered. Strong preference is given to
post-doctoral applicants prepared to make a long-term
commitment to the study site. Usually one fellowship
of up to US$20,000 is awarded annually. Successful
candidates may apply for a second year by the 2 January
deadline. Fellowship for the Study of Foraging People.
Occasionally the Board of the Foundation awards a


Page 29


Neotropical Primates 4(l), March 1996







Neotropical Primates 4(1), March 1996 Page 30


fellowship of up to US$20,000 for one to two years of
field expenses, to post-doctoral and senior scientists
proposing research among contemporary foraging
peoples. This grant may used to initiate research in a
particular area or to continue a study already underway.
Priority is given to research directed toward long-term,
systematic behavioral observations and research which
attempts to elucidate evolutionary theory or specific
socioecological adaptations. Proposals are sought
especially for urgent research which might not ordinarily
be funded by other grant agencies. Paleoanthropology
Award. This grant is intended for potentially long-term,
multidisciplinary research programs which seek to
recover the physical and/or cultural remains of early
humans and their hominid ancestors. Usually awarded
to senior scientists, these grants of up to US$20,000 per
year, are potentially renewable for up to three years.
Successful candidates can re-apply by the 2 January
deadline.

Franklin Mosher Baldwin Memorial Fellowships: This
fellowship is awarded to Africans who seek to complete
an advanced degree in anthropology at a major
institution. The award is limited to a two-year program
of advanced training towards an M.A., Ph.D. or
equivalent. Priority is given to students involved in
disciplines related to human evolution. The fellowship
is limited to US$8,500 per year for non-tuition expenses
only, for a total of US$17,000. Successful candidates
are eligible to apply for limited travel and/or summer
research funds for up to an additional US$3,000.
Additional dependent support is not considered.
Deadline for application 2 January, for academic year
beginning the following fall. Notification in May.

For further information: The L. S. B. Leakey Foundation,
77 Jack London Square, Suite M, Oakland, California
94607-3750, USA. Tel: (510) 834-3636, Fax: (510) 834-
3640.


Primate Societies

PRIMATE SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN FIELD
STUDIES SUPPLEMENT


The Primate Society of Great Britain (PSGB), President
Dr. Hilary Box, has published the 16th edition of the
Current Primate Field Studies Supplement to the
Society's newsletter, Primate Eye (supplement to No.
58, February 1996). Julia M. Casperd, University of
Liverpool, compiled this publication which lists all
current field studies by country, and includes the name
of the field site, the species studied, the research team,
the starting date of the project and its duration and status


(planned, current, and completed), the aims, and the
correspondence and field addresses of the researchers
involved.

As pointed out in the introduction, surprisingly the
number of field studies registered dropped by more than
50%, from 307 to 144, since the 1994 issue of the
supplement. Reasons for this are partially, however, due
to sampling bias. The figures from the 1994 issue were
artificially inflated due to the backlog of entries received
from a mail shot in 1993. This is reflected in an increase
in the number of current studies in the 1995 survey, 88%
compared to 70% in the 1994 survey, and a reduction in
completed projects from 24% of all entries in 1994 to
6% in 1995. A number of studies providing inadequate
information were also left out.

The geographical distribution of the field projects was
found to be fairly even. Africa, Asia and the Americas
having the majority (27-31%) with the least in
Madagascar (11%). Asia has most ongoing studies
(73%), followed by Africa (66%), the Americas (68%)
and Madagascar (50%). Conservation and ecology were
the most frequent aims (37% of all studies), and
behavioral ecology accounted for 28%. The
Cercopithecidae are receiving the most attention (39%
of all entries which specified actual species), followed
by the Cebidae (26%). No field studies were listed for
Daubentoniidae, Lorisidae, and Tarsiidae.

This survey also includes a breakdown of the different
species currently being studied in each region in relation
to their conservation status according to the IUCN Red
List of ThreatenedAnimals. Most field studies are being
carried out on ubiquitous species that are not threatened,
12% deal with endangered species, 31% deal with
vulnerable species. Only about one-third of all the studies
focus on threatened species. Those in the Americas are,
however, more oriented towards conservation, with
current field research on 39% of the 38 New World
primates listed as endangered, vulnerable, or
insufficiently known.

Projects are listed for 14 countries in the Americas as
follows: Argentina 3, Belize, 2, Bolivia 1, Brazil -
12, Colombia 4, Costa Rica 4, Ecuador 1, French
Guiana 1, Mexico 4, Panama 1, Peru 1, Puerto
Rico 1, Venezuela 2, and West Indies (Grenada) 1.
This is undoubtedly still an understatement of the real
extent of current field studies on New World primates
(notably in Peru and Brazil).

This supplement is most valuable in assessing the status
of field research efforts, especially in terms of
conservation and the occurrence and status of primates
in protected areas. Julia Casperd is to be congratulated


Neotropical Primates 4(l), March 1996


Page 30







Page 31 Neotropical Primates 4(1), March 1996


on this heroic job of winkling out the information and
organising this survey, the accuracy of which depends
solely on the willingness of field researchers to dedicate
ten minutes of their time to supply the necessary
information.

The next survey will be published in February 1998.
Please send information on your field projects, using
the simple one-page form available from the addresses
below. The deadline for receiving forms for inclusion in
the 1988 supplement is 1 December 1997. Copies of the
1995 edition of Current Primate Field Studies are
available at the price of 5.00 each.

Julia M. Casperd, Department of Psychology, University
of Liverpool, Eleanor Rathbone Building, Myrtle Street,
P. 0. Box 147, Liverpool L69 3BX, UK, or for the
Americas, Anthony B. Rylands, Conservation
International do Brasil, Avenida Ant6nio Abrahao
Caram 820/302, 31275-000 Belo Horizonte, Minas
Gerais, Brazil.


Recent Publications

SPECIAL ISSUE OF THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF
PRIMATOLOGY


Volume 38, Number 1, 1996, of the American Journal
of Primatology was dedicated to the theme "Callitrichid
Social Structure and Mating System: Evidence from
Field Studies". It was guest-edited by Anne Savage
(Roger Williams Park Zoo, Rhode Island) and Andrew
J. Baker (Philadelphia Zoo, Philadelphia) and contains
seven articles arising from a symposium held during the
XIVth International Primatological Congress,
Strasbourg, France, 16-21 August, 1992. Contents:
Introduction. Callitrichid social structure and mating
system: evidence from field studies Anne Savage and
Andrew J. Baker, pp.1-3; Habitat and the evolution of
social and reproductive behavior in Callitrichidae -
Anthony B. Rylands, pp.5-18; Wild Callithrix groups:
stable extended families? Stephen F. Ferrari and Leslie
J. Digby, pp.19-27; Social and seasonal influences on
reproductive biology in male moustached tamarins
(Saguinus mystax) Paul A. Garber, L. Moya, J. D.
Pruetz and C. Ique, pp.29-46; Immigration in wild groups
of golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) -
Andrew J. Baker and James M. Dietz, pp.47-56; Saddle-
back tamarin (Saguinus fuscicollis) reproductive
strategies: evidence from a thirteeen-year study of a
marked population Anne W. Goldizen, J. Mendelson,
M. van Vlaardingen and J. Terborgh, pp.57-83;
Demography, group composition, and dispersal in wild
cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus) groups Anne


Savage, L. H. Giraldo, L. H. Soto and C. T. Snowdon,
pp.85-100; Social behavior of wild moustached tamarins,
Saguinus mystax, at the Estaci6n Biol6gica Quebrada
Blanco, Peruvian Amazonia Eckhard W. Heymann,
pp.101-113.

A NEW JOURNAL ECOTROPICA


The German Society for Tropical Ecology, President K.
E. Linsenmair, Theodor-Boveri-Institut fiir
BiowissenschAften, Wfirzburg, has launched a new
international journal called Ecotropica. The Managing
Editor is Karl-L. Schuchmann, Zoologisches
Forschungsinstitut und Museum Alexander Koenig,
Bonn. The journal will appear twice yearly (May/June,
November/December). Three types of contribution are
included: 1) Original papers, containing results of recent
field work (laboratory research is only considered if it
is strictly relevant to ecological questions); 2) Short
communications, presenting aspects of completed work;
3) Reviews, providing a critical evaluation of important
research areas. The editor plans to increase the thematic
range in the future to include such as information on
current research, and book reviews. Each volume of two
issues will have approximately 200-300 pages. The first
issue of Volume 1 (1995) has five articles and a short
communication: An inventory of mammals observed at
Panguana Biological Station, Amazonian Peru R.
Hutterer, M. Verhaagh, J. Diller and R. Podloucky; Tree
species diversity of a premontane rain forest in the
Cordillera de Tilaran, Costa Rica I. Wattenberg and
S.-W. Breckle; Rotifers (Rotifera) of Jamaican inland
waters. A synopsis-W. Janetzky, W. Koste and E.
Vareschi; Seed dispersal by frugivorous tree visitors in
the Malagasy tree species Commiphora guillaumini -
K. BOhning-Gaese, B. H. Gaese and S. B.
Rabemanantsoa; Lycaenid butterflies and plants:
hostplant relationships, tropical versus temperate K.
Fiedler; Predation on vertebrates in the Kirindy Forest,
Western Madagascar R. M. Rasoloarison, B. P. N.
Rasolonandrasana, J. U. Ganzhorn and S. M. Goodman.

Neotropical primatologists are encouraged to submit
articles. Any person interested in tropical ecology may
become a member of the German Society for Tropical
Ecology upon payment of dues. All members receive
Ecotropica. Membership dues per calendar year are:
Students (with verification of student status) DM40.-
(US$29.00); Regular Members DM110.- (US$80.00);
Libraries DM160.- (US$115.00). For more information
please contact: Managing Editor Ecotropica, Karl-L.
Schuchmann, Zoologisches Forschungsinstitut und
Museum A. Koenig, Ornithologie, Adenauerallee 160,
D-53113 Bonn, Germany.


Page 31


Neotropical Primates 4(l), March 1996






Neotropical Primates 4(1), March 1996 Page 32


BOOKS


Studios Primatol6gicos en Mixico, Volumen
II, editado por Ernesto Rodriguez Luna, Lilian Cortds-
Ortiz y Jorge Martinez Contreras. 1995, 191pp.
Universidad Veracruzana, Veracruz, Mexico. Este libro,
publicado por la Universidad Veracruzana, surge del
interns permanent de la Asociaci6n Mexicana de
Primatologia por apoyar la investigaci6n con primates
en Mexico y su correspondiente divulgaci6n. En este
volume se rednen 10 capitulos, agrupados en tres
categories: Estudios taxon6micos; Conservaci6n de
primates en Mexico; y Estudios de comportamiento
(etologia y ecologia de primates nativos y ex6ticos). Para
adquirir un ejemplar comunicarse con: Asociaci6n
Mexicana de Primatologia, A. P. 566, C. P. 91000,
Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico. Tel/Fax: 52 (28) 12-5748,
e-mail: saraguat@speedy.coacade.uv.mx.


Current Topics in Primate Vocal
Communication, edited by E. Zimmerman, J. D.
Newman and U. Jilrgens, 1995, 286pp. ISBN 0 306-
45064-X. Plenum Press, New York. Available from:
Plenum Publishing Corporation, 233 Spring Street, New
York, NY 10013-1578, USA.


Mamiferos Colombianos: Sus Nombres
Comunes e Indigenas, by Jos6 Vicente Rodriguez-
Mahecha, Jorge Ignicio Hemrnndez-Camacho, Thomas
Richard Defier, Michael Alberico, Roderic B. Mast,
Russsell A. Mittermeier and Alberto Cadena, December
1995. 56pp. Occasional Papers in Conservation Biology
No. 3. Conservation International, Washington, D. C.
ISBN 1-881173-16-X. Produced in collaboration with
the Fundaci6n Mario Santo Domingo, Bogota. This
monograph compiles the available information on the
vernacular names of the mammals of Colombia, listing
a total of 560 distinct Spanish names used throughout
the region, in addition to 1,300 indigenous names. It
represents the first exercise undertaken in Colombia to
assign a standardized Spanish name for each of the
species considered so as to stimulate greater popular
knowledge of these animals through the use of field
guides and other publications oriented toward the
creation of a higher conservation awareness among all
Colombians. The 454 species, from 41 orders and 52
families, do not represent the full spectrum of Colombian
mammal fauna, given that the authors have not included
those species currently in the process of description.
Colombia ranks fifth in mammalian biodiversity after
Brasil, Mexico, Indonesia and Peru. Available from the
Fundaci6n Mario Santo Domingo, Transversal 6a. No.


27-10, Oficina 301, Santaf6 de Bogota, Colombia. Tel/
Fax: 57 91 3347264, e-mail: ci-colombia@conservation
.org.

Oecologia Brasiliensis, Volume 2. T6picos em
Tratamento de Dados Biol6gicos, edited by
Francisco de Assis Esteves (Editor-in-Chief), Pedro R.
Peres Neto, Jena L. Valentin and Fernando Fernandez
(Guest editors), 1995, 161pp. Program de P6s-
Graduagao em Ecologia, Universidade Federal do Rio
de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro. In Portuguese. Price
RS$10.00. Contents: 1) M6todos para estimativas de
parametros populacionais por captures, marcacao e
recapture F. A. S. Fernandez; 2) Agrupamento e
ordenagao J. L. Valentin; 3) Introdug9o e andlises
morfom6tricas P. R. Peres-Neto; 4) Andlises de series
temporais R. Garber; 5) Modelos nulos e processes de
aleatorizagao: algumas aplicagbes em ecologia de
comunidades E. T. Paes and P. B. Blinder; 6)
Determinagao de distribui96es potenciais de esp6cies -
R. Cerqueira. Available from: Programa de P6s-
GraduagAo em Ecologia, Departamento de Ecologia,
Institute de Biologia, Centro de Ciencias da Satide, Bloco
A, Sala AO-008, Cidade Universitaria, Caixa Postal
68.020, Ilha do Fundao, 21941-540 Rio de Janeiro, Rio
de Janeiro, Brazil. Tel/Fax: (021) 280-3308.


ARTICLES

Anaya-Heurtas, C. A., Pdrez Ruiz, A. L. and Mondrag6n-
Ceballos, R. 1995. Estudio comparative deljuego so-
cial en dos species de primates: Macaca arctoides y
Ateles geoffroyi. In: Estudios Primatol6gicos en
Mexico 2, E. Rodriguez Luna, L. Cort6s-Ortiz and J.
M. Contreras (eds.), pp.119-132. Biblioteca
Universidad Veracruzana, Veracruz.
Ardito, G., Lamberti, L., Bigatti, P., Crovella, S. and
Oberto, G. 1995. No coOrrelation between chimerism
and fertility in Callithrixjacchus (Callitrichidae, Pri-
mates). Int. J. Anthropol. 10(1): 15-19.
Ashley, M. V. 1995. "Aotus: The Owl Monkey." J. G.
Baer et al. eds. San Diego, Academic Press, 1994.
280pp. Int. J. Primatol. 16(5): 883-885. (Book review).
Ashley, M. V. and Vaughn, J. L. 1995. Owl monkeys
(Aotus) are highly divergent in mitochondrial cyto-
chrome c oxidase (COII) sequences. Int. J. Primatol.
16(5): 793-806.
Biben, M. and Bernhards, D. 1995. Vocal ontogeny of
the squirrel monkey, Saimiri boliviensis peruviensis.
In: Current Topics in Primate Vocal Communication,
E. Zimmerman, J. D. Newman and U. Jtirgens (eds.),
pp.99-120. Plenum Press, New York.
Black, H. 1995. Female pecking order and fertility: sta-
tus in New World monkey troops determines who
breeds. BioScience 45(9): 583-585.


Neotropical Primates 4(l), March 1996


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Meetings

1996


65th Annual Meeting -American Association of
Physical Anthropologists, 9-13 April, 1996. Sheraton
Imperial Hotel and Convention Center, Research
Triangle Park, North Carolina. Contact: Matt Cartmill.
Tel: 109 190 684 02971, e-mail: mattcartmill@baa.
mc.duke.edu.

New World Primate Taxon Advisory Group, 19 May
1996. Denver, Colorado, USA. Focus: New World
primate genetics. Contact: Jean Dubach, Brookfield Zoo,
Department of Conservation Biology, Laboratory of
Genetics, 3300 Golf Road, Brookfield, IL 60513, USA.
Tel: 1 708 485-0263, ext. 502, Fax: 1 708 485 3532, e-
mail: bzconbio@ix.netcom.com.

Changing Images of Primate Societies: The Role of
Theory, Method, and Gender, 15-23 June 1996, Hotel
Rosa dos Ventos, Teres6polis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Supported by The Wenner-Gren Foundation for
Anthropological Research, Inc., New York. Organized
by Shirley C. Strum (University of California, San
Diego) and Linda M. Fedigan (University of Alberta).
Session topics: Primate studies: influence of theory,
method, and gender; Comparative perspective:
psychology, animal behavior, cultural anthropology,
paleoanthropology, archeology; Larger context: science
studies, feminism., and popular culture. For more
information, please contact: Shirley C. Strum, at Tel:
(619) 944-3453, Fax: (619) 944-2809/534-5946, or
Linda M. Fedigan at Tel: (403) 492-5899, Fax: (403)
492-5273, e-mail: linda.fedigan@ualbert.ca, or Wenner-
Gren Foundation, 220 Fifth Avenue, 16th Floor, New


Neotropical Primates 4(l), March 1996


Page 36






Page 37 Neotropical Primates 4(1), March 1996


York, NY 10001, USA, Tel: (212) 683-5000, Fax: (212)
683-9151.

12th Annual Meeting Primate Society of Japan, 27-
29 June, 1996. Osaka University Convention Center,
Suita City, Osaka, Japan. Preregistration by 15 March;
Abstracts by 15 April. Contact: PSJ Annual Meeting
Organizing Committee, Tel: 81-6-879-8045, Fax: 81-6-
879-8010, e-mail: naka@hus.osaka-u.ac.jp or
machida@hus.osaka-u.ac.jp.

ASAB Summer Meeting Individual Behaviour and
Population Processes, 24-26 July 1996, University of
East Anglia, Norwich, UK. Organized by W. Sutherland
and J. Reynolds. The meeting will focus on the
relationship between animal behaviour and population
ecology, including the role of individual decisions in
foraging, predator avoidance, territoriality, and breeding
behavior in determining spatial patterns of habitat use
and temporal changes in populations. Discussions on
both empirical and and theoretical research.will
contribute to provide a synthesis between animal
behaviour and population biology with implications for
management and conservation. Contact: Bill Sutherland
or John Reynolds, School of Biological Sciences,
University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK. Tel:
01603 592266, Fax: 01603 592250; e-mail:
w.sutherland@uea.ac.uk or reynolds@uea.ac.uk.

XVIth Congress of the International Primatological
Society & 19th Conference of the American Society
of Primatologists, 11-16 August 1996, University of
Wisconsin, Madison, hosted by the Wisconsin Regional
Primate Research Center. Contact: Edith Chan,
Coordinator/Information, Wisconsin Regional Primate
Research Center, 1220 Capitol Court, Madison,
Wisconsin 53715-1299, USA. Tel: (608) 263-3500, Fax:
(608) 263 4031, e-mail: ipsasp-info@primate.wisc.edu.

Meeting of the Association of Primate Veterinarians,
16-17 August 1996, University of Wisconsin, Madison.
Contact: Edith Chan, Coordinator/Information,
Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, 1220
Capitol Court, Madison, Wisconsin 53715-1299, USA.
Tel: (608) 263-3500, Fax: (608) 263 4031, e-mail:
ipsasp-info@primate.wisc.edu.

Ecological Summit 96, 19-23 August 1996,
Copenhagen, Denmark. Organized by Elsevier Science,
Journal Editors Robert Costanza (Ecological
Economics), Sven E. Jorgensen (Ecological Modelling),
William J. Mitsch (Ecological Engineering) and David
Rapport (Ecosystem Health). In collaboration with the
International Society of Ecological Modelling,
International Ecological Engineering Society,
International Society of Ecosystem Health, International


Society of Ecological Economics, SAS Institute
Denmark, and International Lake Environmental
Committee. For information contact: Ecological Summit
96, Conference Secretariat, Elsevier Science Ltd., The
Boulevard, Langford Lane, Kidlington, Oxford OX5
1GB, UK. Tel: +44 (0)1865 843643, Fax: +44 (0)1856
843958, e-mail: g.spear@elsevier.co.uk.

6th International Behavioural Ecology Congress, 29
September 4 October 1966, Canberra, Australia. Details
from: Andrew Cockburn, Division of Botany and
Zoology, Australian National University, Canberra ACT
02000, Australia. Fax: 61 6249 5773, e-mail:
andrew.cockburn@anu.edu.au.

I Congress Asociaci6n Primatol6gica Espafnola
(APE) and European Workshop on Primate
Research, October, 1996. Madrid, Spain Contact:
Fernando Colmenares, Departamento de. Psicobiologia,
Faculdad de Psicologia, Universidad Compiutense de
Madrid, 28223 Madrid, Spain. Tel: 1-3943073, Fax: 1-
3943189, e-mail: pspsc06@sis.ucm.es.

III Congresso de Ecologia do Brasil, 6-11 October
1995, Centro de ConvengSes Ulysses GuimarAes,
Brasilia. Deadline for submitting preliminary abstracts:
30 March 1996. Deadline for submitting final version
of abstracts: 30 June 1996. Contact: Comissao
Organizadora, III Congresso de Ecologia do Brasil,
Departamento de Ecologia, Universidade de Brasilia
(UNB), Caixa Postal 04355, 70919-970 Brasilia, D. F.,
Brasil. Tel: +55 (0)61 348-2326, 348-2592, & 348-2282,
Fax: +55 (0)61 272-1497 & 273-4571. E.mail:
congecol@guarany.cpd.unb.br.

68th IUCN Species Survival Commission Full
Meeting, 11-12 October 1996, Montreal, Canada.
Theme: Communicating the value of the SSC its
worldwide presence, scientific knowledge, expert advice,
and ongoing work, and its relevance to the conservation
of biodiversity. Plenary sessions: SSC advice to
intergovernmental boides; Biodiviersity conservation
information system; SSC Specialist Group Reports.
Round table discussion: SSC at the regional and country
levels. Workshops: IUCN categories of threat; SSC
communications strategy; Fund-raising strategies.
Registration fee $25. For more information: World
Conservation Congress Coordinator, IUCN, Rue
Mauverney 28, 1196 Gland, Switzerland, Fax: + 41 22
999 0020.

IUCN World Conservation Congress, 13-23 October
1996, Montreal Conference Centre, Montreal, Canada.
Four distinct parts: Special Members' Session (13-14
October) to consider revised statutes accredited
delegates of IUCN voting members; Members' Business


Neotropical Primates 4(l), March 1996


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Neotropical Primates 4(1), March 1996 Page 38


Session (15-16, 22-23 October) to discuss and approve
IUCN's future strategy, programme and budget, elect
the officers and Council of the Union, and debate and
adopt resolutions and recommendations invited
observers may also attend; Open Session of Workshops
(17-18, 20-21 October) under the overall theme of
"Caring for the Earth" open to the public; A major
environmental exhibition open to the public. 19 October
set aside for excursions. Registration fee $50 if paid
before 31 July 1996, $100 after that date. Contact: John
Burke, Director of Communications, IUCN The World
Conservation Union, 28 rue Mauverney, 1196 Gland
Switzerland. Tel: +41 22 999 0123.

Measuring Behavior '96 International Workshop
on Methods and Techniques in Behavioral Research,
16-18 October 1996, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Registration fee: before 1 August 1996 is NLG 200
(students: NLG 50), after 1 August 1996 is NLG 300
(students: NLG 75). Submission of abstracts: Those who
wish to present an oral paper, poster or demonstration
should submit the title and abstract of their contribution.
All submissions should be received before 1 May 1996.
Notification of acceptance of abstracts 1 July 1996.
For program booklet and registration/abstract forms:
Measuring Behavior '96, Workshop Secretariat, Attn:
Rosan Nikkelen, P.O. Box 268, 6700 AG Wageningen,
The Netherlands. Tel: +31 (0)317-497677, Fax: +31
(0)317-424496, e-mail: mb96@noldus.nl. (Information
on the workshop is also available on the World Wide
Web: http://www.diva.nl/noldus/mb96.html).

PSGB Winter Meeting 1996 Social Learning among
Mammals, 29-30 November 1996, Meeting Rooms.
London Zoological Society, London. Organized by the
Primate Society of Great Britain (PSGB), in association
with the Mammal Society and the Zoological Society of
London.

Biodiversity, Conservation and Management at the
Beni Biosphere Reserve, Bolivia, 3-6 December 1996,
La Paz, Bolivia. Organized by the Beni Biological
Station, Bolivian Academy of Sciences, and the
Smithsonian/MAB Biodiversity Program. The objective
is to provide a complete overview of the last ten years
of research on biodiversirty, conservation and
management at the reserve. Papers and posters are
requested. Proceedings will be published. For additional
information, contact: Carmen Miranda, Academia
Nacional de Ciencias de Bolivia, Av. 16 de Julio 1732,
Casilla 5829, La Paz, Bolivia. Tel./Fax: (591-2) 350612,
e-mail: cmiranda@ebb.bo, or Francisco Dallmeier,
Smithsonian/MAB Biodiversity Program, 1100
Jefferson Drive SW, Suite 3123, Washington, D. C.
20560, USA. Tel: (202) 357 4793, Fax: (202) 786 2557,
e-mail: icfgd@ic.si.edu.


Australian Primate Society Annual Meeting, 6-8
December 1996, Wellington Zoo, Wellington, New
Zealand. Conference Organizer: Graeme Strachan,
Wellington Zoo. Contact: Graeme Crook, CSIRO
Division of Human Nutrition, Animal Services, Majors
Road, O'Halloran Hill, South Australia 5158. Tel: +61
82980336, Fax: +61 83770004, e-mail: graemec@dhn
.csiro.au.


Contributions

We would be most grateful if you could send us
information on projects, research groups, events
(congresses, symposia, and workshops), recent
publications, activities of primatological societies and
NGOs, news items or opinions of recent events and
suchlike. Manuscripts should be double-spaced and
accompanied by the text in diskette for PC compatible
text-editors (MS-Word, Wordperfect, Wordstar).
Articles, not exceeding six pages, can include small
black-and-white photographs, figures, maps, tables and
references, but please keep them to a minimum.

Please send contributions to: ANTHONY RYLANDS, C/o
Conservation International do Brasil, Avenida Ant6nio
Abrahao Caram 820/302, 31275-000 Belo Horizonte,
Minas Gerais, Brazil, Tel/Fax: +55 (31) 441 17 95 or
ERNESTO RODRIGUEZ-LUNA, Parque de La Flora y
Fauna Silvestre Tropical, Universidad Veracruzana,
Apartado Postal 566, Xalapa, Veracruz 91000, Mexico,
Fax: 52 (28) 12-5748.

LILIANA CORTES-ORTIZ (Universidad Veracruzana)
provides invaluable editorial assistance.

Correspondence, messages, and texts can be sent to:

ANTHONY RYLANDS
primates@conservation.org.br

ERNESTO RODRIGUEZ-LUNA
saraguat@speedy.coacade.uv.mx

NEOTROPICAL PRIMATES is produced in collaboration
with Conservation International, 1015 18th Street
NW, Suite 1000, Washington DC 20036, USA, and
Fundaiao Biodiversitas, Av. do Contorno, 9155/11.
andar Prado, Belo Horizonte 30110-130, Minas
Gerais, Brazil.

Design and Composition ALEXANDRE S. DINNOUTI -
a.dinnouti@conservation.org.br Conservation
International do Brasil.


Neotropical Primates 4(l), Allarch 1996


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NEOTROPICAL PRIMATES
f* Anthony Rylands/Ernesto Rodriguez Luna, Editors
Conservation International
Avenida Ant6nio Abrahao Caram 820/302
S31275-000, Belo Horizonte
IUCN/SSC Minas Gerais, Brazil




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