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Title: Neotropical primates
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098814/00014
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Title: Neotropical primates a newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCNSSC Primate Specialist Group
Abbreviated Title: Neotrop. primates
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
Conservation International
Center for Applied Biodiversity Science
Publisher: Conservation International
Place of Publication: Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Publication Date: September Supplement 1995
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Primates -- Periodicals -- Latin America   ( lcsh )
Primates -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Wildlife conservation -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: review   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Brazil
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Language: English, Portuguese, and Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Mar. 1993)-
Issuing Body: Issued jointly with Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, <Dec. 2004->
General Note: Published in Washington, D.C., Dec. 1999-Apr. 2005 , Arlington, VA, Aug. 2005-
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 13, no. 1 (Apr. 2005).
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Volume ID: VID00014
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Table of Contents
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    Back Cover
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Full Text



A Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group

Editors: Anthony B. Rylands and Emesto Rodriguez Luna
PSG Chairman: Russell A. Mittermeier
PSG Deputy Chairman: William R. Konstant






Volume 3
March December, 1995

NUMBER 1 (MARCH, 1995)

La diversidad de platirrinos en la Patagonia. Tejedor, M. F ........................................................... 1-4
Analisis poblacional del pichico pecho anaranjado, Saguinus labiatus, en el sur oriented
peruano. Puertas, P. Encarnaci6n, and Aquino, R. ...................................................................................4-7
Howler subgroups as homeostatic mechanisms in disturbed habitats. Jones, C. B.............................. 7-9
Red howling monkey (Alouatta seniculus) reintroduction in gallery forest of Hato Flores
M oradas, Venezuela. Agoram oorthy, G. ............................................................................................... 9-10
Espdcies ou subespecies em Callithrix? Marroig, G........................................................................... 10-13
A pole bridge to avoid primate kills. Valladares-Padua, C., Cullen Jr., L. and Padua, S.................. 13-15
Captive management programs for New World primates. Shoemaker, A............................................ 15-17
Status, distribution and viability of wild populations ofAteles belzebuth marginatus. Nunes, A........ 17-18
Duetting in the titi monkey Callicebus cupreus. Miller, A................................................................ 18-19
Muriquis in the Itatitaia National Park, Brazil. Camara, I. de G. .............................................................19
Gerald M. Durrell, O.B.E., D.Sc. 1925-1995. ................................................. .............................. 19-21
Gerald Durrell A personal perspective by Jeremy Mallinson. Mallinson, J. J. C............................. 21-22
Curso Ecologia da Floresta Am az6nica.............................................................................................. 22-23
Primate Conaservation Incorporated.................................................................................................... 23
European Federation for Primatology. Deputte, B. L........................................................................23-24
International Priom atological Society......................................... ........................................................... 24
VII Congresso Brasileiro de Primatologia ........................................ ..................................................24
R ECENT PUBLICATIONS................................................ .......................................................................... 25-31

M EETING S................................................... ...................................................................................... 3 1-33

NUMBER 2 (JUNE, 1995)

El comercio de primates en la Reptiblica Argentina. Bertonatti, C. ..................................................... 35-37
Situaci6n de oblaciones de Alouattapalliata (mono aullador) en dos localidades del Estado de
Veracruz, Mexico. Garcia-Ordufia, F. and Canales-Espinosa, D........................................................ 37-40
Conservaci6n de Cacajao calvus ucayalii en la Amazonia Peruana. Aquino, R................................ 40-42
The potential for metacommunity effects upon howler monkeys. Jones, C. B................................... 43-45
Differing responses to a predator (Eira barbara) by Alouatta and Cebus. Phillips, K....................... 45-46

Neotropical Primates Index 1

On the occurrence of parasites in free-ranging callitrichids. Santos, F. G. de A., Bicca-Marques,
J. C., Calegaro Marques, C., Farias, E. M. P. de, and Azevedo, M. A. de ........................................ 46-47
Updating the known distribution of the pygmy marmoset (Cebuellapygmaea) in the state of
Acre. Bicca-M arques, J. C. and Calegaro M arques, C......................................................................... 48-49
CAMP para primates mexicanos y PHVA para Alouatta palliata mexicana...................................... 49-51
Resource distribution and sociality in white-faced capuchins, Cebus capucinus. Phillips. K ..................51
Ecology and feeding behavior of masked titi monkeys. Miller, K.-H and Pissinatti, A...................... 51-52
Cytogenetic studies in the family Alouattinae. Oliveira E.H.C. de.............................................. .. 52-53
Rio Negro State Park: a new protected area in the Brazilian Amazon................................................ 53-54
Priority areas for conservation in the Atlantic forest of north-east Brazil. Fonseca, G. A. B. da,
Cavalcanti, R., Santos, I. B., and Braga, R. ............................................................ .......................... 54-55
Meeting of the International Committees for lion tamarins.................................... ........................ 55
Curso de campo em primatologia na Estagao Cientifica Ferreira Penna (Museu Goeldi),
Floresta Nacional de CaxiuanA, Pard. Ferrari, S. F. and Nunes. A. P. F............................................. 55-56
B razilian canopies...................................................................... .... ........ ..................... ............56
Center for the Study of Neotropical Biodiversity ............................................................ 56-57
FFPS a change of name and address........................... ...... ................. ............................. .............57
Fundagao Biodiversitas change of address...................................... ............................................. 57
TRAFFIC Sudam erica .................................. ..... ..... .... ....... ................. .............................. 57
Pr6-Bocaina/Amankay Guia de Financiadores.......................... ............................................. 57
Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia VII Congresso.................. ................ ..........................58
Primate Society of Great Britain Field Studies Supplement............................................. ...............58
Primate Society of Great Britain Winter Meeting 1995 ................................... .........58
International Primatological Society and American Society of Primatologists............................... 58-59
RECENT PUBLICATIONS................................................. .................. ........................... 59-66

M EETINGS.......................... ......................................................... .. ........... ...... ................. .... 66-68


Mimicry in primates: implications for hetergeneous conditions. Jones, C. B.................................. 69-72
Geographic distribution of night monkeys, Aotus, in northern Brazil: new data and a correction.
Silva Jr., J. S., Nunes, A. and Fernandes, M. E. B................................ .................... 72-74
Pole bridges to avoid primate kills: a sequel to Valladares-Padua et al. Cuar6n, A. D. .................... 74-75
Habitat and distribution of the buffy-tufted-ear marmoset Callithrix aurita in Sao Paulo state,
Brazil, with notes on its natural history. Olmos, F. and Martuscelli. P.......................................... 75-79
A new record for Callithrix mauesi Mittermeier, Schwarz & Ayres, 1992. Silva Jr., J. S. and
N oronha, M de A ....................... ......................................... ....... ........................................... 79-81
Primates and conservation in the Guajari-mirim State Park, Rond6nia, Brazil. Ferrari, S. F.,
Lopes, M. A., Cruz Neto, E. H., Silveira, M. A. E. S., Ramos, E. M., Ramos, P. C. M.,
Tourinho, D. M. and Magalhaes, N. F. A................... ....................... 81-82
Reintrodugao: uma ferramenta conservacionista ou brinquedo perigoso? Magnusson, W. E.......... 82-84

2 Vol. 3, March December 1995

Behavioral ecology study of red uakari, Cacajao calvus ucayalii, in northeastern Peru. Leonard,
S. and B ennett, C ........................................ ........ ... ......................... .................................84
Black lion tamarins in the Central Park Wildlife Center, New York. Levine, A................................ 84-85
1994 international studbook for the golden-headed lion tamarin. De Bois, H..........................................85
EEP studbook for the emperor tamarin. Ruivo, E. B. and Silveira, C................................................ 85-86
A study on the behavior of adolescent female muriquis. Printes, R. C...................................... .....86
Variability in constitutive heterochromatin in South American primates. Pieczarka, J. C................. 86-88
Chromosomal relations and phylogenetic and phenetic analyses in the Callitrichidae.
N agam achi, C Y .................................................. .. .............. ... ................... .............................. 88-89
Cytogenetics, chromosomal evolution, radiation and speciation in spider monkeys. Medeiros,
M A A .................................................... .... ........ .. .....................................................89
Putting prim ates in the classroom ....................................... .. ...... ......................................... 89-90
Fundag~o Floresta Amaz6nica. Noronha, M. de A................... ......................................90
AZA Aw ard to Proyecto Titi ............................................................................................................... 90-91
Primate Conservation Inc. 1995 call for grant proposals................................ .................91
Studies on Neotropical Environment and Fauna new editors..........................................................91
Biodiversity and Conservation............................................................................................... .......... 91-92
RECENT PUBLICATIONS ......................................................................... ............ ...........92-101

M EETINGS......... ............................................ . ................ ............................. 101-102


Editorial.................................. .... .. ......................... ........................................ ......... 103
A new system for classifying threatened status ......................................... 104-112
A species list for the New World primates (Platyrrhini): distribution by country, endemism, and
conservation status according to the Mace-Lande system. Rylands, A. B., Mittermeier, R. A.
and Rodriguez-Luna, E................. .. .... ........ ............................. ................. 113-160
IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group: Neotropical Section members........................... .......... 160-164


Morphological relationships between the Ka'apor capuchin (Cebus kaapori Queiroz, 1992) and
other male Cebus crania: a preliminary report. Masterson, T. J., Jr ................................................ 165-169
An overview ofprimatological studies in Ecuador: primates of the Cuyabeno Reserve. Torre S.
de la, Utreras, V and Cam pos, F........................... .......................................................... 169-171
Primates from the vicinity of Vigosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Pereira, R. F., Gongalves, A. M.,
M elo, F. R. de and Feio, R. N .............................................................. ...... ......................... 171-173
Sobre la possible presencia de Alouatta caraya en Uruguay. Villalba, J. S., C. M. Prigioni, C. M.
and Sappa, A C .................................................................................. .. ................................. 173-174
The red-handed howling monkey, Alouatta belzebul, in the state of Pernambuco, north-east
Brazil. Almeida, R. T., Pimentel, D. S. and Silva, E. M. S..................................... 174-176
On the geographic distribution of the red-handed howling monkey, Alouatta belzebul, in North-
east Brazil. Coimbra-Filho, A. F., Camara, I. de G. and Rylands, A. B .................................... 176-179
Aggression between Alouatta caraya males in forest patches in northern Argentina.
Kowalewski, M., Bravo, S. P. and Zunino, G. E .............................. .......... 179-180

Neotropical Primates Index 3

Chromosomal variation in Alouattafusca. Oliveira, E. H. C. de, Lima. M. M. C. de and
Sbalqueiro, I. J. .......................................................... .. ..... ... ... ..... ..................................... 181-183
Two breeding females in a Saguinusfuscicollis weddelli group. Calegaro-Marques, C., Bicca-
M arques, J. C. and Azevedo, M A. de O............................................ .. ........ .................... 183
Preliminary field study of the red-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas) in French Guiana. Kessler,
P ........................... .......................... .................................. .. ............. ........................... 184 -185
Census of Alouattafusca and habitat quality in two areas of Atlantic forest in Minas Gerais,
Brazil. H irsch, A ........................................................................................... ....................... .. 185-186
Molecular phylogeny of the Callitrichinae. Barroso, C. M. L............. ................. ......... 186
Vocal communication studies at the University of Sao Paulo. Mendes, F. D. C.............................. 186-187
Status of South American spider monkeys in North American collections. Newland, K............... 187-188
White-faced saki, Pithecia pithecia, studbook. Frampton, T...................................................188
Grupo Especialista do Callicebus personatus. Miller, K.-H....................... ....................... 188-189
Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center Library chosen WLA Library of the Year.......................189
Grupo de Etologia de Primatas (PSE) University of Sao Paulo ...........................................................189
Projeto Dinamica Biol6gica de Fragmentos Florestais vagas para estagiArios.............................. 189-190
New address for the Primate Information Center ............................................................................190
Protected Areas Virtual Library.............................................. ................................... .................190
XIII Encontro Anual de Etologia Brazil. Yamamato, M. E. ........................................................ 190-191
II Curso Nacional de Biologia da Conserval9o e Manejo de Vida Silvestre.......................................... 191
W warren K inzey Fund.................................. ......... ........................................... .............................191
The Whitley Award for Animal Conservation............................... 191-192
Erratum: El comercio de primates en La Repuiblica Argentina, C. Bertonatti..........................................192
VII Congresso Brasileiro de Primatologia........................................................................... ................192
Nova Diretoria da Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia (SBPr). Alonso, C ..............................192
The PSGB Winter Meeting Biology and Conservation of New World Primates. Box, H. O.
and Buchanan-Sm ith, H M ........................................ ....................................................................... 193
Conservation Programs of the American Society of Primatologists an appeal ............................ 193-194
RECENT PUBLICATIONS.......... .................................................. ................................ ........... 194-203

M EETINGS........................................... ...................... .............................. 203-205

4 Vol. 3, March December 1995

Page 165 Neotropical Primates 3(4), December1995




The genus Cebus is comprised of four widely
distributed species, C. albifrons, C. apella, C.
capucinus and C. nigrivittatus (= olivaceus)
(taxonomy following Hershkovitz, 1949), and the
recently described Cebus kaapori Queiroz, 1992. It
is possible that other valid species may exist but are
currently designated at the subspecific level
(Mittermeier et al., 1988; Torres, 1988). Cebus
kaapori, a previously unknown form of untufted
capuchin, seems to be restricted to an area between
the Rios Gurupi and Pindar6 in the state ofMaranhao,
Brazil, outside the previously known distribution of
untufted capuchins. It was observed in undisturbed
and slightly disturbed dense lowland forest, and was
reported to occur in very low densities. Interviews
with local residents suggest that C. kaapori also occurs
in edge habitats between the Amazonian and Cocais
(palm) forest, where they feed on palm fruits. Two
specimens have been described, a juvenile female
skeleton and skin in the Emilio Goeldi Museum,
Belem, Brazil, designated as the holotype (MPEG
22025), and an adult male skull and skin designated
as the paratype (MPEG 21978). The adult male was
described by Queiroz (1992).

Using a limited number of external and craniometric
measurements and small comparative samples,
Queiroz (1992) reported that C. kaapori is longer in
the body, and less robust, than the other untufted
species. Queiroz argued that C. kaapori is
"undoubtedly similar to C. nigrivittatus"(p.9) in its
general physical appearance, and suggested that C.
nigrivittatus may be ancestral to C. kaapori. This
report will test the hypothesis that the crania of the
adult males of these two species are morphologically
similar. This was investigated by applying univariate,
bivariate, and multivariate statistical tests to
comparative samples of male crania from five
capuchin species.


The comparative analyses in this study were based
on two samples. The baseline sample consisted of a
subset from a larger database used to examine the

Table 1. Sample sizes of male capuchins broken down
into subadult and adult developmental specimens.
Species Subadults Adults Total
C. albifrons 46 43 89
C. apella 141 67 208
C. capucinus 66 42 108
C. nigrivittatus 20 40 60
C. kaapori 1 1
Total 273 193 466

ontogeny of cranial form, growth, and sexual
dimorphism in four capuchin species (Masterson,
1995). It was comprised of male Cebus crania from
collections housed at the American, Field, and
National Museums of Natural History. The samples
are geographically heterogeneous as expected given
the genus' wide distribution and adaptability. The
comparative sample included the only known adult
male specimen of C. kaapori (MPEG 21978), housed
in the Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Bel6m, Brazil.
No subspecific analyses were performed. Table 1
gives the sample sizes for each species, broken down
into subadult and adult specimens.

Six linear measurements of the adult male cranium
were provided in the initial description ofC. kaapori
Queiroz, 1992. These measurements were used as
literature data in the following analyses. Only four
measurements are comparable between Queiroz
(1992) and the analysis of Masterson (1995): biorbital
width, bizygomatic breadth, maximum cranial length,
and neurocranial length. It was assumed that Queiroz
used similar landmarks in his measurements, since
they are standard in primate craniometric analyses.
The biases of using a single specimen to represent a
species are clearly recognized. However, the results
from this study will provide hypotheses for future
analyses when more C. kaapori specimens are

In examining the morphological relationships among
these five capuchin species, univariate, bivariate, and
multivariate analyses were performed using the
statistical program SYSTAT (Wilkinson, 1992).
Tukey's multiple comparison test for unequal sample
sizes was used to examine significant differences
(p < 0.0083 after a Bonferroni adjustment) among
the.adult male species' means. Only comparisons
among adult male C. albifrons, C. apella, C.
capucinus, and C. nigrivittatus were performed. The
value for C. kaapori was assumed to represent the
species' mean in each measurement (it represents a
single specimen in all other analyses). It was not
statistically tested, but was included in Table 2 for
interspecific comparisons.

Bivariate growth allometries were analyzed using the
log-transformed version of Huxley's (1932) bivariate

Cover photograph by Russell A. Mittermeier: Wedge-capped capuchin, Cebus olivaceus.

Neotropical Primates 3(4), December]995

Page 165

Neotropical Primates 3(4), December1995 Page 166

Table 2. Multi-group comparisons between adult male capuchin
monkeys in four cranial variables. 'AL = C. albifrons, AP = C. apella,
CA = C. capucinus, NI = C. nigrivittatus, KA = C. kaapori. 2 Underlined
species are not significantly different at p < 0.0083.
Measurements Species' n Mean SD Tukey's test2
Biorbital width AL 41 43.2 2.175
AP 62 43.1 1.821
CA 38 44.3 2.068 NI>KA>CA>AL>AP
NI 38 45.9 2.631
KA 1 45.5
Bizygomatic breadth AL 42 63.9 3.638
AP 59 71.5 4.936
CA 41 67.0 3.212 AP>CA>NI>AL>KA
NI 39 65.6 3.526
KA 1 61.5
Max. cranial length AL 43 93.2 4.928
AP 63 97.5 3.827
CA 42 97.3 2.276 AP>CA>NI>KA>AL
NI 39 96.6 3.696
KA 1 94.5 -
Neurocranial breadth AL 43 52.2 1.997
AP 66 53.2 1.786
CA 41 52.9 1.700 NI>AP>CA>KA>AL
NI 40 54.5 2.181
KA 1 52.7 -

power function. Maximum cranial length was chosen
as the independent variable. The best statistical fit to
a respective species' regression line by C. kaapori
was determined using the smallest standardized
residual of the Ka'apor specimen after its inclusion
in the calculation of each species' allometric

Two multivariate factoring techniques, principal
components analysis (PCA) and discriminant function
analysis (DFA), were used to compare the capuchin
species in multivariate space. The C. kaapori
specimen was included in both analyses. Masterson
and Leutenegger (1990) presented a detailed
discussion of the PCA technique. Discriminant
function analysis was used to examine how well the
species can be differentiated based on the available
cranial measurements. Klecka (1980) provided a
detailed discussion of DFA.

The final test of the hypothesis used cluster analysis
to produce a tree diagram. Euclidean distances
between each variable and Ward's (1963) minimum
variance linkage method were used to cluster the
species. Wilkinson (1992) presented a detailed
description of cluster analysis.


The results of Tukey's multiple comparison test are
presented in Table 2, as well as means and standard
deviations for the capuchin species. Tukey's test
indicated that C. kaapori is very similar in biorbital
width to C. nigrivittatus, which is significantly larger
than C. capucinus, C. albifrons, and C. apella. Cebus
kaapori possesses the smallest bizygomatic breadth

of all five capuchin species, being closest in size
to C. albifrons. Cebus albifrons is not significantly
different from C. nigrivittatus, but is significantly
smaller than C. capucinus and C. apella. The
maximum cranial length ofC. kaapori is closest
to C. albifrons in linear distance and lies on the
small end of the male Cebus range. Cebus
albifrons is significantly smaller than C.
nigrivittatus, C. capucinus, and C. apella. The
neurocranial breadth ofC. kaapori is on the small
end of the male Cebus range and lies between C.
capucinus and C. albifrons. It is furthest in size
from C. nigrivittatus. There are no significant
interspecific differences present in neurocranial

Bivariate growth allometries for C. albifrons, C.
apella, C. capucinus, and C. nigrivittatus are listed
in Table 3. Standardized residuals indicated that
C. kaapori lies closest to the regression line of C.
nigrivittatus in biorbital width and is furthest from
C. apella. In bizygomatic breadth C. kaapori lies
closest to the line ofC. capucinus and is furthest from
C. apella. Cebus nigrivittatus is the next best fit after
C. capucinus. For neurocranial breadth C. kaapori
lies closest to C. albifrons and is furthest from C.
nigrivittatus. Low correlation coefficients in all
species suggest that the best fit lines do not explain
the majority of the samples' variances in neurocranial

The results of the multi-group PCA for all male Cebus
are presented in Table 4. Factor scores for all five
species are illustrated in Figure 1, with 90%
probability ellipsoids drawn for each species. The first
principal component accounts for 89.72% of the total
variation. The variable loadings are all positive,
although a wide range of values does exist indicating

nnn I I I I


-= -0.0050

S- 0.0325




-0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2

Factor I (89.72%)
Figure I. Results of the multi-group PCA showing 90% probability
ellipsoids for males of the capuchin species. Cebus kaapori fits
best within the sample of C. nigrivittatus and lies furthest from C.

Neotropical Primates 3(4), December1995

Page 166

Page 167 Neotropical Primates 3(4), December1995

Table 3. Bivariate coefficients for three cranial variables regressed against maximum cranial length.
'AL = C. albifrons, AP = C. apella, CA = C. capucinus, NI = C. nigrivittatus, KA = C. kaapori. log b =
y intercept, a= slope, 95% C.I. (a) = 95% confidence interval for slope estimate, r = correlation coefficient,
and SR = standardized residual.
Measurement Species n log b a 95% C.I. (a) r SR Slope comparison
Biorbital width AL 83 -0.540 1.101 (0.983, 1.220) .899 1.091
AP 199 -0.391 1.016 (0.958, 1.075) .925 2.326
CA 101 -0.328 0.991 (0.900, 1.082) .908 1.617 AL>NI>AP>CA
NI 58 -0.393 1.033 (0.885, 1.182) .881 0.468
Bizygomatic breadth AL 81 -1.168 1.505 (1.359, 1.651) .918 -0.658
AP 190 -1.515 1.689 (1.625, 1.757) .965 -1.641
CA 102 -1.420 1.629 (1.528, 1.729) .955 -0.473 AP>CA>NI>AL
NI 59 -1.222 1.529 (1.402, 1.656) .954 -0.547
Neurocranial breadth AL 85 0.199 0.199 (0.108, 0.291) .429 0.032
AP 200 1.299 0.215 (0.159,0.272) .470 -0.152
CA 199 1.520 0.106 (0.014,0.199) .226 -0.459 NI>AP>AL>CA
NI 60 1.307 0.218 (0.088,0.348) .403 -0.839

that each variable contributes unequally to component
I. Bizygomatic breadth and neurocranial breadth
possess the largest and smallest loadings, respectively.
The first component loadings are interpreted as an
allometry vector. Little separation of the species
occurs along the allometry vector.

Principal component II explains 5.47% of the
remaining variation. Although this is a small
percentage, it is clearly of biological importance
because the species are differentiated along
component II. The presence of bipolar component
loadings indicates that more shape variation is
reflected in component II than in the allometry vector.
The separation of the species by shape differences
relates to measurements possessing larger positive and
negative loadings that either increase or decrease with
respect to each other as one moves along the second
component axis (Shea, 1985). The measurements
primarily responsible for the separation of the species
along component II are bizygomatic breadth, with a
strong negative loading, and biorbital width and
neurocranial breadth, each possessing strong positive
loadings. The first two components explain 95.19%
of the total sample variation. In examining the multi-
group PCA (Figure 1), the adult male C. kaapori
specimen falls directly within the sample of C.
nigrivittatus. Cebus capucinus is the next best fit.
Cebus kaapori lies furthest from the tufted capuchin,
C. apella.

Results from the DFA using species membership as
the test of effect are presented in Table 5. Figure 2
shows 90% probability ellipsoids for each species.

Table 4. Variable loadings on the first two
principal components for the multi-group PCA.
Cebus kaapori was included.
Measurement Factor I Factor II
Biorbital width .5090 .6551
Bizygomatic breadth .7363 -.5257
Max. cranial length .4378 .0180
Neurocranial length .0843 .5424
% of total variance .8972 .0547

The DFA is statistically
significant (Wilk's lambda
= 0.2863, F = 15.5735, df
= 16, 492, P = 0.0000).
Discriminant function I is
highly significant, P =
0.0000. It possesses a
canonical correlation of
0.7899; therefore, a high
association exists between
function I and species
membership. Function I
seems to differentiate
between the tufted and

untufted species (Fig. 2) by overall skull size, as
judged by bizygomatic breadth and maximum cranial
length possessing negative canonical loadings.

Function II is also highly significant (P = 0.0000). It
possesses a canonical correlation of 0.4163. Although
the canonical loadings possess similar values, function
II helps to differentiate the untufted species. Figure 2
illustrates that the differentiation between the untufted
species and C. apella occurs along function I. Function
II, in conjunction with function I, differentiates the
untufted species. Along function I, C. kaapori lies
closest to C. nigrivittatus and is furthest from C.

Results and linkage distances from the cluster analysis
are illustrated in Figure 3. The first cluster contains
adult male C. capucinus and C. nigrivittatus (0.011).
The next cluster joins C. kaapori and C. albifrons
(0.015). Cebus apella then joins C. capucinus and C.
nigrivittatus (0.022). This clusterjoins with C. kaapori

.3 I I I I I I
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3
Function I

Figure 2. Results of the DFA showing 90% probability ellipsoids
for males of the capuchin species. Cebus kaapori lies closest to
the sample ofC. nigrivittatus and is furthest from C. apella.


Page 167

Neotropical Primates 3(4), December1995

Neotropical Primates 3(4), December1995 Page 168

0.000 0.011 0.015 0022 0.031

C. apella
C. capucinus -
C. nigrivittatus -
C. kaapori
C. albifrons
Figure 3. Results of the cluster analysis showing linkage distances
and clustering patterns among the adult male capuchins. Cebus
kaapori clusters with C. albifrons rather than C. nigrivittatus as
predicted from the hypothesis.

and C. albifrons (0.031), forming the root of the adult
male Cebus tree.

Discussion and Conclusions

The best corroborative evidence of the proposed
hypothesis is provided by the multi-group PCA (Table
4, Fig. 1), which indicates that C. kaapori fits best
within the C. nigrivittatus sample. Other supporting
evidence is provided by (1) a similar linear distance
(Table 2) to C. nigrivittatus in biorbital width, (2) a
close fit to the regression line (Table 3) of C.
nigrivittatus in biorbital width, and (3) C. kaapori's
DFA scores (Fig. 2) lie closest to C. nigrivittatus. At
present, solid corroborative evidence for a close
morphological relationship between the crania of C.
kaapori and C. nigrivittatus is limited. Indeed, the
present analyses provide some evidence that C.
kaapori may be morphologically more similar to C.
albifrons rather than C. nigrivittatus. This relationship
is indicated by (1) similar linear distances (Table 2)
in bizygomatic breadth, maximum cranial length, and
neurocranial breadth, (2) a close fit to the C. albifrons
regression line (Table 3) in neurocranial breadth, and
(3) C. kaapori clusters with C. albifrons (Fig. 3)
whereas C. nigrivittatus clusters with C. capucinus.

Whichever Cebus species C. kaapori is ultimately
linked to, these analyses suggest that it will be an
untufted capuchin and not C. apella. Given that C.
kaapori is said to use palm nuts in a similar manner
to C. apella (v. Queiroz, 1992), there is no evidence
of similar cranial morphology between the two species
based on available measurements. Masterson (1995)

Table 5. Canonical loadings, canonical correlations, and
probabilities that species differ along specified axis for the first
three discriminant functions. Cebus kaapori was included.
Measurement Function I Function II Function III
Biorbital width .3321 .6865 .0639
Bizygomatic breadth -.5408 .8057 .0373
Max. cranial length -.1135 .8685 -.4814
Neurocranial breadth .1469 .8456 .4105
Canonical correlation .7899 .4163 .2795
P 0.0000 0.0000 0.01

reported that bizygomatic breadth is one of several
cranial variables related to palm nut usage in C. apella,
that is, larger infratemporal fossae allow for larger
muscles ofmastication which are needed for cracking
open palm nuts. Because there is no evidence of
similar bizygomatic morphology between C. apella
and C. kaapori, it may be that C. kaapori is using
palm nuts more like C. albifrons rather than C. apella.
Further behavioral data is needed to examine this

The taxonomy of Cebus is complex (see Queiroz,
1992, for a discussion). Anonymous (1993) has
discussed the taxonomic status ofC. kaaporiat length,
and concludes that "the evidence for the species' status
of C. kaapori is slim" (p.7). Whether C. kaapori is a
valid species will only be answered when more
specimens have been collected and comparative
analyses use more measurements. Future
morphometric analyses will need to be supplemented
with molecular data from all capuchin species to
answer this and other questions about Cebus


I thank Drs. Ross MacPhee, Guy Musser, and
Wolfgang Fuchs (American Museum of Natural
History, New York), Dr. Bruce Patterson (Field
Museum ofNatural History, Chicago), and Dr Richard
Thorington Jr. (National Museum of Natural History,
Washington, D. C.) for access to specimens. I also
thank John Hudson and Dr Walter Leutenegger for
comments on an earlier version of this paper. This
project was completed at the University of Wisconsin-
Madison and was partially funded by a Grant-in-Aid
of Research from Sigma Xi, the Scientific Research

Anonymous. 1993. A new species of untufted capu-
chin from the Brazilian Amazon. Neotropical Pri-
mates 1: 5-7.
Hershkovitz, P. 1949. Mammals of northern Colom-
bia. Preliminary report No. 4: Monkeys (Primates),
with taxonomic revisions of some forms. Proc. U.
S. Nat. Mus. 98: 323-427.
Huxley, J. S. 1932. Problems of Relative Growth.
Methuen, London.
Klecka, W. R. 1980. Discriminant Analysis. Sage Pub-
lications, London.
Masterson, T. J. 1995. Cranial Form in Cebus: An
Ontogenetic Analysis of Cranial Form and Sexual
Dimorphism. Ph. D. thesis, University of Wiscon-
sin-Madison, Madison.
Masterson, T. J. and Leutenegger, W. 1990. The on-
togeny of sexual dimorphism in the cranium of

Neotropical Primates 3(4), Deember]995

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Bomean orang-utans (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus)
as detected by principal-components analysis. Int.
J. Primatol. 11: 517-539.
Mittermeier, R. A., Rylands, A. B. and Coimbra-Filho,
A. F. 1988. Systematics: species and subspecies -
an update. In: Ecology and Behavior of Neotropi-
cal Primates, Vol. 2., R. A. Mittermeier, A. B.
Rylands, A. F. Coimbra-Filho and G. A. B. da
Fonseca (eds.), pp.13-75. World Wildlife Fund,
Washington, D. C.
Queiroz, H. L. 1992. A new species of capuchin mon-
key, genus Cebus Erxleben 1777 (Cebidae: Pri-
mates) from eastern Brazilian Amazonia. Goeldiana
Zoologia 15: 1-13.
Shea, B. T. 1985. Bivariate and multivariate growth
allometry: statistical and biological considerations.
J. Zool., Lond. 206: 367-390.
Torres, C. 1988. Resultados preliminares de
reavaliagao das ragas do macaco-prego Cebus apella
(Primates: Cebidae). Revta. Nordest. Biol. 6: 15-
Ward, J. H. 1963. Hierarchical grouping to optimize
an objective function. J. Am. Stat. Ass. 58: 236-244.
Wilkinson, L. 1992. SYSTA T Statistics, Version 5.2.
SYSTAT, Inc., Evanston, Illinois.


In a small area of 270,000 km2, Ecuador has 19 species
of primates (Albuja, 1991) (Table 1). Primate
communities of 10 to 12 species have been reported
in some tropical areas such as the Cuyabeno Reserve
and the Yasuni National Park in Ecuadorian
Amazonia (Albuja, 1994; de la Torre et al., 1995).
However, little is known about the ecology, behavior
and conservation status ofthe species. Only few field
primatological studies have been done, most of them
by biologists of the Pontificia Universidad Catolica
of Quito, in the Cuyabeno Reserve (de Vries et al.,
1993). Ulloa (1988) carried out a preliminary
synecological study of the primate species of the
reserve, in the area of the Laguna Grande, in the
Cuyabeno river basin, that was continued by de la
Torre and Campos (in press) during 1989 and 1990.
Schell (unpubl. data) carried out a similar study in
the area ofZabalo, in the Aguarico river basin, during
1994 and 1995.

The Cuyabeno Reserve is a protected area in the
Province of Sucumbios, northeastern Ecuador. The
reserve of 655,781 ha is located on the equator. It
extends from the origins of the Rio Cuyabeno through
its hydrographic system, until it empties into the Rio

Table 1. List of the primate species in Ecuador (Albuja, 1991)

Family Callitrichidae
Cebuella pygmaea Saguinusfuscicollis
Saguinus nigricollis Saguinus tripartitus
Family Cebidae
Alouatta palliata Cebus albifrons
Alouatta seniculus Cebus apella
Aotus vociferans Cebus capucinus
Aotus lemurinus Lagothrix lagotricha
Ateles belzebuth Pithecia monachus
Ateles fusciceps Pithecia aequatorialis
Callicebus cupreus Saimiri sciureus
Callicebus torquatus

Aguarico; then 60 km east to the lakes Zancudococha
and Lagartococha (76030' W 75030' W). With an
altitude around 200-300 m above sea level, it is part
of the Tropical Humid Forest life zone (Cafiadas Cruz,
1983; Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia,
Republica del Ecuador, Acuerdo Ministerial No.
0328, 1991).

Limited rainfall records indicate an annual mean
precipitation of about 3,000 mm; with more than 250
mm of monthly rainfall during the rainy season (from
mid-March through August) and less than 250 mm
during the dry season (from September through the
first days of March), when the rivers and lakes may
dry out.

The study area, of 1 km2, was located near one of the
margins of the Laguna Grande, in the Cuyabeno basin.
Additional surveys were carried out along the Rio
Cuyabeno. Four types of forest were recognized: 1)
non-flooded, terra firma forest located on small hills;
2) swamps, with a vegetation dominated by Mauritia

Figure 1. The location of the Yasuni National Park (1), the
Cotacachi-Cayapas Ecological Reserve (2), and the Cuyabeno
Reserve (3) in Ecuador..

Page 169

Neotropical Primates 3(4), December1995

Neotropical Primates 3(4), December1995 Page 170

flexuosa palms; 3) forests flooded by white-water
rivers, or vdrzea (Pires and Prance, 1985); and 4)
forests flooded by black-water rivers, or igapd (Pires
and Prance, 1985).

The Cuyabeno Reserve supports a primate community
which comprises ten species: Cebuella pygmaea,
Saguinus nigricollis, Aotus vociferans, Callicebus
cupreus, Callicebus torquatus, Pithecia monachus,
Saimiri sciureus, Cebus albifrons, Alouatta seniculus
and Lagothrix lagotricha (Emmons and Feer, 1990;
Hershkovitz, 1977, 1983, 1990; but see Albuja, 1991).
Data on habitat use and reproduction of all the primate
species were obtained during 1989 and 1990.

Preliminary results showed that Callicebus torquatus
and Pithecia monachus use almost exclusively the
non-flooded terra firma forests; the former species
shows some preference for edge habitats. Cebus
albifrons, Saimiri sciureus and Saguinus nigricollis
are generalists, but C. albifrons makes more use of
palm swamps, S. sciureus spends more time in the
black-water flooded forest (igapd), and S. nigricollis
uses more the terra firma forests. Cebuellapygmaea
inhabits only the flooded black-water and white-water
forests (igap6 and vdrzea, respectively). Limited data
suggested the preference of Callicebus cupreus for
vdrzea, of Alouatta seniculus and Lagothrix
lagotricha for terra firma, and a possible widespread
use of habitat by Aotus vociferans.

Generalized birth peaks for all primate species
occurred in the dry season, from December through
February. The callitrichids presented a second birth
peak, limited to some of the groups, in the middle of
the rainy season, from June through August.

Further research at the Cuyabeno Reserve has focused
on the ecology of the black-mantle tamarin, Saguinus
nigricollis (de la Torre, 1991; de la Torre et al., 1992;
1995; Reyes, 1991), yellow-handed titi monkeys,
Callicebus torquatus (Campos, 1991; Campos et al.,
1992); white-fronted capuchins, Cebus albifrons
(Jimenez, unpubl. data); and saki monkeys, Pithecia
monachus (Navarrete, unpubl. data).

Additional studies have been done in the Cotacachi-
Cayapas Reserve, western Ecuador, on spider
monkeys, Ateles fusciceps (Maddem and Albuja,
1989), and in the Yasuni National Park (Albuja, 1994).
Currently, field research is being carried out in the
Yasuni National Park by the University of California,
Davis, the Pontificia Universidad Catolica, Quito, and
the Escuela Politecnica Nacional, Quito; and in the
Cuyabeno Reserve by the University of Wisconsin-
Madison, and the Pontificia Universidad Catolica,
Quito. These studies focus on the ecology and

behavior of the different species, such as woolly
monkeys, Lagothrix lagotricha, in the Yasuni
National Park, and the pygmy marmoset, Cebuella
pygmaea, in the Cuyabeno Reserve

For further information contact: Dr. Tjitte de Vries,
Department of Biology, Pontificia Universidad
Catolica del Ecuador, P.O. Box 17-01-2184,
Ecuador; or Stella de la Torre, Department of
Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Madison,
1202 West Johnson Street, Madison, WI 53706,

Stella de la Torre, Departamento de Biologia,
Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Ecuador, P.O.
Box 17-01-2184, Quito, Ecuador, and Department
of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Madison,
1202 West Johnson Street, Madison, WI 53706,
USA, Victor Utreras and Felipe Campos,
Departamento de Biologia, Pontificia Universidad
Catolica del Ecuador, P.O. Box 17-01-2184, Quito,

Albuja, L. 1991. Lista de vertebrados del Ecuador,
mamiferos. Rev. Inform. Tdcn.-Cient. 16(3): 163-
203. Escuela Polit6cnica Nacional, Quito.
Albuja, L. 1994. Nuevos registros de Saguinus
tripartitus en la Amazonia Ecuatoriana. Neotro-
pical Primates 2(2): 8-10.
Campos, F. 1991. Preferencia de habitat, aspects
reproductivos y comportamiento de canto como
factors determinantes de la territorialidad de
Callicebus torquatus en la Amazonia Ecuatoriana.
Tesis de Licenciatura. Pontificia Universidad
Cat6lica del Ecuador, Quito.
Campos, F., de la Torre, S. and de Vries, T. 1992.
Territorial behavior and home range establishment
of Callicebus torquatus (Primates: Cebidae) in
Amazonian Ecuador. Abstracts oftheXIVth Con-
gress of the International Primatological Society,
Strasbourg, p.316.
Cafiadas Cruz, L. 1983. El mapa bioclimitico y
ecol6gico del Ecuador. Ministerio de Agricultura
y Ganaderia, Programa Nacional de
Regionalizaci6n Agraria. Banco Central del Ec-
uador, Quito.
de la Torre, S. 1991. Area de vida, comportamiento
reproductive y habitat de Saguinus nigricollis
graellsi(Primates: Callitrichidae) en la Amazonia
Ecuatoriana. Tesis de Licenciatura. Pontificia
Universidad Cat61ica del Ecuador, Quito.
de la Torre, S.; Campos, F. and de Vries, T. 1992.
Seasonal reduction in the home ranges and birth
peak bimodality of Saguinus nigricollis graellsi
(Primates: Callitrichidae) in Amazonian Ecuador.

Neotropical Primates 3(4), December]995

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Page 171

Abstracts of the XIVth Congress of the Interna-
tional Primatological Society, Strasbourg, p.316.
de la Torre, S., Campos, F.and de Vries, T. 1995.
Home range and birth seasonality of Saguinus
nigricollis graellsi in Ecuadorian Amazonia. Am.
J. Primatol. 37: 39-56.
de la Torre, S. and Campos, F. In press. Uso del
habitat, drea de vida y reproducci6n de diez
species de primates presents en la Reserva de
Producci6n Faunistica Cuyabeno, Amazonia
Ecuatoriana. In: Estudios Ecol6gicos en
Cuyabeno. T. de Vries and E. Asanza, (eds.).
Abya-Yala, Quito.
de Vries, T., Campos, F., de la Torre, S., Asanza,
E., Sosa, A. and Rodriguez, F. 1993. Investigaci6n
y conservaci6n en la Reserva de Producci6n
Faunistica Cuyabeno. In: La Investigaci6n para
la Conservaci6n de la Diversidad Biol6gica en el
Ecuador. P.A. Mena and L. Suarez (eds.), pp. 167-
221. Ecociencia, Quito.
Emmons, L. H. and Feer, F. 1990. Neotropical
Rainforest Mammals: A Field Guide. The Uni-
versity of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Hershkovitz, P. 1977. Living New World Monkeys
(Platyrrhini): With an Introduction to Primates.
Vol I. The University of Chicago Press. Chicago.
Hershkovitz, P. 1983. Two new species of night
monkeys, genus Aotus (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): a
preliminary report on Aotus taxonomy. Am. J.
Primatol. 4: 209-243.
Hershkovitz, P. 1990. Titis, New World monkeys
of the genus Callicebus (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): a
preliminary taxonomic review. Fieldiana Zoology
Maddem, R. and Albuja, L. 1989. Estado actual de
Ateles fusciceps fusciceps en el noroccidente
ecuatoriano. Rev. Escuela Politcnica Nacional
14(2), Biologia 2: 113-157.
Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderfa, Reptiblica
del Ecuador. 1991. Acuerdo Ministerial No. 0328
(07/03/91). Registro Oficial.
Pires, J. M. and Prance, G. T. 1985. The vegetation
types of the Brazilian Amazon. In: Amazonia,.
G.T. Prance and T. E. Lovejoy (eds.), pp 109-145.
Pergamon Press, New York.
Reyes, H. 1991. Estudio ecol6gico y etol6gico de
Saguinus nigricollis graellsi (Primates:
Callitrichidae), Cuyabeno, nororiente ecuatoriano.
Tesis de Licenciatura. Pontificia Universidad
Cat6lica del Ecuador, Quito.
Ulloa, R. 1988. Estudio sinecol6gico de primates
en la Reserva de Producci6n Faunistica Cuyabeno,
Amazonia Ecuatoriana. Tesis de Licenciatura,
Pontificia Universidad Cat6lica del Ecuador,

Neotropical Primates 3(4), December1995


There is an urgent need for an understanding of the
human impacts on animal communities, especially in
such as the tropical forests, due to their very high
biodiversity and the rapidity and extent of their
destruction and fragmentation. Fragmentation of
forests on a fine scale results in the confinement of
one or few groups of primate species, for example,
and limits the genetic flow between populations,
accelerating extinction processes on local, regional
and national levels. As such, it is most important to
verify how these animals are distributed in impacted
areas in order to obtain a better understanding of their
ability to survive in forest mosaics separated by open
vegetation formations and urban environments.

Fragmentation of natural areas is a reality in most of
the Brazilian ecosystems, and is most evident in the
Atlantic forest, once covering an area of more than
1,200,000 km2, but today reduced to forest fragments
in less than 8% of its original extent. The city of
Vicosa (200 45' S, 420 51 'W), state of Minas Gerais,
lies within the Atlantic Forest, and remnant patches
are located on hilltops separated by pasture. Forest
can no longer be found in valleys and other areas of
low relief.

The project reported here involved a survey of
primates in the main fragments remaining in the
vicinity of Vicosa which are still able to sustain groups
over the mid- to long-term. Four monkey species are
believed to occur in the region, following Kinzey
(1982) and Coimbra-Filho (1982): Cebus apella,
Alouattafusca, Callicebuspersonatus and Callithrix
aurita. Of these, only C. apella is not classified as
threatened (Rylands et al., 1995). The selected
fragments were mapped during July 1993 and June
1994. Selection involved the use of the following
parameters: fragment area, topographic location, easy
access, vegetation structure, disturbance and
successional stage, extent of urbanization near the
area, and the probable presence of primates. The data
were obtained by interviewing local people, and using
maps and aerial photographs. Confirmation of the
presence of primates, either through vocalizations or
sightings, was by periodic surveys.

Eight forest fragments were chosen and investigated,
seven of which were between 15 and 60 ha and just
one, the "Mata do Paraiso", covered 194 ha (Fig. 1).
Six primates species were recorded: Alouattafusca,
Callicebus personatus nigrifrons, Cebus apella
nigritus, Callithrix aurita, C. geoffroyi and C. jacchus
(Table 1).

Neotropical Primates 3(4), December1995 Page 172

Table 1- Distribution of primates in eight forest fragments in the
vicinity of Vigosa, Minas Gerais.
Forest fragment Species
Mata do Paraiso Callicebus personatus nigrifrons
Cebus apella nigritus
Fazenda Arruda Callithrix aurita
Callicebus personatus nigrifrons
Area dos Nobres Callithrix sp.
Callicebus personatus nigrifrons
Sitio Cascalho Callithrix sp.
Callicebus personatus nigrifrons
Mata da Biologia Callithrix geoffroyi
Callicebus personatus nifgrifrons
Fazenda Sao Geraldo Callithrix sp.
Callicebus personatus nigrifrons
Sitio Paraiso Callithrixjacchus
Callicebus personatus nigrifrons

The occurrence of two of the Callithrix species has
evidently resulted from introductions: C jacchus and
C. geoffroyi are species from northeast Brazil and the
east of the state of Minas Gerais and Espirito Santo
(Vivo, 1991), respectively. This was verified through
interviews. The animals were introduced by local
people, who feed them in their backyards, and result
in the colonization of nearby forest patches.

Only one individual of C. aurita (Fazenda Arruda)
was observed. It was following a group of C.
personatus nigrifrons. Interviews and vocalizations
pointed, however, to the occurrence of Callithrix in
three other areas (Fazenda Sao Geraldo, Area dos
Nobres, Sitio Cascalho), but we were unable to
identify the species, and the possibility remains that
they are C. aurita (Vivo, 1991). C. personatus
nigrifrons was the most abundant species, occurring
in all fragments studied, and is probably the most
common primate in the region. C. aurita and C. apella
nigritus were the least abundant, and only a few
individuals were seen.

Regarding the conservation status of the native species
around Vigosa, we consider all, except for C.
personatus nigrifrons, to be seriously threatened.
Through field surveys and interviews, we have
recorded a pronounced population decline for C.
apella and A. fusca, the first recorded in just one
fragment with three individuals, and the second only
in the northwest of the municipality.

Contacts with local residents revealed that A. fusca
and C. apella were abundant in all regions, and that
their current rarity is due mainly to hunting. This is
not the only factor, however, and forest fragmentation
and possibly even epidemic diseases, such as has been
cited forA.fiusca by Bitetti etal. (1994) in Argentina,
Hirsch et al. (1994) for the Rio Doce State Park in
Minas Gerais, and Mendes (1991) in Espirito Santo,
also contribute significantly to their decline.

o 7 1
SoA Basoomeu
Figure 1. Map showing the fragments selected and investigated
in Vicosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. l=Fazenda Arruda; 2=Fazenda
Tudi; 3=Area dos Nobres; 4=Fazenda Sao Geraldo; 5=Paraiso;
6=Fazenda Paraiso; 7=Biologia; 8=Fazenda Cascalho. Broken
line indicates the municipality of Vicosa.

Acknowledgments: The authors thank the Centro
Mineiro para a Conservaqio da Natureza for logistic
support provided during the project. We are also
grateful to the undergraduate students Rita de Cissia,
Ana Jilia Lemos Alves Pedreira, Licio Valdir Assad
and ClAudia Carvalho de Mello for their help in the
field. We also acknowledge Professors Gumercindo
Lima and Gisele Mendes for their helpful suggestions
during the development of the project. The work
would not have been possible without the
collaboration and support of the local people.

Ronaldo F. Pereira, Adriana M. Gongalves,
Departamento de Biologia Animal, Museu de
Zoologia, Universidade Federal de Vigosa, 36571-
000 Vigosa, M.G., Fabiano R. de Melo, Setor de
Ecologia, Departamento de Biologia Geral,
Universidade de Vicosa, 36571-000 Vicosa, Minas
Gerais, and Renato N. Feio, Departamento de
Biologia Animal, Museu de Zoologia, Universidade
Federal de Vigosa, 36571-000 Vigosa, Minas Gerais,

Bitetti, M. S. di, Placci, G., Brown, A. D. and Rode.
D. 1994. Conservation and populations status of
brown howling monkey (A. fusca clamitans) in
Argentina. Neotropical Primates 2 (4): 1-3.
Kinzey, W. 1982. Distribution of primates and forest
refuges. In: Biological Diversification in the Trop-
ics, G. T. Prance (ed.), pp. 455-482. Columbia Uni-
versity Press, New York.
Hirsch, A., Moraes, W. B., Landau, E. C. and Rylands,
A. B. 1994. Censo deAlouattaifusca Geoffroy 1812,
e qualidade de habitat em duas Areas com
remanescentes de Mata Atlantica em Minas Gerais.

Page 172

Neotropical Primates 3(4), Decemberl995

Neotropical Primates 3(4), December1995

In: Resumos do XX Congresso Brasileiro de
Zoologia, Rio de Janeiro. p.144.
Mendes, S. L. 1991. Situaalo atual dos primatas em
reserves florestais do estado do Espirito Santo. In:
A Primatologia no Brasil- 3, A. B. Rylands and A.
T. Bernardes (eds.), pp.347-356. Sociedade
Brasileira de Primatologia and Fundagao
Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte.
Rylands, A. B., Mittermeier, R. A. and Rodriguez-
Luna, E. 1995. A species list for the New World
primates (Platyrrhini): distribution by country, en-
demism, and conservation status according to the
Mace-Lande system. Neotropical Primates
3(suppl.): 113-160.
Vivo, M. de. 1991. Taxonomia de Callithrix Erxleben
1777 (Callitrichidae, Primates). Fundacao
Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte.



Si bien existen algunas referencias imprecisas, la
presencia del orden Primates nunca ha sido detectada
en el pais. Aunque existen areas de bosque indigena
de real importancia y en su mayoria asociadas a cursos
de agua, el porcentaje con respect a la superficie
territorial total, es muy reducido. Este argument es
el que podria manejarse para suponer que no existiria
la cobertura vegetal capaz de soportar poblaciones
de monos, dado su regimen alimenticio. Sumado a
esto, la presencia de alguna forma perteneciente a este
grupo llamaria poderosamente la atenci6n por la
atracci6n que el comun de la gente siente por estos


En el verano de 1993 fue capturado un mono aullador
negro (Alouatta caraya) en la estancia Charqueada,
km 85 de la Ruta Nacional No 30, pr6ximo a Masoller,
departamento de Artigas, 3' Secci6n Judicial (aprox.
3100'S, 56000'W). El ejemplar fue mantenido
cautivo algunos dias, escapAndose posteriormente. Se
obtuvo una fotografia con una cAmara sencilla, que
pese a presentar algunas deficiencies t6cnicas permit
identificar a un mono aullador negro, adulto, macho.
La presencia de un ejemplar aislado permitiria suponer
la fuga de un aullador cautivo de algfin particular o
traficante de animals salvajes, pero es important
destacar la observaci6n de otros individuos en la zona.

Redford y Eisenberg (1992) reportan que Alouatta es
el g6nero mis ampliamente distribuido de los primates
del Nuevo Mundo, con un rango que se extiende desde

Figure 1. 1. Estancia Charqueada, Departamento Artigas, Uruguay
31"00'S, 5600'W. 2. Fazenda Casa Branca, Estado Rio Grande
del Sur, Brasil, 29037'S, 56"17'W. 3. Fazenda Morais, Caplo
Rolador, Estado Rio Grande del Sur, Brasil, 28025'S, 54*57'W.
4. Isla Yuruhath, Provincia de Corrientes, Argentina, 28 17'S,

Veracruz, Mexico, hasta la norte de Argentina. Estas
species toleran un rango de hAbitats que varian desde
florestas semideciduas tropicales hasta el multiestrato
tropical de florestas siempre verdes. Los autores
citados mencionan que A. caraya esta confinada al
sur del Brasil, Paraguay, Bolivia y norte de Argentina.
En este iltimo pais, se ha encontrado en las provincias
de Salta, Formosa, Chaco, Santa Fd y Misiones y a lo
largo de florestas en galeria hasta el sur de Corrientes.
Tambien puede ser encontrado esporAdicamente a
trav6s de Areas x6ricas contiguas al Chaco. Hacen
referencia a que el genero include un cincuenta
porciento de hojas en su dieta.

Nowak y Paradiso (1983), refiridndose a Mittermeier
y Coimbra-Filho (1977), citan a la especie para el este
de Bolivia, sur del Brasil, Paraguay y norte de
Argentina. Ellos indican que los monos de este genero
consume mAs hojas que ningin otro mono del Nuevo

Bicca-Marques y Calegaro-Marques (1994) citan un
grupo de aulladores en la estancia Casa Branca
(29037'S, 5617'W), Rio Grande del Sur, Brasil, y
Hirsch et al. (1991) reportan la Fazenda Morais
(28025'S, 54057'W), Caplo Rolador, Rio Grande del
Sur, Brasil. La primera de las mencionadas seria la
localidad mAs austral para la especie.

Hirsch et al. (1991) refieren que A. caraya ocupa el
Brasil central desde la catinga al nordeste pasando
por el cerrado, pantanal matogrossense, chaco central,

Page 173

Neotropical Primates 3(4), December 199S Page 174

region mesopatAmica de Entre Rios, Argentina y hasta
las vertientes orientales de los Andes en la region
centro-sur de Bolivia. Cabe destacar que a pesar de
citar a la provincia de Entre Rios, Argentina, no
destaca localidad alguna en el Ap6ndice II del trabajo.
La finica referencia, y como mas austral para
Argentina, la constitute la 149 (Isla Yuruhatd,
Corrientes, 28017'S, 59007'W). Destacan que las dos
species (A. caraya y A. fusca) Ilegan a traspasar el
paralelo de 300, en el estado de Rio Grande del Sur,
Brasil y Argentina (A. caraya), reconocido por
Hershkovitz (1977) como limited meridional de este

La amplia distribuci6n geografica del genero la
sustentan por la combinaci6n de factors como:
capacidad de los individuos de habitar areas abiertas
y cruzar barreras ecol6gicas, habitos alimentarios no
especializados y alta fecundidad.

Di Bitetti et al. (1994), haciendo referencia a Rumiz
(1990), indican que "el aullador negro vive en muy
fragmentadas y perturbadas florestas y tiene una gran
capacidad para dispersarse y colonizar manchas y
remanentes de floresta en la region del chaco
boliviano. Altas densidades de aulladores negros son
mantenidos en las islas del rio Parana con una
vegetaci6n de crecimiento secundario y una baja
concentraci6n de components secundarios."


La distribuci6n geografica en paises limitrofes como
Argentina y Brasil muestran una relative proximidad
de grupos salvajes de A. caraya. La no especificidad
de su dieta que incluye una important fracci6n de
hojas, la posibilidad de desplazamiento a trav6s de
Areas abiertas, el trasponer barreras ecol6gicas y el
Area de capture del ejemplar citado, que coincide con
la isoterma mas alta para el promedio 1946-1970, asi
como con la mayor isoyeta (1300 Its/m) en el mismo
period (Lafitte, 1980), sugeririan la possible
ocurrencia de esta forma en nuestro territorio. La
presencia de un primate, hasta el moment no citado
en ninguna lista sistemitica dentro de la literature
mastozool6gica uruguaya, de confirmarse, ameritaria
paralelemente medidas de protecci6n en lo que
respect al hAbitat. Zonas muy pr6ximas como el Valle
del Lunarejo, no se encuentran protegidas y poseen
caracteristicas naturales excepcionales.

A. caraya estA incluida en el Ap6ndice II de CITES y
goza de protecci6n en los paises con poblaciones
estables, integrantes de la Convenci6n.

J. S. Villalba, C. M. Prigioni y A. C. Sappa, Edificio
Palacio Central, Av. Libertador 1623/1204, 11.100
Montevideo, Uruguay.

Bicca-Marques, J. C. y Calegaro-Marques, C. 1994.
Twins or adoption? Neotropical Primates 2(3): 6-
Di Bitetti, M. S., Placci, G., Brown, A. D. y Rode, D.
I. 1994. Conservation and population status of the
brown howling monkey (Alouattafusca clamitans)
in Argentina. Neotropical Primates 2(4): 1-4.
Hershkovitz, P. 1977. Living New World Monkeys
(Platyrrhini), With an Introduction to Primates, Vol-
ume 1. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Hirsch, A., Landau, A. C., Tedeschi, M. de y
Menegheti, J. O. 1991. Estudo comparative das
esp6cies do g6nero Alouatta Lacdpede, 1799
(Platyrrhini, Atelidae) e sua distribuigao geogrdfica
na America do Sul. In: A Primatologia no Brasil -
3, A. B. Rylands y A. T. Bernardes (eds.), pp. 239-
262. Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia y
Fundagao Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte.
Laffitte, A. 1980. Inventario Nacional para Selecci6n
de Nuevas Areas para Parques Nacionales. Tesis,
Facultad de Agronomia, Universidad de la
Republica Oriental del Uruguay. 138pp.
Mittermeier, R. A. y Coimbra-Filho, A. F. 1977. Pri-
mate conservation in Brazilian Amazonia. In: Pri-
mate Conservation, H.S.H Prince Rainier III ofMo-
naco y G. Bourne, pp.117-166. Academic Press,
New York.
Nowak, R. M. y Paradiso, J. L. 1983. Walker's Mam-
mals ofthe World. Vol. 1. 4th Edition. Johns Hopkins
University Press, Baltimore and London.
Redford, K. H. y Eisenberg, J. F. 1992. Mammals of
the Neotropics. The Southern Cone. Vol. 2. Chile
Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay. Chicago Uni-
versity Press, Chicago.
Rumiz, D. I. 1990. Alouatta caraya: population den-
sity and demography in northern Argentina. Am. J.
Primatol. 21: 279-294.


The red-handed howler, Alouatta belzebul, is endemic
to Brazil and has a disjunct distribution, being found
mainly in eastern Amazonia but also in the
northeastern Atlantic forest, an area today separated
from the Amazon by wide expanses of dry caatinga
(thorn scrub) and cerrado (bush savanna). The
majority of localities are from the south bank of the
Rio Amazonas, east of the Rio Purus, but records
extend east as far as Miritiba, Maranhao, and south
and east into the states ofCeara, Alagoas and Paraiba
(Bonvicino, 1989; Bonvicino et al., 1989, Langguth
et al., 1987).

Neotropical Primates 3(4), December]995

Page 174

Page 175 Neotropical Primates 3(4), December1995

Figure 1. Map showing the location of Agua Preta in the state of
Pernambuco, Brazil.

The four subspecies recognized are Alouatta belzebul
belzebul, A. b. discolor, A. b. nigerrima, and A. b.
ululata (see Hill, 1962; Bonvicino et al., 1989).
Chromosome studies, taken together with phenotype
and field observations, suggest, however, that A. b.
belzqbul is phenotypically variable in respect to pelage
coloration, which is, therefore, unreliable for
identification of the subspecies (Armada et al., 1987).
Relatively minor phenotypic differences have been
observed in animals which are karyotypically
divergent. The possibility remains that the disjunct
Amazonian and northeastern Brazilian populations
may be different subspecies.

The red-handed howler was first registered for the
Atlantic forest of Pernambuco by Marcgrave and Piso
in 1648 (Marcgrave, 1648). No further report of its
existence in the region was forthcoming over the
following 346 years. During primate surveys in the
north-east of Brazil, Langguth et al. (1987) discovered
a few surviving populations in the states of Paraiba
and Alagoas, and also registered the existence of
specimens collected in the state in the state of CearA.
Recently this species has also been recorded in the
southernmost tip of the state of Rio Grande do Norte
(M. de F. Arruda, pers .comm.).

Further populations of A. b. belzebul were located
during surveys of primate distributions in the state of

Pernambuco in 1987 and 1988. The first was a report
of howling monkeys in two patches of forest
belonging to the Sacramento Sugar Mill, the "Grota
da Ferrugem" and "Grota do Inferno", in the
municipality of Agua Preta (08042'S, 35024'W, see
Fig. 1). In 1993, eight trips, each of 3-8 days, were
made to this area in order to obtain information on
these groups. A total of 364 hours were spent
searching for the monkeys, but only one group was
seen (six times) in the larger of the two forests, the
Grota do Inferno, of about 180 ha. Local people
reported that A. belzebul occurred in three other forest
patches on the property, all surrounded by sugar cane
plantations (Almeida et al., 1994). Two other primates
were observed in these forest patches, Cebus apella
(believed to be the subspecies libidinosus), and
Callithrixjacchus, and as such are the only forests in
the state known to have three primate species
(Almeida et al., 1994).

Hunting for food is a common practice in the region,
and game include medium-sized birds such as Spix's
guan (Penelope sp.), the channel-billed toucan
(Ramphastos vitellinus), and especially such
mammals such as Mazama gouazoubira, Tayassu
spp., Agouti paca, Euphractus sexcinctus, and
Tamandua tetradactyla. Primates are also killed
occasionally, and an adult howling monkey was shot
in June 1993.

Further surveys will be carried out by the non-
governmental organization Centro Faune and the
Natural History Museum of the Federal Rural
University of Pernambuco in order to document the
now scarce and little-known fauna of the state
(Almeida et al., 1990, 1992). Environmental
education projects have already been set up in order
to promote the protection of the forests in the property
of the Sacramento Sugar Mill, and will hopefully
improve the dim prospects for the survival of this
small, but important population of howling monkeys.

Acknowledgments: We are grateful to the owners of
the Sacramento Sugar Mill, Agua Preta, Pernambuco.
The surveys were supported by the Conselho Nacional
de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnol6gico
(CNPq), Brasilia, the Universidade Federal Rural of
Pernambuco, and the Centro Faune, Recife.

Roberval T. Almeida, Domingos S. Pimentel and
Edmilson M. S. Silva, Centro Faune, Rua Rio
Solimoes 231, Areias, 50780-231 Recife,
Pernambuco, Brazil.

Almeida, R. T. and Silva, F. J. L. 1990. DistribuigAo
da fauna primatol6gica no estado de Pernambuco,

Neotropical Primates 3 (4), December] 995

Page 175

Neotropical Primates 3(4), December1995 Page 176

Regiao Nordeste do Brasil. In: Resumos. VIII
Encontro de Zoologia do Nordeste, p.5. Universidade
Federal de Sergipe, Aracaji.
Almeida, R. T., Pimentel D. S. and Silva, F. J. L. 1992.
Mamiferos ameaqados de extinlco do estado de
Pernambuco. In: Resumos. IXEncontro de Zoologia
do Nordeste, p.146. Universidade Federal de
Pernambuco, Recife.
Almeida, R. T., Pimentel D. S. and Silva, E. M. S.
1994. Guariba-de-mao-ruiva Alouatta belzebul
belzebul no estado de Pernambuco. In: Resumos. XX
Congress Brasileiro de Zoologia, p.143.
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de
Armada, J. L. A, Barroso, C. M. L., Lima, M. M. C.,
Muniz, J. A. P. C. and Seuanez, H. N. 1987. Chro-
mosome studies in Alouatta belzebul. Am. J.
Primatol. 13: 283-296.
Bonvicino, C. R. 1989. Ecologia e comportamento de
Alouatta belzebul (Primates: Cebidae) na Mata
Atlantica. Rev. Nordestina Biol. 6(2): 149-179.
Bonvicino, C. R., Langguth, A. and Mittermeier, R.
A. 1984. A study of pelage color and geographic
distribution in Alouatta belzebul (Primates: Cebidae).
Rev. Nordestina Biol. 6(2): 139-148.
Hill, W. C. 0. 1962. Primates: Comparative Anatomy
and Taxonomy V. Cebidae Part B. Edinburgh Uni-
versity Press, Edinburgh.
Langguth, A., Teixeira, D. M., Mittermeier, R. A. and
Bonvicino, C. R. 1987. The red-handed howler mon-
key in northeastern Brazil. Primate Conservation (8):
Marcgrave, G. 1648. Historiae Rerum Naturalium
Brasiliae. Libri sextus: De Quadrupedibus et
Serpentibus. Leiden and Amsterdam. 293pp.


The red-handed howling monkey, Alouatta belzebul,
has a wide geographic distribution which includes a
large part of the lower Amazon, south of the Rio
Amazonas, in the states of Amazonas, Para, and
Maranhao, and also North-east Brazil (Hill, 1962; see
also Hirsch et al., 1991). Langguth et al. (1987) and
Bonvicino et al. (1989) reviewed the distribution of
this species and the sparse information available
regarding the non-Amazonian part of its range. They
listed records for the coastal regions of the states of
CearA, Paraiba and Alagoas (Fig. 1), and indicated that
the original range also included Piaui, Rio Grande do
Norte, and Pernambuco, and that the southern limit to
the Atlantic forest population was the Rio Sao
Francisco. They argued that the similarity in pelage

coloration with Amazonian populations of A. b.
belzebul indicates that the connections between the
now disjunct populations were through the interior,
western portions of these states as well as along the
coast. Since these reviews, further, very small,
remnant populations have been recorded for the states
of Pernambuco and Rio Grande do Norte, again near
the coast (Fig. 1). Due to the widespread and almost
total destruction of the Atlantic forest of North-east
Brazil information concerning the extent of its non-
Amazonian distribution is extremely scarce and
difficult to obtain.

The first reference to A. belzebul was by Marcgrave
(1648) who obtained specimens from rain forest in
the state of Pernambuco. Two-hundred and sixty-six
years later, Marcgrave (1648) was probably the source
that led Ihering (1914) to give the Rio Sao Francisco
as the southern limit to its distribution, besides the
fact that extensive rain forest still existed along the
coast of Alagoas at the beginning of the century.
Ihering's (1914) supposition was endorsed by Hill
(1962) who, lacking further concrete information
however, merely placed an arrow on the distribution
map for the genus (opposite p.136), which extended
the range of A. b. ululata, otherwise known from
coastal Maranhao.

As was recorded by Ihering (1914) and Bonvicino et
al. (1989), Burmeister (1854) registered the
distribution of the brown howling monkey, A. fusca,
as extending north in the Atlantic forest as far as the
Rio Sao Francisco. The presence of gallery forests
along the tributaries of the Rio Sao Francisco in the
16th Century would indicate that both species
extended well inland, and that a large part of the basin
was occupied by howling monkeys: A. fusca along
its right margin and A. belzebul along its left margin.
A. fusca is extinct throughout a large part of Bahia,
with very small populations possibly still surviving
only in the southernmost regions of the state, but in
the past it undoubtedly occupied gallery forests and
forests along the slopes of the mountain ranges inland,
from the coast as far west as the Rio Sao Francisco,
in regions which are today characterized by semi-
desert scrub.

The survival of A. belzebul in North-east Brazil was
first documented during an expedition of Oliv6rio
Pinto to Alagoas in 1967, when two specimens were
collected in the forest of the Usina Sinimbu, although
this fact was only recorded in 1981 by Silva (p.899).
Nearly a decade later, Paiva (1973, 1974) referred to
the existence of howling monkeys in Ceara, but
confused A. belzebul with the black howling monkey,
A. caraya, typical of central and southern Brazil.
Coimbra-Filho and Maia (1979) were also mistaken

Page 176

Neotropical Primates 3(4), December,1995

Neotropical Primates 3(4), December]995

I V_____ If_______I
Figure 1. Confirmed (closed circles) or supposed (open circles) localities for Alouatta
belzebul in the north-east of Brazil. The distribution ofA.fusca is believed to have included
the entire area south of the right margin of the Rio Sao Francisco. The localities marked
with an open circle are those which have the name of"Guariba" or "Guaribas" and which
we argue indicate the existence in the past of howler monkeys. Gazetteer: 1. Imperatriz,
Maranhao (MNRJ); 2. Barra do Corda, Maranhao (MZUSP); 3. Miritiba, Maranhao (MNRJ);
4. Boa Vista, Maranhlo (MZUSP); 5. Goiabeira, GranjA, Ceara (MNRJ); 6. Bom Jardim,
Sao Benedito, Ceara (MNRJ); 7. Cinta Sulidon, Sao Benedito, Ceart (MNRJ) and 8. Mata
da Estrela, Baia Formosa, Rio Grande do Norte (M. da F. Arruda, UFRN, unpubl. data); 9.
Angico, PamaguA, Piaui, specimens cited by Neiva and Penna (1916) which have not been
located; 10a. Usina Sao Joso (Mata do Acude dos Reis, Mata de Jacuipe and Mata do
Acude Cafund6), Usina Miriri (Grota dos Dois Rios) and Usina Santana (Mata da Usina
Santana), Santa Rita, Paraiba (Oliveira and Oliveira, 1993); 10b. Fazenda Pacatuba, Sap6,
Paraiba (UFPB); 11. Usina Sacramento, Agua Preta, Pemambuco (Almeida et al., 1995);
12. Serra Branca, Murici, Alagoas (MNRJ); 13. Usina Sinimbu, Alagoas (MZUSP).
Locations 1-7, 10b, 12-13 are cited by Langguth etal. (1987), Bonvicino(1989), Bonvicino
et al. (1989) and Hirsch et al. (1991). Abbreviations: MNRJ Museu Nacional, Rio de
Janeiro; MZUSP Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo; UFPB -
Universidade Federal da Paraiba; UFRN Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte.
Places with names including "Guariba" or "Guaribas": 14. Vila dos Guaribas (Spix and
Martius, 1938); 15. Serra dos Guaribas (IBGE, 1972); 16. Olho d'Agua dos Guaribas
(Coimbra-Filho and Maia, 1979); 17. Rio dos Guaribas (IBGE, 1972); 18. Serra do Apodi
ou dos Guaribas (Spix and Martius, 1938).

in suggesting the possibility ofA. caraya occurring Oliveira (1
in the Sete Cidades National Park, Piaui. The Brazilian secondary i
common name for howling monkeys is guariba. There surveyed in
are a number of localities around this Park which bear Joao Pessoa
this name and local people informed that howling and private
monkeys occurred there in the past. Coimbra-Filho resident in t
and Maia (1979) failed to see the monkeys, and the a view to pr
already advanced destruction of the remaining forest, Environmen
and the widespread hunting and fires, indicated that Biological F

A. belzebul, undoubtedly the species
in question, was probably already
extinct there.

Numerous localities in the north-
eastern Brazilian states of Piaui, CearA
and Rio Grande do Norte have the
name of Guariba or Guaribas
(Vanzolini and Papavero, 1968). It is
reasonable, as such, to presume that
A. belzebul once occurred throughout
the north-east, to the left margin of the
Rio Sao Francisco. This coincides with
the distribution map presented by
Emmons and Feer (1990, p.125).
Today, however, A. belzebul
populations have been eliminated by
the decimation of their forests and a
long history of hunting, and only a few
minute remnant populations in the
coastal region remain. In 1979, A.
Langguth discovered a small
population in a rain forest remnant in
the state of Parafba, at the Fazenda
Pacatuba, municipality of Sap6. In
1984, an ornithological expedition
organized by the National Museum,
Rio de Janeiro, resulted in the
collection of specimens by F. M. de
Oliveira, from Serra Branca,
municipality of Murici, Alagoas
(Coimbra-Filho, 1984; Langguth et
al., 1987; Bonvicino et al., 1989).
Numerous populations probably
existed in Alagoas as recently as 1970,
up to which time the last forests of the
state were being cut down for sugar
cane plantations. This included the
forest of Sao Miguel dos Campos, one
of the richest remaining forests of the
northeastern Atlantic coast in terms of
biodiversity, and now destroyed
(Coimbra-Filho, 1971).

The discovery of the populations in
Paraiba and Alagoas stimulated the
search for further sites. Oliveira and
993) found howling monkeys in five
forestt patches amongst 17 which were
the coastal region near to and north of
. All are very small, degraded, isolated
ly-owned, and the minute populations
hem are as such highly vulnerable. With
oviding for their protection, the Brazilian
it Institute (Ibama) created the Guaribas
Reserve (4321 ha), in the municipalities

Page 177

Neotropical Primates 3(4), December1995

of Mamanguape and Rio Tinto. Despite its name, no
howling monkeys have survived there, but plans are
underway to translocate groups from the other sites
where there are no prospects for their future. Surveys
in the state ofPernambuco have resulted in the finding
of a population in two forest patches at the Usina
Sacramento, in the municipality of Agua Preta,
Pernambuco (Almeida et al., 1995), and also in the
Mata da Estrela, municipality of Baia Formosa, Rio
Grande do Norte, on the coast near to the state border
with Paraiba (M. da F. Arruda, unpubl. data).

Perhaps the most important locality, reinforcing the
argument that A. belzebul and its forests were until
recently widespread throughout the north-east of
Brazil, and which has not been included in the
literature concerning its range, is in the south of the
state of Piaui. During an expedition for medical and
natural history purposes carried out in 1912, Neiva
and Penna (1916, p.106) observed bands of howling
monkeys, described as black with the upper surface
of the hands yellowish, in the locality of Angico,
municipality of Parnagud. Specimens collected at the
time were identified as Alouatta belzebul (Linnaeus,
1766). This locality, along with those mentioned
above, and the numerous places which have the name
of Guariba, demonstrates that the original distribution
of A. belzebul extended throughout the north-east of
Brazil, and confirms the supposition of Ihering (1914)
that it once extended as far south as the Rio Sio
Francisco. Ihering (1914), however, did not extend
the range beyond Alagoas, possibly because of the
absence of forests resulting from the long history of
destructive occupation of the region. The record of
Neiva and Penna (1916) indicates that the species
occurred throughout Pernambuco, to the west and
south as far as at least southernmost Piaui, and, as
mentioned, the most precise published description of
the range of this species is given by Emmons and
Feer (1990, p.125).

Although the expedition carried out by Neiva and
Penna (1916) was at the beginning of the century, the
vegetation of the north-east of Brazil had already
undergone profound alterations. The presence of A.
belzebul in southern Piaui represents important
evidence for the historic existence of a forest
continuum between Amazonian and Atlantic forests
in the Brazilian North-east (Coimbra-Filho and
C&mara, in press).

Adelmar F. Coimbra-Filho, CNPq Research Fellow,
Rua Artur Araripe 60/901, Gdvea, 22451-020 Rio de
Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Ibsen de Gusmio Camara,
Fundaao Brasileira para a Conservagio da Natureza
(FBCN), Rua Miranda Valverde 103, Botafogo,
22281-000 Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, and

Page 178

Anthony B. Rylands, Departamento de Zoologia,
Institute de Ciencias Biol6gicas, Universidade Federal
de Minas Gerais, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas
Gerais, Brazil.

Almeida, R. T., Pimentel, D. S. and Silva, E. M. S.
1995. The red-handed howling monkey, Alouatta
belzebul, in the state of Pernambuco, North-east
Brazil. Neotropical Primates 3(4): 174-176
Bonvicino, C. R. 1989. Ecologia e comportamento
de Alouatta belzebul (Primates: Cebidae) na Mata
Atlantica. Rev. Nordestina Biol. 6(2): 149-179.
Bonvicino, C. R., Langguth, A. and Mittermeier, R.
A. 1989. A study of the pelage color and geographic
distribution in Alouatta belzebul (Primates:
Cebidae). Rev. Nordestina Biol. 6(2): 139-148.
Coimbra-Filho, A. F. 1971. Tres formas da avifauna
do Nordeste do Brasil ameacadas de extinqlo:
Tinamus solitarius pernambucensis Berla, 1946,
Mitu m. mitu (Linnaeus, 1766) e Procnias a. averano
(Hermann, 1733). Rev. Brasil. Biol. 31(2): 239-247.
Coimbra-Filho, A. F. 1984. Situagio da fauna na
floresta Atlantica. Bol. FBCN, Rio de Janeiro, 19:
Coimbra-Filho, A. F. and Maia, A. de A. 1979.
Preliminares acerca da fauna no Parque Nacional
de Sete Cidades, estado do Piaui. Bol. FBCN, Rio
de Janeiro, 14: 42-61.
Coimbra-Filho, A. F. and Camara I. de G. In press.
Os Limites Originals do Bioma Mata Atldntica na
Regido Nordeste do Brasil.
Emmons, L. H. and Feer, F. 1990. Neotropical
Rainforest Mammals; A Field Guide. Chicago Uni-
versity Press, Chicago.
Hill, W. C. 0. 1962. Primates. Comparative Anatomy
and Taxonomy V. Cebidae, Part B. Edinburgh Uni-
versity Press, Edinburgh.
Hirsch, A., Landau, E. C., Tedeschi, A. C.de M.,
Menegheti, J. 0. 1991. Estudo comparative das
esp6cies do genero Alouatta Lacdpbde, 1799
(Platyrrhini, Atelidae) e sua distribuigao geogrifica
na Amdrica do Sul. In: A Primatologia no Brasil -
3, A. B. Rylands and A.T. Bernardes (eds.), pp.239-
262. Fundagao Biodiversitas and Sociedade
Brasileira de Primatologia, Belo Horizonte.
IBGE. 1972. Carta do Brasil ao Miliondsimo.
Fundaqfo Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e
Estastica (IBGE), Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia
(IBG), Rio de Janeiro.
Ihering, H. von. 1914. Os bugios do genero Alouatta.
Rev. Mus. Paulista, 9: 231-280.
Langguth, A., Teixeira, D. M., Mittermeier, R. A. and
Bonvicino, C. 1987. The red-handed howler mon-
key in northeastern Brazil. Primate Conservation
(8): 36-39.

Page 179 Neofropical Primates 3(4), December1995

Marcgrave, G. 1648. Historiae Rerum Naturalium
Brasiliae, Libri Sextus: De Quadrupedibus et
Serpentibus. 287pp. Amsterdam.
Neiva, A. and Penna, B. 1916. Viagem cientifica pelo
norte da Bahia, sudoeste de Pernambuco, sul do
Piauhi e de norte a sul de Goiaz. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo
Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, 8(3): 74-224.
Oliveira, M. M. de and Oliveira, J. C. C. 1993. A
situagdo dos cebideos como indicador do estado de
conservaqao da Mata Atlantica no estado da Paraiba,
Brasil. In: A Primatologia no Brasil 4, M. E.
Yamamoto and M. B. C. de Souza (eds.), pp.155-
167. Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia, Natal.
Paiva, M. P. 1973. Distribuicgo e abundancia de
alguns mamiferos selvagens no estado do Ceara.
Cignc. e Cult. 25(5): 442-450.
Paiva, M. P. 1974. Algumas consideragqes sobre a
fauna da regiao semi-arida do nordeste brasileiro.
Rev. Inst. Cear6 93: 187-205.
Silva Jr. E. C. da 1981. Preliminary survey of brown
howler monkeys (Alouatta fusca) at the Cantareira
Reserve (Sao Paulo, Brazil). Rev. Brasil. Biol. 41(4):
Spix, J.B., and Martius, C.F.P von. 1938. Viagempelo
Brasil. Translation by L. F. Lahmeyer. 4 vols.
Institute Hist6rico e Geografico Brasileiro, Rio de
Vanzolini, P. E. and Papavero, N. 1968. Indice dos
Topdnimos Contidos na Carta do Brasil
1:1.000. 000 do IBGE. FAPESP, Sio Paulo. 201pp.


The aggressive interactions between primates that live
in social groups varies in form and intensity according
to the species, social organization, and habitat type.
Aggressive behavior can involve fights over food,
water, and sites for resting and feeding (Calegaro-
Marques and Bicca-Marques, 1994). Howler monkeys
are considered to be a peaceful species in terms of
group interactions as a result of their adaptation to a
folivorous diet, where the presence of anti-
herbivorous defenses impose selective forces that
constrain the use of aggressive behavior (Jones, 1980;
Calegaro-Marques and Bicca-Marques, 1994).

In Alouatta, both sexes obtain benefits through
intrasexual aggressive competence, maintaining as
such the possibility of entering and remaining in a
stable group. This is a prerequisite for reproductive
success in this genus (Crockett and Pope, 1988;
Calegaro-Marques and Bicca-Marques, 1994).
Solitary individuals, males or females that leave their

natal groups, are found in A. caraya as for other
species. The howlers may leave a group because of
intense intrasexual competition which can limit group
size. Non-stable groups promote dispersal (Neville
et al., 1988). Solitary individuals are subadults or
young adults that are forced to occupy marginal zones
ofthe habitat, with low availability ofresources. They
may join an established group or form a new one with
other solitary animals, and compete as such for sites
with adequate availability of food sources (Zunino et
al., 1985).

The arrival of immigrant males in established groups
is interpreted as an invasion with fights between
males. The encounters can result in: coexistence with
the residents, the replacement of the dominant male,
or the withdrawal of the invader (Rumiz, 1990). The
replacement ofthe dominant male has been associated
with infanticide and the disappearance of infants in
several howler species (Clarke, 1983; Zunino et al.,
1985; Rumiz, 1990; Galetti, 1994). Howling occurs
in a variety of contexts, and is believed to act as a
mechanism of communication, spacing, and territory
defense (Baldwin and Baldwin, 1976; Jones, 1980;
Sekulic, 1982).

Behavioral observations on A. caraya were made
during of a study of seed dispersal in forest patches
in the Province of Corrientes in northeastern
Argentina(270 30'S 58 41' W), during August 1994
(Figure 1). One forest fragment (10 ha) was occupied
by a group of nine howlers comprised of: one adult
male (male A), two subadult males, three adult
females, one juvenile female, and two infants. When
an adult male (B) strange to the troop appeared, we
began to observe aggressive interactions. During the
first three days, the strange male B remained 20-30
m from the troop. Subsequently, he began moving
closer to the group, and the male A, followed by the
other males, chased the male B for about 250 m into
low forest. The females did not participate, and
remained where they were until the chase finished,
about 1-2 hours later, after which they rejoined the

When the resident males returned, the male B began
to follow the group at a distance of 23-30 m. Each
time the male B approached, it resulted in a series of
vocalizations, involving all of the group members.
On the fourth day, the male B was observed to descend
to the ground, and ran for about 25 m, followed by
the male A. On day 6 there was a fight between males
A and B when the male B again approached the group,
coming to within about 1 m of an adult female (about
1 m) and an infant (about 0.5 m). This resulted in
vocalizations and chasing, but this time the male B
did not retreat, and attacked male A. They hung from

Neotropical Primates 3(4), December.1995

Page 179

Neotropical Primates 3(4), December1995 Page 180

their tails and the fight resulted in injuries to both.
When male B, smaller than male A, freed himself, he
jumped to the ground and was chased for about 50
m. During the following days, male B disappeared,
along with a subordinate adult female, but we were
unable to discover if they were together.

Another forest patch of 12 ha was inhabited by a group
ofA. caraya, also comprised of nine individuals: one
adult male, two subadult males, three adult females,
one juvenile female, and two infants. When an adult
male and an adult female appeared in a strip of forest
about 90 m from the group, it began a series of
vocalizations towards the pair. On the following day,
the group came to the ground and went to the forest
strip through the grassland. Although the infants were
already independent, they were carried dorsally by
the adult females. The group remained in the forest
strip for four days.

The presence of injuries is connected with the
intrasexual competition and the acquisition and
maintenance of status in the group. Aggression
between males and females is rare and has been
observed in infant defense from immigrant males
(Crockett and Pope, 1988). Infanticide in mammals
may be interpreted in a variety of ways, including,
for example, sexual selection. This hypothesis predicts
that the infanticidal male may be an invader or a
member of the family group that has risen in the
hierarchy. Killing infants would reduce the
reproductive success of competitors, as well
increasing the infanticidal male's success as the
females involved become receptive in a shorter time.
Another hypothesis tries to explain this behavior
through competition for food resources, where the
death of non-related individuals would result in an

increase of resource availability to the infanticidal
individuals and their offspring (Hrdy, 1979; Rudran,
1979). If infanticide occurs frequently it will represent
as such an important source of mortality. During 1984
in our study area, infanticide and infant disappearance
represented 25% of mortality for the population
(Zunino et al., 1985). When populations reach a low
density, male replacement and the infanticide become
less frequent, along with a return to population growth
(Hrdy, 1979; Rudran, 1979). In A. caraya, infanticide
and dominant male replacement are correlated with
an increase in density through the increase of the
number of solitary males (Zunino etal., 1985; Galetti,
1994). The elimination of non-related infants would
have a double effect, on the one hand, the females
become fertile in less time, and on the other, this
reduces the number of potential competitors for its
descendants. Male replacement may also contribute
to reduce the inbreeding, increasing the genetic
variability in the groups (Zunino et al., 1985).

We observed agonistic interactions caused principally
by the expression of intrasexual competition, but also
for the most profitable feeding sites. We believe that
competition in our study site may increase due to
progressive deforestation, which is resulting in an
alarming reduction of the habitat available for A.
caraya, and predicting a future reduction in the
ecological density (Zunino et al., 1994; Amaya Santi
et al., 1994). If habitat reduction acts as a stressor,
the rate of aggression may increase, along with the
number of dispersing individuals (Jones, 1980), but
this has to be confirmed. We are presently looking
for a relation between habitat destruction and

Acknowledgments: We thank the personnel at
CAPRIM, who have made this study possible. This
work was supported by personal funds.

Martin Kowalewski, Susana P. Bravo, and Gabriel
E. Zunino, Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales,
Div. Mastozoologia, Av. Angel Gallardo 470, 1405
Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Amaya Santi, M., Kowalewski, M. and Ruiz, J. C.
1994. Comparaci6n de metodos de censado por
transecta en monos aulladores (Alouatta caraya) en
areas fraccionadas. 9nas. Jornadas de
Mastozoologia, Sociedad Argentina para el Estudio
de los Mamiferos, Pcia. de C6rdoba.
Baldwin, J. D. and Baldwin J. I. 1976. Vocalizations
of howler monkeys (Alouattapalliata) in southwest-
ern Panama. Folia Primatol. 26: 81-108.
Calegaro-Marques, C. and Bicca-Marques, J. C. 1994.
Comportamento agressivo em um grupo de bugios

Neotropical Primates 3(4), December1995

Page 180

Page 181

pretos, Alouatta caraya (Primates, Cebidae). In:
Abstracts. VI Congresso Brasileiro de
Primatologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de
Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro.
Clarke, M. R 1983. Infant-killing and infant disap-
pearance following male takeovers in a group of
free-ranging howling monkeys (Alouattapalliata)
in Costa Rica. Am. J. Primatol. 5: 241-247.
Crockett, C. M. and Pope, T. 1988. Inferring pat-
terns of aggression from red howler monkey inju-
ries. Am. J. Primatol. 15: 289-308.
Galetti, M. 1994. Infanticide in the brown howler
monkey, Alouatta fusca. Neotropical Primates
2(4): 6-7.
Hrdy, S. B. 1979. Infanticide among animals: a re-
view classification, and examination of the impli-
cations for reproductive strategies of females.
Ethol. Sociobiol. 1: 13-40.
Jones, C. B. 1980. The function of status in the
mantled howler monkey, A. palliata Gray; in-
traspecific competition for group membership in
a folivorous Neotropical primate. Primates
Neville, M. R., Glander, K. E., Braza, F. and
Rylands, A. B. 1988. The howling monkey, ge-
nus Alouatta. In: Ecology and Behavior of Neo-
tropical Primates, Vol. 2, R. A. Mittermeier, A.
B. Rylands, A. F. Coimbra-Filho and G. A. B. da
Fonseca (eds.), pp.349-453. World Wildlife Fund,
Washington, D.C.
Rudran, R. 1979. The demography and social mo-
bility of a red howler (Alouatta seniculus) popu-
lation in Venezuela. In: Vertebrate Ecology in the
Northern Neotropics, J. F. Eisenberg (ed.), pp. 107-
126. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington,
Rumiz, D. 1. 1990. Alouatta caraya: population den-
sity and demography in northern Argentina. Am.
J. Primatol. 21(4):279-294.
Sekulic, R. 1982. Daily and seasonal patterns of roar-
ing and spacing in four red howler, Alouatta
seniculus, troops. Folia Primatol. 39:222-248.
Zunino, G. E., Chalukian, S. C. and Rumiz, D. I.
1985. Infanticidio y desaparici6n de infants
asociados al reemplazo de machos en grupos de
Alouatta caraya. In: A Primatologia no Brasil-2,
M. T. de Mello (ed.), pp.185-190. Sociedade
Brasileira de Primatologia, Brasilia.
Zunino, G. E., Reisenman, C. E., Bravo, S. P. and
Ferreira, F. M. 1994. Habitat y estructura
poblacional del mono aullador negro (Alouatta
caraya, Primates, Cebidae) en el noreste de la Ar-
gentina. In: Abstracts. VICongresso Brasileiro de
Primatologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de
Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro

Neotropical Primates 3(4), December1995


The genus Alouatta (Primates, Atelidae) includes six
different species, with a wide distribution in South
and Central America (James et al., 1993). Of these,
the brown howling monkey (Alouatta fusca) is
endemic to the Atlantic Coastal Forest being found
from Bahia, Espirito Santo and Minas Gerais (Brazil)
south to Missiones (Argentina), and comprises two
subspecies: A. fuscafusca and A. fusca clamitans.

Koiffmann (1977) reported a variation in the diploid
number ofA.fusca from 48 to 50. The diploid number
of 48 chromosomes was found in a single male from
Registro (southern part of the state of Sao Paulo),
heterozygotic for two Robertsonian rearrangements.
The same author reported males with 2n = 49, due to
a y-autosome translocation, and males and females
with 2n = 50.


Blood samples of ten specimens of Alouattafusca,
eight males and two females from different localities
(Table 1), were collected using heparinized plastic
syringes. Lymphocytes were cultivated for 72 hours
in RPMI medium, enriched with fetal calf serum at.
20% and Phytohemagglutinin at 2%. The
chromosome analyses were performed by G-C-NOR
banding procedures (Seabright, 1971; Sumner, 1972;
Howel and Black, 1980).

Results and Discussion

The chromosome complement of Alouatta fusca
showed a wide variation in the diploid number, with
2n = 45, 46, 49 and 52. This variation may be
associated with the geographic origin of each
individual (Table 1).

6U, i t gi
3 4

5R AF x

"r at.


Np A 4 f L6 Lb
b. Pq 2-. 2.

Figure 1. Karyotype of Alouattafusca from southern Brazil.

Neotropical Primates 3(4), Decemberl99S Page 182

Table 1 Procedence and diploid number of the
specimens of A. fusca analyzed in this study.
Sex Procedence Diploid Number
Male Espirito Santo 52
Male Rio de Janeiro 49
Male Rio de Janeiro 49
Male Rio de Janeiro 49
Male Rio de Janeiro 49
Female Santa Catarina 46
Female Santa Catarina 46
Male Parand 45
Male Parana 45
Male Parana 45

The karyotype of the specimens from southern Brazil
comprised 45 chromosomes in the males, and 46 in
the females (Fig. 1). The analysis of the G-banded
chromosomes of the males, compared to those of the
females, allowed us to assume that this variation was
due to a y-autosome translocation involving a large
submetacentric pair. This rearrangement was also
observed in the four males from the state of Rio de
Janeiro, which showed 2n = 49 (Fig. 2), with a
heteromorphic submetacentric pair, not found in
previously reported karyotypes of females
(Koiffmann, 1977). The only male from the state of
Espirito Santo had 52 chromosomes, with a small

I i I tU It
,; ic , r

t, < At *6 a ti|

&A 1b A

Figure 2. Karyotype of Alouattafusca, male, from Rio de Janeiro.

acrocentric y-chromosome (Fig. 3).

G-banded karyotypes of2n = 45 and 46 and 2n = 49
were compared. Unfortunately, we did not succeed
in banding the karyotype with 2n = 52. Based-onr
this comparison, we could clearly identify two
Robertsonian rearrangements (fusion/fission), as
well as pericentric inversions. Moreover, some
chromosomes found in the southern karyotype could
not easily be recognized in 2n = 49, suggesting that
complex rearrangements, such as multiple
translocations, were also involved in the
differentiation of these two cytotypes. We assume

Al A8 (I A k .AA sx
5 2 3 4 6 ? a

I 13 &4 16 id 17 W

A* t 4'e.> 4f hd A ah 4
It 19 21 2 2 .1 D 24 Z
Figure 3. Karyotype of Alouattafusca, male, from Espirito Santo.

that Robertsonian rearrangements and pericentric
inversions have played a critical role in the
chromosomal evolution of this species.

Although the chromosomal variation in A. fusca
seems to be clinal, and agrees with the clinal variation
found in the hair color patterns, (R. Gregorin, pers.
comm.), the results of the chromosome comparisons
suggest that the populations analyzed are in different
stages of speciation, and probably reproductively
isolated, due to meiotic disturbances. A complete
failure to hybridize, or the production of hybrids
presenting reduced fertility or complete sterility would
indicate that the parents belong to different species.
Although meiotic and crossbreeding studies should
be carried out to confirm our hypothesis, we suggest
that the different cytotypes found in Alouattafusca
are reproductively isolated, with hybrids presenting
very low fertility, if not complete sterility. We suggest
that the taxonomy of Alouatta fusca should be
critically reviewed, based not only on morphology,
but also cytotaxonomy, biochemistry and other
approaches that could clarify the phylogeny and
taxonomy of this species.

Acknowledgments, we are most grateful to Alcides
Pissinatti (Centro de Primatologia do Rio de Janeiro),
Emerson Suemitsu (Itaipu Binacional), and the staff
of the Passeio Piblico de Curitiba and the Rio de
Janeiro Zoo, for allowing us to collect the blood
samples from the animals housed in their institutions.
We also thank Renato Gregorin (University of Slo
Paulo) for providing unpublished information. This
study was supported by the Brazil Science Council
(CNPq), the Brazilian Higher Education Authority
(CAPES), and the Federal Universities of Parana
(UFPR), Curitiba, and Para (UFPA), Bel6m.

Edivaldo Herculano C. de Oliveira, Laborat6rio de
Citogen6tica Animal, Departamento de Gendtica,
Universidade Federal do Parand (UFPR), Caixa Postal

Page 182

Neotropical Primates 3(4), December.1995

Page 183 Neotropical Primates 3(4), December1995

19095, 81531-990 Curitiba, Parand, Margarida
Maria C. de Lima, Laborat6rio de Citogen6tica,
Departamento de Gen6tica, Centro de Ciencias
Biol6gicas, Universidade Federal do Pard (UFPA),
Campus do Guamb, 66000-000 Bel6m, Para, and
Ives Jose Sbalqueiro, Laborat6rio de Citogen6tica
Animal, Departamento de Gen6tica, Universidade
Federal do ParanA (UFPR), Caixa Postal 19071,
81531-990 Curitiba, Parana, Brazil.


Howel, W. M. and Black, D. A. 1980. Controlled
silver-staining ofnucleolus organizer regions with
a protective colloidal developer: a 1-step method.
Experientia 36: 1014-1015.
James, R. A.and Horwich, R. H. 1993. Phylogeny
and conservation genetics of howler monkeys -
Symposium on the Primate Family Cebidae -
AAZPA Regional Proceedings, pp. 692-698.
Koiffmann, C. P. 1977. Variabilidade
cromossomica na Familia Cebidae (Primates,
Platyrrhini). Doctoral thesis, Instituto de
Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao
Seabright, M. 1971. A rapid banding technique for
human chromosomes. The Lancet 2: 971-972.
Sumner, A. T. 1972. A simple technique for dem-
onstrating centromeric heterochromatin. Exp. Cell
Res. 75: 304-306.



On 20 September 1994, we captured a group of
saddleback tamarins composed of six individuals
(one adult male, two adult females, one subadult
male, one subadult female, and one juvenile male)
in a "Saguinus trap" (Encaraci6n et al., 1990) in
the Zoobotanical Park of the Federal University of
Acre (956'30"- 957' 19"S, 6752'08" 6753'00"W;
155 m above sea level; area 100 ha). All individuals
except one adult female, suspected to be pregnant,
were anesthetized, weighed, measured and fitted
with collars of different colors.

On 24 October, the adult male (Blue) was seen
carrying two newborn infants of the unmarked adult
female. One week later, while Blue was carrying
the infants (the only individual except the mother
seen to do so), the other adult female (Orange) was

seen surrendering food (banana) to him. By 13
December the infants were feeding at the capture
platform, and were quite independent.

About two months later, Orange gave birth to twins,
first seen on 23 January, increasing the group size
to 10. These new infants were carried by Orange,
Blue and a subadult female (Yellow). It seemed that
Blue was the father, being the onlty adult male. The
infants were last seen in April 1995, apparently

This would seem to be a case of poligyny, an
uncommon mating system in callitrichids (for
reviews see Rylands, 1993), having been observed
in only four species to date (Callithrixjacchus -
Digby and Ferrari, 1994; Callithrix kuhli Alonso
and Porfirio, 1993; Saguinusfuscicollis Terborgh
and Goldizen, 1985; and Leontopithecus rosalia -
Dietz and Baker, 1993).

Acknowledgments: We are grateful for financial
support from the Brazil Science Council (CNPq),
the Federal University of Acre, S.O.S.Amaz6nia,
and the Fundacio O BoticArio de Protecgo A
Claudia Calegaro-Marques, Jilio Cksar Bicca-
Marques and Maria Aparecida de O. Azevedo,
Parque Zoobotanico and Departamento de Ciencias
da Natureza, Universidade Federal do Acre, 69915-
900 Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil.
Alonso, C. and Porfirio, S. 1993. Um caso de
poliginia em Callithrix kuhli corn criaalo
simultdnea dos filhotes. Biotemas 6(2): 89-99.
Dietz, J. M. and Baker, A. J. 1993. Polygyny and
female reproductive success in golden lion tama-
rins, Leontopithecus rosalia. Anim. Behav. 46:
Digby, L. J. and Ferrari, S.F. 1994. Multiple breed-
ing females in free-ranging groups of Callithrix
jacchus. Int. J. Primatol. 15(3): 389-397.
Encarnaci6n, F., Moya, L., Soini, P., Tapia, J. and
Aquino, R. 1990. La capture de Callitrichidae
(Saguinus y Cebuella) en la Amazonia Peruana.
In: La Primatologia en el Peruz, N. E. Castro-
Rodriguez (ed.), pp. 45-56. Proyecto Peruano de
Primatologia, Iquitos.
Rylands, A.B. (ed.). 1993. Marmosets and Tama-
rins: Systematics, Behaviour, and Ecology. Ox-
ford University Press, Oxford.
Terborgh, J. and Goldizen, A. W. 1985. On the mat-
ing system of the cooperatively breeding saddle-
backed tamarin (Saguinus fuscicollis). Behav.
Ecol. Sociobiol. 16: 293-299.

Neotropical Primates 3(4), Decemher]995

Page 183

Neotropical Primates 3(4), Decemberl99S Page 184


A six-month field study was carried out on the ecology
and behaviour of free-ranging red-handed tamarins
(Saguinus midas midas), concentrating on ranging
behaviour and habitat use. The data were collected at
the Station ofNouragues (CNRS) in French Guiana
between July and December 1994, using a scan-
sampling method (Altmann, 1974; Rylands, 1982).
The home ranges of most callitrichids are
characterized by a mix of habitats, usually including
an abundance of forest edge (Sussman and Kinzey,
1984; Rylands, 1996). Seasonal availability,
distribution, and habitat location of food resources
are known to have a major impact on the feeding and
ranging patterns oftamarins (Garber, 1993). Seasonal
changes in climate and the distribution of different
forest types had the effect that the S. midas in this
study were confronted with both spatial and temporal
variation in ecological conditions. The periods of data
collection permitted assessment of behavioral
changes resulting from seasonal changes, including
those in food supply.

Four groups were identified in the study area, one of
which, containing three individuals, was taken as the
main focus of study. The groups contained three to
seven individuals, and had home ranges of 34 to 39
ha. In the dry season (September to November), the
tamarins spent more time foraging. Feeding on fruits
increased atthe beginning ofthe wet season. Saguinus
midas was never observed feeding on exudates.
During the dry season, insectivory appeared to
influence how the tamarins moved about their home
range. Movement during the dry season was less goal-
directed, probably related to the fact that insects are a
spatially and temporally fluctuating food resource.
At the beginning of the wet season, the tamarins
started to visit their feeding trees more systematically.
Home range overlap between the range of the focal
group and neighboring home ranges amounted to at
least 46%, but many confrontations were recorded.
These aggressive encounters did not serve to defend
the border of the home range. Instead, they were
concentrated around the liana forest, which was
located in the centre of the focal group's home range.
The increase in confrontations during the dry season,
which was accompanied by increased time spent
foraging, would suggest that liana forests are an
important potential foraging area and that their
defence is therefore economical.

Saguinus midas was observed predominantly in the

lower and middle strata of the forest (10-30 m) and
mainly used supports 1 to 5 cm in diameter. While
the tamarins were mostly at heights of 20-30 m during
feeding on fruits, they spent more time at heights
between 10 and 20 m during foraging for insects on
leaves and lianas, as is also shown by S. imperator
and S. mystax (Terborgh, 1983; Garber, 1988).
Different heights were preferred according to the
forest type, which might reflect either convenient
travel paths or anti-predator behaviour. S. midas
showed a distinct preference for edge habitats and
was more frequently observed in liana forests than
expected by chance. In addition to their apparent
importance as foraging sites, the liana forests afford
protection against predators of small-bodied primates.
Raptors are the main threat for callitrichids (Ferrari
and Lopes Ferrari, 1990; Heymann, 1990), so that
predator pressure is probably stronger in open
vegetation. This was confirmed by one observed
attack on an individual tamarin made by a crested
eagle (Morphnus guianensis) in an open forest. Anti-
predator behaviour appeared to have consequences
for group cohesion. In the open forest, the tamarins
travelled in close-knit groups, because co-ordination
was favoured not only for visiting patchily distributed
food sources such as fruits but also for early detection
of predators (see Caine, 1993). In the cover of the
dense liana forest, the tamarins searched individually
for the dispersed animal prey.

This text is a summary of a Master's thesis supervised
by Prof. Dr. R. D. Martin and Dr. P. Charles-
Dominique. The thesis (in German) may be requested
from Philip Kessler at the address below. A full
publication in English is in preparation.

Philip Kessler, Anthropologisches Institut,
Universitat Ztirich-Irchel, Winterthurerstrasse 190,
CH-8057 Zuirich, Switzerland.

Altmann, J. 1974. Observational study of behaviour:
sampling methods. Behaviour 49: 227-267.
Caine, N. G. 1993. Flexibility and co-operation as
unifying themes in Saguinus social organisation and
behaviour: the role ofpredation pressures. In: Mar-
mosets and Tamarins: Systematics, Ecology. and
Behaviour, A. B. Rylands (ed.), pp.200-219. Ox-
ford University Press, Oxford.
Ferrari, S. F. and Lopes Ferrari, M. A. 1990. Predator
avoidance behavior in the buffy-headed marmoset,
Callithrixflaviceps. Primates 31: 323-338.
Garber, P. A. 1988. Diet, foraging patterns and re-
source defence in a mixed species troop of Saguinus
mystax and Saguinusfuscicollis in Amazonian Peru.
Behaviour 105: 18-34.

Neotropical Primates 3(4), December.1995

Page 184

Neotropical Primates 3(4), December1995

Garber, P. A. 1993. Feeding ecology and behaviour of
the genus Saguinus. In: Marmosets and Tamarins:
Systematics, Ecology. and Behaviour, A. B. Rylands
(ed.), pp.273-295. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Heymann, E. W. 1990. Reactions of wild tamarins,
Saguinus mystax and Saguinus fuscicollis to avian
predators. Int. J. Primatol. 11: 327-337.
Kessler, P. 1995. Revierverhalten, Nahrungsstrategie
und Habitatpraferenzen des Rothandtamarins
(Saguinus midas midas) in Franzosisch Guayana.
Master's thesis, Institute and Museum ofAnthropol-
ogy, University of Zurich.
Rylands, A. B. 1982. The Behaviour and Ecology of
Three Species of Marmosets and Tamarins
(Callitrichidae) in Brazil. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis,
University of Cambridge, Cambridge.
Rylands, A. B. 1996. Habitat and the evolution of so-
cial and reproductive behavior in Callitrichidae. Am.
J. Primatol. 38. In press.
Sussman, R. W. and Kinzey W. G. 1984. The ecologi-
cal role ofthe Callitrichidae. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol.
Terborgh, J. 1983. Five New WorldPrimates. Princeton
University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.


In September 1995, Andre Hirsch defended his thesis
on a census of Alouatta fusca in relation to habitat
quality in two protected areas of Atlantic Forest in the
state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The thesis formed part
of the requirements for the Master's course in Ecology,
Conservation and Wildlife Management, Institute of
Biological Sciences, Federal University of Minas
Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. His supervisor was Dr.
Anthony B. Rylands, and the study was supported by
the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF/Brazil), the
Brazil Science Council (CNPq) and the PADCT/
CIAMB Interdisciplinary Program Biodiversity,
Population and Economy of the Federal University of
Minas Gerais. The following is a summary of the thesis.

The study was carried out in the Estaqao Biol6gica de
Caratinga EBC (860 ha) and the Parque Estadual do
Rio Doce PERD (36.113.6 ha), two protected areas
of Atlantic Forest in the state of Minas Gerais. The
aim was to evaluate habitat quality in both areas and
correlate this with the density of A. fusca. Data on
habitat quality was obtained using a Point Sampling
Method (MTAP): sample points (300 m between each)
were placed along the same transects as those used for
censusing A. fusca. Ninety-nine points were sampled
at EBC and 67 at PERD. Thirty-six environmental

variables were recorded. The habitat data were analysed
using multivariate techniques, including Cluster
Analysis, Principal Co-ordinate Analysis and
Discriminant Analysis (MULVA-5 Program). The
Cluster Analysis produced four consistent groups of
sampling points, making it possible to order them in a
gradient of habitat quality. Discriminant Analysis
allowed for the selection of 14 variables at EBC and
13 at PERD, all with a strong relation to habitat
structure and the floristic composition of the forest.
Census data were obtained using the Linear Transect
Method adapted for two simultaneous observers. Fifty-
two transects at EBC and 18 at PERD were surveyed
three times by each observer, resulting in 157.8 km
and 112.5 km of census, respectively. The time spent
censusing was 234.7 h at EBC and 140.8 h at PERD.
Average density estimates for A. fusca at EBC were
1.493 indiv./ha for the first observer, and 0.922 indiv./
ha for the second observer. Likewise, for PERD the
estimates were of 0.495 indiv./ha and 0.018 indiv./ha,

The relation between howler density and habitat for
each the specific regions identified in the study areas
was clearer at EBC, where a closer relation was found
between the complexity of the habitat structure, floristic
diversity and A. fusca density. At the PERD, few
records were obtained due to the low density of A.
fusca, despite the very similar habitat structure and
floristic composition ofthis, the larger, area. The reason
for the density difference remains unclear, but such
possibilities as habitat structure, size of the area, forest
fires, disease epidemics (yellow fever, simian malaria
and leishmaniosis), predation and hunting are possibly
involved. The most important problems arising are
related to the limited carrying capacity of the habitat
in the case of EBC, and the increase of inbreeding
depression between the howlers, related to their high
density, the relatively small area, and the degree of
isolation of the area. Future management and
translocation programs must take these factors into
account, and it will be necessary to involve the owners
of private areas for protecting the forest fragments still
remaining and encourage the regeneration of degraded
areas, that can serve as forest "corridors" between

Andr6 Hirsch, Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto
de Ciencias Biol6gicas, Universidade Federal de Minas
Gerais, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais,

Hirsch, A. 1995. Censo de Alouattafusca Geoffroy,
1812 (Platyrrhini, Atelidae) e Qualidade do Habitat
em dois Remanescentes de Mata Atlantica em Minas

Page 185

Neotropical Primates 3(4), December1995 Page 186

Gerais. Unpublished Master's Thesis.
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo
Horizonte. 147pp.


In September 1995, Carmem Barroso defended her
doctoral thesis on the molecular phylogeny of the
subfamily Callitrichinae (sensu Rosenberger, 1981)
for the postgraduate course in Biological Sciences
(specialization in Genetics and Molecular Biology)
of the Federal University of Park, Beldm. The study
was supported by the Federal University of Pard,
Belem, the Brazil Science Council (CNPq), and
Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan. The
thesis was supervised by Dr. Horacio Schneider. The
following is a summary.

DNA sequences encompassing the intron 1 of the
IRBP gene, with approximately 1800 base pairs,
were obtained for the following species: Saguinus
midas, S. bicolor, Leontopithecus rosalia, Callimico
goeldii, Callithrixjacchus, C. geoffroyi, C. argentata,
C. humeralifera and Cebuella pygmaea. The
sequences were added to the IRBP data base created
for the remaining ceboid genera by Harada et al.
(1995). An in-tandem alignment was constructed
with this data along with the epsilon-globin data of
Schneider et al. (1993). The arrangements observed
confirm the monophyly of the family Cebidae;
demonstrate that Saguinus is the most primitive of
the Callitrichinae; and place Cebuella unequivocally
as a member of the genus Callithrix, in the group
pygmaeaa", equivalent to the "argentata" and
"jacchus" groups. A model of callitrichine evolution
is proposed based on the phylogenetic evidence from
this study. According to this model, the ancestral
population of Leontopithecus and Callimico-
Callithrix (or Leontopithecus-Callimico and
Callithrix) would have arisen from proto-Saguinus
stock. The proto-lion tamarins would have migrated
eastwards, where they were isolated in refugia,
becoming the genus Leontopithecus. The stock
remaining in Amazonia gave rise to present-day
Callimico and Callithrix. The latter genus occupied
a vast geographic area, giving rise to the "argentata"
and pygmaeaa" groups in Amazonia, and the
"jacchus" group in central and eastern Brazil.

Carmem Maria Leitio Barroso, Departamento de
Gendtica, Centro de Ciencias Biol6gicas,
Universidade Federal do Para, Campus do Guama,
66075-900 Bel6m, Para, Brazil.

Barroso, C. M. L. 1995. Filogenia molecular da
subfamilia Callitrichinae (sensu Rosenberger,
1981). Doctoral Thesis, Universidade Federal do
ParA, Belem. 114pp.
Harada, M. L., Schneider, H., Schneider, M. P.C.,
Sampaio, M. I. C., Czelusniak, J. and Goodman,
M. 1995. DNA evidence on the phylogenetic sys-
tematics of New World monkeys: support for the
sister grouping of Cebus and Saimiri from two
unlimked nuclear genes. Mol. Phylogen. Evol. In
Rosenberger, A. L. 1981. Systematics: the higher taxa.
In: Ecology and Behavior ofNeotropical Primates,
Vol. 1, A. F. Coimbra-Filho and R. A. Mittermeier
(eds.), pp. 9-27. Academia Brasileira de Ciencias,
Rio de Janeiro.
Schneider, H., Schneider, M. P. C., Sampaio, M. I.
C., Harada, M. L., Stanhope, M., Czelusniak, J. and
Goodman, M. 1993. Molecular phylogeny of the
New World monkeys (Platyrrhini, Primates). Mol.
Phylogen. Evol. 2(3): 225-242.


A doctoral thesis "Vocal Interactions in the Muriqui
(Brachyteles arachnoides)" was defended in April
1995, at the Department of Experimental Psychology
of the University of Sao Paulo (USP), by Francisco
Dyonisio Cardoso Mendes, under the supervision of
Dr. Cdsar Ades (USP), and with the collaboration of
Dr. Charles Snowdon and Dr. Karen Strier (University
of Wisconsin, Madison). It represented the first
systematic study on the vocal communication of the
muriqui, and the first thesis on primate vocalizations
produced in Brazil. As a result, Dr. Ades and and Dr.
Mendes have established the "Laborat6rio de
ComunicaiAo ActCstica" at USP, with the acquisition
of digital equipment for acoustic analysis of animal
sounds. The laboratory will allow further analyses of
muriqui vocalizations, as well as other studies on the
vocal communication of different neotropical species.

Vocal interactions in the muriqui (Brachyteles

The major interest of the thesis was the interactional
aspect of vocal signals. Observations and recordings
of spontaneous vocalizations were carried out at the
Biological Station of Caratinga, Minas Gerais. Vocal
and contextual data were obtained through focal
animal samplings and ad libitum. Contextual data
included information on the identity of the caller, its
behavior, social referents, and vocal and non-vocal

Neotropical Primates 3 (4) December.1995

Page 186

Page 187

responses from other group members. Digital
sonographic procedures and contextual analyses were
used in the classification of the main vocal categories
of the species' repertoire, registered with 160 hours of

Broad categories of vocalizations were initially grouped
according to the specificity of eliciting stimuli and
evoked behavioral and vocal responses. Twenty four
vocal categories encountered were given exclusively
in specific situations, and/or to particular listeners.
These categories included: alarm calls emitted in the
presence of terrestrial and aerial species; vocalizations
given by participants of different types of peer
interactions (i.e., play of immature and embraces of
adults); categories produced during mother-infant
interactions; vocalizations bound to sexually receptive
females; vocal signals emitted in isolation or in
choruses, during intergroup encounters.

Four other vocalizations frequently evoked antiphonal
continuous responses from other individuals. These
vocalizations included: "piados", or chirps (Strier,
1986, 1992), usually heard while group members feed
in proximity; "piados sildbicos" or "kh-kh-kh" (Torres
de Assumpgao, 1983), usually emitted by resting
individuals; "gemidos"and "latidos" (barks- Strier,
1986, 1992; Nishimura et al., 1988) sometimes given
by individuals disturbed by the proximity of other
groups or other species. A variety of acoustic forms
occurred in a yet different pattern of interindividual
participation, named sequential exchanges. Typically,
one individual vocalized, and others responded with
one call each, with little or no overlap between adjacent
calls. Sequential exchanges occurred throughout the
day, in a variety of contexts. Sequential exchange calls
are composed of different recombinations of short
emissions (pulsed elements, less than 100 ms duration)
and longer emissions (run-on elements of more than
100 ms). Five categories of pulsed elements and nine
categories of run-on elements were identified,
according to duration, spectral shape, and energy
distribution of the emission.

Each element present in a sample of 322 calls was then
assigned to one of the fourteen categories of elements.
The mean number of elements per call was 10,2 (sd =
4,8), with at least two categories of elements
represented in 94% of the sample. Two hundred and
two calls (stacattos) were composed exclusively of
pulsed elements. The remaining one hundred and
twenty calls neighss) included at least one run-on

Cluster analysis, based on call composition, resulted
in six patterns of stacattos, and six patterns of neighs,
used in sequential exchanges. Stacattos were

Neotropical Primates 3(4), December1995

preferentially used during exchanges of a few nearby
individuals, and could not be associated to specific
referents. Staccatos dominated by harsh pulsed
elements were preferentially used during during
contexts of intragroup competition, such as when the
whole group fed at a single source. Neighs occurred
more frequently during exchanges among a larger
number of participants, with at least one participant
distant from the others (more than 50 m away). Some
run-on elements present in neighs were almost
exclusively emitted by receptive females, and others
showed a strong association with contexts of a great
intragroup dispersion. Two acoustic patterns were
exclusively recorded after the group had spread out
following encounters with members of the
neighboring group ofmuriquis. Sequential exchanges
may operate as a system of temporally associated
vocalizations that aid intragroup spacing and
coordination among both nearby and distant
Francisco D.C. Mendes, Departamento de Psicologia
Experimental, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof.
Mello Moraes, 1721, Caixa Postal 66.261, 05508-900
Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Nishimura, A., Fonseca, G.A.B., Young, A.L., Strier,
K.B., Mittermeier, R.A. and Valle, C.M.C. 1988. The
-Truriqui, genus Brachyteles. In: Ecology and Behav-
ior of Neotropical Primates, Vol. 2, R. A.
Mittermeier, A. B. Rylands, A. F. Coimbra-Filho and
G. A. B. da Fonseca (eds.), pp.577-610. World Wild-
life Fund, Washington, D. C.
Strier, K.B. 1986. The ecology and behavior of the
woolly spider monkey, or muriqui (Brachyteles
arachnoides E. Geoffroy 1806). PhD thesis. Uni-
versity of Harvard, Cambridge, MA.
Strier, K.B. 1992. Faces in the Forest. Oxford Uni-
versity Press, New York.
Torres de Assump9ao, C. (1983). Ecological and
behavioral information on Brachyteles arachnoides.
Primates 24: 584-593.


The 1994 North American Regional Studbook for
South American spider monkeys (Ateles belzebuth, A.
fusciceps and A. paniscus) was recently published by
the Sedgwick County Zoo, Wichita, Kansas, USA.
Representatives of all but two of the subspecies of these
primates (A. belzebuth marginatus and A. fusciceps
fusciceps) are currently maintained. The complete
studbook and the status of the living populations (in
February 1995) are provided for each species and

Neotropical Primates 3(4), December1995 Page 188

subspecies. Age pyramids, and fecundity and
mortality reports are also provided. Four A. b.
belzebuth (2.2.0) are kept in three institutions and 13
A. b. chamek(5.7.1) in four. A further three collections
have three A. belzebuth (2.1.0) but the subspecies
remains undetermined. The population of A. b.
hybridus is considerably larger, with 35 animals
(14.21.0) in 10 institutions. The studbook for A. f
robustus goes back to the late 1950's and includes
records for 248 animals (84.140.24). A total of 123
A. f robustus (40.76.7) were recorded alive in 25
institutions on 12 February 1995 (in addition to a male
for which the subspecies was undetermined). The
studbook also provides records for 131 (50.59.22) A..
paniscus, of which 17 (8.8.1) in eight collections
comprised the living population in February 1995.

Although no A. f fusciceps occur in North American
collections, the European population is sizable and
precludes the need for efforts to establish a captive
breeding program for this species in the region.
However, consideration will be given to the
organization of captive populations of the most
threatened of the subspecies, A. b. marginatus, after
the status of the founder base is determined for Europe
and South America.

Concerning the subspecies currently held in North
America, the New World Primate Taxon Advisory
Group of the American Zoo and Aquarium
Association (AZA) has determined that special
consideration be given to A. belzebuth hybridus and
A. fusciceps robustus, both listed as endangered by
the World Conservation Union (IUCN), and which
make up most of the holdings. Management will be
directed toward retaining as much gene diversity as
possible, while minimizing increases in the population

It is most important that collection managers use the
information in the studbook to aid them in decisions
regarding the management of their animals, and,
likewise, that institutions maintaining South American
spider monkeys supply accurate and regular reports
concerning the status of their collections. The
studbook keeper would also be grateful for
information concerning current research projects on
both wild and captive animals.

Kristi Newland, North American Regional Studbook
Keeper for South American Spider Monkeys,
Sedgwick County Zoo, 5555 Zoo Boulevard, Wichita,
Kansas 67212, USA.

Newland, K. 1995. 1994 North American Regional
Studbook for South American Spider Monkeys

Ateles belzebuth, A. fusciceps, A. paniscus All
Subspecies. Sedgwick County Zoo, Wichita. 121pp.


The 1993-1994 update for the studbook of the North
American populations of the white-faced saki,
Pitheciapithecia, organized by Tracy Frampton, was
published recently by the Roger Williams Park Zoo,
Rhode Island, USA. It includes a list of holding
institutions, a studbook of the living animals, a listing
of births, deaths, and transfers, population analyses,
institution reports and addresses and selected

The studbook, current up to 31 December 1994, lists
112 individuals with a 1:1 sex ratio (56.56.0) in 26
collections in North America. The population analyses
show that the captive population has been growing
since 1979/80. Between 1 January 1993 and 31
December 1994, there were 32 births (two stillborn)
and 14 deaths, and 34 animals were transferred
between collections.

Tracy Frampton, Studbook keeper, Roger Williams
Park Zoo, Providence, Rhode Island 02907, USA.

Frampton, T. 1995. 1993-1994 Update to The North
American Regional Studbook for the White-Faced
Saki (Pithecia pithecia). Roger Williams Park Zoo,
Rhode Island.


Durante o VII Congresso Brasileiro de Primatologia,
em Natal, 1995, alguns pesquisadores que realizam
pesquisas corn o guig6, Callicebus personatus, se
uniram para criar um "Grupo Especialista do
Callicebus personatus". 0 primeiro pass dessa
sociedade informal terA a finalidade de recolher
informag6es sobre os pesquisadores que trabalham
com a esp6cie, as Areas de estudo, interesse cientifico
e a formulaqao dos objetivos do Grupo. As seguintes
pessoas compuseram o grupo fundador: Fabiano
Rodrigues de Melo (Universidade Federal de Vigosa,
Minas Gerais), Wilson Ferreira de Melo
(Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul,
CorumbA), Klaus-Heinrich Mtiller (Deutsches
Primatenzentrum, Alemanha), Fernanda Maria Neri
(Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Minas Gerais)
e Silvia Beatriz de Souza (Universidade de Campinas,
Sao Paulo). Para maiores informag6es, favor entire em

Neotropical Primates 3(4), December1995

Page 188

Page 189 Neotropical Primates 3(4), December1995

contato cor: Klaus-Heinrich Miller, Deutsches
Primatenzentrum GmbH, Kellnerweg 4, D-37077
Gottingen, Alemanha, Tel: + 49 551-3851125, Fax:
+49 551 385-1228.


The Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center
(WRPRC) Library was selected as the 1995 Library
of the Year by the Wisconsin Library Association.
The award is conferred upon a library "for
distinguished achievement in service". The WRPRC,
funded by the National Institutes of Health, is
recognized for its programs in primate research,
conservation and education. The WRPRC Library has
evolved from a small reference library to one that has,
with the addition of modern service
components,become the largest primate-oriented
library collection in the world. The International
Directory of Primatology, now in its second edition,
is produced by the library staff. The staff also designed
and initiated services on the Internet that furnish an
open communication system for primatologists and
other professionals all over the world. Primate-Talk,
established in 1991, provides a free-of-charge, open
electronic forum for the discussion of primatology.
Primate Info Net, a gopher/World Wide Web Server,
was created in 1993 as a permanent electronic
reservoir for materials dealing with primatology.

The WRPRC Library serves a wide range of users.
Recently, staff initiated a section of Primate Info Net
to highlight primate resources for children and young
adults. This was the first University of Wisconsin -
Madison library to institute a document delivery
program. Its audiovisual archives includes 6,000
slides and 600 videotapes which are loaned

John D. Wiley, Provost of the University of Wisconsin
said, "The level of professionalism, friendly service
and knowledge provided by the Staff to all users is
an integral part of the success of this library, and
contributes greatly to the visibility of the Primate
Center, both on campus and around the world."

The award was presented to the WRPRC Library at
the Awards Banquet during the Annual Wisconsin
Library Association Conference in Appleton on 25
October 1995. The Wisconsin Library Association is
a 1,500-member professional organization made up
of public, academic, school, and special librarians,
library trustees and others interested in libraries and

informational sciences. For more information, contact:
Larry Jacobsen, Head of Library Services, WRPRC
Library, Tel: 1 (608) 263-3512, Fax: 1 (608) 263-
4031, e-mail: jacobsen@primate.wisc.edu.


The "Grupo de Etologia de Primatas" is a group of
graduate students and researchers interested in primate
behavior, recently formed at the Experimental
Psychology Department of the University of Sao
Paulo. The group promotes weekly discussions on
primate social behavior and cognition. Discussions
are open to anyone interested in participating, and
are centered on recent publications, previously chosen
at the beginning of each semester.

A thorough review of the "Machiavellian Inteligence"
theory was the topic for the first semester of 1995,
and the meetings for the second semester focused on
different approaches to cognition, awareness, and
decision taking in primates. The group is also
ministering a University Extension Course on
"Primate Social Behavior" to undergraduate and
graduate students from Sao Paulo. Outside researchers
or students visiting Sao Paulo are welcome to
participate in the weekly meetings, and may propose
a lecture about their own research projects. For
additional information on weekly discussions and
courses, please contact: Francisco D. C. Mendes
(Dida) or Eduardo Ottoni, Departamento de
Psicologia Experimental, Universidade de Sao Paulo
(USP), Av. Prof. Mello Moraes, 1721, Caixa Postal
66.261, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.


O Projeto Dinamica Biol6gica de Fragmentos
Florestais (PDBFF) anuncia vagas para estagiirios
para trabalhar em projetos de pesquisas ligados a
fragmentaglo florestal na Amazonia Central. O
PDBFF, um projeto binacional entro o Institute
Nacional de Pesquisas da Amaz6nia e o Smithsonian
Institution dos EUA, quantifica as mudangas no
ecossistema que ocorrem A media que a floresta
continue 6 transformada pelo desenvolvimento
human em um mosaico de habitats. O PDBFF 6 o
finico estudo integrado a long prazo dos efeitos da
presenga humana sobre a floresta umida continue da
Amaz6nia Central. A pesquisa foi desenhada para
estudar comunidades de plants e animals nas florestas

Page 189

Neotropical Primates 3(4), December1995

Neotropical Primates 3(4), December1995 Page 190

antes e depois do isolamento para cria9 o de pastagens
comparando-se estas informa5es cor as das areas de
control de floresta nao perturbada. Cor o isolamento
de replicatas de floresta de 1, 10, 100 e 1000ha., para o
estudo de estrutura, microclima, populag6es,
comunidades, e processes ecol6gicos antes e depois da
fragmentaqAo e no decorrer do tempo, pode se gerar
previsoes sobre qual o tamanho dos fragments de
florestas que sao necessArios para manter a integridade
do ecossistema original.

Cada ano vArios sub-projetos da pesquisa investigam
os efeitos da fragmentacao florestal sobre um
component do ecossistema. Todas as areas de ecologia
estao sendo investigadas: ecologia vegetal,
invertebrados, vertebrados, solos e regeneragao
florestal. Nos estamos oferecendo estigios de no
minimo 4 meses e no mAximo 6 meses a alunos
graduados que tern interesse em adquirir experi&ncia
em trabalho de campo. Durante este period de 6 meses
o(a) aluno(a) participara de um sub-projeto sob a
supervisor de um pesquisador qualificado. Ap6s o
estAgio initial, terA a possibilidade de continuar mais
um estagio de pesquisa dirigida para mais seis meses.
DeverA submeter um projeto desenvolvido cor um
pesquisador para avaliacAo.

O PDBFF oferece a passage de ida e volta da
instituiio de origem ate Manaus, as despesas de campo,
e uma bolsa de aperfeigoamento do CNPq. As pessoas
interessadas devem enviar uma carta explicando por
que um estAgio seria bendfico ao seu desenvolvimento,
incluindo as Areas de interesse, um Curriculum Vitae,
e uma carta de recomendag~o de un professor que lhe
conhega bem. SerA criado um banco de candidatos(as)
a estigios, que serA consultado pelos pesquisadores
precisando de estagiarios. O pesquisador entrard em
contato direto com o(a) candidato(a) de preferdncia.
Mandar documentagao para: Dr. Claude Gascon,
Departamento de Ecologia, Institute Nacional de
Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Caixa Postal 478,
69011-970 Manaus, Amazonas. Fax: (092) 642-2050.


The Primate Information Center, which publishes the
monthly bibliographical review Current Primate
References, has changed it's address. As from 1
November 1995 all mail should be sent to: Primate
Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center
Westlake Facility, University of Washington, 1101
Westlake Avenue North, Seattle, Washington 98109,
USA. Tel: (206) 543-4376, Fax: (206) 616-1540, e-
mail: pic@bart.rprc.washington.edu.


Throughout the world, national governments have
established systems of national parks and other types
of protected areas to fulfil a broad range of needs.
Information available on these systems varies widely
from country to country, but increasingly information
is becoming available through electronic media. The
Protected Areas Virtual Library is an information
service developed by the World Conservation
Monitoring Centre (WCMC), working in close
* collaboration with the IUCN Commission on National
Parks and Protected Areas (IUCN/CNPPA). It is a
WWW service, providing links to other Web servers
with protected areas information. The URL is: http
: // www. wcmc. org. uk / dynamic / pavl / ". Your
assistance in further developing the Protected Areas
Virtual Library is actively encouraged. Comments,
the identification of other relevant WWW servers, or
the provision of material which WCMC can
incorporate, funds allowing, are very welcome.

For further information: Jeremy Harrison, Head of
Information Services, World Conservation
Monitoring Centre (WCMC), 219 Huntingdon Road,
Cambridge CB3 ODL, UK. Tel: + 44 (0)12 23 27 73
14, Fax : + 44 (0 ) 12 23 27 71 36, e mail : jerry
.harrison @wcmc .org.uk, WWW : http : //


The "XIII Encontro Anual de Etologia" was held in
Pirassununga, Sao Paulo, Brazil, from 2-4 November
1995. More than 300 scientists and students from 11
Brazilian states and five countries participated. As has
been the case since the first of these meetings,
participation was multidisciplinary, including the
fields of Psychology, Biology, Animal Production,
Zoology, Anthropology, Physiology and Ecology.

Special homage was paid to Beatrix T. Gardner, the
Swiss researcher recently deceased, who together with
her husband Allen Gardner, was a pioneer in teaching
sign language to chimpanzees. Beatrix, who lived part
of her childhood in Brazil, was remembered in a talk
given by Dr. Gardner, along with a film on Washoe,
the world famous chimp, the first of her species to
learn sign language. Other talks were given by Drs.
M. and K. Tomonaga, Japanese scientists working
on face recognition and tool use in chimpanzees, and
Dr Cdsar Ades (University of Sao Paulo) gave a talk
on his findings concerning how university students
see animal minds.

Neotropical Primates 3(4), December1995

Page 190

Page 191 Neotropical Primates 3(4), December 199S

Five symposia considered a good part of the Scala
Naturae, from invertebrates to primates. The highlights
were those on Animal Communication, examining
cricket songs to primate spacing, and on The Marmoset
as a Model for Ethological Studies, in which three
researchers from the Federal University of Rio Grande
do Norte and one from the Federal Rural University of
Pernambuco discussed reproduction, dominance, infant
care, and group stability in wild and captive marmosets.
Finally a round table on the teaching of Ethology
confirmed the diversity and ample range of this research
field. Representatives from Psychology, Biology, and
Animal Production graduate and undergraduate
programs were present, besides a senior high school
teacher, who has been the first to introduce the study of
animal behavior as part of a High School Biology
course, using it especially for the understanding of
anatomical and physiological differences, and in
mechanisms of gene transmission and natural selection.

Eighty-nine posters, provided by participants from 50
institutions, completed the meeting. Such a
demonstration of vitality, and the need to meet the
demands of students and research topics, will result,
we expect, in an increase in the number of courses on
Ethology and related disciplines in Brazilian graduate
and undergraduate programs in the near future.

Maria Emilia Yamamoto, Departamento de
Fisiologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do
Norte, Caixa Postal 1511, 59072-970 Natal, Rio Grande
do Norte, Brazil.


O Institute de Pesquisas Ecol6gicas (IPE) e a
Smithsonian Institution, com apoio financeiro do Fundo
Nacional do Meio Ambiente (FNMA), estarao
organizando, de 27 de maio a 28 de junho de 1996, na
Esta~lo Experimental de Assis, do Instituto Florestal
de Sao Paulo, o II Curso Nacional de Biologia da
Conservaqdo e Manejo de Vida Silvestre. O nimero de
vagas 6 limitado e para a seleCgo os interessados em se
candidatar deverao enviar ao IPE, os seguintes
documents: carta de intenc6es, carta de recomendacao
e curriculum vitae, atd 29 de margo de 1996. Poderdo
se candidatar profissionais que trabalham com
conservag~o de vida silvestre, alunos de mestrado em
areas afins e alunos de graduag~o em final de curso. O
curso oferece alojamento, alimentagao e, em casos
especiais, transport at6 a E. E. de Assis. Para maiores
informag9es, favor contactar: Eduardo Humberto Ditt
(Coordenador do Curso), IPE -Instituto de Pesquisas
Ecol6gicas, Av. dos Operdrios 587, 13416-460

Piracicaba, Sao Paulo. Tel / Fax : (0194) 38 72 59, e-
mail: edhuditt@carpa. ciagri.usp.br.


This fund, to sponsor field work on primates by
graduate students, was established in memory of
Warren G. Kinzey, who died in 1994 (see Neotropical
Primates, 2(4), pp. 18-23, 1994). Graduate students are
invited to apply for small grants from this fund, from
which two awards of up to $500 each are available.
Applicants should send a statement of no more than
two pages to Dr. John Oates, Department of
Anthropology, Hunter College, City University ofNew
York, 695 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA.
This statement should: (a) explain the nature of the
project (including location, species, aims, timetable and
a brief description of methods); (b) state how grant
funds would be used; and (c) include a brief Curriculum
Vitae. Applications will be reviewed by a small
committee of Warren Kinzey's colleagues and research
associates. In making awards, preference will be given
to proposals involving areas, species, and/or topics that
were of special interest to Warren Kinzey. Deadline:
October 13. From: ASP Bulletin 19(3): 1, September


The Whitley Animal Protection Trust and the Royal
Geographical Society have joined forces to establish
an annual award that will make a substantial
contribution to field projects directly concerned with
the protection and conservation of animals in their
habitat. The aim of the award is to provide an annual
prize for the best animal conservation project submitted
to the Trust each year. Applications are open to
conservationists from any nation working in
conjunction with the host country. One prize is awarded
each year up to a value of 15,000. This should cover
the major costs of the winning project, enabling it to
proceed without having to wait to secure other funds.
The research programme: the main criterion is that the
project's objectives should make a practical, lasting
and substantial contribution to the protection and
conservation of animals in their habitat. Applicants will
be asked to explain the origin of the project, provide
detailed costings, evidence of support from the host
government or local non-government organizations,
and a statement on how the project is going to make a
practical contribution to animal conservation.
Applicants should note that they could apply for The
Whitley Award either by a single visit to the host

Neotropical Primates 3(4), Decemher]995

Page 191

Neotropical Primates 3(4), December1995 Page 192

country or by living there for a longer period. Close
involvement of the host country and links with local
institutions are essential. The applicant and team: The
Whitley Award supports multi-disciplinary teams
rather than individuals, so that one-person ventures
are rarely eligible. The applicant may be from any
nation and must be aged over 25. Multi-national teams
of any age group are encouraged. Applicants will not
be restricted to qualified scientists, but the Award
Winner must be able to compile a written report to
describe and quantify the success of their work with
appropriate references. Undergraduate expeditions are
not eligible, but may apply separately to the Royal
Geographical Society's expedition grant scheme, if
the majority of the team are British. Teams must
demonstrate that they have done sufficient planning
and allowed enough time in the field to achieve their
objectives safely and efficiently. The Award: It is
intended that the award should cover the major costs
of the winning project, enabling it to proceed without
having to wait to secure other funds. An itemised
budget detailing income and expenditure is required.
The project's budget should be realistic and attainable,
demonstrating whether these monies are to be spent
in the home or host country. Salaries for scientists
will not normally be included. How to apply: All
applications must be made on the forms obtainable
from the Whitley Award Office at the Royal
Geographical Society. Forms and supporting
documents should be submitted by the 10th January
for projects planning to be in the field after 1st April
in the same or subsequent year. A short list of
applicants will be called for interview in early
February, and the Award Winner will be notified by
the end of February.

If you wish to receive guidelines and the application
form for The Whitley Award, send a letter with your:
name, address, postcode, telephone (day & evening),
and fax. to: The Whitley Award, Royal Geographical
Society, 1 Kensington Gore, London SW7 2AR. UK.
Primate Societies


The editors would like to call attention to an error
printed in the article "El Comercio de Primates en La
Repfiblica Argentina" by Claudio Bertonatti,
Neotropical Primates 3(2), June 1995. On page 36,
first paragraph, the following sentence was printed:
"Se han detectado cargamentos de 50 Saimiri sciureus,
80 Alouatta caraya y 250 Callithrixjacchus." This
should have read: "Se han detectado cargamentos de
95 Saimiri sciureus, 80 Alouatta caraya y 150

Callithrix jacchus." The editors apologize for the

Primate Societies


SNo period de 23 a 28 de julho
foi realizado cor grande exito o
VII Congresso Brasileiro de
Primatologia na Universidade
Federal do Rio Grande do Norte.
Pela primeira vez, o Congresso
foi realizado fora do ambito do Congresso de
Zoologia, e seu sucesso significa que temos alcangado
o grau de maturidade suficiente para fazer nossas
reunites independentemente. O Congresso contou
cor a participagao de renomados pesquisadores
estrangeiros que trouxeram valiosas contribuii6es.
Foram apresentados sete sess6es coordenadas cor
33 trabalhos, sete sessoes de pain6is cor 56 trabalhos,
quatro minicursos, sete palestras, duas mesas redondas
e tr8s sessoes de video. No future, o Congresso
Brasileiro de Primatologia serb bianual, alternando-
se cor o Congresso da Sociedade Intemacional de
Primatologia (IPS).


Na assembl6ia geral da Sociedade Brasileira de
Primatologia realizada no dia 26 de julho de 1995,
durante o VII Congresso Brasileiro de Primatologia,
foram aprovadas modificaq6es do Estatuto da
Sociedade (a nova versAo foi enviada aos s6cios em
dezembro de 1995) e eleita a nova nova diretoria:
President Carmen Alonso (Universidade Federal
da Paraiba); Vice-Presidente Alcides Pissinatti
(Centro de Primatologia do Rio de Janeiro), Primeira
Secretaria Aurora Costa (Universidade Federal da
Paraiba); Segunda Secretaria Simone Porfirio
(Universidade Federal da Paraiba); Primeiro
Tesoureiro Pedro Bias (Universidade Federal da
Paraiba); Segunda Tesoureira Maria Adelia
Monteiro da Cruz (Universidade Federal Rural de
Pernambuco). O Conselho Fiscal e os suplentes
continual sendo os eleitos em 1994.

A primeira reuniao da nova diretoria realizou-se no
dia 17 de outubro de 1995, ap6s ter recebido o material

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Neotropical Primates 3 (4), December]995

Page 193 Neotropical Primates 3(4), December1995

da diretoria anterior. Nesta ocasiao estabeleceram-se
as seguintes metas: 1) continuar promovendo cursos
relatives a temas primatol6gicas, inclusive o Curso
de Especializacgo, em diversas regiSes do pais; 2)
continuar a descentralizagao das atividades da SBPr
atraves do fortalecimento das representagces regionais
do Conselho Fiscal, afim de estimular o
desenvolvimento de atividades regionais; 3) organizer
o VIII Congresso Brasileiro de Primatologia, que se
realizard emjulho de 1997 na cidade de Joao Pessoa,
Paraiba; 4) aumentar o nimero de s6cios atravds de
participacagao em diversos events cientificos. Um
pass nesse sentido jA foi tomado com a participagao
da Segunda Tesoureira, Maria Addlia Monteiro da
Cruz, no XIII Encontro Anual de Etologia, em
Pirasununga, Sao Paulo, onde levou material da SBPr
e fichas de inscriqao.

A nova diretoria comegou a trabalhar com grande
entusiasmo, mas lembra aos s6cios que uma sociedade
6 feita por seus associados, portanto estA aberta a sua
participagao atraves de comunicaq6es, comentarios,
sugest6es e critics, e aproveito para pedir que
atualizam seus enderegos e anuidade enviando cheque
nominal e cruzado em nome da Sociedade Brasileira
de Primatologia, a/c Pedro Bias ou Carmen Alonso.

Carmen Alonso, Laborat6rio Tropical de
Primatologia, Departamento de SistemAtica e
Ecologia CCEN, Universidade Federal da Paraiba,
58059-900 Joao Pessoa, Paraiba. Tel: (083)216-7025,
e-mail: amor@br.ufpb.


The Winter meeting of the Primate Society of Great
Britain was held at the Zoological Society of London
on the 29th November, 1995. Unusually it was
devoted to a group of animals New World monkeys
- rather than a theoretical theme. We felt, and rightly
so as it turned out, that the meeting would give an
opportunity for people of various interests within
primatology to hear new information about a group
of animals with which many are relatively unfamiliar.
A wide range of topics were addressed including
reproduction, gender differences, polyspecific
associations, behavioral ecology, biogeography and
conservation. The proceedings will be published,
together with a number of additional invited papers
in a special issue ofFolia Primatologica. The meeting
itself was a most productive and pleasant occasion,
and pleasingly international. Papers were given by
delegates from Brazil, the U.S.A., Italy, Germany,
Switzerland and the U.K. It was very well attended,

with a number of people travelling from abroad to
join us.

The enjoyment of the occasion was facilitated by an
excellent table of PSGB goods for sale personnel by
a dedicated group of helpers; a professional book
display (Wisepress); posters on the activities of PSGB
and their Captive Care and Conservation Working
Parties, in addition to information about the IUCN;
and an opportunity to visit the animal collection at
the zoo. The Napier Medal of the Society, one that is
award bi-annually in honour of our founding
President, Professor John Napier, for an outstanding
recent Ph.D. thesis, was awarded to Carlos Drews
from Cambridge University. Unfortunately Dr. Drews
was unable to attend but his medal was collected for
him by Carlos Peres. Very happily, on this occasion,
Dr. Prue Napier, herself a distinguished primatologist
and widow of John Napier, presented the medal and
received a long and sincere ovation. The Society also
took the opportunity to present a gift to Greta Mitchell
of Top Copy, the publisher of Primate Eye for so many
years, to mark the help and friendship of both herself
and her husband, Tony, who died earlier this year.
The day ended with a wine reception and the auction
of an exceedingly fine drawing of Jambo, the
silverback gorilla, which was kindly donated for the
occasion by the artist Richard Johnston-Scott of the
Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust.

Hilary O. Box, President, Primate Society of Great
Britain (PSGB), Department of Psychology,
University of Reading, Reading RG6 2AL, England,
UK, and Hannah Buchanan-Smith, PSGB
Membership Secretary, Department of Psychology,
University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland,


"The American Society of Primatologists (ASP)
works to save primate lives and to arrest the terrifying
shrinkage of primate populations worldwide". As the
premier organization in the United States for primate
scientists, ASP holds annual meetings to exchange
information on scientific research and primate
conservation, sponsors the American Journal of
Primatology, and raises funds for four kinds of

Subscription Awards: The American Journal of
Primatology carries articles in all areas of
primatology, from details of basic biology to behavior
in the wild. Journal subscriptions are awarded to

Page 193

Neotropical Primates 3(4), December,1995

Neotropical Primates 3(4), December1995 Page 194

worthy individuals from countries with native
primates where little access to primate information
is available. Conservation Small Grants: In the past,
one to four small grants of $500 have been awarded
each year for research, education or emergency
projects. The number and size of these grants needs
to be increased. They can be add-ons to ongoing
projects. These small grants are especially helpful
for individuals or communities in primate habitat
countries. An example is an add-on grant for ajoint
US/Colombia project in which the plight of the
endangered cotton-top tamarin is used to raise
community conservation awareness. High school
students are trained in the field biology of a
Colombian nature reserve, and then lead groups of
young children on educational tours of the reserve.
Conservation Award: The purpose .of this $500
award is to encourage conservation efforts of
outstanding students, young investigators and
educators in habitat countries. They are presented
in public ceremonies to stress the importance of
primate conservation and habitat preservation.
Senior Biology and Conservation Award: Ensuring
the well-being and survival of primates takes skills
and dedication from people serving in many
capacities, such as field assistants, research
facilitators, animal caretakers, park rangers, and
administrators. A $500 honorarium is awarded
annually to an outstanding individual without a
postgraduate degree who has a long and respected
history devoted to primate well-being or
conservation. Honoring such individuals encourages
others to follow in their footsteps. One award
recipient played a central role in the establishment
and operation of major primate breeding centers in
the Amazon basin. It was presented by the Scientific
Counselor of the American Embassy, who noted that
the awardee's work improved public support of
primate conservation by impressing upon legislators
and administrators the national-resource value of
their country's animal life.

The 1995 Senior Biology and Conservation Award
was given to Dehua Yang of the Yunnan Laboratory
Primate Center, Kunming, China, for 35 years of
devoted work on the distribution and population of
primates over a wide area of China, resulting in
judicious planning for primate protection. Small
grants went to Lilan Basse (Tufts University),
Loretta Cormier (Tulane University), Anne Savage
(Roger Williams Park Zoo), Lori Sheeran (California
State University, Fullerton), Zhang Yonzu
(Academica Sinica, Beijing), Carey Yeager
(Fordham), Jatna Supriatna (University of
Indonesia) and Herry Djoko Susilo (Director,
Tanjung Puting Park).

Conservation education is a high priority of ASP:
education that permeates entire habitat-country
communities and becomes favorably known to the
country's scientific, business, and political
leadership, and thereby multiplying the effectiveness
of small amounts of money by many orders of
magnitude. Aside from a few indirect costs, all
monies received go directly into a fund that finances
awards and grants. Administrative support,
communications, and selection of award winners are
done by ASP members as a service to conservation.
The Society can contact members already working
in habitat countries and encourage them to add a
conservation dimension to existing projects. Such
add-ons are a bargain because they support
conservation research and education by committed
professionals without having to pay for international
or domestic travel, subsistence, equipment, site
development, site operations, etc., etc.

Contributions to primate conservation can be made
via the Conservation Fund of ASP. Society members
contribute thousands of dollars to this fund each year,
but ASP needs additional contributions from other
concerned individuals, businesses, and institutions,
if it is to expand in its conservation activities.
Contributors of $500 or more will be listed in the
ASP Bulletin. Please send donations to the "ASP
Conservation Fund" to Dr. Ramon J. Rhine, Chair,
ASP Conservation Committee, Psychology
Department, University ofCalifornia, Riverside, CA
92521, USA.

Recent Publications


The Proceedings of the First International Workshop
on Ecology and Biodiversity, organized by the
Brazilian Academy of Sciences and held in Rio de
Janeiro, 22-24 August 1994, were published (June
1995) in two special supplements of volume 66
(1994) of the Anais da Academia Brasileira de
Cidncias. The supplements were edited by Affonso
Guidao Gomes, and sponsored by the Academy, the
Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (FINEP), Rio
de Janeiro, and the Ministdrio da Ciencia e
Tecnologia (MCT), Brasilia. All articles are in
English. Part 1, pp.1-147, includes 14 articles under
the following titles: General theory, Limnology,
Chemical Botany, Forest, Meteorology, and Water.

Page 194

Neotropical Primates 3(4), December1995

Page 195 Neotropical Primates 3(4), December1995

Part 2, pp.149-276, includes a further 14 articles
under the following titles: Cerrado, Herpetology,
Soil, and Energy. For further information: Academia
Brasileira de Ciencias, Rua Anfil6fio de Carvalho
29, 3 Andar, 20030-060 Rio de Janeiro, Rio de
Janeiro, Brazil.


The Journal ofPractical Ecology and Conservation
is a new, independent, twice-yearly publication
which covers all aspects of practical ecology and
conservation. The annual subscription is 10
individual, 20 overseas, and 20 for institutions,
plus postage and packing (2 Great Britain, 6
overseas). For further details contact: Dr. Ian
Rotherham, Managing Editor, Sheffield Center for
Ecology and Environmental Management, Town
Hall Chambers, 1 Barkers Pool, Sheffield S1 1EN,


The Blackwell Science, with the agreement of the
Publications Committee of the British Ecological
Society (BES) are be publishing all four BES
journals on CD-ROM, four times year from March
1995. The journals on CD have the advantage of
access to full searching of the contents, abstracts,
and key words, and bit-mapped images. The bit-
mapped images will allow the journal page to appear
on screen or be printed out as hardcopy in exactly
the same format as in the paper journal, including
figures. There will also be unlimited access to the
tables of contents of all other journals included in
the service. Journals on CD-ROM also reduce
storage space.

The new product Ecofile will contain over 25
ecological journals, including the four of the BES.
Access to each ofthejournals on CD will be obtained
by paying the appropriate subscription (in the case
of BES journals equal to the subscription for the
journal on paper) plus an annual CD premium to
cover the CD production costs. The CD premium
for individuals will be 25 ($40), no matter how
many journals are subscribed to on the disk.

The British Ecological Society is one of the first of
its kind to begin to publish in this way. For a copy
of the demonstration version of the CD, or
information on how to subscribe to other journals
through Ecofile, contact: Anna Rivers, Blackwell
Science Ltd., Osney Mead, Oxford OX2 OEL, UK.


Primates: Expedition Field Techniques, by
Adrian Barnett, 1995. Expedition Advisory Centre,
Royal Geographical Society, London. Price 10.00.
ISBN 0-907649-69-6. This new addition to the
Expedition Field Techniques Series of the Royal
Geographical Society gives ideas on what primate
projects can and cannot be done by expeditions,
reviews field techniques for surveys, data recording
and indirect information collection, and provides an
introduction to the extensive literature. An excellent
manual for students beginning field work or planning
expeditions. A second edition is planned and the
author would be grateful for suggestions and ideas.
Available from: Expedition Advisory Center, Royal
Geographical Society, 1 Kensington Gore, London
SW7 2AR. Tel: (0171) 581-2057.

The Monkey Sanctuary: Woolly Monkeys in
Cornwall and the Amazon, by the Monkey
Sanctuary, Looe, Cornwall, UK, 1994. 30pp.
Available from: Monkey Sanctuary, Murrayton,
Looe, Cornwall PI3 1NZ, UK.

Handbook of Laboratory Animal
Management and Welfare, by S. Wolfensohn
and M. Loyd, 1994, 304pp. Oxford University Press,
Oxford. ISBN 0-19-854835-8. Price US 32.00.
Available from Oxford University Press, Order
Department, 2001 Evans Road, Cary, NC 27513,
USA. Tel: 800-451-7556, Fax: 919-677-1303.

Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical
Research: Biology and Management, edited
by B. T. Bennett, C. R. Abee and R. Henrickson.
1995, xiv + 428pp. Academic Press, San Diego.
ISBN 0-12-088661-8. Price US$125.00. Available
from: Academic Press Order Fulfillment Department
DM27103, 6277 Sea Harbor Drive, Orlando, Florida
32887, USA. Tel: 800-321-5068, Fax: 800-336-

Symposium on the Health and Nutrition of
New World Primates, edited by the American
Zoo and Aquarium Association, New World
Primates Taxon Advisory Group. 1995, 31pp.
Includes: Abbott, D. H. Reproductive physiology
of pregnancy and lactation in the common
marmoset, Callithrixjacchus, pp. 1-3; Oftedal, O.
T. The comparative nutrition of New World
primates, pp.4-8; Ausman, L. M. and Petto, A. J.
Nutrition ofNew World monkey breeding pairs with
particular emphasis on nutrient intakes in family
housed common marmosets (Callithrixjacchus),

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Neotropical Primates 3(4), December]995

Neotropical Primates 3(4), Decemberl99S Page 196

pp.9-14; Ausman, L. M. Nutritional needs of the
neonate and growing young monkey, pp. 15-19; Line,
A. S. Medical management of the neonate, pp.20-24;
Collins, B. R. Geriatric diseases of some common
New World nonhuman primates, pp.26-31.
Information: Anne Baker, Burnet Park Zoo, 1
Conservation Place, Syracuse, NY 13204, USA.

Hands of Primates, edited by H. Preuschoft and
D. J. Chivers. 1993. ix + 421pp. Springer Verlag, New
York. ISBN 0-387-82385-9. Price US$136.00 or
198DM. Includes amongst other chapters: Hand usage
in the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta Linnaeus 1758)
when solving manipulative tasks S. Schoenich;
Locomotive and manipulative use of the hand in the
Cayo Santiago macaques (Macaca mulatta) R. G.
Rawlins; Different hand postures for pounding nuts
with natural hammers by wild chimpanzees C.
Boesch and H. Boesch; Lateralised handedness,
bipedalism and cortical specialisation P. H. Brenot;
The development of prehension in human and gorilla
infants M. E. Redshaw; Grasping techniques and
hand preferences in Hominoidea M. Christel;
Energetic cost of nutcracking behaviour in wild
chimpanzees M. M. Guenther and C. Boesch;
Biometrical characteristics of primate hands F. K.
Jouffrey, M. Godinot and Y. Nakano; Adaptations in
the hands of cercopithecids and callitrichids W.
Maier; Joints and muscles of hands and paws R. M.
Alexander; Evolution and the hand J. M. F.
Landsmeer. Available from: Springer Verlag New
York, Inc., 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094. Tel:
1-800-SPRINGER, Fax: (212) 533-3503.

Ape, Man, Apeman: Changing Views since
1600, edited by Raymond Corbey Tilburg University
and Leiden University) and Bert Theunissen (Utrecht
University), 1995, 41 lpp. Department of Prehistory,
Leiden University, Leiden. ISBN 90-73368-057. The
Evaluative Proceedings of the Symposium "Ape,
Man, Apeman: Changing Views since 1600", held in
Leiden, The Netherlands, 28 June 1 July, 1993. This
fine volume contains 32 papers contributed by
philosophers, primatologists, historians, historians of
science, paleolithic archeologists, animal activists,
ethicists, literary scholars and anthropologists many
of them prominent. Four areas are covered in this
abundantly illustrated book: 1) Interpreting Apes -
views of nonhuman (and human) primates in the West
since the middle ages; 2) Apish Ancestors the history
of interpretations of human origins and early
hominids; 3) Ape Ethnozoology, Apelore, Ape
Imagery the ritual, cultural and symbolic roles of
apes and monkeys in nonwestern as well as western
cultures; and 4) Apes and Ethics moral issues
pertaining to human practices vis-A-vis apes and

monkeys. The 32 essays show how radically views
of apes have started to change recently. As such they
are significant expressions of the continuing, and,
hopefully, changing history of our dealings with our
closest relatives in nature. A fascinating book, and
highly recommended. Contact: Dr. R. Corbey,
Department of Prehistory, P. O. Box 9515, NL 2300
RA, Leiden, The Netherlands. Fax: 31 71 272928, or

Abordagens Interdisciplinares para a
Conservacao da Biodiversidade e Dindmica
do Uso da Terra no Novo Mundo, edited by
Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca, Marianne Schmink, Luiz
Paulo de S. Pinto and Fausto Brito, 1995, 334pp.
Conservation International do Brasil, Belo Horizonte,
Brazil. In Portuguese and Spanish. Price: US$25.00
(incl. postage and packing). Based on the proceedings
of the International Conference "On Common
Ground: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Biodiversity
Conservation and Land Use Dynamics in the New
World", organized by Conservation International do
Brasil, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais and the
University of Florida, Gainesville, and held in Belo
Horizonte, Minas Gerais, 1-4 December 1993. This
book has 23 chapters on a wide range of subjects
concerned with land use and biodiversity conservation
including: Apresentag~o e hist6rico de um program
interdisciplinar G. A. B. da Fonseca, M. Schmink.
L. P. de S. Pinto, F. Brito; A tomadade decisAo pelos
governantes e o papel dos cientistas M. L. D. de
Freitas; Conservacao da biodiversidade e o Fundo
Mundial para o Meio Ambiente (GEF): lig6es
assimiladas I. A. Bowles; Pressao demogrifica ou
pressao econ6mica? Algumas quest6es bdsicas para
a anAlise do meio ambiente F. Brito; Poblaci6n,
biodiversidad y uso de la tierra en Argentina C.
Reboratti; Enfoques interdisciplinares para a
conservacao de biodiversidade: a experi6ncia do
program de p6s-graduaqao em Ecologia,
Conservaao e Manejo de Vida Silvestre da UFMG -
G. A. B. da Fonseca, L. M. de S. Aguiar; O desafio
do desenvolvimento sustentdvel e as comunidades
locais da Amaz6nia Brasileira M. Schmink;
Abordagens interdisciplinares para a conservaq~o dos
recursos de agua doce: uma necessidade de programs
especiais F. A. R. Barbosa; Uma abordagem
interdisciplinar do estudo dos cerrados brasileiros: o
caso da degradacio dos solos A. S. Cunha; Simbolos
politicos na conservagao da biodiversidade no sul da
Bahia K. Alger; Limites econ6micos e demogrificos
da proteg~o da biodiversidade: o desafio ambiental
no litoral de Sao Paulo, Brasil D. J. Hogan;
Conservagao da biodiversidade de fragments de
florestas tropicais em paisagens intensivamente

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cultivadas V. M. Viana; Dos process de
planificaci6n comparados: La Reserve de La Bi6sfera
del Beni, Bolivia y La Zona Reservada Tambopata-
Candamo, Peru A. Chicch6n; Mamiraua: ribeirinhos
e a preservagao da biodiversidade da virzea
amaz6nica D. L. Ayres, J. M. Ayres; Area protegidas
na Amaz6nia Brasileira A. B. Rylands; Extrativismo
vegetal e reserves extrativistas limitaq6es e
oportunidades A. B. Anderson; Costos y beneficios
del establecimiento de una extracci6n de recursos mas
sostenible en la Amazonia Occidental R. E. Bodmer,
J. W. Penn, E. Durand; Pecuaria na Amaz6nia
Oriental: situacao atual e tendencias futuras E.
Arima, C. Uhl; Organizaci6n campesina y
conservaci6n comunitaria de recursos naturales del
tropico seco en Chilapa, Guerrero J. Aguilar;
Deforestaci6n, desarrollo rural y marginaci6n social:
un studio de caso en el Cofre de Perote, Veracruz,
Mexico P. Gerez-Ferandez; Plan de Manejo de La
Zona Costera Patag6nica GEF/PNUD: un enfoque
integral para la protecci6n de la biodiversidad P.
Yorio; PROBIDES: el desafio de un program integral
para la conservaci6n de la biodiversidad y el
desarrollo sustentable de los humedales del este,
Rocha, Uruguay A. Diaz; Incentivos econ6micos y
de conservaci6n para el manejo de las zonas de
amortiguamiento: la iniciativa AMISCONDE T. E.
Lacher, Jr., J. C. Calvo-Alvarado, M. Ramirez Umafia,
J. D. Maldonado. Available from: Luiz Paulo de
Souza Pinto, Conservation International do Brasil,
Avenida Ant6nio Abrahao Caram 820/302, 31275-
000 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Tel: +55
31 441-1795, Fax: +55 31.441-1795, e-mail:

Conservaci6n y Uso Sostenible de la
Diversidad Biol6gica en Amirica Latina,
preparado por Carlos Noton Ramirez, 1995, viii +
146pp. RLAC/95/07 Documento Tdcnico 18,
Proyecto FAO/PNUMA. Oficina Regional de la FAO
para America Latina y el Caribe, Santiago, Chile. El
document estA basado en los resultados del Taller
International sobre Politicas de los Sistemas de Areas
Protegidas en la Conservaci6n y Uso Sostenible de la
Biodiversidad en America Latina, realizado en el
Parque Nacional Iguazi, Argentina, del 27 de
setiembre al 1 de octubre de 1993, por encargo de la
Oficina Regional de la FAO para America Latina y el
Caribe. El event se efectu6 como parte del program
de actividades de la Red Latinoamericana de
Cooperaci6n T6cnica en Parques Nacionales, otras
Areas Protegidas, Flora y Fauna Silvestres y en
colaboraci6n con la Secretaria de Recursos Naturales
y Ambiente Humana de Argentina. Indice: 1)
Introducci6n, 2) La situaci6n de la diversidad
biol6gica y el convenio, 3) El rol de la instituciones

que administran las Areas protegidas dentro del marco
del convenio, 4) Estructura y amplitud de los sistemas
de Areas protegidas, 5) El manejo de los sistemas de
Areas protegidas, 6) Los desafios del financiamento,
7) Acciones complementarias para la conservaci6n
de la diversidad biol6gica. Para mayores
informaciones dirigirse a: Kyran D. Thelen, Oficial
Regional Forestal, Oficina Regional de la FAO para
America Latina y el Caribe, Bandera 150, Casilla
10095, Santiago, Chile. Tel: 699-10-05, Gax: 696-
11-21, e-mail: fao-rlac@cgnet.com.

A Conservation Assessment ofthe Terrestrial
Ecoregions of Latin America and the
Caribbean, by Eric Dinerstein, David M. Olson,
Douglas J. Graham, Avis L. Webster, Steven A.
Primm, Marie P. Bookbinder and George Ledec.
1995, 129pp + 9 maps, + a poster size insert map,
and including 7 appendices. The World Wildlife Fund
and the World Bank, Washington, D. C. The results
of a study involving a biogeographic approach to
setting conservation priorities in Latin America and
the Caribbean, financed by the World Bank, the
Global Environment Facility (GEF), and the World
Wildlife Fund. It was carried out by WWF's
Conservation Science Program in close collaboration
with the World Bank's Environment Unit for Latin
America and the Caribbean. Chapters include: 1)
Approach; 2) Major ecosystem types, major habitat
types, and ecoregions of LAC; 3) Conservation status
of terrestrial ecoregions of LAC; 4) Biological
distinctiveness of terrestrial ecoregions of LAC at
different biogeographic scales; 5) Integrating
biological distinctiveness and conservation status; 6)
Conservation assessment of mangrove ecosystems;
7) Conclusions and recommendations. Available
from: Distrubtion Unit, Office of the Publisher, The
World Bank, 1818 H Street, N. W., Washington, D.
C.; or Publications, The World Bank, 66 avenue
d'l6na, 75116 Paris, France.

Economia Ecol6gica: Aplicaqges no Brasil,
editado por Peter H. May, 1995, 179pp. Editora
Campus, Rio de Janeiro. ISBN 85-353-0003-7. Seis
capitulos: Economia ecol6gica e o desenvolvimento
eqtiitativo no Brasil Peter H. May; Estimativas de
depreciaSio de capital natural no Brasil Ronaldo
Ser6a da Motta; Aplicaao de tecnicas de avaliacao
econ6mica ao ecossistema manguezal MOnica
Grasso, M6nica M. P. Tognella, Yara Schaeffer-
Novelli e Ant6nio E. Comune; Aspectos econ6mico-
ecol6gicas da produgao e utilizaiao do carvao vegetal
na siderurgia brasileira Josemar X. Medeiros;
Identificando os custos de usos alternatives do solo
para o planejamento municipal na AmazOnia o caso
Paragominas (PA) Oriana Trindade de Almeida e

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Neofropical Primates 3(4), December1995 Page 198

Christopher Uhl; Custos e beneficios da recuperagio
ambiental em morros favelados: O Projeto Mutirao -
Reflorestamento em Sao Josd Operdrio Peter H.
May, Aluisio G. de Andrade e Marilia Pastuk. Maiores
informag6es: Editora Campus Ltda., Rua Sete de
Setembro 111 16 Andar, 20050-002 Rio de Janeiro,
Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Tel: (021)221-5340, Fax: (021)

Extinction Rates, edited by John H. Lawton and
Robert M. May. 1995, xii +233 pp. Oxford University
Press, Oxford. Paperpack price 17.95. An empirical
review of extinction with 14 chapters including:
Assessing extinction rates R. M. May, J. H. Lawton
and N. E. Stork; Extinctions in the fossil record D.
Jablonski; Population dynamic principles J. H.
Lawton; Estimating extinction from molecular
phylogenies S. Nee, E. C. Holmes, R. M. May and
P. H. Harvey; Biological models for monitoring
species decline: the construction and use of data bases
- C. R. Margules and M. P. Austin; Classification of
threatened species and its role in conservation planning
- G. M. Mace; The scale of human enterprise and
biodiversity loss P. R. Ehrlich. Available from:
Oxford Univiersity Press, Saxon Way West, Corby
NN18 9ES, England, UK. Tel: 01536 741519, Fax:
01536 746337.


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Rosenblum, L. A. and Andres, M. W. 1995. Environ-
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Ryder, 0. and Feistner, A. T. C. 1995. Research in
zoos: a growth area in conservation. Biodiversity
and Conservation 4(6): 671-677.
Savage, A., Lasley, B. L., Vecchio, A. J., Miller, A.
E. and Shideler, S. E. 1995. Selected aspects of fe-
male white-faced saki (Pitheciapithecia) reproduc-
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Schaffner, C. M., Shepherd, R. E., Santos, C. V. and
French, J. A. 1995. Development of heterosexual
relationship in Wied's black tufted-ear marmosets
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Seyfarth, R. M. and Cheney, D. L. 1994. The evolu-
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Silva-L6pez, G. and Rumiz, D. 1995. Los primates
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Hombre, Revista de la Universidad Veracruzana
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Simula, A. P., Amato, F., Faast, R., Lopata, A., Berka,
J. and Norman, R. J. 1995. Luteinizing hormone/
chorionic gonadotropin bioactivity in the common
marmoset (Callithrixjacchus) is due to a chorionic
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human luteinizing hormone. Biol. Reprod 53(2):
Stuart, M. D. and Strier, K. B. 1995. Primates and
parasites: a case for a multidisciplinary approach.
Int. J. Primatol. 16(4): 577-593.
Torre, S. de la, Campos, F. and Vries, T. de. 1995.
Home range and birth seasonality of Saguinus
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J. Primatol. 37: 39-56.
Vermeer, J. 1994. Notes on the management of the
woolly monkey in captivity. Int. Zoo News 41(6):
Westergaard, G. C. 1995. The stone-tool technology
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WorldArchaeology 27(1): 1-9.
Westergaard, G. C., Greene, J. A., Babitz, M. A. and
Suomi, S. J. 1995. Pestle use and modification by
tufted capuchins (Cebus apella). Int. J. Primatol.
16(4): 643-651.
Whitehead, M. 1995. Saying it with genes, species
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Williams, B. A. and Kay, R. F. 1994/1995. The taxon
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Williams, L. E. and Bernstein. I. S. 1995. Study of

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Yeager, C., Isbell, L. and Young, T. 1994/1995. Pri-
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Zhang, S.-Y. 1994. Sleeping habits of brown capu-
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April, G., Bertonatti, C., Carpinetti, B. y Tito, G.
1995. Rehabilitaci6n y reintroducci6n de monos
caraya (Alouatta caraya) en la Provincia de
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de Mastozoologia, p.4. Sociedad Argentina para el
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Avellanada, S. 1995. El uso de los primates en
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November 1995, La Plata, Argentina.
Crook, G. A. 1995. An atypical mating strategy in
the common marmoset Callithrixjacchus. Austra-
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Einspanier, A., Ivell, R. and Hodges, K. 1995. Local-
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the Primate Society of Great Britain (PSGB)
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tamarins form mixed species groups? Tests of pre-
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Peres, C. A. Effects of selective hunting and forest
types on the structure of Amazonian primate com-
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Pryce, C, Goeldi's monkey and captive evidence for
a monogamous social organisation: a psychobio-
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Rylands, A. B. Ecology and conservation of the lion

tamarins, Leontopithecus. pp.9-10.
Strier, K. B. Sex and reproduction in muriquis
(Brachyteles arachnoides). p.4
Visalberghi, E. and Fragaszy, D. The opportunistic
lifestyle in Cebus. p.7.
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Carla-Campa, M. C. Ardito, G., Crovella, S.,
Montagnon, D. et al. Comparative analysis of
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behaviour of the captive common marmoset
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Gulyaeva, T. V., Titova, I. P. and Dokin, V. P. A
breeding colony of common marmosets (Callithrix
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Riviello, M. C. The use of a feeding board as an envi-
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monkeys (Cebus apella). pp.23-24.
Schnell, C. R., Scott, L. and Pryce, C. R. The Euro-
pean Marmoset Research Group: an example of in-
terdisciplinary communication, p.21.
Valente, M., Limongelli, L. and Visalberghi, E. Feed-
ing alone and feeding in groups: When does com-
pany make a difference? pp. 10-11.
Vitale, A. and Santamaria, F. Response to a novel
object by socially-housed common marmosets
(Callithrixjacchus). pp.15-16.
In: Folia Primatologica 64(1-2), 1995.
Araujo, A. and Arruda, M. F. Dispersion in Callithrix
jacchus (Callitrichidae, Primates) at Nisia Floresta,
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Deputte, B. L., Vrot, M., Pierre, G., Bellec, S. et al.
Development and manipulation in a brown capu-
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Dixson, A. F. Neuro-endocrinology and sexual
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Ludes, E. and Anderson, J. R. Use of different forag-
ing substrates by captive white-throated capuchins
(Cebus capucinus). pp.84-85.
MacLarnon, A. M. and Ross, C. Allometry and ecol-
ogy of infant growth rates and alloparenting. p.97.
Yioulatos, D. Preliminary observations on the loco-
motion and postural behaviours of the red-handed
tamarin (Saguinus midas midas) in French Guiana.



Workshop "The Implications of Non-Invasive and
Remote Monitoring Techniques for Non-Human
Primate Research and Husbandry", 6-8 December
1995, Deutsches Primatenzentrum (DPZ), Gottingen.
Sponsored jointly by the European Primate Research
Network (EUPREN), and the European Marmoset
Research Group (EMRG). Includes symposia and
poster sessions on non-invasive methods and remote
monitoring, and demonstrations on transponder
identification/temperature monitoring Plexx (NL),
activity monitoring Octec (UK), telemetry Data
Sciences Int. (USA), and behavioral recording -
Noldus (NL). Contact: L. Scott, Medical
Countermeasures, CBDE, Porton Down, Salisbury,
SP4 OJQ, UK, Fax: +44 (0)1980 613741, or C. R.
Schnell, CIBA, Klybeckstrasse 141, K-125.2.08, CH-
4002 Basel, Switzerland, Fax: 061 696 62-42.


XXI Congresso Brasileiro de Zoologia, 5-9 February
1996, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. Organized
by the Brazilian Zoological Society. Contact:
Secretaria Executiva, Departamento de Zoologia,
Institute de Biociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio
Grande do Sul, Avenida Paulo Gama 40, 90040-060
Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Tel: (051)
228-1633 x 3108 or 3126, Fax: (051) 226-7191 or
(051) 227-5529, e-mail: buckup@vortex.ufrgs.br.

II Encontro de Mastozoologia, 5-9 February 1996,
Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. Organized by the
Brazilian Mammal Society, as part of the activities of
XXI Congresso Brasileiro de Zoologia. Contact:
Thales Renato O. de Freitas, Departamento de
Gen6tica Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade
Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Caixa Postal 15053,
91501-970 Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Tel: (051) 336-8399 x 6733, Fax: (051) 336-2011, e-
mail: trof@ifl.if.ufrgs.br.

Workshop Disseminating Biodiversity
Information, 24-27 March 1996, organised by the
European Science Foundation (ESF) Systematic
Biology Network, The Institute of Systematics and
Population Biology (University of Amsterdam), and
the Expert Center for Taxonomic Identification (ETI-
UNESCO), Amsterdam. Key theme: Organisation and
subsequent world-wide dissemination of information
on the earth's biological diversity. Contact: UvA
Conference Office, Spui 21, 1012 WX Amsterdam,
The Netherlands, Tel: +31 20 525 2946, Fax: +31 20
525 4799, e-mail: congres@bdu.uva.nl, or Wouter Los,
Zoological Museum Amsterdam, PO Box 94766, 1090
GT Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Tel: + 31 20 525
6499, Fax: + 31 20 525 5402, e-mail: los@bio.uva.nl.

1st International Symposium on Tropical Savannas,
VIII Simp6sio sobre o Cerrado,, 24-29 March 1996,
sponsored by EMBRAPA Brazilian Agricultural
Research Corporation, CPAC Cerrados Agricultural
Research Center, Brasilia, Brazil. The program will
consist of lectures, discussion panels and poster
sessions on the central theme of "Biodiversity and
Sustainable Production of Food and Fibers in the
Tropical Savannas". For more information: 1st
International Symposium on Tropical Savannas/VIII
Simp6sio sobre o Cerrado, Att. Ms. Luciene M.
Andrade, EMBRAPA CPAC, Caixa Postal 08.223,
Planaltina, DF 73301-970, Brazil. Tel: +55 (61) 389-
1171, Fax: +55(61)3892953, e-mail: simpcer@sede
.embrapa .br.

Population and Community Dynamics in the
Tropics, 1-3 April 1996, British Ecological Society
Annual Symposium, Cambridge University,
Cambridge, U. K. Contact: Dr. D. M. Newbery, Unit
of Tropical Forest Ecology, Department of Biological
and Molecular Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling
FK9 4LA, Scotland, UK. Tel: + 44 (0)1786 467809,
Fax: + 44 (0) 1786 46 68 93, e-mail: d.m.newbery@

ASAB General Spring Meeting, 2-3 April 1996,
Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour, Bolton
Institute Primate Research Team, Bolton Institute, UK.
Organized by Geoff Hosey and other members of the
Primate Research Team. Offers of papers and posters
invited, send title plus rough statement of content.
Further information: Marie Jacques, Primate Research
Team, Division of Psychology and Biology, Bolton
Institute, Deane Road, Bolton BL3 5AB, Lancashire,
UK, Tel: 01204 528851, ext. 3145, Fax: 01204 399074,
e-mail: mjl@bolton.ac.uk.

lNeotropical Primates 3(4), December1995

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New World Primate Taxon Advisory Group, 19 May
1996. Denver, Colorado, USA. Focus: New World
primate genetics. Contact: Jean Dubach, Brookfield
Zoo, Department of Conservation Biology, Laboratory
of Genetics, 3300 Golf Road, Brookfield, IL 60513,
USA. Tel: 1 708 485-0263, ext. 502, Fax: 1 708 485
3532, e-mail: bzconbio@ix.netcom.com.

Changing Images of Primate Societies: The Role of
Theory, Method, and Gender, 15-23 June 1996, Hotel
Rosa dos Ventos, Teres6polis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Supported by The Wenner-Gren Foundation for
Anthropological Research, Inc., New York. Organized
by Shirley C. Strum (University of California, San
Diego) and Linda M. Fedigan (University of Alberta).
Session topics: Primate studies: influence of theory,
method, and gender; Comparative perspective:
psychology, animal behavior, cultural anthropology,
paleoanthropology, archeology; Larger context: science
studies, feminism., and popular culture. For more
information, please contact: Shirley C. Strum, at Tel:
(619) 944-3453, Fax: (619) 944-2809/534-5946, or
Linda M. Fedigan at Tel: (403) 492-5899, Fax: (403)
492-5273, e-mail: linda.fedigan@ualbert.ca, or
Wenner-Gren Foundation, 220 Fifth Avenue, 16th
Floor, New York, NY 10001, USA, Tel: (212) 683-
5000, Fax: (212) 683-9151.

ASAB Summer Meeting Individual Behaviour and
Population Processes, 24-26 July 1996, University of
East Anglia, Norwich, UK. Organized by W. Sutherland
and J. Reynolds. The meeting will focus on the
relationship between animal behaviour and population
ecology, including the role of individual decisions in
foraging, predator avoidance, territoriality, and
breeding behavior in determining spatial patterns of
habitat use and temporal changes in populations.
Discussions on both empirical and and theoretical
research.will contribute to provide a synthesis between
animal behaviour and population biology with
implications for management and conservation.
Contact: Bill Sutherland or John Reynolds, School of
Biological Sciences, University of East Anglia,
Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK. Tel: 01603 592266, Fax: 01603
592250; e-mail: w.sutherland@uea.ac.uk or

XVIth Congress of the International Primatological
Society & 19th Conference of the American Society
of Primatologists, 11-16 August 1996, University of
Wisconsin, Madison, hosted by the Wisconsin Regional
Primate Research Center. Contact: Edith Chan,
Coordinator/Information, Wisconsin Regional Primate
Research Center, 1220 Capitol Court, Madison,
Wisconsin 53715-1299, USA. Tel: (608) 263-3500,
Fax: (608) 263 4031, e-mail: ipsasp-info@primate.

Meeting of the Association of Primate
Veterinarians, 16-17 August 1996, University of
Wisconsin, Madison. Contact: Edith Chan,
Coordinator/Information, Wisconsin Regional
Primate Research Center, 1220 Capitol Court,
Madison, Wisconsin 53715-1299, USA. Tel: (608)
263-3500; Fax: (608) 263 4031, e-mail: ipsasp-

Ecological Summit 96, 19-23 August 1996,
Copenhagen, Denmark. Organized by Elsevier
Science, Journal Editors Robert Costanza (Ecological
Economics), Sven E. Jorgensen (Ecological
Modelling), William J. Mitsch (Ecological
Engineering) and David Rapport (Ecosystem Health).
In collaboration with the International Society of
Ecological Modelling, International Ecological
Engineering Society, International Society of
Ecosystem Health, International Society of Ecological
Economics, SAS Institute Denmark, and International
Lake Environmental Committee. For information
contact: Ecological Summit 96, Conference
Secretariat, Elsevier Science Ltd., The Boulevard,
Langford Lane, Kidlington, Oxford OX5 1GB, UK.
Tel: +44 (0)1865 843643, Fax: +44 (0)1856 843958,
e-mail: g.spear@elsevier.co.uk.

6th International Behavioural Ecology Congress,
29 September 4 October 1966, Canberra, Australia.
Details from: Andrew Cockburn, Division of Botany
and Zoology, Australian National University,
Canberra ACT 02000, Australia. Fax: 61 6249 5773,
e-mail: andrew.cockbum@anu.edu.au.

III Congresso de Ecologia do Brasil, 6-11 October
1995, Centro de Convenq6es Ulysses Guimarles,
Brasilia. Deadline for submitting preliminary
abstracts: 30 March 1996. Deadline for submitting
final version of abstracts: 30 June 1996. Contact:
Comissao Organizadora, III Congresso de Ecologia
do Brasil, Departamento de Ecologia, Universidade
de Brasilia (UNB), Caixa Postal 04355, 70919-970
Brasilia, D. F., Brasil. Tel: +55 (0)61 348-2326, 348-
2592, & 348-2282, Fax: +55 (0)61 272-1497 & 273-
4571. E.mail: congecol@guarany.cpd.unb.br.

68th IUCN Species Survival Commission Full
Meeting, 11-12 October 1996, Montreal, Canada.
Theme: Communicating the value of the SSC its
worldwide presence, scientific knowledge, expert
advice, and ongoing work, and its relevance to the
conservation of biodiversity. Plenary sessions: SSC
advice to intergovernmental boides; Biodiviersity
conservation information system; SSC Specialist
Group Reports. Round table discussion: SSC at the
regional and country levels. Workshops: IUCN
categories of threat; SSC communications strategy;

Neotropical Primates 3(4), Decemherl995

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Page 205 Neotropical Primates 3(4), December1995

Fund-raising strategies. Registration fee $25. For more
information: World Conservation Congress
Coordinator, IUCN, Rue Mauverney 28, 1196 Gland,
Switzerland, Fax: + 41 22 999 0020.

IUCN World Conservation Congress, 13-23
October 1996, Montreal Conference Centre,
Montreal, Canada. Four distinct parts: Special
Members' Session (13-14 October) to consider
revised statutes accredited delegates of IUCN voting
members; Members' Business Session (15-16, 22-23
October) to discuss and approve IUCN's future
strategy, programme and budget, elect the officers
and Council of the Union, and debate and adopt
resolutions and recommendations invited observers
may also attend; Open Session of Workshops (17-
18,20-21 October) under the overall theme of "Caring
for the Earth" open to the public; A major
environmental exhibition open to the public. 19
October set aside for excursions. Registration fee $50
if paid before 31 July 1996, $100 after that date.
Contact: John Burke, Director of Communications,
IUCN The World Conservation Union, 28 rue
Mauverney, 1196 Gland Switzerland. Tel: +41 22 999

Biodiversity, Conservation and Management at the
Beni Biosphere Reserve, Bolivia, 3-6 December
1996, La Paz, Bolivia. Organized by the Beni
Biological Station, Bolivian Academy of Sciences,
and the Smithsonian/MAB Biodiversity Program. The
objective is to provide a complete overview of the
last ten years of research on biodiversirty,
conservation and management at the reserve. Papers
and posters are requested. Proceedings will be
published. For additional information, contact:
Carmen Miranda, AcademiaNacional de Ciencias de
Bolivia, Av. 16 de Julio 1732, Casilla 5829, La Paz,
Bolivia. Tel./Fax: (591-2) 350612, e-mail:
cmiranda@ebb.bo, or Francisco Dallmeier,
Smithsonian/MAB Biodiversity Program, 1100
Jefferson Drive SW, Suite 3123, Washington, D. C.
20560, USA. Tel: (202) 357 4793, Fax: (202) 786
2557, e-mail:zicfgd@ic.si.edu.

Australian Primate Society Annual Meeting, 6-8
December 1996, Wellington Zoo, Wellington, New
Zealand. Conference Organizer: Graeme Strachan,
Wellington Zoo. Contact: Graeme Crook, CSIRO
Division of Human Nutrition, Animal Services,
Majors Road, O'Halloran Hill, South Australia 5158.
Tel: +61 82 98 03 36, Fax: +61 83 77 0 004, e-mail:

533 142 4 I
9 |ii m
: ... e" i .


We would be most grateful if you could send us
information on projects, research groups, events
(congresses, symposia, and workshops), recent
publications, activities ofprimatological societies and
NGOs, news items or opinions of recent events and
suchlike. Manuscripts should be double-spaced and
accompanied by the text in diskette for PC compatible
text-editors (MS-Word, Wordperfect, Wordstar).
Articles, not exceeding six pages, can include small
black-and-white photographs, figures, maps, tables
and references, but please keep them to a minimum.

Please send contributions to: ANTHONY RYLANDS,
Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Ciencias
Biol6gicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais,
31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Brazil, Fax: (031) 441-
1412, or c/o Conservation International do Brasil,
Avenida Ant6nio Abrahao Caram 820/302,
Pampulha, 31275-000, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais,
Brazil, Tel/Fax: (031) 441-1795 or ERNESTO
RODRIGUEZ-LUNA, Parque de La Flora y Fauna
Silvestre Tropical, Universidad Veracruzana,
Apartado Postal 566, Xalapa, Veracruz 91000,
Mexico, Fax: 52 (28) 12-5748.

LILIANA CORTES-ORTIZ (Universidad Veracruzana) and
MIRIAM MENEZES LIMA (Conservation International,
Belo Horizonte) provide invaluable editorial
assistance. LUDMILLA AGUIAR, Conservation
International do Brasil, Belo Horizonte (address
above), is responsible for the distribution of
Neotropical Primates. Please keep us informed of any
address changes.

Correspondence, messages, and texts can be sent to:


NEOTROPICAL PRIMATES is produced in collaboration
with Conservation International, 1015 18th Street
NW, Suite 1000, Washington DC 20036, USA, and
Fundaqio Biodiversitas, Av. do Contomo, 9155/11.
andar Prado, Belo Horizonte 30110-130, Minas
Gerais, Brazil.

Design and Composition -ALEXANDRE SEUI
DINNOUTI Conservation International do Brasil.

Page 205

Neotropical Primates 3(4), December1995

Neotropical Primates 3(4), December1995

A stuffed toy of the white uakari. Sales will support ecological studies on
Amazonian inundated forests.

Please write to
Deborah Lima-Ayres
Sociedade Civil MamirauA
Universidade Federal do Pard Campus do GuamB
Departamento de Antropologia CFCH
Caixa Postal 521 Beldm Pard Cep 66.073-250 Brazil
Tel/Fax +55 91 229 00 69

Page 206

Anthony Rylands/Ernesto Rodriguez Luna. Ediors
Conservation International
Avenida Antsnio Abrahlo Caram 820/302
31275-000, Belo Horizonte
Minas Gerais, Brazil

This issueof Neotiopical Primates was kindly sponsored
by the Houston Zoological Gardens Conservation
Program, Houston Zoological Gardens, General
Manager Donald G. Olson, 1513 North
MacGregor, Houston, Texas 77030, and
the Columbus Zoological Gardens, Director
Gerald W. Borin, Box 400, Powell,
A.. =. Ohio 43065, USA. Columbus Zoo
Park nd Rcreain Deptmr

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