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Title: Neotropical primates
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098814/00011
 Material Information
Title: Neotropical primates a newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCNSSC Primate Specialist Group
Abbreviated Title: Neotrop. primates
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
Conservation International
Center for Applied Biodiversity Science
Publisher: Conservation International
Place of Publication: Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Publication Date: June 1995
Frequency: quarterly
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Primates -- Periodicals -- Latin America   ( lcsh )
Primates -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Wildlife conservation -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: review   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Brazil
 Notes
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Language: English, Portuguese, and Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Mar. 1993)-
Issuing Body: Issued jointly with Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, <Dec. 2004->
General Note: Published in Washington, D.C., Dec. 1999-Apr. 2005 , Arlington, VA, Aug. 2005-
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 13, no. 1 (Apr. 2005).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098814
Volume ID: VID00011
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28561619
lccn - 96648813
issn - 1413-4705

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Table of Contents
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    Back Cover
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iAO6TRbPICA I



A Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group
Editors: Anthony B. Rylands and Ernesto Rodriguez Luna
PSG Chairman: Russell A. Mittermeier
PSG Deputy Chairman: William R. Konstant


CONSERVATION
INTERNATIONAL


SPECIES SURVIVAL
COMMISSION


1-1 FUNDAQAO
BIODIVERSITAS






Page 35 Neoropical Primates 3(2), June 199S


Articles,

EL COMERCIO DE PRIMATES EN LA
REPtBLICA ARGENTINA

En la Argentina habitan cuatro species de primates
(Olrog y Lucero, 1981): el mirildna (Aotus azarae), el
caraya (Alouatta caraya), el aullador rojo (Alouatta fusca)
y el cai (Cebus apella), las que al igual que olras
species enfrentan problems de conservaci6n, por
modificaci6n de habitat; caza, capture y comercio
(Colillas, en Mack y Mittermeier, 1984; Mittermeier y
Cheney, 1987; Travi, 1985).

A nivel mundial, se estim6 en 40,000 los monos
comercializados anualmente (0. Menghi y J. S. Villalba-
Macias, com. pets.). El comercio que afecta a los primates
en la Argentina no es de tal magnitude, pero reviste
importancia Puede ser analizado desde dos pianos: el
comercio intemo y el comercio intemacional. Cabe


aclarar que las leyes provinciales y nacionales protegen a
todos los primates que habitan el pais, vedando su caza o
capture en todo su territorio. Sin embargo, existed un
comercio important, tanto de species aut6ctonas como
ex6ticas en todo el pals, incluso en la Provincia de Tierra
del Fuego.

Por ello, se analiz6 ese comercio en el mercado de
mascotas y souvenirs, como asi el nfmero de ejemplares
cautivos en colecciones zool6gicas vivas y laboratories de
la Argentina, con el fin de cuantificar su magnitude o
importancia. Se compil6 infonnaci6n sobre el comercio
de primates en la Argentina entire 1988-1993. En dicho
period se detectaron en el mercado illegal 20 species de
monos (3 aut6ctonas de Argentina e 17 ex6ticas) y un
total de 798 individuos en todo el pais (211 de ellos fueron
decomisados por las autoridades gubernamentales). Las
species mias ofertadas fueron Saimiri sciureus (40,2%),
Callithrix jacchus (29,5%), Alouatta caraya (8,1%),
Cebus apella (7,7%), Ateles paniscus (3%) y otros
(11,5%). Los valores en que son ofrecidos ilegalmente
oscilan entire US$150 2.000, dependiendo de la edad,


Cuadro 1. Especies ofertadas ilegalmente, nombres comerciales usuales, valores y cantidades mAximas traficadas entire
1988 y 1993. Segfin Bertonatti (obs. pers.), Eiffel (inf. indd.), Gonzalez (inf. in6d.) y Silva Croome, en prep.). Nombre
commercial = registrado en comercios de Argentina. Precio = valor promedio y unitario en US$ en Argentina (1993). Un
signo de interrogaci6n significa que se ignora el valor. CM = cantidad maxima de animals registradas en una misma
operaci6n illegal, entire 1988 y 1993. En negrita figuran aquellos que fueron intervenidos por la justicia (decomisados e
interdictos). CD = cantidad total de animals decomisados e interdictados por la Direcci6n de Fauna y Flora Silvestres
entire 1990 y 1993. Se incluyen 95 saimiries y 5 titi leones decomisados por Gendarmeria Nacional en 1993. CT =
cantidad total de animals registrados en distintas operaciones comerciales entire 1988 y 1993.
Especie Nombre commercial Precio CM CD CT
Aut6ctonas
Aotus azarae Mirikind, mono lechuza venezolano, mono de 350 3 10
noche, mono noctumo, mono lechuza
Cebus apella Capuchino, cai, titi, capuchino comun, compete 250 20 15 62
negro
Alouatta caraya Caraya, mono aullador negro 150 9' 7 65
Ex6ticas
Cebus albifrons Capuchino de frente blanca 250 1 2
Callicebus moloch Sahui de cara blanca, titi ? 1 1
Cebuella pygmaea Titi enano o pigmeo 250 2 6
Callithrixjacchus Titi pincel, comfn o de penachos blancos 150 150 10 236
Callithrix penicillata Titi pincel negro o de penachos negros 180 2 14
Callithrix geoffroyi Titi de cara blanca 250 2 4
Leontopithecus chrysomelas Titi leon 2.000 5 7 13
Saguinus mystax Tamarino de mostachos 500 2 2
Saguinusfuscicollis Tamarino marr6n 400 1 1
Ateles paniscus Mono arafila, mono arafia negro 300 3 8 24
Ateles belzebuth Mono arafia, marimondo ? 2 5
Lagothrix lagotricha Barrigudo, lanudo, mono de Humboldt 800 4 12
Saimiri sciureus Mono ardilla, saimiri boliviano, macaco 345 95 161 321
calavera
Cercopithecus aethiops Griveta, cercopiteco ? 1 1
Macaca mulatta Macaco ? I 1 1
Pan troglodytes Chimpancd 2.000 2 4 4
Sin identificar Monos 2 24
Totales 211 798
' Se tom6 conocimiento de un cargamento de 80 individuos en un dep6sito clandestine de la Provincia de Buenos Aires,
que nunca pudo ser confirmado.
Cover photograph by Russell A. Mittermeier: Cacajao calvus, the bald uakari (see page 40).


Neoropical Primates 3(2), June 1995


Page 35





Neotropical Primates 3(2), June 1995


estado sanitario y lugar de venta. Se ban detectado
cargamentos de 50 Saimiri sciureus, 80 Alouatta caraya y
250 Callihrix jacchus. El conjunto de animals
decomisados por las autoridades fue de 111, es decir el
16% (ver Cuadro 1) del total detectado en el mercado
illegal.

paralelamente, a lo cargo de un afio (1/1/92 1/1/93) se
relevaron 245 comercios de venta de animals de la
Ciudad de Buenos Aires (37%) y de la Provincia de
Buenos Aires (63%). Los datos que se tomaron fueron:
especie ofertada, nfimero de- individuos, nombre
commercial, precio, estado sanitario de los mismos y
presunto origen.

El 16% de los mismos ofertaron ilegalmente 64 monos de
al menos cinco species (Cuadro 2). Las mas ofertados
resultaron ser Saimiri spp. (26,3%), A. caraya (26,3%),
C. jacchus (13,8%), C. apella (9,7%), Ateles spp. (5,5%)
y otras (6,9%). La diferencia de abundancia de individuos
por especie en los distintos periods pueden deberse a
subobservaci6n de las species de pequefio tamaflo en
malas condiciones y/o a la situaci6n del mercado.

Ademnas de animals vivos, se constat6 la venta de
artesanias (llaveros) realizadas con extremidades de A.

Cuadro 3. Ejemplares cautivos en Argentina (afio 1993).


Page 36


Cuadro 2. Ndmero de primates ofertados en la Ciudad de
Buenso Aires y en la Privincia de Buenos Aires
(Argentina). Periodo de un afio: 01/92 01/93. CF =
ndmero de individuos observados en 15 comercios de la
Ciudad de Buenos Aires. BA = njmero de individuos
observados en 25 comercios de la Provincia de Buenos
Aires.

Species % CF BA Total
Saimiri spp. 26,38 15 4 19
Alouatta caraya 26,38 14 5 19
Callithrixjacchus 13,88 3 4 7
Cebus apella 9,72 5 5 10
Ateles spp. 5,55 3 1 4
No identificados 6,94 4 1 5
Total 100 44 20 64

caraya y Aotus azarae, a US$2,5 en la Provincia de
Corrientes (Contreras, 1990a, 1990b; Salas, 1990; Villa,
1990), como asi tambi6n ejemplares taxidennrmizados de la
primer de ellas en anticuarios (a US$100-200). Tambi6n
en 1980, se importaron 100 pieles de colobos (Colobus
polvkomos) (Broad etal., 1988).

Por otra parte, se relevaron 20 zool6gicos poblicos y
privados, coleccionistas particulares, estaciones de cria e
institutes primatol6gicos o de investigaci6n m&lica del
pais (Cuadro 3). En su conjunto mantienen 691


Especie
Alouatta caraya
Cebus apella
Aotus azarae
Saimiri sciureus
Ateles paniscus
Ateles belzebuth
Callithrixjacchus
Leontopithecus chrysomelas
Lagothrix lagotricha
Papio hamadryas
Papio h. anubis
Papio h. cynocephalus
Cercopithecus diana
Cercopithecus aethiops
Erythrocebus patas
Macaca mulatta
Pan troglodytes
Subtotal


K L


4
7 3 6 -


- 3 4 40
3--
3 -

5 2 -
- 4


-- 1
I,- At


1
- 5
- 5

- 3
- 2
- 3


- 78

- 144
4 -


Total


94
194


- 9


2


- 1


2


. Z. J 17 4 a
69 43 34 71 15 31 10 20 8 45 41 222 30 10 20 8 14 691


Localidad relevada y fecha del muestro. A = Zool6gico de Buenos Aires (06.06.93); B = Zool6gico de La Plata (Provincia de
Buenos Aires) (06.06.93); C = Zool6gico de C6rdoba (20.06.93); D = Zool6gico de Mendoza (26.06.93); E = Zool6gico de
Roque Sdenz Pefia Chaco (03.12.92); F = Zool6gico Mundo Animal, Provincia de Buenos Aires (18.07.93); G = Parque
Argentino de Fauna Aut6ctona, Hurlingham, Provincia de Buenos Aires (17.06.93); H = Zoo Bal Park, Montecarlo, Provincia
de Misiones (17.07.93); I = Reserva Guaycolec, Provincia de Formosa (25.06.93); J = Colecci6n de Rail Portal, Provincia de
Buenos Aires (21.07.93); L = Centro Argentino de Primates (CAPRIM), Corrientes (02.03.93); Instituto de Neurobiologia
(21.07.93); N = CEMIC (26.06.93); 0 = Estaci6n de Cria de Animales Silvestres ECAS, Provincia de Buenos Aires
(09.06.93); P = Museo de Ciencias Naturales Ruiz de Montoya, Posadas, Provincia de Misiones (21.07.93); Q = Varios
institutes que poseen menos de 10 individuos y no reproducen a ninguna de las species: Hosteria El Cazador, Provincia de
Buenos Aires, 1 C. apella (12.07.93); Zoo de Bahia Blanca, Provincia de Buenos Aires, 2 C. apella (01.07.93); Estaci6n
Experimental "La Esmeralda", Provincia de Santa F6, 2 C. apella, 2 Ateles y 2 A. caraya (03.02.93); Hosteria YacyretA,
Ituzaingo, Provincia de Corrientes, 4 C. apella y 1 A. caraya (02.08.93).


K L Total


-





Neotropical Primates 3(2), June 1995


individuos de al menos 17 species, concentrAndose el
80% de los ejemplares en s61o cinco lugares (zool6gicos
de Buenos Aires, La Plata, C6rdoba y Mendoza y lo
Centro Argentino de Primates CAPRIM). S61o seis
species son reproducidas con cierta regularidad y en
algunos lugares: Alouatta caraya, Cebus apella, Saimiri
sciureus, Callithrix jacchus, Papio hamadryas y Pan
troglodytes (E. & E. Esparrach, M. M. Gentil y A. Ruiz,
com.pers.).

Curiosamente, el 80%/6 de los individuos cautivos en los
establecimientos monitoreados pertenecen a las mismas
seis species que representan el 90% de la oferta
commercial. Esta correlaci6n direct entire el nfimero de
individuos de las species rnAs ofertadas con los de las
cautivas se ve fuertemente influenciada porque las
autoridades derivan los animals decomisados de los
comercios a los principles zool6gicos del pais.

No. caben dudas que el problema de conservaci6n mnls
grave para los primates es la destrucci6n de habitats
naturales y, en particular, los bosques y selvas primaries
de las Provincias de Misiones Chaco, Corrientes,
Formosa, Salta, Jujuy y Tucuman. No obstante, la capture
commercial puede ser un factor agravante para las species
en situaci6n mas delicada. En algunas species, se
evidencia un comercio illegal significativo, en muchos
casos, abastecido por contrabandos desde otros paises de
Sudamdrica (principalmente Bolivia, Brasil y Paraguay).

Finalmente, se recomienda dar continuidad a la
investigaci6n del estado poblacional de las cuatro species
aut6ctonas, optimizar el manejo de los planteles cautivos,
mejorar los controls administrativos, monitorear su
comercio, analizar los riesgos y beneficios de las
liberaciones de monos, fortalecer las areas protegidas
(incluyendo la elaboraci6n de planes de manejo), aplicar
la legislaci6n, realizar campafias educativas que
desalienten el comercio de primates como mascotas,
mejorar la informaci6n brindada en zool6gicos, y
optimizar el uso de los planteles cautivos.

Claudio Bertonatti, Fundaci6n Vida Silvestre Argentina,
Departamento de Conservaci6n, Defensa 245, (1065)
Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Bibliogralia

Broad, S., Luxmoore, R y Jenkins, M. (eds.) 1988.
Significant trade in wildlife: a review ofselected species
in CITESAppendix 11, Vol.1. Mammals: 14-39. CITES,
Cambridge, U.K.
Contreras, A. 0. 1990a. Manitos de mirikin. Diario
Epoca, Corrientes (14/8):5.
Contreras, A. 0. 1990b. Gorilas en la niebla en
Corrientes. Diario El Litoral, Corrientes (12/8): 29.


Eiffel, C. H. Informaci6n in&dita Recopilaci6n de datos
sobre monos mantenidos comom mascotes (1993-
1994). 5pp.
Gonzalez, F. Informaci6n inddita. Especies silvestres
protegidas ofertadas comercialmente (1994). Fundaci6n
Vida Silvestre Argentina (FVSA), Buenos Aires. 32pp.
Mack, D. y Mittermeier, R A. 1984. The Primate Trade,
Vol. 1. Legislation, Trade and Captive Breeding.
Traffic USA y World Conservation Union (IUCN),
Washington, D.C. 185pp.
Mittermeier, R1 A. y Cheney, D. L. 1987. La
conservaci6n de los primates y sus hAbitats. Bol.
Primatol. Arg. 5(1-2): 28-64.
Olrog, C.C. yLucero, MM. 1981. Guia de losMamiferos
Argentinos. Fundaci6n Miguel Lillo, San Miguel de
Tucuman.
Salas, A. A. 1990. Amemonos. Ame-monos. Diario El
Litoral, Corrientes (3/8): 4.
Silva Croome, M. En preparaci6n. Recopilaci6n de datos
sobre trafico de fauna (1994). Direcci6n de Fauna y
Flora Silvestres, Buenos Aires.
Travi, B. L. 1985. Agentes infecciosos en primates. Bol.
Primatol. Arg. 3(2): 41-49.
Villa, H. J. 1990. Colgantes macabros. Diario Epoca,
Corrientes (14/8): 4.


SITUATION DE POBLACIONES DE ALOUATTA
PALLIATA (MONO AULLADOR) EN DOS
LOCALIDADES DEL ESTADO DE VERACRUZ,
MEXICO

La Repiblica Mexicana cuenta con una gran diversidad
biol6gica debido a su localizaci6n en el continent
americano; por un lado, la influencia bi6tica de la region
neArtica y por otro, de la region neotropical, aunado a las
diferencias altitudinales, hace possible la existencia de una
gran variedad de ecosistemas.

En esta variedad se encuentran los ecosistemas tropicales
que, como ocurre en otras parties del mundo, estan siendo
exterminados de una forma acelerada. En el Estado de
Veracruz, M6xico, la destrucci6n de los ecosistemas
tropicales se debe principalmente a la apertum de Areas
para agriculture y ganaderia; asi, las masas de selva
continue se convierten en pequenos fragments donde
muchos grupos de primates luchan por sobrevivir.

Frente a este problems, un grupo de investigadores de la
Universidad Veracruzana empezamos a interesamos por
conocer la situaci6n en que se encontraban las
poblaciones de primates que habitan el Estado, para crear
altemativas de conservaci6n. Los studios primatol6gicos
en la Universidad inician a principios de la decada de los
ochenta, sin embargo, file en 1988 cuando se inician las
visits a la zona del present studio, encontrando grupos


Page 37




Neotropical Primates 3(2), June 1995


de monos que corrian un grave peligro, ya que para
preparar los terrenos de cultivo los campesinos
tradicionalmente incendian la zona y en muchas
ocasiones el fuego alcanza los fiagmentos habitados por
monos y otros animals silvestres A raiz de estas visits,
se consider necesario translocar un pequefio grupo de
monos aulladores a un area protegida (Rodriguez-Luna et
al., 1993).

En Mexico existen tres species de primates, dos de mono
aullador (Alouatta palliata y A. pigra) y una de mono
arafia (Ateles geoffroyi, con dos subespecies: A. g
vellerosusy A. g yucatanensis); dstas se distribuyen hacia
el sur y sureste del pais. Para el Estado de Veracruz se
report la existencia de A.palliata y A.g.vellerosus (v.
Hall, 1981).

El mono aullador de manto (A.palliata mexicana) es de
complexion robusta a diferencia del mono arafia, cuyo
cuerpo es muy delgado y con largas extremidades. El
aullador es conocido localmente como saraguato o mono
zambo; la longitud del cuerpo es de 560-950 mm y de la
cola 500-900 mm. Tiene cola prensil que funciona como
mecanismo de soporte durante la locomoci6n y el forrajeo.
Posee un gran hueso hioideo que le permit una potente
vocalizaci6n, de ahi el nombre de mono aullador. Habita
los bosques hfimedos y nublados; se alimenta
prindpalmente de hojas j6venes y flutos maduros. Las
tropas se componen de 8 a 20 individuos con 2 a 4 veces
mas hembras que machos, moviendose aproximadamente
500 m al dia. No presentan estacionalidad reproductive y
los nacimientos ocurren a lo largo del afio (Neville et al.,
1988).

En Mexico, los organismos gubemamentales encargados
de la regulamentaci6n en el manejo de fauna silvestre son
la Secretaria de Desarrollo Social y la Secretaria de
Agricultura y Recursos Hidriulicos-; stos colocan al
mono aullador 'bn peligro de extinci6n" por lo que su
caza y capture se encuentma prohibida (M6xico,
SEDESOL, 1994).

De acuerdo al criteria de la IUCN Uni6n para la
Conservaci6n Mundial (Versi6n 2.2., Mace y Stuart,
1994) se ha clasificado al mono aullador de manto
(Alouatta palliata mexicana) en la categoria "Vulnerable"
(IUCN-WCU/SSC en prep.). En tanto, la Convenci6n
sobre el Comercio Intemacional de Especies en Peligro de
Fauna y Flora Silvestre (CITES), lo coloca en al Ap6ndice
I (Burton y Pearson, 1987) con las species amenazadas
de extinci6n por el comercio que de ellas se realize.

Con el prop6sito de evaluar el impact de la
fragmentaci6n del habitat sobre grupos de monos
aulladores, en zonas bajas e inundables, se hizo un
reconocimiento de campo. Es necesario destacar que la
deforestaci6n en zonas bajas es mayor que en zonas


montafiosas, sin embargo, en este caso se trata de areas
inundables, lo cual ha permitido la permanencia de los
grupos de monos.

Area de Estudio

La zona de studio se encuentra en el sur del Estado de
Veracruz, Mexico. Se localiza entire los 95010'-95012'
longitud oeste y 17059'-18000', latitud note con una
altitude sobre el nivel del mar que va de los 10 a los 50 m
(Fig.1).


monos (v. Tabla 1 y 2).


Esta area se encuentra enclavada en la cuenca hidrol6gica
del rio San Juan Evangelista. En la 6poca de lluvias el rio
se desborda, dejando una zona inundada de un metro de
altura en promedio. El period de "seca" se present en
los meses de marzo a junio que es cuando se aprovechan
estas areas para la roza, tumba y quema (prepamci6n del
terreno para la siembra de pasto). El clima es cAlido y
caracterizado como AWZ; con una temperature promedio
annual de 26.30 C y con una maxima extrema de 390 C en
el mes de Mayo, una precipitaci6n media annual de 1500
mm (Soto y Garcia, 1989).

Dos Areas fueron muestreadas: rancho "El Camar6n"
perteneciente al municipio de San Juan Evangelista y el
poblado de El Cascajal y Cabezo, municipio de Acayucan.
Estas zonas se encuentran divididas por el rio San Juan,
con una anchura de 70 m. La primer corresponde a una


Page 38






Page 39 Neotropical Primates 3(2), June 1995


proprieded privada donde se encuentra establecido un
rancho ganadero y la segunda pertenece a un ejido donde
el area esta fiaccionada y repartida entire varias personas.
Los pequefios fragments de vegetaci6n existentes en esta
planicie pertenecen a una selva median subperennifolia,
con una comunidad de palmas coyoleras de la especie
Scheelea liebmanii.

Metodologi a

La ubicaci6n de la zona de studio se realize con la ayuda
de mapas de escala 1:50.000 (Mexico, INEGI, 1985) y
con fotografias areas. Con el prop6sito de detectar grupos
de primates, se hicieron recorridos a lo largo del do San
Juan y en los arroyos afluentes a &ste, en algunas
ocasiones fue necesario utilizar una lancha: el aullido de
los monos durante las manafias y por las tardes, facility su
localizaci6n.

Una vez localizados los grupos de monos, se registry el
nimero y estado de salud de los individuos, classes de
edad-sexo, y condiciones del hAbitat para lo cual se
utilizaron binoculars 8 x 40. Para poder registrar el
mayor nuimero de individuos, fue necesario golpear el
tronco de las palmas con un pedazo de madera para que
los monos salieran de su resguardo entire las hojas.
Algunos animals fueron identificados individualmente
por la presencia de manchas blancas en las manos, patas y
cola combinando estas caracteristicas con las propias de
su sexo y edad.

Tambien se visitaron los poblados cercanos, para obtener
informaci6n acerca de las actividades agricolas y
ganaderas que influyen sobre la permanencia de los
monos.

Resultados

El trabajo se realize durante 1993, en dos localidades. En
la primera, rancho "El Camar6n", se reconocieron 32
individuos deA.palliata, fraccionados en dos grupos, a los
que denominamos A y B (Tabla 1). El Grupo A de la
primer zona de studio habitat un islote de 1.5 ha, en
tanto que el Grupo B esti localizado a 500 m de distancia
en un fragmento de 0.5 ha; en este sitio se encontr6 un
individuo (macho adulto) deAtelesgeoqfroyi. La segunda,
situada al otro lado de rio San Juan, abarcando El
Cascajal y Cabezo, se registraron 5 Grupos de monos,
A.palliata, con un total de 62 individuos, en fiagmentos
de vegetaci6n que suman una Area de 12 ha (Fig. 1, Tabla
2).

En ambas zonas, los animals viven refugiados en la part
central de las palmas, de donde obtienen parte de su
alimento, complementAndolo con hojas y frutos de
algunos A boles del g6nero Ficus, por lo que en estas
zonas su dieta estA restringida a unas cuantas species.


Tabla 1. Composici6n de los grupos del rancho "El
Camar6n".
M H J I
Grupo A 6 11 6 4
Grupo B 1 4 0 0
Total 7 15 6 4

Tabla 2. Composici6n de los grupos de El Cascajal
y Cabezo.
M H J I
GrupoI 3 5 2 2
GrupoII 2 6 1 1
Grupo III 2 5 1 3
Grupo IV 1 3 0 0
Grupo V 6 9 6 4
Total 14 28 10 10

El total de monos aulladores observados fue de 94
individuos para toda la zona de studio; considerando este
dato encontramos que el 68.1% corresponde a la categoria
de adults, el 17% a juveniles y el 14.9% a infantes.
Analizando los datos de individuos adults vemos que la
proporci6n de sexos para la primer zona es de 2.14
hembras por macho. Sumando las ireas ocupadas por
ambos grupos (Ay B), la densidad es de 16 individuos/ha,
dentro de los fragments. Para la segunda zona, la
proporci6n de sexos es de 2 hembras por macho;
considerando l Area habitada por los monos, la densidad
es de 5.16 individuos/ha.

Discusion

En condiciones de habitat continue, la densidad
poblacional para la especie se ha reportado entire 0.16 a
1.1 individuos/ha (Milton, 1985) en distintas parties de su
rango de distribuci6n; sin embargo, para algunas
condiciones de hAbitat pertuibado (Baldwin y Baldwin,
1976, citado por Crockett y Eisenberg, 1987) se ha
reportado hasta 10.4 individuos/ha La densidad
poblacional relativamente alta dentro de estos fragments
muestra esta tendencia; sin embrago, es precise destacar
que el area donde se encuentran estos fragmentos estA
severamente deforestada, por lo cual, el numero de
individuos parece poco significativo si se consider today
esta rea.

El origen de esta situaci6n es el resultado de la presi6n
ejercida por los asentamientos humans. Las necesidades
apremientes de las personas que habitan esta zona han ido
transformado lo que antes era una zona inundable con
vegetaci6n primaria, donde los monos satisfacian sus
requerimientos, a zonas de ganaderia y agriculture. Una
muestra de lo anterior se present en la epoca de secas
donde cada afto grandes extensions de la zona son
incendiadas para preparar los terrenos de cultivo; durante


Page 39


Neotropical Primates 3(2), June 1995






Neotropical Primates 3(2), June 1995 Page 40


esta actividad, los primates tienden a refugiarse en aiboles
y arbustos cercanos a las margenes del rio, muriendo
algunos en la travesia o calcinados. Sin embargo, otro
problema important al que se enfientan actualmente
estos grupos de animals, es la creaci6n de una autopista
que unird la region sur con el centro del pais.

Conclusion

A lo largo de los filtimos diez afios, el ritmo de
transformation de los ecosistemas tropicales se ha
incrementado en forma, alarmante, sin que hasta el
moment sea possible frenar esta tendencia. El aumento en
el process de ganaderizaci6n en el tr6pico mexicano se
debe, en la mayoria de los casos, al otorgamiento de
crlditos que el gobiemo brinada a los campesinos quienes,
por falta de asesoramiento, practican la ganaderia
extensive.

En caso de que no se tomen medidas urgentes como la
planificaci6n de programs de desarrollo del pais en base
a studios de impact ambiental, regulaci6n en el uso del
suelo y la protecci6n de Areas conservadas que existen en
los terrenso de ejidatarios y pequeflos propietarios, los
fragments de selva utilizados como refugio por las
poblaciones de primates, desaparecerin en un future
cercano.

En conclusion, y debido al iminente peligro en que se
encuentran, la soluci6n para la supevivencia de estos
grupos de monos es realizar programs de conservation
inmediatos, como la translocaci6n hacia areas protegidas.

F. Garcia-Ordufia y D. Canales-Espinosa, Instituto de
Neuroetologia, Universidad Veracruzana, Apartado
Postal 566, C.P.91000 Xalapa. Veracruz, Mexico.

Bibliografia

Burton, A. J. y Pearson B. 1987. The Collins Guide to the
Rare Mammals of the World. The Stephen Greene
Press, Lexington, Massachusetts. 68pp.
Crockett, C. M. y Eisenberg, J. F. 1987. Howlers:
variation in group size and demography, En: Primate
Societies, B. B. Smuts, R N. Cheney, Rt N. Seyfarth, R
W. Wranghamy T. T. Struhsaker (eds.), pp. 54-68. The
University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Hall, E. R 1981. The Mammals ofNorth America, Vol. 1.
Wiley Interscience Publications, New York. 269pp.
Mace, G. y Stuart, S. 1994. Draft IUCN Red List
Categories, Version 2.2. Species 21-22: 13-26.
Mxico, INEGI. 1985. Carta Topogrdfica San Juan
Evangelista, E15C13. Instituto Nacional de Estadisfica
Geografia e Informatica (INEGI), Mexico, D.F.
M6xico, SEDESOL. 1994. Norma Oficial Mexicana
NOM-059-ECOL-1994 que determine las species y
subespecies de Flora y Fauna Silvestres terrestres y


acuiticas raras en peligro de extinci6n, raras o sujetas a
protecci6n especial y que establece espedficaciones para
su protecci6n. Diario Oficial de la Federaci6n, Tomo
CDLXXXVII, No. 10. Secretaria de Desarrollo Social
(SEDESOL), Mdxico, D.F.
Milton, K 1985. Dietary quality and demographic
regulation in a howler monkey population. En: The
Ecology of a Tropical Forest: Seasonal Rhythms and
Long-Term Changes, E. G. Leigh, Jr., A. S. Rand y D.
M. Windsor (eds.), pp.273-289. Smithsonian Institution
Press, Washington, D.C.
Neville, M. K, Glander, K E., Braza, F. y Rylands, A. B.
1988. The howling monkeys, genus Alouatta. En:
Ecology and Behavior ofNeotropical Primates, Vol. 2.
R A. Mittermeier, A. B. Rylands, A. F. Coimbra-Filho
y G. A. B. da Fonseca (eds.), pp.349-453. World
Wildlife Fund, Washington, D.C.
Rodriguez-Luna, E., Garcia-Ordu4ia, F. y Canales-
Espinosa, D. 1993. Translocaci6n del mono aullador
Alouatta palliata: una altemativa conservacionista. En:
Estudios Primatol6gicos en Mdxico, Vol.1. A. Estrada,
E. Rodriguez-Luna, R L6pez-Wilchis y R. Coates-
Estrada (eds.), pp.129-177. Universidad Veracmzana.,
Veracruz, M6xico.
Soto, E. M. y Garcia, E. 1989. Atlas Climatico delEstado
de Veracruz. Institute de Ecologia, A.C., Mxico.
125pp.


CONSERVATION DE CACAJAO CALVES
UCAYALIIEN LA AMAZONIA PERUANA

En el Per6, Cacajao calvus estA representada por la
subespecie ucayalii (Hershkovitz, 1987), con distribuci6n
geogrifica al lado derecho de los rios Ucayali y Amazonas
(Hershkovitz, 1987; Aquino, 1988). Entre los primates
que habitan los bosques amaz6nicos, es uno de los menos
estudiados, por ser el Onico que cuenta con una irea
domiciliar muiy grande, por lo tanto dificil de contactar.
La informaci6n hasta ahora disponible como la de
Bartecki y Heymann (1987), Aquino (1988) y Heymann
(1989, 1990), estin referidas a algunos aspects
ecol6gicos y de conduct, resultado de encuentros
circunstanciales y no de studios con metodologia y irea
definida.

Aqui se present un restimen de los avances obtenidos
durante los studios de campo, conducidos desde Junio de
1993 a Junio de 1994, en el area de influencia de la
Reserva Comunal Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo, situado al
sureste de Iquitos, aproximadamente a 423'S y 7255'0
y, entire Julio y Agosto de 1994 en la cuenca del rio
Yavari, situado al este de Iquitos, aproximadamente a
430'S y 7143'0O (Fig. 1). En ambas, la actividad de caza
es frecuente e incluye a los primates de tamafio grande y
median, entire ellos C calvus ucayalii, cuya presi6n de


lVeotropical Primates 3(2), June 1995


Page 40






Page 41 Neotropical Primates 3(2), June 1995


caza es mayor en el drea de influencia de la Reserva
Comunal Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo.

El comportamiento diferente a las otras species, el
tamailo de manada que en ocasiones sobrepasan los 120
individuos, las vocalizaciones inconfiundibles, la
abundancia de restos de frutos al pie del Arbol alimenticio,
el area domiciliar muy grande y la frecuente asociaci6n
con otros primates, fueron las caracteristicas tomadas en
cuenta para la b6squeda de estos primates. Desde el
primer encuentro ocurrido en Julio de 1993, el tiempo de
duraci6n de sus actividades y el uso de los estratos del
bosque fueron registrados en una libreta de campo para el
copiado en una ficha elaborada para estos fines. Tres
fueron las categories bisicas establecidas en el patr6n de
actividades: a) locomoci6n; b) alimentaci6n; y c)
descanso.

Cuando el grupo era muy grande, no todos los individuos
realizaban la misma actividad, de modo que se anotaron
la actividad cumplida por el mayor nimero de ellos.
Durante el period de advance de los studios fueron
acumulados 5,748 minutes de observaci6n. El tiempo de
observaci6n cuando hubo el encuentro vari6 desde 35
minutes a 480 minutes. No obstante, en dos
oportunidades fueron observados desde que abandonaron
sus atboles de dormir hasta su instalaci6n en nuevos
drboles al anochecer, cuyo tiempo de actividad y
seguiniiento fue de 735 minutes en Julio de 1993 y 745
minutes en Febrero de 1994.

La colecta de frutos y semillas fue simultineo al registry
de actividades. Los restos de fiutos caidos en el piso, luego
de verificar la parte comida, fueron colocados en bolsa
plhstica y rotulados con numeraci6n correlativa que
correspondia a un registro
cronol6gico anotado en la
hlibreta de campo. Para la
tipificaci6n de los bosques y las lOUlTos
formaciones vegetables que
conforman el habitat, he
recurrido a la clave establecida
por Encarnaci6n (1985, 1993).

C. calvus ucayalii habitat los
bosques de altura y de bajial
(Aquino, 1988). En la Reserva ,
Comunal Tamshiyacu- f
Tahuayo, el habitat esti
compuesto por formaciones Nouto S
vegetables denominados: a) ,
bosque de teraza, cuyo suelo
arcilloso o areno-arcilloso y con
fisiografia en terraza y planicie,
esti poblado por Arboles a
mayors de 30 m de alto, de Figura 1. Areas de esti
copa cerrada, entire los que Comunal Tamshiyacu-T;


destacan Couepia sp., Vantanea sp., Pouteria spp. y
Eschweilera spp., los que algunas veoes estan entretejidos
por bejucos gigantes que actman como soportes; b) bosque
de colina, cuyo suelo areno-arcilloso de tipo rojizo o
grisaceo y fisiografila muy ondulada y colinosa, con cimas
y pendientes que convergen en quebradas y riachuelos,
esta poblado por arboles que alcanzan entire 18 a 30 m de
alto, como Irartea sp., Jessenia bataua, Astrocaryum sp.,
Quararibea sp., y otros; c) varillal, cuyo suelo cubierto por
una delgada capa de arena esta poblado de vegetaci6n
heli6fila y escler6fila densa, los faboles delgados y rectos
de hasta 20 m de alto estan conformados por anoniceas,
dillenaceas y otros; y d) palmal alto o aguajal de altura,
cuyo suelo huimico y areno-arcilloso hidrometam6rfico,
estA poblado principalmente por palmeras de 25 a 35 m
de alto, como Mauritia flexuosa, Euterpe sp., Iriartea
exorrhiza, entire otros. En el Yavari, ademas de las
formaciones vegetables mencionadas, el habitat tambian lo
componen extensos aguajales, donde la comunidad de
Mauritiaflexuosa es dominant y alcanza entire 30 a 35 m
de alto. Precisamente el mayor nfimero de grupos fueron
observados en este tipo de formaci6n vegetal.

Desde Junio de 1993 a Agosto de 1994 he contactado con
Cc.ucayalii en 23 oportunidades, 19 ocurrieron en la
Reserva Comunal Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo y probablemente
correspondieron a grupos de una misma manada. El
tamafio por cada encuentro vari6 desde 7 a 120
individuos. Por la variaci6n sustancial durante los conteos
repetidos por cada encuentro, es muy probable que se trat6
de grupos y subgrupos, con excepci6n del registro y
conteo en Febrero de 1994, que fue de aproximadamente
120 individuos, cifra que estaria muy cercana al tamafio
de una manada complete (Aquino, 1988). La formaci6n
de subgrupos parece ocurrir con cierta frecuencia, este


idio de Cacajao calvus ucayalii.
ahuayo. 2. Agua negra, rio Yavari.


Page 41


Neotropical Primates 3(2), June 1995




Page 42


Neotropical Primates 3(2), June 1995


hecho estaria relacionado entire otros factors con el
tamailo y composici6n de la manada, tamaflo del Area
domiciliar, disponibilidad de recursos alimenticios,
disponibilidad de arboles para el descanso o suefto y
frecuente asociaci6n con otros species de primates.

Ain no ha sido possible determinar el Area domiciliar de la
manada en studio. No obstante, con seguridad es mayor
a los 150 kmi cifia que super enormemente a la
detenninada para C c. calvus que oscil6 entire 500 a 600
ha (Ayres, 1986).

Los andlisis preliminares muestran que C. c. ucayalii
emple6 mayor tiempo en locomoci6n (57%) que en
descanso y alimentaci6n (22% y 21%, respectivamente).
El tiempo de alimentaci6n desde que aribaron al Arbol
con frutos hasta su retirada estuvo en funci6n a la
disponibilidad de frutos y el tamafio del grupo o subgrupo,
habiendo registrado un mnaximo de 35 minutes. El tiempo
de descanso vari6 entire cinco a 160 minutes y casi
siempre lo hicieron en nias de tires Arboles y a altumras que
fluctuaron entire 20 a 35 m.

C. c. ucayalii compare el habitat con otras 11 species de
primates de habito diurno. De ellos, frecuentemente
acostumbran asociarse con Lagothrix lagotricha
(51.22%), Saimiri sciureus (37.0%) y ocasionalmente y
por tiempo muy corto con Cebus albifrons y C. apella, lo
cual coincide con el reportado por Aquino (1988).
Considerando una marcada competitividad por las plants
alimenticias entire estas species, la funci6n o finalidad de
estas asociaciones todavia no son claras, aim cuando uno
de ellas series la protecci6n de sus predators.

Hasta el present, la dieta fue enfatizada al consumo de
frutos, siendo las semillas la parte mas utilizada (51%)
seguido del mesocarpio (26%). Tambidn consumieron en
menor proporci6n el arilo y ocasionalmente yemas tiernmas
de plants epifitas, entire ellas de bromeliaceas y
ciclantaceas. De las aproximadamente 50 species
registradas, las mAs importantes por su mayor frecuencia
de consumo y mayor periodicidad d& fructificaci6n
figuran Couma macrocarpa, Schistostemon spp.,
Eschweilera spp., Mauritiaflexuosa y Pouteria spp.

C c. ucayalii, especie incluida en el Ap6ndice I del
CITES y considerada en peligro de extinci6n por
Resoluci6n Ministerial No. 1082-90-AG, no estA
protegida en ninguna de las actuales unidades de
conservaci6n, salvo la Reserva Comunal Tamshiyacu-
Tahuayo (ain no reconocida por el Gobierno Central).
Como toda fauna arboricola, la poblaci6n de C. c. ucayalii
responded al estado de integridad del bosque donde ellos
habitan. Los requerimentos de tierras cultivadas fomentan
deforestaciones intensivas y aceleradas, afectando en gran
media a los primates de tamafio grande y median, entire


ellos C c. ucayalii, cuyo habitat estA reducidndose
dristicamente. Otros factors que contribuyen al
decremento de la poblaci6n de este primate son: a) la
caza, para sustituir el consumo de los mamiferos de
tamafio grande que proporcionan mejores beneficios
econ6micos cuando son comercializados en los mercados;
y b) la oosecha de frutos silvestres para beneficio
econ6mico, mediante m6todos destructivos de corte y
tumba del arbol, de species como Mauritia flexuosa,
Couma macrocarpa, Rhigospira quadrangularis y
Parahancornia peruviana, que constituyen importantes
recursos alimenticios para estos primates.

Agradecimiento: El studio fue possible gracias al apoyo
econ6mico de: Srta. Suzi Leonard del Detroit Zoo;
Gesellschaft fur Primatologie de Gottingen y Gesellschaft
fur Arten und Populationsschutz de Miinchen. El autor
tambi6n agradece al Dr Richard Bodmer del Tropical
Conservation and Development Program, University of
Florida, Gainesville, por su valioso apoyo logistics.

Rolando Aquino, Centro de Investigaciones Veterinarios
Tropicales y de Altura, Universidad Mayor de San Marco,
Lima, y Sociedad Peruana de Primatologia, Apartado
575, Iquitos, Pern.

Referencias

Aquino, R 1988. Preliminary survey on the population
densities of Cacajao calvus ucayalii. Primate
Conservation (9): 24-26.
Ayres, M. 1986. The conservation status of the white
uakari. Primate Conservation (7): 22-26.
Bartedd, U. y Heymann, E.W. 1987. Sightings of red
uakaris Cacajao calvus rubicundus at the rio Blanco,
Peruvian Amazonia. Primate Conservation (8): 34-36.
Encamaci6n, F. 1985. Introducci6n a la flora y vegetaci6n
de la Amazonia Peruana: estado actual de los studios y
ensayo de una clave de determinaci6n de las
formaciones vegetales en la llanura amaz6nica.
Candollea (40): 237-252.
Encarnaci6n, F. 1993. El bosque y las formaciones
vegetables en la llanura amaz6nica del Peri. Alma Mater
(6): 95-114.
Hershkovitz, P. 1987. Uakaris, New World monkeys of
the genus Cacajao (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): a preliminary
taxonomic review with the description of a new
subspecies. Am. J Primatol. 12(1): 1-57.
Heymann, E.W. 1989. Observaciones preliminares del
mono huapo rojo, Cacajao calvus ucayalii (Primates:
Platyrrhini), en el rio Blanco, Amazonia peuana.
Medio Ambiente (10): 113-117.
Heymann, E.W. 1990. Further field notes on red uakaris,
Cacajao calvus ucayalii from the quebrada Blanco,
Amazonian Peru. Primate Conservation (11): 7-8.






Page 43 Neotropical Primates 3(2), June 199S


THE POTENTIAL FOR METACOMMUNrTY
EFFECTS UPON HOWLER MONKEYS

Darwin (1859) formulated the principle of competitivee
exclusion" to explain the potential for coexistence
between two species. In its present terms, the principle
states that "..if there is no differentiation between the
realized niches of two competing species, or if such
differentiation is precluded by the limitations of the
habitat, then one species will eliminate or exclude the
other." (Begon and Mortimer, 1986). Theoretical (De
Bruyn, 1980) and empirical (Connell, 1961) work has
investigated the parameters of this principle, descriptions
and formulations of which depend on the existence of


interspecific competition for limiting resources, such as
food or space.

When species are excluded by competition, competitivee
release" may occur, that is, the expansion of a species'
range when a competitor is eliminated (see Begon and
Mortimer, 1986). In a similar fashion, changes in the
distribution and abundance of a species may occur as a
result of local (metapopulation) or regional
(metacommunity) colonization and extinction of given
species within a community (Valone and Brown, 1995;
Harrison, 1994). Nee and May (1992) investigated
metacommunity ('icondary') effects with a model for
two competing species while decreasing the amount of


Table 1. Interspecific interactions at feeding sites by mantled howler monkeys, Alouatta palliata Gray. Percentages = %
total sample of 27 genera.


Class, specific exampless, and common
names


Focal tree species, where identified, and notes


Insecta (15%)
Centris aethyctera, anthophorid bees Andira inermis in flower producing nectar, bees interfere with howler
feeding; howlers may delay feeding until after diurnal pollination peak;
bees displace monkeys.
Xylocopa spp. carpenter bees Gliricidia sepum in flower, bees decrease average feeding rate of
monkeys; bees interfere with howler feeding.
Trigonafulviventris, stingless bees Tree in flower, nectar visible; bees interfere with howler feeding.
Pseudomyrmexferruginea, acacia ants Acacia cornigera. Ants and juvenile howlers eating leaves; ants
displace howlers by biting or attempting to bite.
Reptilia (7%)
Iguana iguana, Ctenosaura similis, Licania arborea, Spondias spp., Ficus ovalis, Enterolobium
iguanas cyclocarpum, and Cordia alliodora; primarily feeding on fruit;
coexistence?
Aves (67%)
Cathartes aura, Caracara plancus, Female howlers emit appeasement calls to vultures; vultures displace
vultures feeding young and adult female monkeys.
Buteo magnirostris, Spizastur Hawks displace howlers and some birds (e.g., jays) from feeding sites.
melanoleucus, hawks
Herpetotheres cachinnans, falcons Falcons interfere with howler feeding; howlers vocalize toward falcons.
Jabiru mycteris, storks Low flying bird, triggers coordinated howls by male howlers; storks
interfere with howler feeding.
Brotogerisjubularis, Aratinga canicularis, In fruiting tree; interspecific feeding associations.
parrots
Eugenesfulgens, hummingbirds Tabebuia neochrysantha in flower, interspecific feeding association.
Trogon spp., trogons In fruiting tree; interspecific feeding associations
Eumomota superciliosa, Motmotus lesson, Simarouba glauca in fruit; birds pick fruit then leave tree to feed;
motmots motmots avoid howlers.
Rhampastos spp., toucans Ficus ovalis in fruit; mutual interference in context of feeding
associations.
Campephilus guatemalensis, Dryocopus Bird calls sound like howler barks; howlers may flush insects eaten by
lineatus, woodpeckers woodpeckers; competition for space.
Chiroxiphia linearis, manakins Feeding in fruit tree; coexistence.
Cyanocorax spp., crows, jays Andira inermis, Anacardium excelsum, Muntingia calabura; howlers
may displace jays, howlers may flush insects.
Campylorhynchus rufinucha, acacia wrens Simarouba glauca in fruit; howlers flush insects; interspecific feeding
association.
Mammalia (11%)
Coendou mexicanum, Dasyprocta Anacardium excelsum in fruit; commensals beneath feeding tree.
punctata, rodents
Sciurus spp., squirrels Ficus ovalis in fruit; howlers displace squirrels; interspecific feeding
association among howlers, ctenosaurs, parrots, trogons, jays, and
squirrels.


Neotropical Primates 3(2), June 1995


Page 43




Neotropical Primates 3(2), June 1995


available habitat C(atch removal'). They found that
patch removal may decrease the distribution and
abundance of the superior competitor, while increasing
the distribution and abundance (in time and space) of the
inferior competitor. Of particular importance to students
of conservation biology is the finding that patch removal
can effect changes in the makeup of communities in
remaining inhabited patches even if these very patches
have experienced no 'intrinsic" changes of their own.
This process is reminiscent of the 'butterfly effect" in
chaos theory whereby small perturbations may lead to
large effects at a distant point in space or time.
Metacommunity effects, then, are expected to be
nonlinear and may be difficult to predict. For this reason
they deserve particular attention from conservation
biologists.

Mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata Gray) belong
to frugivore and herbivore guilds throughout their wide
distribution in Meso- and South America. In this note I
provide evidence of interspecific interactions between
howlers and 27 other genera recorded at Hacienda La
Pacifica, Cafas, Guanacaste, Costa Rica Ad libitum
methods of observation were employed in addition to the
'focal tree"observational method (Jones, 1983), in which
a single tree upon which howlers were known to feed,
generally a tree in peak flower, fruit, or leaf flush, was
observed and the interactions of all animal species
recorded. Feeding rates were counted as number of
mouthfuills per minute.

Table 1 presents a summary of notes on interactions
between howler monkeys and individuals of 27 genera.
Most of these responses took place when both howlers
and one or more species were feeding or attempting to
feed, usually on new leaves, fruit, or flowers; plant tissues
preferred by howlers (Glander, 1981) and available
primarily during the dry season, which is from November
to April (see Frankie et al., 1974). Observations occurred
more frequently in riparian habitat than in deciduous
habitat (Frankie et al., 1974) during the dry season (2 x 2,
p < 0.2, 7 2 = 5.5., df = 1). The presence of clumped
resources of high quality favors grouping tendencies, intra
and interspecifically (see Pulliam and Caraoo, 1978), and
Table 1 shows 15 of 27 (56%) genera apparently showing
feeding associations with howlers.

Observations of pairwise displacements (interference)
between howlers and contraspecifics show that howlers
are frequently subordinate to species with whom they
divide space, food, and time (e.g., bees). Such interactions
may effectively keep howler numbers in check. Related to
this, howlers appear to compete directly for space with
eight (30%) species (e.g., iguanas). Such potential costs
may translate into decreased feeding rates with a
consequently increased chance of mortality or decreased
reproductive success (Schoener, 1971).


Since environmental heterogeneity, such as patchily
distributed food, may increase costs to reproduction and
survival, switching to alternative behaviors such as those
presented in Table 1, may be favored to avoid the costs of
aggression. In particular, monkeys may switch to non-
damaging responses (e.g. pairwise supplantation or
interspecific feeding associations) as a function of
variations in feeding rates, and the particular alternative
behavior observed is expected to be a function of animal
species, food type and quality, feeding group size, tree size
and density, as well as feeding rates (see Schoener, 1971).

Such events govern interspecific relations within patches
and may be perturbed by between patch (regional)
disturbances (e.g., patch removal), including extinction.
As Nee and May (1992) point out, as.patch extinction rate
increases, the number of coexisting species does not
change in a straightforward manner. The effect upon
mantled howlers of the extinction of anthophorid bees 15
km away, for example, could produce no change in
population size, a decrease and possible extinction, or an
increase in population size. Such unpredictability injects a
degree of uncertainty or stochasticity into attempts to
quantify the viability parameters of populations.

If metacommunity effects can lead to the persistence or
increase of inferior competitors, what traits of mantled
howlers may yield higher dispersal rates, lower patch
extinction rates, or less clumping in time and space
compared to the species to which they are subordinate?
Mantled howlers may exhibit higher colonization rates
than certain of their superiors who demonstrate greater
habitat specificity. Like most primates, howlers tolerate a
broad range of habitats. Further, extinction rates may be
lower for howlers whose dispersion in time and space is
less clumped than, for example, some birds and insects.

On the other hand, howlers may be especially vulnerable
to extinction because of their membership in the frugivore
guild (see Terborgh, 1986). For howlers at La Pacifica,
feeding rates for fruit are more variable than for new
leaves or flowers (p < 0.05, %2 = 7.11, df= 2), and higher
variations in feeding rates are found in patchier deciduous
habitat (p < 0.01, X2 = 6.77, df= 1). These observations
suggest that fruit is more highly dispersed for howlers
than new leaves or flowers, possibly contributing to the
likelihood of increased extinction if greater heterogeneity is
correlated with increased stochasticty.

Previous reports have documented interspecific
associations by howler monkeys (Glander, 1979;
Rockwood and Glander, 1979; Young, 1982), but none
has analyzed these groups for their significance to
regional colonization and extinction. Nee and May (1992)
show that competitively inferior species, such as mantled
howlers and many other primate species in certain
regimes, will increase in number relative to competitively


Page 44






Page 45 Neotropical Primates 3(2), June 1995


superior species where rate of colonization relative to
patch extinction rate of the inferior is greater than that of
the superior competitor or where the dispersion of
subordinates is less clumped than that of superiors. This
counterintuitive result underlines the power of modeling
to identify those data (e.g., dispersal and extinction rates)
required to maximize the persistence of primates in
communities, and introduces a concept, the
metacommunity, secondary to metapopulation
dynamics (Valone and Brown, 1995; Harrison, 1994)
which are appropriately the major focus of primate
conservation biology.

Acknowledgements: I thank V. Schwartz and J. Crisp for
commenting on an earlier version of this note, and the
Werner Hagnauer family for assistance in many ways. W.
Haber kindly assisted me in the identification of plants
and animals.

Clara B. Jones, Institute of Animal Behavior, Rutgers
University Newark, 101 Warren Street, Newark, New
Jersey 07102, U.S.A.

References

Begon, M. and Mortimer, M. 1986. Population Biology:
A Unified Study of Animals and Plants. Sinauer
Associates, Inc., Sunderland, Massachusetts.
Connell, J. H. 1961. The influence of interspecific
competition and other factors on the distribution of the
barnacle Chthamalus stellatus. Ecology 42: 710-713.
Darwin, C. R. 1859. On the Origin of Species by Means
of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured
Races in the Struggle for Life. John Murray, London.
De Bruyn, G. J. 1980. Coexistence of competitors: a
simulation model. NetherlandsJ. Zool. 30: 345-368.
Frankie, G. W., Baker, H. G. and Opler, P. A. 1974.
Comparative phenological studies of trees in tropical
wet and dry forests in the lowlands of Costa Rica. J
Ecol. 62: 881-919.
Glander, K E. 1979. Feeding associations between
howling monkeys and basilisk lizards. Biotropica 11:
23-236.
Glander, K E. 1981. Feeding patterns in mantled
howling monkeys. In- Foraging Behavior: Ecological
and Psychological Aproaches, A. Kamil and T.
Sargent (eds.), pp.231-258. Garland Press, New York
Harrison, S. 1994. Metapopulations and conservation. In:
Large-Scale Ecology and Conservation Biology, P. J.
Edwards, R. M. May and N. R. Webb (eds.), pp.111-
128. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.
Jones, C. B. 1983. Do howler monkeys feed preferentially
upon legume flowers at flower-opening time? Brenesia
21: 41-46.
Nee, S. and May, R M. 1992. Dynamics of


metapopulations: habitat destruction and comparative
coexistence. J Ania. Ecol. 61 37-40.
Pulliam, H. R and Caraco, T. 1978. Living in groups: is
there an optimal group size? In" Behavioural Ecology.
An Evolutionary Approach, J. R Krebs and N.
B.Davies (eds.), pp. 122-147. Sinauer Associates, Inc.,
Sunderland Massachusetts.
Rockwood, L. L. and Glander, K. E. 1979. Howling
monkeys and leaf-cutting ants: comparative foraging in
a tropical deciduous forest Biotropica 11: 1-10.
Schoener, .W. 1971. Theory of feeding strategies. Ann.
Rev. Ecol. Syst. 2: 36-404.
Terborgh, J. 1986. Keystone plant resources in the
tropical forest Inr Conservation Biology:: the ,Science
of Scarcity and Diversity, M.E.Sould (ed.), pp.330-344.
Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, Massachusetts.
Valone, R G. and Brown, J. H. 1995. Effects of
competition, colonization, and extinction on rodent
species diversity. Science 267: 880-883.
Young, 0. P. 1982. Aggressive interaction between
howler monkeys and turkey vultures: the need to
thermoregulate behaviorally. Biotropica 14:228-231.


DIFFERING RESPONSES TO A PREDATOR
(EIRA BARBARA) BYALOUATTA AND CEBUS

Here I report on an observation of mantled howling
monkeys (Alouatta palliata) and white-faced capuchins
(Cebus capucinus) responding to a predator, a tayra (Eira
barbara). The observation occurred on Barro Colorado
Island, Republic of Panama, during an investigation into
the feeding ecology of white-faced capuchins.

On 23 September 1993, while following one of the
habituated capuchin study groups (see Phillips, 1994, for a
detailed description of the troops), I heard loud aggressive
vocalizations fiom capuchins and howlers. Individual
capuchins traveled toward the direction of the
vocalizations. I followed them, and approximately 30
seconds later came across a tayra surrounded by five
capuchins and three howlers. The howlers were clustered
high in the trees; the capuchins were in the understorey,
close to the tayra. All were directing threats and
vocalizations to the tayra, which was on a fallen tree,
approximately 2 m off the ground. One adult male
capuchin approached the tayra, leaning toward it while
directing threats and vocalizing. After 1.5 minutes of
reciprocated threats and lunges, the tayra retreated
towards the ground. The adult male capuchin followed,
continuing to direct threats and lunges. At all times the
capuchin maintained a distance of 2-3 m. After retreating
the tayra made no aggressive response, and continued
moving away from the group. Once the tayr had left the
area, the howlers and some of the capuchins remained


Neotropical Primates 3(2), June 1995


Page 45





Neotropical Primates 3(2), June 1995


stationary on branches, while others foraged for
invertebrates. Most were vigilant and scanned the area
frequently, giving alarm calls. After several minutes had
passed, the capuchins traveled in the opposite direction to
that of the tayra, and resumed their typical activity of
foraging and traveling. The howlers remained in the area.
Three other incidents involving predator detection and
response by capuchins were observed during 280
observation hours. All involved only Cebus no defensive
interactions among species were observed.

As reported previously (Boinski, 1988; Chapman, 1986)
and supported by the present observation, adult male C
capucinus play an active role in group defense. Although
the study troop contained two adult males, only one was
observed to directly defend the group and approach the
predator. A second adult male directed vocalizations and
threats from a distance of approximately 3 m. Female
white-faced capuchins generally do not become involved
in group defense situations (Fedigan, 1993). In the present
observation, an adult female carrying an infant was
present, vocalizing and directing threats to the tayra. She
remained 3-5 m away from the tayra throughout

This observation illustrates the differing strategies
employed by howlers and capuchins when confronting a
potential predator. Whereas Cebus responses (particularly
the adult male's) were active and directed towards the
predator, the howlers remained high in emergent trees,
vocalizing loudly. Julliot (1994) reported similar behavior
by howlers in response to a crested eagle (Morphnus
guianensis).

Kim Phillips, Departments of Psychology and Biology,
Hiram College, Hiram, Ohio 44234, USA.

References

Boinski S. 1988. Use of a club by a wild white-faced
capuchin (Cebus capucinus) to attack a venomous
snake (Bothrops asper). Am. J. Primatol. 14: 177-179.
Chapman, C.A. 1986. Boa constrictor predation and
group response in white faced Cebus monkeys.
Biotropica 18: 171-172.
Fedigan, L.M. 1993. Sex differences and intersexual
relations in adult white-faced capuchins (Cebus
capucinus). Int. Primatol. 14: 853-877.
Julliot, C. 1994. Predation of a young spider monkey
(Ateles paniscus) by a crested eagle (Morphnus
guianensis). Folia Primatol. 63:75-77.
Phillips, KA. 1994. Resource distribution and sociality in
white-faced capuchins Cebus capucinus. Unpublished
Ph.D. thesis, The University of Georgia, Athens.


ON THE OCCURRENCE OF PARASITES IN
FREE-RANGING CALLITRICHIDS


individuals of three species of callitrichids
(25 black-chinned emperor tamarins,
Projeto Saguinus imperator imperator, 19
\Bigodeiro/ saddleback tamarins, Saguinus fscicollis
weddelli; and two pygmy marmosets, Cebuella pygmaea)
were captured in a so-called "Saguinus trap"
(Encamaci6n et al., 1990). The study site, the
Zoobotanical Park of the Federal University of Acre
(956'30" 957'19"S, 67o52'08" 67053'00"W; 155 m
above sea level, area 100 ha), Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil, is
characterized by the presence of secondary forests in
different successional stages (Calegaro-Marques and
Bicca-Marques, 1994). Fecal samples were collected
whenever available in order to analyze the presence of ova
from gastrointestinal parasites using the Willis method
(Matos and Matos, 1981).


Figure 1. (a) Ancylostoma (320x) and (b) Trichuris
(128x) ova found in Saguinus fuscicollis weddelli
fecal samples.


Page 46


t7
iT L


A








Fourteen samples were Table 1. Occurrence of nematoid ova in the fecal samples examined in three callitrichid


examined and three nematode species.
genera were found: No.of
Ancylostoma (Fig. la) and Species Sampl
Trichostrongylus, Strongylidea,
and Trichuris (Fig. lb), S. f weddelli 7
Trichuridea (Table 1). Three S. S. i. imperator 6
f weddelli infested with C. pygmaea 1
Ancylostoma sp. presented
yellow cutaneous papules of about 2-4 mm in diameter in
the abdominal region, which may be related a similar
infection in cats and dogs (Freitas, 1977). These papules
were found in just one S. i. imperator, but no fecal sample
was examined for this individual. Another S. i. imperator
naturally eliminated an adult male acanthocephalan
parasite: Prosthenorchis (Fig. 2), Gigantorhynchidea.

Infection with these parasites can be oral (all genera) or
through the skin during lactation and pregnancy in the
case ofAncylostoma (Freitas, 1977). The higher infection
of Ancylostoma in S. f weddelli when compared to S. i.
imperator may be related to the species' behavior. S. f
weddelli at the study site use mainly the lower strata of the
forest, from 0 to 10 m (Azevedo etal., 1994), often going
to the ground. On the ground it may be more vulnerable
to infectious larvae that actively penetrate through the
skin. The occurrence of the parasitic nematodes in this


b c
Imm mm
Figure 2. (a) An adult male Prosthenorchis, which
was naturally eliminated by a Saguinus imperator
imperator, and details of its (b) anterior and (c)
posterior regions.


No (%) of No.(%) of
es Positive Samples Negative Samples
Ancylostoma Trichostrongylus Trichunrs
5(71) 1(14) 2 (29)
1(17) 5 (83)
1 (100)

callitrichid community may be related to the relatively
intense use of the Park by humans in at least some of the
areas. Natural infection of callitrichids by
acanthocephalans seems to occur through ingestion of
insect prey, the probable intermediate hosts (Hershkovitz,
1977).
Acknowledgements: We thank Francisco Luiz Franca for
his help during the initial stages of the captures. We are
also grateful for financial support provided by the Brazil
Science Council (CNPq), the Federal University of Acre,
S.O.S Amazonia, and the Fundacao o Boticirio de
Proteilo A Natureza (Project No. 158/94-A).

Francisco G. de Arauijo Santos, Jdlio Cesar Bicca-
Marques, Clhudia Calegaro-Marques, Elvira M.P. de
Farias and Maria Aparecida de 0. Azevedo,
Departamento de Ciancias da Natureza, and Parque
Zoobodtnico, Universidade Federal do Acre, 69915-900
Rio Branco, Acre, Brasil.

References

Azevedo, M.A.O., Bicca-Marques, J.C. and Calegaro-
Marques, C. 1994. Levantamento das populacoes de
primatas diumos do Parque Zoobotilnico, Rio Branco -
AC. Paper presented at 1a Jomada Nacional de
Iniciailo Cientifica and 46a ReumiAo Anual da
Sociedade Brasileira para o Progresso da Ciencia
(SBPC), Vit6ria, Espirito Santo. 17-22 July, 1994.
Calegaro-Marques, C. and Bicca-Marques, J.C. 1994.
Ecology and social relations of the black-chinned
emperor tamarin. Neotropical Primates 2(2):20-21.
Encamaci6n, F., Moya, L., Soini, P., Tapia, J. and
Aquino, R 1990. La capture de Callitrichidae
(Saguinus y Cebuella) en la Amazonia Peruana. In: La
Primatologia en el Pern, N.E.Castro-Rodriguez (ed.).
pp.45-56. Proyecto Peruano de Primatologia, Iquitos.
Freitas, MG. 1977. Helmintologia Veterinria. 3rd
Edition. Rabelo & Brasil Ltda., Belo Horizonte.
Hershkovitz, P. 1977. Living New World Monkeys
(Platyrrhini), With an Introduction to the Primates,
Vol. 1. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Matos, M.S. and Matos, P.F. 1981. Laborat6rio Clinico
Midico Veterinrio. Arco-Iris, Salvador.


Neotropical Primates 3(2), June 1995


Page 47





Page 48


Neotropical Primates 3(2), June 1995


UPDATINGTHE KNOWN DISTRIBUTION *0
OF THE PYGMY MARMOSET C
(CEBUELLA PYGMAEA) IN THE STATE
OF ACRE, BRAZIL

In a recent review, Rylands et al. (1993) stated
that the exact distribution of the pygmy a
marmoset, Cebuellapygmaea, is not well known. 20
Available data suggest that, in Brazil, the species
is confined to the west of the Rios Purlis and
Japuni (Fig. la), although its presence in northern
Bolivia indicates that it should occur in parts of
eastern Acre (Rylands et al., 1993).

Recent field surveys in the state of Acre have Figu
found the species inhabiting the region between Ryla
the Rios laco and Acre: the Antimari State Forest State
(Calouro et al., 1991), Rio do R61la basin (Brazil, Univ
IMAC, 1993), and the Zoobotanical Park of the (4a)
Federal University of Acre (Azevedo et al., 1994; high
S high'
Santos et al., 1995) (Fig. lb). The Antimari State BR-3
Forest (9001'15"- 9011'41" S, 6800'19" -
68001'45" W; 250-300 m above sea level) is a
reserve of mainly primary forest of 66,168 ha in size,
located in the municipalities of Bujari and Sena
Madureira, and crossed by the Rio Antimari, a tributary of
the Rio Acre (Calouro et al., 1991; Brazil, FUNTAC,
1987). The Riozinho do Rbla basin (10 110 S, 680 690
W; 216-260 m above sea level) (Brazil, IMAC, 1993)
covers an area of approximately 780,000 ha in the
municipalities of Rio Branco and Xapuri. This region is
covered by open tropical minforest with a predominance
of bamboos, lianas and palms (Brazil, IMAC, 1993). The
Zoobotanical Park (9056'30" 9057'19" S, 67052"08" -
67053'00" W; 155 m above sea level) is a forest fragment
of 100 ha in size, located in the suburbs of the city of Rio
Branco. The vegetation there is composed mainly of
secondary forest in different successional stages
(Calegaro-Marques and Bicca-Marques, 1994). While
carrying out a survey of the captive primates in the city of
Rio Branco, Fernandes (1990) received information on
the occurrence of Cebuella in several places within the
area between the Rio laco, a right bank tributary of the
Rio Pur6s and the Rio Abuni, a left bank tributary of the
Rio Madeira.

Although some caution should be exercised in drawing
conclusions from Fernandes' (1990) data, they are also
included in Figure lb. We believe, however, that the
range of Cebuella may be even wider than reported here,
and that the Rio Madeira is the limit to its distribution in
the east. The Rio Madeira is also the western limit to the
range of the Amazonian Callithrix, and may, therefore,
delimit the distributions of the two specialized gummivore
marmosets, which according to Ferrari (1993) may be at
least parapatric.


PERU 0 C
re 1. Map showing the (a) distribution of Cebuella pygmaea according to
nds et al. (1993) and (b) localities reported in this paper: (1) Antimari
Forest, (2) Rio do Rl61a basin, (3) Zoobotanical Park of the Federal
ersity of Acre, (4) the localities cited in Fernandes (1990), as follows;
headwaters of the Rio Acre in the Rio Acre Indigenous Area, (4b) AC-90
way, (4c) and (4i) localities on the BR-364 highway, (4d) AC-10
way, (4e) city of Rio Branco, (40 Rio Acre, (4g) and (4j) localities on the
17 highway, and (4h) AC-40 highway.


Julio Cesar Bicca-Marques and ClAudia Calegaro-
Marques, Departamento de Ciencias da Natureza and
Parque Zoobotlnico, Universidade Federal do Acre,
69915-900 Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil.

References

Azevedo, M.A.O., Bioca-Marques, J.C. and Calegaro-
Marques, C. 1994. Levantamento das populagces de
primatas diurnos do Parque Zoobotinico, Rio Branco -
AC. Paper presented at Ia Jomada Nacional de
Iniciaqo Cientifica and 46a Reunio Anual da
Sociedade Brasileira para o Progresso da Ciuncia
(SBPC), Vit6ria, Espirito Santo. 17-22 July, 1994.
Brazil, FUNTAC. 1987. Relat6rio do Projeto PD94/90
(ITIO). Fundaco de Tecnologia do Estado do Acre
(FUNTAC), Rio Branco.
Brazil, IMAC. 1993. Relat6rio da Caracteriza o
Preliminar da Bacia HidrogrAfica do Riozinho do Rola.
Unpublished report, Instituto de Meio Ambiente do
Acre (IMAC), Rio Branco.
Calegaro-Marques, C. and Bicca-Marques, J.C. 1994.
Ecology and social relations of the black-chinned
emperor tamarin. Neotropical Primates 2(2):20-21.
Calouro, A.M., Medeiros, M. and Di6genes, M.B. 1991.
Estudos de Fauna na Floresta Estadual do Antimari.
Unpublished report, Fundacao de Tecnologia do Estado
do Acre (FUNTAC), Rio Branco.
Fernandes, M.C.A.G. 1990. Distribuigo de Primatas
Nao-Humanos no Estado do Acre e Vizinhan-as: Um
Estudo Preliminar. Unpublished undergraduate thesis,
Universidade Federal do Acre, Rio Branco.






Page 49 Neotropical Primates 3(2), June 1995
psesentan algunas do las ideas desarrolladas duranto in


Ferrari, S.F. 1993. Ecological differentiation in the
Callitrichidae. In: Marmosets and Tamarins:
Systematics, Behaviour, and Ecology, A. B. Rylands
(ed.), pp.314-328. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Rylands, A.B., Coimbm-Filho, A.F. and Mittermeier,
RA. 1993. Systematics, geographic distribution, and
some notes on the conservation status of the
Callitrichidae. In: Marmosets and Tamarins:
Systematics, Behaviour, and Ecology, A. B. Rylands
(ed.), pp. 11-77. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Santos, F.G.A., Bicca-Marques, J.C., Calegaro-Marques,
C., Farias, E.M.P. and Azevedo, MAO. 1995. On the
occurrence of parasites in free-ranging callitrichids.
Neotropical Primates 3(2): 46-47.



News

CAMP PARA PRIMATES MEXICANOS Y
PHVA PARAALOUATTA PALLIATA MEXICANA

Introducci6n

Bajo la coordinaci6n de Susie Ellis y Phil Miller por part
del Grupo Especialista en Conservaci6n en Cautiverio
(CBSG por sus siglas en ingles) y de Ernesto Rodriguez-
Luna, Co-vice president del PSG, Secci6n Neotropical, y
la colaboraci6n de Liliana Cortes-Ortiz (asistente editorial
del Neotropical Primates) asi como de otros membros de
la Asociaci6n Mexicana de Primatologia (AMP) y de la
Asociaci6n de Zool6gicos, Criaderos y Acuarios de la
Rep(blica Mexicana (AZCARM), se celebr6 un CAMP
(Taller de Conservaci6n, Evaluaci6n y Mejo Planificado)
para los primates mexicanos. En esta misma ocasi6n se
desarrollo un PHVA (Taller de Evaluaci6n de Viabilidad
de Poblaci6n y Habitat) paraaAlouatta palliata mexicana.
Ambos talleres se verificaron en la ciudad de Puebla,
Mexico, del 27 de febrero al 4 de marzo de 1995. La
organizaci6n general del event, donde simultineamente
se celebr6 un CAMP para los felinos mexicanos, tuvo
como responsible a Amy Camacho, president de la
AZCARM y director del Zool6gico African Safari. En
esta reuni6n el Dr. Ulysses Seal, president de CBSG,
brind6 una plAtica acerca de la labor y tipo de trabajo que
realize este Grupo.

La reunion de especialistas permiti6 un profundo analisis
de la situaci6n de las poblaciones silvestres de monos, en
el que todos participaon desde distintas perpectivas,
aportando recomendaciones pam el studio y la acci6n
conservacionista. De estos talleres surgieron ideas
generals para futuros trabajos conjuntos. Pr6ximamente
el CBSG distribuiik ampliamente los documents
derivados de los talleres, a fin de someterlos a la
consideramci6n critical de otres colegas. A continuaci6n se


presentan algunas de las ideas desarrolladas dumrante la
reuni6n.

CAMP para primates mexicanos

El principal objetivo de los talleres CAMP es determinar
el nivel de riesgo en que se encuentran los integrantes de
un tax6n, bajo consideraci6n de un grupo de especialistas.
Los informes CAMP proporcionan un marco global para
manejo intensive en el medio silvestre y en cautiverio.

En este taller fue analizada la situaci6n de los monos
arafia, Ateles geoffroyi vellerosus y A. g. yucatanensis, asi
como de los monos aulladores, Alouatta palliata
mexicana yA. pigra.

Una conclusion general para los taxa estudiados es
relative a la acelerada desaparici6n de su habitat, el cual
se ha reducido a un 10% de su extension original. El
principal motivo para la transformaci6n del habitat,
bosques tropicales, ha sido la necesidad de abrir areas
para la agricultural y la ganaderia, como exigencia de una
poblaci6n humana en continue crecimiento.

La fragmentaci6n del habitat parece afectar mas
dramaticamente a las poblaciones de monos araia, las
cuales desaparecen ripidamente; en comparaci6n, el
mono aullador de manto (A. palliata mexicana) aparenta
tolerar mais la perturbaci6n humana y se le encuentra en
reducidos fragmentos de vegetaci6n. Se ha reportado que
el aullador negro no es tan tolerant.

De acuerdo a la estimaci6n de nimeros poblacionales y de
habitat disponible para los cuatro taxa, las dos subespecies
de mono arafia en Mexico acusan un grave riesgo de
desaparici6n (Vulnerable), asi como el mono aullador de
manto. El caso del aullador negro no es tan critico (Riesgo
Bajo), ain cuando merece atenci6n. Sin duda, el factor
nids agravante para las poblaciones de monos es la
desaparidc6n del habitat Sin embargo, la caza y captumra
de animals es otro factor que debe considerarse, ya que
constitute una amenaza important, particularmente en
regions donde el habitat se encuentra fragmentado. El
trafico de monos se pratica de manera generalizada en el
sur de M6xico, sin que existan medidas efectivas para
controlarlo. El destino de los animals sobreviventes a este
comercio illegal es el convertirse en mascotas, que
terminal donadas a zoologicos o instituciones publicas.

Se tiene registro de un considerable n(mero de colonies
de monos arafia en instituciones mexicanas, sin embargo,
su identidad taxon6mica es desconocida en la mayoria de
los casos; por lo que existe la posibilidad de hibridismo y
no pueden ser consideradas para acciones
conservacionistas, a no ser como elements para
programs educativos. En tanto, los monos aulladores
rara vez son mantenidos en cuativerio, dada la dificultad


Neotropical Primates 3(2), June 1995


Page 49






Neotropical Primates 3(2), June 1995 Page 50


de su manejo. Al respect, no se recomienda iniciar
programs en cautiverio para contribuir gendtica o
demogrmficamente a la conservaci6n de estos taxa,
aunque se sugiere aprovechar los recursos existentes,
principalmente para investigation.

Al final del taller se hicieron recomendaciones para el
studio y desarrollo de acciones conservacionistas en favor
de los primates mexicanos. Se destac6 la necesidad de
realizar mas trabajo de campo que genere informaci6n
relevant para el disefio de estrategias y tActicas
conservacionistas. Al mismo tiempo, se enfatiz6 la
importancia de asegurar la permanecia de poblaciones
silvestres de monos en Areas naturales declaradas como
protegidas y en aquellas que afn no lo son, pero que
podrian sumarse a esta condici6n para la conservaci6n in
situ.

PHVA paraAlouattapalliata mexicana

El principal objetivo de los talleres PHVA es la evaluaci6n
de species (o subespecies) en su estado actual, asi como
bajo diferentes escenarios ecol6gicos probables, donde se
consideran amenazas y estrategias de manejo. En estos
ejercicios se utiliza informnaci6n biol6gica del tax6n, y
particularmente datos demograficos y gen6ticos de las
poblaciones. Al mismo tiempo se valoran los factors
ambientales que influyen sobre las poblaciones.

Una caracteristica important de estos talleres es el poder
obtener informaci6n de los experts que ain no este list
para ser publicada, pero que puede ser de gran
importancia para comprender la situaci6n del tax6n. Esta
informaci6n aportara las bases para constmir
simulaciones de las poblaciones, a travys de un model
que permit el anAlisis de efectos deterministicos y
estocsticos, asi como de las interacciones entire factors
geneticos, demograficos, ambientales y catastr6ficos, que
determinan la dinAmica de la poblaci6n y su riesgo de
extinci6n. El modelo pretend similar la biologia de la
especie, tal como se conoce actualmente y aportar la base
para discutir alternatives de manejo.

Durante este taller, para estimar el riesgo en posibles
scenarios ecol6gicos, se utiliz6 un model de simulaci6n
(VORTEX, version 7.0) y se identificaron factors critics
para el decremento de las poblaciones. Asimismo, se
consideraron algunas alternatives de manejo que podrian
mejorar la situaci6n del primate. Se reconoci6 que para
esta evaluaci6n se dispus6 de datos de desigual calidad,
siendo necesario realizar suposiciones. Por tanto, muchas
de las conclusions y recomendaciones deberan ser
consideradas criticamente conforme se disponga de mejor
informaci6n.

Dada la acelerada perttubaci6n, fragmentaci6n y perdida
del habitat de este mono, es necesario desarrollar un


program de studio y conservaci6n que asegure su
permanencia como parte del patrimonio natural de
Mxico.

A continuaci6n se present un resume de las
recomendaciones para el studio y conservaci6n de
Alouatta palliata mexicana:

Studios: a) taxonomia, b) distribuci6n, c) ocupaci6n de
distintos tipos de habitat, d) densidad poblacional y
estimaci6n de Ambito hogarefo en distintas condiciones
ambientales, e) cambios en la organization social en
relaci6n a variaci6n ambiental; f) crecimiento poblacional
(tasas de natalidad y mortalidad), g) migraci6n entire
poblaciones, h) cambios en las estrategias de forrajeo, i)
efectos de la fragmentaci6n sobre poblaciones silvestres y
j) studios sobre caza, capture y comercializaci6n de
animals.

Acciones conservacionistas: 1) Mejorar manejo en Areas
naturales protegidas: protecci6n legal, vigilancia,
monitoreo de poblaciones, restauraci6n ecol6gica,
desarrollo de programs educativos, reintroducci6n y/o
suplementaciones (s6lo en condiciones especiales y bajo
estrictas medidas de seguridad) y vinculaci6n
(instituciones de investigaci6n, dependencias
gubemamentales, asentamientos humans locales) para
desarrollo de programs; 2) Establecer nuevas areas
naturales protegidas: prospecci6n de Areas candidates con
poblaciones silvestres de monos, identificaci6n y
planteamiento de Areas apropriadas para conservaci6n,
propuesta de plan de manejo y todos los citados par el
punto anterior, 3) Desarrollar un program de
translocaciones programa piloto): anAlisis de factibilidad
(poblaciones y Area de liberaci6n), capture, transport,
evaluaci6n clinic, manejo en cautiverio, liberaci6n y
monitoreo; 4) Manejo de metapobladci6n en habitat
fragmentado: identificaci6n de areas fragmentadas,
translocaciones, monitored y manejo de poblaci6n viable;
5) Control y reducci6n de trafico: formulaci6n de norma
juridica apropiada, vigilancia efectiva en Areas silvestres,
vigilancia efectiva en zonas rurales y urbanas donde se
realize la comercializaci6n, mecanismo apropiado para la
formulaci6n de denuncias, consigranciones y decomisos,
penalizaci6n debidamente tipificada para los traficantes,
campafia educativa para impedir el trifico y canalizaci6n
de animals decomisados; 6) Educaci6n: desarrollo de
programs para lograr una actividad favorable y de
colaboraci6n hacia la conservaci6n de los primates,
utilizando diferentes medios masivos de comunicaci6n y
implementaci6n de programs educativos en los
zool6gicos; 7) Colaboraci6n interinstitucional: sociedades
cientificas, instituciones educativas y zool6gicos,
dependencias guberamentales, sectors de la sociedad
civil y organismos intemacionales dedicados a la
conservaci6n; y 8) Incluir las estrategias de conservaci6n
de los primates en programs de conservaci6n regionales:


Page 50


yeotropical Primates 3(2), June 1995






Page SI Neotropical Primates 3(2), June 1995


promocion de alternatives de desarrollo sustentable y
hacer coparticipes de los programs a los habitantes
locales.

En este taller participaron 38 personas de 17 instituciones,
que contribuyeron con su experiencia y entusiasmo. El
borrador del informed de este taller sera distribuido por el
CBSG en fecha pr6xima, esperando como respuesta los
comentarios de otros colegas, a fin de perfeccionar el
anMfisis y las recomendaciones en favor de este tax6n.

Para mayor informaci6n pueden contactar con: Susie Ellis
y Phil Miller, CBSG, 12101 Johnny Cake Ridge Road,
Apple Valley, MN 55124, USA, Tel: 1 (612) 431 9325,
Fax: 1 (612) 432 2757, e-mail: cbsg@epx.cis.umn.edu, o
con Emesto Rodriguez-Luna y Liliana Cortes, Instituto de
Neuroetologia, Universidad Veracruzana, A.P.566, C.P.
91000, Xalapa, Veracuz, Mdxico, Tel. y Fax: 52 (28) 12-
5748, e-mail: saraguat@speedy. coacade.uv.mx.


RESOURCE DISTRIBUTION AND SOCIALITY
IN WHITE-FACED CAPUCHINS, CEBUS
CAPUCINUS

White-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) at Barro
Colorado Island, Panama, appear to have a flexible
foraging strategy. Typically, foraging party size is small
and individuals feed dispersed from one another. When
seasonal fruiting of large volume trees occurs, the majority
of the group forages simultaneously. As C. capucinus do
not display a rigorous dominance structure and there are
few indications that individuals or coalitions monopolize
food patches, individuals were expected to display
scramble strategies instead of high frequencies of contest
competition. Foraging party size (simultaneous foragers),
the total number of animals to feed successively, and the
diameter at breast height (DBH) of fruit trees used, were
recorded in two habituated troops. Individuals in each
group spent a substantial amount of time (65% and 48%
of foraging time for each group) foraging in a party size of
one. Monkeys predominantly foraged alone in small trees
(0 20 cm DBH), successively in medium trees (21-60 cm
DBH), and simultaneously in large trees (>51 cm DBH).
Small trees were used more frequently than all other size
classes. In medium-sized trees, although fruit was
plentiful, space was limited. Cebus foraged successively in
these trees. In large volume trees, space and fruit were
abundant and several individuals fed together. As the
DBH of fruiting trees increased, the average foraging
party size increased exponentially. Cebus capucinus at
Barro Colorado modify their foraging party size to adapt
to seasonal patterns of fruit production.

Data was also collected on rates of aggressive interactions
in clumped and dispersed resource contexts. Individual


fruiting trees with separate crowns were considered
separate food patches, and the distribution of fruit within a
tree was classified as occurring in clumps or dispersed
evenly throughout the tree. Insects were considered
dispersed resources. The overall rates of resource-based
aggression and affiliation were low (aggression: 0.86
events per hour); affiliation: 1.66 events per hour).
Although the majority of foraging bouts (82%) occurred
on dispersed resources, aggressive and affiliative
interactions were significantly more likely to occur in
clumped resource contexts than in dispersed resource
contexts. Females performed more affiliative behavior
than males. However, females were not shown to
associate preferentially with other females. Males and
females did not differ in the rate of aggression performed,
and no sex difference for recipient was detected for either
male or female targets of aggression. The combination of
low rates of affiliative and aggressive interactions, the
predominant use of dispersed resources, and weak social
relations lead to the conclusion that scramble competition
prevails, and association patterns are individualistic.

This study comprised a PhD. thesis for the University of
Georgia, Athens. It was supervised by Dr Irwin S.
Bernstein, and supported in part by the University of
Georgia

Kim A. Phillips, Departments of Psychology and
Biology, Hiram College, Hiram, Ohio 44234, USA.

Reference

Phillips, K A. 1994. Resource Distribution and Sociality
in White-Faced Capuchins, Cebus capucinus.
Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation University of Georgia,
Athens.



ECOLOGY AND FEEDING BEHAVIOR OF
MASKED TrI MONKEYS

Klaus-Heinrich Muller, research assistant at the German
Primate Center (DPZ), Gottingen, Germany, completed
his doctoral thesis 'Ecology and Feeding Behavior of
Masked Titi Monkeys (Callicebus personatus
melanochir, Cebidae, Primates) in the Atlantic Rain
Forest of Eastern Brazil"in May 1995 at the University of
Berlin. The research was supervised by Prof. Dr. H. -J
Kuhn, and made possible through collaboration between
the Rio de Janeiro Primate Center (CPRJ/FEEMA),
Director Dr. Alcides Pissinatti, and the German Primate
Center, Director Prof. Dr. H. -J. Kuhn. It was supported
by the Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst
(DAAD) and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft
(DFG). The following is a summary of the thesis:


Neotropical Primates 3(2), June 1995


Page 51






Neotropical Primates 3(2), June 1995 Page 52


A short term study of six complete days, published by
Kinzey and Becker (1983), was the first attempt to collect
data on Callicebuspersonatus. The aim of the thesis was
to obtain further data on the ecology of masked titis
through a long-term study. The research was carried out
in a forest area of about 100 ha, located in the Lemos
Maia Experimental Station (CEPLAC) near the town of
Una in southern Bahia. The project was started in June
1991. Due to the difficulty of following the masked titis,
radio-telemetry was used in order to locate the groups for
habituation. After chemical immobilization, a transmitter
was attached to one of the group members. The animals
then became habituated after six weeks. Details of the
methods involved in capture and radio-tracking were
reported by MUiller (1994). Between October 1992 and
September 1993, two groups of titi monkeys were
observed during 101 days. The total observation time was
1030 hours.

Masked titis are active for an average of 10 hours and 12
minutes during the day, with a maximum of 11 hours and
three minutes (March) and a minimum of 8 hours and 40
minutes (July). Budgets for the principal activities are
shown in the table.

Activity Duration %
Locomotion 3 h 24 min. 32.1
Feeding 2 h 48 min 27.1
Resting 3 h 54 min. 40.0
Playing 6 min. 0.8

Masked litis are predominantly frugivorous: 76.6% of the
diet consisted of fruits, 17.2% leaves. Other components
included flowers, buds, stems, insects and soil, totalling
1.8% of the diet A seasonal difference in food intake was
observed: during the warm season, a greater proportion of
the diet consisted of fruits, whereas this was true for leaves
in the cooler season. Fruits and leaves of 11 species eaten
by the titis comprised 60% of the diet. This contrasts with
the information available for other Callicebus species,
where three to six plant species took up 60% of the diet.
Masked titis are as such more eclectic feeders.

The distance between food patches used during the day
averaged 109 m. In addition, 81.6% of the trees used by
the monkeys had a crown diameter of less than 10 m. The
relatively long food patch distance compared with other
primates, and the large number of small-crowned trees
used, would indicate that nutritional resources are small
and uniformly dispersed in their habitat This might
indicate why Callicebus personatus form small family
groups. Furthermore, as discussed in the thesis, it might
explain their monogamous mating system.

The project was continued, beginning in October 1993, by
two DPZ doctoral students under the supervision of
myself and Dr Alcides Pissinatti. The focus of their study


includes aspects of optimal foraging strategies and their
social behavior. It will continue until July 1995. Other
primatologists interested in studying these animals for a
Master's or Doctoral degree should contact Dr Miller or
DrPissinatti.

Klaus-Heinrich Miller, Abteilung Okologie, Deutsches
Primatenzentrum (DPZ), Kellnerweg 4, D-37007
Gottingen, Germany, and Alcides Pissinatti, Centro de
Primatologia do Rio de Janeiro (CPRJ/FEEMA), Rua
Fonseca Teles 121, Sala 1624, S&o Crist6vao, 20940 Rio
de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

References

Kinzey, W. G. and Becker, M. 1983. Activity pattern of
the masked titi monkey, Callicebus personatus.
Primates 24(3): 337-343.
Miller, K -H. 1994. Capture and radio-telemetry of
masked titi monkeys, Callicebus personatus
melanochir. Neotropical Primates 2(4): 7-8.
Miller, K. -H. 1995. Langzeitstudie zur Okologie von
schwarzkopfigen Springaffen (Callicebus personatus
melanochir, Cebidae, Primates) im atlantischen
Kfistenregenwald Ostbrasiliens. University of Berlin,
Berlin.



CYTOGENETIC STUDIES IN THE FAMILY
ALOUATTINAE

Alouatta is the single genus within the subfamily
Alouattinae of the Neotropical family Cebidae (Napier
and Napier 1967). The six species currently recognized by
most authorities have a widespread distribution from
southern Mexico to northern Argentina (Wolfheim, 1983;
Crockett, 1986).

Although previous kaiyological studies of this genus are
scarce, many interesting rearrangements have been
reported, with inter- and intraspecific chromosomal
variations detected. Five species have been analyzed for
their karyotypes, and the diploid number ranged from 43
in A. seniculus to 54 in A. palliata. Different
translocations have been reported in four of the five
species analyzed: A. palliata (v. Ma et al., 1975), A.
belzebul (v. Armada et al., 1987),A. seniculus (v.Yunis et
al., 1976; Minezawa et al., 1985; Lima and Seuinez,
1992 ), andA.fusca (v. Koiffmann, 1977). Studies of the
A. caraya kaiyotype have shown a constant diploid
number of 52, and translocations or other rearrangements
have not been found to date (Mudly et al., 1992).

Due to these facts and the confused taxonomic
relationships within this group, research into the
chromosomal and phylogenetic relationships of the


Areotropical Primates 3(2), June 1995


Page 52






Page 53 Neotropical Primates 3(2), June 1995


Alouattinae is being carried out for the four species
occurring in Brazil: A. seniculus, A. belzebul, A. fusca,
and A. caraya. Blood samples were collected from
individuals in a number of institutions: the Centro de
Primatologia do Rio de Janeiro (CPRJ/FEEMA); the
Fundadlo Rio-Zoo, Rio de Janeiro; Itaipi Binacional, Foz
do Iguaqu, Parana; Passeio Publico de Curitiba, Parana,
the Centro Nacional de Primatas, Bel6m; the Museu
Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Belem; and the Centro
Argentino de Primatologia (CAPRIM), Corrientes,
Argentina.

The research involves the cytogenetic characterization of
the four species through banding techniques (G, C, and
NOR). Using the data in conjunction with that previously
published, a model will be proposed of the chromosomal
evolution of the genus leading to the karyotypic variation
observed today, which will clarify the phylogenetic
relationships within the subfamily.

The research is part of a Master's thesis for the
postgraduate course in genetics of the Federal University
of Parana, Curitiba, supervised by Dr. Ives J. Sbalqueiro
in collaboration with Prof. Margarida M. C. Lima
(Federal University of Para). It is supported by the Federal
University of Pamr, the Federal University of Parana, and
the Brazil Science Council (CNPq).

Edivaldo IL Corria de Oliveira, Caixa Postal 19095,
81531-990 Curitiba, Parani, Brazil.

References

Armada, J.LA, Barroso, C.M.L., Lima, M.M.C., Muniz,
J.A.P.C. and Seuinez, H.N. 1987. Chromosome studies
in Alouatta belzebul. Am. J.
Primatol. 13: 283-296. 1-
Crockett, CM 1986. Diet, N
dimorphism and demography: A
perspectives from howlers to |
hominids. In: Primate Models for
the Evolution of Human
Behavior, W.G.Kinzey (ed.),
pp.115-135. State University of
New York Press, New York.
Koiffinann, C.P. 1977.
Variabilidade cromossimica na
familiar Cebidae. Unpublished C
Ph.D. dissertation, University of E
Sffo Paulo, SMo Paulo. R
Lima, M.M.C. and Seuinez, H.N.
1991. Chromosome studies in the
red howler monkey, Alouatta -
seniculus stramineus (Platyrrhini, Figure 1. Map sho
Primates): description of an Ecological Station, 3)
XIX1X2X2/XIX2Y sex southern sector, 5) L
chromosome systems and Right Bank of the Rio


karyological comparisons with other subspecies.
Cytogenet. Cell Genet 57: 151-156.
Ma, N.S.F., Jones, T.C., Thorington Jr, R.W., Miller, A.
and Morgan, L. 1975. Y-autosome translocation in the
howler monkey (Alouatta palliata). J. Med Primatol.,
4:299-307.
Minezawa, M., Harada, M., Jordan, O.C. and Borda,
C.J.V. 1985. Cytogenetics of Bolivian endemic red
howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus sara): accessory
chromosomes and Y-autosome translocation related
numerical variations. Kyoto Univ. Overseas Res. Rep.
ofNew WorldMonkeys 5: 7-16.
Mudry, M.P., Zunino, G.E., Slavutsky, I. and Delprat, A.
1992. Cariotipo, fenotipo y caracteristicas poblacionales
del mono aullador negro (Alouatta caraya) de la
Argentina. Bol. Primatol. Latinoamericano 3(1): 1-10.
Napier, J.RI and Napier, P.H. 1967. A Handbook of
Living Primates. Academic Press, London.
Wolfheim, J.H. 1983. Primates of the World.
Distribution, Abundance and Conservation. University
of Washington Press, Seattle.
Yunis, E.J., Torres de Caballero, O.M. and Ramirez, C.
1976. Chromosomal variations in Alouatta seniculus
seniculus. Folia Primatol. 25: 215-224.


RIO NEGRO STATE PARK:
PROTECTED AREA IN THE
AMAZON


A NEW
BRAZILIAN


The Rio Negro State Park, c. 436,042 ha, was decreed by
the Governor of the State of Amazonas in April 1995
(State Decree No. 16.497 / 2 April 1995). It is located on
both sides of the Rio Negro, north-west of Manaus, in the


wing the location of: 1) Jait National Park, 2) Anavilhanas
) Rio Negro State Park, northern sector, 4) Rio Negro State Park,
eft Bank of the Rio Negro Environmental Protection Area, and 6)
o Negro Environmental Protection Area.


Page 53


Neotropical Primates 3(2), June 1995




Neotropical Primates 3(2), June 1995


municipalities of Manaus, Novo Airio, Iranduba, and
Manacapuru. The Park is divided into two sectors, taking
in parts of both banks of the Rio Negro (Fig. 1). The
northern part (Setor Norte) covers approximately 178,620
ha, and the southern part (Setor Sul) approximately
257,422 ha.

Of particular interest was the simultaneous creation of two
Environmental Protection Areas (APA) surrounding the
two sectors of the State Park: Left Bank of the Rio Negro
(740,757 ha) and the Right Bank of the Rio Negro
(554,334 ha) (State Decree 16.498 / 2 April 1995). These
will act as buffer zones for the State Park. The State Park
itself completely surrounds the Anavilhanas Ecological
Station (Federal) of 350,018 ha, and the northern sector of
the Park and the APA of the Right Bank of the Rio Negro
are contiguous with the Jai National Park, the largest
Park in Amazonia, of 2,270,000 ha, and covering the
large majority of the Rio Jail basin. This complex of
protected areas covers a remarkable 3,056,060 ha, with a
further 1,259,091 ha of Environmental Protection Areas.
It represents, as such, the second largest continuous area
of parks and reserves in the Amazon basin (and the entire
South American continent). First place is taken by the
Pico de Neblina National Park of 2,200,000 ha (Brazil),
contiguous with the Serrania La Neblina National Park
(Venezuela) of 1,360,000 ha.

The primates with distributions on the left bank of the Rio
Negro include: Saguinus midas midas, Saimiri sciureus
sciureus, Aotus trivirgatus, Cebus apella apella, Cebus
nigrivittatus, Pithecia pithecia chrysocephala, Chiropotes
satanas chiropotes, Alouatta seniculus, and Ateles
paniscus. Those with distributions on the right bank of the
Rio Negro include: Saimiri sciureus cassiquiarensis,
Aotus vociferans, Callicebus torquatus torquatus (lower
Rio Negro near its mouth), C t. lugens (to the north of C
t. torquatus and upper Rio Negro, west of the Rio
Branco), Cebus apella apella, Cebus albifrons, Pithecia
pithecia lotichiusi, Cacajao melanocephalus ouakary and
Alouatta seniculus. No tamarin is known for the western
part of the basin of lower Rio Negro, but the possibility
remains that Saguinus inustus may extend its range to the
region.

The Editors are grateful to Rosana Subir6 and the
Fundagao Floresta Amazonica, Manaus, for supplying
information on the Rio Negro State Park/


PRIORITY AREAS FOR CONSERVATION IN
THE ATLANTIC FOREST OF NORTH-EAST
BRAZIL

A workshop on 'Priority Areas for the Conservation of
Biodiversity in the Atlantic Forest of North-East Brazil"


was held in Recife, Pernambuco, from the 6th to 10th of
December 1993. It was organized by Conservation
International do Brasil, Belo Horizonte, the FundacAo
Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte, and the Sociedade
Nordestina de Ecologia, Recife. A number of IUCN/SSC
Primate Specialist Group Neotropical Section members
took an active part in this Workshop, examining
particularly the remaining populations of 11 species and
subspecies of primates which occur in the area under
consideration; the entire Atlantic forest and associated
ecosystems north of the Rio Doce in the state of Espirito
Santo. Mapping of the priority areas and the elaboration
of subsidiary thematic maps was carried out by the
Biodiversity Conservation Data Center (CDCB) of the
Fundagio Biodiversitas, using the Conservation
International Geographic Information System (CISIG). A
complete report on the methodology and conclusions of
the workshop is currently being finalized by Roberto
Cavalcanti, University of Brasilia, and Conservation
International do Brasil.

A double-sided map showing the priority areas was
published recently Prioridades para Conservagdo da
Biodiversidade da Mata Atldntica do Nordeste Scale
1:2,500,000, 1995. It was produced by Christopher B.
Rodstrom, Ludmilla Aguiar, and Ricardo Machado at the
Department of Science and Planning of Conservation
International, Washington, D. C. The priority areas
identified were grouped into five sub-regions: as follows:
Rio Doce to Jequitinhonha (26 areas); Southern Bahia
and the Recincavo (11 areas); Northern Bahia and
Sergipe (7 areas); Zona da Mata (43 areas); Inland Brejos
of the states of Ceara and Piaui (18 areas). Each area is
ranked according to its estimated or known biological
importance. Besides the principal map of the final areas
decided upon by the Workshop participants, there are a
number of subsidiary maps as follows: 1) Demography, 2)
Forest fragments. and vegetation types, 3) Localities of
scientific inventories, 4) Forest remnants, 5) Priority
Areas for a) aquatic environments, b) plants, c) insects, d)
reptiles and amphibians, e) birds, and 1) mammals, and
analytical maps concerning 6) Human pressure on natural
environments in the region, and 7) Overlap of the areas
identified by the different working groups. The data and
maps can also be accessed through Internet, deposited at
the Base de Dados Tropical of the Fundaco Andrd
Tosello, Campinas, Sao Paulo (http://www.bdtorg.br/
mata.atlantica/ workmata/).

This exercise will be repeated in the near future for the
southern and southeastern Atlantic forest, south from the
Rio Doce, and together these Workshops will provide an
important basis for the elaboration of conservation action
and research in the Atlantic forest For more information
on the Workshop, please contact Gustavo Fonseca or
Roberto Cavalacanti (CI Brasil), Imar Santos (Fundaqlo
Biodiversitas) or Ricardo Braga (SNE).


Page 54






Page 55 Neotropical Primates 3(2), June 199S


Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca, Roberto Cavalcanti,
Conservation International do Brasil, Avenida Antonio
AbrabSo Caram 820/302, 31275-000 Belo Horizonte,
Minas Gerais, Ilmar B. Santos, Fundacao Biodiversitas,
Avenida Contomo 9155, 110 Andar, Prado, 30110-130
Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, and Ricardo Braga,
Sociedade Nordestina de Ecologia, Rua Pessoa de Melo
355, Madalena, 50610-220 Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil.


MEETING OF THE INTERNATIONAL
COMMITTEES FOR LION TAMARINS

The International Management Committees for the four
species of lion tamarins, Leontopithecus rosalia, L.
chrysomelas, L chrysopygus, and L caissara, held their
annual meeting in the town of Guaraquegaba, ParanA,
Brazil, from the 31 May to 1 June 1995. The meeting was
organized by Maria lolita Bampi, Head of the Fauna
Division of the Wildlife Department of the Brazilian
Institute of the Environment and Renewable Natural
Resources (Ibama), and hosted by Guadalupe
Vivekananda, Director of the Superagui National Park.
Numerous issues were discussed regarding the captive
management, conservation, environmental education and
research programs for the species. Captive management
of the golden lion tamarin, L rosalia, and the golden-
headed lion tamarin, L chrysomelas, has been extremely
successful, and now involves restrictions on breeding. The
number of zoos holding the black lion tamarin has
increased, with animals now in the Rio de Janeiro
Primate Center (CPRJ/FEEMA), the Soo Paulo Zoo, and
the Brasilia Zoo, in Brazil, and the Kreefeld Zoo,
Magdeburg Zoo, and Central Park Zoo, overseas. The
total captive population for this species was reported at 82
(40.39.3). L. caissara continues without a breeding
program, although the need for one was emphasized at
the meetings. Regarding reserves, measures were
discussed for the establishment of a second fully protected
area for L. rosalia, at the Fazenda Uniio, Rio de Janeiro,
at present receiving translocated groups ofL. rosalia (see
Kiernlff and Oliveira, 1994). The Fazenda is currently
owned by the Federal Railway Company (RFFSA) and
contains a very well-preserved area of 2,368 ha of lowland
forest. The main concern for this area involves the future
prospects of privatization, and as such the uncertain future
of the present agreement with the RFFSA for its
protection. Saturino Neto de Sousa, Director of the Una
Biological Reserve, the only protected area for L.
chrysomelas, reported on the situation regarding
squatters. He has done a remarkable job, in collaboration
with World Wildlife Fund US, in removing squatters
and occupants from the Reserve, with only seven families
remaining of 84 in the past (all in the northwestern
section of the Reserve). Considerable funds are required,
however, for the indemnities due to these families.
Guadalupe Vivekananda, Director of the Superagui


National Park, also reported on the situation concerning
measures for the management and protection of the Park,
and the problems she is facing regarding such aspects as
the necessary redefinition of the Parks boundaries, and
conflict with the National Indian Foundation (FUNAI)
arguing for the placement of Indian Reserves within the
Park (see Camara, 1994; Vivekananda, 1994). Research
proposals were presented for L. rosalia (a study of
territoriality by a student from the University of Maryland,
supervised by James Dietz), L. chrysomelas (a study of
polyspecific associations with Callithrix kuhli, also by a
doctoral student at the University of Maryland, supervised
by James Dietz) and for L caissara, the ecology and
behavior of which is as yet unstudied (a behavioral-
ecological study by Claudio Valladares-Padua, University
of Brasilia). It was decided that the 1996 meeting would
include a Population and Habitat Viability Analysis
(PHVA) Workshop, six years on from the first lion
tamarin PVA workshop held in Belo Horizonte in June
1990. It will be hosted by Suzana Padua, coordinator of
the environmental education program for the black lion
tamarin, and Duratex, S.A., owner of the Fazenda Rio
Claro, Lenois Paulista, Sao Paulo.

References

Camara, I. de G. 1994. Conservation status of the black-
faced lion tamarin, Leontopithecus caissara.
Neotropical Primates 2(suppl.): 50-51.
Kiemiff, M C. M. and Oliveira, P. P. de. 1994. Habitat
preservation and the translocation of threatened groups
of golden lion tamarins, Leontopithecus rosalia.
Neotropical Primates 2(suppl.): 15-18.
Vivekananda, G. 1994. The Superagui National Park,
problems concerning the protection of the black-faced
lion tamarin, Leontopithecus caissara. Neotropical
Primates 2(suppl.): 56-57.


CURSO DE CAMPO EM PRIMATOLOGIA NA
ESTACAO SCIENTIFIC FERREIRA PENNA
(MUSEU GOELDI), FLORESTA NATIONAL DE
CAXIUANA, PARA

Parte da Floresta Nacional de CaxiuanA, situada ao leste
do rio Xing(i, a Estaqfio Cientifica Ferreira Penna, de
34,000 ha, fica a um dia de barco ao oeste de Belem. Em
novembro de 1994, a Estacao sediou um curso de campo
em primatologia, que faz parte do curriculo do Programa
de P6s-Graduaggo em Cidncias Biol6gicas da
Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA) e Museu Paraense
Emilio Goeldi (MPEG). Alkm de abrigar pelo menos oito
species de primatas, a Estacao oferece excelentes
instalages, inclusive laboratrios e uma sala de aula para
30 pessoas, equipada com projetores e miquina de video
(Massarani, 1995).


Page 55


Neolropical Primates 3(2), June 1995






Neotropical Primates 3(2), June 1995 Page 56


Umrn dos aspects mais interessantes da Estaolo 6 a
ocorrencia (quase inica) de sintopia entire Callithrix e
Saguinus. Aldm das oito espdcies confirmadas, existem
tambem evidncias da ocorr8ncia na regiio de caiararas,
Cebus sem tufos (Fenari e Souza Jr., 1994), e coats,
Ateles belzebuth marginatus (Kellogg e Goldman, 1944),
mas nenhum dos dois foi encontrado durante o curso,
apesar dos esforgos no campo.

Doze alunos de sete estados brasileiros (inclusive dois da
Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul) participaram
do curso, que incluiu aulas priticas e te6ricas, e
seminarios sobre assuntos como conserva*ao,
comportamento, ecologia e evoluqgo. 0 segundo curso
esta marcado para o segundo semestre de 1995, e deverd
incluir novos t6picos como gendtica (corn Dr Horacio
Schneider, UFPA), e possivelmente professors
convidados de outras instituigbes. Espera-se oferecer umn
ntimero limitado de vagas para alunos de outros
programs de p6s-graduaico, que devem entrar em
contato conosco (de prefer8ncia atrav6s de correio
eletr6nico) para maiores informages.

Stephen F. Ferrari, Departamento de Gen6tica,
Universidade Federal do Para, Caixa Postal 8607, 66075-
150 Beldm, Par- Fax: (091) 229-9785, e-mail:
ferrari@cuxiu.cbio.ufpa.br, and Andrea P. F. Nunes,
Departamento de Zoologia, Museu Paraense Emilio
Goeldi, Caixa Postal 399,66040-170 Belem, Para, Brasil.

References

Ferrari, S. F. e Souza, Jr., A. P. 1994. More untufted
capuchins in southeastern Amazonia? Neotropical
Primates2(1): 9-10.
Kellogg, R. e Goldman, E. A. 1944. Review of the spider
monkeys. Proc. U S. Nat. Mus. 96:1-45.
Massarani, L. 1995. Raio-X da Amaz6nia: Museu Goeldi
instala nova unidade de pesquisa em plena selva.
CidnciaHoje 18(106): 80-84.


BRAZILIAN CANOPIES

Several individuals in Brazil are preparing a directory of
people working on canopy biology in Brazil. Researchers
working in Brazil are invited to send their name, address,
title, and a one-page description of their research
activities, including a list of published papers, reports, and
projects. The Directory will be sent to many universities in
and outside of Brazil working on canopy biology. Please
send information to Jfilio Cesar Voltolini, Departamento
de Zoologia, Universidade de Sio Paulo, Caixa Postal
20520, 01452-990 Sao Paulo, Salo Paulo, Brazil, e-mail:
jcvoltol@catcce.usp.br, or Daniela Kolhy Ferraz,
Departamento de Ecologia Geral, Universidade de Saio
Paulo, e-mail: dkferraz@catcce.usp.br. From Biological


Conservation Newsletter, (142) March 1995.
Smithsonian Institution, Department of Botany, National
Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C.


CENTER FOR THE STUDY OF NEOTROPICAL
BIODIVERSITY

The Center for the Study of Neotropical Biodiversity
(BIOCENTRO) is a new facility of the National
Experimental University of the Western Llanos "Esquiel
Zamora" (UNELLEZ). BIOCENTRO is located near the
main entrance of the university campus at Mesa de
Cavacas in Guanare, Venezuela and when completed will
contain a museum building, and an exhibits and
education building. Since its establishment in 1977,
UNELLEZ has placed a strong emphasis on biological
inventories and ecological studies. In 1983 the Natural
History Museum was officially founded to include the
Museum of Zoology, the Herbarium, and the Earth
Science Museum with its Cartography and Satellite
Imagery Laboratory.

As a center of higher learning, UNELLEZ has campuses
in each of the four states that comprise the Western
Llanos: Apure, Barinas, Cojedes and Portuguesa. The
university has developed academic programs with both
curricular and extra-curricular courses; a research
program in both basic and applied sciences; and extension
services to promote community involvement and the
application of new technologies for the solution of local
problems. Research at the Guanare campus is currently
underway in three departments: Agronomy, Animal
Science, and Conservation of Renewable Natural
Resources. The latter department in particular has a wide
scope of research, with priority given to the rational
development of the country. In the Department of
Renewable Natural Resources, the Museum of Zoology
and the Herbarium have played a fundamental role in
furthering research related to the collection, identification,
and conservation of the fauna and flora for the entire
country, and in particular the western llanos and the
Amazon territory. The Museum of Zoology has over
34,000 catalogued entries of vertebrates and the
herbarium has over 60,000 mounted plant specimens.
Since current space is insufficient for these expanding
collections, the construction of BIOCENTRO has been a
priority for the university and for the development of the
study of the natural sciences in Venezuela.

The principal objective of the BIOCENTRO is to permit
investigators and students to work in a specifically
designed facility that will be more conducive to
productivity and attract more visiting scientists from
Venezuela and international centers for the study of
neotropical biodiversity. Another goal is to accommodate
community involvement and environmental education


yeotropical Primates 3(2), June 1995


Page 56






Page 57 Neotropical Primates 3(2), June 1995


through museum exhibits, special courses and workshops,
and an interpretive ecological trail on the wooded
grounds. Thus the new center will provide areas for all
three of the university's main activities: investigation,
teaching and community extension.

The BIOCENTRO is currently under construction with
contributions from several different national and
international institutions. Only one-tenth of the total
budget has been raised and the university welcomes
contributions to make this center a reality. This project
will create a regional, national and international center for
the study of tropical biodiversity, and significantly
promote research in Venezuela. For more information:
Dr. Donald C. Taphorn, BIOCENTRO-UNELLEZ,
Mesa de Cavacas, Guanare, Estado Portuguesa 3310,
Venezuela; Tel: 057-68006; Fax: 057-511690, 68130 or
68156.



FFPS A CHANGE OF NAME AND ADDRESS

^ The Fauna and Flora Preservation
Society (FFPS) has changed its name
to 'Fauna and Flora International
(FF)". As explained by Dr Mark
Rose, Director, the new name is a
working title and does not reflect any change in the aims
and objectives nor the charitable status of the Society.
Previously housed with a generous landlord, the Royal
Geographical Society, in London, the space restrictions
have led to Fauna and Flora International moving to
Cambridge. Besides solving the problem of space, the
advantages of this move include the fact that a number of
prestigious international conservation organizations are
based there, and more are planning to move to the
vicinity. In addition, the University is a vital source of the
conservationists of tomorrow and will also provide a wide
range of resource facilities. The new location for Fauna
and Flora International is in the offices of the Forestry
Authority. As from 1 June 1995 their address will be:
Great Eastern House, Tenison Road, Cambridge CBI
2DT, England, UK. Tel: (01223) 461471, Fax: (01223)
461481.

Membership of Fauna and Flora International includes a
subscription to the excellent wildlife conservation journal
Oryx, and also a newsletter Fauna and Flora News.
Membership includes the following categories: Standard -
27; Concessionary (student, unwaged, senior citizen) -
15; Supporter (formerly Associate, does not include
subscription to Oryx, see below) 12; Sponsor (includes
additional subscription for Oryx in developing countries) -
50; Life 1000. The 'Supporter" category is new. It
provides for a proportion of the cost to sponsor additional
subscriptions to individuals, libraries or appropriate


institutions in developing countries where there is a
shortage of foreign currency. Supporter members may
nominate the country or institution they would like to
support.

The Publications Manager of Fauna and Flora
International is Dr Jacqui Morris. Manuscripts for
publication in Oryx, and news items for Fauna and Flora
News, can be sent to the Cambridge address above, or to
Dr Jacqui Morris, Winkfield, Station Road, Plumpton
Green, East Sussex BN7 3BU, UK. Tel/Fax: +44 1273
890859, e-mail: jacquim@pavilion.co.uk.



FUNDAiAO BIODIVERSITAS CHANGE OF
ADDRESS

.~ ^ The FundaTo Biodiversitas, Director
Ilmar B. Santos, will be moving its
offices. As of 26th June 1995, their
address is the following: Avenida Contomo 9155, 110
andar, 30110-130 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Tel: (031) 291 9673, Fax: (031)291-7658.



TRAFFIC SUDAMERICA

As reported by Bobbie Jo Kelso, Information Officer of
TRAFFIC International, after 10 years of valuable work,
the South American branch of TRAFFIC, directed by
Juan S. Villalba-Macias, and based in Montevideo,
Uruguay, will unfortunately be closing down as from 1
July 1995. For more information contact: Bobbie Jo
Kelso, Information Officer, TRAFFIC International, 219c
Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3 OD1, UKI Fax: +44
1223 277427.



PRO BOCAINA/AMANKAY GUIA DE
FINANCIADORES

A Pr6 Bocaina e o Amankay estio langando o Support,
um guia de agencies que financial projetos nas areas de
meio ambiente, desenvolvimento, saude e educaq o. entire
outras. 0 guia contdm fichas de cerca de 100 agencies
corn todas as informag4es necessarias para solidtacio de
financiamento. Sem fins lucrativos, o Support deverA ser
atualizado anualmente. Pega seu exemplar enviando
cheque, nominal a Associam o Pr6 Bocaina, no valor de
R$17,00 A Associaco Pr6 Bocaina, Caixa Postal 1,
12850-000 Bananal, Sao Paulo, Brasil. Favor enviar
tamb6m nome complete, enederego, CPF e telefone,
necessirios para cadastro e recibo. Maiores informagbes:
(011) 814-6326 (Guida), ou (011) 816-4805 (Lia).


Neotropical Primates 3(2), June 1995


Page 57




Neotropical Primates 3(2), June 1995


[Primate Societies

SOCIEDADE BRASILEIRA DE PRIMATOLOGIA-
VII CONGRESS
0 VII Congresso Brasileiro de Primatologia se realizarn
nos dias 23-28 dejulho de 1995, na Universidade Federal
do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte. A
programaq'o do Congresso incluiri sess6es de
comunicaqoes, paineis, mini-cursos, confernncias e
mesas-redondas. As sess6es de comunica6oes incluem os
seguintes temas: Uso de t6cnicas de DNA em sisteidtica
e taxonomia de primatas; Comportamento reprodutivo
em Callithrix jacchus; Comunicaqao vocal em primatas
do Novo Mundo; Comportamento social em ambiente
natural; Ecologia de primatas neotropicais (duas sess6es);
e Patologia em primatas neotropicais. HaverA tambem
paineis: Taxonomia, gendtica, e evoluiao;
Comportamento social em primatas neotropicais;
Enriquecimento e manejo de primatas neotropicais;
Cronobiologia em primates neotropicais; Aspectos da
ecologia de primatas neotropicais; comportamento social
em ambiente natural; e Patologia em primatas
neotropicais. Prof. Milton Thiago de Mello sera o
homenageado do ano pelo SBPr. 0 Congresso promete
ser um grande success; mais de 100 inscrig6es e 92
resumes jd foram recebidos! Contato: Secretaria do VII
Congress Brasileiro de Primatologia, Universidade
Federal do Grande do Norte, Centro de Bioci8ncias, Setor
de Psicobiologia, Caixa Postal 1511, 59072-970 Natal,
Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Tel: 084 206 1147, Fax: 084
231 9587, e-mail: fximenes@ncc.ufm.br.
PRIMATE SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN -
FIELD STUDIES SUPPLEMENT
As reported in Neoiropical Primates 2(2), June 1994, the
Primate Society of Great Britain publishes a Current
Primate Field Studies Supplement to their newsletter
Primate Eye. The next issue (16th) of this survey will be
published in 1996. This survey is extremely valuable not
only as a data base for field studies but also in the analysis
of trends worldwide. A simple form requesting
information on ongoing or recently completed primate
field studies and surveys was distributed with the last
Neotropical Primates 3(1), March 1995. In order to make
this survey as accurate, up-to-date, and complete as
possible, we urge all field primatologists, teams and
individuals, to provide information on their surveys and
research projects by completing this form and sending it
to the compiler, Julia M. Casperd, as soon as possible. In
the past, field studies were included on the supposition
that they were still continuing, even when up-dated
information was lacking, and which resulted in some
incorrect entries. This will not be the case for the future,
and the listing will include only those studies for which
information is received during this year. In South


America, the single-page form can be obtained from
Anthony B. Rylands, Conservation International,
Avenida Ant8nio Abrahao Caram 820/302, Belo
Horizonte 31275-000, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Fax: (031)
441-1795. Elsewhere, please write to: Julia M. Casperd,
Editor PSGB Current Primate Field Studies Supplement,
Church House, Pump Lane, Churton, Nr. Chester CH3
6LR, England, UK. The deadline for receipt of the form is
January 1996.
PRIMATE SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN -
WINTER MEETING 1995
The Winter Meeting of the Primate Society of Great
Britain (PSGB) will be dedicated to the 'Biology and
Conservation of New World Primates". It is being
organised by Hilary 0. Box (University of Reading,
England) and Hannah Buchanan-Smith (University of
Stirling, Scotland), and will be held on 29 November
1995 at the Meeting Rooms of the Zoological Society of
London, Regent's Park, London. The provisional
program includes: Sex and reproduction in muriquis K.
B. Strier (University of Wisconsin); Goeldi's monkey and
captive evidence for a monogamous social organisation: a
psychobiological experiment in a phylogenetic context -
C. R1 Pryce (Universittit Ztirich-Irchel); Adaptability and
variability in Cebus E. Visalberghi (CNR, Rome) and D.
Fragaszy (University of Georgia); Biology and Ecology of
Cacajao A. Barnett (University of Reading) and D.
Brandon-Jones (British Museum of Natural History);
Ecology and conservation of lion tamarins,
Leontopithecus A. B. Rylands (Universidade Federal de
Minas Gerais, Brazil); Gender differences in foraging
efficiency studies with marmosets and tamarins H. O.
Box (University of Reading); Ecological and evolutionary
considerations of mixed-species troops in the genus
Saguinus E. Heymann (Deutsches Primatenzentrum);
Advantages of mixed-species tamarin groups: tests of
hypotheses in captivity H. Buchanan-Smith and S.
Hardie (University of Stirling). The proceedings will be
published in -Folia Primatologica. Contact: Hilary 0.
Box, Department of Psychology, University of Reading,
Reading RG6 2AL, Berkshire, UK. Tel: +44 1734
3185523 ext. 6668, Fax: +44 1734 316604, or Hannah
Buchanan-Smith, Department of Psychology, University
of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, UK. Tel: +44 1786
467674, Fax: +44 1786 467641, e-mail: h.m.buchanan-
smith@stirling.ac. uk.


A
S
I P


INTERNATIONAL
PRIMATOLOGICAL SOCIETY
AND AMERICAN SOCIETY OF
S PRIMATOLOGISTS


The 16th Congress of the International Primatological
Society (IPS) and the 19th Conference of the American
Society of Primatologists (ASP) will be held jointly from


Page 58






Page 59 Neotropical Primates 3(2), June 1995


11-16 August 1996 at the University of Wisconsin,
Madison, hosted by the Wisconsin Regional Primate
Research Center (WRPRC). John Heam, Director of
WRPRC, is the Congress Chairman. Melinda Carr is
organizing the Abstracts, Steve Shelton is Chair of the
Development Committee, Toni Ziegler is Chair of the
Social Events Committee, Edith Chan, Coordinator for
Information on the Congress, and David Abbott is Chair
of the Scientific Program Committee, which includes
Charles Snowdon (Behavior), Chris Coe (Biomedicine),
Karen Strier (Ecology and Conservation) and Walter
Leutenegger (Paleontology, Anatomy and Taxonomy).
Deadlines for registration and abstracts will be 1 February
1996 material must be relieved in Madison by this date.
The provisional registration costs are US$150 for regular
members of IPS and ASP, US$80.00 for student
members, US$200 for non-members, and US$80 for
guests. Registration includes the opening and closing
receptions as well as the program and abstract booklets.
After I February, all rates will increase by US$50. On-site
registration may be more. Registration forms will be sent
out in August 1995. If you are not a member of IPS or
ASP, please consider joining now. Non-members who
would like to be added to the mailing list for information
on the Congress: please contact Edith Chan (address
below). Abstract forms for free communications and for
symposia will be circulated in August 1995. The closing
date for free communication abstracts is I February 1996,
and for symposia abstracts is 1 November 1995.
Individuals may appear as first author on one submitted
abstract, but as co-author on up to three additional
abstracts. The Association of Primate Veterinarians will
meet immediately after the Congress from 16-17 August
1996. For further information on the IPS/ASP Congress,
please contact: Edith Chan, Coordinator / Information,
Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, 1220
Capitol Court, Madison, Wisconsin 53715-1299, USA,
Tel: (608) 263-3500, Fax: (608) 263-4031, e-mail: ipsasp-
info@primate.wisc.edu.



Recent Publications


BOOKS
The Information Continuum: Evolution of
Social Information Transfer in Monkeys,
Apes, and Hominids, by Barbara J. King, 1994, xii
+ 166pp. University of Washington Press, Seattle.
Clothbound US$35.00, Paperback US$17.50. Drawing
on research in biological anthropology, animal behavior,
psychology, and archaeology, this book integrates
findings from each of these fields into a synthetic view of
the evolution of communication among primates.


Available from: University of Washington Press, P.O.Box
50096, Seattle, WA 98145-5096, USA.

Conservation of Endangered Species in
Captivity: An Interdisciplinary Approach,
edited by Edward F. Gibbons, Jr., Barbara S. Durrant, and
Jack Desmarest, 1994, 820pp. State University of New
York Press, Ithaca. Hardcover US$99.50, Paperback
US$34.95. A volume in the SUNY series in Endangered
Species edited by Edward F. Gibbons, Jr. and Jack
Desmarest. A multidsiciplinary approach, organized
taxonomically and by scientific discipline. The seven
taxonomic groups included are invertebrates, fish, reptiles
and amphibians, birds, marine mammals, primates and
other mammals. Within each taxonomic group, four
scientific disciplines are explored: conservation,
reproductive physiology, behavior, and captive design. To
order: State University of New York Press, c/o CUP
Services, P.O.Box 6525, Ithaca, NY 14851. Add US$3.00
handling, NY State Residents add 8% sales tax.

Tempo Passado: Mamiferos do
Pleistoceno em Minas Gerais, by Castor
Cartelle, Federal University of Minas Gerais, 131pp.
1994. Acesita, Belo Horizonte. Price: US$75.00 (incl.
postage and packing). This beautifully illustrated book, a
limited edition, provides a review of the Pleistocene
mammal fauna of the state of Minas Gerais in Brazil. The
Foreword is by Prof. Aziz Nacib Ab'Saber. It includes a
summary of the lives of the principal paleontologists,
notably Peter Wilhelm Lund, who have worked in Minas
Gerais, descriptions of the principle sites, an introduction
to the South American Pleistocene fauna, and descriptions
and illustrations of the paleontological findings of
mammals in Minas Gerais. These include such as
Protopithecus brasiliensis. Available from: Fundaqlo
Biodiversitas, Avenida Contomo 9155, 110 Andar, Prado,
30110-130 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Tel:
(031) 291 9673, Fax: (031) 2917658.

Lista Anotada de los Mamiferos Peruanos,
by Victor Pacheco, Hemando de Macedo, Elena Vivar,
Cesar Ascorra, Rosa Arana-Card6 and Sergio Solari,
Occasional Papers in Conservation Biology No. 2,
February 1995, 35pp. Conservation International,
Washington, D.C. In Spanish. An updated list of all
terrestrial and aquatic (including marine) mammals
known to occur in Peru. It indicates Peru as having the
most species rich mammalian fauna in the Neotropical
region, and third ranking in the world. The number of
species is estimated at 460, including 32 primates. Most
commonly used synonyms and common names are
included. Includes new records for the country. Available
from: Conservation International, Department of


Page 59


Areotropical Primates 3(2), June 1995






Neotropical Primates 3(2), June 1995 Page 60


Conservation Biology, 1015 18th Street, NW, Suite 1000,
Washington, D.C. 20036, USA. Fax: 202 887 0193.

Investigaci6n, Conservaci6n y Desarrollo
en Selvas Subtropicales de Montania, editors
Alejandro D. Brown y Hector Rt Gmu, 1995. Laborat6rio
de Investigaciones Ecol6gicas de las Yungas (L.LE.Y),
Tucumrn. Este libro surge luego de un esfixerzo continue
de dos afios que involucr6 la participaci6n de mas de 100
personas de al menos 30 insfituciones municipals,
provinciales, nacionales e internacionales y que represent
el corolario final de la 'I Reuni6n Regional sobre Selvas
de Montafias" que tuvo lugar en Horco Molle, Tucumnn,
durante los dias 15 al 17 de abril de 1993. Adquisici6n:
Alejandro Brown y Hector Grau, Laborat6rio de
Investigaciones Ecol6gicas de las Yungas (LIEY), Casilla
de Correo 34, 4107 Yeiba Buena, Tucumnin, Argentina.

Catdlogo y Resumenes de Literatura no
Publicada Vol. II 1992, editado por Enrique
Quesada and Nidia Durin, Universidad Nacional
BIODOC, Centro de Documentaci6n e Informaci6n,
112pp. Un catalogo compuesto por informaci6n de tesis,
reports de proyectos o de investigaciones y otros
documents que ban tenido un tiraje muy reducido. Cada
document incluido en este catalog present la cita
bibliogrifica y el nfumero de acceso en BIODOC. AdemAs
contiene un indice por autor, titulo y palabra clave. Este
Catalogo se realize gracias a la colaboraci6n de la
Universidad Nacional y al Servido de Peces y Vida
Silvestre de los Estado Unidos (USFWS), Washington,
D.C. Pamra mis informaci6n dirigirse a la siguiente
direcci6n: BIODOC, Centro de Documentaci6n en Vida
Silvestre, Universidad Nacional, Heredia, Costa Rica,
America Central. Tel: 237 63 63 x 472 o al 2773-472,
Fax: 237-7036.

Manejo de Reservas da la Biosfera en
Amdrica Latina, preparado por Carmen Luz de la
Maza, 1994, 115pp. Oficina Regional de la FAO para
Amnrica Latina y el Caribe, Santiago, Chile. Basado en
los resultados del Taller Internacional sobre el Manejo de
Reservas de la Biosfera en America Latina, realizado en
Valle del Bravo, Mexico, entire el 18 y el 22 de noviembre
de 1991, por encargo de la Oficina Regional de la FAO
para Amdrica Latina y el Caribe, asi como en
actualizaciones posteriores y en bibliografia reciente sobre
el tema. Adquisici6n: Kyran D. Thelen, Oficial Regional
Forestal, Olician Regional de la FAO para America
Latina y el Caribe, Bandera 150, Pisos 7 al 10, Casilla
10095, Santiago, Chile. Tel: 6991005, Fax: (56-2) 696
1121-24.

Areas Silvestres Protegidas y
Comunidades Locales en America Latina,


preparado por Gozalo Oviedo Carrillo y Paola Sylva
Charvet, 1994, 144pp. Oficina Regional de la FAO para
Amdrica Latina y el Caribe, Santiago, Chile. Basado en
los resultados del Taller Internacional sobre Areas
Silvestres Protegidas y Comunidades Locales, realizado
en la Reserva Monte Verde, Costa Rica, en octubre de
1989, en el que participaron tdcnicos de various paises de le
region involucrados en actividades de manejo de areas
protegidas. Adquisici6n: Kyran D. Thelen, Oficial
Regional Forestal, Ofician Regional de la FAO para
Am6rica Latina y el Canibe, Bandera 150, Pisos 7 al 10,
Casilla 10095, Santiago, Chile. Tel: 6991005, Fax: (56-2)
696 1121-24.

Reserva da Biosfera da Mata Atldntica
MAB UNESCO: A Questdo Fundidria.
Roteiro para Sohluio dos Problemas das
Areas Protegidas, by Inah Simonetti Guatara, Jose
Pedro de Oliveira Costa, Fredmar Correa and Pedro
Ubiratan Esoorel de Azevedo, 31pp, 1994. Cons6rcio
Mata Atliantica, Conselho Nacional de Reserva da
Biosfera da Mata Atlantica, supported by the Instituto
Florestal, Sio Paulo, Secretaria de Estado do Meio
Ambiente, Slo Paulo, Conservation International, MAB -
UNESCO, and the Universidade Estadual de Campinas.
An analysis of the problems concerning land-ownership
of the protected areas comprising the Atlantic forest
Biosphere Reserve. An appendix includes a full listing of
the protected areas, their date of decree and size.
Available from: Cons6rcio Mata Atlintica, Av. 9 de Julho
4877 8 Andar, 01407-902 Slo Paulo, Sao Paulo,
Brazil. Tel: (011) 853-5905, Fax: (011) 822-5468.

Extractivism in the Brazilian Amazon:
Perspectives on Regional Development,
edited by Miguel Cliisener-Godt and Ignacy Sachs, 88pp,
1994. MAB Digest 18, UNESCO, Paris. This review
provides some varying perceptions and perspectives on
extrctivism and extractive reserves in the Brazilian
Amazon, based on an international conference on
environmentally sound development in the humid tropics,
held in Manaus from 13-19 June 1992, hosted by the
National Institute for Amazon Research (INPA), and
organized by the Association of Amazon Universities
(UNAMAZ), UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Program
(MAB), and the Third World Academy of Sciences
(TWAS). It includes the following chapters: Perceptions
of extractivism: introduction and overview Miguel
Cliisener-Godt and Ignacy Sachs; Policies for the use of
renewable natural resources: the Amazonian region and
extractive activities Mary Helena Allegretti; Plant
extractivism in the Amazon: limitations and possibilitiesL
Alfredo K 0. Homma, People and forest products in
Central Amazonia: the multidisciplinary approach of
extractivism. Available from: United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation


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(UNESCO), 7 place de Fontenoy, 75352 Paris 07 SP,
France.


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Filion, C. M., Johnson, J. S. Fragaszy, D. and Johnson,
R Studying cognition in tufted capuchins (Cebus







Page 65 Nec tropical Primates 3(2% June 1995


apella) using video-formatted testing paradigm. pp. 111-
117.
Limongelli, L., Sonetti, M. G. and Visalberghi, E. Hand
preference of tufted capuchins (Cebus apella) in tool-
using tasks. pp.9-15.
Vitale, A. Barbaro, V., Bartolini, P. and Visalberghi E.
Effects of wearing a jacket on the behavior of socially
housed tufted capuchins (Cebus apella). pp.279-284.
Wechselberger, E. Phase-shitting effects of arousal on
circadian activity rhythms in Callithrix j. jacchus.
pp.223-226.


ABSTRACTS

Abbott, D. H., Saltzman, W. Schultz-Darken, N. J. and
Teresawa, E. 1994. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone
(GnRH) release in ovariectomized female marmoset
monkeys. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. 20(Part 2): 942.
Izawa, K. 1994. Infanticide in red howler monkeys.
Reichorui Kenkyu /Primate Research 10(2): 128.
Kobayashi, S. and Langguth, A. 1994. New titi monkey
from Brazil. Reichorui Kenkyu / Primate Research
10(2): 128. (In Japanese)
Nakatsukasa, M., Takai, M. and Setoguchi, T. 1994.
Postcrania of middle Miocene platyrrhine from La
Venta, Colombia, South America. Reichorui Kenkyu /
Primate Research 10(2): 165.
Oerke, A.-K, Einspanier, A. and Hodges, J. K 1994.
Follicular development and corpus luteum formations
determined by ultrasonography in the marmoset
monkey (Callithrix jacchus). J. Reprod Fert. (suppl.
13): 11.
Phillips, K. A. 1995. Resource distribution and sociality in
white-faced capuchins, Cebus capucinus. 1994. Diss.
Abstr. Int. B55(9):4163. To order: #AAD95-04425,
University Microfilms, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI 48106,
USA.
Platt, M. L. 1995. Memory and feeding ecology in lion
tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) and marmosets
(Callithrix kuhli). 1994. Diss. Abstr. Int. A55(9): 2886.
To order: #AAD95-03815, University Microfilms, Inc.,
Ann Arbor, MI 48106, USA.
Robinson, E. L. annd Fuller, C. A. 1995. Circadian
rhythms of heat production, heat loss and body
temperature in squirrel monkeys. FASEBJ. 9(3): A357.
Takai, M. and Setoguchi, T. 1994. On the evolution of
platyrrhine monkeys: the analysis of upper premolars'
structure. Reichorui Kenkyu /Prinmate Research 10(2):
146.

In American Journal of Physical Anthropology (SuppL
20). 1995.

Araya, R. V. The functional implications of prehensile
tails in New World monkeys. p.62.


Barrett, T., Lewis, S. and Hartwig, W. C. Perinatal life
history traits in New World monkeys. p.62.
Bergeson, D. The ecological role of the platyrrhine
prehensile tail. pp.64-65.
Cheverud, J. M. Intra- and interspecific tamarin cranial
variation. p.75.
Fleagle, J. G. and Reed, K E. Comparing primate
communities: a multivariate approach. p.91.
Ford, S. M. and Davis, L. C. Callitrichid systematics: the
postcranial evidence. p. 92.
Ga ber, P. A. Fnruit feeding and seed dispersal in two
species of tamarin monkeys (Saguinus geoffiroyi and
Saguinus mystax). pp.95-96.
Hartwig, W. C. Allometry and ancestral platyrrhine
cranial morphotype. p.107.
Horovitz, I. A phylogenetic analysis of the basicranial
morphology of New World monkeys. p. 113.
Jacobs, S. C., Larson, A. and Cheverud, J. M. Of
monkeys and metachromism. pp.118-119.
Leigh, S. R. and Garber, P. A. The ontogeny of body size
variation in New World monkeys. p.133.
Mackinnon, K. C. Foraging behavior of the white-faced
capuchin monkey (Cebus capucinus). pp. 138-139.
Masterson, T. J. What is the morphological relationship
of the Ka'apor capuchin (Cebus kaapori sp. n.). pp. 144-
145.
Meldrum, D. J. Phylogeny of the Pitheciinae based on the
nucleotide sequence of cytochrome b. pp.151-152.
Meyer, A. and Horovitz, I Phylogeny of New World
monkeys based on partial 16S mtDNA sequences and a
total evidence approach. p. 153.
Norconk, M. A., Conklin, N. L. ad Kinzey, W. G.
Relative digestibility of saki monkey diets. pp. 162-163.
Pastor, R,. F. Teaford, M. F. and Glander, K E. Method
for collecting and analyzing airborne abrasive particles
from neotropical forests. p. 168.
Perry, S. Social dynamics of a wild white-faced capuchin
group: effects of a male dominance rank reversal, p.170.
Pokempner, A. Teaford, M. F., Pastor, R F. Noble, V. E.
et al. Deciduous dental microwear in live, wild-caught
Alouattapalliata. pp. 173-174.
Propst, K B. Enamel microstructure and callitrichine
phylogeny. pp. 175-176.
Rosenberger, A. L. and Kearney, M. The power of fossils,
the pitfalls of parsimony platyrrhine phylogeny.
p.184.
Ross, C. The evolution of platyrrhine life histories.
pp.184-185.
Ryan K. M. Preliminary report on social structure and
alloparental care in Pithecia pithecia on an island in
Guri Reservoir. p. 187.
Sampaio, I., Carvalho-Filho, N. M. Schneider, M. P. C.
and Schneider, H. Systematics of howler monkeys
(genus Alouatta): biochemical, chromosome and
molecular data. p.188.


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NeotrOPiCal Primates 3('2~ June 1995 Page 66


Schmitt, D. and Lemelin, P. Hand position during
arboreal and terrestrial quadmpedalism in primates.
pp.190-191.
Strier, K B. Male reproductive strategies in New World
primates. p.207.
Takai, M. and Setoguchi, T. Sexual dimorphism and
* polymorphism in Neosaimiri, a middle Miocene
primate from Colombia. p.208.
Von Dornnum, M. and Ruvolo, M. Molecular phylogeny
of the New World monkeys. p.216.
Walker, S. E. Is there a relationship between diet and
positional behavior? A case study of Pithecia pithecia
and Chiropotes satanas. p.217.
Watt, S.L., Matisoo-Smith, E., Allen, J. S. and Lambert,
D. M. Alloparental behavior and genetic relationships
in a captive group of spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi).
pp.218-219.



Meetings

1995 ANNUAL MEETING OF THE ANIMAL BEHAVIOR
SOCIETY, 8-13 July 1995, University of Nebraska,
Lincoln, Nebraska, USA. For further information: Dr A.
L. Kamil, School of Biological Sciences, Manter Hall,
University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588-0118, USA
Tel: 402 472-9074, Fax: 402 472-2083, e-mail:
ABS@niko.inl.edu.

ASAB SUMMER MEETING: BEHAVIORAL
MECHANISMS AND EVOLUTION, 12-14 July, 1995,
Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour (ASAB),
Leiden University, The Netherlands. Celebrating 60 years
since the beginning of the career of Niko Tinbergen. The
first ASAB Medal will be awarded to John Maynard
Smith. The ASAB Annual General Meeting will be held
on 13 July. Grants towards costs of attending the meeting
are available to ASAB members (UK and overseas) who
are registered for a higher degree or who have no access
to normal funding sources. Registration forms must be
returned to by 1st June 1995. Further information from:
Carel ten Cate, Ethology, Institute of Evolutionary and
Ecological Sciences, P.O.Box 9516, 2300 RA Leiden,
Netherlands. Tel: 31-71-275001, Fax: 31-71-274900. A
satellite workshop on 'Research in Zoos: from Behaviour
to Sex Ratio Manipulation" will be held at the Rotterdam
Zoo on the 15 July. Contact: Angela R Glatston,
Rotterdam Zoo, P.O.Box 532, 1000 AM Rotterdam. Tel:
31-10-4431410, Fax: 31-10-4431424.

VII CONGRESSOBRASILEIRO DEPRIMATOLOGIA, 23-28
dejulho de 1995, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do
Norte, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte. A programacqo do
Congress incluira sessoes de comunicacoes coordenadas,
mini-cursos, paineis, conferencias e mesas-redondas.


Prazo para envio dos resumos: 15 de margo de 1995.
Contato: Secretaria do VII Congresso Brasileiro de
Primatologia, Universidade Federal do Grande do Norte,
Centro de Biociencias, Setor de Psicobiologia, Caixa
Postal 1511, 59072-970 Natal, Rio Grande do Norte,
Brazil. Tel: 084 206 1147, Fax: 084 231 9587, e-mail:
fximenes@ncc.ufin.br.

24TH INTERNATIONAL ETHOLOGICAL CONGRESS, 10-17
August 1995, Honolulu, Hawaii. Sponsored by the
University of Hawaii. Contact: Conference Secretariat,
800 N. W. Loop 410, Suite 150-S, San Antonio, TX
78216-5674, USA. Tel: (210) 341-8131, Fax: (210) 341-
5252, e-mail: iec@zoogate.zoo.hawaii.edu.

2ND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON
ENVIRONMENTAL ENRICHMENT, 21-25 August 1995,
Copenhagen Zoo, Denmark. The main topics will be
environmental enrichment devices,, managing behavioral
problems, and behavioral considerations in breeding and
reintroduction programs. Contact: Bengt Holst,
Copenhagen Zoo, Sdr Fasanvej 79, DK-2000
Frederiksberg, Denmark Tel: (45) 36-30-25-55, Fax: (45)
36-44-24-55.

L REUNION SOBRE SELVAS DE MONTANA, 21 al 24 de
setiembre de 1995, Salta, Argentina, organizada por la
Comisi6n Coordinadora de la Red Yungas integrada por
las siguientes instituciones: Protecci6n del Medio
Ambiente de Tarija, Bolivia, Delegaci6n T&cnica
Regional Noroeste de la Administraci6n de Parques
Nacionales, Salta, Laboratorio de Investigaciones
Ecol6gicas de Yungas (LIEY), Tucuman, Proyecto GTZ
Desarrollo Agroflorestal en Comunidades Rurales del
Noroeste Argentina, Salta, y Universidad Nacional de
Salta (UNSa), Salta. La reunion consistirA de
conferencias, talleres y exposici6n de trabajos en panels.
El program en principio incluye los siguientes temas:
Conferencias Vinculaciones sociales de las poblaciones
de Yungas con otros pisos ecol6gicos; Impacto de la
implementaci6n de megaproyectos en las Yungas; Los
bosques nublados del mundo; Problematica de la tenencia
de la tierra en las Yungas; Talleres Metodologias para el
inventario de biodiversidad; Programa de investigaci6n y
manejo forestal; Desarollo binational de la alta cuenca del
rio Bermejo analisis de riesgos y ventajes; Estrategias
para la implementaci6n del area de conservaci6n del al
alta cuenca del Bermejo. La fecha limited para la
presentaci6n de resum6nes es el 21 de julio de 1995. El
costo de inscripci6n sera de US$30 y US$10 para
estudiantes. Los resumenes e inscripciones deberin ser
enviados a: Administraci6n de Parques Nacionales,
Espafia 366, 3er Piso, (4400) Salta, Argentina. Tel: 0054-
87-310255, Fax: 0054-87-312683.

INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON PRIMATE ONTOGENY,
10-15 September 1995, Congress Castle of Czech


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Areotropical Priniates 3(2), June 1995






Page 67 Neotropical Primates 3(2), June 1995


Academy of Sciences, Trest, Czech Republic. Organized
by the Primatological Group in Czech Republic of the
Czech Anthropological Society, in cooperation with the
Research Institute for Pharmacy and Biochemistry. The
aim is to discuss primate ontogeny as an integral process
to help the future development of an interdisciplinary
approach, focussing on variability of growth and
developmental processes. All topics from from traditional
branches of primatology and morphology, growth,
reproductive biology, ethology, genetic and molecular
biology, physiology, ecology, or evolutionary primatology
and anthropology are welcomed. Contact: Dr Marina
Vancatovi, VUFB Kondrovice, 28125 Kondrovice,
Czech Republic. Fax: 42 321 26246.

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON HABITAT
FRAGMENTATION AND INFRASTRUCTURE AND THE
ROLE OF ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING, 17-21 September
1995, Holiday Inn, Maastricht, The Hague, Netherlands.
In cooperation with The International Ecological
Engineering Society (IFES) and The Ecological Society of
the Netherlands and Belgium (NEVECOL). Contact:
Congress Office ASD, P.O.Box 40, 2600 AA Delft, The
Netherlands. Tel: +3115 120234, Fax: +3115 120250.

4TH CONGRESS OF THE GESELLSCHAFT FiR
PRIMATOLOGIE (GFP), 20-24 September 1995, Kassel,
Germany. The main topic of the Congress will be the
interaction between primatological field and laboratory
research, for example, the application of laboratory-based
physiological, endocrinological and genetic methods in
primate field research. Papers and posters on any other
primatological topics are welcome. For more information
contact: Prof. Dr Christian Welker, Zoologie und Vergl.
Anatomie, Primatenethologie, UniversitAt Kassel, D-
34109 Kassel, Germany. Fax: + 49 561 804 4604.

1995 ANNUAL MEETING OF THE CONSERVATION
BREEDING SPECIALuIr GROUP (CBSG/IUCN/ SSC), 28
September-I October 1995, Zoological Society of Ireland,
Dublin. Secretariat: 1995 Annual Meeting of the CBSG,
c/o Conference Management Services, 26 Temple Lane,
Dublin 2, Ireland.

II CONGRESS LATINOAMERICANO DE ECOLOGIA, 22-
28 Octubre 1995, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida,
Venezuela. Los restimenes de los trabajos a ser
presentados deben ser enviados antes del 30 de Julio de
1995 (Ponencia oral o de Cartel). Los idiomas oficiales:
Espafiol y Portuguds. Se aoeptarAn ponencias en Inglds y
Frances, esperandose contar con sistemas de traducci6n
simultinea. Inscripciones: Hasta 30/12/94 Profesionales
US$70.00, Estudiantes de postgrado US$40.00,
Estudiantes de pregrado US$30.00; Hasta 30/05/95 -
Profesionales US$85.00, Estudiantes de postgrado
US$55.00, Estudiantes de pregrado US$45.00; Al
Congress Profesionales US$100.00, Estudiantes de


postgrado US$70.00, Estudiantes de pregrado US$60.00.
Informaciones: Dr Jaime E. PNfaur, Secretario Ejecutivo,
mI Congress Latinoamericano de Ecologia, Facultad de
Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida, Venezuela
5101. Tel: (58)(74) 401305, Fax: (58)(74) 401286, e-
mail: clae@ula.ve.

PRIMATE SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN (PSGB)
WINTER MEETING: BIOLOGY AND CONSERVATION OF
NEW WORLD PRIMATES, 29 November 1995, The
Zoological Society of London, London. Organised by
Hilary 0. Box and Hannah Buchanan-Smith. Contact:
Hilary 0. Box, Department of Psychology, University of
Reading, Reading RG6 2AL, Berkshire, UK Tel: +44
1734 318523 ext.6668, Fax: +44 1734 316604, or
Hannah Buchanan-Smith, Department of Psychology,
University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, UK. Tel: +44
1786 467674, Fax: +44 1786 467641, e-mail:
h.m.buchanan-smith@stirling.ac. uk. (See 'Primate
Societies').

ASAB WINTER MEETING: SPACE, THE FINAL
FRONTIER, 30 November to I December 1995,
Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour (ASAB),
Zoological Society of London Meeting Rooms, Regent's
Park, London, UK. The theme of this meeting will be
spatial representation in animals, covering such topics as
long-distance migration, navigation through familiar
areas, 'cognitive maps', and the role of the hippocampus.
Abstract submission by e-mail or ordinary mail by 7 July
1995 to: Sue Healy, Department of Psychology,
University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU,
UK, Tel 0191-222-5056, Fax: 0191- 222-5622, e-mail:
s.d..healy@nd.ac. uk.


1996

ASAB GENERAL SPRING MEETING, 2-3 April 1996,
Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour, Bolton
Institute Primate Research Team, Bolton Institute, UK.
Organized by Geoff Hosey and other members of the
Primate Research Team. Offers of papers and posters
invited, send title plus rough statement of content Further
information: Marie Jacques, Primate Research Team,
Division of Psychology and Biology, Bolton Institute,
Deane Road, Bolton BL3 5AB, Lancashire, UK, Tel:
01204 528851, ext. 3145, Fax: 01204 399074, e-mail:
mjl@bolton.ac.uk.

XVITH CONGRESS OF THE INTERNATIONAL
PRIMATOLOGICAL SOCIETY & 19TH CONFERENCE OF
THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF PRIMATOLOGISTS, 11-16
August 1996, University of Wisconsin, Madison, hosted
by the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center.
Contact: Edith Chan, Coordinator/Information,


Neotropical Primates 3(2), June 1995


Page 67







Neotropical Primates 3(2), June 1995 Page 68


Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, 1220
Capitol Court, Madison, Wisconsin 53715-1299, USA.
Tel: (608) 263-3500, Fax: (608) 263 4031, e-mail: ipsasp-
info@primate.wisc.edu. (See'Primate Societies').

MEETING OF THE ASSOCIATION OF PRIMATE
VETERINARIANs, 16-17 August 1996, University of
Wisconsin, Madison. Contact Edith Chan,
Coordinator/Information, Wisconsin Regional Primate
Research Center, 1220 Capitol Court, Madison,
Wisconsin 53715-1299, USA. Tel: (608) 263-3500, Fax:
(608) 263 4031, e-mail: ipsasp-info@primate.wisc.edu.

IUCN WORLD CONSERVATION CONGRESS, 14-23
October 1996, Montreal Conference Centre, Montreal,
Canada. Contact: John Burke, Director of
Communications, IUCN The World Conservation Union,
28 rue Mauvemrney, 1196 Gland Switzerland. Tel: +41 22
999 0123.



Contributions


We would be most grateful if you could send us
information on projects, research groups, events
(congresses, symposia, and workshops), recent
publications, activities of primatological societies and
NGOs, news items or opinions of recent events and
suchlike, either in the form of manuscripts (double-
spaced) or in diskettes for PC compatible text-editors
(MS-Word, Wordperfect, Wordstar). Articles, not
exceeding six pages, can include small black-and-white
photographs, figures, maps, tables and references, but
please keep them to a minimum.


Please send contributions to: ANTHONY RYLANDS,
Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Cidncias
Biol6gicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais,
31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Brazil, Fax: (031) 441-1412,
or c/o Conservation International, Avenida Ant6nio
Abrahao Caram 820/302, Pampulha, 31275-000 Belo
Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, Fax: (031)441-2582 or
ERNESTO RODRIGUEZ LUNA, Parque de La Flora y
Fauna Silvestre Tropical, Universidad Veracruzana,
Apartado Postal 566, Xalapa, Veracruz 91000, M6xico,
Fax: 52 (28) 12-5748.

LILANA CORTEs-ORTIZ (Universidad Veracruzana) and
MIRIAMMENEZE LIMA (Conservation International, Belo
Horizonte) provide invaluable editorial assistance.
LUDMILLA AGUIAR, Conservation International Brazil
Program, Belo Horizonte (address above), is responsible
for the distribution of Neotropical Primates. Please keep
us informed of any address changes.

Correspondence, messages, and texts can be sent to
Anthony Rylands/LudmillaAguiar cibrasil@ax.apc.org
Fundaco Biodiversitas: cdcb@axapc.org



NEOTROPICAL PRIMATES is produced in
collaboration with Conservation International,
1015 18th Street NW, Suite 1000, Washington DC
20036, USA, and Fundagio Biodiversitas, Rua
Maria Vaz de Melo 71, Dona Clara, Belo
Horizonte 31260-110, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Design and Composition YURI L. R. LEITE and
RICARDO B. MACHADO, Biodiversity Conservation
Data Center (CDCB), FundagAo Biodiversitas.


lVeotropical Primates 3(2), June 1995


Page 68













































NEOTROPICAL PRIMATES
Anthony Rylands/Emesto Rodriguez Luna, Editors
Conservation International
Avenida Ant6nio Abrahao Caram 820/302
31275-000, Belo Horizonte
Minas Gerais, Brazil


This issue of Neotropical Primates was kindly sponsored
by the Houston Zoological Gardens Conservation
Program, Houston Zoological Gardens, General
Manager Donald G. Olson, 1513 North
MacGregor, Houston, Texas 77030, and ..
the Columbus Zoological Gardens, Director e Iil
Gerald W. Borin, Box 400, Powell,
* Ohio 43065, USA. COlum US ZO




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