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Title: Neotropical primates
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 Material Information
Title: Neotropical primates a newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCNSSC Primate Specialist Group
Abbreviated Title: Neotrop. primates
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
Conservation International
Center for Applied Biodiversity Science
Publisher: Conservation International
Place of Publication: Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Publication Date: December 1995
Frequency: quarterly
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Primates -- Periodicals -- Latin America   ( lcsh )
Primates -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Wildlife conservation -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: review   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Brazil
 Notes
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Language: English, Portuguese, and Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Mar. 1993)-
Issuing Body: Issued jointly with Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, <Dec. 2004->
General Note: Published in Washington, D.C., Dec. 1999-Apr. 2005 , Arlington, VA, Aug. 2005-
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 13, no. 1 (Apr. 2005).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098814
Volume ID: VID00013
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28561619
lccn - 96648813
issn - 1413-4705

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Table of Contents
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    Back Cover
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Full Text


Ik,

NEOTROPIQAL

P RIA A TE VOLUME SUPPLEMENT
-j SEPTEM8R9i SEPTEMBER, 1995--,

A Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group
Editors: Anthony B. Rylands and Ernesto Rodriguez Luna
PSG Chairman: Russell A. Mittermeier
PSGDeputy Chairman: 4illiam R. Konstant
m.t --,


Species and Subspecies of Neotropical Primates
Conservation Status According to the Mace-Lande System
and Distribution by Country and Region


INTERNATIONAL


SPECIES SURVIVAL
COMMISSION


FUNDAQAO
BIODIVERSITAS








Editorial


In October 1993, the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group prepared a revision of the
IUCN ratings for the South American primates. The results of this revision were reported in Neotropical Primates
1(4) (Rylands, A. B., Encarnaci6n, F. and Mittermeier, R. A. 1993b. South American primates and the IUCN Red
List of Threatened Animals, pp.1-2, 1993), and the proposal was accepted by IUCN and published in the 1994
IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals, compiled by the World Conservation Monitoring Center, Cambridge.

In this supplement of Neotropical Primates we report on a further revision of the ratings for the threatened status of
the species and subspecies of all New World primates, this time based on the categorization system first proposed
by G. M. Mace and R. Lande (Assessing extinction threats: toward a reevaluation of IUCN threatened species
categories. Conservation. Biology 5(2): 148-157, 1991). Following numerous drafts, consultations and revisions,
this system was adopted by the World Conservation Union (IUCN) Council and the Species Survival Commission
(SSC) in December 1994. The complete text explaining and defining the new IUCN Red List Categories comprises
the first article.

A preliminary proposal for the categorization of the threatened status of the platyrrhines following the Mace-Lande
system was drawn up by the PSG Chairman, Russell A. Mittermeier, and the Vice Chairmen for the Neotropical
Section, Ernesto Rodriguez-Luna and Anthony B. Rylands, during the XV Congress of the International Primato-
logical Society, Bali, Indonesia, in August 1994. Evaluation of the Middle American primates benefited from the
concurrent elaboration of the MesoAmerican Primate Action Plan (Rodriguez-Luna, E., Neotropical Primates
1(3):11-13, 1993). This proposal was then submitted for review to 86 members of the Neotropical Section of the
PSG in October 1994.

The second article in this supplement provides the results of this evaluation based on a listing of 202 species and
subspecies, from southern Mexico to northern Argentina. It should be emphasized that taxonomic revisions have
been carried out recently for a number of genera, but for others the taxonomies used date back 30 or 40 years. The
common name, distribution by country, and the criteria determining threatened status are also given, along with the
numbers of species and subspecies in each country, and in seven phytogeographic regions, including analyses of
endemism and the taxa which are threatened in each.

We are most grateful to the following PSG members for their collaboration in drawing up this Mace-Lande listing
of threatened species and subspecies: Jos6 MArcio Ayres, Ibsen de Gusmao Camara, Adelmar F. Coimbra-Filho,
Thomas R. Defler, Andrew G. Johns, Devra G. Kleiman, Claudio Valladares-Padua, Gilberto Silva-L6pez, Karen
B. Strier, Roland Wirth, A. Hernmndez Yaflez, and Gabriel Zunino.

Finally, we are publishing a list of the current members of the Neotropical section of the IUCN/SSC Primate
Specialist Group, which now total 60 representing the non-human primates in 15 countries (Argentina 4, Belize -
2, Bolivia 2, Brasil 19, Colombia 3, Costa Rica 1, Ecuador 4, Guatemala 1, Mexico 12, Panama 1,
Paraguay 1, Peru 7, Suriname 1, and Venezuela 2), along with seven members based in the USA, and 19
members comprising the Special/Captive Breeding Section.

The editors would be most grateful for any comments or corrections regarding the species/subspecies lists for each
of the countries. In addition, we emphasize that the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species is subject to continuous
revision. We encourage any substantiated proposals for changes in the categories ascribed to the species and sub-
species. They will be carefully considered and submitted to PSG members.

Russell A. Mittermeier, Chairman IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group
Anthony B. Rylands and Ernesto Rodriguez-Luna Co-Vice Chairmen Neotropical Section


Cover photograph by Russell A. Mittermeier: the yellow-tailed woolly monkey, Lagothrixflavicauda.


Page 103


Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), September1995





Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), September]995


A New System for Classifying Threatened Status


The IUCN Species Survival Commission (SSC) of
the World Conservation Union (IUCN) recently pub-
lished the official text which provides information
on, and the definitions for, the new threatened status
categories adopted by IUCN at the 40th Meeting of
the IUCN Council, Gland, Switzerland. The evalua-
tion of the status of animal and plant species is one of
the principal tasks of the SSC Specialist Group net-
work, and for this reason we are publishing the text
in its entirety.

IUCN Species Survival Commission. 1994. IUCN
Red List Categories. The World Conservation Union
(IUCN), Gland, Switzerland. 30 November 1994.


IUCN Red List Categories

I. INTRODUCTION

1. The threatened species categories now used in Red
Data Books and Red Lists have been in place, with
some modification, for almost 30 years. Since their
introduction these categories have become widely
recognized internationally, and they are now used in
a whole range of publications and listings, produced
by IUCN as well as by numerous governmental and
non-governmental organizations. The Red Data Book
categories provide an easily and widely understood
method for highlighting those species under higher
extinction risk, so as to focus attention on conserva-
tion measures designed to protect them.

2. The need to revise the categories has been
recognized for some time. In 1984, the SSC held a
symposium, "The Road to Extinction" (Fitter and
Fitter 1987), which examined the issues in some de-
tail, and at which a number of options were consid-
ered for the revised system. However, no single pro-
posal resulted. The current phase of development
began in 1989 with a request from the SSC Steering
Committee to develop a new approach that would
provide the conservation community with useful in-
formation for action planning.

In this document, proposals for new definitions for
Red List categories are presented. The general aim of
the new system is to provide an explicit, objective
framework for the classification of species according
to their extinction risk.


The revision has several specific aims:
to provide a system that can be applied con-
sistently by different people;
to improve the objectivity by providing those
using the criteria with clear guidance on how
to evaluate different factors which affect risk
of extinction;
to provide a system which will facilitate com-
parisons across widely different taxa;
to give people using threatened species lists a
better understanding of how individual spe-
cies were classified.

3. The proposals presented in this document result
from a continuing process of drafting, consultation
and validation. It was clear that the production of a
large number of draft proposals led to some confu-
sion, especially as each draft has been used for clas-
sifying some set of species for conservation purposes.
To clarify matters, and to open the way for modifica-
tions as and when they became necessary, a system
for version numbering was applied as follows:

Version 1.0: Mace and Lande (1991)

The first paper discussing a new basis for the catego-
ries, and presenting numerical criteria especially rel-
evant for large vertebrates.

Version 2.0: Mace et al. (1992)

A major revision of Version 1.0, including numeri-
cal criteria appropriate to all organisms and introduc-
ing the non-threatened categories.

Version 2.1: IUCN (1993)

Following an extensive consultation process within
SSC, a number of changes were made to the details
of the criteria, and fuller explanation of basic prin-
ciples was included. A more explicit structure clari-
fied the significance of the non-threatened catego-
ries.

Version 2.2: Mace and Stuart (1994)

Following further comments received and additional
validation exercises, some minor changes to the cri-
teria were made. In addition, the Susceptible category


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Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), September1995 Page 105


present in Versions 2.0 and 2.1 was subsumed into
the Vulnerable category. A precautionary application
of the system was emphasised.

Final Version

This final document, which incorporated changes as
a result of comments from IUCN members, was
adopted by the IUCN Council in December 1994.

All future taxon lists including categorisations should
be based on this version, and not the previous ones.

4. In the rest of this document the proposed system is
outlined in several sections. The Preamble presents
some basic information about the context and struc-
ture of the proposal, and the procedures that are to be
followed in applying the definitions to species. This
is followed by a section giving definitions of terms
used. Finally the definitions are presented, followed
by the quantitative criteria used for classification
within the threatened categories. It is important for
the effective functioning of the new system that all
sections are read and understood, and the guidelines
followed. (

References
Fitter, R., and M. Fitter, ed. (1987) The Road to
Extinction. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.
IUCN. (1993) Draft IUCN Red List Categories.
Gland, Switzerland: IUCN
Mace, G. M. et al. (1992) The development of new
criteria for listing species on the IUCN Red List.
Species 19: 16-22.
Mace, G. M., and Lande, R. (1991) Assessing extinc-
tion threats: toward a reevaluation of IUCN threat-
ened species categories. Conserv. Biol. 5.2: 148-
157.
Mace, G. M. and S. N.
Stuart. (1994) Draft
IUCN Red List Catego-
ries, Version 2.2. Spe-
cies 21-22: 13-24.

II. PREAMBLE


The following points
present important infor-
mation on the use and in-
terpretation of the catego-
ries (= Critically Endan-
gered, Endangered, etc.),
criteria (= A to E), and
sub-criteria (= a, b etc., i,
ii etc.):


(Adequate
Data) -


1. Taxonomic level and scope of the categorisation
process

The criteria can be applied to any taxonomic unit at
or below the species level. The term "taxon" in the
following notes, definitions and criteria is used for
convenience, and may represent species or lower taxo-
nomic levels, including forms that are not yet for-
mally described. There is a sufficient range among
the different criteria to enable the appropriate listing
of taxa from the complete taxonomic spectrum, with
the exception of micro-organisms. The criteria may
also be applied within any specified geographical or
political area although in such cases special notice
should be taken of point 11 below. In presenting the
results of applying the criteria, the taxonomic unit
and area under consideration should be made explicit.
The categorisation process should only be applied to
wild populations inside their natural range, and to
populations resulting from benign introductions (de-
fined in the draft IUCN Guidelines for Re-introduc-
tions as "..an attempt to establish a species, for the
purpose of conservation, outside its recorded distri-
bution, but within an appropriate habitat and eco-geo-
graphical area").

2. Nature of the categories

All taxa listed as Critically Endangered qualify for
Vulnerable and Endangered, and all listed as Endan-
gered qualify for Vulnerable. Together these catego-
ries are described as "threatened". The threatened
species categories form a part of the overall scheme.
It will be possible to place all taxa into one of the
categories (see Figure 1).




Extinct
Extinct in the Wild

Critically Endangered

-(Threatened) Endangered

Vulnerable

Conservation Dependent
- -__ Lower Risk Near Threatened
f Least Concern


L_______- __-- Data Defficient

Not Evaluated
Figure 1. Structure of the Categories.


Neotropical Primates 3(suppL), September]995


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Page 106 Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), September 199S


3. Role of the different criteria


inaccurate.


For listing as Critically Endangered, Endangered or
Vulnerable there is a range of quantitative criteria;
meeting any one of these criteria qualifies a taxon for
listing at that level of threat. Each species should be
evaluated against all the criteria. The different crite-
ria (A-E) are derived from a wide review aimed at
detecting risk factors across the broad range of or-
ganisms and the diverse life histories they exhibit. Even
though some criteria will be inappropriate for certain
taxa (some taxa will never qualify under these how-
ever close to extiction they come), there should be
criteria appropriate for assessing threat levels for any
taxon (other than micro-organisms). The relevant fac-
tor is whether any one criterion is met, not whether
all are appropriate or all are met. Because it will never
be clear which criteria are appropriate for a particu-
lar species in advance, each species should be evalu-
ated against all the criteria, and any criterion met
should be listed.

4. Derivation of quantitative criteria

The quantitative values presented in the various cri-
teria associated with threatened categories were de-
veloped through wide consultation and they are set at
what are generally judged to be appropriate levels,
even if no formal justification for these values exists.
The levels for different criteria within categories were
set independently but against a common standard.
Some broad consistency between them was sought.
However, a given taxon should not be expected to
meet all criteria (A-E) in a category; meeting any one
criterion is sufficient for listing.

5. Implications of listing

Listing in the categories of Not Evaluated and Data
Deficient indicates that no assessment of extinction
risk has been made, though for different reasons. Until
such time as an assessment is made, species listed in
these categories should not be treated as if they were
non-threatened, and it may be appropriate (especially
for Data Deficient forms) to give them the same de-
gree of protection as threatened taxa, at least until
their status can be evaluated.

Extinction is assumed here to be a chance process.
Thus, a listing is a higher extinction risk category
implies a higher expectation of extinction, and over
the time-frames specified more taxa listed in a higher
category are expected to go extinct than in a lower
one (without effective conservation action). However,
the persistence of some taxa in high risk categories
does not necessarily mean their initial assessment was


6. Data quality and the importance of inference
and projection

The criteria are clearly quantitative in nature. How-
ever, the absence of high quality data should not de-
ter attempts at applying the criteria, as methods in-
volving estimation, inference and projection are
emphasised to be acceptable throughout. Inference
and projection may be based on extrapolation of cur-
rent or potential threats into the future (including their
rate of change), or of factors related to population
abundance or distribution (including dependence on
other taxa), so long as these can reasonably be sup-
ported. Suspected or inferred patterns in either the
recent past, present or near future can be based on
any of a series of related factors, and these factors
should be specified.

Taxa at risk from threats posed by future events of
low probability but with severe consequences (catas-
trophes) should be identified by the criteria (e.g. small
distributions, few locations). Some threats need to be
identified particularly early, and appropriate actions
take, because their effects are irreversible, or nearly
so (pathogens, invasive organisms, hybridization).

7. Uncertainty

The criteria should be applied on the basis of the avail-
able evidence on taxon numbers, trend and distribu-
tion, making due allowance for statistical and other
uncertainties. Given that data are rarely available for
the whole range or population of a taxon, it may of-
ten be appropriate to use the information that is avail-
able to make intelligent inferences about the overall
status of the taxon in question. In cases where a wide
variation in estimates is found, it is legitimate to ap-
ply the precautionary principle and use the estimate
(providing it is credible) that leads to listing in the
category of highest risk.

Where data are insufficient to assign a category (in-
cluding Lower Risk), the category of "Data Deficient"
may be assigned. However, it is important to recognize
that this category indicates that data are inadequate
to determine the degree of threat faced by a taxon,
not necessarily that the taxon is poorly known. In cases
where there are evident threats to a taxon through,
for example, deterioration of its only known habitat,
it is important to attempt threatened listing, even
though there may be little direct information on the
biological status of the taxon itself. The category
"Data Deficient" is not a threatened category, although
it indicated a need to obtain more information on a


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Neotropical Primates 3(suppL), September1995







Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.); September1995 Page 107


taxon to determine the appropriate listing.

8. Conservation actions in the listing process

The criteria for the threatened categories are to be
applied to a taxon whatever the level of conservation
action affecting it. In cases where it is only conserva-
tion action that prevents the taxon from meeting the
threatened criteria, the designation of "Conservation
Dependent" is appropriate. It is important to
emphasise here that a taxon requires conservation
action even if it is not listed as threatened.

9. Documentation

All taxon lists including categorisation resulting from
these criteria should state the criteria and sub-criteria
that were met. No listing can be accepted as valid
unless at least one criterion is given. However, fail-
ure to mention a criterion should not necessarily im-
ply that it was not met. Therefore, if a re-evaluation
indicates that the documented criterion is no longer
met, this should not result in automatic down-listing.
Instead, the taxon should be re-evaluated with respect
to all criteria to indicate its status. The factors respon-
sible for triggering the criteria, especially where in-
ference and projection are used, should at least be
logged by the evaluator, even if they cannot be in-
cluded in published lists.

10. Threats and priorities

The category of threat is not necessarily sufficient to
determine priorities for conservation action. The cat-
egory of threat simply provides an assessment of the
likelihood of extinction under current circumstances,
whereas a system for assessing priorities for action
will include numerous other factors concerning con-
servation action such as costs, logistics, chances of
success, and even perhaps the taxonomic distinctive-
ness of the subject.

11. Use at regional level

The criteria are most appropriately applied to whole
taxa at a global scale, rather than those units defined
by regional or national boundaries. Regionally or
nationally based threat categories, which are aimed
at including taxa that are threatened at regional or
national levels (but not necessarily throughout their
global ranges), are best used with two key pieces of
information: the global status category for the taxon,
and the proportion of the global population or range
that occurs within the region or nation. However, if
applied at regional or national level it must be
recognized that a global category of threat may not


be the same as regional or national category for a
particular taxon. For example, taxa classified as Vul-
nerable on the basis of their global declines in num-
bers or range might be Lower Risk within a particu-
lar region where their populations are stable. Con-
versely, taxa classified as Lower Risk globally might
be Critically Endangered within a particular region
where numbers are very small or declining, perhaps
only because they are at the margins of their global
range. IUCN is still in the process of developing
guidelines for the use of national red list categories.

12. Re-evaluation

Evaluation of taxa against the criteria should be car-
ried out at appropriate intervals. This is especial
y important for taxa listed under Near Threatened,
or Conservation Dependent, and for threatened species
whose status is known or suspected to be deterioration


13. Transfer between categories

There are rules to govern the movement of taxa be-
tween categories. These are as follows : (A) A taxon
may be moved from a category of higher threat to a
category of lower threat if none of the criteria of the
higher category has been met for 5 years or more. (B)
If the original classification is found to have been er-
roneous, the taxon may be transferred to the appro-
priate category or removed from the threatened cat-
egories altogether, without delay (but see Section 9).
(C) Transfer from categories of lower to higher risk
should be made without delay.

14. Problems of scale

Classification based on the sizes of geographic ranges
or the patterns of habitat occupancy is complicated
by problems of spatial scale. The finer the scale at
which the distributions or habitats of taxa are mapped,
the smaller will be the area that they are found to oc-
cupy. Mapping at finer scales reveals more areas in
which the taxon is unrecorded. It is impossible to pro-
vide any strict but general rules for mapping taxa or
habitats; the most appropriate scale will depend on
the taxa in question, and the origin and comprehen-
siveness of the distribution data. However, the thresh-
olds for some criteria (e.g., Critically Endangered)
necessitate mapping at a fine scale.

III. DEFINITIONS

1. Population

Population is defined as the total number of individu-


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Neotropical Primates 3(suppL),- September]995







Page 108 Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), September 199S


als of the taxon. For functional reasons, primarily
owing to differences between life-forms, population
numbers are expressed as numbers of mature indi-
viduals only. In the case of taxa obligately dependent
on other taxa for all or part of their life cycles, bio-
logically appropriate values for the host taxon should
be used.


2. Subpopulations


future decline whose causes are not known or not
adequately controlled and so is liable to continue un-
less remedial measures are taken. Natural fluctuations
will not normally count as a continuing decline, but
an observed decline should not be considered to be
part of a natural fluctuation unless there is evidence
for this.


6. Reduction


Subpopulations are defined as geographically or oth-
erwise distinct groups in the population between
which there is little exchange (typically one success-
ful migrant individual or gamete per year or less).

3. Mature Individuals

The number of mature individuals is defined as the
number of individuals known, estimated or inferred
to be capable of reproduction. When estimating this
quantity the following points should be borne in mind:
Where the population is characterized by natu-
ral fluctuations the minimum number should
be used.
This measure is intended to count individuals
capable of reproduction and should therefore
exclude individuals that are environmentally,
behaviourally or otherwise reproductively sup-
pressed in the wild.
In the case of populations with biased adult or
breeding sex ratios it is appropriate to use
lower estimates for the number of mature in-
dividuals which take this into account (e.g. the
estimated effective population size).
Reproducing units within a clone should be
counted as individuals, except where such
units are unable to survive alone (e.g., corals).
In the case of taxa that naturally lose all or a
subset of mature individuals at some point in
their life cycle, the estimate should be made
at the appropriate time, when mature individu-
als are available for breeding.

4. Generation

Generation may be measured as the average age of
parents in the population. This is greater than the age
at first breeding, except in taxa where individuals
breed only once.

5. Continuing decline

A continuing decline is a recent, current or projected


A reduction (criterion A) is a decline in the number
of mature individuals of least the amount (%) stated
over the time period (years) specified, although the
decline need not still be continuing. A reduction
should not be interpreted as part of a natural fluctua-
tion unless there is good evidence for this. Down-
ward trend that are part of natural fluctuations will
not normally count as a reduction.

7. Extreme fluctuations

Extreme fluctuations occur in a number oftaxa where
population size or distribution area varies widely, rap-
idly and frequently, typically with a variation greater
than one order of magnitude (i.e., a tenfold increase
or decrease).

8. Severely fragmented

Severely fragmented refers to the situation where in-
creased extinction risks to the taxon result from the
fact that most individuals within a taxon are found in
small and relatively isolated subpopulations. These
small subpopulations may go extinct, with a reduced
probability of recolonisation.

9. Extent of occurrence

Extent of occurrence is defined as the area contained
within the shortest continuous imaginary boundary
which can be drawn to encompass all the known, in-
ferred or projected sites of present occurrence of a
taxon, excluding cases of vagrancy. This measure may
exclude discontinuities or disjunctions within the
overall distributions of taxa (e.g., large areas of obvi-
ously unsuitable habitat) (but see "area of occu-
pancy"). Extent of occurrence can often be measured
by a minimum convex polygon (the smallest poly-
gon in which no internal angle exceeds 180 degrees
and which contains all the sites of occurrence).

10. Area of occupancy

Area of occupancy is defined as the area within its
"extent of occurrence" (see definition) which is oc-
cupied by a taxon, excluding cases of vagrancy. The


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Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), September1995







Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), September1995 Page 109


measure reflects the fact that a taxon will not usually
occur throughout the area of its extent of occurrence,
which may, for example, contain unsuitable habitats.
The area of occupancy is the smallest area essential
at any stage to the survival of existing populations of
a taxon (e.g., colonial nesting sites, feeding sites for
migratory taxa). The size of the area of occupancy
will be a function of the scale at which it is measured,
and should be at a scale appropriate to relevant bio-
logical aspects of the taxon. The criteria include val-
ues in km2, and thus to avoid errors in classification,
the area of occupancy should be measured on grid
squares (or equivalents) which are sufficiently small
(see Figure 2).

11. Location


Location defines a geographically or ecologically dis-
tinct area in which a single event (e.g., pollution) will
soon affect all individuals of the taxon present. A lo-
cation usually, but not always, contains all or part of
a subpopulation of the taxon, and is typically a small
proportion of the taxon's total distribution.

12. Quantitative analysis

A quantitative analysis is defined here as the tech-
nique of population viability analysis (PVA), or any
other quantitative form of analysis, which estimates
the extinction probability of a taxon or population
based on the known life history and specific manage-
ment or non-management options. In presenting the
results of quantitative analyses the structural equa-
tions and the data should be explicit.


IV. THE CATEGORIES'


0
6 0
0
0
00~6
*0
0
~. 0


*
*
0



*:l
A @0.0






N*
0


B

Figure 2. Two examples of the distinction between extent
of occurence and area of occupancy. (a) is the spatial dis-
tribution of known, inferred or projected sites of occur-
rence. (b) shows one possible boundary to the extent of
occurrence, which is the measured area within this
boundary.(c) shows one measure of area of occupancy
which can be measured by the sum of the occupied grid
squares.


EXTINCT (EX)

A taxon is Extinct when there is no reasonable doubt
that the last individual has died.

EXTINCT IN THE WILD (EW)

A taxon is Extinct in the wild when it is known only
to survive in cultivation, in captivity or as a naturalised
population (or populations) well outside the past
range. A taxon is presumed extinct in the wild when
exhaustive surveys in known and/or expected habi-
tat, at appropriate times (diurnal, seasonal, annual),
throughout its historic range have failed to record an
individual. Surveys should be over a time frame ap-
propriate to the taxon's life cycle and life form.

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED (CR)

A taxon is Critically Endangered when it is facing an
extremely high risk of extinction in the wild in the
immediate future, as defined by any of the criteria (A
to E) on pages 110 and 111.

ENDANGERED (EN)

A taxon is Endangered when it is not Critically En-
dangered but is facing a very high risk of extinction
in the wild in the medium-term future, as defined by
any of the criteria (A to D) on pages 111 and 112.



'Note : As in previous IUCN categories, the abbreviation
of each category (in parenthesis) follows the English de-
nominations when translated into other languages.


Neotropical Primates -3(suppl.), September,1995


Page 109







Page 110 Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), September 199S


VULNERABLE (VU)

A taxon is Vulnerable when it is not Critically En-
dangered or Endangered but is facing a high risk of
extinction in the wild in the medium-term future, as
defined by any of the criteria (A to D) on page 112.

LOWER RISK (LR)

A taxon is Lower Risk when it has been evaluated,
does not satisfy the criteria for any, of the categories
Critically Endangered, Endangered or Vulnerable.
Taxa included in the Lower Risk category can be
separated into three subcategories:

Conservation Dependent (cd). Taxa which are the
focus of a continuing taxon-specific or habi-
tat-specific conservation programme targeted
towards the taxon in question, the cessation
of which would result in the taxon qualifying
for one of the threatened categories above
within a period of five years.

Near Threatened (nt). Taxa which do not qualify
for Conservation Dependent, but which are
close to qualifying for Vulnerable.

Least Concern (Ic). Taxa which do not qualify
for Conservation Dependent or Near Threat-
ened.

DATA DEFICIENT (DD)

A taxon is Data Deficient when there is inadequate
information to make a direct, or indirect, assessment
of its risk of extinction based on its distribution and/
or population status. A taxon in this category may be
well studied, and its biology well known, but appro-
priate data on abundance and/or distribution is lack-
ing. Data Deficient is therefore not a category of threat
or Lower Risk. Listing of taxa in this category indi-
cates that more information is required and acknowl-
edges the possibility that future research will show
that threatened classification is appropriate. It is im-
portant to make positive use of whatever data are
available. In many cases great care should be exer-
cised in choosing between DD and threatened status.
If the range of a taxon is suspected to be relatively
circumscribed, if a considerable period of time has
elapsed since the last record of the taxon, threatened
status may well be justified.

NOT EVALUATED (NE)

A taxon is Not Evaluated when it has not yet been
assessed against the criteria.


V. THE CRITERIA FOR CRITICALLY ENDANGERED,
ENDANGERED AND VULNERABLE

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED (CR)

A taxon is Critically Endangered when it is facing an
extremely high risk of extinction in the wild in the
immediate future, as defined by any of the following
criteria (A to E):

A. Population reduction in the form of either of the
following:

1. An observed, estimated, inferred or suspected re-
duction of at least 80% over the last 10 years or three
generations, whichever is the longer, based on (and
specifying) any of the following:
(a) direct observation
(b) an index of abundance appropriate for the taxon
(c) a decline in area of occupancy, extent of occur-
rence and/or quality of habitat
(d) actual or potential levels of exploitation
(e) the effects of introduced taxa, hybridisation,
pathogens, pollutants, competitors or parasites.

2. A reduction of at least 80%, projected or suspected
to be met within the next ten years or three genera-
tions, whichever is the longer, based on (and specify-
ing) any of (b), (c), (d) or (e) above.

B. Extent of occurence estimated to be less than 100
km2 or area of occupancy estimated to be less than 10
km2, and estimates indicating any two of the follow-
ing:

1. Severely fragmented or known to exist at only a
single location.

2. Continuing decline, observed, inferred or projected,
in any of the following:
(a) extent of occurrence
(b) area of occupancy
(c) area, extent and/or quality of habitat
(d) number of locations or subpopulations
(e) number of mature individuals.

3. Extreme fluctuations in any of the following:
(a) extent of occurrence
(b) area of occupancy
(c) number of locations or subpopulations
(d) number of mature individuals.

C. Population estimated to number less than 250 ma-
ture individuals and either:


Page 110


Neotropical Primates 3(suppL), September]995







Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), September) 99S Page 11]


1. An estimated continuing decline of at least 25%
within 3 years or one generation, whichever is longer
or

2. A continuing decline, observed, projected, or in-
ferred, in numbers of mature individuals and popula-
tion structure in the form of either:
(a) severely fragmented (i.e., no subpopulation es-
timated to contain'more than 50 mature individu-
als)
(b) all individuals are in a single subpopulation.

D. Population estimated to number less than 50 ma-
ture individuals.

E. Quantitative analysis showing the probability of
extinction in the wild is at least 50% within 10 years
or 3 generations, whichever is the longer.

ENDANGERED (EN)

A taxon is Endangered when it is not Critically En-
dangered but is facing a very high risk of extinction
in the wild in the near future, as defined by any of the
following criteria (A to E):

A. Population reduction in the form of either of the
following:

1. An observed, estimated, inferred or suspected re-
duction of at least 50% over the last 10 years or three
generations, whichever is the longer, based on (and
specifying) any of the following:
(a) direct observation
(b) an index of abundance appropriate for the taxon
(c) a decline in area of occupancy, extent of occur-
rence and/or quality of habitat
(d) actual or potential levels of exploitation
(e) the effects of introduced taxa, hybridisation,
pathogens, pollutants, competitors or parasites.

2. A reduction of at least 50%, projected or suspected
to be met within the next ten years or three genera-
tions, whichever is the longer, based on (and specify-
ing) any of (b), (c), (d) or (e) above.

B. Extent of occurence estimated to be less than 5000
km2 or area of occupancy estimated to be less than
500 km2, and estimates indicating any two of the fol-
lowing:

1. Severely fragmented or known to exist at no more
than five locations.

2. Continuing decline, observed, inferred or projected,


in any of the following:
(a) extent of occurrence
(b) area of occupancy
(c) area, extent and/or quality of habitat
(d) number of locations or subpopulations
(e) number of mature individuals.

3. Extreme fluctuations in any of the following:
(a) extent of occurrence
(b) area of occupancy
(c) number of locations or subpopulations
(d) number of mature individuals.

C. Population estimated to number less than 2500
mature individuals and either:

1. An estimated continuing decline of at least 20%
within 5 years or 2 generations, whichever is longer,
or

2. A continuing decline, observed, projected, or in-
ferred, in numbers of mature individuals and popula-
tion structure in the form of either:
(a) severely fragmented (i.e., no subpopulation es-
timated to contain more 250 mature individu-
als)
(b) all individuals are in a single subpopulation.

D. Population estimated to number less than 250
mature individuals.

E. Quantitative analysis showing the probability of
extinction in the wild is at least 20% within 20 years
or 5 generations, whichever is the longer.

VULNERABLE (VU)

A taxon is Endangered when it is not Critically En-
dangered or Endangered but is facing a high risk of
extinction in the wild in the medium-term future, as
defined by any of the following criteria (A to E):

A. Population reduction in the form of either of the
following:

1. An observed, estimated, inferred or suspected re-
duction of at least 20% over the last 10 years or three
generations, whichever is the longer, based on (and
specifying) any of the following:
(a) direct observation
(b) an index of abundance appropriate for the taxon
(c) a decline in area of occupancy, extent of occur-
rence and/or quality of habitat
(d) actual or potential levels of exploitation


Neotropical Primates 3(suppL), Septemher]995


Page 111







Page 112 Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.% September1995


(e) the effects of introduced taxa, hybridisation,
pathogens, pollutants, competitors or parasites.

2. A reduction of at least 20%, projected or suspected
to be met within the next ten years or three genera-
tions, whichever is the longer, based on (and specify-
ing) any of (b), (c), (d) or (e) above.

B. Extent of occurence estimated to be less than
20,000 km2 or area of occupancy estimated to be less
than 2000 km2, and estimates indicating any two of
the following:

1. Severely fragmented or known to exist at no more
than ten locations.

2. Continuing decline, observed, inferred or projected,
in any of the following:
(a) extent of occurrence
(b) area of occupancy
(c) area, extent and/or quality of habitat
(d) number of locations or subpopulations
(e) number of mature individuals.

3. Extreme fluctuations in any of the following:
(a) extent of occurrence
(b) area of occupancy
(c) number of locations or subpopulations
(d) number of mature individuals.

C. Population estimated to number less than 10,000
mature individuals and either:

1. An estimated continuing decline of at least 10%
within 10 years or 3 generations, whichever is longer,
or

2. A continuing decline, observed, projected, or in-
ferred, in numbers of mature individuals and popula-
tion structure in the form of either:
(a) severely fragmented (i.e., no subpopulation es-
timated to contain more 1000 mature individu-
als)
(b) all individuals are in a single subpopulation.

D. Population very small or restricted in the form of
either of the following:

1. Population estimated to number less than 1000
mature individuals.

2. Population is characterized by an acute restriction
in its area of occupancy (typically less than 100 km2)
or in the number of locations (typically less than 5).
Such a taxon would thus be prone to the effects of


human activities (or stochastic events whose impact
is increased by human activities) within a very short
period of time in an unforeseeable future, and is thus
capable of becoming Critically Endangered or even
Extinct in a very short period.

E. Quantitative analysis showing the probability of
extinction in the wild is at least 10% within 100 years.


IUCN Red List
Categories
Prepared by IUCN Species Survival Commission


IUCN
T% C -nfn.ou*nUno


Page 112


Neotropical Primates 3(suppL), September]995






Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), September]995


A SPECIES LIST FOR THE NEW WORLD PRIMATES (PLATYRRHINI): DISTRIBUTION BY COUNTRY,
ENDEMISM, AND CONSERVATION STATUS ACCORDING TO THE MACE-LAND SYSTEM



Anthony B. Rylands, Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Cidncias Biol6gicas, Universidade Federal de Minas
Gerais, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, and Conservation International do Brasil, Avenida Ant6nio
AbrahAo Caram 820/302,31275-000 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, Russell A. Mittermeier, Conservation
International, 1015 Eighteenth StreetN.W., Washington, D. C. 20036, USA, and Ernesto Rodriguez Luna, Instituto
de Neuroetologia, Universidad Veracruzana, Apartado Postal 566, Xalapa, Veracruz 91000, Mexico.


Introduction

The importance of an up to date evaluation of the
diversity of Neotropical primates is emphasized by
the increasing numbers'of threatened species and sub-
species, and the need to pinpoint specific areas for
priority action for their protection. The latter may be
at the country level (the "megadiversity country" con-
cept: Mittermeier 1987; Mittermeier and Oates 1985;
Mittermeier et al. 1992b; Conservation International,
1990) or at the level of biomes, regions or localities,
for example the "hot-spot" concept of Myers (1988,
1990), and regional workshops to establish priority
conservation areas in specific biomes (for example,
Fonseca et al. 1995).

Priority setting at the species or species' group level
has also been emphasized in recent years with the
elaboration of action plans by the Specialist Groups
of the IUCN Species Survival Commission
(Mittermeier, 1987; McNeely et al. 1990) along with
a major revision of the methodology involved in draw-
ing up the IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals
(Groombridge, 1994) and the evaluation of their
threatened status. The Mace-Lande system for cat-
egorizing threatened species was adopted by the
World Conservation Union (IUCN) in December
1994 (IUCN 1994), and includes three levels of threat
(Critically Endangered, Endangered, and Vulnerable),
a further four related categories (Extinct, Extinct in
the Wild, Lower Risk, Data Deficient) and a final
category (Not Evaluated) which allows for situations
where assessment is not possible. As such, the Mace-
Lande system requires a working list of all species
and subspecies of platyrrhines. It was first proposed
in 1991 (Mace and Lande 1991) and was subsequently
amply discussed and revised. Four versions were pub-
lished before it was finally accepted by IUCN (Mace
and Lande 1991; Mace etal. 1992; IUCN 1993; Mace
and Stuart 1993). The process involved in establish-
ing this new system and the philosophy behind it are
discussed in these publications and also Mace (1994a,
1994b, 1995).


Here we present a summary review of the recent taxo-
nomic studies published for Neotropical primates,
with the specific aim of establishing a species list for
the application of the Mace-Lande categories as well
as to provide the basis for analyses of distributions
by country and by major phytogeographic region
(based on Gentry, 1982) for the evaluation of key
areas.

Taxonomy Families and Subfamilies

The taxonomy of the New World primates has un-
dergone considerable change over the last two de-
cades, stimulated in large part by the extensive revi-
sion of the callitrichids by Professor Philip
Hershkovitz (1977, 1979, 1982), and his subsequent
reviews of the cebid genera, Aotus, Saimiri,
Chiropotes, Pithecia, Cacajao and Callicebus
(1983, 1984, 1985, 1987a, 1987b, 1990). Consider-
able attention has also been given to the phylogeny
and taxonomy at family and subfamily level, princi-
pally through morphological studies (Rosenberger
1980, 1981; Rosenberger and Coimbra-Filho 1984;
Rosenberger and Strier 1989; Rosenberger et al.
1990), but also more recently using chromosome and
molecular genetics (Dutrillaux 1988; Schneider etal.
1993, 1995; Schneider et al. in press). Cytotaxonomy
is also becoming increasingly important for system-
atics at the species and subspecies level (see for, ex-
ample the revision of Aotus by Hershkovitz, 1983).

Platyrrhine systematics at the family and subfamily
level were reviewed by Rosenberger (1981). The pre-
dominant classification during this century has in-
volved the use of just two families, the Callitrichidae
(or, formerly, Hapalidae) and Cebidae, with Callimico
being placed in either of the two, or in its own family
(v. Dollman 1933; Hershkovitz 1977). This system
was maintained in all of the major syntheses published
over the last 75 years (for example, Simpson 1945;
Hill 1957, 1960, 1962; Cabrera 1957; Napier and
Napier 1967; Simons 1972; and Hershkovitz 1977).
Hershkovitz (1977) placed the extant cebids in seven


Page 113







Page 114 Neotropical Primates 3(supp/.), September1995


subfamilies: Saimiriinae, Aotinae, Callicebinae,
Alouattinae, Pitheciinae, Cebinae, and Atelinae (Table
1). Groves (1989) divided the Cebidae into five fami-
lies (Cebidae, Aotidae, Atelidae, Callicebidae, and
Pitheciidae), although he subsequently (1993) modi-
fied this arrangement, defining the Cebidae by the
following subfamilies: Alouattinae, Aotinae, Atelinae
(Ateles, Brachyteles, and Lagothrix), Callicebinae,
Cebinae (including Cebus and Saimiri, following
Rosenberger 1981, see below), and Pitheciinae
(Cacajao, Chiropotes and Pithecia).

Rosenberger (1981) proposed an alternative classifi-
cation (Table 1), based on hypotheses concerning
phylogenetic relationships and a proposal for the sce-
nario of their adaptive radiation (see also,
Rosenberger, 1980; Rosenberger and Coimbra-Filho,
1984; Rosenberger and Strier, 1989; Rosenberger et
al. 1990). Rosenberger's (1981) scheme includes the
use of tribes and subtribes (Table 1). It maintains but
redefines the use of the family name Cebidae to in-
clude two subfamilies; the Cebinae (extant genera
Cebus and Saimiri) and Callitrichinae (extant genera
Callithrix [includes Cebuella], Saguinus,
Leontopithecus, and Callimico), and places all other
platyrrhines into a second family, the Atelidae, which
includes the following subfamilies: Atelinae
(Alouatta, Ateles, Brachyteles, Lagothrix) and
Pitheciinae (Pithecia, Chiropotes, Cacajao,
Callicebus, Aotus).

A recent molecular phylogeny, elaborated by
Schneider et al. (1993; 1995, Schneider et al. in
press), agrees in large part with the classification of
Rosenberger (1981), having only one major differ-
ence; the alignment of Aotus with the Cebidae (sub-
family Aotinae) rather than the Pitheciinae. Tyler
(1991) argued that there are three-well-defined clades
among the extant platyrrhines: atelines, pithecines,
and callitrichids, but that evolutionary relationships
among the remaining four genera (Aotus, Callicebus,
Cebus and Saimiri) remain uncertain. Like Schneider
et al. (1993), Tyler (1991) argued that Aotus and
Callicebus are not closely related, but went even fur-
ther, and, reviewing morphological characters of the
former, concluded that "Aotus must be removed from
other ceboids and made a sister group of the entire
Anthropoidea". Dutrillaux (1988) also argued for the
primitiveness of Aotus on the basis of its karyotype.

The other differences between the schemes of
Rosenberger et al. (1990) and Schneider et al. (1993,
1995, in press) are as follows: 1) Schneider etal. place
Saguinus in the Subtribe Saguina rather than
Leontocebina; 2) Schneider et al. separate


Leontopithecus from Callithrix and Cebuella and
place it in its own Subtribe Leontopithecina; 3)
Schneider et al. align Callimico more closely with
Callithrix and Cebuella and place it in the Subtribe
Callimiconina; 4) Schneider et al. align Lagothrix with
Brachyteles in the Subtribe Brachytelina, whereas
Rosenberger et al. place Lagothrix in the Subtribe
Atelina 5) Schneider et al. place Cacajao and
Chiropotes in the Subtribe Chiropotina separate from
Pithecia and; 5) place Callicebus in a separate Tribe
rather than Subtribe of the Pitheciinae.

While not making any statement regarding the valid-
ity of the various classifications outlined above, the
species list we present in the next section maintains
the division ofCallitrichidae Gray 1821 and Cebidae
Bonaparte 1831 as used by Hershkovitz (1977) (Table
1).

Species and Subspecies

The taxonomy of most of the platyrrhine genera is
still controversial, with discrepancies arising due to
differing emphases given to the concepts and charac-
ters used in describing and differentiating forms at
the species and subspecies level. Table 2 and Table 3
give a listing of the callitrichid and cebid species and
subspecies. We have provided notes so that the reader
can be aware of differing opinions, but we empha-
size that the lists do not reflect any judgment on our
part as to the validity or otherwise of the numerous
opposing points of view. We have taken, however,
the side of the splitterss" rather than the lumperss".
This is most evident in cases such as that of Saimiri,
where current evaluations have demonstrated the ex-
istence of five species and 12 subspecies on the one
hand (Hershkovitz 1984, 1987b), and just two (or even,
one) species, on the other (Costello et al. 1993).
Alouatta is another case in point, where contempo-
rary taxonomic research is only just emerging. Our
aim is to provide an estimate of the diversity of Neo-
tropical primates, and while there is still discussion
as to the validity or otherwise of numerous forms, we
prefer to maintain them. For conservation purposes it
would be a serious mistake to ignore the genetic and
morphological diversity of such wide-ranging gen-
era as Saimiri. Even while splitting, it is highly prob-
able that the list understates the diversity of most
Neotropical primate genera, most particularly in such
as Ateles, Alouatta, Cebus, and Lagothrix, which have
yet to receive modem systematic revisions, but also
in, for example Callithrix, for which new species have
been described recently, and more will undoubtedly
be described in the near future.


Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), Septemberl995


Page 114







Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), September 1995 Page 115


The listings in Tables 2 and 3 provide a total of five
genera, 35 species and 55 species and subspecies of
callitrichids, and 11 genera, 63 species and 147 spe-
cies and subspecies of cebids. In all, we list 16 gen-
era, 98 species and 202 species and subspecies of
Neotropical monkeys, ranging from southern Mexico
through to northern Argentina and Paraguay, and
possibly the northeasternmost tip of Uruguay (Table
9). Mittermeier (1987), in his analysis of the diver-
sity of Neotropical primates and their distributions
by country and the major phytogeographic regions
of Gentry (1982), worked on the basis of "some 65
species". The increase in species listed here comes
from both taxonomic revisions which have raised
subspecific forms to full species (for example, the


placing of all Callithrix forms as species, and the rec-
ognition of such as Alouatta sara, A. arctoidea, Ateles
chamek, Ateles marginatus, and Brachyteles
hypoxanthus), as well the descriptions of entirely new
species, including Callithrix mauesi, Callithrix
marcai, Callithrix saterei, Leontopithecus caissara,
Aotus hershkovitzi, Callicebus dubius and Cebus
kaapori. The taxonomic revision of Callicebus by
Hershkovitz (1990) increased the number of species
from just three to 13, and a further species has yet to
be described (Kobayashi and Langguth 1994a,
1994b).


Table 1. The classifications of the extant genera of Platyrrhini according to Hershkovitz (1977), Rosenberger (1981; Rosenberger
et al. 1990), and Schneider et al. (1993, in press).


Hershkovitz (1977)
Infraorder Platyrrhini
Family Callitrichidae
Cebuella Gray 1886
Callithrix Erxleben 1777
Leontopithecus Lesson 1840
Saguinus Hoffmannsegg 1807
Family Callimiconidae
Callimico Thomas 1913
Family Cebidae
Subfamily Saimiriinae
Saimiri Voigt 1831
Subfamily Aotinae
Aotus Illiger 1811
Subfamily Callicebinae
Callicebus Thomas 1903
Subfamily Alouattinae
Alouatta Lac6p6de 1799
Subfamily Pitheciinae
Pithecia Desmarest 1820
Chiropotes Lesson 1840
Cacajao Lesson 1840
Subfamily Cebinae
Cebus Erxleben 1777
Subfamily Atelinae
Ateles AE. Geoffroy 1806
Lagothrix E. Geoffroy 1812
Brachyteles Spix 1831


Rosenberger (1981)
Infraorder Platyrrhini
Family Cebidae
Subfamily Cebinae
Tribe Cebini
Cebus Erxleben 1777
Tribe Saimiriini
Saimiri Voigt 1831
Subfamily Callitrichinae
Tribe Callitrichini
Subtribe Callitrichina
Callithrix Erxleben 1777
Cebuella Gray 1866
Leontopithecus Lesson 1840
Subtribe Leontocebina
Saguinus Hoffmannsegg 1807
Tribe Callimiconini
Callimico Thomas 1913
Family Atelidae
Subfamily Atelinae
Tribe Atelini
Subtribe Atelina
Ateles t. Geoffroy 1806
Brachyteles Spix 1831
Subtribe Lagotrichina
Lagothrix t. Geoffroy 1812
Tribe Alouattini
Alouatta Lac6p6de 1799
Subfamily Pitheciinae
Tribe Pitheciini
Subtribe Pitheciina
Pithecia Desmarest 1820
Chiropotes Lesson 1840
Cacajao Lesson 1840
Subtribe Aotina
Aotus Illiger 1811
Subtribe Callicebina
Callicebus Thomas 1903


Schneider et al. (in press)
Infraorder Platyrrhini
Family Cebidae
Subfamily Cebinae
Tribe Cebini
Cebus Erxleben 1777
Tribe Saimiriini
Saimiri Voigt 1831
Subfamily Aotinae
Aotus Illiger 1811
Subfamily Callitrichinae
Tribe Callitrichini
Subtribe Callitrichina
Callithrix Erxleben 1777
Cebuella Gray 1866
Subtribe Saguina
Saguinus Hoffmannsegg 1807
Subtribe Leontopithecina
Leontopithecus Lesson 1840
Subtribe Callimiconina
Callimico Thomas 1913
Family Atelidae
Subfamily Atelinae
Tribe Atelini
Subtribe Atelina
Ateles E. Geoffroy 1806
Subtribe Brachytelina
Brachyteles Spix 1831
Lagothrix E. Geoffroy 1812
Tribe Alouattini
Alouatta Lacdp6de 1799
Subfamily Pitheciinae
Tribe Pitheciini
Subtribe Pitheciina
Pithecia Desmarest 1820
Subtribe Chiropotina
Chiropotes Lesson 1840
Cacajao Lesson 1840
Tribe Callicebini
Callicebus Thomas 1903


Neotropical Primates 3(suppL), September]995


Page 115









Table 2. A listing of the species and subspecies of the Family Callitrichidae.

Family Callitrichidae Notes Common name (1)


Cebuella Gray 1866
C. pygmaea Spix 1823


2 Pygmy marmoset
Pygmy marmoset


Callithrix Erxleben 1777
Callithrix argentata Group
C. argentata (Linnaeus 1771)
C. leucippe (Thomas 1922)
C. melanura (t. Geoffroy in Humboldt 1812)
C. intermedia Hershkovitz 1977
C. emiliae (Thomas 1920)
C. nigriceps Ferrari & Lopes 1992
C. marcai Alperin 1993
C. humeralifera (E. Geoffroy in Humboldt 1812)
C. chrysoleuca (Wagner 1842)
C. mauesi Mittermeier, Schwarz & Ayres 1992
C. saterei Silva e Sousa Jr & Noronha 1995

Callithrixjacchus Group
C.jacchus (Linnaeus 1758)
C. penicillata (t. Geoffroy 1812)
C. kuhli (Wied-Neuwied 1826)
C. geoffroyi (t. Geoffroy in Humboldt 1812)
C. aurita (t. Geoffroy in Humboldt 1812)
C. flaviceps (Thomas 1903)

Saguinus Hoffmannsegg 1807
Hairy-face tamarin Section
Sagulnus nigricollis Group
S. nigricollis nigricollis (Spix 1823)
S. nigricollis graellsi (Jim6nez de la Espada 1870)
S. nigricollis hernandezi Hershkovitz 1982
S. fuscicollisfuscicollis (Spix 1823)
S. fuscicollis fuscus (Lesson 1840)
S. fuscicollis avilapiresi Hershkovitz 1966
S. fuscicollis cruzlimai Hershkovitz 1966
S. fuscicollis leucogenys (Gray 1866)
S. fuscicollis lagonotus (Jimenez de la Espada 1870)
S. fuscicollis primitivus Hershkovitz 1977
S. fuscicollis illigeri (Pucheran 1845)
S. fuscicollis nigrifrons (I. Geoffroy 1850)
S. fuscicollis weddelli (Deville 1849)
S. fuscicollis melanoleucus (Miranda Ribeiro 1912)
S. fuscicollis crandalli Hershkovitz 1966
S. tripartitus (Milne-Edwards 1878)

Saguinus mystax Group
S. mystax mystax (Spix 1823)
S. mystax pileatus (I. Geoffroy & Deville 1848)
S. mystax pluto (L6nnberg 1926)
S. labiatus labiatus (E. Geoffroy in Humboldt 1812)
S. labiatus thomasi (Goeldi 1907)
S. imperator imperator (Goeldi 1907)
S. imperator subgrisescens (LOnnberg 1940)
S. midas midas (Linnaeus 1758)
S. midas niger (E. Geoffroy 1803)

Mottled-face tamarin Section
S. inustus (Schwarz 1951)


3 Marmosets
Bare-ear and tassel-ear marmosets
3,4 Silvery marmoset
3 Golden-white bare-ear marmoset
3 Black-tailed marmoset
3,4 Aripuana marmoset
3,4,5 Snethlage's marmoset
3,6 Black-headed marmoset
3,7 Marca's marmoset
3,4 Black and white tassel-ear marmoset
3 Golden-white tassel-ear marmoset
3,8 Mauds marmoset
3,9 Sater6 marmoset

True marmosets
3 White-tufted-ear marmoset, common marmoset
3 Black-tufted-ear marmoset
3,9 Wied's black-tufted-ear marmoset
3 Geoffroy's tufted-ear marmoset
3,10 Buffy-tufted-ear marmoset
3,11 Buffy-headed marmoset

Tamarins

White-mouth tamarins
12 Spix's black mantle tamarin
12 Graell's black-mantle tamarin
12 HernAndez-Camacho's black mantle tamarin
13 Spix's saddle-back tamarin
13 Lesson's saddle-back tamarin
13 Avila Pires' saddle-back tamarin
13 Cruz Lima's saddle-back tamarin
13 Andean saddle-back tamarin
13 Red-mantle saddle-back tamarin
13 Saddle-back tamarin
13 Illiger's saddle-back tamarin
13 Geoffroy's saddle-back tamarin
13 Weddell's saddle-back tamarin
13 White saddle-back tamarin
13 Crandall's saddle-back tamarin
14 Golden-mantle saddle-back tamarin

Moustached tamarins
15 Spix's moustached tamarin
15 Red-cap moustached tamarin
15 White-rump moustached tamarin
16 Geoffroy's moustached tamarin, red-bellied tamarin
16 Thomas' moustached tamarin
17 Black-chinned emperor tamarin
17 Bearded emperor tamarin
18 Golden-handed tamarin
18 Black-handed tamarin


19 Mottled-face tamarin


continued...


Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), September1995


Page 116







Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), September1995 Page 117


Table 2 (continued)
Bare-face tamarin Section
Saguinus bicolor Group
S. bicolor bicolor (Spix 1823)
S. bicolor martins (Thomas 1912)
S. bicolor ochraceus Hershkovitz 1966


Saguinus oedipus Group
S. leucopus (GUnther 1877)
S. oedipus (Linnaeus 1758)
S. geoffroyi (Pucheran 1845)

Leontopithecus Lesson 1840
L. rosalia (Linnaeus 1766)
L. chrysomelas (Kuhl 1820)
L. chrysopygus (Mikan 1823)
L. caissara Lorini & Persson 1990

Callimico Miranda Ribeiro 1911
C. goeldii (Thomas 1904)


Brazilian bare-faced tamarins
Pied bare-face tamarin
Martin's bare-face tamarin
Ochraceous bare-face tamarin

Colombian and Panamanian bare-face tamarins
Silvery-brown bare-face tamarin
Cotton-top tamarin
Geoffroy's tamarin

Lion tamarins
Golden lion tamarin
Golden-headed lion tamarin
Black lion tamarin
Black-faced lion tamarin


23 Goeldi's monkey
Goeldi's monkey


Notes

1. Common names of Callitrichidae follow Hershkovitz
(1977).

2. Rosenberger (1981 see also Rosenberger and Coimbra-
Filho, 1984) argued, on morphological terms, that the
pygmy marmoset should correctly be included in the genus
Callithrix. This argument was not maintained in
Rosenberger et al. (1990), although recently Barroso (1995)
and Schneider et al. (in press) also argued for this arrange-
ment on the basis of molecular genetics. Taxonomy and
distribution follows Hershkovitz (1977), Eisenberg (1989)
and Bicca-Marques and Calegaro-Marques (1995).

3. Hershkovitz (1977) placed all of the Callithrix jacchus
Group marmosets as subspecies of Callithrix jacchus.
Coimbra-Filho (1970a, 1971, 1990) and Coimbra-Filho and
Mittermeier (1973b), Mittermeier and Coimbra-Filho
(1981), Natori (1986, 1994), Vivo (1985, 1991),
Mittermeier et al. (1988, 1992a), Natori and Shigehara
(1992), and Groves (1993) (see also Marroig, 1995) listed
all the Atlantic forest marmosets as full species. Coimbra-
Filho (1990) argued that the three subspecies of C.
humeralifer (C. h.. humeralifer, C. h. chrysoleuca, and C.
h. intermedius) listed by Hershkovitz (1977) should be
considered species, following De Boer (1974) and Vivo
(1991). Genetic studies by Meireles etal. (1992) concluded
that C. humeralifer and C. emiliae are subspecies of C.
argentata; and that C. jacchus, C. penicillata, and C.
geoffroyi are subspecies; but that C. geoffroyi is the most
primitive of the "jacchus" group (most similar genetically
to C. argentata), which should therefore be referred to as
the "geoffroyi" group, with C. jacchus and C. penicillata
as subspecific to C. geoffroyi. The primitiveness
(Hershkovitz 1977) of C. geoffroyi was also advocated by
Natori (1986, 1994) and Natori and Shigehara (1992), and
also makes sense concerning the degree of morphological
adaptation for tree-gouging, which is most advanced in C.
jacchus and C. penicillata. The following publications list


all marmosets as species: Mittermeier et al. (I 992a), Vivo
(1985, 1991), and Groves (1993). Distributions of Callithrix
according to Hershkovitz (1977), Stallings (1985),
Mittermeier et al. (1992a), and Rylands et al. (1993).

4. Callithrix intermedia was described as an intermediate
color form of C. humeralifer by Hershkovitz (1977). Pel-
age color and pattern, and its geographic distribution, how-
ever, would place it as a subspecies of C. argentata if ,
following Hershkovitz (1977), the Amazonian marmosets
are considered subspecies of just two species, C.
argentata and C. humeralifer (see Rylands et al. 1993).
Meireles et al. (1992) indicated that C. humeralifer and C.
emiliae are subspecific to C. argentata.

5. Callithrix emiliae was first described by Thomas (1920)
from the Rio Irirf, southern ParA. It was not recognized by
Hershkovitz (1977) who regarded it as a dark form of C.
argentata argentata. Vivo (1985; see also Vivo 1991),
revalidated this form on the basis of specimens from the
state of Rond6nia. However, Rylands et al. (1993) argued
that the Rond6nia marmosets described by Vivo should be
considered a distinct species based on the fact that the dis-
tribution of this form and that of the C. emiliae described
by Thomas (1920) from Maloca on the Rio CuruA (see
Vivo 1985; Avila Pires 1986) are disjunct, and separated
by C. melanura. C. emiliae was not listed by Groves (1993).
Distribution according to Vivo (1985, 1991).

6. Distribution of Callithrix nigriceps based on Ferrari and
Lopes (1992) and Ferrari (1993, 1994).

7. Callithrix marcai was described as a subspecies of
Callithrix argentata by Alperin 1993. It is listed here as a
species to conform with the view that all Callithrix should
be considered species (Vivo 1985, 1991; Mittermeier etal.
1992a). It is known only from the type locality, "Foz do
Rio Castanho (= Rio Roosevelt), afluente e esquerda do rio
Aripuana. Estado do Amazonas, Brasil" (Alperin 1993).
The type locality as described by Alperin is confused in


Neotropical Primates 3(suppL), September1995


Page 117







Page 118 Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), September1995


that the Rio Castanho is not a synonym of the Rio Roosevelt,
and is a left bank affluent of the Rio Roosevelt, not the Rio
Aripuani. Confused also is the map and gazetteer of locali-
ties provided in Alperin (1993) which do not correspond.

8. Distribution of Callithrix mauesi according to Mittermeier
et al. (1992a) and Silva Jr. and Noronha (1995a).

9. Coimbra-Filho (1984, 1985, 1990), Rylands (1989b),
Mittermeier et al. (1988), Natori (1990), Rylands et al.
(1993), and Groves (1993) recognize Callithrix kuhli from
southern Bahia as a valid form. Hershkovitz (1977) regarded
it as a hybrid between C.j. geoffroyi and C.j. penicillata.
Vivo (1991) considered it to be indistinguishable from C.
penicillata. Distribution restricted to Brazil (southern Ba-
hia) follows Rylands et al. (1993). Groves (1993) gave the
distribution as Bolivia evidently a typographic error.

10. The distribution of Callithrix aurita.is reviewed by
Hershkovitz (1977), Muskin (1984), Coimbra-Filho (1986b,
1991), and Olmos and Martuscelli (1995).

11. Coimbra-Filho (1 986a, 1986b, 1990; Coimbra-Filho et
al. 1991) argued that Callithrixflaviceps should be consid-
ered subspecific to C. aurita. The distribution of Cflaviceps
is reviewed by Hershkovitz (1977), Coimbra-Filho (1986a),
and Mendes (1993).

12. The taxonomy of Saguinus nigricollis follows
Hershkovitz (1982). S. n. graellsi is listed as a full species,
S. graellsi, by Hernandez-Camacho and Cooper (1976) and
Defler (1994), on the basis that it is sympatric with a popu-
lation ofS. nigricollis in the region of Puerto Leguizamo in
southern Colombia. Hernmndez-Camacho and Defler (1991)
listed it as a subspecies of S. nigricollis, in conformity with
Hershkovitz (1977). Defler (1994) stated that further stud-
ies are needed to prove the species' status of this form.
Distribution according to Herndndez-Camacho and Coo-
per (1976), Hershkovitz (1982) and Eisenberg (1989).

13. The taxonomy of Saguinus fuscicollis is based on
Hershkovitz (1977; see also Cheverud and Moore 1990).
S. f melanoleucus, S. f acrensis, and S. f crandalli were
listed as subspecies ofS. melanoleucus by Coimbra-Filho
(1990). Saguinusfuscicollis acrensis Carvalho 1957 is not
considered a valid form, following Peres (1991). S. f
cruzlimai and S. f crandalli are of unknown provenance
(Hershkovitz 1977). Hernandez-Camacho and Cooper
(1976) indicated the existence of an undescribed S.
fuscicollis subspecies in the region of San Jos6 de Guaviare,
Colombia (also cited by Defler 1994). Distributions are
given by Hershkovitz (1977), Eisenberg (1989), and Aquino
and Encarnaci6n (1995) (see also Rylands et al. 1993).

14. Hershkovitz (1977) listed Saguinus tripartitus as a sub-
species of S. fuscicollis. Thorington (1988) argued for its
species status (see also Albuja, 1994;). Distribution based
on Hershkovitz (1977), Thorington (1988), Albuja (1994),
and Aquino and Encarnaci6n (1994, in press).


15. The taxonomy of Saguinus mystax follows Hershkovitz
(1977). Distributions are based on Hershkovitz (1977),
Rylands etal. (1993), and Aquino and Encarnaci6n (1994).

16. The taxonomy of Saguinus labiatus follows Hershkovitz
(1977). Distribution based on Hershkovitz (1977) and Silva
Jr. (1988), Aquino and Castro (1989), and Aquino and
Encarnaci6n (1994).

17. The taxonomy of Saguinus imperator follows
Hershkovitz (1982). Distribution based on Hershkovitz
(1982), Aquino and Encarnaci6n (1994).

18. The taxonomy and distribution of Saguinus midas fol-
lows Hershkovitz (1977) and Eisenberg (1989). On the basis
of morphometric studies of the postcanine dentition, Natori
and Hanihara (1992) found S. m. midas to be more similar
to S. bicolor than to S. m. niger. For this reason S. m. niger
should possibly be raised to species status (Rylands et al.
1993), and would also argue for a modification of the spe-
cies' group arrangements of Hershkovitz (1977): that is,
placing the S. midas Group in the Bare-face Tamarin sec-
tion. Melo etal. (1992), on the other hand, examined blood
genetic systems in the two subspecies and obtained results
compatible with their classification as subspecies, not be-
ing sufficiently divergent to warrant species status.

19. The taxonomy and distribution of Saguinus inustus fol-
lows Hern6ndez-Camacho and Cooper (1976), Hershkovitz
(1977), Eisenberg (1989), and Rylands et al. (1993).
Herndndez-Camacho and Defler (1991) indicated possibil-
ity of two subspecies in Colombia.

20. The taxonomy of Saguinus bicolor is based on
Hershkovitz (1977). Distributions follow Hershkovitz
(1977), Ayres et al. (1982), Egler (1983) and Coimbra-
Filho (1987).

21. Hershkovitz (1977) considered Saguinus geoffroyi to
be subspecific to S. oedipus. Comparative morphological
studies by Hanihara and Natori (1987), Moore and Cheverud
(1992) and Skinner (1991) argue for them being separate
species (see also Rylands, 1993). Hernandez-Camacho and
Cooper (1976), Mittermeier and Coimbra-Filho (1981),
Hernandez-Camacho and Defler (1985, 1991), Mittermeier
etal. (1988), Rylands etal. (1993), Groves (1993), Mast et
al. (1993) and Defler (1994) considered them to be sepa-
rate species. Distributions are based on Hernindez-Camacho
and Cooper (1976), Hershkovitz (1977), Eisenberg (1989),
Hernandez-Camacho and Defler (1991), and Mast et al.
(1993). Eisenberg (1989) lists S. geoffroyi and S. oedipus
as separate species. The author of the name S. geoffroyi is
given by him as Reichenbach 1862.

22. The lion tamarins, Leontopithecus, are given as sepa-
rate species following Della Serra (1951), Rosenberger and
Coimbra-Filho (1984), Mittermeier et al. (1988), Natori
(1989), and Rylands etal. (1993). They have been listed as
subspecies of L. rosalia by Coimbra-Filho and Mittermeier
(1972, 1973a), Hershkovitz (1977), Mittermeier and
Coimbra-Filho (1981), and Forman et al. (1986). L. caissara


Page 118


Neolropical Primales 3(suppL), Septemher]995









Lorini and Persson 1990 is regarded as a subspecies of L. 23. Hershkovitz (1977) placed Callimico in its own fam-
chrysopygusby Coimbra-Filho (1990). Distribution follows ily, Callimiconidae. Rosenberger (1981) argued for its
Coimbra-Filho and Mittermeier (1972, 1973a, 1977), alignment as the subfamily Callimiconinae within the fam-
Hershkovitz(1977), Rylandsetal. (1991), Rosenberger and ily Cebidae, redefined as including, besides, the subfami-
Coimbra-Filho (1984), Kierulff (1993), Kierulff and lies Cebinae (Cebus, Saimiri) and Callitrichinae. See also
Oliveira (1994), Pinto and Tavares (1994), Lorini and Martin (1991) and Barroso (1995). Distribution accord-
Persson (1994), and Valladares-Padua et al. (1994a, 1994b). ing to Hershkovitz (1977) and Eisenberg (1989).



Table 3. A listing of the species and subspecies of the Family Cebidae.

Family Cebidae Notes Common name


Aotus Illiger 1811
Gray-neck Species Group
A. lemurinus lemurinus (I. Geoffroy 1846)
A. lemurinus griseimembra (Elliot 1913)
A.. vociferans (Spix 1823)
A. trivirgatus (Humboldt 1812)
A. brumbacki Hershkovitz 1983
A. hershkovitzi Ramirez-Cerquera 1983
Red-neck Species Group
A. miconax (Thomas 1927)
A. nigriceps Dollman 1909
A. infulatus (Kuhl 1820)
A. azarai azarai (Humboldt 1812)
A. azarai boliviensis (Elliot 1907)
A. nancymaae Hershkovitz 1983

Callicebus Thomas 1903
Callicebus modestus Group
C. modestus LOnnberg 1939
Callicebus donacophilus Group
C. donacophilus donacophilus D'Orbigny 1836
C. donacophilus pallescens Thomas 1907
C. olallae (Lonnberg 1939)
C oenanthe (Thomas 1924)
Callicebus moloch Group
C. cinerascens (Spix 1823)
C. hoffmannsi hoffmannsi (Thomas 1908)
C. hoffmannsi baptista (Lonnberg 1939)
C. moloch Hoffmansegg 1807
C. brunneus (Wagner 1842)
C. cupreus cupreus (Spix 1823)
C. cupreus discolor (I. Geoffroy & Deville 1848)
C. cupreus ornatus (Gray 1866)
C. caligatus (Wagner 1842)
C. dubius Hershkovitz 1988
C. personatus personatus (t. Geoffroy 1812)
C. personatus nigrifrons (Spix 1823)
C. personatus melanochir (Wied-Neuwied 1820)
C. personatus barbarabrownae Hershkovitz 1990
Callicebus sp.
Callicebus torquatus Group
C. torquatus torquatus (Hoffmansegg 1807)
C. torquatus medemi Hershkovitz 1963
C. torquatus lugens (Humboldt 1811)
C. torquatus lucifer (Thomas 1914)
C. torquatus purinus (Thomas 1927)
C. torquatus regulus Thomas 1927


1-2 Night monkeys, owl monkeys, douroucouli

1 Colombian or lemurine night monkey
1 Grey-legged night monkey

1 Douroucouli, owl monkey, night monkey
1 Brumback's night monkey
I Hershkovitz's night monkey

I Andean night monkey
I Black-headed or Peruvian night monkey
1 Feline night monkey
1,2 Azara's night monkey
1,2 Bolivian night monkey
1,2 Ma's night monkey

3-4 Titi monkeys


Beni titi monkey
Andean titi monkey


Hoffmann's titi monkey





Ornate titi monkey


Northern masked titi
Black-fronted titi
Southern Bahian masked titi
Northern Bahian blond titi


Collared titi, widow monkey


Widow monkey


continued...


Page 119


Neotropical Primates 3(suppL), September]995









Table 3 (continued)


Saimiri Voigt 1831
Saimiri boliviensis Group (Roman type)
S. boliviensis boliviensis (I. Geoffroy & de Blainville 1834)
S. boliviensis peruviensis Hershkovitz 1984
S. boliviensis pluvialis Lonnberg 1940
S. boliviensis jaburuensis Lonnberg 1940
S. vanzolinii Ayres 1981
Saimiri sciureus Group (Gothic type)
S. sciureus sciureus (Linnaeus 1758)
S. sciureus macrodon (Elliot 1907)
S. sciureus cassiquiarensis (Lesson 1840)
S. sciureus albigena (von Pusch 1941)
S. oerstedi oerstedi (Reinhardt 1872)
S. oerstedi citrinellus Thomas 1904
S. ustus I. Geoffroy 1843

Cebus Erxleben 1777
Tufted Group
C. apella apella (Linnaeus 1758)
C. apella macrocephalus Spix 1823
C. apella maranonis (von Pusch, 1941)
C. apella pallidus (Gray 1865)
C. apella peruanus (Thomas 1901)
C. apella libidinosus (Spix 1823)
C. apella nigritus (Goldfuss 1809)
C. apella robustus (Kuhl 1820)
C. apella margaritae Hollister 1914
C. apella paraguayanus Fischer, 1829
C. xanthosternos (Wied 1820)
Untufted Group
C. albifrons albifrons (Humboldt 1812)
C. albifrons unicolor Spix 1823
C. albifrons adustus Hershkovitz 1949
C. albifrons aequatorialis Allen 1914
C. albifrons cesarae Hershkovitz 1949
C. albifrons cuscinus (Thomas 1901)
C. albifrons malitiosus Elliot 1909
C. albifrons trinitatis von Pusch 1941
C. albifrons versicolor Pucheran 1845
C. albifrons yuracus Hershkovitz 1949
C. albifrons leucocephalus Gray 1865
C. capucinus capucinus (Linnaeus 1758)
C. capucinus limitaneus Hollister 1914
C. capucinus imitator Thomas 1903
C capucinus curtus Bangs 1905
C. olivaceus olivaceus Schomburgk 1848
C. olivaceus apiculatus Hershkovitz 1949
C. olivaceus brunneus Allen 1914
C. olivaceus castaneus I. Geoffroy 1851
C. olivaceus ssp.
C. kaapori Queiroz 1992


5 Squirrel monkeys


Black-headed squirrel monkey
Peruvian squirrel monkey


Common squirrel monkey
Ecuadorian squirrel monkey
Humboldt's squirrel monkey


Black-crowned Central American squirrel monkey
Grey-crowned Central American squirrel monkey
Golden-backed squirrel monkey


6-7 Tufted and untufted capuchins


6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6,7

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
9
9
9
9
10
10
10
10
10,11
10


Pithecia Desmarest 1804
P. pithecia pithecia Linnaeus 1766
P. pithecia chrysocephala I. Geoffroy 1850
P. monachus monachus (E. Geoffroy 1812)
P. monachus miller Allen 1914
P. irrorata irrorata Gray 1842
P. irrorata vanzolinii Hershkovitz 1987
P. albicans Gray 1860


Guianan brown capuchin
Large-headed capuchin
Marafl6n tufted capuchin
Tambopata tufted capuchin, pale capuchin
Peruvian tufted capuchin
Bearded capuchin
Black-horned capuchin
Crested capuchin
Margarita Island capuchin
Paraguayan tufted capuchin
Yellow-breasted capuchin

White-fronted capuchin

Brown-faced capuchin
Ecuadorian capuchin

Shock-headed capuchin

Trinidad white-fronted capuchin
Varied capuchin
Andean white-fronted capuchin

White-throat capuchin, white-faced capuchin

Panamanian white-throated capuchin
Gorgona white-fronted capuchin
Wedge-capped capuchin

Brown weeper capuchin
Chestnut capuchin

Ka'apor capuchin

Saki monkeys
White-faced saki
Golden-faced saki
Geoffroy's monk saki
Miller's monk saki
Gray's bald faced saki
Vanzolini's bald-faced saki
White saki, buffy saki


continued...


Page 120


Neotropical Primates 3(suppL), September]995







Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), September1995 Page 121


Table 3 (continued)
P. aequatorialis Hershkovitz 1987

Chiropotes Lesson 1840
C. albinasus (I. Geoffroy & Deville 1848)
C. satanas satanas (Hoffmannsegg 1807
C. satanas chiropotes (Humboldt 1811)
C. satanas utahicki Hershkovitz 1985

Cacajao Lesson 1840
C. calvus calvus (I. Geoffroy 1847)
C. calvus ucayalii (Thomas 1928)
C. calvus novaesi Hershkovitz 1987
C. calvus rubicundus (I. Geoffroy and Deville 1848)
C. melanocephalus melanocephalus (Humboldt 1811)
C. melanocephalus ouakary (Spix 1823)

Alouatta Lac6pade 1799
A. seniculus seniculus (Linnaeus 1766)
A. seniculus insulanus Elliot 1910
A. seniculus stramineus (Humboldt 1812)
A. seniculus macconnelli Elliot 1910
A. seniculus amazonica L6nnberg 1941
A. seniculus juara Elliot 1910
A. seniculus puruensis Ltnnberg 1941
A. seniculus ssp.
A. arctoidea Cabrera 1940
A. sara Elliot 1910
A. belzebul belzebul (Linnaeus 1766)
A. belzebul nigerrima L6nnberg 1941
A. belzebul discolor (Spix 1823)
A. belzebul ululata (Elliot 1912)
A.fuscafusca (Ihering 1914)
A. fusca clamitans (Cabrera 1940)
A. palliata palliata (Gray 1848)
A. palliata mexicana (Merriam 1902)
A. palliata aequatorialis (Festa 1903)
A. coibensis coibensis (Thomas 1902)
A. coibensis trabeata Lawrence 1933
A. caraya (Humboldt 1812)
A. pigra (Lawrence 1933)

Ateles E. Geoffroy 1806
A. geoffroyi geoffroyi Kuhl 1820
A. geoffroyi azuerensis (Bole 1937)
A. geoffroyi frontatus (Gray 1842).
A. geoffroyi grisescens (Gray 1866)
A. geoffroyipan (Schlegel 1876)
A. geoffroyipanamensis Kellogg & Goldman 1944
A. geoffroyi ornatus (Gray 1870)
A. geoffroyi vellerosus (Gray 1866)
A. geoffroyiyucatanensis Kellogg & Goldman 1944
A. fuscicepsfusciceps Gray 1866
A. fusciceps robustus (= rufiventris) (Allen 1914)
A. chamek (Humboldt 1812)
A. paniscus (Linnaeus, 1758)
A. marginatus (t. Geoffroy 1809)
A. belzebuth belzebuth (t. Geoffroy 1806)
A. belzebuth hybridus (I. Geoffroy 1829)
A. belzebuth brunneus Gray 1870


12

13
13
13
13
13

14
14
14
14
14
14
14

15-21
15,21
15,21
15,21
15,21
15,21
15,21
15,21
16
15,21
15,21
17,21
17,21
17,21
17,21
17,21
17,21
21
21
21
21
21
19,21
20,21

22-23
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22,23


Equatorial saki

Bearded sakis
White-nosed bearded saki
Bearded saki
Black saki
Uta Hick's bearded saki

Uacaris
White bald-headed uacari
Ucayali bald-headed uacari
Novaes' bald-headed uacari
Red bald-headed uacari
Humboldt's black-headed uacari
Spix's black-headed uacari

Howling monkeys
Red howling monkey
Trinidad howling monkey
Golden howling monkey
Guianan red howling monkey




Ursine howling monkey
Bolivian red howling monkey
Red-handed howling monkey
Black howling monkey


Northern brown howling monkey
Southern brown howling monkey
Golden-mantled howling monkey
Mexican howling monkey
South Pacific blackish howling monkey
Coiba Island howling monkey
Azuero howling monkey
Black howling monkey
Black howling monkey

Spider monkeys
Geoffroy's spider monkey.
Azuero spider monkey
Black-browed spider monkey
Hooded spider monkey
Guatemalan spider monkey
Red spider monkey
Ornate spider monkey
Mexican spider monkey
Yucatan spider monkey
Brown-headed spider monkey
Colombian black spider monkey
Black-faced black spider monkey
Red-faced black spider monkey
White-whiskered spider monkey
White-bellied spider monkey
Variegated spider monkey
Brown spider monkey


continued...


Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), Septemberl"995


Page 121









Table 3 (continued)
Lagothrix E. Geoffroy 1812 24 Woolly monkeys
L. lagotricha lagotricha (Humboldt 1812) 24 Humboldt's woolly monkey
L. lagotricha cana (t. Geoffroy in Humboldt 1812) 24 Geoffroy's woolly monkey
L. lagotricha poeppigii (Schinz 1844) 24 Poeppig's woolly monkey
L. lagotricha lugens (Elliot 1907) 24 Colombian woolly monkey
L. flavicauda (Humboldt 1812) 24 Yellow-tailed woolly monkey

Brachyteles Spix 1823 25 Muriqui
B. arachnoides (E. Geoffroy 1806) 25 Southern muriqui
B. hypoxanthus (Kuhl 1820) 25 Northern muriqui


Notes

1. The taxonomy of Aotus follows Hershkovitz (1983),
except for A. hershkovitzi, described by Ramirez-Cerquera
in 1983 (Abstracts. IXCong. Latinoamericano de Zoologia,
Arequipa, Peru, p. 148) (see also Defler 1994). Defier (1994)
mentions the possibility of a further two Colombian spe-
cies of Aotus from the Colombian trapezium, A. nigriceps
(possibly introduced) and A. nancymaae. Hernandez-
Camacho and Cooper (1976) referred to A. trivirgatus
zonalis (Goldman 1914) in Panama and Colombia, which
is considered a synonym of A, t. griseimembra by
Hershkovitz (1949), but as a synonym of A. 1. lemurinus
by Hershkovitz (1983), and a synonym of A. lemurinus by
Groves (1993). The status recommended by Hershkovitz
(1983) was accepted by Hernandez-Camacho and Defier
(1991). Groves (1993) lists A. azarai boliviensis as a syn-
onym of A. azarai, and A. lemurinus griseimembra as a
synonym ofA. lemurinus. Pieczarka and Nagamachi (1988)
found that the karyotypes of A.. infulatus and A. azarae
boliviensis are closer to each other than to the karyotype of
A. a. azarae, and argue for the need to further revise the
systematic classification of the genus. Recent cytogenetic
studies by Pieczarka et al. (1992) have reinforced the va-
lidity of the species A. vociferans and A. nancymaae. A
phylogeny based on karyotypes is provided by Galbreath
(1983). Distributions according to Hernandez-Camacho and
Cooper (1976), Hershkovitz (1983), Stallings (1985),
Eisenberg (1989), Zunino et al. (1991), Redford and
Eisenberg (1992), Fernandes (1993), and Aquino and
Encarnaci6n (1994). Common names follow Hill (1960)
except in the use of "night monkey" rather than "dourou-
couli".

2. A. azarai is used rather than A. azarae, and A. nancymaae
rather than A. nancymai (see Hershkovitz 1983), following
Groves (1993) who pointed out the correct specific names
in accordance with Article 31 (a(ii)) of the International
Code of Zoological Nomenclature (International Commis-
sion on Zoological Nomenclature, 1985).

3. Callicebus taxonomy according to Hershkovitz (1990).
Groves (1992, 1993) indicated that C brunneus and C.
hoffmannsi may be subspecies of C moloch (C h. baptista
is a synonym of C. hoffmannsi), that C. caligatus and C.
dubius may be synonyms of C. cupreus, that C. cupreus
discolor and C. c. ornatus are synonyms of C. cupreus,
that C. donacophilus pallescens is a synonym of C.


donacophilus, and that all subspecies of C. torquatus and
C. personatus listed here are synonyms of their respective
species. Hershkovitz (1990) placed the Callicebus species
into four groupings: 1) C. modestus (C. modestus); 2) C.
donacophilus (C. olallae, C. donacophilus, Coenanthe);
3) C. moloch (C. brunneus, C caligatus, C. cupreus, C.
dubius, C. hoffmannsi, C. moloch, C. cinerascens and C.
personatus); and 4) C torquatus (C. torquatus). The spe-
cies groupings used here are those of Hershkovitz (1990),
although a recent phylogenetic study, based on cranial
measurements, by Kobayashi (1995) resulted in the fol-
lowing five groupings: 1) C. donacophilus (C. modestus,
C. ollalae, C. donacophilus); 2) C. cupreus (C caligatus,
C. cupreus); C. moloch (C. brunneus, C. hoffmannsi, C.
moloch, C. cinerascens); 4) C. personatus (C. personatus);
and 5) C. torquatus (C. torquatus). Kobayashi (1995) did
not evaluate C. oenanthe and C. p. barbarabrownae, and
the position of C. dubius was uncertain. Kobayashi (1995)
indicated that C. caligatus is a synonym of C cupreus. Dis-
tributions according to Hernandez-Camacho and Cooper
(1976), Eisenberg (1989), Stallings (1985), Hershkovitz
(1990), and Aquino and Encarnaci6n (1994).

4. Kobayashi and Langguth (1994a, 1994b) recorded the
existence of a new Callicebus from the coast of the state of
Sergipe, Brazil.

5. Saimiri taxonomy follows Hershkovitz (1984).
Hershkovitz (1987b; footnote page 22) also recognized
Saimiri boliviensis jaburuensis and S. b. pluvialis (given
as junior synonyms of S. b. boliviensis in Hershkovitz 1984)
as valid subspecies. Hershkovitz (1987b) referred to S.
vanzolinii Ayres 1981 as a subspecies of S. boliviensis. An
alternative taxonomy is presented by Thorington (1985) as
follows: S. sciureus sciureus (includes the forms albigena,
macrodon, and ustus recognized by Hershkovitz, 1984), S.
sciureus boliviensis (includes the forms pluvialis Ltnnberg
1940 and jaburuensis L6nnberg 1940 recognized by
Hershkovitz 1987), S. sciureus cassiquiarensis, S. sciureus
oerstedii (includes the form citrinellus recognized by
Hershkovitz 1984), and S. madeirae (given as a junior syn-
onym of S. ustus by Hershkovitz 1984). Hernandez-
Camacho and Defler (1991) recognize S. sciureus
caquetensis Allen 1916, given as a junior synonym of S.
sciureus macrodon by Hershkovitz (1984). Groves (1993)
recognized just five species of Saimiri (S. boliviensis, S.
oerstedii, S. sciureus, S. ustus and S. vanzolinii) with no
subspecies. He listed S. b. peruviensis, S. b. jaburuensis


Page 122


Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), Septemberl995







Neotropical Primates 3(supp/.), September1995 Page 123


and S. b. pluvialis as synonyms of S. boliviensis, S. o.
citrinellus as a synonym ofS. oerstedii, all subspecies of S.
sciureus listed here as synonyms, and S. madeirae recog-
nized by Thorington (1985) as a synonym of S. ustus. The
most recent review (morphology, genetics and behavior)
of squirrel monkey taxonomy by Costello et al. (1993) ar-
gued for the recognition of just two species: S. sciureus in
South America, and S. oerstedi in Panama and Costa Rica.
Silva et al. (1993) also gave evidence for just one large
polytypic South American species, Saimiri sciureus. Dis-
tributions according to Hernandez-Camacho and Cooper
(1976), Hershkovitz (1984), Ayres (1985), Eisenberg
(1989), and Aquino and Encarnaci6n (1994).

6. The C. apella taxonomy of Hill (1960) was based on
personal communications from Kellogg, who was revising
the taxonomy but died before completing it. Apart from
those listed above, Hill (1960) gives the following subspe-
cies: Cebus apella fatuellus Colombian brown capuchin,
from northern Colombia, type locality unknown; Cebus
apella tocantinus from type locality Rio Tocantins no clear
difference from peruanus; Cebus apella magnus from the
Rio Putumayo; Cebus apella juruanus from the Rio Jurua;
Cebus apella cay Azara's capuchin from Paraguay, GoiAs;
Cebus apella frontatus the white-cheeked capuchin, no type
locality, but argued by Vieira (1955) to be from the Serra
da Paranapiacaba, Alto da Serra, Canandia, Santa Catarina,
and Rio Grande do Sul; Cebus apella vellerosus from Ar-
gentina is given by Hill (1960) as a synonym of C. a.
nigritus. Hemandez-Camacho and Cooper (1976) argue that
C. apella north of the Amazon in Colombia exhibit no phe-
notypic distinctions sufficient to warrant subspecies. They
give the subspecies as C. a. apella (see also HernAndez-
Camacho and Defier 1991; Defler 1994). Hershkovitz in
his current studies of Cebus taxonomy will maintain as valid
the subspecies C. a. maranonis, C. a. macrocephalus, C. a.
pallidus, and C. a. peruanus (apud Encarnaci6n, 1993).
All these subspecies were listed by Aquino and Encarnaci6n
(1994). Groves (1993) gave all subspecific forms listed here
as synonyms of C. apella. Torres de Assumpqdo (1988)
and Torres (1989) carried out an incomplete study, but the
taxonomy of Cebus apella awaits a modern revision, and is
not definite. Taxonomy of Brazilian Atlantic forest C. apella
follows Kinzey (1982), except for C. a. paraguayanus
Fischer, 1829 from Argentina and Paraguay which was
considered by him to be a junior synonym of C. a.
libidinosus. Bodini and P6rez-Hemrnndez (1987) and Bodini
(1989) list only two subspecies for Venezuela: C. a.
margaritae and C. a. apella (Federal Territory ofAmazonas)
(see also Sanz and Marquez, 1994).

7. C. xanthosternos, formerly considered a subspecies of
Cebus apella, is genetically quite distinct (Seuinez et al.
1986), and is, therefore, listed as a valid species (Mittermeier
et al. 1988; see also Coimbra-Filho et al. 1991).

8. Eleven subspecies are listed for Cebus albifrons. The
taxonomy and distributions of the white-fronted capuchins
are confused and require revision. The subspecies listed
here are based on Hershkovitz (1949) and HernAndez-
Camacho and Cooper (1976) (see also Hemindez-Camacho


and Defier 1985, 1991). Hernandez-Camacho and Defler
(1991) mentioned six subspecies in Colombia and listed
five: C. a. malitiosus, C. a. cesarae, C. a. versicolor, C. a.
albifrons, and C. a. yuracus. They regarded C. a. unicolor
as possibly a junior synonym of C. a. albifrons, although,
later, Defler (1994) also included this subspecies for Co-
lombia. Defler (1994) listed six subspecies for Colombia,
three endemic: C. a. albifrons, C. a. cesarae (endemic), C.
a. versicolor (endemic), C. a. malitiosus (endemic), C. a.
unicolor, and C. a. yuracus. C. a. pleei Hershkovitz 1949
and C. a. leucocephalus Gray 1865 (listed by Hershkovitz
1949) are regarded by Hernindez-Camacho and Cooper
(1976), HemAndez Camacho and Defler (199 1), and Defler
(1994) as junior synonyms of C. a. versicolor. Bodini and
Perez-HemAndez (1987) listed three subspecies for Ven-
ezuela: C. a. adustus, C. a. leucocephalus (regarded ajun-
ior synonym of C. a. versicolor by Hernandez-Camacho
and Cooper 1976), and C. a. unicolor. Bodini (1989) pointed
out that Hill (1960) gives four subspecies for Venezuela,
C. a. cesarae, C. a. adustus, C. a. albifrons and C. a.
unicolor. Bodini and P6rez-Hemandez (1987) give the form
in the Federal Territory of Amazonas as C. a. unicolor, in
agreement with Hershkovitz (1949), although Hershkovitz
was uncertain of the limits of both this subspecies and C. a.
unicolor. Hernindez-Camacho and Cooper (1976) indicated
that the Amazonian form in Venezuela was C. a. albifrons
based on their belief that C. a. unicolor is a junior syn-
onym. All subspecies of C. albifrons listed here are regarded
as synonyms of just one species, C. albifrons, by Groves
(1993).

9. Hill (1960) lists five subspecies of Cebus capucinus. C.
c. nigripectus from the upper Rio Cauca in Colombia, C. c.
capucinus (Colombia), C. c. imitator (Costa Rica, includ-
ing Coiba Island, and Panama), C. c. limitaneus (Honduras
and Nicaragua), and C. c. curtus (Colombia). Hernandez-
Camacho and Cooper (1976) argued that variability in popu-
lations of these capuchins on the upper Rio Cauca argued
against the validity of C. c. nigripectus, and Hernandez-
Camacho and Defier (1991) and Defler (1994) listed just
two subspecies of C. capucinus for Colombia: C. c.
capucinus and C. c. curtus. Defler (1994) includes C c.
nigripectus under the name of C. c. curtus. C. c. curtus is
endemic to the Colombian Island of Gorgona. It was possi-
bly introduced in the 16th or 17th Centuries (Hernandez-
Camacho and Defler 1991) and is very similar to Panama-
nian C. capucinus (R. A. Mittermeier, pers. obs.). Silva-
L6pez et al. (1995) report on the possibility that C.
capucinus may extend into Guatemala. Groves (1993) rec-
ognizes no subspecific differentiation in C. capucinus.

10. Cebus olivaceus requires a taxonomic revision. The
subspecies listed are based on Hershkovitz (1949). The
species name of C. olivaceus Schomburgk 1848 rather than
C. nigrivittatus Wagner 1947 is argued by Husson (1978),
and used by Eisenberg (1989). Groves (1993) gave all forms
listed here as junior synonyms of C olivaceus.

11. Bodini and P6rez-Hernindez (1987) list five subspe-
cies for Venezuela: C. n. brunneus, C. n. apiculatus, C. n.
nigrivittatus (Amazonian), C. n. olivaceus and a fifth form


Neotropical Primates 3(suppL), September1995


Page 123








Page 124 Neciropical Primates 3(suppl.), September1995


which has yet to be classified (widely distributed through-
out central and northern Venezuela, to the north of Rio
Orinoco). Bodini (1989) pointed out that the subspecies of
C. nigrivitattus are not well defined.

12. Taxonomy and distributions of Pithecia according to
Hershkovitz (1987a) and Eisenberg (1989). Groves (1993)
listed the following species: P. aequatorialis, P. albicans,
P. irrorata (P. i. vanzolinii a synonym), P. monachus (P.
m. miller a synonym), P. pithecia (P. p. chrysocephala a
synonym). A phylogeny at the generic level was recently
proposed by Schneider et al. (1995).

13. Chiropotes taxonomy and distributions according to
Hershkovitz (1985), Eisenberg (1989), and Ferrari (1995).
Groves (1993) recognized just two species, C. albinasus
and C. satanas: the subspecies of C. satanas recognized by
Hershkovitz (1984) are considered by him to be synonyms.

14 Taxonomy and distributions of Cacajao according to
Hernandez-Camacho and Cooper (1976), Hershkovitz
(1987b), Eisenberg (1989) and Boubli (1994). Groves
(1989) listed the subspecies of C. calvus (rubicundus,
ucayalii, and novaesi) recognized by Hershkovitz(1987b),
as synonyms. Szalay and Delson (1979) gave C. c.
rubicundus full species status.

15. Hill (1962) and Stanyon et al. (1995) list nine subspe-
cific forms ofA.. seniculus: A. s. seniculus, A. s. arctoidea,
A. s. stramineus, A. s. macconelli, A. s. insulanus, A. s.
amazonica, A. s. juara, A. s. puruensis, A. s. sara. Cytoge-
netic studies have been carried out on; A. s. seniculus by
Chu and Bender (1961), Bender and Chu (1963), and Yunis
et al. 1976); A. s. stramineus by Lima and Seuinez (1991);
A. s. macconelli by Lima et al.(1990); A. s. sara by
Minezawa et al. (1985) and Stanyon et al. (1995); and A. s.
arctoidea by Stanyon et al. (1995). A. sara is recognized
here as afull species here following Minezawa et al. (1985;
see also Groves 1993; Stanyon et al. 1995). Stanyon et al.
(1995) concluded that the number of chromosomal differ-
ences between A. s. sara and A. s. arctoidea was on a simi-
lar scale to those found between A. s. sara and A. s. seniculus
by Minezawa et al. (1985). A. s. arctoidea is here listed as
a distinct species for this reason. Stanyon et al (1995) noted
that "as for other organisms in tropical forest regions, it is
probable the biological diversity and number of species have
been underestimated". Hill (1962) argued that the descrip-
tion of A. s.juara by Elliot (1910) confused the name and
type locality. Hill (1962) demonstrated that it came in fact
from the Rio Jurua in Brazil, whereas Elliot gave the Rio
Juara in the Peruvian Amazon. Three years later, Elliot
(1913) referred to the Rio Juara in the Brazilian, not Peru-
vian, Amazon. Hill (1962) mentioned that A. s. juara is
probably a junior synonym of A. s. seniculus.

16. An undescribed subspecies of A. seniculus north of the
Rio Orinoco, reported by Bodini and P6rez-Herndndez
(1987).

17. The taxonomy and distributions of A. belzebul follow
Hill (1962), Langguth et al. (1987), and Bonvicino et al.


(1989). Cytogenetic studies have indicated, however, the
probability that A. b. nigerrima is sufficiently distinct as to
warrant species status (Armada et al. 1987; see also Lima
and Seuinez 1989)).

18. The taxonomy and distribution of Alouattafusca is dis-
cussed in Rylands et al. (1988; see also Hirsch et al. 1991).
Occurrence of A. fusca in Argentina reviewed by Bitteti et
al. (1994). Cytogenetic studies were carried out by Lima
and Seuanez (1991).

19. Villalba et al. (1995) have raised the possibility that A.
caraya extends as far south as Uruguay.

20. Taxonomic status and distribution of Alouatta pigra
according to Smith (1970), Horwich (1983), Horwich and
Johnson (1984), and Silva-L6pez. et al. (1995). Alouatta
palliata luctuosa Lawrence, 1933 listed by Hill (1962) for
Belize was not recognized by Froehlich and Froehlich
(1986). Alouatta pigra luctuosa was listed by Dahl (1987)
for the primates of Belize.

21. Groves (1993) lists the following species: A. belzebul
(discolor, nigerrima, and ululata synonyms), A. caraya, A.
coibensis (trabeata synonym), A. fusca clamitanss syn-
onym), A. palliata (aequatorialis, mexicana synonyms),
A. pigra (A. p. luctuosa synonym), A. seniculus, and A.
sara. Distributions ofAlouatta follow Hershkovitz (1949),
Hill (1962), Froehlich and Froehlich (1986, 1987), Dahl
(1987), Langguth et al. (1987), Bonvicino et al. (1989),
Eisenberg (1989), Hirsch et al. (1991), Redford and
Eisenberg (1992), and Curdts (1993). Note that Stanyon et
al. (1995) gave the distribution of A. seniculus amazonica
as the northern Atlantic forest, obviously an oversight rather
than an affirmation. Their distribution map for the species
is taken from Hill. (1962) who placed A. s. amazonica in a
small area north of the Rio Solimbes, to the west of the Rio
Negro, in the state of Amazonas, Brazil.

22. Ateles taxonomy according to Kellogg and Goldman
(1944) and Konstant et al. (1985), except in the recogni-
tion of the forms chamek and marginatus as distinct spe-
cies, following Groves (1989, 1993). De Boer and Bruijn
(1990), Froehlich et al. (1991), and Medeiros (1994) ar-
gued that A. paniscus is a distinct form with no subspecies.
De Boer and Bruijn (1990) indicated that chamek should
be considered a full species. Froehlich et al. (1991) indi-
cated that the form chamek is subspecific to A. belzebuth
rather than A. paniscus. HernAndez-Camacho and Cooper
(1976), Hernmndez-Camacho and Defler (1991) refer to all
Ateles as subspecies of A. paniscus, following Hershkovitz
(1972). Defler (1994), on the other hand follows Kellogg
and Goldman (1944) and refers to three species in Colom-
bia: A. belzebuth, A. fusciceps, and A. geoffroyi. Groves
(1989, 1993) gave the forms chamek Humboldt 1812, and
marginatus t. Geoffroy 1809, species status, regarded A.f
robustus as a synonym of A. f fusciceps, A. b. brunneus
and A. b. hybridus as synonyms of A. belzebuth, and all A.
geoffroyi subspecies as synonyms. Heltne and Kunkel
(1975) provided additional taxonomic notes concerning
pelage coloration in A. paniscus (including chamek) and A.


Page 124


Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), Septemberl995






Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), September1995

fusciceps. Kunkel et al. (1980), reported on chromosomal
variation and zoogeography in the genus. Distributions ac-
cording to Kellogg and Goldman (1944), Hershkovitz
(1949), Hernindez-Camacho and Cooper (1976), Martins
et al. (1988), Eisenberg (1989), and Aquino and
Encarnaci6n (1994).

23. Hernandez-Camacho and Defler (1985, 1991) and
Defler (1994) also refer to A. p. brunneus Gray 1872 from
the south-east of the Department of Bolivar, Colombia,
listed here as a subspecies of A. b. belzebuth (see Hill 1962).

24. Lagothrix taxonomy and distributions according to
Fooden (1963), Hernindez-Camacho and Cooper (1976),
Eisenberg (1989), Hemrnndez-Camacho and Defler (1991)
and Aquino and Encarnaci6n (1994). This genus is in need
of revision. Distribution of L.flavicauda follows Leo Luna
(1987) and Butchart et al. (in press). Groves (1993) does
not recognize the subspecific forms of L. lagotricha.

25. Vieira (1944) recognized two subspecies of Brachyteles.
Recent evidence provided by Lemos de Sa et al. (1990,
1993), Fonseca et al. (1991) and Lemos de SA and Glander
(1993) indicates that Vieira's original (1944) standing was
valid, but that differentiation is even more extreme and jus-
tifies the classification of the two forms as separate spe-
cies. Distribution according to Aguirre (1971), Mittermeier
et al. (1987), Santos et al. (1987), and Oliver and Santos
(1991).

Mace-Lande Categories for Neotropical Primates

A draft version of the application of the Mace-Lande
classification to the Neotropical primates was drawn
up by the authors on the occasion of the XVth Con-
gress of the International Primatological Society, held
in Bali, 3-8 August 1994. This proposal was then sent
to 86 members of the IUCN Species Survival Com-
mission (SSC) Primate Specialist Group in October
1994 for comments and adjustments. The evaluation
of the Mesoamerican primates also benefited from
the concurrent preparation of the Primate Action Plan
for the region (Rodriguez-Luna 1993). The final ver-
sion is presented in Table 4, and Tables 5, 6, and 7
list the primates in each threatened category (Criti-
cally Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable) with
the criteria which determined their rating. Table 8 lists
the species which are considered threatened accord-
ing to the Mace-Lande System. Table 9 provides a
summary of the number of species and taxa of
Callitrichidae and Cebidae in the Critical (CR), En-
dangered (EN) and Vulnerable (VU), and the percent-
age of cebid and callitrichid and the total species and
taxa in each threatened category is also shown.

From this evaluation it is possible to make the fol-
lowing statements:


Page 125


Family Callitrichidae
1. This synthesis considers five genera, 35 spe-
cies, and 55 species and subspecies of
callitrichids.
2. Two of the five genera of callitrichids (40%)
are threatened (Leontopithecus and Callimico).
3. Thirteen of the 35 species of callitrichids
(37%) are threatened.
4. Sixteen of the 55 species and subspecies of
callitrichids (29%) are threatened.
5. Seven of the 35 species of callitrichids (20%)
are critically endangered or endangered
(Callithrix flaviceps, C. aurita, Saguinus oe-
dipus, Leontopithecus rosalia, L. chrysomelas,
L. chrysopygus, L. caissara).
6. Eight of the 55 species and subspecies of
callitrichids (14.5%) are critically endangered
or endangered.

Family Cebidae
1. This synthesis considers 11 genera, 63 spe-
cies, and 147 species and subspecies ofcebids.
2. One of the I I genera of cebids are threatened
(Brachyteles).
3. Twenty of the 63 species of cebids (32%) are
threatened.
4. Fifty-four of the 147 species and subspecies
of the cebids (37%) are threatened.
5. Eight of the 63 species of cebids (13%) are
critically endangered or endangered (Aotus
lemurinus, Saimiri oerstedi, Callicebus sp.,
Cebus xanthosternos, Alouatta coibensis,
Ateles marginatus, Brachyteles arachnoides,
B. hypoxanthus).
6. Twenty-seven of the 147 species and subspe-
cies of cebids (18%) are critically endangered
or endangered.

New World Primates
1. This synthesis considers 16 genera, 98 spe-
cies, and 202 species and subspecies of New
World primates.
2. Three of the 16 genera ofNew World primates
are threatened (Callimico, Leontopithecus,
Brachyteles).
3. Thirty-three of the 98 species of New World
primates (34%) are threatened.
4. Seventy of the 202 species and subspecies of







Page 126 Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), September1995


New World primates (35%) are threatened.
5. Fifteen of 98 species of New World primates
(15%) are critically endangered or endangered.
6. Thirty-five of the 202 species and subspecies
of New World primates (17%) are critically
endangered or endangered.

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED

The two criteria applicable to all of the taxa listed as
critically endangered taxa (Table 5) are: B. the extent
of occurrence is estimated to be less than 100 km2 or
area of occupancy estimated to be less than 10 km2,
and estimates indicating 1) Severely fragmented or
known to exist at only a single location, and 2) Con-
tinuing decline, observed, inferred or projected in any
of the following (a) extent of occurrence, (b) area of
occupancy (c) area, extent and/or quality of habitat,
(d) number of locations or subpopulations and (e)
number of mature individuals. For all, except
Callicebus personatus barbarabrownae, it was also
possibly to invoke the following criterion: C. Popu-
lation estimated to number less than 250 mature indi-
viduals and 2. A continuing decline, observed, pro-
jected, or inferred, in numbers of mature individuals


and population structure in the form of (a) severely
fragmented (i.e, no subpopulation estimated to con-
tain more than 50 mature individuals). For both
Alouatta fusca fusca and Leontopithecus caissara it
is also estimated that the population contains no more
than 50 mature individuals (D).

ENDANGERED

Universal criteria for the endangered species and sub-
species listed in Table 6 are the following: B. Extent
of occurrence estimated to be less than 5000 km2 or
area of occupancy estimated to be less than 500 km2,
and estimates indicating 1. Severely fragmented or
known to exist at no more than five locations, and 2.
Continuing decline, observed, inferred or projected,
in any of the following: (a) extent of occurrence, (b)
area of occupancy, (c) area, extent and/or quality of
habitat, (d) number of locations or subpopulations and
(e) number of mature individuals. In the case of all of
the callitrichids, Saimiri oerstedi oerstedi, Alouatta
coibensis coibensis, Ateles geoffroyi grisescens, Ateles
geoffroyi panamensis, Brachyteles arachnoides, and
Brachyteles hypoxanthus criterion C2 was also ap-
plied: C. Population estimated to number less than
2500 mature individuals and 2. A continuing decline,


Table 4. The IUCN Mace-Lande Categories for the status of New World Monkeys. Also shown is the distribution by country.
Species Category Distribution
Family Callitrichidae
Cebuella pygmaea LR Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
Callithrix argentata LR Brazil
Callithrix leucippe VU Brazil
Callithrix melanura LR Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay
Callithrix intermedia LR Brazil
Callithrix emiliae LR Brazil
Callithrix nigripeps VU Brazil
Callithrix mareai LR Brazil
Callithrix humeralffer LR Brazil
Callithrix chrysoleuca VU Brazil
Callithrix mauesi LR Brazil
Callithrix saterei DD Brazil
Callithrixjacchus LR Brazil
Callithrixpenicillata LR Brazil
Callithrix kuhli LR Brazil
Callithrix geoffroyi VU Brazil
Callithrixflaviceps EN Brazil
Callithrix aurita EN Brazil

Saguinus nigricollis nigricollis LR Brazil (?), Colombia, Peru
Saguinus nigricollis graellsi LR Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
Saguinus nigricollis hernandezi VU Colombia
Saguinusfuscicollisfuscicollis LR Brazil, Peru
Saguinus fuscicollisfuscus LR Brazil, Colombia
continued...


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Neotropical Primates 3(suppL), September]995







Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), September1995 Page 127


Table 4 (continued)
Saguinus fuscicollis avilapiresi
Saguinus fuscicollis cruzlimai
Saguinus fuscicollis illigeri
Saguinus fuscicollis leucogenys
Saguinus fuscicollis nigrifrons
Saguinus fuscicollis lagonotus
Saguinus fuscicollis weddelli
Saguinusfuscicollis primitivus
Saguinus fuscicollis melanoleucus
Saguinus fuscicollis crandalli
Saguinus tripartitus
Saguinus mystax mystax
Saguinus mystax pileatus
Saguinus mystax pluto
Saguinus labiatus labiatus
Saguinus labiatus thomasi
Saguinus imperator imperator
Saguinus imperator subgrisescens
Saguinus inustus
Saguinus midas midas
Saguinus midas niger
Saguinus bicolor bicolor
Saguinus bicolor ochraceus
Saguinus bicolor martins
Saguinus leucopus
Saguinus oedipus
Saguinus geoffroyi

Leontopithecus rosalia
Leontopithecus chrysomelas
Leontopithecus chrysopygus
Leontopithecus caissara

Callimico goeldii

Family Cebidae
Aotus lemurinus lemurinus
Aotus lemurinus griseimembra
Aotus vociferans
Aotus trivirgatus
Aotus brumbacki
Aotus miconax
Aotus nigriceps
Aotus infulatus
Aotus azarai azarai
Aotus azarai boliviensis
Aotus nancymaae
Aotus hershkovitzi

Callicebus modestus
Callicebus donacophilus donacophilus
Callicebus donacophilus pallescens
Callicebus olallae
Callicebus oenanthe
Callicebus cinerascens
Callicebus hoffmannsi hoffmannsi
Callicebus hoffmannsi baptista
Callicebus moloch
Callicebus brunneus
Callicebus cupreus cupreus


Brazil
Brazil (?)
Peru
Peru
Peru
Ecuador, Peru
Bolivia, Brazil, Peru
Brazil
Brazil
Peru (?)
Ecuador, Peru
Brazil, Peru
Brazil
Brazil
Bolivia, Brazil, Peru
Brazil
Brazil, Peru
Bolivia, Brazil, Peru
Brazil, Colombia
Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname
Brazil
Brazil
Brazil
Brazil
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama

Brazil
Brazil
Brazil
Brazil

Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Peru


Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama
Colombia
Colombia, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru
Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela
Colombia
Peru
Brazil, Colombia, Peru
Brazil
Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay
Bolivia, Peru
Brazil, Colombia, Peru
Colombia

Bolivia
Bolivia
Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay
Bolivia
Peru
Brazil
Brazil
Brazil
Brazil
Brazil, Peru
Brazil, Peru


continued...


Neotropical Primates 3(suppL), Seplember1995


Page 127








Table 4 (continued)


Callicebus cupreus discolor
Callicebus cupreus ornatus
Callicebus caligatus
Callicebus dubius
Callicebus personatus personatus
Callicebus personatus nigrifrons
Callicebus personatus melanochir
Callicebus personatus barbarabrownae
Callicebus sp.
Callicebus torquatus torquatus
Callicebus torquatus medemi
Callicebus torquatus lugens
Callicebus torquatus lucifer
Callicebus torquatus purinus
Callicebus torquatus regulus

Saimiri boliviensis boliviensis
Saimiri boliviensis peruviensis
Saimiri boliviensis pluvialis
Saimiri boliviensis jaburuensis
Saimiri vanzolinii
Saimiri sciureus sciureus
Saimiri sciureus macrodon
Saimiri sciureus cassiquiarensis
Saimiri sciureus albigena
Saimiri oerstedi oerstedi
Saimiri oerstedi citrinellus
Saimiri ustus

Cebus apella apella

Cebus apella macrocephalus
Cebus apella maranonis
Cebus apella pallidus
Cebus apella peruanus
Cebus apella libidinosus
Cebus apella nigritus
Cebus apella robustus
Cebus apella margaritae
Cebus apella paraguayanus
Cebus xanthosternos
Cebus albifrons albifrons
Cebus albifrons unicolor
Cebus albifrons adustus
Cebus albifrons aequatorialis
Cebus albifrons cesarae
Cebus albifrons cuscinus
Cebus albifrons hypoleucus
Cebus albifrons malitiosus
Cebus albifrons trinitatis
Cebus albifrons versicolor
Cebus albifrons yuracus
Cebus albifrons leucocephalus
Cebus capucinus capucinus
Cebus capucinus limitaneus
Cebus capucinus imitator
Cebus capucinus curtus
Cebus olivbaceus olivaceus
Cebus olivaceus apiculatus
Cebus olivaceus brunneus


Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
Colombia
Brazil, Peru
Brazil
Brazil
Brazil
Brazil
Brazil
Brazil
Brazil
Colombia
Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela
Brazil, Colombia, Peru
Brazil
Brazil

Bolivia, Brazil, Peru
Peru
Brazil
Brazil
Brazil
Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname
Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela
Colombia
Costa Rica, Panama
Costa Rica
Brazil

Colombia, Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana,
Suriname, Venezuela
Brazil, Peru
Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
Bolivia, Peru
Brazil, Peru
Brazil
Argentina, Brazil
Brazil
Venezuela
Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay
Brazil
Colombia
Colombia, Bolivia, Brazil, Peru, Venezuela
Venezuela
Ecuador
Colombia
Bolivia, Brazil, Peru
Colombia
Colombia
Trinidad
Colombia
Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
Venezuela
Colombia
Belize, Honduras, Nicaragua
Costa Rica, Panama
Gorgona Island, Colombia
Brazil, Guyana, Venezuela,
Venezuela
Venezuela
continued...


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Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), September1995







Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), September1995 Page 129


Table 4 (continued)
Cebus olivaceus castaneus
Cebus olivaceus ssp.
Cebus kaapori

Pithecia pithecia pithecia

Pithecia pithecia chrysocephala
Pithecia monachus monachus
Pithecia monachus miller
Pithecia irrorata irrorata
Pithecia irrorata vanzolinii
Pithecia albicans
Pithecia aequatorialis

Chiropotes albinasus
Chiropotes satanas satanas
Chiropotes satanas chiropotes

Chiropotes satanas utahicki

Cacajao calvus calvus
Cacajao calvus ucayalii
Cacajao calvus novaesi
Cacajao calvus rubicundus
Cacajao melanocephalus melanocephalus
Cacajao melanocephalus ouakary

Alouatta seniculus seniculus

Alouatta seniculus insulanus
Alouatta seniculus stramineus
Alouatta seniculus macconnelli

Alouatta seniculus amazonica
Alouatta seniculus juara
Alouatta seniculus puruensis
Alouatta seniculus ssp.
Alouatta arctoidea
Alouatta sara
Alouatta belzebul belzebul
Alouatta belzebul nigerrima
Alouatta belzebul discolor
Alouatta belzebul ululata
Alouatta fuscafusca
Alouatta fusca clamitans
Alouatta palliata palliata
Alouatta palliata mexicana
Alouatta palliata aequatorialis
Alouatta coibensis coibensis
Alouatta coibensis trabeata
Alouatta caraya
Alouatta pigra

Ateles geoffroyi geoffroyi
Ateles geoffroyi azuerensis
Ateles geoffroyifrontatus.
Ateles geoffroyi grisescens
Ateles geoffroyi pan
Ateles geoffroyi panamensis


French Guiana, Suriname
Venezuela
Brazil

Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname,
Venezuela
Brazil
Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
Colombia
Bolivia, Brazil, Peru
Brazil
Brazil
Colombia (?), Ecuador, Peru

Brazil
Brazil
Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname,
Venezuela
Brazil

Brazil
Brazil (?), Peru
Brazil
Brazil, Colombia
Brazil, Venezuela
Brazil, Colombia

Colombia, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru,
Venezuela
Trinidad
Brazil, Venezuela
Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname,
Venezuela
Brazil
Brazil
Bolivia, Brazil
Venezuela
Venezuela
Bolivia
Brazil
Brazil
Brazil
Brazil
Brazil
Argentina, Brazil
Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Panama
Mexico, Guatemala
Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru
Coiba Island, Panama
Panama
Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay (?)
Belize, Guatemala, Mexico

Nicaragua
Panama
Costa Rica, Nicaragua
Colombia, Panama
Guatemala
Costa Rica, Panama


continued...


Neotropical Primates 3(suppL), Septemberl995


Page 129






Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), September1995


Table 4 (continued)
Ateles geoffroyi ornatus
Ateles geoffroyi vellerosus

Ateles geoffroyiyucatanensis
Ateles fusciceps fusciceps
Ateles fusciceps robustus (= rufiventris)
Ateles paniscus
Ateles belzebuth belzebuth
Ateles belzebuth hybridus
Ateles belzebuth brunneus
Ateles chamek
Ateles marginatus

Lagothrix lagotricha lagotricha
Lagothrix lagotricha cana
Lagothrix lagotricha poeppigii
Lagothrix lagotricha lugens
Lagothrix flavicauda

Brachyteles arachnoides
Brachyteles hypoxanthus


observed, projected, or inferred, in numbers of ma-
ture individuals and population structure in the form:
(a) severely fragmented (i.e. no subpopulation esti-
mated to contain more 250 mature individuals).

VULNERABLE

The criteria used for the categorization of the species
and subspecies which are considered vulnerable
(Table 7) are more varied, and include the following:

Table 5. The New World primates (5 species and 16 taxa)
Mace-Lande Categories.


Costa Rica
El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala, Mexico

Belize, Guatemala, Mexico
Ecuador
Colombia, Panama
Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname
Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela
Colombia, Venezuela
Colombia
Bolivia, Brazil, Peru
Brazil

Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
Brazil, Peru
Brazil, Ecuador, Peru
Colombia, Venezuela
Peru

Brazil
Brazil


A. Population reduction in the form of the following
: 1. An observed, estimated, inferred or suspected re-
duction of at least 20% over the last 10 years or three
generations, whichever is the longer, based on (and
specifying) any of the following : (c) a decline in area
of occupancy, extent of occurrence and/or quality of
habitat; B. Extent of occurrence estimated to be less
than 20,000 km2 or area of occupancy estimated to
be less than 2000 km2, and estimates indicating any
two of the following : 1. Severely fragmented or

considered to be Critically Endangered (CR) following the IUCN


Species Criteria Distribution

Family Callitrichidae
Leontopithecus rosalia B 1, B2, C2(a) Brazil
Leontopithecus chrysopygus B B2, C2(a) Brazil
Leontopithecus caissara B B2, C2(a), D Brazil

Family Cebidae
Callicebus personatus barbarabrownae BI, B2 Brazil
Callicebus sp. BI, B2, C2(a) Brazil

Saimiri oerstedi citrinellus BI, B2, C2(a) Costa Rica

Cebus apella margaritae B 1, B2, C2(a) Margarita Island, Venezuela
Cebus albifrons trinitatis Bl, B2, C2(a) Trinidad
Cebus xanthosternos Bl, B2, C2(a) Brazil

Alouatta belzebul ululata BI, B2, C2(a) Brazil
Alouattafuscafusca Bl, B2, C2(a), D Brazil
Alouatta coibensis trabeata B I, B2, C2(a) Panama

Ateles geoffroyi azuerensis B 1, B2, C2(a) Panama
Atelesfuscicepsfusciceps Bl, B2, C2(a) Ecuador

Lagothrix lagotricha lugens B 1, B2, C2(a) Colombia, Venezuela
Lagothrixflavicauda B i, B2, C2(a) Peru


Page 130







Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.% September1995 Page 131


known to exist at no more than ten locations. 2. Con-
tinuing decline, observed, inferred or projected, in
' follow" (a) ev*"-t of occurrence, (b)
,i occuparn.,, _c) ire., extent and/or quality of
habitat, (d) number nf locations or subpopulations,
and (e) number of mature individuals; and C. Popu-
lation estimated to number less than 10,000 mature
individuals and 2. A continuing decline, observed,
projected, or inferred, in numbers of mature individu-
als and populations structure in the form of either :
(a)severely fragmented (i.e. no subpopulation esti-
mated to contain more 1000 mature individuals) or
(b) all individuals are in a single subpopulation.


in Table 32. From this evaluation it is possible to state
the following:

Distribution by country
1. Neotropical primates are distributed th. ough
20, possibly 21, countries from southern
Mexico through Central America to Argen-
tina and possibly Uruguay.

Family Callitrichidae
2. Callitrichids are distributed through 11 coun-
tries. That with the most species ofcallitrichids


Table 6. The New World primates considered to be Endangered (EN), following the IUCN Mace-Lande Categories.

Species Criteria Distribution


Family Callitrichidae
Callithrixflaviceps
Callithrix aurita


Saguinus bicolor bicolor
Saguinus oedipus

Leontopithecus chrysomelas

Family Cebidae
Aotus lemurinus griseimembra

Saimiri oerstedi oerstedi

Chiropotes satanas satanas

Cacajao calvus calvus
Cacajao calvus novaesi
Cacajao calvus rubicundus

Alouatta coibensis coibensis

Ateles geoffroyi grisescens
Ateles geoffroyi panamensis
Ateles marginatus
Ateles belzebuth hybridus
Ateles belzebuth brunneus


Brachyteles arachnoides
Brachyteles hypoxanthus


Bl B2, C2(a)
Bl, B2, C2(a)

BlI, B2, C2(a)
Bl, B2, C2(a)

Bl, B2, C2(a)


BI, B2

Bl, B2, C2(a)


BI, B2

BI, B2
BI, B2
BI. B2


Bl, B2, C2(a)

Bl, B2, C2 (a)
Bl, B2, C2 (a)
BI, B2
BI, B2
BI, B2

B 1, B2, C2 (a)
Bl.B2. C2 (a)


Primate Diversity by Country Richness,
Endemism, and Threatened Species

The primates occurring in each of the 21 countries,
ranging from Mexico to northern Argentina and pos-
sibly Uruguay, are shown in Tables 10 to 30. Endemic
species are in bold. A summary is provided in Table
31 and Figure 1 which give the number of species
and taxa of callitrichids and cebids and the numbers
for both families combined, along with the number
of endemic species and taxa in each country. The
numbers of threatened taxa in each country are shown


Brazil
Brazil

Brazil
Colombia

Brazil


Colombia


Costa Rica, Panama

Brazil

Brazil
Brazil
Brazil, Colombia

Coiba Island, Panama

Colombia, Panama
Costa Rica, Panama
Brazil
Colombia, Venezuela
Colombia


Brazil
Brazil


is Brazil (31 species and 44 species and sub-
species). In second place is Peru, with eight
species and 16 species and subspecies, and
in third place is Colombia, with eight spe-
cies and 10 species and subspecies. Six
species occur in Bolivia, and the remain-
ing seven countries have four or less spe-
cies.

Family Cebidae
3. Cebids occur in 20, possibly 21 countries.
That with the most species is.Brazil, with


I I
B2 C2 (a)


Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), September1995


Page 131





Also listed are the criteria used and the distribution by country.

Page 132


45 species and 84 species and subspecies. Co-
lombia has 23 species and 41 species and sub-
species. Third place is taken by Peru with 24
species and 35 species and subspecies. Ven-
ezuela is in fourth place with 13 species and
24 species and subspecies. Ecuador has 12 spe-
cies and 14 species and subspecies and Bo-
livia has 11 species and 15 species and sub-
species.


Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), Septemberl995

New World Primates
4. The country with the most primates is Brazil
with 76 species (77% of the New World pri-
mate species) and 128 species and subspecies
(63% of the New World primate taxa). Brazil
is followed by Colombia with 31 species
(32%) and 51 species and subspecies (25%)
and Peru with 32 species (33%) and 51 spe-


Table 7. The New World primates considered to be Vulnerable (VU), following the IUCN Mace-Lande Categories.
Species Criteria Distribution


Family Callitrichidae
Callithrix leucippe
Callithrix chrysoleuca
Callithrix nigriceps
Callithrix geoffroyi


B2
B2
B2
Bl, B2(b), C2


Brazil
Brazil
Brazil
Brazil


Saguinus nigricollis hernandezi
Saguinus imperator imperator
Saguinus leucopus

Callimico goeldii

Family Cebidae
Aotus lemurinus lemurinus
Aotus brumbacki
Aotus miconax

Callicebus oenanthe
Callicebus cupreus ornatus
Callicebus dubius
Callicebus personatus personatus
Callicebus personatus nigrifrons
Callicebus personatus melanochir
Callicebus torquatus medemi

Saimiri vanzolinii

Cebus apella robustus
Cebus kaapori
Cebus capucinus curtus

Pithecia monachus miller

Chiropotes satanas utahicki

Cacajao calvus ucayalii

Alouatta seniculus insulanus
Alouattafusca clamitans
Alouatta palliata mexicana

Ateles geoffroyifrontatus
Ateles geoffroyi ornatus
Ateles geoffroyi yucatanensis
Ateles fusciceps robustus (= rufiventris)

Ateles belzebuth belzebuth
Lagothrix lagotricha cana
Lagothrix lagotricha poeDopiii


A I(c), B2
Al I(c), B2
AlI(c), BI, B2, C2

Al(c)


B 1, B2, C2
BI, B2
Al(c), BI, B2

BI. B2
Al(c), BI, B2
BI, B2
Al(c), BI, B2
Al(c)
Al(c)
Bl, B2, C2

BI1, B2, C2

BI, B2
Al(c), BlI, B2
BI, B2

Al(c), Bl, B2

Al(c)

Al(c)

Al(c), Bl, B2
Al(c)
Al(c), Bl, B2

AI(c), Bl, B2
Al(c), Bl, B2
Al(c), Bl, B2
Al(c), BI, B2

Al(c)
Al(c)
A (c)


Colombia
Brazil, Peru
Colombia


Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Peru


Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama
Colombia
Peru

Peru
Colombia
Brazil
Brazil
Brazil
Brazil
Colombia

Brazil

Brazil
Brazil
Gorgona Island, Colombia

Colombia

Brazil

Brazil (?), Peru

Trinidad
Argentina, Brazil
Mexico, Guatemala

Costa Rica, Nicaragua
Costa Rica
Belize, Guatemala, Mexico
Colombia, Panama

Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela
Brazil, Peru
Brazil, Ecuador, Peru








Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), September) 99S Page 133


Table 8. Threatened species ofNeotropical Primates.
Species

Family Callitrichidae
Callithrix leucippe
Callithrix chrysoleuca
Callithrix nigriceps
Callithrix geoffroyi
Callithrix flaviceps
Callithrix aurita

Saguinus leucopus
Saguinus oedipus

Leontopithecus rosalia
Leontopithecus chrysomelas
Leontopithecus chrysopygus
Leontopithecus caissara

Callimico goeldii

Family Cebidae
Aotus lemurinus
Aotus brumbacki
Aotus miconax

Callicebus oenanthe
Callicebus dubius
Callicebus personatus
Callicebus sp.


Saimiri vanzolinkii
Saimiri oerstedi

Cebus xanthosternos
Cebus kaapori

Cacajao calvus

Alouattafusca
Alouatta coibensis

Ateles fusciceps
Ateles belzebuth
Ateles marginatus

Lagothrixflavicauda

Brachyteles arachnoides
Brachyteles hypoxanthus


Figure 1. Number of Neotropical primate species and genera by coun-
try, with number of endemics indicated (map by R. B. Machado).

cies and subspecies (25%). Bolivia has 17 spe-
cies and 21 species and subspecies, Venezu-
ela has 13 species and 24 species and subspe-
cies, and Ecuador 16 species and 18 species
and subspecies. Panama has the most primates
in Central America, with eight species and 12
species and subspecies.

Endemism
5. Fifty species, or 51% of the Neotropical pri-
mate species, are endemic to one country. A
total of 114 species and subspecies, or 56% of
the Neotropical primate taxa, are restricted to
just one country. Six countries have endemic
species: Brazil (38), Colombia (6), Bolivia (3),.


Table 9. A summary of the number of species and taxa of Callitrichidae and Cebidae in the IUCN Mace-Lande categories of
Critical (CR), Endangered (EN) and Vulnerable (VU). The percentage of cebid and callitrichid and the total species and taxa in
each threatened category is also shown.

Family Genus Species Taxa Threatened Category (sp.) Threatened Category (taxa)
CR EN VU Total CR EN VU Total
Callitrichidae 5 35 55 3 4 6 13 3 5 8 16
8.6% 11.4% 17.1% 37.1% 5.4% 9.1% 14.5% 29.1%
Cebidae 11 63 147 3 3 6 20 13 14 27 54
4.8% 4.8% 9.7% 31.7% 8.8% 9.5% 18.4% 36.7%
TOTAL 16 98 202 6 7 12 33 16 19 35 69
6.1% 7.2% 12.4% 33.7% 7.9% 9.4% 17.3% 34.1%


Neotropical Primates 3(suppL), September1995


Page 133







Page 134 Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), Septemberl99S


Peru (3), Ecuador (2), and Panama (1). Ven-
ezuela has six endemic subspecies and one
endemic species. Costa Rica and Trinidad each
have two endemic subspecies.

Threatened Species by Country
6. Brazil has the highest number of threatened
species and subspecies 38 taxa accounting for
29% of its primates. Thirteen of 44 callitrichids
(30%) are threatened, 25 of Brazil's 84 cebids
(30%) are threatened. Brazil has 69 endemic
taxa, 30 (43%) of which are threatened.
7. Colombia has 18 threatened species and sub-
species which account for 35% of its 51 pri-
mates. Colombia has 18 endemic taxa, 10
(55%) of which are threatened.
8. Peru has ten threatened species and subspe-
cies which account for 20% of its 51 primates.
Peru has seven endemic taxa, three (43%) of
which are threatened.
9. Panama has eight threatened species and sub-
species which account for two-thirds of its pri-
mates. All three of Panama's endemic primates
are threatened.


10. Costa Rica has six threatened species and sub-
species, accounting for two-thirds of its pri-
mates. The two primates endemic to Costa
Rica are threatened.
11. Venezuela has four threatened species and sub-
species, accounting for 17% of its primates.
None its seven endemic taxa are ranked as
threatened.
12. Ecuador has three threatened species and sub-
species, accounting for 18% of its primates.
One of Ecuador's two endemic primates is
threatened.
13. Mexico has two threatened taxa, accounting
for one-half of its primates. Guatemala has two
threatened taxa.
14. Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Honduras, Nica-
ragua and Trinidad each have one threatened
taxon.
15. Trinidad has two threatened endemic primates
16. No threatened species or subspecies are re-
corded for El Salvador, French Guiana,
Guyana, Paraguay, Suriname, and Uruguay.


ARGENTINA


Table 10. The IUCN Mace-Lande Categories for the conservation status of the primates of Argentina.
Species Category Distribution
Family Cebidae
Aotus azarai azarai LR Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay

Cebus apella nigritus LR Argentina, Brazil
Cebus apella paraguayanus' LR Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay

Alouattafusca clamitans VU Argentina, Brazil
Alouatta caraya LR Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay (?)





BELIZE

Table 11. The IUCN Mace-Lande Categories for the conservation status of the primates of Belize.
Species Category Distribution

Family Cebidae
Cebus capucinus limitaneus LR Belize, Honduras, Nicaragua

Alouattapigra LR Belize, Guatemala, Mexico
Ateles geoffroyi yucatanensis VU Belize, Guatemala, Mexico


Neotropical Primates 3(suppl), September]995


Page 134










BOLIVIA

Table 12. The IUCN Mace-Lande Categories for the conservation status of the primates of Bolivia. Endemic taxa are
in bold.

Species Category Distribution

Family Callitrichidae
Cebuellapygmaea LR Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru

Callithrix melanura LR Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay

Saguinusfuscicollis weddelli LR Bolivia, Brazil, Peru
Saguinus labiatus labiatus LR Bolivia, Brazil, Peru
Saguinus imperator subgrisescens LR Bolivia, Brazil, Peru

Callimico goeldii VU Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Peru

Family Cebidae
Aotus azarai azarai LR Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay
Aotus azarai boliviensis LR Bolivia, Peru

Callicebus modestus LR Bolivia
Callicebus donacophilus donacophilus LR Bolivia
Callicebus donacophilus pallescens LR Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay
Callicebus olallae DD Bolivia

Saimiri boliviensis boliviensis LR Bolivia, Brazil, Peru

Cebus apella pallidus LR Bolivia, Peru
Cebus albifrons unicolor LR Colombia, Bolivia, Brazil, Peru, Venezuela
Cebus albifrons cuscinus DD Bolivia, Brazil, Peru

Pithecia irrorata irrorata LR Bolivia, Brazil, Peru

Alouatta seniculus seniculus LR Colombia, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela
Alouatta seniculus puruensis LR Bolivia, Brazil
Alouatta sara LR Bolivia
Ateles chamek LR Bolivia, Brazil, Peru

BRAZIL

Table 13. The IUCN Mace-Lande Categories for the conservation status of the primates of Brazil. Endemic taxa are
in bold.

Species Category Distribution


Family Callitrichidae
Cebuella pygmaea

Callithrix argentata
Callithrix leucippe
Callithrix melanura
Callithrix intermedia
Callithrix emiliae
Callithrix nigriceps
Callithrix marcal
Callithrix humeralifer
Callithrix chrysoleuca
Callithrix mauesi
Callithrix saterei
Callithrixjacchus
Callithrix penicillata


LR Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru


Brazil
Brazil
Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay
Brazil
Brazil
Brazil
Brazil
Brazil
Brazil
Brazil
Brazil
Brazil
Brazil


continued...


Neotropical Primates 3(suppL), September]995


Page 135










Table 13 (continued)


Callithrix kuhli
Callithrix geoffroyi
Callithrix flaviceps
Callithrix aurita

Saguinus nigricollis nigricollis
Saguinusfuscicollisfuscicollis
Saguinus fuscicollis fuscus
Saguinus fuscicollis avilapiresi
Saguinus fuscicollis cruzlimai
Saguinus fuscicollis weddelli
Sagulnus fuscicollis primitivus
Saguinus fuscicollis melanoleucus
Saguinus mystax mystax
Saguinus mystax pileatus
Saguinus mystax pluto
Saguinus labiatus labiatus
Saguinus labiatus thomasi
Saguinus imperator imperator
Saguinus imperator subgrisescens
Saguinus inustus
Saguinus midas midas
Saguinus midas niger
Saguinus bicolor bicolor
Saguinus bicolor ochraceus
Sagulnus bicolor martins

Leontopithecus rosalia
Leontopithecus chrysomelas
Leontopithecus chrysopygus
Leontopithecus caissara

Callimico goeldii

Family Cebidae
Aotus vociferans
Aotus trivirgatus
Aotus nigriceps
Aotus infulatus
Aotus azarai azarai
Aotus nancymaae

Callicebus donacophilus pallescens
Callicebus cinerascens
Callicebus hoffmannsi hoffmannsi
Callicebus hoffmannsi baptista
Callicebus moloch
Callicebus brunneus
Callicebus cupreus cupreus
Callicebus caligatus
Callicebus dubius
Callicebus personatus personatus
Callicebus personatus nigrifrons
Callicebus personatus melanochir
Callicebus personatus barbarabrownae
Callicebus sp.
Callicebus torquatus torquatus
Callicebus torquatus lugens
Callicebus torquatus lucifer
Callicebus torquatus purinus
Callicebus torquatus regulus


Brazil
Brazil
Brazil
Brazil

Brazil (?), Colombia, Peru
Brazil, Peru
Brazil, Colombia
Brazil
Brazil (?)
Bolivia, Brazil, Peru
Brazil
Brazil
Brazil, Peru
Brazil
Brazil
Bolivia, Brazil, Peru
Brazil
Brazil, Peru
Bolivia, Brazil, Peru
Brazil, Colombia
Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname
Brazil
Brazil
Brazil
Brazil

Brazil
Brazil
Brazil
Brazil


VU Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Peru


Colombia, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru
Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela
Brazil, Colombia, Peru
Brazil
Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay
Brazil, Colombia, Peru

Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay
Brazil
Brazil
Brazil
Brazil
Brazil, Peru
Brazil, Peru
Brazil, Peru
Brazil
Brazil
Brazil
Brazil
Brazil
Brazil
Brazil
Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela
Brazil, Colombia, Peru
Brazil
Brazil


continued...


Page 136


Neotropical Primates 3(suppL), September]995







Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), September1995


Table 13 (continued)
Saimiri boliviensis boliviensis
Saimiri boliviensis pluvialis
Saimiri boliviensis jaburuensis
Saimiri vanzolinii
Saimiri sciureus sciureus
Saimiri sciureus macrodon
Saimiri sciureus cassiquiarensis
Saimiri ustus

Cebus apella apella

Cebus apella macrocephalus
Cebus apella maranonis
Cebus apella peruanus
Cebus apella libidinosus
Cebus apella nigritus
Cebus apella robustus
Cebus apella paraguayanus
Cebus xanthosternos
Cebus albifrons unicolor
Cebus albifrons cuscinus
Cebus olivaceus olivaceus
Cebus kaapori

Pithecia pithecia pithecia
Pithecia pithecia chrysocephala
Pithecia monachus monachus
Pithecia irrorata irrorata
Pithecia irrorata vanzolinii
Pithecia albicans

Chiropotes albinasus
Chiropotes satanas satanas
Chiropotes satanas chiropotes
Chiropotes satanas utahicki


LR Bolivia, Brazil, Peru
LR Brazil
LR Brazil
VU Brazil
LR Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname
LR Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
LR Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela
LR Brazil

LR Colombia, Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname,
Venezuela
LR Brazil, Peru
LR Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
LR Brazil, Peru
LR Brazil
LR Argentina, Brazil
VU Brazil
LR Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay
CR Brazil
LR Colombia, Bolivia, Brazil, Peru, Venezuela
DD Bolivia, Brazil, Peru
LR Brazil, Guyana, Venezuela
VU Brazil

LR Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela
LR Brazil
LR Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
LR Bolivia, Brazil, Peru
LR Brazil
LR Brazil

LR Brazil
EN Brazil
LR Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela
VU Brazil


Cacajao calvus calvus EN Brazil
Cacajao calvus ucayalii VU Brazil (?), Peru
Cacajao calvus novaesi EN Brazil
Cacajao calvus rubicundus EN Brazil, Colombia
Cacajao melanocephalus melanocephalus LR Brazil, Venezuela
Cacajao melanocephalus ouakary LR Brazil, Colombia


Alouatta seniculus seniculus
Alouatta seniculus stramineus
Alouatta seniculus macconnelli
Alouatta seniculus amazonica
Alouatta seniculus juara
Alouatta seniculus puruensis
Alouatta belzebul belzebul
Alouatta belzebul nigerrima
Alouatta belzebul discolor
Alouatta belzebul ululata
Alouatta fuscafusca
Alouatta fusca clamitans
Alouatta caraya

Ateles paniscus
Ateles belzebuth belzebuth
Ateles chamek


LR Colombia, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela
LR Brazil, Venezuela
LR Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela.
LR Brazil
LR Brazil, Peru
LR Bolivia, Brazil
LR Brazil
LR Brazil
LR Brazil
CR Brazil
CR Brazil
VU Argentina, Brazil
LR Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay (?)

LR Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname
VU Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela
LR Bolivia, Brazil, Peru


continued...


Page 137








Page 138 Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), September1995


Table 13 (continued)

Ateles marginatus

Lagothrix lagotricha lagotricha
Lagothrix lagotricha cana
Lagothrix lagotricha poeppigii

Brachyteles arachnoides
Brachyteles hypoxanthus


EN Brazil

LR Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
VU Brazil, Peru
VU Brazil, Ecuador, Peru

EN Brazil
EN Brazil


COLOMBIA

Table 14. The IUCN Mace-Lande Categories for the conservation status of the primates of Colombia. Endemic taxa
are in bold.


Species

Family Callitrichidae
Cebuella pygmaea

Saguinus nigricollis nigricollis
Saguinus nigricollis graellsi
Saguinus nigricollis hernandezi
Saguinus fuscicollis fuscus
Saguinus inustus
Saguinus leucopus
Saguinus oedipus
Saguinus geoffroyi

Callimico goeldii

Family Cebidae
Aotus lemurinus lemurinus
Aotus lemurinus griseimembra
Aotus vociferans
A otus trivirgatus
Aotus brumbacki
Aotus nigriceps
Aotus nancymaae
Aotus hershkovitzi

Callicebus cupreus discolor
Callicebus cupreus ornatus
Callicebus torquatus medemi
Callicebus torquatus lugens
Callicebus torquatus lucifer

Saimiri sciureus macrodon
Saimiri sciureus cassiquiarensis
Saimiri sciureus albigena

Cebus apella apella

Cebus apella maranonis
Cebus albifrons albifrons
Cebus albifrons unicolor
Cebus albifrons cesarae
Cebus albifrons hypoleucus
Cebus albifrons malitiosus
Cebus albifrons versicolor
Cebus albifrons yuracus


Category Distribution


Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru

Brazil (?), Colombia, Peru
Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
Colombia
Brazil, Colombia
Brazil, Colombia
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama


VU Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Peru


Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama
Colombia
Colombia, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru
Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela
Colombia
Brazil, Colombia, Peru
Brazil, Colombia, Peru
Colombia

Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
Colombia
Colombia
Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela
Brazil, Colombia, Peru

Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela
Colombia


LR Colombia, Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname,
Venezuela
LR Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
LR Colombia
LR Colombia, Bolivia, Brazil, Peru, Venezuela
DD Colombia
DD Colombia
DD Colombia
DD Colombia
DD Colombia, Ecuador, Peru


continued...


Page 138


Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), September105






Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), September1995


Table 14 (continued)


Cebus capucinus capucinus
Cebus capucinus curtus

Pithecia monachus monachus
Pithecia monachus ndlleri
Pithecia aequatorialis

Cacajao calvus rubicundus
Cacajao melanocephalus ouakary

Alouatta seniculus seniculus
Alouatta palliata aequatorialis

Ateles geoffroyi grisescens
Ateles fusciceps robustus (= rufiventris)
Ateles belzebuth belzebuth
Ateles belzebuth hybridus
Ateles belzebuth brunneus

Lagothrix lagotricha lagotricha
Lagothrix lagotricha lugens


LR Colombia
VU Gorgona Island, Colombia


Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
Colombia
Colombia (?), Ecuador, Peru

Brazil, Colombia.
Brazil, Colombia

Colombia, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela
Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru

Colombia, Panama
Colombia, Panama
Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela
Colombia, Venezuela
Colombia


LR Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
CR Colombia, Venezuela


COSTA RICA

Table 15. The IUCN Mace-Lande Categories for the conservation status of the primates of Costa Rica. Endemic taxa
are in bold.

Species Category Distribution

Family Callitrichidae
Saguinus geoffroyi LR Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama

Family Cebidae
Aotus lemurinus lemurinus VU Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama

Saimiri oerstedi oerstedi EN Costa Rica, Panama
Saimiri oerstedi citrinellus CR Costa Rica

Cebus capucinus imitator LR Costa Rica, Panama

Alouattapalliata palliata LR Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Panama

Ateles geoffroyifrontatus VU Costa Rica, Nicaragua
Ateles geoffroyi panamensis EN Costa Rica, Panama
Ateles geoffroyi ornatus VU Costa Rica


ECUADOR

Table 16. The IUCN Mace-Lande Categories for the conservation status of the primates of Ecuador. Endemic taxa are
in bold.


Species


Category Distribution


Family Callitrichidae
Cebuella pygmaea

Saguinus nigricollis graellsi
Saguinus fuscicollis lagonotus
Saguinus tripartitus


LR Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru


Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
Ecuador, Peru
Ecuador, Peru


continued...


Page 139







Page 140 Neotrop/cal Primates 3(suppl.), Septemberl99S


Table 16 (continued)

Family Cebidae
Aotus vociferans

Callicebus cupreus discolor

Saimiri sciureus macrodon

Cebus apella maranonis
Cebus albifrons aequatorialis
Cebus albifrons yuracus

Pithecia monachus monachus
Pithecia aequatorialis

Alouatta seniculus seniculus
Alouatta palliata aequatorialis

Ateles fusciceps fusciceps
Ateles belzebuth belzebuth

Lagothrix lagotricha lagotricha
Lagothrix lagotricha poeppigii


Colombia, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru

Colombia, Ecuador, Peru

Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru

Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
Ecuador
Colombia, Ecuador, Peru

Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
Colombia (?), Ecuador, Peru

Colombia, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela
Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru

Ecuador
Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela

Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
Brazil, Ecuador, Peru


EL SALVADOR

Table 17. The IUCN Mace-Lande Categories for the conservation status of the primates of El Salvador.

Species Category Distribution

Family Cebidae
Ateles geoffroyi vellerosus LR El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala, Mexico





FRENCH GUIANA

Table 18. The IUCN Mace-Lande Categories for the conservation status of the primates of French Guiana.

Species Category Distribution

Family Callitrichidae
Saguinus midas midas LR Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname

Family Cebidae
Saimiri sciureus sciureus LR Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname

Cebus apella apella LR Colombia, Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname,
Venezuela
Cebus olivaceus castaneus LR French Guiana, Suriname

Pithecia pithecia pithecia LR Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela

Chiropotes satanas chiropotes LR Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela

Alouatta seniculus macconnelli LR Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela

Ateles paniscus LR Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname


Page 140


Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), September]995









GUATEMALA

Table 19. The IUCN Mace-Lande Categories for the conservation status of the primates of Guatemala.

Species Category Distribution
Family Cebidae
Alouattapalliata mexicana VU Guatemala, Mexico
Alouattapigra LR Belize, Guatemala, Mexico

Ateles geoffroyi vellerosus LR El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala, Mexico
Ateles geoffroyi yucatanensis VU Belize, Guatemala, Mexico


GUYANA

Table 20. The IUCN Mace-Lande Categories for the conservation status of the primates of Guyana.
Species Category Distribution

Family Callitrichidae
Saguinus midas midas LR Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname

Family Cebidae
Saimiri sciureus sciureus LR Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname

Cebus apella apella LR Colombia, Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname
Venezuela
Cebus olivaceus olivaceus LR Brazil, Guyana, Venezuela,

Pitheciapitheciapithecia LR Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela

Chiropotes satanas chiropotes LR Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela

Alouatta seniculus macconnelli LR Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela

Atelespaniscus LR Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname


HONDURAS

Table 21. The IUCN Mace-Lande Categories for the conservation status of the primates of Honduras.
Species Category Distribution

Family Cebidae
Cebus capucinus limitaneus LR Belize, Honduras, Nicaragua

Alouatta palliata palliata LR Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Panama

Ateles eoffroyi vellerosus LR El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala, Mexico


MEXICO

Table 22. The IUCN Mace-Lande Categories for the conservation status of the primates of Mexico.

Species Category Distribution

Family Cebidse
Alouattapalliata mexicana VU Guatemala, Mexico
Alouatta pigra LR Belize, Guatemala, Mexico

Ateles geoffroyi vellerosus LR El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala, Mexico


Page 141


Neotropical Primates 3(suppL), September]995






Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), September1995


NICARAGUA

Table 23. The IUCN Mace-Lande Categories for the conservation status of the primates of Nicaragua.
Species Category Distribution

Family Cebidae
Cebus capucinus limitaneus LR Belize, Honduras, Nicaragua

Alouattapalliatapalliata LR Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Panama

Ateles geoffroyifrontatus VU Costa Rica, Nicaragua





PANAMA

Table 24. The IUCN Mace-Lande Categories for the conservation status of the primates of Panama. Endemic taxa are
in bold.
Species Category Distribution

Family Callitrichidae
Saguinus geoffroyi LR Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama

Family Cebidae
Aotus lemurinus lemurinus VU Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama

Saimiri oerstedi oerstedi EN Costa Rica, Panama

Cebus capucinus imitator LR Costa Rica, Panama

Alouatta palliata palliata LR Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Panama
Alouatta palliata aequatorialis LR Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru
Alouatta coibensis coibensis EN Coiba Island, Panama
Alouatta coibensis trabeata CR Panama

Ateles geoffroyi azuerensis CR Panama
Ateles geoffroyi grisescens EN Colombia, Panama
Ateles geoffroyi panamensis EN Costa Rica, Panama
Ateles fusciceps robustus (= rufiventris) VU Colombia, Panama





PARAGUAY

Table 25. The IUCN Mace-Lande Categories for the conservation status of the primates of Paraguay.


Species Category Distribution

Family Callitrichidae
Callithrix melanura LR Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay

Family Cebidae
Aotus azarai azarai LR Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay

Callicebus donacophilus pallescens LR Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay

Cebus apella paraguayanus LR Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay

Alouatta caraya LR Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay (?)


Page 142









PERU

Table 26. The IUCN Mace-Lande Categories for the conservation status of the primates of Peru. Endemic taxa are in
bold.

Species Category Distribution


Family Callitrichidae
Cebuella pygmaea

Saguinus nigricollis nigricollis
Saguinus nigricollis graellsi
Saguinus fuscicollis fuscicollis
Saguinus fuscicollis illigeri
Saguinus fuscicollis leucogenys
Saguinus fuscicollis nigrifrons
Saguinus fuscicollis lagonotus
Saguinus fuscicollis weddelli
Saguinus fuscicollis crandalli
Saguinus tripartitus
Saguinus mystax mystax
Saguinus labiatus labiatus
Saguinus imperator imperator
Saguinus imperator subgrisescens

Callimico goeldii

Family Cebidae
Aotus vociferans
Aotus miconax
Aotus nigriceps
Aotus azarai boliviensis
Aotus nancymaae

Callicebus oenanthe
Callicebus brunneus
Callicebus cupreus cupreus
Callicebus cupreus discolor
Callicebus caligatus
Callicebus torquatus lucifer

Saimiri boliviensis boliviensis
Saimiri boliviensis peruviensis
Saimiri sciureus macrodon

Cebus apella macrocephalus
Cebus apella maranonis
Cebus apella pallidus
Cebus apella peruanus
Cebus albifrons unicolor
Cebus albifrons cuscinus
Cebus albifrons yuracus

Pithecia monachus monachus
Pithecia monachus miller
Pithecia irrorata irrorata
Pithecia aequatorialis

Cacajao calvus ucayalii

Alouatta seniculus seniculus
Alouatta seniculusjuara
Alouatta palliata aequatorialis


Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru

Brazil (?), Colombia, Peru
Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
Brazil, Peru
Peru
Peru
Peru
Ecuador, Peru
Bolivia, Brazil, Peru
Peru (?)
Ecuador, Peru
Brazil, Peru
Bolivia, Brazil, Peru
Brazil, Peru
Bolivia, Brazil, Peru

Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Peru


Colombia, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru
Peru
Brazil, Colombia, Peru
Bolivia, Peru
Brazil, Colombia, Peru

Peru
Brazil, Peru
Brazil, Peru
Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
Brazil, Peru
Brazil, Colombia, Peru

Bolivia, Brazil, Peru
Peru
Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru

Brazil, Peru
Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
Bolivia, Peru
Brazil, Peru
Colombia, Bolivia, Brazil, Peru, Venezuela
Bolivia, Brazil, Peru
Colombia, Ecuador, Peru

Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
Colombia
Bolivia, Brazil, Peru
Colombia (?), Ecuador, Peru

Brazil (?), Peru

Colombia, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela
Brazil, Peru
Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru
continued...


Neotropical Primates 3(suppL), 3eptember]995


Page 143







Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), September1995


Table 26 (continued)

Ateles belzebuth belzebuth
Ateles chamek

Lagothrix lagotricha lagotricha
Lagothrix lagotricha cana
Lagothrix lagotricha poeppigii
Lagothrix flavicauda


Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela
Bolivia, Brazil, Peru

Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
Brazil, Peru
Brazil, Ecuador, Peru
Peru


SURINAME

Table 27. The IUCN Mace-Lande Categories for the conservation status of the primates of Suriname.


Species

Family Callitrichidae
Saguinus midas midas

Family Cebidae
Saimiri sciureus sciureus

Cebus apella apella

Cebus olivaceus castaneus

Pithecia pithecia pithecia

Chiropotes satanas chiropotes

Alouatta seniculus macconnelli
Ateles paniscus


Category Distribution


LR Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname


LR Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname

LR Colombia, Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname
Venezuela
LR French Guiana, Suriname

LR Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela

LR Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela

LR Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela
LR Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname


TRINIDAD

Table 28. The IUCN Mace-Lande Categories for the conservation status of the primates of Trinidad. Endemic subspe-
cies are in bold.

Species Category Distribution

Family Cebidae
Cebus albifrons trinitatis CR Trinidad

Alouatta seniculus insulanus LR Trinidad





URUGUAY

Table 29. The IUCN Mace-Lande Categories for the conservation status of the primates of Uruguay.


Species Category Distribution

Family Cebidae
Alouatta caraya LR Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay (?)


Page 144






Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), September1995


VENEZUELA


Table 30. The IUCN Mace-Lande categories for the conservation status of the primates of Venezuela. Endemic taxa
are in bold.
Species Category Distribution


Family Cebidae
Aotus trivirgatus

Callicebus torquatus lugens

Saimiri sciureus cassiquiarensis

Cebus apella apella

Cebus apella margaritae
Cebus albifrons unicolor
Cebus albifrons adustus
Cebus albifrons leucocephalus
Cebus olivaceus olivaceus
Cebus olivaceus apiculatus
Cebus olivaceus brunneus
Cebus olivaceus ssp.

Pithecia pithecia pithecia

Chiropotes satanas chiropotes

Cacajao melanocephalus melanocephalus

Alouatta seniculus seniculus
Alouatta seniculus stramineus
Alouatta seniculus macconnelli
Alouatta seniculus ssp.
Alouatta arctoidea


Ateles belzebuth belzebuth
Ateles belzebuth hybridus

Lagothrix lagotricha lagotricha
Lagothrix lagotricha lugens


LR Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela

LR Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela

LR Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela

LR Colombia, Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname,
Venezuela
CR Venezuela
LR Colombia, Bolivia, Brazil, Peru, Venezuela
DD Venezuela
DD Venezuela
LR Brazil, Guyana, Venezuela,
LR Venezuela
LR Venezuela
DD Venezuela

LR Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela

LR Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela

LR Brazil, Venezuela

LR Colombia, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela
LR Brazil, Venezuela
Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela
LR Venezuela
LR Venezuela


Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela
Colombia, Venezuela

Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela
Colombia, Venezuela


Table 31. A summary of the numbers of Callitrichidae and Cebidae in each of 20 South American countries. Also
shown is the number of endemic species and taxa, and the number of threatened taxa in the IUCN Mace Lande
categories of Critically Endangered (CR), Endangered (EN) and Vulnerable (VU).

Country Callitrichidae Cebidae Total Endemic

Species Taxa Species Taxa Species Taxa Species Taxa
Argentina 4 5 4 5
Belize 3 3 3 3
Bolivia 6 6 11 15 17 21 3 4
Brazil 31 44 45 84 76 128 38 69
Colombia 8 10 23 41 31 51 4 18
Costa Rica 1 1 5 8 6 9 2
Ecuador 4 4 12 14 16 18 2
El Salvador I 1 1 1
French Guiana I 1 7 7 8 8
Guatemela 3 4 3 4
Guyana 1 1 7 7 8 8
continued...


Page 145








Page 146 Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), September1995


Table 31 (continued)
Honduras
Mexico
Nicaragua
Panama
Paraguay
Peru
Suriname
Trinidad
Uruguay
Venezuela


Table 32. The numbers of threatened taxa and threatened endemic taxa in each
country according to the Mace-Lande System (IUCN 1995). Critically Endangered
(CR), Endangered (EN), and Vulnerable (VU).

Country Threatened Taxa Threatened Endemic Taxa
CR EN VU Total CR EN VU Total
Argentina 1 -
Belize 1 1
Bolivia I 1
Brazil 8 11 19 38 8 10 12 30
Colombia 1 7 10 18 4 6 10
Costa Rica 1 2 3 6 I 1 2
Ecuador I 2 3 1 1
El Salvador -
French Guiana -
Guatemala 2 2
Guyana -
Honduras -
Mexico 2 2-
Nicaragua 1 1 -
Panama 2 4 2 8 2 1 3
Paraguay -
Peru I 9 10 1 2 3
Suriname -
Trinidad I I 2 1 1 2
Uruguay -
Venezuela 2 1 1 4


Regional Primate Diversity

Here we present an analysis of the diversity of pri-
mate species and subspecies in seven phytogeographic
regions identified by Gentry (1982): Middle America,
Northern Andes, Southern Andes, Amazonia
(Hylaea), Cerrado/Caatinga/Chaco, and Atlantic For-
est (see Figs. 2 and 3, and Tables 33-39).

The analysis of the known or supposed distributions
of the 202 primate species and subspecies indicates
the following numbers in each of the regions: Middle
America 22; Northern Venezuela-Colombia 24;
Northern Andes 13; Southern Andes 6; Amazonia
(Hylaea) 121, Cerrado/Caatinga/Chaco 11, and
Atlantic Forest 23 (Table .40). Table 41 presents a
summary of the number of threatened taxa and the


number of threatened taxa endemic to each region.

From this synthesis it is possible to state the follow-
ing:
I. There are 22 primates species and subspecies
in the Middle American region, 18 of which
(82%) are endemic. Thirteen (59%) of the pri-
mates occurring in Middle America are threat-
ened. Eleven of the 18 endemic primates
(61%) are threatened.
2. There are 24 primates species and subspecies
in, 19 of which (79%) are endemic. Ten (42%)
of the primates occurring in Northern Venezu-
ela-Colombia are threatened. Eight of the 19
endemic primates (42%) are threatened.


Page 146


Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), September1995








Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), September1995 Page 147


Figure 2. Major phytogeographic re-
gions in the Neotropics [Gentry, 1982]
(map by R. B. Machado)

MIDDI


3. There are 13 primate species and
subspecies in the Northern Andean
region, eight of which (61%) are
endemic. Seven (54%) of the pri-
mates occurring in the Northern
Andes are threatened. Five of the
eight endemic primates (62%) are
threatened.
4. There are six primate species and
subspecies in the Southern Andean
region, two of which (33%) are en-
demic. Three (50%) of the primates
occurring in the Southern Andes are
threatened. Both of the two endemic
primates are threatened.
5. There are 123 primate species and
subspecies in the Amazonian region, 112 of
which (91%) are endemic. Twenty-two (18%)
of the primates occurring in Amazonia are
threatened. Twenty-one of the 112 endemic
primates (19%) are threatened.


FOREST


6. There are 11 primate species and subspecies
in the Cerrado/Caatinga/Chaco region, five of
which (45%) are endemic. None of the pri-
mates occurring in the Cerrado/Caatinga/
Chaco are considered threatened.
7. There are 23 primate species and
subspecies in the Atlantic forest region, 17
of which (74%) are endemic. Eighteen
(78%) of the primates occurring in the At-
lantic forest are threatened. All of the 18
endemic primates are threatened..






Figure 3. Number of Neotropical
primates species and genera in each
major phytogeographic region, with
18 spp. 6 en. number of endemics indicated (map
14 endemic pp. by R. B. Machado).
2 endemlcgen. by R. B. Machado).


Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), September1995


Page 147







Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), Septemberl995


MIDDLE AMERICA

Table 33. Primates occurring in the Middle America phytogeographic region as defined by Gentry (1982). En-
demic primates are in bold.


Species


Category Distribution


Family Callitrichidae
Saguinus geoffroyi

Family Cebidae
Aotus lemurinus lemurinus

Salmiri oerstedi oerstedi
Saimiri oerstedi citrinellus

Cebus capucinus limitaneus
Cebus capucinus imitator

Alouatta palliata palliata
Alouatta palliata mexicana
Alouatta palliata aequalorialis
Alouatta coibensis coibensis
Alouatta coibensis trabeata
Alouatta pigra

Ateles geoffroyi geoffroyi
Ateles geoffroyi azuerensis
Ateles geoffroyi frontatus
Ateles geoffroyi grisescens
Ateles geoffroyi pan
Ateles geoffroyi panamensis
Ateles geoffroyi ornatus
Ateles geoffroyi vellerosus
Ateles geoffroyi yucatanensis
Ateles fusciceos robustus (= rufiventris)


LR Middle America, Northern Andes


VU Middle America, Northern Andes

EN Middle America
CR Middle America

LR Middle America
LR Middle America

LR Middle America
VU Middle America
LR Middle America, Northern Andes
EN Middle America
CR Middle America
LR Middle America

LR Middle America
CR Middle America
VU Middle America
EN Middle America
DD Middle America
EN Middle America
VU Middle America
LR Middle America
VU Middle America
VU Middle America. Northern Venezuela-Colombia


NORTHERN VENEZUELA-COLOMBIA


Table 34. Primates occurring in the Northern Venezuela-Colombia phytogeographic region as defined by Gentry
(1982). Endemic primates are in bold.
Species Category Distribution


Family Callitrichidae
Saguinus oedipus

Family Cebidae
Aotus lemurinus griseimembra
Aotus brumbacki

Callicebus cupreus ornatus

Saimiri sciureus albigena

Cebus apella margaritae
Cebus albifrons albifrons
Cebus albifrons adustus
Cebus albifrons cesarae
Cebus albifrons hypoleucus
Cebus albifrons malitiosus
Cebus albifrons trinitatis
Cebus albifrons leucocephalus


EN Northern Venezuela-Colombia


EN Northern Venezuela-Colombia
VU Northern Venezuela-Colombia

VU Northern-Venezuela-Colombia

LR Northern Venezuela-Colombia, Amazonia

CR Northern Venezuela- Colombia
LR Northern Venezuela- Colombia
DD Northern Venezuela- Colombia
DD Northern Venezuela- Colombia
DD Northern Venezuela- Colombia
DD Northern Venezuela- Colombia
CR Northern Venezuela- Colombia
DD Northern Venezuela- Colombia


continued...


Page 148







Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), September] 995 Page 149


Table 34 (continued)
Cebus capucinus capucinus
Cebus olivaceus apiculatus
Cebus olivaceus brunneus
Cebus olivaceus ssp.

Alouatta seniculus seniculus
Alouatta seniculus insulanus
Alouatta seniculus ssp.
Alouatta arctoidea

Ateles fusciceps robustus (= rufiventris)
Ateles belzebuth hybridus
Ateles belzebuth brunneus


LR Northern Venezuela- Colombia
LR Northern Venezuela- Colombia
LR Northern Venezuela- Colombia
DD Northern Venezuela-Colombia

LR Northern Venezuela-Colombia, Amazonia
VU Northern Venezuela-Colombia
LR Northern Venezuela-Colombia
LR Northern Venezuela-Colombia

VU Northern Venezuela-Colombia, Middle America
EN Northern Venezuela-Colombia, Northern Andes
EN Northern Venezuela-Colombia


NORTHERN ANDES

Table 35. Primates occurring in the Northern Andean phytogeographic region as defined by Gentry (1982).
Endemic primates are in bold.


Species


. Category Distribution


Family Callitrichidae
Saguinus leucopus
Saguinus geoffroyi

Family Cebidae
Aotus lemurinus lemurinus
Aotus vociferans
Aotus hershkovitzi

Callicebus torquatus medemi

Cebus albifrons aequatorialis
Cebus albifrons versicolor
Cebus capucinus curtus

Alouatta palliata aequatorialis

Ateles fusciceps fusciceps
Ateles belzebuth hybridus

Lauothrix laeotricha lumens


VU Northern Andes
LR Northern Andes, Middle America


Northern Andes, Middle America
Northern Andes, Amazonia
Northern Andes


VU Northern Andes


Northern Andes
Northern Andes
Northern Andes


LR Northern Andes, Middle America


Northern Andes
Northern Andes, Northern Venezuela-Colombia


CR Northern Andes


SOUTHERN ANDES


Table 36. Primates occurring in the Southern Andean phytogeographic region as defined by Gentry (1982).
Endemic primates are in bold.
Species Category Distribution

Family Cebidae
Aotus miconax VU Southern Andes, Amazonia

Callicebus oenanthe VU Southern Andes
Cebus apella maranonis LR Southern Andes, Amazonia
Cebus albifrons yuracus DD Southern Andes, Amazonia

Alouatta seniculus seniculus LR Southern Andes, Northern Venezuela-
Colombia, Amazonia

Lagothrixflavicauda CR Southern Andes


Lagrothrix la tricka lugens


Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), September]995


Page 149









AMAZONIA

Table 37. Primates occurring in the Amazoriian phytogeographic region as defined by Gentry (1982). Endemic
primates are in bold.

Species Category Distribution


Family Callitrichidae
Cebuella pygmaea

Callithrix argentata
Callithrix leucippe
Callithrix melanura
Callithrix intermedia
Callithrix emiliae
Callithrix nigriceps
Callithrix marcai
Callithrix humeralifera
Callithrix chrysoleuca
Callithrix mauesi
Callithrix saterei

Saguinus nigricollis nigricollis
Saguinus nigricollis graellsi
Saguinus nigricollis hernandezi
Saguinus fuscicollis fuscicollis
Saguinus fuscicollis fuscus
Saguinus fuscicollis avilapiresi
Saguinus fuscicollis cruzlimai
Saguinus fuscicollis illigeri
Saguinus fuscicollis leucogenys
Saguinus fuscicollis nigrifrons
Saguinus fuscicollis lagonotus
Saguinus fuscicollis weddelli
Saguinus fuscicollis primitivus
Saguinus fuscicollis melanoleucus
Saguinus fuscicollis crandalli
Saguinus tripartitus
Saguinus mystax mystax
Saguinus mystax pileatus
Saguinus mystax pluto
Saguinus labiatus labiatus
Saguinus labiatus thomasi
Saguinus imperator imperator
Saguinus imperator subgrisescens
Saguinus inustus
Saguinus midas midas
Saguinus midas niger
Saguinus bicolor bicolor
Saguinus bicolor ochraceus
Saguinus bicolor martins

Callimico goeldii

Family Cebidae
Aotus vociferans
Aotus trivirgatus
Aotus miconax
Aotus nigriceps
Aotus infulatus
Aotus azarai boliviensis


LR Amazonia


Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia, Chaco
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia

Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia

Amazonia


Amazonia, Northern Andes
Amazonia
Amazonia, Southern Andes
Amazonia
Amazonia, Cerrado
Amazonia, Chaco


continued...


Page 150


Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), Septemher]995






Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), September1995


Table 37 (continued)
Aotus nancymaae

Callicebus modestus
Callicebus donacophilus donacophilus
Callicebus olallae
Callicebus cinerascens
Callicebus hoffmannsi hoffmannsi
Callicebus hoffmannsi baptista
Callicebus moloch
Callicebus brunneus
Callicebus cupreus cupreus
Callicebus cupreus discolor
Callicebus caligatus
Callicebus dubious
Callicebus torquatus torquatus
Callicebus torquatus lugens
Callicebus torquatus lucifer
Callicebus torquatus purinus
Callicebus torquatus regulus

Saimiri boliviensis boliviensis
Saimiri boliviensis peruviensis
Saimiri boliviensis pluvialis
Saimiri boliviensisjaburuensis
Saimiri vanzolinii
Saimiri sciureus sciureus
Saimirl sclureus macrodon
Saimirl sciureus cassiquiarensis
Saimiri sciureus albigena
Saimiri ustus

Cebus apella apella
Cebus apella macrocephalus
Cebus apella maranonis
Cebus apella pallidus
Cebus apella peruanus
Cebus albifrons unicolor
Cebus albifrons cuscinus
Cebus albifrons yuracus
Cebus olivaceus olivaceus
Cebus olivaceus castaneus
Cebus kaapori

Pitheda pithecia pithecia
Pithecia pithecia chrysocephala
Pithecla monachus monachus
Pithecla monachus miller
Pithecia irrorata irrorata
Pithecia irrorata vanzolinii
Pithecia albicans
Pithecia aequatorialis

Chiropotes albinasus
Chiropotes satanas satanas
Chiropotes satanas chiropotes
Chiropotes satanas utahicki

Cacajao calvus calvus
Cacajao calvus ucayalli
Cacajao calves novaesi


LR

LR
LR
DD
LR
LR
LR
LR
LR
LR
LR
LR
VU
LR
LR
LR
LR
LR

LR
LR
LR
LR
VU
LR
LR
LR
LR
LR

LR
LR
LR
LR
LR
LR
DD
DD
LR
LR
VU

LR
LR
LR
VU
LR
LR
LR
LR

LR
EN
LR
VU

EN
VU
EN


Amazonia

Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia

Amazonia, Chaco
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia, Northern Venezuela-Colombia
Amazonia

Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia, Southern Andes
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia, Southern Andes
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia

Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia

Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia

Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia


continued...


Page 151






Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), Septemberl995


Table 37 (continued)
Cacajao calvus rubicundus EN
Cacajao melanocephalus melanocephalus LR
Cacajao melanocephalus ouakary LR

Alouatta seniculus seniculus LR
Alouatta seniculus stramineus LR
Alouatta seniculus macconnelli LR
Alouatta seniculus amazonica DD
Alouatta seniculus juara DD
Alouatta seniculus puruensis DD
Alouatta sara LR
Alouatta belzebul belzebul LR
Alouatta belzebul nigerrima LR
Alouatta belzebul discolor LR
Alouatta belzebul ululata CR


Ateles paniscus
Ateles belzebuth belzebuth
Ateles chamek
Ateles marginatus

Lagothrix lagotricha lagotricha
Lagothrix lagotricha cana
Laeothrix larotricha poeppigii


Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia

Amazonia, Northern Venezuela-Colombia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia, Chaco
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia

Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia

Amazonia
Amazonia
Amazonia


CERRADO/CAA TINGA/CHACO

Table 38. Primates occurring in the Cerrado/Caatinga/Chaco phytogeographic region as defined by Gentry (1982).
Endemic primates are in bold.


Species

Family Callitrichidae
Callithrix melanura
Callithrix jacchus
Callithrix penicillata

Family Cebidae
Aotus infulatus
Aotus azaral azaral
Aotus azarai boliviensis


Callicebus donacophilus pallescens

Cebus apella libidinosus
Cebus apella paraguayanus

Alouatta sara
Alouatta carava


Category Distribution


LR Chaco, Amazonia
LR Caatinga, Atlantic forest
LR Cerrado, Atlantic forest


LR Cerrado, Amazonia,
LR Chaco
LR Chaco, Amazonia

LR Cerrado/Chaco


Cerrado/Caatinga/Chaco
Chaco


LR Chaco, Amazonia
LR Cerrado/Caatinga/Chaco


ATLANTIC FOREST

Table 39. Primates occurring in the Atlantic forest phytogeographic region as defined by Gentry (1982). Endemic
primates are in bold.


Species


Category Distribution


Family Callithrichidae
Callithrix jacchus
Callithrix penicillata
Callithrix kuhli
Callithrix geoffroyi


LR Atlantic forest, Caatinga
LR Atlantic forest, Cerrado
LR Atlantic forest
VU Atlantic forest continued...


Page 152






Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), September1995


Table 39 (continued)
Callithrixflaviceps
Callithrix aurita


Leontopithecus rosalia
Leontopithecus chrysomelas
Leontopithecus chrysopygus
Leontopithecus caissara

Family Cebidae
Callicebus personatus personatus
Callicebus personatus nigrifrons
Callicebus personatus melanochir
Callicebus personatus barbarabrownae
Callicebus sp.

Cebus apella nigritus
Cebus apella robustus
Cebus xanthosternos

Alouatta belzebul belzebul
Alouatta fusca fusca
Alouatta fusca clamitans

Brachyteles arachnoides
Brachyteles hypoxanthus


EN Atlantic forest
EN Atlantic forest

CR Atlantic forest
EN Atlantic forest
CR Atlantic forest
CR Atlantic forest


VU Atlantic forest
VU Atlantic forest
VU Atlantic forest
CR Atlantic forest
CR Atlantic forest

LR Atlantic forest
VU Atlantic forest
CR Atlantic forest

LR Atlantic forest, Amazonia
CR Atlantic forest
VU Atlantic forest

EN Atlantic forest
EN Atlantic forest


Table 40. A summary of the numbers of Callitrichidae and Cebidae in each of the seven phytogeographic regions as
defined by Gentry (1982). Also shown is the number of endemic species and taxa.

Region Callitrichidae Cebidae Total Endemic Taxa

Species Taxa Species Taxa Species Taxa Species Taxa
Middle America 1 1 7 21 8 22 4 18
Northern Venezuela-Colombia 1 1 12 23 13 24 2 19
Northern Andes 2 2 10 11 12 13 2 8
Southern Andes 3 6 3 6 2 2
Amazonia 22 42 43 81 65 123 48 112
Cerrado/Caatinga/Chaco 3 3 6 8 9 11 1 5
Atlantic Forest 10 10 8 13 18 23 14 17


Table 41. The numbers of threatened taxa and threatened endemic taxa in each region according to the Mace-Lande
System (IUCN 1995). Critically Endangered (CR), Endangered (EN), and Vulnerable (VU).

Region Threatened Taxa Threatened Endemic Taxa

CR EN VU Total CR EN VU Total
Middle America 3 4 6 13 3 4 4 11
Northern Venezuela-Colombia 2 4 4 10 2 3 3 8
Northern Andes 2 1 4 7 2 3 5
Southern Andes 1 2 3 1 1 2
Amazonia 6 16 22 6 15 21
Cerrado/Caatinga/Chaco -
Atlantic Forest 7 5 6 18 7 5 6 18


Page 153






Page 154


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Muskin, A. 1984. Field notes and geographic distribution
of Callithrix aurita in eastern Brazil. Am. J. Primatol. 7:
377-380.
Myers, N. 1987. Trends in the destruction of rain forests.
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W. Marsh and R. A. Mittermeier (eds.), pp.3-22. Alan R.
Liss, New York.
Myers, N. 1988. Threatened biotas: "hot spots" in tropical
forests. The Environmentalist 8(3): 187-208.
Myers, N. 1990. The biodiversity challenge: expanded hot-
spots analysis. The Environmentalist 10(4): 243-265.
Napier, J. S. and Napier, P. H. 1967. A Handbook of Living
Primates. Academic Press, London.


Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), September1995

Natori, M. 1986. Interspecific relationships of Callithrix
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Natori, M. 1989. An analysis of cladistic relationships of
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Natori, M. 1990. Numerical analysis of the taxonomical
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the postcanine dentition. Primates 31(4): 555-562.
Natori, M. 1994. Craniometrical variations among eastern
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Natori, M. and Hanihara, T. 1992. Variations in dental
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Redford, K. H. and Eisenberg, J. F. 1992. Mammals of the
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Rodriguez-Luna, E. 1993. Avance en la elaboraci6n del
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Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), September1995

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Rylands, A. B. 1989. Sympatric Brazilian callitrichids: the
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Rylands, A. B. 1993. The bare-face tamarins Saguinus oe-
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de Sa, R. M, Kierulff, M. C. and Santos, I. B. 1988. Pri-
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Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), Septemberl995

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Brasileira de Primatologia, Brasilia.


IUCN/SSC PRIMATE SPECIALIST GROUP: NEOTROPICAL SECTION

Chairman: Russell A. Mittermeier
Co-Vice Chairmen for the Neotropical Section: Ernesto Rodriguez Luna and Anthony B. Rylands


Members

ARGENTINA
Alejandro Diego Brown Laboratorio de Investigaciones Ecol6gicas de Las Yungas, Universidad Nacional
de Tucuman, Casilla de Correo 34, (4107) Yerba Buena, Tucuman.
Julio Cesar Ruiz Centro Argentino de Primates (CAPRIM), Casilla de Correos 145 (3400) Corrientes
Gabriel E. Zunino Museo Argentino de Cidncias Naturales "Bernadino Rivadavia", Av. Angel Gallardo
470, Cassilla de Correo 220, Sucursal 5, (1405) Buenos Aires.
Marta Mudry GIBE, Faculdad de Cs. Exactas y Naturales Ciudad Universitaria, Pabell6n II, 4 Piso, Av.
Cantilo S/N, (1428) Buenos Aires.
BELIZE
Sharon Matola Belize Zoo, P.O. Box 474, Belize City.
Robert Horwich RD 1, Box 96, Gays Mills, Wisconsin 54631, USA.

BOLIVIA *
Teresa Tarifa Suarez Colecci6n Boliviana de Fauna, Casilla 8706, La Paz.
Juan Enrique Garcia Yuste Asociacion Hombre y Naturaleza, Casilla 218, Santa Cruz de la Sierra.

BRASIL
Cristina Alves Horto-Zoobotanico, Km 21 Rodovia Ilhdus-Itabuna, Caixa Postal 7, Itabuna 45600, Bahia.
Jose Mdrcio Ayres NYZS The Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York 10460-1099, USA, and
Projeto MamirauA, Departamento de Antropologia, Universidade Federal do Para, Campus do GuamA, Caixa
Postal 531, Beldm 66073-250, Para.
Aline P. da Rin Azevedo PRIMATAM, Departamento de Zoologia, Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Caixa
Postal 399, Bel6m 66040, Para.
Maria lolita Bampi Departamento de Vida Silvestre, Diretoria de Ecossistemas, Instituto Brasileiro do
Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renovaveis (Ibama), SAIN Avenida L4 Norte, Edificio Sede,
70800 Brasilia, D.F.
Ibsen de Gusmlo Cdmara Avenida das Amdricas 2300 C40, Barra da Tijuca, 22640 Rio de Janeiro, Rio
de Janeiro.
Adelmar F. Coimbra-Filho Rua Artur Araripe 60/901, GAvea, 22451-020 Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro.






Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), September1995 Page 161

Stephen F. Ferrari Departamento de Gendtica, Universidade Federal do Pard, Campus do Guama, Caixa
Postal 8607, 66075-150 Belem, Para,
Milton Thiago de Mello SHIN QI.4, Conj. 2, Casa 19. Lago Norte, 71510-225 Brasilia, D. F.
Sdrgio Lucena Mendes Museu de Biologia Mello Leitao, Avenida Jose Ruschi 4,29650-000. Santa Teresa,
Espirito Santo.
Claudio B. Valladares Padua Instituto de Pesquisas Ecol6gicas IPE, Avenida dos Operarios 587, 13416-
460 Piracicaba, Sao Paulo.
Carlos A. Peres Departamento de Ecologia Geral, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo,
Rua do Matao Trav. 14, No. 321, Caixa Postal 11461,05422-970 Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo.
Alcides Pissinatti Centro de Primatologia do Rio de Janeiro (CPRJ), Fundaqao Estadual de Engenharia do
Meio-Ambiente (FEEMA), Rua Fonseca Teles 1221, Caixa Postal 23011, Sao Crist6vao, 20940 Rio de
Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro.
Marc G.M. van Roosmalen Departamento de Botinica, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amaz6nia
(INPA), Caixa Postal 478, 69000 Manaus, Amazonas.
Anthony B. Rylands Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Ciencias Biol6gicas, Universidade Federal de
Minas Gerais, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, and Conservation International do Brasil, Avenida
Ant6nio Abrahao Caram 820/302, 31275-000 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais.
Ilmar Bastos Santos Fundagio Biodiversitas, Av. Contorno 9155, 1 lAndar, 30110-130 Belo Horizonte,
Minas Gerais.
Horacio Schneider Departamento de Gen6tica, Universidade Federal do Para, Campus do Guama, Caixa
Postal 8607, 66075-150 Bel6m, Para.
Faiqal Simon Parque Zool6gico de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 12954, 04092 Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo.
Jose de Sousa e Silva Jr. Departamento de Zoologia, Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Caixa Postal 399,
66040-170 Bel6m, ParA.
Cdlio Murilo de Carvalho Valle Instituto Estadual de Florestas. Rua Paracatu 304/10-. andar. 31180-090
Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais.
COLOMBIA
Thomas R. Defter Apartado 4559, BogotA, D. C.
Jorge Herndndez-Camacho INDERENA, Avenida Caracas No.25A-66, Apartado Aereo 29161, Bogota,
D.C.
Jaime A. Umaha Amaya Bioterio Central, Departamento de Patologia, Faculdad e Medicina Veterinaria y
Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Apartado Aereo 053103, BogotA, D.C.
COSTA RICA
Grace Wong Reyes Programa Regional en Manejo de Vida Silvestre, Universidad Nacional, Apartado
1350-3000, Heredia, Heredia.
ECUADOR
Luis H. Albuja V Departamento de Biologia, Escuela Politecnica Nacional, Apartado 2759, Quito.
Flavo Coello Hinojosa Direccion Nacional Florestal, Ministerio de Agricultura, Av. Eloy Alfaro y Amazonas,
Quito.
Roberto Ulloa V. Departamento de Biologia, Pontifica Universidade Catolica, Apartado 17-12-00576,
Quito.
Felipe Campos Yaiez Madrid 1050 y Toledo, Edificio Casal Madrid, Apartado 17-12-00576, Quito.

GUATEMALA
Johanna Motta Gill Instituto Tecnico de Capacitaci6n y Productividad, Departamento Pecuario, Calle






Page 162


Mateo Flores 7-51, Zona 5, Guatemala
MEXICO
Alfredo Cuar6n Orozeo Department of Anatomy, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3DY, England, UK,
and, Centro de Ecologia/UNAM, Apartado Postal 70-275, Mexico, D.F. 04510.
Alejandro Herndndez Yaiez Instituto de Historia Natural, Apartado Postal 6, C.P.29000, Tuxtla Gutidrrez,
Chiapas.
Liliana Cortes Ortiz Instituto de Neuroetologia/U.V., Parque de la Flora y Fauna Silvestre Tropical, Apartado
Postal 566, C.P. 91000, Xalapa, Veracruz.
Edith Carrera Sdnchez Instituto de Neuroetologia/U.V., Parque de la Flora y Fauna Silvestre Tropical,
Apartado Postal 566, C.P. 91000, Xalapa, Veracruz.
Juan Carlos Sdrio Silva Instituto de Neuroetologia/U.V., Parque de la Flora y Fauna Silvestre Tropical,
Apartado Postal 566, C.P. 91000, Xalapa, Veracruz.
Miguel Alvarez del Toro Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Historia Natural, Apartado 6, Tuxtla
Gutierrez, Chiapas.
Mario Salvador Caba-Vinagre- Estaci6n de Primatologia, Centro de Investigaciones Biol6gicas, Universidad
Veracruzana, Apartado Postal 57, Catemaco, Veracruz 95870.
Alejandro Estrada- Estaci6n Biologica "Los Tuxtlas", Universidad Nacional Autonomade Mexico, Apartado
Postal 176, San Andrds Tuxtla, Veracruz.
Francisco Garcia-Ordufia Estaci6n de Primatologia, Instituto de Investigaciones Biol6gicas, Universidad
Veracruzana, Apartado Postal 294, Xalapa, Veracruz 91000.
Ernesto Rodriguez-Luna Instituto de Neuroetologia/U.V, Apartado Postal 566, Xalapa, Veracruz 91000.
Gilberto Silva-L6pez Estaci6n de Primatologia, Instituto de Insvestigaciones Biol6gicas, Universidad
Veracruzana, Apartado Postal 294, Xalapa, Veracruz 91000.
Domingo Canales Espinosa Instituto de Neuroetologia/U.V., Parque de la Flora y Fauna Silvestre Tropi-
cal, Apartado Postal 566, Xalapa, Veracruz 91000.
PANAMA
Felix S. Nuilez Escuela de Biologia, Universidad de Panama, PanamA, Republica de Panama, and Apartado
Postal 8019, Panama Zone 7, Republica de Panama.
PARAGUAY
Maria Teresa Rovira Proyecto Paraguayo de Primatologia (PPP), Instituto de Investigaciones en Cidncias
de la Salud, Universidad Nacional de Asunci6n, Rio de la Plata y la Gerenza, Casilla de Correo 2511,
Asunci6n.
PERU
Rolando Aquino Yarihuaman Avenida Abelardo Quinones Km 25, Carretera Guayabamba, Apartado Postal
621, Iquitos, Loreto.
Filomeno Encarnaci6n Proyecto Primates, Apartado Postal 621, Iquitos, Loreto.
Mariella Leo Luna Paseo Rosales 167, Urb. La Castellana, Surco, Lima.
Hernando Macedo Ruiz Museo de Historia Natural (Javier Prado), Universidad Nacional Mayor de San
Marcos, Av. Arenales 1256, Lima.
Jaime Moro Proyecto Primates, Apartado Postal 621, Iquitos, Loreto.
Carlos Ponce del Prado Departamento de Manejo Florestal, Universidad Nacional Agraria. Apartado
Postal 456, La Molina, Lima.
Pekka Soini Apartado Postal 341, Iquitos, Loreto.
SURINAME
Ferdinand Baal Nature Protection Division, Suriname Forest Service (LBB), P.O.Box 436, Paramaribo.


Neolropical Primates 3(suppl.), Septemher,1995








VENEZUELA
Thomas Blohm Apartado Postal 69, Caracas 101.
Roberta Bodini de Pepe Faculdad de Ciencias, Instituto de Zoologia Tropical, Universidad Central de
Venezuela, Apartado Postal 47058, Caracas 104 1-A.
USA
Jeffrey W. Froehlich Departmento ofAnthropology, University ofNew Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico
87131. -
Kenneth Glander Department of Anthropology, Duke University, Durham, North California 2770.
Russell A. Mittermeier Conservation International, 1015 18th Street NW, Suite 1000, Washington, D.C.
20036.
Anne Savage Research Department, Roger Williams Park Zoo, 1000 Elmwood Avenue, Providence, Rhode
Island 02907-3600.
Karen B. Strier Department of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin Madison, 1180 Observatory
Drive, 5440 Social Science Building, Madison, Wisconsin 53706.
John Terborgh Center for Tropical Conservation, Duke University, 3705-C Erwin Road, Simons Build-
ing, Durham, North Carolina 27705.
Patricia C. Wright Department of Anthropology, State University of New York SUNY, Stony Brook,
New York 11794.
SPECIAL/CAPTIVE SECTION
Anne Baker.- Burnet Park Zoo, 500 Burnet Park Drive, Syracuse, New York 13204-2504, USA.
Benjamin Beck National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20008, USA.
Hilary Box Department of Psychology, University of Reading, Reading RG6 2AL, England, UK.
Hannah Buchanan-Smith Department of Psychology, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland,
UK.
J. Bryan Carroll Bristol Zoo Gardens, Clifton, Bristol BS8 3HA, England, UK.
Devra G. Kleiman National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20008, USA.
Jonathan H. W. Gipps Zoological Society of London, Regent's Park, London NW1 4RY, England.
William R. Konstant Zoological Society of Philadelphia, 34th Street and Girard Avenue, Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania 19104, USA.
Jean-Marc Lernould- Parc Zoologique et Botanique, Ville de Mulhouse, B.P.3089, 6806, Mulhouse, France.
Jeremy J. C. Mallinson Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, Les Augres Manor, Jersey JE3 5BF, Channel
Islands, Great Britain.
Hartmut Rothe Universitat Gdttingen, Institut flir Anthropologie, Ethological Station Sennickerode, 37130
Gleichen-Sennickerode, Germany.
Christian R. Schmidt Zoo Zfrich, Ztlrichburgstrasse 221, CH-8044 Zurich, Switzerland.
Alan Shoemaker Riverbanks Zoological Park, 500 Wildlife Parkway, Columbia, South Carolina 29210,
USA.
Charles T. Snowdon Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706,
USA.
Miranda Stevenson Royal Zoological Society of Edinburgh, Scottish National Zoological Park, Murrayfield,
Edinburgh EH 12 6TS, Scotland. UK.
Jurgen Wolters Department of Ethology, University of Bielefeld, P.O. Box 8640, D-48 Bielefeld, Ger-
many


Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), Septemberl995


Page 163








Andrew Johns 48 Doniford Road, Watchet, Somerset TA23 OTG, England, UK.
John G. Robinson NYZS The Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York 10460-1099, USA.
Roland Wirth Zoological Society for the Conservation of Species and Populations, Franz-Senn-Strasse 14,
8000 Mtlnchen 70, Germany.















NEOTROPICAL

PRIMATES
A Newsletter of the Neotropical Section
of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist
Group


Contributions


We would be most grateful if you could send us
information on projects, research groups, events
(congresses, symposia, and workshops), recent.
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exceeding six pages, can include small black-and-
white photographs, figures, maps, tables and
references, but please keep them to a minimum.

Please send contributions to: ANTHONY RYLANDS,
Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Ciencias
Biol6gicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais,
31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Brazil, Fax: (031) 441-
1412, or c/o Conservation International, Avenida
Ant8nio Abrahflo Caram 820/302, Pampulha, 31275-
000 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, Fax:
(031)441-2582 or ERNESTO RODRiGUEZ LUNA, Parque
de La Flora y Fauna Silvestre Tropical, Universidad
Veracruzana, Apartado Postal 566, Xalapa, Veracruz
91000, Mexico, Fax: 52 (28) 12-5748.


LILIANA CORTES-ORTIZ (Universidad Veracruzana) and
MIRIAM MENEZES LIMA (Conservation International,
Belo Horizonte) provide invaluable editorial
assistance. LUDMILLA AGUIAR, Conservation
International Brazil Program, Belo Horizonte
(address above), is responsible for the distribution of
Neotropical Primates. Please keep us informed of any
address changes.

Correspondence, messages, and texts can be sent to
Anthony Rylands/Ludmilla Aguiar: cibrasil@ax.apc.org
Fundacqfo Biodiveristas: cdcb@ax.apc.org

NEOTROPICAL PRIMATES is produced in collaboration
with Conservation International, 1015 18th Street
NW, Suite 1000, Washington DC 20036, USA, and
Funda io Biodiversitas, Av. do Contorno, 9155/
11 o. andar Prado, Belo Horizonte 30110-130, Minas
Gerais, Brazil.

Design and Composition RICARDO B. MACHADO AND
YURI L. R. LEITE


Page 164


Neotropical Primates 3(suppl.), September]995
















































NEOTROPICAL PRIMATES
Anthony Rylands/Ernesto Rodriguez Luna, Editors
Conservation International
Avenida Ant6nio AbrahAo Caram 820/302
31275-000, Belo Horizonte
Minas Gerais, Brazil


This issue of Neotropical Primates was kindly sponsored *
by the Houston Zoological Gardens Conservation
Program, Houston Zoological Gardens, General
Manager Donald G. Olson, 1513 North
MacGregor, Houston, Texas 77030, and '
the Columbus Zoological Gardens, Director _
Gerald W. Borin, Box 400, Powell, a ,
Ohio 43065, USA. .
Columbus Zoo


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