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Title: Neotropical primates
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Title: Neotropical primates a newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCNSSC Primate Specialist Group
Abbreviated Title: Neotrop. primates
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
Conservation International
Center for Applied Biodiversity Science
Publisher: Conservation International
Place of Publication: Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
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Publication Date: September 1995
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Subject: Primates -- Periodicals -- Latin America   ( lcsh )
Primates -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Wildlife conservation -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
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periodical   ( marcgt )
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General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 13, no. 1 (Apr. 2005).
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NEOTROPICAL

PRIMA TESVOLUME 3, NUMBER 3
SEPTEMBER, 1995

A Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group
Editors: Anthony B. Rylands and Emesto Rodriguez Luna
PSG Chairman: Russell A. Mittermeier
PSG Deputy Chairman: William R. Konstant


University of


CONSERVATION
INTERNATIONAL
Lfa


SPECIES SURVIVAL
199OMMISSION


FUNDAQAO
BIODIVERSITAS






Neotropical Primates 3(3), September1995 Page 69


Articles I

MIMICRY IN PRIMATES: IMPLICATIONS FOR
HETEROGENEOUS CONDITIONS

Unrelated organisms may sometimes look alike. Mim-
icry (convergence due to exploitation or mutual ad-
vantage) is a Darwinian mechanism which may ex-
plain such similarities. In 1974, Cody concluded that,
for mammals, virtually nothing is known of charac-
ter convergence to facilitate aggressive spacing or of
social mimicry to facilitate gregariousness (see also
Pough, 1988; Vencl, 1977), although both forms of
mimicry are well documented for birds (see Wickler,
1968; Moynihan, 1968, 1981; Cody, 1969, 1974).
These studies concluded that different organisms in
the same populations, guilds or communities may
exhibit similar structures as conventional mechanisms
to promote mutual recognition in predator-prey, com-
petitive, mutualistic or social interactions. Conver-
gent features may help to explain certain patterns of
exclusion, coexistence, social parasitism, hyperpara-
sitism, co-operation or "interpersonal attraction"
within and between species (see Moynihan, 1968),
and this note reviews for the primates traits that may
represent convergence to facilitate recognition.

Table 1 summarizes preliminary evidence for the Or-
der Primates. In brief, 20 species or genera exhibit
characters that are likely candidates for the above in-
terpretations. Eight of the 21 species or genera are
Neotropical, 13 (62%) are Paleotropical. Each ex-
ample involves some apparent type of mimicry among
potential competitors for food, mates or space: five
apparent examples ofintraspecific modeling to a preg-
nant morphology (prominent abdomens) by one or
both sexes: six of intraspecific mimicry of genitalia
(four of six cases exhibit female mimicry of male
sexual structures; Fig. 1); one of interspecific mim-
icry of genitalia; nine of interspecific vocal mimicry;
two of interspecific mimicry of facial signals; two of
generic morphological mimicry; two of paedomor-
phosis and neoteny which may involve convergence
to juvenile forms; and three of mimicry of an estrus
model ("pseudoestrus").

Convergence may entail a one-way (e.g., Cercocebus
to Macaca and Papio) or a two-way (e.g., prominent
abdomens in both sexes of Ateles) change whereby
mutant organism B may become more similar to the
phenotype of organism A (one-way) or both may
model each other more or less mutually (two-way).
In order to demonstrate one-way or two-way domi-
nance, despotism or competition in a two-organism


dyad, it would be necessary to test the effects of cli-
nal variation and to show deleterious effects for one
or both interactants in the absence of the modeled
trait. Subsequent measures of the effects of interac-
tions in the presence of the modeled trait would be
expected to demonstrate less deleterious conse-
quences, no deleterious consequences or facilitation
by one or both interactants. It is unlikely that rigor-
ous tests meeting these criteria can be conducted in
the field. However, the examples of modeled struc-
tures displayed in Table 1 may provide rich tests of
hypotheses concerning the evolution or proximate ad-
vantage of obligatory relationships in general and
competitive and social mechanisms in particular (see
Jones, 1985a; West Eberhard, 1979; Briand and
Cohen, 1984), especially where investigators employ
the tools of game theoretical analysis, removal ex-
periments, or comparative approaches (see Axelrod
and Hamilton, 1981; Jones, 1982).

For example, imagine a hypothetical set of interac-
tions between two organisms, A and B (a "payoff
matrix", see Axelrod and Hamilton, 1981) and the
relative costs and benefits (genetic or other) in each
of four conditions: (1) A mimics B; (2) B mimics A
(both one-way mimicry); (3) A and B mimic each
other or a third model (two-way mimicry); and (4)
neither A nor B mimic the other. Assuming that A
and B use some limiting resource in common, the
competitively inferior organism will experience the
lowest relative payoff across conditions. These four
conditions may correspond, respectively, to social
parasitism (W. C. Dilger, pers. comm; see also West-
Eberhard, 1979) or hyperparasitism; to mutualism or
co-operation (see Moynihan, 1968, 1976); and to "ac-
tive competition" (see Emlen, 1973, Chapter 12)
where B or A may competitively exclude the other in
certain environmental regimes. Features that are mim-
icked or modeled are assumed to be morphological,
physiological (including chemical), behavioral, or
developmental.

The frequency of mimicry may be much higher than
Table 1 indicates since the subject has rarely been
investigated systematically. Pseudoestrus provides a
good example. Hrdy (1981) is of the opinion that
pseudoestrus facilitates the female's ability to "ma-
nipulate" potential mates, and adult female howler
monkeys (Alouatta palliata Gray) provide a rich ex-
ample of such manipulation among Neotropical pri-
mates (Jones, 1985b). A recent report by Zucker et
al. (1994) suggests that genital swelling may not be a
reliable measure of estrus stage in mantled howlers.
Males employ visual and olfactory cues to assess fe-
male condition and may in part base decisions to copu-
late upon these cues (Jones, 1985b). Although the


Cover photograph by Russell A. Mittermeier: Buffy saki, Pithecia albicans.


Page 69


Neotropical Primates 3(3), September]995







Page 70 A ~totropica1 Prinates 3(3), September1995


methods for evaluating genital swelling employed by
Zucker et al. may require refinement, this study sug-
gests that females may deceive males about their true
estrus condition by mimicking an unreliable estrus
stage. Studies of the confidence of estrus signals need
to be undertaken in other primates.


Most primates are obligately social, and systems of
mimicry assume potential or ongoing interactions
among coexisting individuals or populations within
or between species. These systems of cues, signals,
and signs represent mechanisms of social regulation
and symmetry which facilitate interpersonal organi-


Table 1. Mimicry in primates and its possible origins. A = adultss, AF = adult females, AM = adult males; RC = resource
competition (including food, mates and/or space); MP = mimicry of pregnancy; MM = mimicry of males; MY mimicry of
young.

Genus or Species Trait Origins Source
Alouatta Prominent abdomens (AF) RC; MP Jones, 1985b


Genital hypertrophy (AF)

Neotenous vocalizations (AM)
Morphological convergencea (A)
Pseudoestrus (AF)
Vocalizations adapted to
nocturnal life

Prominent abdomens (A)

Prominent abdomens (A)
"Howler-like" and/or bird-like
vocalizations

Tamarin-like vocalizations
Genital hypertrophy (AF)

Scrotum sessile (AM)

Vocal mimicry (A)


RC; MM

RC; MY
RC
RC

RC (bats?)

RCb: MP


RCb; MP

RC

RC
RCb (Alouatta?; Ateles?);
MM
RCb; MF

RCb; (birds?; Alouatta?)


Pers.obs., Coelho, pers. comm.

Jones, 1980
Pers.obs.
Jones, 1985b

Napier & Napier, 1967; pers.obs.

Napier & Napier, 1967; pers. obs.

Napier & Napier, 1967

Napier & Napier, 1967; Vend,
1977; pers.obs.
Napier & Napier, 1967
Napier & Napier, 1967; pers. obs.

Napier & Napier, 1967; pers.obs.

Napier & Napier, 1967; pers.obs.


Macaca & Papio-like facial
signals (A)
Papio-like vocalizations
Bird-like vocalizations (A)
Macaca-like facial signals (A)
Lemur-like vocalizations (A)
Prominent abdomens (A)
Pseudoestrus (AF)
"High-pitched", possibly
"supersonic" vocalizations
Paedomorphosis & neoteny (A)
Pseudoestrus (AF)
Perianal area of male mimics
estrus
Estrus female resembles
Cercocebus in estrus
Genital hypertrophy (AF)
Prominent abdomen (A)
Ultrasonic vocalizations (A)
Morphological convergence to
Macaca nemestrina


RC
RC
RC
RC
RC
RC
RC

RC (bats?)
RC; SM
RC

RC

RC
RC; MM
RC; MP
RC (bats?)

RC


Napier & Napier, 1967
Napier & Napier, 1967
Napier & Napier, 1967
Napier & Napier, 1967
Napier & Napier, 1967
Bjerre, 1958
Hrdy, 1981

Napier & Napier, 1967
Shea, 1983
Hrdy, 1981

Napier & Napier, 1967

Napier & Napier, 1967
Napier & Napier, 1967
Napier & Napier, 1967
Napier & Napier, 1967

Napier & Napier, 1967


Cercocebus


Cercopithecus
Cynopithecus
Hapalemur
Homo
Macaca
Microcebus

Pan paniscus
Papio
Papiopapio

Papio leucophaeus

Perodicticus.
Presbytis
Saguinus
Simias concolor


a Striking morphological similarity apparent for Alouatta physiognomy (single adult at rest), Cathartes physiognomy (single
vulture at rest), Nasutitermes nests and Sciurus nests.
b Possibly an adaptation to mixed-species feeding aggregations (see Klein and Klein, 1973; also pers. obs.; pers.comm. from D.
Boucher, C. Freese, and A. Coelho).


Aotus


Ateles


Brachyteles
Callicebus


Callimico
Cebus


Page 70


A,,otropical Primates 3(3), SeptemherI995






Neotropical Primates 3(3), September 199S Page 71


zation. These systems of mimicry may enhance spe-
cies integrity in disturbed habitats where patchy con-
ditions prevail, and the organization of communica-
tion is expected to impose a conservative homeostatic
force under heterogeneous conditions caused by habi-
tat degradation and other factors. Such features may
contribute to the optimization of survival and repro-
ductive success in distressed regimes. Other examples
of "stereotyped" or "ritualized" characteristics may
be interpreted as traits functioning homeostatically
to promote individual recognition within or between
species (see, for example, Smuts and Watanabe, 1990;
Wickler, 1968).

Is mimicry inherently more common in the
Paleotropics than in the Neotropics, or are the present
trends a result of sampling error? Some observations
are suggestive. First Paleotropical species are more
terrestrial than Neotropical, possibly favoring the
expression of visual features. Most of the examples
in Table 1 are signs of visual communication, possi-
bly biasing the results in favor of Old World taxa.
Second, for arboreal species, studies are needed of
the differential architecture of forests inhabited by
primates since such studies may reveal the selective
pressures associated with mimicry in primates in
Paleotropical and Neotropical forests (see Richards,
1973). Third, it may be productive to study interspe-
cific mimicry in modalities other than the visual, in
particular the potential for vocal mimicry with birds.
Species with which primates compete for food and
space are likely candidates for mimicry. Finally, most
studies of "coalitions and alliances" in primates have
been conducted on Paleotropical species. Nonethe-
less, it seems clear that mimicry in both Old and New
World primates can be viewed in the context of sym-
metrical communication and can be related to the
growing literature on reciprocal relationships in pri-
mates (e.g., de Waal and Luttrell, 1988).

Research on convergent, features in primates has the
potential to unify this literature with that of other taxa
(e.g., Mason and Crews, 1985; Pietsch and Grobecker,
1978; Bawa, 1980; references for birds cited above).
In particular, the morphometric quality of traits ex-
hibited in Table 1 allows a high degree of quantita-
tive precision in measurement and empirical evalua-
tion permitting analysis relative to variations in size,
sex, and vital parameters (e.g., age, fecundity, and
survivorship) as well as aggressive and non-aggres-
sive behaviors, structures, signals, and displays.
Where populations are polymorphic for convergent
traits, as Bushmen and Australian aboriginals may be
for prominent abdomens (see Bjerre, 1958; E.
Hagmann, pers. comm.), studies may be undertaken


to reveal the heritability of convergent features as well
as their biogeographical distribution and possible re-
lationship to population differentiation (W. C. Dilger,
pers. comm.; Cody, 1974). Future investigations of
mimicry in primates and other mammals may pro-
duce more than "anecdotal" results (Cody, 1974,
p.260).

Acknowledgments: I thank E. Hagmann, V. Schwartz,
and the late J. Loftus-Hills for comments on an ear-
lier draft of this note.

Clara B. Jones, Institute of Animal Behavior, Rutgers
University Newark, 101 Warren Street, Newark,
New Jersey 07102, U.S.A.

References

Axelrod, R. and Hamilton, W. D. 1981. The evolu-
tion of cooperation. Science 211:1390-1396.
Bawa, K. S. 1980. Mimicry of male by female flow-
ers and intrasexual competition for pollinators in
Jacaratia dolichaula (D. Smith) Woodson
(Caricaceae). Evolution 34: 467-474.
Bjerre, J. 1958. Kalahari. Hill and Wang, New York.
Briand, F. and Cohen, J. E. 1984. Community food
webs have scale-invariant structure. Nature, Lond.
301: 264-267.
Cody, M. L. 1969. Convergent characteristics in sym-
patric populations: a possible relation to interspe-
cific territoriality. Condor 71: 222-239.
Cody, M. L. 1974. Competition and the Structure of
Bird Communities. Princeton University, New Jer-
sey.
Emlen, J. M. 1973. Ecology: An Evolutionary Ap-
proach. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., Reading,
Massachusetts.
Hrdy, S. B. 1981. The Woman that Never Evolved.
Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachu-
setts.
Jones, C. B. 1980. The functions of status in the
mantled howler monkey, Alouatta palliata Gray:
intraspecific competition for group membership in
a folivorous Neotropical primate. Primates 21: 389-
405.
Jones, C. B. 1982. A field manipulation of spatial re-
lations among male mantled howler monkeys. Pri-
mates 23:130-134.
Jones, C. B. 1985a. "Nice" guys may not finish last?!
Politics and the Life Sciences 4: 82-86.
Jones, C. B. 1985b. Reproductive patterns in mantled
howler monkeys: estrus, mate choice and copula-
tion. Primates 26: 130-142.
Klein, L. S. and Klein, D. J. 1973. Observations on
two types ofNeotropical primate intertaxa associa-


Neotropical Primates 3(3), September]995


Page 71






Page 72 Neotropical Primates 3(3), Septemberl99S


tions. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 38: 649-654.
Mason, R. T. and Crews, D. 1985. Female mimicry
in garter snakes. Nature, Lond. 3: 59-60.
Moynihan, M. L. 1968. Social mimicry: character
convergence versus character displacement. Evo-
lution 22: 315-331.
Moynihan, M. L. 1976. The New World Primates.
Princeton University Press, New Jersey.
Moynihan, M. L. 1981. The coincidences of mimic-
ries and other misleading coincidences. Am. Nat.
117: 372-378.
Napier, J., and Napier, P. H. 1967. A Handbook of
Living Primates. Academic Press, New York.
Pietsch, T. and Grobecker, D. 1978. The compleat
angler: aggressive mimicry in an antenariid angler-
fish. Science 201: 369-370.
Pough, F. H. 1988. Mimicry of vertebrates: are the
rules different? In: Mimicry and the Evolutionary
Process, L. P. Brower (ed.), pp.67-102. University
of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Richards, P. W. 1973. Africa, the "odd man out". In:
Tropical Forest Ecosystems in Africa and South
America: A Comparative Review. B. J. Meggers, E.
S.Ayensu and W. D. Duckworth (eds.), pp.21-26.
Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D. C.
Shea, B. T. 1983. Paedomorphosis and neoteny in
the pygmy chimpanzee. Science 222: 521-522.
Smuts, B. and Watanabe, J. M. 1990. Social relation-
ships and ritualized greetings in adult male baboons
(Papio cynocephalus anubis). Int. J. Primatol. 11:
147-172.
Vencl, R. 1977. A case of convergence in vocal sig-
nals between marmosets and birds. Am. Nat. 111:
777-782.
de Waal, F. B. M. and Luttrell, L. 1988. Mechanisms
of social reciprocity in three primates species: sym-
metrical relationship characteristics or cognition?
Ethol. Sociobiol. 9: 101-118.
West-Eberhard, M. J. 1979. Sexual selection,, social
competition, and evolution. Proc. Am. Phil. Soc.
123: 222-234.
Wickler, W. 1968. Mimikry Signalfalschung in der
Natur. Kindler, Miinchen.
Zucker, E. L., Clarke, M. R., Putnam, P. M. and
Harrison, R. M. 1994. Validity of measures assess-
ing reproductive status of female howling monkeys
(Alouatta palliata) in Costa Rica. Am. J. Primatol.
33: 255. (Abstract).

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF NIGHT
MONKEYS, AOTUS, IN NORTHERN BRAZIL:
NEW DATA AND A CORRECTION

The geographic distribution of Aotus trivirgatus
Humboldt, 1812 was recently extended eastwards as


far as the state of Amapa on the basis of four
specimens collected at Carmo do Macacoari, Itaubal,
eastern Amapi, and on the island of Caviana in the
Maraj6 archipelago, Par& (Femandes, 1993). In 1994,
fieldwork at these two sites resulted in the collection
of a further two specimens of Aotus from the former
(Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi MPEG 24035 and
Institute de Pesquisas do Estado do AmapA IEPA 041)
and three from the latter (MPEG 24130, 24131 and
24132).

All ten specimens now collected at these two sites
were analyzed using the diagnostic characteristics
used by Hershkovitz (1983). According to
Hershkovitz, Aotus trivirgatus and Aotus infulatus
Olfers 1818 belong to the gray-necked and red-necked
groups, respectively. His phenetic key to the Aotus
species and subspecies (1983, p.213), showed that A.
trivirgatus and A. infulatus may be distinguished by
just two characteristics: the coloration of the side of
the neck, and the presence (or absence) of a whitish
band at the lateral comer of the eye. The remaining
characters cannot be considered diagnostic. The entire
side of the neck behind and below the ear is grayish
agouti or brownish agouti in A. trivirgatus, as are the
flank or the outer side of the arm, and whitish bands
are found at the lateral comers of the eyes. In A.
infulatus, the neck is partially or entirely orange or
buff, and two small whitish patches are found above
the eyes.

All ten specimens exhibit the diagnostic characters
ofA. infulatus. The animals from Carmo do Macacoari
were indistinguishable from those of Caviana Island,
and the Goeldi Museum specimens of A. infulatus
from Maraj6 Island and the Rio Tocantins. All these
thus represent a single species, A. infulatus, the
geographic distribution of which is extended to the
left (north) bank of the lower Amazon, in Amapi (Fig.
1). Consequently, the known eastern limit of the
geographic distribution of A. trivirgatus is still the
Rio Trombetas, as described by Hershkovitz (1983).
Contrary to Fernandes (1993), then, the occurrence
of night monkeys in the remainder of Amapd, west
of the Rio Trombetas in Pard remains to be confirmed,
especially as the genus was not reported from previous
primate surveys in AmapA (Carvalho, 1962),
Suriname (Mittermeier and van Roosmalen, 1981),
and French Guiana (Roussilhon, 1988).

The presence of A. infulatus north of the Amazon is
consistent with the occurrence of other closely related
taxa on both sides of the lower reaches of the river:
Cebus apella apella, Cebus nigrivittatus/kaapori,
Chiropotes satanas ssp., Saguinus midas ssp. and


Page 72


Neotropical Primates 3(3), September] 995






Neotropical Primates 3(3), September 199S Page 73


Saimiri sciureus sciureus
(see Torres de Assumpgao,
1988; Hershkovitz, 1977,
1985; Queiroz, 1992; Silva
Jr., 1992; Harada, 1994).
Of the primate genera that
occur on both banks, only
Alouatta is clearly
represented by distinct
species; A. belzebul to the
south and A. seniculus to
the north. The apparently
limited distribution of
Aotus infulatus in Amapa
clearly indicates the need
for further investigation,
especially given the recent
observation of enclave po0
north of the Amazon (Fern
pers. obs.). Like Alouatta b
an enclave of Aotus infuA
Amazonas may be related t
the river, resulting in th
populations between banks, a
Aotus nancymai and A. v
(Hershkovitz, 1983). Altemrn
is found to be more widespi
seem reasonable to concluc
throughout the area prior 1
Amazon delta (Frailey et al.,
been the case for Cebus, C
Saimiri. The collection o:
Amapa, northern Pard, and t
only help define the dis
northeastern Amazonia, but i
into the role of river b
biogeography of Amazonian

Specimens examined: Aotu
Brabo, right bank of Rio T(
12178); Sitio Calandrinho, le
(MPEG 8869, 8870); Timi
Tocantins (MPEG 1185, 1 8
Rio Tocantins (MPEG 1217
Rio Tocantins (MPEG 1
Araguaia (MPEG 1321); La
(MPEG 99, 100); Ponta de
(MPEG 8875, 8876,8877); F
Island (MPEG 23058,23059
Amapd: Carmo do Maca
225223, 22523, 24035, I
specimen with field number

Acknowledgements: We tha
permission to work at the F


Figure 1. Geographic distribution of Aotus infulatus in Pari (part) and Amapi, and of Aotus
trivirgatus. Map by Jos6 de Sousa e Silva Jr.

pulations of A. belzebul
andes, 1993; A. Nunes, logistic support, Arlindo Jinior and Raimundo
elzebul, the presence of Rodrigues for their help with the capture of specimens,
latus north of the Rio and Dr. Stephen F. Ferrari, Federal University of Para,
:o shifts in the course of for reviewing the manuscript.
ie passive transfer of
s probably occurred with Jos6 de Sousa e Silva Jr., Andrea Nunes,
ociferans further west Departamento de Zoologia, Museu Paraense Emilio
atively, ifAotus infulatus Goeldi, Caixa Postal 399, 66040-170 Bel6m, Pard,
read in AmapA, it would Brazil, and Marcus E.B. Fernandes, Department of
le that species occurred Biology, University of York, Heslington YO1 5DD,
to the formation of the England, UK.
1988), as seems to have
hiropotes, Saguinus and References
f additional data from
he Guianas will thus not Carvalho, C. T. 1962. Lista preliminary dos mamiferos
tribution of Aotus in do AmapA. Papdis Avulsos, Departamento de
also provide new insights Zoologia, Sdo Paulo 15(21): 283-297.
barriers in the recent Fernandes, M. E. B. 1993. New field records ofnight
n primates, monkeys genus Aotus, in northern Brazil. Neotro-
pical Primates 1(4): 6-8.
is infulatus: Para: Vila Frailey, C. D., Lavina, E. L. Rancy, A. and Filho, J.
ocantins (MPEG 12177, P. de S. 1988. A proposed Pleistocene/Holocene
f bank of Rio Tocantins lake in the Amazon basin and its significance to
bozal, left bank of Rio Amazonian geology and biogeography. Acta
53); Sagide, left bank of Amazonica 18(3): 119-143.
9); Cocal, right bank of Harada, M. L. 1994. Abordagens para o
1851); Conceicgo do estabelecimento da filogenia dos generos Aotus,
go Arari, Maraj6 Island Callicebus, Cebus e Saimiri (Platyrrhini, Primates).
Pedras, Maraj6 Island Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Universidade
azenda Santana, Caviana Federal do ParA, Beldm.
, 24130, 24131, 24132). Hershkovitz, P. 1977. Living New World Monkeys
coari, Itaubal (MPEG (Platyrrhin), Vol. 1. With an Introduction to the
EPA 0040, 0041, and Primates. Chicago University Press, Chicago.
837). Hershkovitz, P. 1983. Two new species of night mon-
keys, genus Aotus (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): a prelimi-
nk Marcelo Morelli for nary report on Aotus taxonomy. Am. J Primatol. 4:
azenda Santana and for 209-243.
Hershkovitz, P. 1985. A preliminary taxonomic re-


Neotropical Primates 3(3), September.1995


Page 73


S Aotus trivirgatus
' Aotus infulatus





Page 74


view of the South American bearded saki monkeys,
genus Chiropotes (Cebidae, Platyrrhini), with a de-
scription of a new subspecies. Fieldiana Zoology
27: 1-45.
Mittermeier, R. A. and van Roosmalen, M. G. M.
1981. Preliminary observations on habitat utiliza-
tion and diet in eight Surinam monkeys. Folia
Primatol. 36: 1-39.
Queiroz, H. L. 1992. A new species of capuchin mon-
key, genus Cebus Erxleben 1777 (Cebidae, Pri-
mates) from eastern Brazilian Amazonia. Goeldiana
Zool., (15): 1-13.
Roussilhon, C. 1988. The general status of monkeys
in French Guiana. Primate Conservation (9): 70-
74.
Silva Jr., J. S. 1992. RevisAo dos Macacos-de-Cheiro
(Saimiri Voigt, 1831) da Bacia Amaztnica. Unpub-
lished M.Sc. dissertation, Universidade Federal do
ParA and Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Beldm.
Torres de Assump9do, C. 1988. Resultados
preliminares da reavalia9ao das ragas do macaco-
prego Cebus apella (Primates: Cebidae). Rev.
Nordest. Biol. 6(1): 15-28.

POLE BRIDGES TO AVOID PRIMATE KILLS: A
SEQUEL TO VALLADARES-PADUA ETAL.

Roads can interrupt habitat continuity and reduce the
chances of survival of some species by fragmenting
their populations (Beier, 1995; Oxley et al., 1974;
Wilkins, 1982). Additionally, roads may have a nega-
tive impact on wildlife populations by increasing
mortality through road deaths (Beier, 1995; Comita,
1984; O'Gara and Harris, 1988; Polaco and Guzmin,
1993; Wilkins and Schmidly, 1980). Road accidents
with wildlife also have an important economic and
social cost (Hansen, 1983). These are likely to be
important and increasing problems as roads are con-
structed in wilderness areas and where they cross re-
gions inhabited by threatened species and populations.
Several solutions have been proposed and imple-
mented, including the use of warning signs, road fenc-
ing, illumination, reflectors, and road underpasses and
overpasses for wildlife (Feldhamer et al., 1986;
Gibson, 1980; Reed, 1981; Reed and Woodward,
1981; Schafer and Penland, 1985). These solutions -
which have met with mixed success may be useful
for terrestrial fauna, but their utility for arboreal ani-
mals is uncertain.

Valladares-Padua et al. (1995) demonstrated a simple
and imaginative way of avoiding primate road kills
and connecting isolated areas of their habitat by plac-
ing a pole bridge above a road. They have observed
black lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysopygus) and


Neotropical Primates 3(3), September1995

capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) using the bridge.
Valladares-Padua etal. (1995) mentioned the success-
ful implementation of the bridge (although not sys-
tematically assessed), and made no reference to any
negative effects.

The use of pole bridges in open areas (such as in many
roads) may, however, have a potentially serious side-
effect: primates, particularly callitrichids, may be
more exposed to predators, mainly raptors. To make
the design of the pole bridge constructed by
Valladares-Padua et al. more effective in open areas,
it would be necessary to provide some sort of shelter
while they cross the bridge. This could be achieved
in a number of ways, and using local materials, by
simply building a roof or providing some other pro-
tection such as a web of ropes. By promoting the
growth of creeping vines and other plants, bridges
and their 'roofs' could be camouflaged to disguise
them or make them more appealing aesthetically.
However, care has to be taken to avoid creating in
this way places for other predators to hide (for ex-
ample, snakes). Another issue to consider is that rap-
tors may use poles and other artificial platforms to
nest (Steenhof et al., 1993). In fact, it is a common
management practice to increase raptor populations
by providing them with artificial nesting structures
(Lefranc and Millsap, 1984). Thus, in regions where
this may be a concern, it may be necessary to build
the bridges in such a way as to minimize this prob-
lem, and to monitor them to remove undesired raptor
nests. Finally, having a single pole bridge may create
a bottleneck and make the monkeys (and their travel
routes) predictable, hence increasing their risk of pre-
dation or of being captured by humans. Having sev-
eral bridges would help solve these problems. The
implementation of these proposals would increase the
cost of bridges, but it would be minimal compared to
the costs of losing individuals of seriously depleted
populations. Of course, as in most management pro-
grams, decision of what is appropriate for one site
will need to be determined case-by-case.

It is of great importance to make an objective assess-
ment of the effectiveness and cost of different bridge
designs under various road conditions (for example,
road type paved or dirt and width, intensity and
speed of traffic flow, noise levels, distance to primate
habitats). These evaluations are fundamental in or-
der to convince governments and road constructors
and operators of their value. If effective, as current
evidence and common sense suggest, the establish-
ment of wildlife tunnels and bridges, as well as other
means to mitigate population fragmentation and wild-
life mortality, should become a standard practice.






Neotropical Primates 3(3), September) 99S Page 7S


Acknowledgments: I thank Dr. David Chivers, M.
Galetti and A. K. Gupta for discussion and comments
on the manuscript, and DGAPA-UNAM (Mexico)
for support.

Alfredo D. Cuar6n, Wildlife Research Group, De-
partment of Anatomy, University of Cambridge,
Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3DY, UK.

References

Beier, P. 1995. Dispersal of juvenile cougars in frag-
mented habitat. J. Wildl. Manag. 59: 228-237.
Comita, J. L. 1984. Impact de los caminos sobre la
fauna en el Parque Nacional El Palmar. Rev. Mus.
Arg. Cienc. Nat. "Bernardino Rivadavia" e Inst.
Nac. Investing. Cienc. Nat., Zool. 13: 513-521.
Feldhamer, G. A., Gates, J. E., Harman, D. M.,
Loranger, A. J. and Dixon, K. R. 1986. Effects of
interstate highway fencing on white-tailed deer ac-
tivity. J. Wildl. Manag. 50: 497-503.
Gibson, G. 1980. Road kills. Wildl. Rev. 9: 3-5.
Hansen, C. S. 1983. Cost of deer-vehicle accidents
in Michigan. Wildl. Soc. Bull., 11: 161-164.
Lefranc, M. N. and Millsap, B. A. 1984. A summary
of state and federal agency raptor management pro-
grams. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 12: 274-282.
O'Gara, B. W. and Harris, R. B. 1988. Age and con-
dition of deer killed by predators and automobiles.
J. Wildl. Manag. 52: 316-320.
Oxley, D. J., Fenton, M. B. and Carmody, G. R. 1974.
The effects of roads on populations of small mam-
mals. J. Appl. Ecol. 11: 51-59.
Polaco, 0. J. and Guzmdn, A. F. 1993. Mortalidad
annual de mamiferos en una carretera al sur de
Nuevo Le6n. In: Avances en el Estudio de los
Mamiferos de Mixico, R. A. Medellin and G.
Ceballos (eds.), pp.394-407. Publicaciones
Especiales, Vol. 1. Asociaci6n Mexicana de
Mastozoologia, A. C., Mdxico, D. F.
Reed, D. F. 1981. Mule deer behavior at a highway
underpass exit. J. Wildl. Manag. 45: 452-543.
Reed, D. F. and Woodward, T. N. 1981. Effective-
ness of highway lighting in reducing deer-vehicle
accidents. J. Wildl. Manag. 45: 721-726.
Schafer, J. A. and Penland, S. T. 1985. Effective-
ness of Swareflex reflectors in reducing deer-ve-
hicle accidents. J. Wildl. Manag. 49: 774-776.
Steenhof, H., Kochert, M. N. and Roppe, J. A. 1993.-
Nesting by raptors and common ravens on electri-
cal transmission-line towers. J. Wildl. Manag. 57:
271-281.
Valladares-Padua, C., Cullen Jr., L. and Padua, S.
1995. A pole bridge to avoid primate road kills.
Neotropical Primates 3(1): 13-15.


Wilkins, K. T. 1982. Highways as barriers to rodent
dispersal. The Southwestern Naturalist 27:459-460.
Wilkins, K. T. and Schmidly, D. J. 1980. Highway
mortality of vertebrates in southeastern Texas. Texas
J. Sci., 22: 343-350.

HABITAT AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE BUFFY-
TUFTED-EAR MARMOSET CALLITHRIXAURITA IN
SAo PAULO STATE, BRAZIL, WITH NOTES ON
ITS NATURAL HISTORY

The buffy-tufted-ear marmoset, Callithrix aurita is an
endangered primate endemic to the states of Minas
Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo, in southeastern
Brazil (Coimbra-Filho, 1991), living in forests between
500 and 800 m altitude (Rylands, 1994). The species
has only recently been studied in the field (Torres de
Assumpqao, 1983; Muskin, 1984; Bueno, 1989;
Correa, 1995). Here we discuss the former and present-
day distribution of the species in the state of Sao Paulo
in the southern limit of its distribution, and also its
habitat and ecology.

Distribution

Rylands (1994), following Hershkovitz (1977), con-
sidered the species' distribution in Sao Paulo to be lim-
ited by the Rio Ribeira de Iguape to the south, stretch-
ing west between the upper courses of the Rios Tiete/
Piracicaba and Paranapanema, and north to the border
with Minas Gerais. Overall, in Sao Paulo the species
has actually been recorded from 16 localities
(Hershkovitz, 1977; Coimbra-Filho, 1991; Vivo, 1991;
Centro de Monitoramento Ambiental da Serra do
Itapety Mogi das Cruzes). Except for Borac6ia
(22010'S, 4845'W; Hershkovitz, 1977) there is no
locality south of the Rio Tiete at the latitude of Sao
Paulo city, and none east of the ridge of the Serra do
Mar. The species is absent from the eastern slopes of
the Serra do Mar and lowland forests. Four new lo-
calities for the species have been recently discovered:
Mairipora (2319'S, 46035'W), where two individu-
als were observed in August 1981; Atibaia (2307'S,
46033'W), a recently prepared specimen in the Atibaia
Natural History Museum; Santa Isabel (23015'W,
40019'W), based on several observations (see below);
and Fazenda Lagoa, Sao Luis do Paraitinga (c.
2315'S, 4520'W), an adult male collected in 1984,
in the Zoology Museum of the Universidade Federal
de Mato Grosso. The species also apparently occurs
in the Serra do Japi (2314'S, 46057'W; see Marinho-
Filho, 1992), where suitable habitat exists, but as other
Callithrix species have been released there the record
has still to be confirmed, despite several trips we have


Neotropical Primates 3(3), Septemher]995


Page 75






Page 76 Neotropical Primates 3(3), September1995


made to the area.

Extensive fieldwork from 1982 to 1995 in the puta-
tive range of Callithrix aurita in the mountains of the
Ribeira de Iguape valley and in southeastern Sao
Paulo, including such well-protected areas as Fazenda
Intervales, the State Parks of Alto Ribeira, Ilha do
Cardoso and Carlos Botelho, and the Jureia Ecologi-
cal Station, and also in the municipalities of Juquitiba
and Miracati in the Serra de Paranapiacaba, has con-
sistently failed to find evidence for the presence of
the species. The only callitbrichids occurring in south-
ern Sao Paulo are the black-faced liontamarin,
Leontopithecus caissara (lowlands and isolated
mountain ranges from Canandia to Guaraquegaba,
Parand; see Martuscelli and Rodrigues, 1992), and
the introduced black-tufted-ear marmoset Callithrix
penicillata (Fazenda Serrana, municipality of Cajati,
and the Serra de Miracatu, municipality of Miracatu).

We believe the actual southern limit of the species'
distribution is located around the present-day city of
Sao Paulo, north of the junction of the Rios Pinheiros
and Tiete, the last forming the southern boundary of
the species' distribution. The only anomalous local-
ity would be Hershkovitz's "Boracdia", apparently
located south of the Rio Tiete north-west of present-
day Bauru (Rylands, 1994). Nevertheless,
Hershkovitz described the locality as in the upper river
Tiete, which would be unlikely. In fact, it is more
probable that the locality refers to the Boraceia Bio-
logical Station, a well-known collecting locality near
the headwaters of the Tietd, and not to the town of
Borac6ia, which is near Bauru.

The southern limit of the distribution of C. aurita is
close to Ipanema (2326'S, 47036'W), today
Aranoiaba da Serra, the type locality of the black lion
tamarin, Leontopithecus chrysopygus, a species origi-
nally widespread south of the Tiete and north of the
Paranapanema rivers, and formerly found in the low
forests characteristic of the hills behind the Serra do
Mar. It is possible that ecological interactions between
this species and the marmoset, probably competitive
as both favor the same viny, tangled microhabitat for
foraging (pers. obs.), rather than geographical barri-
ers, limited the distribution of the latter to the south.
The low forests characteristic of the transitional hilly
area between the Serra do Mar ridge and the inland
highlands would not offer enough habitat complex-
ity to allow two callitrichids to co-exist, as occurs
with Callithrix kuhli and Leontopithecus chrysomelas
inthe taller forests of southern Bahia (Rylands, 1989).

The western limits of the species' distribution are un-


clear. The junction of the Rios Piracicaba and Tiete
seems to be an important natural limit, but further
north the limits between the distribution of aurita and
penicillata have still to be determined. In the
westernmost locality, the Mogi Gua9u Ecological Sta-
tion (adjacent to the best-known Fazenda
Campininha), on the right bank of the Rio Mogi-
Guaqu, Callithrix aurita lives in cerraddo and river-
ine forest habitat quite similar to that used by C.
penicillata at the Jataf Ecological Station, about 130
km downstream, also on the right bank of the Mogi.
The intermediate area would be worth researching.

Habitat

We have been able to visit most of the localities where
Callithrix aurita has been recorded in Sao Paulo.
Callithrix aurita has been found, currently, to live in
montane forest and in gallery forest and cerraddo, in
altitudes ranging from 600 to at least 1,200 m. Al-
though there are specimens from Ubatuba, a lowland
locality by the sea (Vivo, 1991), recent fieldwork
failed to find the species there. We believe the speci-
mens were probably collected somewhere on the hilly
country along the old road from Taubat6 to Ubatuba,
perhaps close to Sao Luis do Paraitinga (a known lo-
cality) or Natividade da Serra, rather than in the low-
lands around Ubatuba itself. The forest in the area is
similar to that found at known localities such as
Cunha, not too far away.

Montane forests inhabited by the species are both ev-
ergreen and semideciduous, usually with a low
(around 15 m) and even canopy with few or no
emergents and mostly slender trees, sometimes with
multiple trunks. The common denominator of all lo-
calities where C. aurita is known to live is a dense
understorey of tangled vines (in drier forests) or bam-
boo (in montane areas). Localities where C. aurita
has been found share a seasonal climate with dry, cold
winters when frosts and mist are common due to alti-
tude or proximity to river bottomlands. Most locali-
ties are under the influence of the rain-shadow of the
Serra do Mar or other mountain ranges, which evi-
dently explains the more seasonal climate and differ-
ences in vegetation structure and successional dynam-
ics (see below).

Marmosets have been recorded in habitat patches
found mostly on hilltops where the effects of the shal-
low soil, wind, frost and mist result in a stunted, viny
or bamboo-rich forest (contrary to the conditions in
the valleys) and, in localities farther inland such as
Barreiro Rico and Mogi-Guaqu, in second-growth and
edge areas where vines are dominant. Callithrix aurita


Neotropical Primates 3(3), September1995


Page 76






Ne otrop leaf Primates 3(3), September1995 Page 77


seems dependent on disturbed areas where some edge
effect, resulting in a growth of vines or bamboo, is
occurring.

During fieldwork conducted in June 1995 (see be-
low) in a montane site in the Serra da Mantiqueira
massif (Santa Isabel) and another located in the
planalto (Mogi-Gua9u), we located groups of C.
aurita only in patches of forest or cerradao where
tangled vines were common. It is interesting to note
that the abundance of vines in the cerraddo studied is
apparently due to the lack of fires for several years,
which has allowed a build-up of dead vines. Torres
de AssumpqAo (1983) and Muskin (1984) also found
the species to favor vine-tangled.areas, spending more
time in bamboo and vine-covered trees, where it found
most of its food.

The patchy habitat favored by C. aurita is similar to
that preferred by other species of Callithrix, a group
favoring, successional, disturbed and edge habitats
(Stevenson and Rylands, 1988; Rylands, 1995). Such
a preference is probably due to the greater availabil-
ity of invertebrate prey in such habitats (Janzen, 1973),
a result of the low prevalence of plants with chemical
defenses against herbivory (see Marquis and Braker,
1994 for an overview). Also many of the gum-pro-
ducing trees and vines used by the marmosets are edge
or early successional species, including legumes.

The dependence on tangled, successional or edge
habitats probably explains the absence of C. aurita
from lower slopes (under 500 m) of the Serra do Mar
and of the coastal plain forests. In Sao Paulo, a dense
undergrowth of bamboo (mainly Guadua, Chusquea
and Merostachys spp.) only begins to become com-
mon in forest above 500 m altitude. Also the "edge
effect" that results in a dense cover of vines sharply
marking the forest edge or completely dominating
small woodlots observed inland, where there is a
marked dry season, is mostly absent from forests in
the Serra do Mar and the coastal plain of Sao Paulo.

Natural History

Population densities of Callithrix aurita were obtained
in two localities, the montane Santa Isabel and
planalto at Mogi-Guaqu (Fig. 1). Santa Isabel is in a
2,200 ha private property, at the southern tip of the
Serra da Mantiqueira at an altitude of 700-1,200m.
Most (752 ha) of the remaining forested area is
covered by montane broadleaved perennial forest
(Eiten, 1970), located on the valley bottoms and lower
slopes of the hills, while 162 ha ofhilltops are covered
by montane mesophytic semideciduous forest (Leitao-


Filho, 1992). The remaining area is covered by
Eucalyptus. Mogi-Guaqu covers part of the Mogi-
Guaqu Ecological Station and Experimental Station,
and the adjoining Mogi-Guaqu Biological Reserve
(Fazenda Campininha), with a patchwork of mostly
disturbed gallery forest along the Rio Mogi-Guaqu
(362 ha), cerraddo or low sclerophylic forest (619
ha) and old Pinus and Eucalyptus plantings with an
undergrowth of native species (137 ha). The area has
been described by Vuono et al. (1982), Mantovani
(1984, 1987) and Mantovani et al. (1989). The only
other primate found both at Santa Isabel and Mogi-
Guaqu was the black-fronted titi, Callicebus
personatus nigrifrons.

Both areas were visited in June 1995, a few weeks
apart, and censused by strip transects. A total of 85
km was walked in Santa Isabel during six days (10
km in riverine forest, 12 in forest bordering a water
reservoir, 29,5 in montane forest, 25.5 in hilltop for-
est and eight in planted forest with native under-
growth). At Mogi-Guaqu 48.1 km were walked dur-
ing four days (26 km in gallery forest, 19.6 in cerradao
and 2.5 in planted forest with native undergrowth).
Long distance and contact calls made by marmosets
could be detected from a distance of at least 100 m,
and the means by which most groups were located
involved the use of "playback" of recorded vocaliza-
tions. Whenever possible the marmosets were fol-
lowed, but only at Santa Isabel were they tame
enough.

Eight different groups were contacted 12 times at
Santa Isabel. Eight contacts were made in hilltop for-
est, two in valley forest and two in the transition be-
tween them, suggesting a selection for the hilltop habi-
tat. At Mogi-Guaqu, three groups were located four
times, once in cerraddo and three times in gallery
forest. In this case, we consider the sample size too
small to characterize any habitat preference. Overall
density at Santa Isabel was 1 group/142 ha and 1
group/240 ha at Mogi-Guaqu, but the latter is prob-
ably an underestimate. A low population was also
estimated for Barreiro Rico (Milton and Lucca, 1984).

In a previous visit to Mogi-Guaqu on 29 April 1988,
three different groups were located, one in gallery
forest and two in planted forest with native under-
growth. One of the groups was crossing a road from
an old Eucalyptus grove to native forest. From this
observation it is clear that C. aurita can use planted
forest at least as corridors for moving between habi-
tat patches and, probably, for foraging when there is
enough native vegetation growing in the undergrowth.


Page 77


Neotropical Primates 3(3), Septemher.1995






Page 78 Neotropical Primates 3(3), September1995


Figure 1. Distribution of Callithrix aurita in Sqo Paulo state,
Brazil, and other localities cited in the text. 1 Sao Paulo
city (e), 2 Serra da Cantareira (c), 3 Mairipora (c), 4 -
Serra do Japi (?), 5 Itatiba(?), 6 Campinas (e), 7 Fazenda
Barreiro Rico (c), 8 Mogi-Guaqu (c), 9 Jatai (C.
penicillata present), 10 Atibaia (c ?), 11- Santa Isabel (c),
12 Mogi das Cruzes (c), 13 Alto da Serra (c), 14 -
Borac6ia (c ?), 15 Taubatd (?), 16 Ubatuba (?), 17 -
Serra do Mar (?), 18 Cunha (c), 19 Posse (c ?), 20 -
Bananal (c), 21 Aragoiaba da Serra (type locality of
Leontopithecus chrysopygus), 22 Sao Luis de Paraitinga
(c). c currently found in the area, e locally extinct. ? -
status uncertain.
Group sizes at Santa Isabel were 4, 5, 5, 5, 6, 7, 8 and
11. Five groups observed at Mogi-Guacu in 1988 and
1995 had 4, 5, 5, 6 and 8 individuals. Group compo-
sition could not be assessed. No dependent infants
were seen at Mogi Guaqu. At Santa Isabel two groups
had infants beginning to move independently, one in
a group of five, and two in a group of eight.

At Santa Isabel, the marmosets were observed prob-
ing for invertebrates in mounds of leaves in vine
tangles and among the roots of an epiphytic Araceae.
They were also observed feeding on the fruits of
Protium cf. widgrenii (Burseraceae), Ficus organensis
(Moraceae), Myrcia rostrata (Myrtaceae), Prunus
sellowi (Rosaceae) and Matayba oleaginoides
(Sapindaceae). Two trees of the gum-producing le-
gume Piptadenia gonoacantha were found in an area
used by a marmoset group with holes probably pro-
duced by marmosets, but gum-eating was not actu-
ally observed. Crescent-shaped holes and scars were
also found to cover most of the trunk of two Tapirira
guianensis in a riverine forest patch at Mogi-Guaqu.
These observations suggest that C. aurita feed on
gums, as indicated by Torres de Assumpqlo (1983).


Conservation

Callithrix aurita is presently known from five pro-
tected areas in Sao Paulo: Cantareira State Park, Mogi
Guaqu Ecological Station (including the contiguous
Biological Reserve), Bananal Ecological Station,
Nfcleo Cunha of the Serra do Mar State Park and
Serra do Itapety Municipal Park. Of these, the largest
is Cantareira, with 5,800 ha.

The largest continuous forest fragment where the spe-
cies is known to occur in Sao Paulo is a 50 km stretch
along the southern Serra da Mantiqueira, from Santa
Isabel west to the Serra da Cantareira, and north to
Atibaia. The habitat is best preserved along the
Cantareira-Santa Isabel axis, where the forest is still
continuous, but it is fragmented towards Atibaia and
in the peripheral areas. Both Mogi-Gua9u and Barreiro
Rico are small and isolated, and may not have viable
populations.

The main threat to the survival of the species is habi-
tat fragmentation by real estate enterprises, mainly
weekend and small holiday estates, and closed con-
dominiums, and the introduction of other Callithrix
species from releases made by wildlife officers. Parts
of the Cantareira park have also been occupied by
shantytowns, and invasions by homeless people are
common. Despite the fact that most of the area has
some degree of legal protection as an Environmental
Protection Area, effective protection and management
of the forested areas is wanting. Introduced marmo-
sets occur both at Cantareira and Serra do Japi, threat-
ening the native species with competition and hybrid-
ization.

With continuous pressure from people wanting to live
in more pleasant locations than Sao Paulo city, and
the growth of the now 12 million inhabitant-mega-
lopolis toward the Serra da Cantareira, long-term vi-
ability of the best Callithrix aurita habitat so far
known in the state, and of most of the known popula-
tions, remains uncertain.

Acknowledgments. Waldir Joel provided logistic sup-
port and a pleasant stay at Mogi-Guaqu. Fernanda M.
and Mauro Galetti helped during fieldwork. Antonio
Pergola allowed access to the Atibaia museum col-
lection. Scopel Engenharia e Urbanismo kindly pro-
vided logistic support at Santa Isabel.

Fabio Olmos, SeqAo de Animais Silvestres, Instituto
Florestal, Caixa Postal 1322, 01059-970 Sao Paulo,
Sao Paulo, and Paulo Martuscelli, PROBIO,
Secretaria do Meio Ambiente de Sao Paulo, Caixa
Postal 194, 11750-970 Peruibe, Sao Paulo, Brazil.


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Neotropical Primates 3(3), September) 99S Page 79


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Callithrix aurita (E. Geoffroy, 1812), um sagiii
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alimentar de um grupo de saguis-da-serra-escuros
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Eiten, G. 1970. A vegetagao do estado de Sao Paulo.
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Hershkovitz, P. 1977. Living New World Monkeys
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age: effects of seasons, vegetation types, elevation,
time of day and insularity. Ecology 54: 687-708.
Leitao-Filho, H. de F. 1992. A flora arb6rea da Serra
do Japi. In: Hist6ria Natural da Serra do Japi:
Ecologia e Preservacdo de Uma Area Florestal no
Sudeste do Brasil. L. P. Morellato (org.), pp.40-62.
Editora da Unicamp/FAPESP, Campinas.
Mantovani, W. 1984. Composigao e similaridade
floristica, fenologia e espectro biol6gico do cerrado
da Reserva Biol6gica de Mogi-Guaqu SP. M.Sc.
Thesis, Universidade Estadual de Campinas,
Campinas.
Mantovani, W. 1987. Analise floristica e
fitossociol6gica do estrato herbiceo-subarbustivo
do cerrado na Reserva Biol6gica de Mogi-Guaqu e
em Itirapina. Ph.D. Thesis, Universidade Estadual
de Campinas, Campinas.
Mantovani, W., Rossi, L., Romaniuc Neto, S., Assad-
Ludewigs, I. Y., Wanderley, M. das G. L., de Melo,
M.M. da R. F., and de Toledo, C. B. 1989. Estudos
fitossociol6gicos da Area de mata ciliar em Mogi-
Guaqu SP. In: Simp6sio sobre a Mata Ciliar, L.
M. Barbosa (coord.), pp. 235-267. Fundagao Cargill,
Sao Paulo.
Marinho-Filho, J. 1992. Os mamiferos da Serra do
Japi. In: Hist6ria Natural da Serra do Japi: Ecologia
e Preservaado de uma Area Florestal no Sudeste
do Brasil, L.P. Morellato (org.), pp. 264-286.
Editora da Unicamp/FAPESP, Sao Paulo.


Marquis, R. J. and Braker, H. E.. 1994. Plant-herbi-
vore interactions: diversity, specificity and impact.
In: LaSelva: Ecology and Natural History ofa Neo-
tropical Rain Forest, L. A. McDade, K. S. Bawa,
H. A. Hespenheide and G. S. Hartshorn (eds.), pp.
261-281. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Martuscelli, P. and Rodrigues, M. G. 1992. Novas
populacoes do mico-leao caigara Leontopithecus
caissara (Lorini e Persson, 1990) no sudeste do
Brasil (Primates-Callitrichidae). Rev. Inst. Flor. Sao
Paulo 4: 920-924.
Milton, K. and Lucca, C. de 1984. Population esti-
mate for Brachyteles at Fazenda Barreiro Rico, Sao
Paulo State, Brazil. IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist
Group Newsletter (4): 27-28.
Muskin, A. 1984. Field notes and geographic distri-
bution of Callithrix aurita in eastern Brazil. Am. J
Primatol. 7: 377-380.
Rylands, A.B. 1989. Sympatric Brazilian callitrichids:
the black-tufted-ear marmoset Callithrix kuhli and
the golden-headed lion tamarin Leontopithecus
chrysomelas. J. Hum. Evol. 18: 679-697.
Rylands, A. B. 1994. Sagtii-da-serra-escuro Callithrix
aurita (t. Geoffroy, 1812). In: Livro Vermelho dos
Mamiferos Brasileiros Ameagados de Extinado, G.
A. B. Fonseca, A. B. Rylands, C. M. R. Costa, R. B.
Machado, Y. L. R. Leite (eds.), pp.47-54. Fundagdo
Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte.
Rylands, A. B. 1995. Habitat and the evolution of
social and reproductive behavior in Callitrichidae.
Am. J. Primatol. 37. In press.
Stevenson, M.F. and Rylands, A. B. 1988. The mar-
mosets, genus Callithrix. In: Ecology and Behav-
ior of Neotropical Primates, Vol. 2, R. A.
Mittermeier, A. F. Coimbra-Filho, A. B. Rylands
and G. A. B. Fonseca (eds.), pp.131-222. World
Wildlife Fund, Washington, D. C.
Torres de Assumpgao, C. 1983. An ecological study
of the primates of southeastern Brazil, with a reap-
praisal of Cebus apella races. Ph. D. Thesis, Uni-
versity of Edinburgh, Edinburgh.
Vivo, M. de 1991. Taxonomia de Callithrix Erxleben,
1777 (Callitrichidae, Primates). Fundagao
Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte.
Vuono, Y.S. de, Barbosa, L. M. and Batista, E. A.
1982. A Reserva Biol6gica de Mogi-Guaqu. Silvic.
Sao Paulo 16A: 548-556.

A NEW RECORD FOR CALLITHRIX MAUESI
MITTERMEIER, SCHWARZ & AYREs, 1992

The Rio Mauds marmoset (Callithrix mauesi) was
recently described by Mittermeier et al. (1992), based
on one specimen deposited in the scientific collection
of the Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi holotypee:


Neolropical Primates 3(3), September] 995


Page 79






Page 80 Neotropical Primates 3(3), Septemberl99S


MPEG-22177) and two social groups in the wild,
including seven live animals captured and the birth
in captivity of two infants in the collection of Marco
Schwarz. The new species was placed in the tassel-
eared subgroup of the Callithrix argentata species
group (Hershkovitz, 1977; Vivo, 1991; Mittermeier
et al., 1992). This was due to it being considered a
close relative of C. humeralifera and C. chrysoleuca,
and presenting as diagnostic features the shape and
placement of the ear tufts and their erect, "neatly
trimmed" appearance, the dark fur coloration, the
absence of the characteristic light mantle of C.
humeralifera, and the light orange tint to the
underparts.

All specimens cited by Mittermeier et al. (1992)
originated from the type locality, on the left bank of
the Rio Mauds-Agu (a widening of the Rio Mau6s),
opposite the town of Mauds, Amazonas state, Brazil
(0323'S, 5746'W). Based on information from local
people in 1985, the authors presumed that the species
occurred in the area between the Rios Mauds, Parand
Uraria, and Abacaxis. During a recent expedition to
the region, a new locality record was obtained for
this species, confirming in part the proposed range
(Fig. 1). Three adult specimens, a male and two
females (MPEG-23962, 23963, 23964), were
collected at the locality of Santa Maria, right bank of
the lower Rio Abacaxis, municipality ofNova Olinda
do Norte, Amazonas state (0354'S, 5846'W). The
material included skins and skulls, skeletons,
endoparasites, and blood and liver samples for genetic


studies, as well as stomach and intestinal contents.
The gut measurements were also taken. The
marmosets were in a small patch of secondary forest,
near a guaranA (Paulinia cupana) plantation.. C.
mauesi was particularly abundant in this area (Silva
Jr. and Noronha, in prep.). Although it was not
possible to visit the area, local people also reported
the occurrence of C. mauesi in the vicinity of the town
of Abacaxis, right bank of the Rio Abacaxis (0355'S,
5845'W), a few kilometers below Santa Maria.
Locals, including a hunter, reported its absence
however, from Sao Joao, left bank of the Rio
Marimari, near its confluence with the Rio Abacaxis
(0357'S, 5848'W), and two other places on the left
bank of the Rio Abacaxis, opposite Santa Maria. This
suggests that the Rio Abacaxis is the limit to its range
in the southwest. C. mauesi may be partially sympatric
with a newly described species of bare-eared
marmoset (Silva Jr. and Noronha, in press) on the
right bank of the Rio Abacaxis, according to
information obtained from the localities of Abacaxis
and Santa Maria cited above, and also based on the
data available for the paratypes of the new species
(MPEG-23959, 23960), originating from the locality
of Terra Preta, right bank of the middle Rio Abacaxis
(0449'S, 5826'W). However, this remains to be
demonstrated.

Acknowledgements: This study was supported by the
Brazil Science Council (CNPq), Funda;ao Floresta
Amazfnica, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur
Foundation, the Funda9ao Nacional de Sadde,
Amazon Ecopark Hot6is e Turismo Ltda., and the
Universidade Federal do Para. Special thanks are due
to Raimundo Rodrigues da Silva, Souzimar Rodriguez
de Lima, Joao Bosco da Costa Araijo, ClAudia Helena
Tagliaro, Dr Marinus Hoogmoed, Sr. Ricarte from
Santa Maria, and Comandante Chrystiano de Souza
Costa.

Jos6 de Sousa e Silva Jr., Departamento de Zoologia,
Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Caixa Postal 399,
66040-170 Bel6m, Para, and Mauricio de Almeida
Noronha, Funda go Floresta Amaz6nica, Rua dos
Jatobas 142, Coroado III, 69085-380 Manaus,
Amazonas, Brazil.

References

Hershkovitz, P. 1977. Living New World Monkeys,
Vol. 1. (Platyrrhini), With an Introduction to the
Primates. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Mittermeier, R.A., Schwarz, M. and Ayres, J.M. 1992.
A new species of marmoset, genus Callithrix
Erxleben, 1777 (Callitrichidae, Primates) from the


Figure 1. Available data on the geographic distribution of
Callithrix mauesi, based on Mittermeier et al. (1992) and
the new records.


Page 80


Neotropical Primates 3(3), September1995





Neotropical Primates 3(3), September1995 Page 81


Rio Mau6s region, state of Amazonas, central Bra-
zilian Amazonia. Goeldiana Zoologia (14): 1-17.
Silva Jr., J.S. and Noronha, M.A. In press. On a new
species of bare-eared marmoset, genus Callithrix
Erxleben, 1777, from central Amazonia, Brazil (Pri-
mates: Callitrichidae). Goeldiana Zoologia (18).
Silva Jr., J.S. and Noronha, M.A. In prep. Resultados
de uma pequena expedigao primatol6gica A
Amaz6nia Central Brasileira (Primates, Platyrrhini).
Vivo, M. de. 1991. Taxonomia de Callithrix Erxleben,
1777 (Callitrichidae, Primates). Fundaco
Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte.

PRIMATES AND CONSERVATION IN THE
GUAJARA-MIRIM STATE PARK, RONDONIA,
BRAZIL

Located in western Rond6nia (Fig. 1), the 258,000
ha Guajara-Mirim State Park was decreed in 1990.
The Park is just over 200 km south-west of the Samuel
Ecological Station, the primate fauna of which is well-
known from the rescue operation during the construc-
tion of the Samuel Hydroelectric Reservoir (Schneider
et al., 1990). Seven diurnal primates are found at
Samuel, including Saguinus fuscicollis which has a
distribution otherwise restricted to the west of the Rio
Madeira (Hershkovitz, 1977), but excluding howler
monkeys, Alouatta.

An equivalent primate community was encountered
on the west or left bank of the Rio Jiparana at Calama,
100 km northwest of Samuel (Fig. 1), but not east of
this river, which plays a role in the zoogeography of
at least five platyrrhine genera (Ferrari and Lopes,
1992). As no major river or other geographic barrier
apparently separates these two sites from Guajard-
Mirim, an equivalent primate community would be
expected at this site. However, while seven diurnal
monkeys were also observed during the preliminary
survey at Guajara-Mirim in August 1995 reported here
(Table 1), the composition of the primate community
was different from that at the two sites described
above, with the addition of howler monkeys, Alouatta
seniculus, and omission of marmosets, Callithrix
emiliae. The absence of Callithrix was confirmed in

Table 1. Diurnal primates ob-
served in the Guajara-Mirim State
Park Rond6nia.
Alouatta seniculus
Ateles chamek
Callicebus brunneus
Cebus apella
Pithecia irrorata
Saguinus fuscicollis weddelli
Saimiri sciureuss) ustus


Figure 1. Location of the Guajara-Mirim State Park,
Rond6nia, Brazil.

interviews with local residents, although the possi-
bility of marmosets occurring in areas of the Park not
visited during the survey cannot be ruled out alto-
gether.

The differences between these communities raise a
number of interesting questions with regard to the
ecology and zoogeography of primates in southwest-
ern Amazonia, in particular because both Alouatta
and Callithrix are among the most ecologically ver-
satile of the platyrrhines.

One factor that may be important in the case of
Callithrix is competition with a second callitrichine,
S.fuscicollis (see Lopes and Ferrari, 1994), combined
with differences in habitat quality, similar to those
that may determine the distribution of Callithrix
argentata east of the Rio Xingu (Ferrari and Lopes,
1990). Primary forest habitat observed at Guajard-
Mirim appeared, qualitatively, to be of lower stature,
more open, and more deciduous than that at Samuel,
as might be expected from respective differences in
latitude, altitude, and precipitation. However, while
competition with a second ateline (Ateles chamek)
may at least potentially be a factor, it is unclear
how these same differences in habitat quality might
have the opposite effect on the distribution ofAlouatta
seniculus.

Far more data are needed before a more definitive
analysis of such factors will be possible, but the
present study does indicate that Callithrix is less
widely distributed in western Amazonia than was pre-
viously thought (Rylands et al., 1993), and that S.
fuscicollis is more widespread.

The GuajarA-Mirim State Park has, until very recently,
been isolated from areas of human colonization, but





Page 82


logging roads and land clearance are now encroach-
ing on its western limits, and the state government is
planning the construction of a highway that will bi-
sect the Park, with predictable consequences
(Fearnside and Ferreira, 1984). For the time being, at
least, there appears to little habitat disturbance or
hunting within the Park's boundaries. Spider mon-
keys (A. chamek) were in fact the most frequently-
observed primates, and large-bodied frugivorous birds
such as cracids (Mitu, Penelope) and macaws (Ara
ararauna, Ara macao) were apparently abundant. S.
fuscicollis, on the other hand, was sighted less than
half as often as Ateles, and mainly in disturbed forest
adjacent to the Park's accommodation.

The fieldwork reported here was supported by the
United Nations Development Program (PNUD) and
the Secretaria de Estado do Desenvolvimento
Ambiental (SEDAM), Rond6nia. We would also like
to thank Izael F. da Silva and Juvenal D. Fernandes.

Stephen F. Ferrari, M. Aparecida Lopes, Ernesto
H. Cruz Neto, Universidade Federal do Pard, Caixa
Postal 8607, 66075-150 Bel6m, Par&, M. Aurea E.
S. Silveira, Eleildon M. Ramos, Paulo C. M. Ramos,
SEDAM, Rond8nia, Daniella M. Tourinho, FIMA
Rond6nia, and Nilo F. A. MagalhAes, ITERON,
Rond6nia, Brazil.

References

Fearnside, P. M. and Ferreira, G. L. 1984. Roads in
Rond6nia: highway construction and the farce of
unprotected reserves in Brazil's Amazon forest.
Environ. Conserv. 11: 358-360.
Ferrari, S. F. and Lopes, M. A. 1990. A survey of
primates in Central Pard. Bol. Mus. Para. E. Goeldi,
Zool. 6: 169-179.
Ferrari, S. F. and Lopes, M. A. 1992. New data on
the distribution of primates in the region of the
confluence of the Jiparana and Madeira rivers in
Amazonas and Rond6nia, Brazil. Goeldiana Zool.
11: 1-12.
Hershkovitz, P. 1977. Living New World Monkeys
(Playrrhini), Vol. 1, With an Introduction to Pri-
mates. Chicago University Press, Chicago.
Lopes, M. A. and Ferrari, S. F. 1994. Foraging
behaviour of a tamarin group (Saguinusfuscicollis
weddelli), and interactions with marmosets
(Callithrix emiliae). Int. J. Primatol. 15: 373-387.
Rylands, A. B., Coimbra-Filho, A. F. and Mittermeier,
R. A. 1993. Systematics, geographic distribution,
and some notes on the conservation status of the
Callitrichidae. In: Marmosets and Tamarins: Sys-
tematics, Behaviour, and Ecology, A. B. Rylands


Neotropical Primates 3(3), September1995

(ed.), pp.11-77. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Schneider, H., Martins, E. S., Sampaio, M. I., Bampi,
M. I., Val6rio, C. B. Juras, I. A. G. M., and Ghilardi
Jr., R. 1990. Relat6rio da Opera9Ao Jamari. Unpubl.
Report to Eletronorte S/A., Brasilia.


REINTRODUCAO: UMA
CONSERVACIONISTA OU
PERIGOSO?


FERRAMENTA
BRINQUEDO


Minha resposta a questdo proposta no titulo 6
amboss". A reintrodugiojd salvou vdrias esp6cies da
extingao (Conway, 1989) e seu valor como uma
ferramenta conservacionista 6 indiscutivel. No
entanto, neste artigo, gostaria de enfatizar o lado negro
das reintroducoes para evitar que elas se tomem uma
atividade rotineira (por exemplo, Agoramoorthy,
1995). Nada do que serd discutido aqui 6 novo. A
Uniao Mundial de Conserva9ao (UICN) tern diretrizes
explicitas sobre as situa9ges em que as reintrodug6es
devem ou nao ser utilizadas (IUCN, 1987). Neste
artigo, uso "reintrodug9ao" no sentido amplo que inclui
aumento de estoques ji existentes.

Existem vdrios aspects negatives sobre a soltura de
animals em areas em que a esp6cie jA existe. Estes
incluem a ruptura de rela9oes sociais ji existentes, a
exclusao de individuos quando a populagao esta
pr6xima i capacidade de suporte do ambiente, e a
degrada9ao do habitat por popula96es mantidas
artificialmente densas. No entanto, gostaria de enfocar
o problema das doengas, porque este tern a maior
chance de provocar catAstrofes (Viggers et al., 1993).

Somente agora as doengas transmitidas ao ser human
por primatas estao chamando aten9ao do pTiblico. E
important lembrar que as doengas podem ser
transmitidas tamb6m em sentido inverso, como 6 o
caso de tuberculose em chimpanz6s (Viggers et al.,
1993). Doengas que normalmente nao causam
conseqiiencias s6rias para as popula96es (mas nao
necessariamente para individuos) podem ser critics
quando a populac9o tamb6m esta sendo impactada
pela destruig9o de seu habitat.

As pessoas que estao soltando os animals alegam que
eles sao aparentemente saudaveis. Pordm, muitas
doengas que podem ser fatais sob condi96es naturais
de stress climitico e nutritional, podem nao apresentar
sintomas em cativeiro. A tuberculose no home 6
um caso cl6ssico. Estima-se que 30% da popula~go
seja portadora do bacilo sem apresentar sintomas. No
entanto, sob condi9ges de desnutrigo, como acontece
em epocas de guerra, epidemias assustadoras sLo
desencadeadas.





Page 83


A declaraqao de que o animal foi submetido a um
exame veterinario prdvio A soltura nao invalida este
argument. Potencialmente, estamos tratando de
doengas cujos sintomas sao desconhecidos. Nenhum
m6dico do mundo poderia ter identificado o virus HIV
nos primeiros portadores assintomaticos. Mesmo
depois do aparecimento de milhares de pessoas com
sintomas de AIDS, passaram-se anos ate o virus ser
isolado. Exames veterindrios sao artificios utilizados
para reduzir o risco quando n6s ja julgamos que os
beneficios da introdugao sao potencialmente muito
maiores que o risco de causar a extin9ao da popula9qo/
especie.

0 fato de a esp6cie ser comum e de ampla distribuicao
nao indica que a doenga nao afetarA a populagao. Os
coalas da Australia sao dizimados regularmente por
epidemias em vastas Areas e os efeitos da "rinderpest"
nos ungulados africanos 6 bern conhecido. Na pior
das hip6teses, uma especie comum pode se recuperar
mas, ao long do process, transmite a doen9a para
esp6cies raras e ameagadas.

Qual 6 a possibilidade de uma dada introdugao
desencadear uma epidemia catastr6fica? Certamente
6 menor que um em vArios milhares. Isto justificaria
a soltura? Somente se ignoramos a estatistica. A
realidade 6 que, a cada ano, milhares de animals estso
sendo press e doados. Individualmente, a soltura de
cada um represent pouco risco. Em conjunto, elas
representam um dos maiores perigos para as
popula96es silvestres de primatas. Os primat6logos
neotropicais deveriam assumir as diretrizes da UICN
para tentar reduzir os riscos.

As reintroduq6es e o aumento de estoques de algumas
esp6cies, como os micos-le6es, precisa continuar. Em
l1guns casos, a soltura de uma especie comum para
testar a metodologia antes de tentar corn a especie
ameagada 6 aconselhivel. No entanto, a soltura
rotineira de individuos em desacordo com as diretrizes
da UICN deveria ser desestimulada.

Ningu6m quer sacrificar um individuo, especialmente
um primata. Porim, muitas vezes, do ponto de vista
da conservagao de esp6cies e a manuteng o da
biodiversidade, esta 6 a attitude mais apropriada. Atd
do ponto de vista educational, sacrificar o animal pode
ser recomendAvel. A pessoa que tira um animal da
natureza ou estimula a prdtica atraves do comdrcio
nas feiras deveria sentir o gosto amargo de ter acabado
com a vida biol6gico do individuo. Soltar o animal
na natureza para ameagar os estoques selvagens nao
deve substituir esse gosto amargo pela sensa9ao de
ser um her6i que esta ajudando a especie sobreviver.


O aparecimento de animals nas ruas dos bairros da
periferia da cidades 6 sinal de que seus habitats
naturais estao sendo destruidos. LevA-los para outras
dreas e solta-los talvez resolve problems politicos e
emocionais mas a agao 6 neutra ou negative em terms
de conservagao.

As seguintes prioridades sao recomendadas para
pessoas e 6rgaos que recebem primatas ou outros
animals silvestres:

1) Tentar alojar o animal num zool6gico que participe
de um program de reprodugao em cativeiro. Isto 6
ficil para todos as espdcies ameagadas de extincao.

2) Entregar o animal para um grupo que esta tentando
recuperar a esp6cie atravds de um piano de manejo
que esteja de acordo corn as recomendaq6es da UICN.
O Institute Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente (Ibama) pode
indicar estes grupos.

3) Doar o animal para um institute de pesquisa para
estudos comportamentais, fisiol6gicos, morfol6gicos
ou taxon6micos.

4) Sacrificar o animal e se descartar do cadAver sob
orientagio veterinaria.

Quando a soltura do animal 6 realizada por razoes
emocionais ou politicos do tipo "para ingles ver", os
praticantes devem ser explicitos sobre seus motivos
e nao tentar implicar valor conservacionista na aco.
Inclusive, eles deveriam ter a coragem de admitir que
preferem que o animal morra na natureza corn os
riscos concomitantes para a especie, ao invds de
assumir a real responsabilidade pelo manejo da vida
silvestre.

William E. Magnusson, Coordena9go de Pesquisas
em Ecologia, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da
Amaz6nia, Caixa Postal 478, 69011-970 Manaus,
Amazonas, Brasil.

Referencias
Agoramoorthy, G. 1995. Red howling monkey
(Alouatta seniculus) reintroduction in a gallery for-
est of Hato Flores Moradas, Venezuela. Neotropi-
cal Primates 3(1): 9-10.
Conway, W. G. 1989. The prospects for sustaining
species and their evolution. In: Conservation for the
Twenty-first Century, D. Western and M. Pearl
(eds.), pp.199-209. Oxford University Press, New
York.
IUCN. 1987. Translocation of Living Organisms. The
World Conservation Union (IUCN), Gland. 20pp.
Viggers, K. L., Lindenmayer, D. B. e Spratt, D. M.


Neotropical Primates 3(3), September]995






Page 84 Neotropical Primates 3(3), September1995


1993. The importance of disease in reintroduction
programmes. Wildl. Res. 20(5): 687-689.



News I

BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY STUDY OF RED
UAKARI, CACAJAO CALVUS UCAYALII, IN
NORTHEASTERN PERU

A long-term behavioral ecology study of red uakari
(Cacajao calvus ucayalii) was begun in April 1993
in northeastern Peru, approximately 110 km south of
Iquitos, along the Quebrada Blanco and adjacent to
the Reserva Comunal Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo (see
Aquino, 1995). The principal investigator of this
project, Suzi Leonard, works under the auspices of
the Detroit Zoological Institute, and under the
direction of Cynthia Bennett, Research Zoologist at
the Dallas Zoo. The project was initiated in
cooperation with I.V.I.T.A./The Peruvian Primate
Project, and continues in conjunction with the
biological science departments of the Universidad
Nacional de La Amazonia Peruana in Iquitos.
This subspecies of uakari has been little studied in
the wild. The critical information on the species comes
from the work of Ayres (1986) with the white uakari
(C.c.calvus) in Brazil. Ayres' long-term uakari work
gives this species as a flooded-forest specialist. Our
findings indicate that the red subspecies in our study
area spend at least part of their time in terra firme
forests. During the 1500+ hours searching for and
following red uakari, we have totaled 270+ contact
hours with the animals over 14 months (April 1993 -
December 1995). All of these contact hours were in
terra firme forests (following Encarnaci6n, 1985). The
approximately 90 km study area abuts flooded forest
on the west, and possibly on the south, and the uakari
may be spending time out of the study area in these
locations. Based on search time versus contact time,
we know these groups use immense ranges. Day range
lengths averaged 7.3 km.
During four months in 1994, we totaled 151.5 hours
of behavioral scans on red uakari groups, taken at
15-minute intervals (Altmann, 1974). Interestingly,
almost 30% of those scans caught the uakari in
association with other species of primates; and 76%
of their associative time was with woolly monkeys
(Lagothrix lagotricha). During the next two years,
we will be concentrating on the food selection of both
the uakari and the woollies, in and out ofpolyspecific
groups, in an attempt to determine whether there is a
resource advantage to association for one or both
species. We also predict that, in an area where large


eagles, including the harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja)
still prey on primates (pers. obs.), avian predator
protection (Struhsaker, 1981) may prove influential
in uakari-woolly monkey decisions to associate.
In July 1995, with the aid of Kenneth Glander (Duke
University Primate Center), Fred Koontz (Wildlife
Conservation Society), and Wendy Westrom (DVM),
we will be radio-collaring several uakari. Hopefully,
telemetry will improve our contact time, help us to
define home range boundaries, and identify individu-
als for edification of social systems.

Acknowledgments: This project would have been
impossible without the strong encouragement of Dr
Ron Kagan, Director of the Detroit Zoological
Institute. We thank Filomeno Encamaci6n for his
botanical expertise, and Rolando Aquino for his strong
field work. Both are experienced biologists with
IVITA, Peru. In the field, we would have been lost
without the help of three outstanding assistants, Jeisen
Shahuano, Hugo Huanaquiri, and Robert Pifiedo.

Suzi Leonard, Apartado 668, Iquitos, Peru, and
Cynthia Bennett, The Dallas Zoo, 621 East
Clarendon Drive, Dallas, Texas 75203-2996, USA.

References

Altmann, J. 1974. Observational study of behaviour:
sampling methods. Behaviour 49: 227-267.
Aquino, R. 1995. Conservaci6n de Cacajao calvus
ucayalii en la Amazonia Peruana. Neotropical Pri-
mates 3(2): 40-42.
Ayres, J. M. 1986. Uakaris and Amazonian Flooded
Forest. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University
of Cambridge, UK.
Encarnaci6n, F. 1985. Introducci6n a la flora y
vegetaci6n de la Amazonia peruana. Candollea 40:
237-252.
Struhsaker, T. T. 1981. Polyspecific associations
among tropical rain forest primates. Z. Tierpsychol.
57: 268-304.

BLACK LION TAMARINS IN THE CENTRAL
PARK WILDLIFE CENTER, NEW YORK

SFour black lion tamarins,
Leontopithecus chrysopygus, are
settling into their new home in the
Central Park Wildlife Center, New
York, USA. They are the first to
be imported into North America. Efforts have been
made to provide a varied and stimulating environ-
ment for both pairs, one of which is on exhibit, while
the second pair remains behind the scenes. The black


Page 84


Neotropical Primates 3(3), September]995






Neotropical Primates 3(3), September1995 Page 8S


lion tamarin exhibit, located in the Tropic Building,
features trees with special feeding holes. Keepers
place fruit, meal worms, and other foods into differ-
ent combinations of holes each day to stimulate the
tamarins to search for their meals. The exhibit also
includes vines for climbing which can be moved
around for variety. Similar environmental
enrichmnents are also provided to the pair off exhibit.

In addition to providing the black lion tamarins with
a stimulating environment, the Central Park Wildlife
Center aims to educate the public about the threats to
this species. Graphics explain that the endangered sta-
tus of the black lion tamarin is due to the destruction
of their rain forest home. The Wildlife Center also
has two other types of tamarins, the cotton-top,
Saguinus oedipus, and the golden-headed lion tama-
rin, L. chrysomelas, which also provide opportuni-
ties for education. In addition, a stage show presented
for zoo visitors uses cotton-top tamarin puppets to
educate children about the destruction of the forest,
and the importance of saving this environment for
tamarins and other animals which live there.

Alison Levine, Public Affairs, Central Park Wildlife
Center, Wildlife Conservation Society, 830 Fifth Av-
enue, New York, New York 10021, USA.


1994 INTERNATIONAL STUDBOOK FOR THE
GOLDEN-HEADED LION TAMARIN

The 1994 Studbook for the golden-headed lion tama-
rin, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, was recently pub-
lished by the Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp
on behalf of the International Recovery and Manage-
ment Committee for the species. This, the 7th Inter-
national Studbook, prepared by Helga De Bois,
Antwerp Zoo, covers the period 1 January 1994 to 31
December 1994. It contains information on animal
identities and locations, sex, parentage, and causes
of deaths. In addition, it includes a list of addresses
of holders, data on the current demographic and ge-
netic status of the population, and a bibliography. It
is maintained in SPARKS, developed by the Interna-
tional Species Information System (ISIS), and is avail-
able free of charge from the studbook keeper.

On 31 December 1994, the number of living animals
in captivity was 616, distributed through Brazil (245
in 13 institutions), North America (99 in 19 institu-
tions), Europe (233 in 25 institutions) and Asia (39
in two institutions). The number of founders increased
from 108 to 160 (33 without living descendants). The
percentage growth of the population during 1994 was


6%.

Helga De Bois, Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp,
Koningen Astridplein 26,2018 Antwerpen, Belgium.
Tel: +32 3 2024 580, Fax: +32 3 2024 547.

Reference

De Bois, H. 1995. 1994 International Studbook for
the Golden-Headed Lion Tamarin Leontopithecus
chrysomelas. Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp,
Antwerp. 81pp.


EEP STUDBOOK FOR THE EMPEROR TAMARIN

The first international studbook for Saguinus
imperator imperator and S. i. subgrisescens (1991)
was compiled by Lee Nesler, Pittsburgh Zoo (Nesler,
1993). The first studbook for the European popula-
tion of emperor tamarins has now been compiled by
the Studbook keeper and EEP Coordinator for the
species, Eric Bairrao Ruivo, with assistance from
Cristiane Silveira, both of the Lisbon Zoo, Portugal.
It was sponsored by Compaq, and covers the entire
history of the species in Europe up to 31st December
1994. The emperor tamarin EEP was first approved
by the Executive Office of the European Endangered
Species Program (EEP) in 1990, and, till 1994, Rob
Colley, Penscynor Wildlife Park, was coordinator.
Eric Bairrao Ruivo took over in 1994. The Studbook
is divided into five sections: A summary of some taxo-
.nomic and biological aspects of the species; a full
historical listing of the European population; a list-
ing of the living population of the two subspecies by
location; a studbook analysis; and an evaluation of
the progress, status, and future action of the program
for the species in European zoos and animal collec-
tions.

The European captive population of S. i. imperator
has never been sizable. It began in 1962 with just one
female, and only in 1976 were three more imported,
and in 1977 a further four animals. The population
grew to a maximum of 15 individuals in 1983, and
declined from there on. On 31 December 1994, there
were believed to be four animals (3.1) in Europe, al-
though only one male (in the Frankfurt Zoo) is offi-
.cially registered. S. i. subgrisescens was first regis-
tered for Europe in 1964, but no records were kept
until 1978. Since then the population has increased
to 128 (63.61.4) animals in 35 European institutions.
The main problem with this captive population, how-
ever, is infant and juvenile mortality .(45% mortality
in the first year); the reason for a lack of increase in


Neotropical Primates 3(3), September.1995


Page 85





Page 86

growth rate since 1978. The founder population is 34
(11 are still alive), and all except three have contrib-
uted descendants. The Studbook concludes that the
population is still too small for an adequate breeding
program. Some founders are over represented, but the
coordination recommend that none should have their
breeding curbed, although emphasis will be given to
encouraging breeding in the under represented lines.
The studbook keepers would be most grateful for in-
formation on any research projects on captive or wild
populations of this species.

Eric Bairrao Ruivo and Cristiane Silveira, Jardim
Zool6gico de Lisboa, Estrada de Benfica 158-160,
1500 Lisboa, Portugal.

References

Nesler, L. 1963, Studbook for captive emperor tama-
rins. Neotropical Primates 1(3): 7.
Ruivo, E. B. and Silveira, C. 1995. EEP Studbook for
the Emperor Tamarin Saguinus imperator ssp. Num-
ber One, 1994. Jardim Zool6gico de Lisboa, Lisboa.

A STUDY ON THE BEHAVIOR OF ADOLESCENT
FEMALE MURIQUIS

Research is being carried out on the migration of ado-
lescent female muriquis, Brachyteles arachnoides, at
the Caratinga Biological Station, Minas Gerais. In
muriqui groups the proportion of adult females re-
mains nearly constant as a result of the migration of
the adolescents, an important feature of the
sociodemography of this species (Strier, 1991). The
study aims to clarify why females emigrate, and the
social mechanisms involved. Data have been collected
to answer these, and other related questions, using
the observation technique of "focal-animal" (10
minute observation periods), possible due to the tame-
ness of the group under study (see Strier, 1992). Data
was collected over 12 months, from August 1994 to
July 1995, and has resulted in 1555 focal animal
samples. Dr Karen Strier of the Anthropology De-
partment, University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA,
and Sandra Hartz, Federal University of Rio Grande
do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil, are supervising the re-
search, which is supported by a U. S. National Sci-
ence Foundation Grant (BNS958298), the Liz
Clayborne and Art Ortenberg Foundation, the Chi-
cago Zoological Society, and the Lincoln Park Zoo,
Chicago.

Rodrigo C. Printes, Rua Tenente Coronel Fabricio
Pillar 650/01, Mont'Serrat, 90450-040 Porto Alegre,
Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.


Neotropical Primates 3(3), September 1995

References

Strier, K. B. 1991. Demography and conservation in
an endangered primate, Brachyteles arachnoides.
Conserv. Biol. 5: 214-218.
Strier, K. B. 1992. Faces in the Forest. The Endan-
gered Muriqui Monkeys of Brazil. Oxford Univer-
sity Press, Oxford.

VARIABILITY IN CONSTITUTIVE
HETEROCHROMATIN IN SOUTH AMERICAN
PRIMATES

In March 1995, JHlio C6sar Pieczarka defended his
thesis on the nature and variability of constitutive het-
erochromatin in South American primates. The the-
sis formed part of the requirements for a doctoral
degree in Genetics and Molecular Biology at the Fed-
eral University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre,
Brazil. His supervisor was Dr. Margarete Sufie
Mattevi, and the study was supported by the
Universidade Federal do ParA (UFPA), the
Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte
(UFRGS), the Fundalao de Amparo A Pesquisa do
Rio Grande do Sul (FAPERGS), the Financiadora de
Estudos e Projetos (FINEP), the Brazil Science Coun-
cil (CNPq), the Brazilian Higher Education Author-
ity (CAPES), and Eletronorte (Centrais Eldctricas do
Norte SA). The following is a summary of the thesis.

The aim of the work was to assess the distribution
and variability of constitutive heterochromatin in 10
platyrrhine primate species, and examine the diges-
tion mechanism of DNA by in situ restriction en-
zymes, in a broad study of the reaction of heterochro-
matin to these enzymes. The following callitrichids
were studied: Cebuellapygmaea, Callithrix geoffroyi,
C. argentata, C. humeralifera, C. emiliae, Saguinus
fuscicollis fuscicollis, S. mystax, and Leontopithecus
rosalia. These species show constitutive heterochro-
matin with very different patterns of distribution, de-
spite the similarity of their karyotypes in terms of
chromosome number and morphology. Two cebid
species were studied: Aotus and Ateles paniscus
paniscus, both of which have considerable quantities
of heterochromatin. The determination of correct
chromosomal pairs in each karyotype was made by
sequenced G/C-banding. The constitutive heterochro-
matin was analyzed by determining the in situ diges-
tion pattern using seven restriction enzymes (Hinfi,
Mbol, Alul, RsaI, Ddel, HaeIII and Mspl), sequenced
RE/C-banding, and fluorochrome banding
(Chromomicyn A3 and DAPI). This study permitted
the following conclusions:






Neotropical Primates 3(3), September1995 Page 87


Concerning constitutive heterochromatin in the
callitrichids:

a) There are at least four distinct types of consti-
tutive heterochromatin in Callithrix geoffroyi; three
in C. argentata, C. humeralifera, and C. emiliae; four
in Cebuella pygmaea; five in Saguinusf. fuscicollis;
three in S. mystax; three in Leontopithecus rosalia;
and three in Ateles paniscus and Aotus.
b) The comparative study of bands in the
callitrichid genera shows that their size and position
remain unaltered during the evolution of the groups,
but not their composition.
c) Chromosomes with rearrangements that some
taxa have different heterochromatic compositions in
their alternative forms.
d) The composition of distal heterochromatin in
callitrichids suggests a unique origin. It is possible
that this constitutive heterochromatin was originally
accumulated in the distal band of the short arm of
chromosome 6.
Comparing the performance of each enzyme in the
digestion of the heterochromatin in callitrichids;

a) The AluI enzyme showed more intensive di-
gestion than the others in the study of the centromeric
heterochromatins in biarmed chromosomes.
b) None of the restriction enzymes used in this
study showed significant digestion of the centromeric
heterochromatins of acrocentrics.
c) The enzyme RSal digested the distal constitu-
tive heterochromatin found in all four callitrichid
genera, showing a common origin for the heterochro-
matin.
d) The differential sensitivity to the other enzymes
of the distal heterochromatin of the various taxa indi-
cated that homogeneity is not complete in callitrichids.
The heterochromatin observed in some of the cebid
taxa (Ateles p. paniscus and Aotus studied here, as
well as Saimiri, Cebus, Alouatta, and Chiropotes) is
equilocally distributed as it is in the callitrichids.

Analyzing the heterochromatin of Platyrrhini in a phy-
logenetic perspective, it was found that sensitivity to
Alul is a characteristic common to the constitutive
heterochromatin of all. The callitrichids are still sen-
sitive to Rsal, whereas the cebids are sensitive to Hinfl
and resistant to Rsal. Amongst the callitrichids,
Saguinus shares with the cebids the largest amount
of the various types of constitutive heterochromatin.

The following was observed comparing the banding
patterns, obtained with restriction enzymes, to C-
banding produced by Barium hydroxide:


a) Variation in both the size of the band and its
position.
b) There are bands observed only with Alul, with
no correspondence in C-banding: cryptic bands.
c) There are C-bands with no correspondence to
traditional heterochromatin regions.
Relating the structure of a given heterochromatin and
its localization in the karyotype:

a) In most species the heterochromatic bands can
be separated into four types, each with distinct char-
acteristics: centromeric bands in biarmed chromo-
somes; centromeric bands in acrocentric bands; dis-
tal bands; and interstitial bands.
b) The centromeric bands of biarmed chromo-
somes are distinguishable from the centromeric bands
of acrocentrics.with regard to their composition. The
former show heterogeneity, and the latter homoge-
neity.
c) As a rule, the distal bands are homogeneous, or
at least show a clear common origin, whereas the in-
terstitial bands are heterogeneous.
d) The degree of homogeneity of some bands must
be produced by concerted evolution.
e) The destination of a specific constitutive het-
erochromatin will be defined by its localization in the
karyotype. There are different chromosomal domains
where the heterochroniatins remain isolated from each
other.
By comparing the date obtained in this study to the
current hypothesis on equilocality, it is possible to
conclude that the existence of nearly identical karyo-
types with radically different distributions of hetero-
chromatin eliminates some models that attempt to
explain these distributions on the basis of interphase
chromosomal configuration or on the types of rear-
rangements that would have occurred in the chromo-
somal evolution of the taxa.

Regarding the banding mechanisms by restriction en-
zymes:

a) In situ differential digestion of a given chro-
mosome segment by a restriction enzyme is due to
the distribution of cutting sites and to molecular in-
teractions between DNA and the chromosomal com-
ponents.
b) The use of sequenced C-banding made it pos-
sible to distinguish situations where a region was ef-
fectively digested by the enzyme from those where it
merely produced a negative G-banding pattern.
Juflio CUsar Pieczarka, Departamento de Gendtica,
Centro de Ciencias Biol6gicas, Universidade Federal
do Pari, Campus do Guama, 66075-110 Belem, Pari,


Page 87


Neotropical Primates 3(3), September1995





Page 88


Brazil.

Reference

Pieczarka, J. C. 1995. A Natureza e a Variabilidade
de Heterocromatina Constitutiva em Primatas Sul-
Americanas. Unpublished Doctoral Thesis,
Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto
Alegre. 202pp.

CHROMOSOMAL RELATIONS AND
PHYLOGENETIC AND PHENETIC ANALYSES IN
THE CALLITRICHIDAE

In March 1995, Cleusa Yoshiko Nagamachi defended
her thesis on chromosomal relations and the phylog-
eny of the Family Callitrichidae. It formed part of the
requirements for a doctoral degree in Genetics and
Molecular Biology at the Federal University of Rio
Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil. The study was
supervised by Dr. Margarete Sufie Mattevi, and sup-
ported by the Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA),
the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte
(UFRGS), the FundaqAo de Amparo A Pesquisa do
Rio Grande do Sul (FAPERGS), the Financiadora de
Estudos e Projetos (FINEP), the Brazil Science Coun-
cil (CNPq), the Brazilian Higher Education Author-
ity. (CAPES), and Eletronorte (Centrais Eldctricas do
Norte SA). The following is a summary of the thesis.

This study comprised the first broad inter- and
intrageneric cytogenetic (G, C, G/C and NOR band-
ing) and cytotaxonomic study of the family
Callitrichidae, including representatives of all four
genera: Cebuellapygmaea; Callithrix argentata group
(C. argentata, C. emiliae, C. chrysoleuca, C.
humeralifera, and C. mauesi); Callithrix jacchus
group (C. aurita, C. geoffroyi, C. jacchus, C. kuhli,
and C. penicillata); Leontopithecus (L. chrysomelas,
L. rosalia); and Saguinus (S. midas midas, S. m.
niger). The aim was to characterize each species,
group, and genus in terms of their chromosomes, as
well as to determine the types of chromosomal rear-
rangements that have occurred in the karyotypic dif-
ferentiation of the members of the family. The re-
sults were converted to numeric data and submitted
to phenetic and cladistic analyses to determine phy-
logenetic relationships and clusters among the
callitrichids. The phenetic analysis was performed
using the NTSYS-pc program (UPGMA method) and
the cladistic analysis with the NTSYS-pc (NJ method)
and PAUP programs. Cebus apella was used as an
outgroup in the cladistic analysis. The results obtained
allow for the following conclusions.


Neotropical Primates 3(3), September1995

1) Callitrichids share nearly all the euchromatic chro-
mosome segments.
2) Considering only the euchromatic portion, within
species groups and genera were all found to be
homosequential, with no chromosome rearrangement
differentiating their karyotypes.
3) Chromosomal rearrangements were found which
differentiated groups and genera, with five distinct
karyotypes as follows: a) a reciprocal translocation
differentiates Cebuella (2n = 44) from the Callithrix
argentata group (2n = 44); b) a centric fusion/fission
rearrangement and a paracentric inversion differenti-
ate both Cebuella and the C. argentata group from
the Callithrixjacchus group (2n = 46): c) a recipro-
cal translocation and a paracentric inversion differ-
entiate Leontopithecus (2n = 46) and Saguinus (2n =
46) from the C. jacchus group; and d) Saguinus di-
verges from all others by a paracentric inversion and
pericentric inversions in at least three pairs of acro-
centric autosomes.
4) The variations in the content of chromosomal ma-
terial are due to differences in the amount of
noncentromeric constitutive heterochromatin, the dis-
tribution patterns of which are characteristic in each
group or genus. This suggests that the accumulation
mechanisms of these constitutive heterochromatins
might have occurred after the differentiation of the
distinct group comprising the callitrichids.
5) The phenetic and cladistic analyses separate the
genus Cebus from the callitrichids, which form a
clade. In the callitrichids, the results show that the
marmosets (Cebuella and Callithrix) form a subclade:
Cebuella and the C. argentata group being more
closely related to each other than to the C. jacchus
group. Leontopithecus and Saguinus are also very
closely related, indicating that, if not derived from
each other, they share a close common ancestor.
Leontopithecus are karyotypically closer to the mar-
mosets (C. jacchus group) than is Saguinus.
6) On the basis of information obtained from chro-
mosomes, and taking into account the evolutionary
pathways, it was possible to suggest the karyotype of
an ancestor, as well as proposals for the origin, dif-
ferentiation and dispersion of the callitrichids. If evo-
lution occurred in the direction of a body size increase
(primitive hypothesis), the ancestral form would have
a karyotype similar to those of marmosets. If, on the
other hand, evolution was in the direction of a body
size decrease (phyletic dwarfism), the karyotype of
the ancestor would be similar to those of tamarins.
Both are chromosomally plausible. However, when
taking into account the current distributions of the
callitrichids, the proposal involving phyletic dwarf-






Neotropical Primates 3(3), S~ptember199S Page 89


ism is the more probable.
Cleusa Yoshiko, Nagamachi; Departaitento de
Gen6tica, Centro de Ciencias Biol6gicas,
Universidade Federal do Pard, Campus do Guama,
66075-110 Bel6m, Park, Brazil.

Reference

Nagamachi, C. Y. 1995. Relag5es Cromossomicas e
AnAlises Filogen6tica e de Agrupamento na Familia
Callitrichidae (Platyrrhini, Primates). Unpublished
Doctoral Thesis, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande
do Sul, Porto Alegre. 181pp.


CYTOGENETICS, CHROMOSOMAL EVOLUTION,
RADIATION AND SPECIATION IN SPIDER
MONKEYS

In 1994, Manuel Alfredo Araujo Medeiros completed
his Master's thesis on cytogenetics, chromosomal evo-
lution, radiation and speciation inAteles, for the Post-
graduate Course in Biological Sciences (specializa-
tion in Genetics) of the Federal University of Para
and the Emilio Goeldi Museum, Bel6m, Para, Brazil.
It was supervised by Dr. Regina Maria de Souza
Barros, and supported by the Brazil Science Council
(CNPq), the Brazilian Higher Education Authority
(CAPES), and the Universidad Autonoma de
Barcelona (UAB), Spain. The Emilio Goeldi Museum,
Bel6m, The Center for Forest Warfare Instruction
(CIGS), Manaus, the National Primate Center, Bel6m,
the Teresina Zoo, Piaui, and the Barcelona Zoo, Spain,
kindly provided material for the cytogenetic study of
the spider monkeys. The following is a summary of
the thesis.

The karyotypes were studied of 22 spider monkeys
of four subspecies: Ateles paniscus paniscus, A. p.
chamek, A. belzebuth hybridus, and A. b. marginatus
(following the taxonomy of Kellogg and Goldman,
1944). Four cytogenetic techniques were used: con-
ventional staining, G and C banding, and NOR stain-
ing. The data obtained concerning karyotype struc-
ture and chromosomal variation were compared to
that available in the literature. The results of the analy-
ses, and in particular the geographic variation in chro-
mosomes 6, 7, and 4/12, indicate that A. p. chamek
represents the most primitive form of the genus, which
would have originated in the southwestern Amazon
basin and spread eastwards, founding the ancestral
population of A. b. marginatus, and northwest, giv-
ing rise to A. b. belzebuth. The taxa found to the west
of the Andes would in this case have been derived


from the ancestral populations of A. b. belzebuth. A.
p. paniscus is almost certainly derived from the an-
cestral populations of A. b. hybridus.

The peripheral radiation of Ateles in the Amazon ba-
sin can be partially accounted for by a number of dif-
ferent models of biogeographic evolution, although
the relative distribution of the northernmost taxa and
the phylogenetic relationships between them, based
on cytogenetic data, indicate that significant changes
occurred in the distribution of forests during the Pleis-
tocene.

It was not possible to define the taxonomic status of
the Ateles forms studied here, although A. p. paniscus
appears to be a monotypic and reproductively iso-
lated from all other populations. The results of this
study nevertheless confirm the need for a taxonomic
revision of the genus, given that at least four karyo-
typically distinct groups- were identified: 1) A.
geoffroyi and A. belzebuth hybridus; 2) A. fusciceps
rufiventris and possibly A.f fusciceps; 3) A. belzebuth
belzebuth, A. paniscus chamek, and A. belzebuth
margihatus; and 4) A. paniscus paniscus.

Manuel Alfredo A. Medeiros, Departamento de
Biologia, Universidade Federal do Maranhao, Largo
dos Amores 21, Centro, 65020-240 Sao Luis,
Maranhao, Brazil.

References

Kellogg, R. and Goldman, E. A. 1944. Review of the
spider monkeys. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 96: 1-45;
Medeiros, M. A. A. 1994. Citogendtica, Evolugao
Cromoss6mica, Radiagao e Especiagao dos
Macacos-Aranha (Ateles, Primates). Unpubl.
Master's Thesis, Universidade Federal do Para,
Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Belem, Para. 137pp.

PUTTING PRIMATES IN THE CLASSROOM

The Primates, a four-part slide set that takes full ad-
vantage of young people's interest in monkeys, apes,
and the environment, is available for teachers to use
in their classrooms. Drawing on the library and re-
sources of the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research
Center, this set introduces the topics of primate be-
havior, primate conservation, primate taxonomy, and
field work. Accurate and accessible, each part con-
tains 72 slides with accompanying annotated script,
suggestions for classroom activities, bibliographies
and other supporting materials. The Primates has been
tested in schools and revised at the suggestion of
middle and high school teachers. The set is also eas-
ily adaptable for use in introductory classes at the


Xeotroical Primates 3(3), jptember]995


Page 89






Page 90 Neotropical Primates 3(3), September1995


undergraduate level, and can be used for staff train-
ing in zoological gardens and primate facilities. The
four parts are:

Behavior of SocialAnimals examines the social lives
of primates (including humans). Topics covered in-
clude the interactions of infants with their mothers;
the kinds of social groups in which primates live; how
primates communicate; friendly and unfriendly be-
havior; and how infants become part of a social group.
Examples are drawn from more than 20 species of
primates.

Conservation of Endangered Species explores how
primates use their habitat, and how threats to the habi-
tat have caused most primate species to become threat-
ened or endangered. Two conservation projects which
successfully incorporate education, benefits for the
local population, and habitat preservation, are exam-
ined in detail.

Taxonomic Classification introduces the common fea-
tures that characterize the Order Primates. Included
in the set are photos of members of each major group
of primates: Prosimians (eight species), New World
monkeys (12 species), Old World Monkeys (14 spe-
cies), and Apes (six species). Maps and graphics il-
lustrate the geographic distribution and classification
of group.

Field Work Integrating Research and Conservation
focuses on selected topics in conservation biology,
illustrating the ways which three primatologists do-
ing field work with lemurs, muriquis, and gorillas in-
tegrate their research studies with species conserva-
tion needs.

The Primates was developed through a grant from
the Center for Biology Education, University of Wis-
consin, Madison, and with additional support from
the American Society of Primatologists. Due to copy-
right restrictions, The Primates is not currently for
sale, but is available on loan from the Wisconsin Re-
gional Primate Research Center Library Audiovisual
Service. Each part is available for a 14-day loan via
mail for a US$10.00 service fee. The Primates may
be borrowed at no cost by individuals picking it up
on site. For more information, or to request these
materials, contact Ray Hamel, Special Collections
Librarian, Wisconsin Regional Primate Research
Center, University of Wisconsin, 1220 Capitol Court,
Madison, Wisconsin 53715-1299, USA. Tel: (608)
263-3512, e-mail: hamel@primate.wisc.edu.


FUNDACAO FLORESTA AMAZ6NICA

A Fundagao Floresta Amaz8-nica, com sede em
Manaus, implantou com a colaborargo do. Institute
V\oresta Brasi-leiro do Meio
.f- orest Ambiente e dos
v r a Recursos Naturais
(Ibama), o Centro
i de Reabilitagio de
s. i Primatas da
A m a z 6 n i a
(CRPAM). Este Centro e destinado a canalizar
esforgos para preservar, proteger e estudar os primatas
da regiao. Atualmente trabalha como uma entidade
maximizadora de pesquisas multidisciplinares na area
da primatologia (gendtica, parasitologia,
comportamento, inventArios faunisticos). 0 program
principal trata do desenvolvimento de t6cnicas para
reabilitag~o e reintroducgo de primatas apreendidos
do comdrcio illegal de fauna, assim como para os
nascidos no Programa de Reprodugo em Semi-
Cativeiro de Primatas Ameagados de ExtinqAo
(PRSCPAE).

A meta a ser alcangada com esta iniciativa 6 ampliar
os conhecimentos sobre manejo de populag9es,
atravds do aperfeigoamento das tdcnicas de
reabilitai9o, reintrodugao e translocag9o para primatas
neotropicais, o que representara uma esperanga de
ajuda para as espdcies ameagadas. Atualmente
possuimos individuos de 18 esp6cies de primatas, na
sua maioria em semi-liberdade. AtenqAo especial estA
sendo dada As espdcies Lagothrix lagotricha e Cebus
apella.

Projetos que slo especialmente pertinentes incluem
os seguintes: 1) o desenvolvimento de t6cnicas para
manejo de popula96es; 2) o estudo do comportamento,
servindo como base para avaliag9o das tecnicas de
manejo empregadas; e 3) fisiologia reprodutiva. Para
maiores informa9qes e propostas de projetos: contatar
Mauricio de Almeida Noronha, Coordenador do
CRPAM.

Mauricio de Almeida Noronha, Fundagao Floresta
Amaz6nica, Rua dos Jatobas 142, Coroado III, 69085-
380.Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil. Tel/Fax: + 55 092
644-4066.


AZA AWARD TO PROYECTO TITi

The American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA)
conferred their Significant Achievement Award to the
program "Proyecto Titi: A Multi-disciplinary Ap-


Page 90


Neotropical Primates 3(3), September1995






Neotropical Primates 3(3), September1995 Page 91


proach to the Conservation of the Cotton-top Tama-
rin in Colombia", during the AZA 70th Annual Con-
ference in September 1994. The Project Director is
Dr. Anne Savage, Research Director at the Roger
Williams Park Zoo, Providence, Rhode Island, USA.
The Program is examining what factors are causing
the decline of wild populations. Information is passed
on to government officials in charge of establishing
protected reserves, local officials regulating resource
use, and local people living in the area who are often
competing for the resources needed by the tamarins.
Community action programs have been established
to involve local people in conservation efforts, in-
cluding peer-teaching programs where older children
lead trips to the forest with younger children, as well
as an international exchange of information between
school children in Rhode Island and Colombia that
examines how water pollution affects the lives of the
local community and long-term conservation of natu-
ral resources.


PRIMATE CONSERVATION, INC. 1995 CALL
FOR GRANT PROPOSALS

Primate Conservation, Incorporated (PCI), Director
Noel Rowe, is a not-for-profit foundation to fund
field research that supports conservation programs for
wild populations of primates. Priority will be given
to projects that study, in their natural habitat, the least
known and most endangered species. The involve-
ment of citizens from the country in which the pri-
mates are found will be a plus. The intent is to pro-
vide support for original research that can be used to
formulate and to implement conservation plans for
the species studied.

Eligibility: Primate Conservation, Inc. will grant seed
moneys or provide matching grants for graduate stu-
dents, qualified conservationists and primatologists
to study rare and endangered primates and their con-
servation in their natural habitat. Grants have aver-
aged approximately US$2,500, with a maximum grant
of US$5.000. PCI does not support conferences, travel
to scientific meetings, legal actions, tuition, or sala-
ries at institutions, and overhead costs.

Selection Criteria: Proposals are evaluated on a com-
petitive basis. Applications are screened by outside
reviewers and the Board of Directors of PCI. All ap-
propriate projects will be considered, but the regions
of current interest are Asia and west Africa.

Closing Dates andNotification: Deadlines for all grant
application materials are March 1 and September 20.


Awards will be given May 15 and December 15.

Application Procedure: Grant applicants should write
for application materials. Please submit five copies
of our standard cover sheet and your proposal. Pro-
posals are to be submitted typed, double-spaced, in
English. Please send all application material to Pri-
mate Conservation, Inc. at the following address: 163
Town Lane, East Hampton, New York 11937-5000,
USA. Tel: 516 267-6856, Fax: 516 267-2024.

Please note: The address has changed since the an-
nouncement about Primate Conservation, Incorpo-
rated, was given in Neotropical Primates 3(1): 23,
1995. The Post Office Box number is no longer valid.


STUDIES ON NEO TROPICAL FAUNA AND
ENVIRONMENT NEw EDITORS

Professor Dr. Ernst-Josef Fittkau recently appointed
two new editors-in chief for the journal Studies on
Neotropical Fauna and Environment: PD Dr. Joachim
Adis, Tropical Ecology Working Group, Max-Planck-
Institute for Limnology, Pl6n, and Prof. Dr. Wolf
Engels, Tilbingen University, Germany. The scope
of this journal is research on the biology, ecology and
diversity of the Neotropical fauna. This includes taxo-
nomic and zoogeographic surveys, and studies of
animal communities and their relationships with bi-
otic and abiotic environmental conditions, including
terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems, in the
Neotropics. It is published in the Netherlands, by
Swets and Zeitlinger, but the official language is En-
glish. The first issue under the new editors-in-chief
will come out in January 1996.

Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment will
change to a two-column, A4 format, and the number
of articles published in each issue will be increased.
Original research contributions and small reviews (not
more than 15 pages, including figures and tables) are
welcomed. There are no page charges, and authors
receive 25 reprints. Field primatologists are
encouraged to submit their studies for publication.
For further information, please contact: Dr. Anne
Zillikens, Managing Editor, Zoologisches Institut der
Universitat, Auf der Morgenstelle 28, D-72076
Tilbingen, Germany. Fax: + 49 (0) 7071-296-950, e-
mail: anne.zilliken@uni-tuebingen.de.


BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION

Biodiversity and Conservation is an international


Page 91


Neotropical Primates 3(3), September1995






Page 92 Neotropical Primates 3(3), September1995


journal published by Chapman and Hall, devoted to
the publication of articles on all aspects of biological
diversity, its description, analysis and conservation,
and its controlled rational use by humankind. Relevant
research papers and incisive articles dealing with the
practicalities of conservation management, economic,
social, and political issues as well as timely case
studies are welcomed. The scope is wide and
multidisciplinary, and embraces all life-forms. Topics
include: assessment and monitoring of biodiversity,
captive breeding and relocations, marine biota, genetic
diversity, environmental planning and management,
and social and economic constraints on conservation.
It will be published monthly as from 1996. The
editors-in-chief are Alan T. Bull, Biological
Laboratory, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent
CT2 7NJ, and Ian R. Swingland, The Durrell Institute
of Conservation and Ecology, University of Kent,
Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NX, UK, and the editors are
Ghillean T. Prance, Royal Botanic Gardens, UK, and
Daniel Simberloff, Florida State University, USA.
Subscriptions (personal rate): US$99.00 (USA &
Canada), 99.00 (Europe) and 60.00 (rest of world).
Special issues are available: Wildlife Species for
Sustainable Food Production, Vol.4(3), 1995
(14.99); Biodiversity and Conservation in the Gulf
of the Guinea Islands Vol. 3(9), 1994 (19.99);
Protected Areas Vol. 3(5), 1994 (14.99); Botanic
Gardens Vol. 3(2), 1994 (14.99); Peatlands and
People, Vol. 2(5), 1993 (14.99); Global Biodiversity
and Conservation ofInsects, Vol. 2(3), 1993 (14.99);
and Biodiversity amongst Microorganisms and Its
Relevance, Vol. 1(4), 1992 (14.99). For order forms
and more information: Nancy Fogarty, Journals
Promotion Department, Chapman and Hall, 115 Fifth
Avenue, New York, NY 10003, USA, Tel: + 1 (212)
780 6233, Fax: + 1 (212) 260 1363, e-mail:
fogarty@chaphall.com, or Terry Sleight, Chapman
and Hall, Subscriptions Department, ITPS Ltd.,
Cheriton House, North Way, Andover, Hants SP10
5BE, UK, Tel: + 44 (0)1264 342 713, Fax: +44
(0)1264 342 807, e-mail: chsub@itps.co.uk.




Recent Publications

SPECIAL ISSUE OF ETOLOGIA

Etologia is published by the Sociedad Espafiola de
Etologia, Barcelona. Volume 3 (1993) of this journal
is a special issue of 321 pages containing 21 plenary
lectures of the XXIII International Ethological Con-
gress, held in Torremolinos, Spain, in September


1993. Prices in Spanish pesetas: Spain 5,500; Eu-
rope 6,500; Other countries 7,000. Copies of the
Abstract book for the conference, and volumes 1 and
2 of Etologia are also available. To order, please write
to: Sociedad Espafiola de Etologia, Museu de
Zoologia, Apartado 593, 08080 Barcelona, Spain.


AFRICAN PRIMATES NEWSLETTER OF THE
AFRICAN SECTION OF THE PSG

The first issue of African Primates, The Newsletter of
the Africa Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Special-
ist Group (36pp.) was published in July 1995. It is
edited by Thomas M. Butynski, Vice Chairman for
the African Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Spe-
cialist Group, and produced and distributed by Zoo
Atlanta's Conservation Action Resource Center
(ARC) and the National Museums of Kenya's Insti-
tute of Primate Research and Center for Biodiversity,
in collaboration with Conservation International and
the IUCN Eastern Africa Regional Office. Like Neo-
tropical Primates, it includes short articles, news, in-
formation on meetings; and recent literature, and also
has a section dealing with funding and training. Ar-
ticles in this first issue include: Status and Conserva-
tion of the Chimpanzee Pan troglodytes verus in
Guinea-Bissau S. Gippoliti and G. Dell'Omo; The
Biodiversity Crisis in Southwestern Ghana T. T.
Struhsaker and J. F. Oates; Good News for
Cercopithecus solatus, Gabon's Endemic Guenon -
L. White and A. Mackanga-Missandzou; Census of
Kenya's Endangered Red Colobus and Crested
Mangabey T. M. Butynski and G. Mwangi;
Recensement de Gorilles dans la Parc National du
Kahuzi-Biega au Zaire J. Hall; and Du Statut et de
l'Avenir des Primates au S6n6gal A. Galat-Luong.
Contributions are welcomed. For further information:
Thomas M. Butynski, Editor African Primates, Zoo
Atlanta, Africa Biodiversity Conservation Program,
P. O. Box 24434, Nairobi, Kenya. Tel: 254-2-745374
or 254-2-884369, Fax: 254-2-890615, e-mail:
enw@earo.iucn.ch.


BOOKS


Preguigas e Guaribas: Os Mamiferos Foli-
voros Arboricolos do Mamiraud, por Helder
Lima de Queiroz, 1995. Prego: R$ 10.00. Minist6rio
de Cidncia e Tecnologia (MCT), Conselho Nacional
de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnol6gico
(CNPq), Brasilia. 0 segundo volume da sdrie Estudos
do Mamiraud, apresenta diversos aspects da ecologia


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Neotropical Primates 3(3), September.1995






Neotropical Primates 3(3), September1995 Page 93


de dois generos de mamifferos da varzea amaz6nica,
comparando suas estrat6gias para a utilizacao dos
recursos da floresta. t o primeiro estudo onde dados
da ecologia de preguigas sio publicados corn
profundidade. Inicia a discussao corn as implica96es
do hibito folivoro em mamiferos de todo o mundo,
apresentando, num context mundial, os aspects
evolutivos e fisiol6gicos da folivoria em mamiferos.
Continue, apresentando as caracteristicas do habitat,
na Estag9o Ecol6gica Mamiraud, da preguiga-comum
(Bradypus variegatus) e do guariba-vermelho
(Alouatta seniculus) e discute os aspects
demograficos e o uso do tempo e do espago por essas
duas especies, demonstrando como guaribas e
preguigas, num mesmo ecossistema, compartilhando
um mesmo habitat, muitas vezes alimentando se nas
mesmas Arvores, encontraram solug6es ecol6gicas
para evitar a competig9o e maximizar sua eficiencia
na utiliza9qo dos recursos da floresta. Originado da
tese de mestrado do autor, este volume apresenta os
m6todos e as condi99es reais em que este estudo foi
realizado, no coraao da floresta amaz6nica. Para
leitores interessados em ecologia e zoologia,
preocupados com o destino da varzea amaz6nica e,
particularmente, da Estag9o Ecol6gica MamirauA, 6
uma obra altamente recomendavel. Ao adquirir seu
exemplar voce estara ajudando a implanta~ao da
Esta9ao Ecol6gica MamirauA. Favor escrever para:
Projeto MamirauA, Caixa Postal 038, 69.470-000
Tef6, Amazonas, Brasil. Tel./Fax: (092) 743-2736.

Research and Captive Propagation, edited by
J. K. Hodges, W. Kaumanns and U. Ganslosser, ap-
proximately 250pp, July 1995. Filander Verlag
GmbH, Flrth. Price DM45.00. This volume reviews
concepts, approaches and methods from a wide range
of biological disciplines, relating aspects of the spe-
cies' biology to the management of small populations
and captive breeding. It is aimed at zoo and wildlife
biologists, conservation and population managers, as
well as researchers with an interest in small popula-
tion management. Includes: Introduction zoo biol-
ogy and the quality of populations; Genetics meth-
ods and approaches for systematics and population
biology; Reproduction including the use of non-
invasive methods for endocrine monitoring, ultra-
sound and modern reproductive technologies
(cryoconservation, artificial insemination and contra-
ception); Behaviour and ecology: adaptability and
individuality in behavior and life history, physiology
of social situations, regulation of behaviour, imprint-
ing, rhythms, welfare aspects and cognitive ap-
proaches; Nutrition nutritional physiology and me-
tabolism, functional morphology of the gastric tract,
aspects relating to mineral and vitamin metabolism,


as well as ecological approaches and foraging strate-
gies; Miscellaneous problems of microtaxonomy,
organismic approaches in veterinary medicine, ex-
perimental pathology; and Selected case studies. To
order, please contact: Dr U. Ganslosser, Institut fuir
Zoologie 1, Universitat Erlangen-Niirnberg,
Staudtstrasse 5, 91058 Erlangen, Germany. Tel:
+9131 858073, Fax: +9131 15249.

Primatas do Brasil, por Paulo Auricchio, 250pp,
105 ilustrag6es preto-e-branco, 18 pranchas coloridas,
1995. Editora Terra Brasilis, Aruji, Sao Paulo. Prego:
R$45.00. Informag6es sobre biologia, ecologia,
distribui9ao geografica, pranchas coloridas para
identifica9ao das esp6cies, chaves de identificagdo, e
outras informa96es sobre todos os primatas do
Territ6rio Brasileiro. Encomendas: Editora Terra
Brasilis, Rua Zeferino Barbosa de Souza 502, 07400-
000 ArujA, SAo Paulo, Brasil. Tel./Fax: (011) 466-
2731.

Primatologia: Uma Fronteira em Expansdo
da Veterindria Mundial, by Milton Thiago de
Mello, 1995. 59pp. Academia Brasileira de Medicina
Veterinaria, Rio de Janeiro. Available from the au-
thor: Milton Thiago de Mello, SHIN QI 4, Conjunto
2, Casa 19, Lago Norte, 71510-225 Brasilia, D. F.

Oecologia Brasiliensis, Volume 1: Estrutura,
Funcionamento e Manejo de Ecossistemas
Brasileiros, edited by Francisco de Assis Esteves,
1995, 597pp. Institute de Biologia, Departamento de
Ecologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Janeiro, Rio
de Janeiro. Price R$30.00 (Brazil), US$40.00 (else-
where). This is the first volume in a series initiated
by the Postgraduate Program in Ecology, of the Insti-
tute of Biology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro.
Following an introduction explaining the philosophy
behind this series, the book contains 36 articles di-
vided into the following sections: Nutrient cycles in
aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems; Population Ecol-
ogy; Community Ecology; Consequences of human
activities on ecosystems; and Ecosystem management.
Available from: Programa de P6s-Graduagio em
Ecologia, Departamento de Ecologia, Instituto de
Biologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro,
Caixa Postal 68020, 21941-540 Rio de Janeiro, Rio
de Janeiro, Brazil. Tel./Fax: +55 (0)21 290-3308.


STUDBOOKS

De Bois, H. 1995. 1994 International Studbook for
the Golden-Headed Lion Tamarin Leontopithecus


Page 93


Neotropical Primates 3(3), Septemberl995






Page 94 Neotropical Primates 3(3), September1995


chrysomelas. Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp,
Antwerp. 81pp.
Newland, K. 1995. 1994 North American Regional
Studbook for South American Spider Monkeys
Ateles belzebuth, A. fusciceps, A. paniscus All
Subspecies. Sedgwick County Zoo, Wichita. 12 pp.
Ruivo, E. B. and Silveira, C. 1995. EEP Studbook for
the Emperor Tamarin Saguinus imperator ssp. Num-
ber One, 1994. Jardim Zool6gico de Lisboa, Lisboa.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Longley, A. 1995. Primate housing and cage design
issues: a selective bibliography, 1986-1994. Primate
Information Center, Seattle. 30pp. To order:
US$11.00 (+ US$1.00 shipping outside of USA).
Primate Information Center (PIC), Box 357330,
University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-
7330.

ARTICLES

Alencar, A. I., Yamamoto, M. E., Oliveira, M. S.,
Lopes, F. A., Sousa, M. B. C. and Silva, N. G. 1995.
Behavior and progesterone levels in Callithrix
jacchus females. Brazil. J. Med. Biol. Res. 28:591-
595.
Anonymous. 1995. Cotton-top tamarin master plan
completed. AZA Communiqud (June): 5.
Anonymous. 1995. Infanticide observed in black
howlers. Baboon Update, Community Conservation
Consultants, Howlers Forever, Inc. 6(1): 1.
Barton, R. A., Purvis, A. and Harvey, P. H. 1995.
Evolutionary radiation ofvisual and olfactory brain
systems in primates, bats and insectivores. Phil.
Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 348: 381-392.
Bicca-Marques, J. C. and Calegaro-Marques, C. 1994.
Activity budget and diet ofAlouatta caraya: an age-
sex analysis. Folia Primatol. 63: 216-220.
Bicca-Marques, J. C. and Calegaro-Marques, C. 1994.
Exotic plant species can serve as staple food sources
for wild howler populations. Folia Primatol. 63:
209-211.
Box, H. 0. and Smith P. 1995. Age and gender dif-
ferences in response to food enrichment in family
groups of captive marmosets (Callithrix -
Callitrichidae). Animal Technology 46(1): 11-18.
Box, H. 0., Rohrhuber, B. and Smith P. 1995. Fe-
male tamarins (Saguinus Callitrichidae) feed more
successfully than males in unfamiliar foraging tasks.
Behavioural Processes 34: 3-12.
Bright, P. W. and Walsh, A. L. 1995. Evaluating pre-
dictions about neotropical mammals and habitat
fragmentation. The Bulletin, British Ecological So-
ciety 26(3): 201-202.


Brumloop, A., Homburg, I., Peetz, A. and Riehl, R.
1994. Gular scent glands in adult female white-faced
saki, Pitheciapitheciapithecia, and field observa-
tions on scent-marking behaviour. Folia Primatol.
63:212-215.
Converse, L. J., Carlson, A. A., Ziegler, T. E. and
Snowdon, C. T. 1995. Communication of ovula-
tory state to mates by female pygmy marmosets,
Cebuella pygmaea. Anim. Behav. 49(3): 615-621.
Covert, H. H. and Williams, B. A. 1994. Recently
recovered specimens of North American omomyids
and adapids and their bearing on debates about an-
thropoid origins. In: Anthropoid Origins, J. G.
Fleagle and R. F. Kay (eds.), pp. 29-54. Plenum
Press, New York.
Defter, T. R. 1995. The time budget of a group of
wild woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha). Int.
J. Primatol. 16(1): 107-120.
Ferrari, S. F. 1995. Observations on Chiropotes
albinasus from the Rio dos Marmelos, Amazonas,
Brazil. Primates 36(2): 289-293.
Ferrari, S. F. and Diego, V. H. 1995. Habitat frag-
mentation and primate conservation in the Atlantic
forest of eastern Minas Gerais, Brazil. Oryx 29(3):
192-196.
Fleagle, J. G. and Kay, R. F. 1994. Anthropoid ori-
gins: past, present and future. In: Anthropoid Ori-
gins, J. G. Fleagle and R. F. Kay (eds.), pp. 675-
698. Plenum Press, New York.
Ford, S. M 1994. Primitive platyrrhines? Perspectives
on anthropoid origins from platyrrhine,
parapithecid, and preanthropoid postcrania. In: An-
thropoid Origins, J. G. Fleagle and R. F. Kay (eds.),
pp. 595-673. Plenum Press, New York.
French, J. A., Schaffner, C. M., Shepard, R. E. and
Miller, M. E. 1995. Familiarity with intruders modu-
lates agonism towards outgroup conspecifics in
Wied's black-tufted-ear marmoset (Callithrix kuhli:
Primates, Callitrichidae). Ethology 99(1): 24-38.
Ganzhom, J. U. and Wright, P. C. 1994. Temporal
patterns in primate leaf-eating: the possible role of
leaf chemistry. Folia Primatol. 63: 203-208.
Garcia, M., Borrell, A., Mudry, M., Egozcue, J. and
Ponsa, M. 1995. Prometaphase karyotype and
rerstriction-enzyme banding in squirrel monkeys,
Saimiri boliviensis boliviensis (Primates:
Platyrrhini). J. Mammal. 76(2):.497-503.
Hartwig, W. C. 1995. A giant New World monkey
from the Pleistocene of Brazil. J. Hum. Evol., 28(2):
121-145.
Heymann, E. W. 1993. The role of primates in tropi-
cal ecosystems. In: Animal-Plant Interactions in
Tropical Environments, W. Barthlott et al. (eds.),
pp. 103-108. Zoologisches Forschungsinstitut und
Museum Alexander Koenig, Bonn.


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Page 94




Page 95


Holmberg, L. Creating enrichment programs for pri-
mates. Shape of Enrichment, 4(2): 5-7.
Hrdy, S. B., Janson, C. and Van Schaik, C. 1994/1995.
Let's not throw out the baby with the bath water.
Evol. Anthropol., 3(5): 151-154.
Kaufman, D. M. 1995. Diversity of New World mam-
mals: universality of the latitudinal gradients of spe-
cies and bauplans. J Mammal. 76(2): 322-334.
King, J. E. 1995. Laterality in hand preferences and
reaching accuracy of cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus
oedipus). J. Comp. Psychol. 109(1): 34-41.
Laska, M. and Hudson, R. 1995. Ability of female
squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) to discriminate
between conspecific urine odours. Ethology 99(1):
39-52.
Livingston, K. 1995. "Aotus: the Owl Monkey", J. F.
Baer et al. (eds.). San Diego, Academic Press. 1994.
380pp. Science, 268(5209): 450. (Book review).
Lomolino, M. V. and Channell, R. 1995. Splendid
isolation: patterns of geographic range collapse in
endangered mammals. J. Mammal. 76(2): 335-347.
Mallinson, J. J. C. 1995. Strategic collection plan-
ning: an international evolutionary process. Zoo
Biol. 14(1): 31-35.
Margulis, S. W., Chin, J., Warneke, M., Dubach, J.
M. and Lindgren, V. 1995. The Y-autosome trans-
location of Callimicogoeldii.Int. J. Primatol. 16(1):
145-155.
McGrew, W. C. and Webster, J. 1995. Birth season-
ality in cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) de-
spite constant food supply and body weight. Pri-
mates 36(2): 241-248.\
Meireles, C. M. M., Schneider, M. P. C., Sampaio,
M. I. C., Schneider, H., Slightom, J. L., Chiu, C.-
H., Neiswanger, K., Gumucio, D. L., Czelusniak, J.
and Goodman, M. 1995. Fate of redundant gamma-
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pression. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 92(7): 2607-
2611.
Moro, M., Torii, R., Koizumi, H., Inada, Y., Etoh,
Y., Miyata, H. and Tanioka, Y. 1995. Serum levels
of prolactin during the ovarian cycle, pregnancy,
and lactation in the common marmoset (Callithrix
jacchus). Primates 36(2): 249-257.
Mota, M. T. S., Sousa, M. B. C. and Campos, M. F.
1995. The effect of parturition on the interactions
within pairs of common marmosets (Callithrix
jacchus). Brazil. J. Med. Biol. Res. 28: 108-112.
Natori, M. 1994. Craniometrical variations among
eastern Brazilian marmosets and their systematic
relationships. Primates (35(2): 167-176.
Nogge, G. 1995. Countdown 2025: project to save
lion tamarins. Zeitschrift des Kolner Zoo 38(1): 37-
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Page 99


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Silva, A., Sampaio, I., Schneider, H. and Schneider,
M. P. C. DNA mitochondrial e a taxonomia dos
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Snowdon, C. T. Social influences on vocal develop-
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Sousa, M. B. C., Peregrino, H. A. S., Gomes, S. C.,
Oliveira, A. L., Correa, F. S., Crispim, J. C. and
Cavalcante D. B. Caracteristicas das interag6es
socio-sexuais e sucesso reprodutivo de femeas do
sagui comum, Callithrix jacchus pareadas com
diferentes machos. p.82.
Souza, L. L., Pina, A. L. C. B. and Ferrari, S. F.
Comparagao de amostras focais e "scans" num
estudo do comportamento de Saimiri sciureus em
ambiente semi-natural (Bosque Rodrigues Alves,
Beldm). p.68.
Souza, S. B. and Setz, E. Z. F. 0 bambu na dieta de
sauAs Callicebus personatus em um fragmento
de mata do sul de Minas Gerais. p. 104.
Stumpf, B. 0. and Santee, D. P. Elementos vocais de
infants de saguis comuns selvagens (Callithrix
jacchus). p.48.
Szapkievich, V., Comas, C., Zunino, G. and Mudry,
M. Los cursos de Agua no serian barreras
reproductivas en los aulladores de Argentina (Pri-
mates: Platyrrhini). p.78.
Talebi-Gomes, M. and Ruiz, J. C. Dosagem de corti-
sol s6rico parametro fisiol6gico indicative de
ocorrencia de stress psicossocial em machos de
Cebus apella em cativeiro. p.91.
Teixeira, I. C. D,., Raulino, F. C., Albuquerque, A.
C. S. R., Martins, E. B. and Sousa, M. B. C. Estudo
preliminary sobre a atividade comportamental de
pares do sagui comum, Callithrixjacchus, ao long
do ciclo ovariano de femeas. p. 83.
Valladares-Padua, C. and Cullen Jr., L. Censo e
levantamento dos primatas da Fazenda Rio Claro
(Duratex S. A.), Lengois Paulista, Sao Paulo. p. 111.
Valladares-Padua, C., Cullen Jr, L., Ditt, E. H. and
Prado. Censo e conservagao de micos-leoes-pretos






Page 100 Neotropical Primates 3(3), September) 995


(Leontopithecus chrysopygus) na Reserva Ecol6gica
dos Caetetus (Instituto Estadual de Florestas de Sao
Paulo). p.112.
Ximenes, M. F. F. M. Incidencia de parasites
intestinais em Callithrixjacchus. p. 126.
Yamamoto, M. E. and Box, H. 0. 0 papel dos
ajudantes nao-reprodutivos no cuidado & prole em
Callithrixjacchus. p.31.
Zeigler, T. E., Scheffler, G. and Carlson, A. Methods
and use of fecal steroid analysis for monitoring re-
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p.32.

In American Journal of Primatology 36(2), 1995.

Boinski, S., Swing, S. P. and Marriner, L. M. Envi-
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ing behavioral, hormonal, and immunological mea-
sures. p. 112.
Brewer, K. J., Schalley, J., Schaffner, C. M., Smith,
T. E. et al. Patterns of urinary steroid and gonadot-
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(Callithrix kuhli). p. 114.
Byrne, G. and Suomi, S. J. The utility of early infant
state measures in predicting behavior over the first
year of life in Cebus apella. pp.114-115.
Caine, N. G. Better safe than sorry: appreciating the
significance of predators in the lives ofcallitrichids.
p.115.
Digby, L. and Barreto, C. E. Activity and ranging pat-
terns in common marmosets (Callithrixjacchus).
p.120.
Fedigan, L. M. and Rose, L. M. 1995. Interbirth in-
terval variation in three sympatric species of Neo-
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Fernandez-Duque, E. Mason, W. A. and Valegia, C.
R. Effects of familiarity and context on interactions
between heterosexual pairs of titi monkeys
(Callicebus moloch). p. 123.
French, J. A. and Schaffner, C. M. Social and devel-
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in male black tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix
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Furbush, S. A. and Martin, D. A. Activity patterns of
captive tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).
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Galloway, A. T., Fragaszy, D. M. and Visalberghi,
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Gibson, S. V., Williams, L. E., Brady, A. G. and Abee,
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Glander, K. E. and Teaford, M. F. Seasonal, sexual,
and habitat, efforts on feeding rates of Alouatta.


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Gleason, T. M. and Norconk, M. A. Intragroup spac-
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Gould, K. G. Assisted reproduction technologies in
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Hearri, J. P. and Becker, R. Early endocrine signals
during embryo implantation in primates. p. 127.
Hoffman, K. A., Valeggia, C. R., Mendoza, S. P. and
Mason, W. A. Responses to mature titi monkey
daughters following a one-month separation from
their family groups. p. 128.
Jurke, M. H., Pryce, C. R. and Dobeli, M. Sexual mo-
tivation and behavior in female Goeldi's monkey
(Callimico goeldii): effect of ovarian state, mate fa-
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Jurke, M. H., Pryce, C. R., Hug-Hodel, A. and Dobeli,
M. An investigation into the socioendrocinology
of infant care and postpartum fertility in Goeldi's
monkey (Callimico goeldii). p. 132.
Kleiman, D. G., Baker, A. J., Ballou, J. Beck, B. B. et
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(GLTCP) as a model integrating in situ and ex-situ
conservation. p. 134.
Lehman, S. M., Prince, W. and Taylor, L. L. Habitat
disturbance, hunting pressure and primate distribu-
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Mason, W. A. and Mendoza, S. P. Responses of par-
ents and siblings to infant titi monkeys. pp. 141-142.
Matheson, M. D., Parr, L. Bernstein, I. S. and de Waal,
F. B. M. Dominance and grooming in tufted capu-
chin monkeys (Cebus apella). p.142.
Miller, L. E. Elbow room: intragroup competition in
Cebus olivaceus. p. 143.
Norconk, M. A., Grafton, B. W. and Gleason, T. M.
Ecology of an important resource used by wild
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Norcross, J. L. and Newman, J. D. Exposure to unfa-
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Perry, S. Patterns of coalitionary aggression in wild
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Phillips K. Ecological determinants of sex specific
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Rapaport, L. Do resource density and search time in-
fluence food sharing interactions in golden lion
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Roudebush, W. E., Duralia, D. R. and Butler, W. J.
Relevance of PAF levels to initial motility in.squir-
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p.152.
Saltzman, W., Schultz-Darken, N. J. and Abbott, D.
H. Ovarian cyclicity and social status modulate


Neotropical Primates 3(3), September]995


Page 100





Neotropical Primates 3(3), September1995

plasma cortisol levels in female common marmo-
sets (Callithrixjacchus). p. 153.
Savage, A. Roger Williams Park Zoo: a small zoo's
role in field conservation. p. 153.
Schaffner, C. M. and French, J. A. Visual access to
neighboring groups: effects on social and sexual be-
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kuhl). pp.153-154.
Skolnick, A. J., Faulhaber, H. and Bernstein, I. S. So-
cial networks in brown capuchins. pp.155-156.
Slavoff, G. "Conversations" between capuchin mon-
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Smith, T. E. and Abbott, D. H. Olfactory cues from
unfamiliar dominant female common marmosets
fail to maintain ovarian suppression in singly housed
subordinates. p. 156.
Smith, T. E., Schaffner, C. M. and French, J. A. Regu-
lation of reproductive function in subordinate fe-
male black tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix kuhli).
pp.156-157.
Stafford, B. J., Rosenberger, A. L. and Beck, B. B.
The effects of foraging adaptations and substrate
characteristics on the locomotion of golden lion
tamarins. p.157.
Thompson, C. R. Perception of gravity by Cebus
apella monkeys: preferential looking at incongru-
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Valeggia, C. R., Mendoza, S. P. and Mason, W. A.
Reproduction in titi monkey (Callicebus moloch)
female offspring: social suppression vs.
autoregulation. p.160.
Vick, L. and Taub, D. Ecology and behavior of spi-
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Wallis, J. Primate conservation: the role of zoologi-
cal parks. p.161.
Weaver, A. C. and de Waal, F. B. M. Social develop-
ment of captive tufted capuchins, Cebus apella.
pp.162-163.
Westergaard, G. C. Sculpting, painting, and engrav-
ing by tufted capuchin monkeys: a nonhuman pri-
mate model for the production of art by prehistoric
hominids. p.163.
White, B. C. and Smith M. A. Fiber consumption as-
sociated with vertebrate predation in woolly mon-
keys (Lagothrix lagotricha): search for an experi-
mental model. pp. 163-164.
Wiese, R. J. and Hutchins, M. The role of zoos and
aquariums in primate conservation. p. 164.
Wildt, D. E. Endangered species conservation and
management. p. 164.
Williams, L. E., Gibson, S., and Abee, C. R. Lacta-
tion effects on reproductive success in Bolivian
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Zucker, E. L., Clarke, M. R. and Harrison, R. M. Fe-


Page 101


-cal estradiol value for group-living cycling, preg-
nant, and lactating female howling monkeys
(Alouatta palliata) in Costa Rica. p. 167.


Meetings

PRIMATE SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN (PSGB) WIN-
TER MEETING: BIOLOGY AND CONSERVATION OF NEW
WORLD PRIMATES, 29 November 1995, The Zoologi-
cal Society of London, London. Organised by Hilary
0. Box and Hannah Buchanan-Smith. Contact: Hilary
0. Box, Department of Psychology, University of
Reading, Reading RG6 2AL, Berkshire, UK. Tel: +44
1734 318523 ext.6668, Fax: +44 1734 316604, or
Hannah Buchanan-Smith, Department of Psychology,
University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, UK. Tel:
+44 1786 467674, Fax: +44 1786 467641, e-mail:
h.m.buchanan-smith@stirling.ac.uk.

ASAB WINTER MEETING: SPACE, THE FINAL FRON-
TIER, 30 November to 1 December 1995, Associa-
tion for the Study of Animal Behaviour (ASAB), Zoo-
logical Society of London Meeting Rooms, Regent's
Park, London, UK. The theme of this meeting will be
spatial representation in animals, covering such top-
ics as long-distance migration, navigation through
familiar areas, 'cognitive maps', and the role of the
hippocampus. Abstract submission by e-mail or or-
dinary mail by 7 July 1995 to: Sue Healy, Depart-
ment of Psychology, University of Newcastle,
Newcastle upon Tyne NEl 7RU, UK, Tel 0191-222-
5056, Fax: 0191- 222-5622, e-mail: s.d..healy@
ncl.ac.uk.

1996

XXI CONGRESS BRASILEIRO DE ZOOLOGIA, 5-9 Feb-
ruary 1996, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. Orga-
nized by the Brazilian Zoological Society. Contact:
Secretaria Executiva, Departamento de Zoologia,
Institute de Biociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio
Grande do Sul, Avenida Paulo Gama 40, 90040-060
Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Tel: (051)
228-1633 x.3108 or 3126, Fax: (051) 226-7191 or
(051) 227-5529, e-mail: buckup@vortex.ufrgs.br.

II ENcoNTRmo DE MASTOZOOLOGIA, 5-9 February 1996,
Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. Organized by the
Brazilian Mammal Society, as part of the activities of
XXI Congresso Brasileiro de Zoologia. Contact:
Thales Renato 0. de Freitas, Departamento de
Gen6tica Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade Fed-
eral do Rio Grande do Sul, CaixaPostal 15053,91501-
970 Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Tel:






Page 102 Neotropical Primates 3(3), September1995


(051) 336-8399 x 6733, Fax: (051) 336-2011, e-mail:
trof@ifl.if.ufrgs.br.

POPULATION AND COMMUNITY DYNAMICS IN THE TROP-
Ics, 1-3 April 1996, British Ecological Society An-
nual Symposium, Cambridge University, Cambridge,
U. K. Contact: Dr. D. M. Newbery, Unit of Tropical
Forest Ecology, Department of Biological and Mo-
lecular Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9
4LA, Scotland, UK. Tel: + 44 (0)1786 467809, Fax:
+ 44 (0)1786 466893, e-mail: d.m.newbery@
stirling.ac.uk.

ASAB GENERAL SPRING MEETING, 2-3 April 1996,
Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour,
Bolton Institute Primate Research Team, Bolton In-
stitute, UK. Organized by Geoff Hosey and other
members of the Primate Research Team. Offers of
papers and posters invited, send title plus rough
statement of content. Further information: Marie
Jacques, Primate Research Team, Division of Psy-
chology and Biology, Bolton Institute, Deane Road,
Bolton BL3 5AB, Lancashire, UK, Tel: 01204
528851, ext. 3145, Fax: 01204 399074, e-mail:
mjl@bolton.ac.uk.

CHANGING IMAGES OF PRIMATE SOCIETIES: THE ROLE
OF THEORY, METHOD, AND GENDER, 15-23 June 1996,
Hotel Rosa dos Ventos, Teres6polis, Rio de Janeiro,
Brazil. Supported by The Wenner-Gren Foundation
for Anthropological Research, Inc., New York. Or-
ganized by Shirley C. Strum (University of Califor-
nia, San Diego) and Linda M. Fedigan (University of
Alberta). Session topics: Primate studies: influence
oftheory, method, and gender; Comparative perspec-
tive: psychology, animal behavior, cultural anthro-
pology, paleoanthropology, archeology; Larger con-
text: science studies, feminism., and popular culture.
For more information, please contact: Shirley C.
Strum, at Tel: (619) 944-3453, Fax: (619) 944-2809/
534-5946, or Linda M. Fedigan at Tel: (403) 492-
5899, Fax: (403) 492-5273, e-mail: Linda.Fedigan
@ualbert.ca, or Wenner-Gren Foundation, 220 Fifth
Avenue, 16th Floor, New York, NY 10001, USA, Tel:
(212) 683-5000, Fax: (212) 683-9151.

XVITH CONGRESS OF THE INTERNATIONAL PRIMATO-
LOGICAL SOCIETY & 19TH CONFERENCE OF THE AMERI-
CAN SOCIETY OF PRIMATOLOGISTS, 11-16 August 1996,
University of Wisconsin, Madison, hosted by the Wis-
consin Regional Primate Research Center. Contact:
Edith Chan, Coordinator/Information, Wisconsin Re-
gional Primate Research Center, 1220 Capitol Court,
Madison, Wisconsin 53715-1299, USA. Tel: (608)
263-3500, Fax: (608) 263 4031, e-mail: ipsasp-
info@primate.wisc.edu.


Contributions I

We would be most grateful if you could send us
information on projects, research groups, events
(congresses, symposia, and workshops), recent
publications, activities ofprimatological societies and
NGOs, news items or opinions of recent events and
suchlike, either in the form of manuscripts (double-
spaced) or in diskettes for PC compatible text-editors
(MS-Word, Wordperfect, Wordstar). Articles, not
exceeding six pages, can include small black-and-
white photographs, figures, maps, tables and
references, but please keep them to a minimum.

Please send contributions to: ANTHONY RYLANDS,
Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Cidncias
Biol6gicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais,
31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Brazil, Fax: (031) 441-
1412, or c/o Conservation International, Avenida
Ant6nio Abrahao Caram 820/302, Pampulha, 31275-
000 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, Fax:
(031)441-2582 or ERNESTO RODRIGUEZ LUNA, Parque
de La Flora y Fauna Silvestre Tropical, Universidad
Veracruzana, Apartado Postal 566, Xalapa, Veracruz
91000, Mexico, Fax: 52 (28) 12-5748.

LILIANA CORTES-ORTIZ (Universidad Veracruzana) and
MIRIAM MENEZES LIMA (Conservation International,
Belo Horizonte) provide invaluable editorial
assistance. LUDMILLA AGUIAR, Conservation
International Brazil Program, Belo Horizonte
(address above), is responsible for the distribution of
Neotropical Primates. Please keep us informed of any
address changes.

Correspondence, messages, and texts can be sent to
Anthony Rylands/Ludmilla Aguiar: cibrasil@ax.apc.org
Fundagao Biodiveristas: cdcb@ax.apc.org



NEOTROPICAL PRIMATES is produced in collaboration
with Conservation International, 1015 18th Street
NW, Suite 1000, Washington DC 20036, USA, and
Fundacio Biodiversitas, Av. do Contorno, 9155/
11 o. andar Prado, Belo Horizonte 30110-130, Minas
Gerais, Brazil.

Design and Composition YURI L. R. LEITE and
RICARDO B. MACHADO, Biodiversity Conservation Data
Center (CDCB), Fundaglo Biodiversitas. Fundagao
Biodiversitas: cdcb@ax.apc.org


Page 102


Neotropical Primates 3(3), Septemher]995









This issue of Neotropical Primates was kindly sponsored
by the Houston Zoological Gardens Conservation
Program, Houston Zoological Gardens, General
Manager Donald G. Olson, 1513 North
MacGregor, Houston, Texas 77030, and
the Columbus Zoological Gardens, Director i
Gerald W. Borin, Box 400, Powell, I l
Ohio 43065, USA.
Columbu


NEOTROPICAL PRIMATES
Anthony Rylands/Ernesto Rodriguez Luna, Editors
Conservation International
Avenida Ant6nio Abrahao Caram 820/302
31275-000, Belo Horizonte
Minas Gerais, Brazil


Zoo




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