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Title: Neotropical primates
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Title: Neotropical primates a newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCNSSC Primate Specialist Group
Abbreviated Title: Neotrop. primates
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
Conservation International
Center for Applied Biodiversity Science
Publisher: Conservation International
Place of Publication: Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Publication Date: March 1995
Frequency: quarterly
regular
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Subject: Primates -- Periodicals -- Latin America   ( lcsh )
Primates -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Wildlife conservation -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: review   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Brazil
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Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Language: English, Portuguese, and Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Mar. 1993)-
Issuing Body: Issued jointly with Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, <Dec. 2004->
General Note: Published in Washington, D.C., Dec. 1999-Apr. 2005 , Arlington, VA, Aug. 2005-
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 13, no. 1 (Apr. 2005).
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098814
Volume ID: VID00010
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 28561619
lccn - 96648813
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    Back Cover
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E, OT ROPICAL
P II IA T VOLUME 3, -NUMBER.j
IMiA*ii S MARCH,- 1995-. ." ".-...
A Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group
Editors: Anthony B. Rylands and Ernesto Rodriguez Luna
PSG Chairman: Russell A. Mittermeier
PSG Deputy Chairman: William R. Konstant


CONSERVATION
INTERNATIONAL


SPECIES SURVIVAL
COMMISSION


FUNDAQAO
BIODIVERSITAS







Page 1 Neoropical Primates 3('D, March 1995


Articles


LA DIVERSIDAD DE PLATIRRINOS
FOSILES EN LA PATAGONIA

La sistemitica de los platirrinos actuales ha sido
objeto de renovadas controversial, que afm hoy
distan de ser esclarecidas. La necesidad de
considerar las afinidades filogendticas, permit
emplear un recurso de gran importancia, por
cuanto los f6siles ofrecen una base de
conocimientos prioritaria, al moment de
interpreter las vinculaciones entire las forms
actuales.

Al tratar de organizer las tendencies evolutivas del
infraorden Platyrrhini, se vieron implicadas a6n
mayores dificultades. Tal es el ejemplo de los
grupos Cebus/Saimiri y Aotus/Callicebus, que
hasta la fecha resultan los mis complejos a la hora
de incluirlos en jerarquias taxon6micas superiores;
sus afinidades son el punto mias d6bil en la
sistemAtica de los platirrinos viventes (Ford, 1986;
1992; Hershkovitz, 1977; Rosenberger, 1981).

Este panorama se ve reflejado en parte, en los
registros f6siles de Patagonia, que se han
incrementado notablemente en las filtimas dos
decades, debido fundamentalmente al aporte de las
numerosas expediciones paleontol6gicas conjuntas,
realizadas por la State University of New York
(Stony Brook) y el Museo Argentino de Ciencias
Naturales (Buenos Aires), dirigidas por el Dr. John
G. Fleagle.

Tal vez el platirrino f6sil sudamericano mAs
renombrado sea Homunculus patagonicus, descrito
a fines del pasado siglo por Ameghino (1891) y
retomado como objeto de studio en reiteradas
oportunidades (Bluntschli, 1931; Rusconi, 1935;
Hershkovitz, 1981, 1984; Tauber, 1991). Este
primate ha sido comparado con los actuales A otus,
Callicebus, Alouatta y Pithecia, dando lugar a
diferentes concepciones que se ven enfrentadas por
la evidence disparidad de estos mencionados
g6neros actuales, en cuanto a afinidades
taxon6micas y, consecuentemente, morfol6gicas.
Se registran importantes materials asignados a
Homunculus, inclayendo parties craneales,
dentarias y postcraneales, desde lo cual puede
inferirse un animal diurno, con alimentaci6n
predominantemente insectivora y ciertas
particularidades en la dentici6n que lo diferencian
de los restantes platirrinos (Tejedor, en


preparaci6n). La locomoci6n inferida del material
postcraneal es poco clara, por cuanto el significado
de los caracteres no implica un unico habito
locomotor; sin embargo, puede sugerirse una
tendencia al abandon del cuadrupedalismo
horizontal estricto, por la utilizaci6n de soportes
mis verticales que requieren habitos trepadores e
incluso saltadores (Ford, 1990). Homunculus
procede de dep6sitos sedimentArios asignados a la
edad-mamifero Santcrucence (Mioceno inferior) en
la zona costera de la Provincia de Santa Cruz,
datados entire 18 y 15 Ma. (Marshall et al., 1986).

Dolichocebus gaimanensis, procedente de la
localidad de Gaiman, Provincia de Chubut, se
conoce a partir de un crineo deformado
parcialmente, sin dentici6n ni mandibula (Bordas,
1942; Kraglievich, 1951), que se asemeja
estrechamente a Saimiri, por compartir, entire otros
caracteres, una fenestra interorbitaria derivada y
compartida s6lo por estos dos generos, ademis de
poseer ambos un craneo dolicoc6falo (Rosenberger,
1979; Rosenberger y Fleagle, 1981). Completan el
conocimiento de esta especie f6sil, algunos dientes
aislados cuyas afinidades con Saimiri y Aotus
(Fleagle y Bown, 1983) sugieren que las primitivas
caracteristicas de estos taxa actuales, bien podrian
significar una larga historic evolutiva con relative
independencia respect de otros linajes de
platirrinos. De la misma localidad se conserve un
astrigalo que fue provisionalmente asignado a
Dolichocebus. El fragmento posee marcadas
semejanzas con Aotus, Callicebus, Cebus y Saimiri
(Gebo y Simons, 1987). Se infiere un tipo de
locomoci6n cuadripeda arboricola con alguna
predisposici6n al habito saltador.


Figura 1. Ubicaci6n geogrAfica de las localidades
principles de platirrinos f6siles en las Provincias
de Chubut y Santa Cruz, Argentina.


Cover photograph by Russell A. Milttermeier: Red-bellied moustached tamarin, Saguinus labiatus (see page 4).


Neoropical Primates 3(l), March 1995


Page 1





Neotropical Primates 3(1), Mfarch 1995


En la localidad de Sacanana, de la misma
Provincia de Chubut, se recuper6 un crineo algo
deteriorado y sin mandibula (Rusconi, 1935),
asignado a Tremacebus harringtoni (Hershkovitz,
1974). Sus caracteristicas lo vinculan con el mono
nocturno Aotus, fundamentalmente en el gran
desarrollo de las 6rbitas (Rosenberger y Fleagle,
1981), aunque desafortunadamente no se preservan
restos dentarios asociados al crAneo tipo; s6lo
conserve fragments de molares superiores que
pueden compararse a Callicebus (Rosenberger y
Fleagle, 1981). 'Sin embargo, de la misma
localidad, se recuper6 una mandibula parcial
izquierda con P4-MI, cuyas afinidades son
inciertas, aunque posee caracteres primitivos que
podrian eventualmente compararse con aquellas
retenciones primitivas de Aotus, Callicebus,
Saimiri y Callimico (Fleagle y Bown, 1983).

Dolichocebus y Tremacebus se registran para la
edad-mamifero Colhuehuapense (19 a 18 Ma.,
sensu Marshall et al., 1986), con ciertas reserves
para la localidad de Sacanana (Bown, com. pers.).

La Formaci6n Pinturas, al noroeste de la Provincia
de Santa Cruz, arroj6 evidencias f6siles de
platirrinos de aspects muy particulares. Se
recuperaron dos nuevos g6neros y cuatro species
cuyas afinidades con los restantes platirrinos,
f6siles o actuales, son en gran parte inciertas
(Fleagle, 1990; Fleagle et al., 1987; Kay, 1990;
Rosenberger et al., 1990).

Carlocebus carmenensis y C.intermedius se
conocen a partir de restos mandibulares, dentarios
y maxilares, denotando algunos interesantes
caracteres tales como, un gran hipocono sobre P3-4,
amplios molares superiores con marcado cingulo
lingual, relativamente pequefios incisivos, caninos
y premolares anteriores inferiores, en comparaci6n
con P4-M3 (Fleagle, 1990). Carlocebus posee
cuspides relativamente bajas y redondeadas,
sugiriendo hAbitos alimenticios omnivoros; ambas
species difieren en tamafio pero no en morfologia
aparente, siendo C.carmenensis considerablemente
mayor.

Soriacebus ameghinorumn (Fig. 2) y S.adrianae se
presentan como las dos species mAs intrigantes de
Patagonia, debido a su particular morfologia que
dificulta las comparaciones con otros platirrinos
f6siles o actuales. Estos dos primates difieren en
tamafio, siendo menor S.adrianae. La dentici6n ha
sido comparada con aquella de los callitrichinos
(Fleagle et al., 1987) y pithecinos (Rosenberger et
al., 1990), en lo que concierge a los dientes
posteriores y anteriores, respectivamente. La


disposici6n de los incisivos inferiores es
escalonada, ubicindose los centrales mas
anteriormente, sin former un arco, corn es tipico en
muchos platirrinos. P2 es de gran tamailo y
unicuspide, en tanto P3-4 son considerablemente
menores. Los premolares superiores diferen de
todos los restantes platirrinos por poseer tres
raices. Los molares inferiores fueron comparados
con aquellos de los callitrichinos en su morfologia
general y la oblicuidad de la cresta posterior del
trig6nido. Los caracteres presents en Soriacebus
desencadenan un intrincado problema sistematico,
del cual se desprenden las hip6tesis mencionadas.
La alternative propuesta por Kay (1990), sostiene
que Soriacebus es el tax6n hermano de los
restantes platirrinos, significando que los
caracteres comparable a algiin mono actual del
Nuevo Mundo han tenido lugar en forma
independiente.


Figura 2. Soriacebus ameghinorum, procedente de
la Formaci6n Pinturas, Provincia de Santa Cruz,
Argentina. Extraido de Fleagle (1988).

Se registraron tambidn en Pinturas, fragments de
una escapula y ulna, no asignados a g6nero o
especie alguna (Anapol y Fleagle, 1988). El peso
corporal de este especimen debi6 ser de unos 3 a 6
kg bastante mayor que el inferido para el astragalo
de Gaiman y el material postcraneal de
Homunculus. Las estimaciones lo acercan a la talla
de Cebus apella, evidenciando un comportamiento
locomotor no estrictamente cuadrdipedo y
arboricola, sino tambidn un incremento en el uso
de los miembros anteriores para trepar, comparable
a Alouatta y Lagothrix (Anapol y Fleagle, 1988).
La antigiiedad para estos sedimentos de Pinturas,
se estima en alrededor de 17 Ma (Fleagle, com.
pers.).

En un intent de comparar los f6siles de primates
patag6nicos, deberiamos diferenciar Dolichocebus
y Tremacebus, sin vinculaciones aparentes entire
ellos. Las similitudes respectivas con Saimiri y


Page 2





Neotropical Primates 3(1), March 1995


Aotus podrian indicarnos la gran antigtiedad de
estos dos linajes actuales sumado a una relative
independencia evolutiva. Esto quizAs podria arrojar
luz para el esclarecimiento de la sistemitica de los
actuales platirrinos, mis afn se tratiramos de
confrontar adecuadas muestras de taxa vivientes
con el material f6sil disponible, considerando que
la taxonomia debe construirse sobre bases
filogendticas.

El simple hecho de la falta de consenso acerca de
las afinidades filogeneticas de los platirrinos
actuales, torna mas dificil la situaci6n de los f6siles
patag6nicos. Si dedujdramos algunas cosas con esta
restringida informaci6n que nos proporcionan los
materials f6siles, arribariamos a una pretendida
sencilla respuesta. Aotus, Callicebus y Saimiri,
incluyendo tambidn Cebus y callitrichinos
(Callithrix, Cebuella, Leontopithecus, Saguinus y
Callimico), aparecen en el primer piano de las
comparaciones, significando una permanent
insistencia de tender a sus primitivos caracteres
retenidos, exceptuando a los callitrichinos. Estos
iltimos, que consider absolutamente derivados,
nos indicarian tal vez, que la historic evolutiva de
los platirrinos que hoy perduran, tuvo en com6n
much mas de lo que las filogenias propuestas
hayan evaluado. Soriacebus, que ciertamente posee
algunos caracteres callitrichinos, nos da una
lecci6n de esto, de nuestro ain escaso
conocimiento sobre la filogenia de los monos del
Nuevo Mundo, y por lo que debemos seguir
trabajando y reunir los esfuerzos en todos los
ambitos de esta investigaci6n.

Agradecimientos: A los Drs. John G. Fleagle y Jos6
F. Bonaparte por permitirme participar en las
expediciones y acceder al material f6sil.

Marcelo Fabian Tejedor, CAtedra de Anatomia
Comparada, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y
Museo, Universidad Nacional de la Plata, Paseo del
Bosque, 1900 La Plata, Argentina.

Bibliografia

Ameghino, F. 1891. Los monos f6siles del eoceno
de la Rep6blica Argentina. Rev. Arg. Hist. Nat.,
Buenos Aires, 1: 383-397.
Anapol, F. y Fleagle, J.G. 1988. Fossil platyrrhine
forelimb bones from the early Miocene of
Argentina. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 76: 417-428.
Bluntschli, H. 1931. Homunculus patagonicus und
die ihm zugereihten Fossilfunde aus den Santa
Cruz Schichten Patagoniens. Morfologisches
Jahrbuch, 67: 811-892.


Bordas, A.F. 1942. Anotaciones sobre un
"Cebidae" f6sil de Patagonia. Physis, 19: 265-
269.
Fleagle, J.G. 1988. Primate Adaptation and
Evolution. Academic Press, San Diego.
Fleagle, J.G. 1990. New fossil platyrrhines from
the Pinturas Formation, southern Argentina. J.
Hum. Evol., 19: 61-85.
Fleagle, J.G, y Bown, T.M. 1983. New primate
fossils from late Oligocene (Colhuehuapian)
localities of Chubut Province, Argentina. Folia
Primatol., 41: 240-266.
Fleagle, J.G., Powers, D.W., Conroy, G.C. y
Watters, J.P. 1987. New fossil platyrrhines from
Santa Cruz Province, Argentina. Folia Primatol.,
48: 65-77.
Ford, S.M. 1986. Systematics of the New World
monkeys. In: Comparative Primate Biology,
Vol.1, R.D.Swindler y J.Erwin (eds.), pp.73-135.
Alan R.Liss, New York.
Ford, S.M. 1990. Locomotor adaptations of fossil
platyrrhines. J. Hum. Evol., 19: 141-173.
Gebo, D.L. y Simons, E.L. 1987. Morphology and
locomotor adaptations of the foot in early
Oligocene anthropoids. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol.,
74: 83-101.
Hershkovitz, P. 1974. A new genus of late
Oligocene monkey (Cebidae, Platyrrhini) with
note on postorbital closure and platyrrhine
evolution. Folia Primatol., 21: 1-35.
Hershkovitz, P. 1977. Living New World Monkeys
(Playrrhini) With an Introduction to Primates,
Vol.1. Chicago University Press, Chicago.
Hershkovitz, P. 1981. Comparative anatomy of
platyrrhine mandibular cheekteeth dpm4, pm4,
ml, with particular reference to those of
Homunculus (Cebidae) and comments on
platyrrhine origins. Folia Primatol., 35: 179-217.
Hershkovitz, P. 1984. More on Homunculus Dpm4
and MI and comparisons with Alouatta and
Stirtonia (Primates, Platyrrhini, Cebidae). Am. J.
Primatol., 7: 261-283.
Kay, R.F. 1990. The phyletic relationships of
extant and fossil Pithecinae (Platyrrhini,
Anthropoidea). J. Hum. Evol., 19: 175-208.
Kraglievich, J.L. 1951. Contribuciones al
conocimiento de los primates f6siles de la
Patagonia. 1. Diagnosis previa de un nuevo
primate f6sil del Oligoceno superior
(Colhuehuapiano) de Gaiman, Chubut. Rev. Mus.
Arg. Cienc. Nat. "Bernadino Rivadavia, Buenos
Aires, 2: 57-82.
Marshall, L.G., Drake, R.E., Curtis, G.H., Butler,
R.F., Flanagan, K.M. y Naeser, C.W. 1986.
Geochronology of type. Santacrucian middle
Tertiary Land Mammal Age, Patagonia,
Argentina. J.Geol., 94: 149-157.


Page 3






Neotropical Primates 3(1), March 199S Page 4


Rosenberger, A.L. 1979. Cranial anatomy and
implications of Dolichocebus, a late Oligocene
ceboid primate. Nature, Lond., 279: 416-418.
Rosenberger, A.L. 1981. Systematics: the higher
taxa. In: Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical
Primates, Vol. 1, A. F. Coimbra-Filho y R. A.
Mittermeier (eds.), pp.9-27. Academia Brasileira
de Cidncias, Rio de Janeiro.
Rosenberger, A.L. y Fleagle, J.G. 1981. CrAneos
de platirrinos f6siles. Anais do 1 Congreso
Latino-Americano de Paleontologia, 2: 537-551,
Porto Alegrc, Brasil.
Rosenberger, A.L., Setoguchi, T. y Shigehara, N.
1990. The fossil record of callitrichine primate.
J. Hum. Evol., 19: 209-236.
Rusconi, C. 1935. Las species de primates del
Oligoceno de Patagonia (g6n. HIomunculus). Rev.
Arg. Paleont. y Antrop. "Amieghinia", 1: 39-68.
Tauber, A. 1991. Homunculus patagonicus
Ameghino, 1891 (Primates, Ceboidea), Mioceno
temprano de la costa atlintica austral, Prov. de
Santa Cruz, Repdblica Argentina. Acad. Nac.
Cienc., C6rdoba, 82: 1-32.


ANALYSIS POBLACIONAL DEL PICHICO
PECHO ANARANJADO, SAGUINUS
LABIA TUS, EN EL SUR ORIENTED PERUANO

Introducci6n

Los studios ecol6gicos referidos a la dinaimica
poblacional de Saguinus labiatus en cl Perd, son
escasos. Los reports preliminares incluyen ciertos
aspects de la dinaimica poblacional y su estado dc
conservaci6n (Aquino y Castro, 1989; Encarnaci6n
y Castro, 1990; Castro et at., 1990; Valverde et al.,
1990; Heltne y Encarnaci6n, 1990; Aquino y
Encarnaci6n, 1994). Otros, mayormente proceden
de la Amazonia de Bolivia (Yoneda, 1981, 1984;
Pook y Pook, 1982; Freese et a!., 1982; Buchanan-
Smith, 1990, 1991).

Como una contribuci6n para el manejo y la
conservaci6n de la especie, se ofrece un breve
anAlisis sobre densidad poblacional, tamafio de
grupo, composici6n social y estructura poblacional.
Los studios de campo fueron conducidos en el sur
oriented del Perni, entree las cuencas de los rios Acre
y Tahuamanui (Fig. 1).

Metodologia

La densidad poblacional file estimada en una area
de 3.4 km2 correspondiente a bosque
moderadamente alterado situado en la localidad de


San Lorenzo, margen derecha del rio Tahuamanu.
Los mdtodos de censo fucron: 1) mapeo o
representaci6n grafica de los gnrpos; y 2) capture
de grupos familiares para facilitar los registros del
tamafio de grupo y la composici6n social. El
procedimiento seguido fue el descrito por
Encarnaci6n et al. (1990) para la capture de
callitricidos con ligeras modificacioncs.


Figura 1. Las areas de studio entire
Acre.


los rios Tahuanmand y


La morfometria fue registrada de acuerdo a la
metodologia seguida por Soini y Soini (1990a) con
dnfasis en el peso corporal y longitud total. Las
edades fueron estimadas considerando la longitud
tomada desde la base de la encia, y el estado del
canino, la presencia o ausencia de molares, y el
desarrollo dentario. Adicionalmnente fueron
considerados la posici6n y tamaflo dc los testes,
grado de pigmentaci6n del escroto, condici6n
reproductive, tamailo y grado de pigmentaci6n de
la vulva (Snowdon y Soini, 1988; Soini y Soini,
1990a, 1990b).

El tamaflo de grupo fue obtenido del examen de
nueve grupos familiares capturados en 3.4 km2 de
la localidad de San Lorenzo, y observaci6n de otros
65 grupos familiares hasta Iberia. Mientras que la
organizaci6n social y estructura poblacional fueron
determinadas mediante el analisis de 38 grupos
completos capturados.


Neotropical Primates 3(l), March 1995


Page 4






Page 5 Neotropical Priniates 3(1), A'Iarch 1995


Categories de Edad

SegAn lo descrito por Snowdon y Soini (1988) y
Soini y Soini (1990a, 1990b) definimos cinco
categories de edad:
Adultos (A). El rango de tamaflo y peso para
adults fue dc 572-663 mm y 400-610 g,
respectivamente. Respecto al peso, existed
dimorfismo sexual: es decir, las hembras presentan
mayor peso que los machos (diferencia
significativa al 95%). Similarmente, las hembras
tuvieron mayor tamafio que los machos, aunque de
acuerdo al andlisis estadistico no hubieron
diferencias significativas (Cuadro 1). Sub-adultos
(SA). El tamafio y peso de los sub-adultos vari6 de
522 a 616 mm y de 350 a 490 g, respectivamente.
Los machos con mayor peso que las hembras, y en
relaci6n al tamanio ambos sexos presentan igual
longitud (Cuadro 1). Juveniles (J). El tamafio y
peso de los juveniles vari6 de 505 a 592 mm y de
230 a 370 g, respectivamente. Las hembras
presentan mayor peso y longitud (Cuadro 1).
Infantes 2 (12). El tamailo y peso de los infants 2
vari6 de 429 a 553 mm y de 160 a 275 g,
respectivamente. Las hembras con mayor peso que
los machos, mientras que los machos con mayor
longitud que !as hembras (Cuadro 1). Infantes 1
(11). El tamafio y peso de los infantes 1 vari6 entire
215 a 318 mm y de 40 a 120 g, respectivamente.
Las hembras con mayor peso y longitud que los
machos (Cuadro 1).

Tamafio de Grupo, Composici6n Social y
Estructura Poblacional

Del anAlisis de 65 grupos familiares completes e
incompletos capturados de S. labiatus, se registry
un rango de variaci6n en el tamailo de grupo de 2 a
10 individuos, la moda de 7 individuos y el tamafio
promedio de 6.1 individuos/grupo. En cambio, para
el Area de 3.4 km2, el tamafio promedio de los
nueve grupos fue de 6.9
individuos/grupo (Cuadro 2). Cuadro 1. Prome


El tamailo promedio de grupo
difiere con lo rcportado por
Yoneda (1981, 1984), Pook y
Pook (1982), Freese et al.
(1982), Castro et al. (1990),
Encarnaci6n y Castro (1990), y
Valverde et al. (1990) (Cuadro
2). Es decir, estAn fuera del
intervalo registrado entire 6.1 a
6.9, a excepci6n de los
registros de Buchanan-Smith
(1990, 1991) y Castro (citado
por Sussman y Kinzey, 1984)


que se hallan en este intervalo. El intervalo de los
grupos familiares comprenden desde grnpos
incipientes con dos individuos hasta un maximo de
diez individuos. De dicho intervalo, los grupos
entire cinco y nueve ejemplares fieron los mis
frecuente, a diferencia, Buchanan-Smith (1991)
sostiene que debido a la variabilidad de los
mdtodos empleados en el conteo de grnpos, el
tamafto promedio de los grnpos estaria
comprendido en un intervalo de cuatro a siete
individuos.

La composici6n social estuvo representada por una
hembra reproductive asociada hasta con cinco
machos adults, y su progenic de una hasta la
cuarta descendencia consecutive. En algunos
grupos ademas de la hembra reproductive, tambidn
hubieron entire 1 y 3 hembras adults inibidas de
reproducirse por la hembra dominance. Estos casos
ocurrieron en grupos cuyo tamaflo fue igual o
superior a site individuos.

Referente a la estructura poblacional, los
progenitores superan porcentualmente a su
progenie en 69%, y representan grAficamente una
pirAmide invertida. En cambio, la proporci6n
sexual en todas las categories de edad fiue de 1:1,
except en la categoria de infants 2 que fue 2.5:1
(Cuadro 3).

Densidad Poblacional

La densidad poblacional de S. labiatus fie
estimada en 2.7 grupos/km2 o 18.6 individuos/km2.
Unicamente fueron considerados nueve grupos
familiares que realizaron mins del 50% de sus
actividades alimenticias y de locomoci6n en el Area
de 3.4 km2. Los estimados de densidad poblacional
(representados en individuos/km2) de S. labiatus
obtenidos en este studio difieren con lo reportado
por Pook y Pook (1979) y Yoneda (1981, 1984)

dio de peso y longitud por edad y sexo en Saguinus


labiatus.
Edad Sexo No. Peso F No. Longitud F
(g) (P) (mmn) (P)
Adulto Macho 136 490.1 5.254 ** 47 602.2 0.26
Adulto Hembra' 77 529.2 (0.05) 35 609.4 (n.s.)
Subadulto Macho 18 414.7 0.042 5 576.0 0.0
Subadulto Hembra 17 406.5 (n.s.) 5 576.0 (n.s.)
Juvenil Macho 17 302.6 0.005 5 541.2 0.09
Juvenil Hembra 24 305.4 (n.s.) 2 452.1 (n.s.)
Infante 2 Macho 6 203.3 0.62 5 489.9 0.42
Infante 2 Hembra 4 222.5 (n.s.) 2 455.0 (n.s.)
Infante I Macho 6 67.7 0.013 1 215.0 0.0
Infante 1 Hembra 5 70.0 (n.s.) 1 217.0 (n.s.)
Las hembras preiladas fueron excluidas del pesaje.
** Diferencia significativa al 95%. (n.s.) = no significativo


Neotropical Primates 3(l), Uarch 1995


Page 5






Neotropical Primates 3(1), A~Iarch 1995 Page 6


para la Amazonia Boliviana, y
con lo reportado por Aquino y
Castro (1990) y Valverde et al.
(1990) para la Amazonia
Peruana. En cuanto a nuestro
estimado de densidad
poblacional representado en
grupos/km2 se encuentra en el
intervalo de 1.7 a 2.9 reportados
por Yoneda (1981, 1984) y
Aquino y Castro (1989) para la
Amazonia de Bolivia y Peril,
respectivamente. El m6todo de
censo por transecto es el mais
comunmente utilizado por los
autores antes citados. En contra
studio utilizamos el m6todo de I
mapa (mapeo) y 6nicamente fucir
grAficamente aquellos grupos
ocuparon mis del 50% (mayor fre
de avistamiento en al Area de 3.4 k1

Agradecimientos: Hacemos ex
especial reconocimiento por el a
financeiro al Proyecto Peruano
"Manuel Moro Sommo". As
autoridades locales de Puerto Ma
San Lorenzo por brindarnos la
caso.

Pablo Puertas, Filomeno Encar
Aquino, Sociedad Peruana de Prii
de Investigaci6n IVITA de
Nacional Mayor de San Marcos,
575, Iquitos, Per(i, y Juan E.
Biol6gica de Dofiana, 41013 Sevil

Referencias

Aquino, R. y Castro, N. 1989
Saguinus labiatus y otros prim
en Madre de Dios. Informe Ai
Peruano de Primatologia
Sommo", 1989, 7pp.
Aquino, R. y Encarnaci6n, F. 19

Cuadro 3. Estructura poblacional de S
base a 38 grupos completes atrap
natural.
Edad Macho Hembra Total

Adulto 91 65 156
Subadulto 15 11 26
Juvenil 13 12 25
Infante 2 5 2 7
Infante 1 6 7 13
Totales 130 97 227


Cuadro 2. Tamnin
Rango No.de
grupos
2-6 10
4-5 2
1-13 7
3-8 27

5-10 12
1-8 19
3-6 5
2-8 14
2-10 65y 9


Io de grnpo de Saguinus labiatus para el Peril y Bolivia.
Tamailo Referencia Pais
promedio
4.2 Yoneda(1981, 1982) Bolivia
4.5 Pook y Pook (1982) Bolivia
5.7 Freese et al. (1982) Peru y Bolivia
6.6 Castro (en Sussman y Peru
Kinzey, 1984)
6.3 Buchanan-Smith (1990,1991) Bolivia
6.0 Castro et al. (1990) Pert
6.0 Encamaci6n y Castro (1990) Peri
6.0 Valverde et al. (1990) Pcr6
6.1' y 6.92 Este studio Peri


'Tamailo de grupo estimado en base a 65 grupos familiares.
2Tamano de grupo estimado en base a 9 grupos familiares en el Area de 3.4 km2.
del Per6. Primate Report, (40): 1-127.
ste, durante este Buchanan-Smith, H. M. 1990. Polyspecific
ocalizaci6n en el association of two tamarin species, Saguinus
on representados labiatus and Saguinusfuscicollis, in Bolivia. Am.
familiares que J. Primatol., 22: 205-214.
cuencia) del total Buchanan-Smith, H. M. 1991. A field study on the
km2. red-bellied. tamarin, Saguinus I. labiatus, in
Bolivia. Int. J. Primatol., 12(3): 259-276.
:tensivo nuestro Castro, N., Encarnaci6n, F., Valverde, L.,
ipoyo logistico y Ugamoto, M. y Maruyama, E. 1990. Censo de
de Primatologia primates no humans en el sur oriented peruano:
simismo a las Iberia e Ifiapari (Departamento de Madre de
Idonado, Iberia y Dios), Junio 29 Setiembre 16, 1980. En: La
s facilidades del Primatologia en el Perd, pp.163-178. Proyecto
Peruano de Primatologia "Manuel Morro
Sommo" (ed.), Lima.
naci6n, Rolando Encarnaci6n, F. y Castro, N. 1990. Informe
natologia, Centro preliminary sobre censo de primates no humans
la Universidad en el sur oriented peruano: Iberia e Ifiapari
Apartado A6reo (Departamento de Madre de Dios), Mayo 15 -
Garcia, Estaci6n Junio 14, 1978. En: La Primatologia en el Perui,
la, Espafia. pp.57-67. Proyecto Peruano de Primatologia
"Manuel Morro Sommo" (ed.), Lima.
Encarnaci6n, F., Moya, L., Soini, P., Tapia, J. y
Aquino, R. 1990. La capture de Callitrichidae
. Evaluaci6n de (Saguinus y Cebuella) en la amazonia peruana.
ates no humans En: La Primatologia en el Perut, pp.45-56.
mual del Proyecto Proyecto Peruano de Primalologia "Manuel
'Manuel Morro Morro Sommo" (ed.), Lima.
Freese, C., Heltne, P. G., Castro, R. y Whitesides,
94. Los Primates G. 1982. Patterns and determinants of monkey
Saguinus labiatus en densities in Peru and Bolivia, with notes on
ados en su medio distributions. Int. J. Primatol., 3: 53-90.
Heltne, P. G. y Encarnaci6n, F. 1990. Evaluaci6n
% Proporci6n de recursos primates en Madre de Dios, Peru:
de sexo estado corriente de primates y estrategias para
69 1.4:1 investigaci6n y manejo en el future. En: La
11 1.4:1 Primatologia en el Perui, pp.179-186. Proyecto
11 1.1:1 Peruano de Primatologia "Manuel Morro
3 2.5:1 Sommo" (ed.), Lima.
6 1:1.2 Pook, A.G. y Pook, G. 1979. A field study on the
100 1.3:1 status and socioecology of the Goeldi's monkey


Infante 2, ejemplares con parcial dependencia parental.
Infante 1, ejemplares con complete dependencia parental.


Page 6


Neotropical Primates 3(l), Harch 1995






Page 7 Neotropical Primates 3(J), March 1995


(Callimico goeldii) and other primates in
northern Bolivia. Mimco. 37pp.
Pook, A.G. y Pook, G. 1982. Polyspecific
association between Saguinus fuscicollis,
Saguinus labiatus, Callimico goeldii and other
primates in north-western Bolivia. Folia
Primatol., 38: 196-216.
Snowdon, C.T. y Soini, P. 1988. The tamarins,
genus Saguinus. En: Ecology and Behavior of
Neotropical Primates, Vol. 2, R. A. Mittermeier,
A. B. Rylands, A. F. Coimbra-Filho y G. A. B. da
Fonseca (eds.), pp.223-298. World Wildlife
Fund, Washington, D.C.
Soini, P. y Soini, M. 1990a. Distribuci6n
geograifica y ecologia poblacional de Saguinus
mystax. En: La Primatologia en el Perud, pp.272-
313. Proyecto Peniano de Primatologia "Manuel
Morro Sommo" (ed.), Lima.
Soini, P. y Soini, M. 1990b. Desarrollo dentario y
la estimaci6n de la edad en Cebuella pygmaea,
Saguinus fuscicollis y Saguinus mystax. En: La
Primatologia en el Perut, pp.254-271. Proyecto
Peruano de Primatologia "Manuel Morro
Sommo" (ed.), Lima.
Sussman, R. y Kinzey W. G. 1984. The ecological
role of the Callitrichidae: a review. Am. J. Phys.
Anthropol., 64: 418-449.
Valverde, L., Ugamoto, M. y Maruyama, E. 1990.
Informe sobre evaluaci6n de primates no
humans en la region sur oriental del Peril:
Iberia-Ifiapari (Departamento de Madre de Dios),
Julio Septiembre de 1980. En: La Primatologia
en el Perud, pp.187-201. Proyecto Penruano de
Primatologia "Manuel Morro Sommo" (ed.),
Lima.
Yoneda, M. 1981. Ecological studies of Saguinus
fuscicollis and Saguinus labiatus with reference
to habitat segregation and height preference.
Kyoto Univ. Overseas Res. Rep. New World
Monkeys, (1981): 43-50.
Yoneda, M. 1984. Comparative studies on vertical
separation, foraging behavior and traveling mode
of saddle-backed tamarins (Saguinus fuscicollis)
and red-chested moustached tamarins (Saguinus
labiatus) in northern Bolivia. Primates, 25(4):
414-422.


HOWLER SUBGROUPS AS HOMEOSTATIC
MECHANISMS IN DISTURBED HABITATS

The size and composition of groups may have
important consequences for the survival and
fecundity of organisms (Terborgh and Janson,
1986; Pulliam and Caraco, 1984). A subgroup may
be defined as a unit (>1) of a demographic group
whose functions may be similar to or different from


the functions of demographic groups. Cohen
(1971) has studied the statistical properties of
frequency distributions of primate subgroups of
variable size and found that, in general, a zero-
truncated binomial distribution provides a good fit
where the rate of replacement is >0. Thus, by
definition, a subgroup must have the potential to
increase in size, and subgroup size may be
inherently unstable where solitary individuals or
individuals from other groups join subgroups
(Rannala and Brown, 1994; Pulliam and Caraco,
.1984). Expansion is expected to cease where
subgroup size approximates some equilibrium
value (Rannala and Brown, 1994).

Subgroup sizes of one demographic group of
mantled howler monkeys (Aloualta palliata Gray)
in tropical dry forests were sampled using ad
libitium methods over an 18-month period in 1976
and 1977 at Hacienda La Pacifica, Cafias,
Guanacaste, Costa Rica. The resulting distribution
was analyzed. Only adults were counted (N=18).
Figure 1 shows the subgroup sizes and their
frequency (mean = 4.46 1.99, N = 120). The
coefficient of dispersion is 0.89, representing a
repulsed (or overdispersed) distribution with more
observations at the center of the distribution than at
the extremes and with variance smaller than one
would expect by chance alone, suggesting an
optimal subgroup size.

Table 1 gives the frequency of subgroups with and
without male membership. Males are identified by
dominance rank (1, 2, 3, highest rank to lowest;
Jones, 1980). Also shown are the mean, standard
deviation, and coefficients of dispersion for each
category. Female subgroups exhibit the lowest
mean group size. Single males subgroup with about
equal frequency, and, likewise, mean group size of
single male subgroups is approximately equivalent.
Two-male subgroups reflect the dominance
hierarchy, whereby subgroups including the second
and third-ranked males are more frequent than
subgroups including the first and third-ranked
males. Following this, subgroups including the first

Table 1. Identity (I), frequency (f), meanstandard
deviation (MSD), and coefficients of dispersion
(CD) of subgroups of one demographic group of
mantled howler monkeys in tropical dry forest.
I f MSD CD
Females 33 3.031.24 .51
2 28 4.711.72 .63
1 26 4.851.43 .42
3 24 5.172.08 .84
2, 3 5 7.602.50 .82
1, 3 4 2.751.50 .82


Neolropical Primates 3(l), Afarch 1995


Page 7






Neotropical Primates 3W, March )99S Page 8


30o


525 ..... ..

-10
0 i- ............................. ......


2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Sub-group Size
Figure 1. Frequency and size of subgroups for one
demographic group of mantled howler monkeys at
Hacienda La Pacifica, Costa Rica.

and second-ranked males appear to be rare (see
Nod, 1994), although these males were observed to
subgroup seven times on occasions when counts
were not made. All coefficients of dispersion are
repulsed. A "t-test" (one-tailed) of mean subgroup
size for subgroups with and without males showed
male subgroup size to be larger (< .001, t = 7.88, df
= 118), suggesting that those with males are more
"attractive" than those without, possibly because
males subgrouped primarily in association with
"preferred" and ephemeral food (flowers 35%; fruit
39%; and new leaves 26%; N = 108) or because
there is less conflict in subgroups with males (see
Rannala and Brown, 1994).


Howlers occupy a broad range of habitats
(Wolflheim, 1983; pers. obs.), and consequently
encounter significant environmental heterogeneity.
Changing costs and benefits to individual subgroup
members may yield differential gains for varying
subgroup sizes, presumably in response to
variations in environmental conditions. Howler
environments may be heterogeneous with respect to
macro- and microclimates; the structure of the
forest, including tree architecture, patch size,
resting sites, treefall gaps, and habitat
fragmentation; predation pressure; disease,
reproductive opportunities; food availability and
quality; "information centers"; and population
density. These and other factors, as well as the
individual composition of subgroups vary over time
and space, conditions which would continuously
modify the costs and benefits of subgrouping.
Habitat disturbance is expected to increase the rate
at which costs and benefits change.

Lewontin (1957) discussed the adaptations of
populations to environmental heterogeneity and
posited that such regimes may select for
homeostatic responses. Subgrouping may represent


such a homeostatic response where the benefits of
remaining with the demographic group decrease to
a point favoring "temporary" or "semi-permanent"
subgrouping. Such processes may lead
to permanent subdivision, including the
establishment of new groups and the colonization
of marginal habitats (see Malmgren, 1979; Jones,
1980, p. 396). Subgrouping in mantled howlers
may contribute to their survival capacities in
disturbed regimes.

La Pacifica is a disturbed area, including
significant deforestation, habitat fragmentation,
and selective cutting (Clarke and Zucker, 1994;
Malmgren, 1979; pers.obs.) where the howler
population may be maintained by immigration
(i.e., metapopulation effects). Howlers have thrived
at this site where no other monkey species reside.
Mantled howlers are listed as "endangered" in the
United States Endangered Species Act (Groves,
1993), primarily due to habitat destruction in areas
outside of Costa Rica (Wolfheim, 1983). La
Pacifica may be viewed as a conservation
experiment where mantled howlers show no
apparent signs of local extinction (Clarke and
Zucker, 1994). Local extinctions of fragmented
populations are common (Fahrig and Merriam,
1994), and it will be important to conduct
continuing studies of the La Pacifica
metapopulation to document changes as
disturbance continues, especially the flexibility of
howler behavior, social organization, and
population dynamics. This note proposes that
patterns of subgrouping in mantled howlers
indicate homeostasis in response to environmental
heterogeneity which may maximize the
opportunities for success of these monkeys in
disturbed and managed areas. Animals with
similar characteristics (e.g., Ate/es and Cebus) may
also employ subgrouping as a flexible homeostatic
response.

Clara B. Jones, Institute of Animal Behavior,
Rutgers University Newark, 101 Warren Street,
Newark, New Jersey 07102, USA.

References

Clarke, M.R. and Zucker, E.L. 1994. Survey of the
howling monkey population at La Pacifica: a
seven-year follow-up. Int.J.Primatol., 15: 61-73.
Cohen, J.E. 1971. Casual Groups of Monkeys and
Men. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
Fahrig, L. and Merriam, G. 1994. Conservation of
fragmented populations. Consen'ration Biology,
8: 50-59.


Neotropical Primates 3(1), March 1995


Page 8






Page 9 Neotropical Primates 3(1), A'iarch 1995


Glander, K.E. 1980. Reproduction and population
growth in free-ranging mantled howling
monkeys. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop., 53: 25-36.
Groves, C.P. 1993. Order Primates. In: Mammal
Species of the World: A Taxonomic and
Geographic Reference, D. E. Wilson and D. M.
Reeder (eds.), pp.243-278. Smithsonian
Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Jones, C.B. 1980. The functions of status in the
mantled howler monkey, Alouatta palliata Gray:
intraspecific competition for group membership
in a folivorous Neotropical primate. Primates,
21: 389-405.
Lewontin, R.C. 1957. The adaptations of
populations to varying environments. Cold
Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol., 22: 395-408.
Malmgren, L.A. 1979. Empirical Population
Genetics of Golden Mantled Howling Monkeys
(Alouatta palliata) in Relation to Population
Structure, Social Dynamics and Evolution.
Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of
Connecticut, Storrs.
Nod, R. 1994. A model of coalition formation
among male baboons with fighting ability as the
crucial parameter. Anim. Behav., 47: 211-213.
Pulliam, H.R. and Caraco, T. 1984. Living in
groups: is taere an optimal group size? In:
Behavioural Ecology: An Evolutionary
Approach, J. R. Krebs and N. B. Davies (eds.),
pp.122-147. Sinauer Associates, Inc.,
Sunderland, MA.
Rannala, B.H. and Brown, C.R. 1994. Relatedness
and conflict over optimal group size. Trends in
Ecology and Evolution, 9: 117-118.
Terborgh, J. and Janson, C.H. 1986. The
socioecology of primate groups. Ann. Rev. Ecol.
Syst., 17: 111-136.
Wolfleim, J.H. 1983. Primates of the World:
Distribution, Abundance, and Conservation.
University of Washington Press, Seattle.


RED HOWLING MONKEY (ALOUA TA
SENICULUS) REINTRODUCTION IN A
GALLERY FOREST OF HATO FLORES
MORADAS, VENEZUELA

Introduction: Red howling monkeys, Alouatta
seniculus, are one the largest cebids, and are
widely distributed in the neotropics (Wolfheim,
1983). A large number of field studies have
focused on the population and behavioral ecology
of free-living red howlers (Izawa, 1988; Drubbel
and Gautier, 1993; Agoramoorthy, 1994),
However, little is known about the reintroduction
of these animals into their original habitat. In this


paper, I will describe the reintroduction of a pet
female red howler into the wild in a gallery forest
on a ranch in Venezuela.

History of the pet red howler: A wild-born,
juvenile, female red howler had been kept as a pet
for about 15 months. During that time, she was
tied with a leash and chain, and kept outdoors. She
was able to eat leaves, flowers, and fruits from the
garden. She was fed with such as vegetables, fruits,
rice, and crackers. The owner was interested in
releasing her back into the wild, and she was, as a
result, brought to me in February 1988, while I was
conducting a field study on the howling monkey
population at Hato Masaguaral, Venezuela
(Agoramoorthy and Rudran, 1992, 1993, 1994).

The pet howler was kept in a cage of 2.5 m x 2.5 m
x 3.5 m at the study site, adjacent to a social group
of captive red howlers, during approximately 12
months. The captive group were wild-caught, and
were being kept to conduct nutritional studies on
fiber digestibility and digesta passage (Crissey et
al., 1989). Both the captive group and the pet
female were fed mainly on natural vegetation. They
also received monkey chow as a supplement on a
regular basis. In captivity, the pet howler had
visual contact with the captive group as well as a
neighboring wild group. She learned to feed on
local, naturally-occurring food items offered to her.
Whenever the wild group approached the cage, the
captive social group would howl vigorously,
occasionally being accompanied by the pet female.

Reintroduction Process: During the first week of
August 1989, an association of five individuals
(two adult males, two adult females, and one
juvenile female) was located in a neighboring
forest called Hato Flores Moradas. The habitat was
classified as gallery forest (Troth, 1989). A red
howler association is a loose gathering of four or
five individuals from different social groups, often
having one or two adult males and females plus
imnmatures. Associations usually roam around the
territories of several social groups. Once an
association establishes a definite home range and
starts to breed, it becomes a group. The established
social groups are territorial, and often show
aggressive behavior towards intruding solitary
animals as well as neighboring rival groups. Males
and females usually disperse from their natal
groups to immigrate into neighboring social groups
or join a nearby association (Rudran, 1979;
Crockett, 1984; Agoramoorthy and Rudran, 1993).

The Flores Moradas association was followed
between 12 August and 27 September to determine


Page 9


Neolropical Primates 3(l), March 1995






Neotropical Primates 3(1.), March 1995 Page 10


their ranging pattern and to record the social
behavior of the individuals in the association (ad
libitum sampling; Altmnann, 1974). The pet howler
was taken to the gallery forest in a cage of 1.5 m x
0.5 m x 0.5 m four times a week, and was kept
close to the association in order to maintain visual
contact. The total time of visual contact between
the pet and the association was approximately 11
hours. Initially the association members showed
aggressive behavior by howling, branch-shaking,
and rubbing their chins (scent-marking) on
branches. After a few days, the aggression was
gradually reduced, and the association began to pay
little attention to the caged pet on the ground.

Two weeks before the release, the pet howler was
examined by a local veterinarian and found to be
free of infectious disease. The three-year old female
was also ear-marked for identification. On 28
September 1989, she was taken to the forest for her
final release (1530 hours). She was let out of the
cage 25 m from the association, under a tree. She
immediately climbed the tree to about 10 m above
the ground. Immediately the association members
started vocalizing, approached the female, and
chased her away. She showed aggressive behaviors
such as arch-walking, pilo-erection, and chin-
rubbing towards the association members. Howling
stopped after about 20 minutes, and the association
moved off. The released female was followed for
three weeks. She was seen near to and following
the association closely, about 50 m from where she
was released. No physical fights were seen. Two
months later, she was found with the association,
and apparently well accustomed to her new wild
habitat as well as wild howlers.

Govindasamy Agoramoorthy, Conservation and
Research Center, Smithsonian Institution, Front
Royal, Virginia 22630, USA, and Sun Yat-sen
University, P.O. Box 59-159, Kaohsiung 80424,
Taiwan.

References

Agoramoorthy, G. 1994. An update on the long-
term field research on red howler monkeys,
Alouatta seniculus, at Hato Masaguaral,
Venezuela. Neotropical Primates, 2(3): 7-9.
Agoramoorthy, G. and Rudran, R. 1992. Adoption
in free-ranging red howler monkeys (Alouatta
seniculus) in Venezuela. Primates, 33: 551-555.
Agoramoorthy, G. and Rudran, R. 1993. Male
dispersal among free-ranging red howler
monkeys (Alouatta seniculus) in Venezuela.
Folia Primatol., 61: 92-96.


Agoramoorthy, G. and Rudran, R. 1994. Field
application of Telazol (Tiletamine hydrochloride
and Zolazepam hydrochloride) to immobilize
wild red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus) in
Venezuela. J.Wildl.Diseases, 30(3): 417-420.
Altmann, J. 1974. Observational study of
behaviour: sampling methods. Behaviour, 69:
227-267.
Crissey, S. Edwards, M., Oftedal, 0. and Rudran,
R. 1989. Fiber levels in natural versus artificial
diets fed to red howler monkeys (Alouatta
seniculus): Paper presented at Dr Scholl
Conference on the Nutrition of Captive Wild
Animals, 1989.
Crockett, C.M. 1984. Emigration by female red
howler monkeys and the case for female
competition. In: Female Primates: Studies by
Women Primatologists, M. F. Small (ed.),
pp. 159-173. Alan R. Liss, Inc., New York.
Drubbel, R.V. and Gautier, J.-P. 1993. On the
occurrence of nocturnal and diurnal loud calls,
differing in structure and duration in red
howlers (Alouatta seniculus) of French Guyana.
Folia Primatol., 60: 195-209.
Rudran, R. 1979. The demography and social
mobility of a red howler (Alouatta seniculus)
population in Venezuela. In: Vertebrate Ecology
in the Northern Neotropics, J.F.Eisenberg (ed.),
pp.107-126. Smithsonian Institution Press,
Washington, D.C.
Troth, R.G. 1979. Vegetational types on a ranch in
the central llanos of Venezuela. In: Vertebrate
Ecology in the Northern Neotropics, J. F.
Eisenberg (ed.), pp.107-126. Smithsonian
Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Wolfheim, J. 1983. Primates of the World:
Distribution, Abundance, and Conservation.
University of Washington Press, Seattle.


SPECIES OU SUBESPiCIES EM
CALLITHRIX9

A alocaqAo dos taxa de Callithrix (Callitrichidae) A
categoria de esp6cies ou subesp6cies tern sido
objeto de controversial nos 61ltimos vinte anos
(Hershkovitz, 1977; Coimbra-Filho & Mittermeier,
1981; Mittermeier et al., 1988, 1992; Vivo, 1991;
Rylands et al., 1993). Acredito que boa parte desta
controversial tern sido gerada por uma
nin compreensilo dos principios taxonomicos
evolutivos relacionados A esta question. Nesta nota
esbogo a visio corrente, adotada por boa parte dos
sistematas, para o reconhecimento dos taxa ao
nivel especifico e subespecifico. Ao mesmo tempo,
procuro mostrar que a polemica sobre os taxa de
Callithrix jA esta resolvida, pelo menos atid que


Page 10


Neotropical Primates 3(l), Alfarch 1995






Page 11 Neotropical Primates 3(1,), March 1995


novos fatos sobre a existEncia e dinimica de
possiveis zonas de hibridaq5o entire as linhagens
destes sagtiis se tornem conhecidas.

Nio 6 objetivo. desta nota rever a extensa
bibliografia sobre conceitos de esp6cies, o que salo
subesp6cies e muito menos a teoria e pratica
taxon8mica relacionadas ao seu reconhecimento.
No entanto, apresento de maneira resumida, o
estado da arte em relaqio a estes conceitos e o que
parece ser consenso entire a maioria dos sistematas.
Antes da revoluqao Danviniana, a categoria
especifica, assim como todas as otras categories
taxon6micas, era apenas um artefato de
classificaqio em um mundo de entidades nao
transmutiveis. Corn o estabelecimento do fato da
evoluqAo a partir de Darwin (1859), a categoria
"esp6cie" continuous a refletir a necessidade pratica
de classificar organismos, mas tambdm assumiu o
significado de representaqilo das unidades
evolutivas, sendo considerada uma entidade real da
natureza, corn todas as outras categories
taxon6micas sendo, at6 certo ponto, arbitrArias. 0
conceito de esp6cie mais amplamente utilizado 6 o
de Buffon, popularizado em urma versio modern
por Mayr (1963), que diz que uma esp6cie 6
um agrupamrnto de populaq6es naturais
intercruzantes, reprodutivamente isolados de outros
grupos corn as mesmas caracteristicas. Embora
existam virias critics em relacio a este conceito
(ver Templeton, 1989), este serA aqui utilizado
como uma representaqio da ortodoxia vigente.

Por outro lado, o conceito de raqa geogrAfica ou
subesp6cie tem sido utilizado corn duas finalidades
distintas e freqilentemente contradit6rias. 1) 0
trin8mio tern sido usado como artefato de
classificacio para distinguir subgrupos ou
populaq6es diferenciadas de uma dada esp6cie.
Neste sentido, a categoria infraespecifica 6 uma
maneira de reconhecer e separar formalmente a
variacao geogrAfica de uma espdcie. Dentro deste
context, a subesp6cie 6 uma divisio arbitraria e
subjetiva, sendo que seu reconhecimento ira variar
de um autor para outro. 2) Subesp6cies tern sido
empregadas como entidades taxon6micas
representando subunidades evolutivas corn
caracteristicas pr6prias dentro de unma espdcie.
Neste sentido, tal categoria 6 empregada corn o
intuito de representar acuradamente populaqoes
que por raz5es hist6ricas ou ecol6gicas tornaram-se
diferenciadas, mas que no moment present da
sua hist6ria filogenitica se cruzam livremente.
Neste ponto, vale a pena lembrar que a simples
existencia, real ou potential, de fluxo genico entire
populaq6es diferenciadas, nio significa


automaticamente que estas devam ser consideradas
subesp6cies. Tentarei explicar inelhor este ponto.

Duas situacoes ocorrem freqiientemente ao se
utilizar a categoria subespecifica na taxonomia. Na
primeira (Fig. la) utiliza-se o trinbmio para
designer as pontas de urna variaqao geogrAfica
continue em um dado carter, ignorando que estas
populaqes situadas nos extremos da variaqio estao
ligadas por uma sdrie de populaq6es
intermediArias. Corn esta prAtica, ao invds de
descrever corn maior precisAo as sutis variaq6es
entire as populaq6es de uma dada esp6cie, ocorre
justamente o inverso, mascarando o padrio de
variaqio e dando uma iddia errada do mesmo. Um
corolario desta diviso de um espectro de variaqlo
em parcelas discretas, ditas subesp6cies, coin
fronteiras geogrAficas nitidas e traqos
reconheciveis, 6 a incongruEncia que aparece
quando comparamos um carter corn outro. Em
outras palavras, a divisilo intraespecifica feita corn
base em um determinado carter nio sera a mesma
corn base em outros caracteres. Sendo assim, uma
subesp6cie nio 6 uma esp6cie incipiente e nem uma
descriqlio acurada do fen6meno evolutivo
subjacente A diferenciaqflo entire populaq6es de uma
esp6cie. Isto decorre, em grande parole, da natureza
dinimica dos fen6menos ecol6gicos/gendticos
dentro e entire populaq6es de uma esp6cie,
resultando em alteragqes, no tempo e espago, dos
limits impostos ao se nomear subesp6cies.

Outra situaq~lo frequiente na utilizailo do trinomio
(Fig. lb), ocorre quando duas esp6cies distintas
apresentam sobreposiqao parcial na distribui9io
dos caracteres e sio denominadas subesp6cies,
quando na verdade sio linhagens evolutivas
distintas. Nestas situaq6es, vale lembrar que a
ausencia de fluxo genico entire populaq6es
simpatricas ou parapAtricas diferenciadas 6
evid6ncia de que o process de especiaq~io estA
complete. No entanto, a existencia de fluxo genico
entire estas linhagens niio significa necessariamente
que estas sejam automaticamente consideradas
subesp6cies. Para que esta categoria seja utilizada
como uma representaqio do process evolutivo 6
necessaria a demonstrag o de uma zona de
hibridag io em expansao entire as linhagens. Um
exemplo bem conhecido em mamiferos 6 o caso dos
lobos e coiotes que formal umna zona de
hibridagro estreita. No entanto, ningudm duvida
que estes grandes carnivoros saio unidades
biol6gicas reais e distintas em terms gen6ticos,
evolutivos, na morfologia, ecologia, estrutura social
e comportamento de caqa, e que portanto devam
ser consideradas como esp6cies distintas
(Templeton, 1989).


Neotropical Primates 3(l), March 1995


Page 11








formas do leste brasileiro, sugerem diferenQas na
la ecologia, e bionomia destas linhagens. Aldm disso,
existem diferengas significativas na dentigao entire
as formas do grupo jacchus (Natori e Shigehara,
1992) e estudos que venho conduzindo sobre a
diferenciaqao craniana destes sagais indicam uma
heterogeneidade na morfologia do crAnio. Isto
sugere a ocupaqlo de zonas adaptativas pr6ximas,
A mas distintas, por cada linhagem de saguiis.


A B


Figura 1. Duas situaq6es freqilentes no emprego da
categoria subespecifica: la) Em um carAter
qualquer apresentando variacqo geografica, os
extremos da distribuiqco sao nomeados
arbitrariamente como subespdcies (A e B). lb)
Duas linhagens evolutivas independents
apresentam sobreposiqio parcial em um
determinado carter, sendo nomeadas como
subesp6cies (A e B).

Tendo esbocado acima o que acredito ser consenso
entire grande parte dos sistematas evolutivos atuais,
voltemos ao caso do genero Callithrix. Todos os
taxa deste genero podem ser distinguidos por
caracteres de pelagem e coloraialo, o que parece ser
um padrlo geral para toda familiar Callitrichidae.
Al6m disso, embora exista variagao geogrAfica
nestes caracteres em algumas esp6cies, a variaqio
entire os taxa e sempre de natureza descontinua
(Vivo, 1991). Boa parte das esp6cies sao
largamente alopAtricas, corn zonas de contato de
distribuicAo entire os pares de especies. Existem
registros de algumas localidades onde ocorrem
hibridos entire as especies do leste brasileiro (grupo
jacchus) (Coimbra-Filho et al., 1993). Estas, no
entanto, sao em nfimero reduzido e restritas as
bordas da distribuigiao dos pares de espdcies, nao
send suficientes na maioria dos casos para definir
zonas de hibridagilo, com exceqio de C.jacchus e
C.penicillata (v. Alonso et al., 1987). Mesmo no
caso destas duas esp6cies, o cinturio de hibridagAo
parece ser estreito e restrito a uma finica Area, o
Rec6ncavo Baiano, onde a modificaqao antr6pica 6
evidence (Alonso et al., 1987). Estudos sobre a
ecologia e bionomia das vArias especies de sagiUis
sao escassos, corn algumas delas ainda
praticamente semr informaq6es. No entanto, as
informaq6es disponiveis, particularmente para as


Dada a breve discussao acima e tudo que se
conhece sobre a biologia destes saguiis, nao vejo
como, nem porque, qualquer das formas nominais
de Callithrix devam ser consideradas como
subesp6cies (v. Avila Pires, 1969; Coimbra-Filho e
Mittermeier, 1973; Hershkovitz, 1977; Mittermeier
e Coimbra-Filho, 1981; Mittermeier et al., 1988;
Rylands et al., 1993). Embora tenha utilizado aqui
o conceito de Mayr (1963), vale ressaltar que o
emprego de outros conceitos de esp6cie (Simpson,
1962; Van Valen, 1976; Templeton, 1989)
resultaria nas mesmas conclus6es. Ate -que
informaq6es precisas sobre a existencia e dinimica
de possiveis zonas de hibridacao entire as formas de
Callithrix estejam disponiveis, a revislo detalhada
de Vivo (1991) corn o arranjo taxonomico ali
proposto, continue sendo a melhor aproximaqao As
entidades biol6gicas reais na natureza. Desde que
este arranjo taxonomico reflete tanto as unidades
evolutivas de Callithrix como tambdm a finalidade
prAtica de se classificar os organismos, sugiro que
se ponha uma pedra sobre esta pol8mica. Esta me
parece mais urma falsa questao a atravancar o
avanqo do nosso conhecimento cientifico sobre os
sagiiis do que propriamente o resultado de novos
fatos que levassem a reconsiderar o status
especifico destas linhagens.

Agradecimentos: Aos doutores MArio de Vivo e
Rui Cerqueira por vArias conversas sobre esp6cies e
especiaqao, que ajudaram a former meu
pensamento sobre o assunto. A Lena Geise, Rui
Cerqueira, Hector SeuAnez e Fernando Fernandez
pela leitura e corregAo do manuscrito e ao Andrd
Mantovani pelo desenho da figure. Ao Conselho
Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e
Tecnol6gico (CNPq), Fundagao de Amparo a
Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Faperj),
Fundagao Universitaria Jose Bonifficio (Fujb) e ao
Conselho de Ensino para,.Graduados (CEPG/
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro).

Gabriel Marroig, Departamento de Gendtica,
Institute de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Rio
de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68011, 21944-970 Rio de
Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.


Page 12


Neotropical Primates 3(l), Allarch 1995






Page 13 Neotropical Primates 30), March 1995


Referencias

Alonsp, C., Faria, D. S. Langguth, A. e Santee,
D.P. 1987. Variaqio da pelagem na Area de
intergradaqAo entire Callithrix jacchus e
Callithrix penicillata. Rev. Brasil. Biol., 47(4):
465-470.
Avila Pires, F.D. 1969. Taxonomia e zoogeografia
do genero Callithrix Erxleben, 1777 (Primates,
Callithricidae). Rev. Brasil. Biol., 29(1): 49-64.
Coimbra-Filho, A.F. e Mittermeier, R.A. 1973.
New data on the taxonomy of the Brazilian
marmosets of the genus Callithrix Erxleben,
1977. Folia Primatol., 20: 241-264.
Coimbra-Filho, A.F., Pissinatti, A. e Rylands, A.B.
1993. Experimental multiple hybridism and
natural hybrids among Callithrix species from
eastern Brazil. In: Marmosets and Tamarins:
Systematics, Behaviour, and Ecology, A. B.
Rylands (ed.), pp.95-120. Oxford University
Press, Oxford.
Hershkovitz, P. 1977. Living New World Monkeys,
Part 1. (Platyrrhini), With an Introduction to
Primates. Chicago University Press, Chicago.
Mayr, E. 1963. Animal Species and Evolution.
Belknap Press of Harvard University Press,
Cambridge.
Mittermeier, R.A. e Coimbra-Filho, A.F. 1981.
Systematics: species and subspecies. In: Ecology
and Behavior of Neotropical Prinates, Vol.1, A.
F. Coimbra-Filho e R. A. Mittermeier (eds.),
pp.29-109. Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, Rio
de Janeiro.
Mittermeier, R.A., Rylands, A.B. e Coimbra-Filho,
A.F. 1988. Systematics: species and subspecies -
an update. In: Ecology and Behavior of
Neotropical Primates, Vol.2, R.A.Mittermeier,
A. B. Rylands, A. F. Coimbra-Filho e G. A. B. da
Fonseca (eds.), pp.13-75. World Wildlife Fund,
Washington, D.C.
Mittermeier, R.A., Schwarz, M. e Ayres, J.M.
1982. A new species of marmoset, genus
Callithrix Erxleben, 1977 (Callitrichidae,
Primates) from the Rio Mauds region, state of
Amazonas, Central Brazilian Amazonia.
Goeldiana Zoologia, (14): 1-17.
Natori, M. e Shigehara, N. 1992. Interspecific
differences in lower dentition among eastern
Brazilian marmosets. J.Mammal., 73(3): 668-
671.
Rylands, A.B., Coimbra-Filho, A.F. e Mittermeier,
R.A. 1993. Systematics, geographic distribution,
and some notes on the conservation status of the
Callitrichidae. In: Marmosets and Tamarins:
Systematics, Behaviour, and Ecology,
A.B.Rylands (ed.), pp. 11-77. Oxford University
Press, Oxford.


Simpson, G.G. 1962. Principles of Animal
Taxonomy. Columbia University Press, New
York.
Templeton, A. The meaning of species and
speciation: a genetic perspective. In: Speciation
and Its Consequences, D.Otte e J.A.Endler (eds.),
pp.3-27. Sinuaer Associates, New York.
Van Valen, L. 1976. Ecological species,
multispecies, and oaks. Taxon, 25: 233-239.
Vivo, M. de 1991. Taxonomia de Callithrix
Erxleben, 1977 (Callitrichidae, Primates).
Fundagqo Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte.


A POLE BRIDGE TO AVOID PRIMATE
ROAD KILLS

Introduction

Habitat fragmentation has become one of the most
serious problems for wildlife conservation. In many
parts of the world where human activities have
been intense, a good example being the state of So
Paulo, Brazil, natural habitats such as forests have
become scarce and are mainly comprised of small,
isolated patches, with animals lacking the
possibility of migrating from one fragment to
another. The population viability of a species is not
solely dependent on its size, but also on the
patchiness of the existing habitats where it occurs
and on the movement of individuals between
habitable patches. In the extreme case,
discontinuous habitats may result in the total
impossibility of natural migration among local
populations (Valladares-Padua, 1993). Habitat or
population fragmentation creates small, isolated
sub-populations, which enhances the probability of
their extinction due to genetic, demographic and
environmental forces acting within patches (Soul6,
1980; Ralls and Ballou, 1983). Even if the sub-
populations survive, isolation itself can cause
genetic drift, leading to genetic divergence and
consequent speciation (Franklin, 1980; Otte and
Endler, 1989).

Among many proposed solutions to fragmentation,
the most widely discussed has been the creation of
forest corridors (Harris, 1984). Although very
appealing, there are situations where corridors are
no longer entirely feasible due to the distance
between the fragments. In many cases, they would
need to cross properties belonging to several
owners, who may not always be willing to
collaborate. They would also fail to solve the
problems of roads, nowadays a huge threat to
wildlife.


Neotropical Printates 3(l), 11arch 1995


Page 13






Neotropical Primates 3(V, March 199S Page 14


Threats of Roads to Wildlife

The negative effect of roads on wildlife has been
widely discussed in the literature (Adams and Geis,
1983; Day, 1990). A road is not simply an obstacle
which animals have to cross every so often, it is
part of their habitat, to be used whenever
necessary. The consequence is a massive quantity
of traffic road kills. To illustrate the size of the
problem, the estimated number of vertebrates run
over by vehicles in the United States is one million
each day (Lalo, 1987). In the Netherlands alone,
800,000 birds and mammals are killed per year on
highways (Van der Zande et al., 1980).

Although there are no statistics for this important
wildlife threat in Brazil, it is evident that roads
have a considerable negative impact on local
faunas. During 89 days of field work at the Morro
do Diabo State Park in the west of the state of Sao
Paulo, we collected 24 vertebrates killed on the
highway that crosses this Park from east to west.
The average is thus of approximately one road
death every four days. Among the victims, we
observed marsupials, ungulates, rodents, felids, and
primates such as capuchins and howler monkeys,
and, in September 1994, a black lion tamarin..

Primates, being territorial and canopy forest
dwellers, are significantly affected by roads.
Evidently, the problem becomes even more serious
when it affects endangered species. We observed
black lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysopygus),
one of the world's most endangered species of
primates, crossing roads both at the Morro do
Diabo State Park and at the Fazenda Rio Claro
(Duratex S.A.), Lengois Paulista, also in the state
of Sao Paulo. J.Dietz has observed golden lion
tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) crossing a dirt
road at the Pogo das Antas Biological Reserve, Rio
de Janeiro (J.Dietz, pers. comm.). Likewise,
Brazilian bare-faced tamarins (Saguinus bicolor
bicolor) have been seen crossing a road on
numerous ocassions in the university campus in
Manaus, Amazonas (J.S.REgo, pers. comm.).

A Simple and Effective Solution

We have been conducting a long term study of the
primate community of the Fazenda Rio Claro.
During the first seven days of field research at this
site, we observed one of our L.chrysopygus study
groups crossing a service road three times. Because
this was a road used mainly by the company's
vehicles, we were able to discuss the matter with
the farm's administrators and explain our concerns
of possible road kills and what this would represent


to such a critically endangered species. We
proposed the construction of a pole bridge placed
exactly over the locale the animals were crossing.
The bridge was immediately built using round
wooden poles, stretched above the road at a height
of 6 m (Fig. 1). As soon as it was assembled, black
lion tamarins and capuchins (Cebus apella) began
crossing the bridge, travelling back and forth,
reintegrating their home range once again. This
simple alternative has undoubtedly reduced quite
considerably the possibilities of these animals
being run over, and in the case of the lion
tamarins, contributing to the protection of one of
the most endangered species in the world. From its
installation, in the middle of August 1991, to the
end of 1994, two groups of black lion tamarins and
a large group of capuchins have been recorded
(incidentally) using the bridge on at least 40
ocassions. We believe that these primate groups
use the bridge constantly, probably daily.

Our conclusion is that if other options are
available, primates will avoid using the ground as a
way to pass from one area to another within their
fragmented range. Simple and creative solutions
such as the construction of pole bridges or even
rope bridges (which still need to be tested on a long
term basis) should be sought whenever a situation
of threat is found in the field.

Acknowledgements

We thank the Duratex Company for supporting our
research with the "Projeto Primatas", and in
particular the members of its technical committee


,~ d <-8 irts -
ST Pole BridQ


I tua Dirt Road

Natural Forest


5 rts

Nr For

Natural Forest


Figure 1. A simplified illustration of the pole
bridge at the Rio Claro farm of Duratex S.A.,
Len96is Paulista, Sao Paulo.


Page 14


Neotropical Printates 3(l), March. 1995






Page 15 Neotropical Primates 3(1), A'farch 1995


who have shown great enthusiasm to new
conservation ideas. We also thank IPls staff for
helping with data collection and technical
assistance. We are grateful to many organizations
for their support of the Black Lion Tamarin Project
through the years: the Forestry Institute of Sio
Paulo (IF), the Secretaria do Meio Ambiente
(SMA), SAo Paulo, The Brazilian Institute for the
Environment (Ibama), the International Committee
for the Conservation and Management of the Black
Lion Tamarin, The Lion Tamarins of Brazil Fund,
Apenheul Zoo, Holland, the Canadian Embassy in
Brazil, Conservation International (CI), the
Fanwood Foundation, Fundaqio 0 Boticario de
Protegio a Natureza, the Jersey Wildlife
Preservation Trust (JWPT), U.S. Fish and Wildlife
Service, the Whitley Animal Preservation Trust,
the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), Wildlife
Preservation Trust International (WPTI), and the
World Wildlife Fund (WWF).

Claudio Valladares-Padua, Laury Cullen Jr. and
Suzana Padua, IPE Instituto de Projetos e
Pesquisas Ecol6gicas, Av. dos OperArios, 587,
13416-460 Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil

References

Adams, L.W. and Geis, A. 1983. Effects of roads
on small mammals. J. App. Ecol., 20: 403-415.
Day, D. 1990. Car-deer collisions. South Dakota
Conservation Digest, 57(2): 8-11.
Franklin, I. R. 1980. Evolutionary changes in
small populations. In: Conservation Biology: An
Evolutionary Ecological Perspective. eds. M.
E. Sould and B. A. Wilcox (eds.), pp. 135-149.
Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, MA.
Harris, L. 1984. The Fragmented Forest.
University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Lalo, J. 1987. The problem of road-kill. American
Forests, (September/October): 50-52, 72.
Otte, D. and Endler, J. A. 1989. Speciation and its
Consequences. Sinauer Associates, Inc.,
Sunderland, MA.
Ralls, K., and Ballou, J. 1983. Extinctions: lessons
from zoos. In: Genetics and Conservation, C. M.
Schdnewald-Cox, S. M. Chambers, B. MacBryde
and L. Thomas (eds.), pp.164-184. The
Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company,
Menlo Park, CA.
Sould, M. E. 1980. Thresholds for survival:
maintaining fitness and evolutionary potential.
In: Conservation Biology: An Evolutionary -
Ecological Perspective., M. E. Soul6 and B. A.
Wilcox (eds.), pp. 151-169. Sinauer Associates,
Inc., Sunderland, MA.


Valladares-Padua, C. 1993. The Ecology, Behavior
and Conservation of the Black Lion Tamarin.
Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. University of
Florida, Gainesville. 178 pp.
Van der Zande, A.N., ter Keurs, W.J. and van der
Weijen, W.J. 1980. The impact of roads on the
densities of four bird species in an open field
habitat evidence of a long distance effect. Biol.
Conserv., 18: 299-321




News


CAPTIVE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS FOR
NEW WORLD PRIMATES

Primates are among the most popular species
exhibited in zoological parks worldwide. Some
species are hardy and have long histories in
captivity. Others are more difficult to obtain or
maintain, and, as a result, rarely seen in zoos.
Properly exhibited, the educational value of many
species is very significant and is often the sole
opportunity for people living in North America,
Europe, and elsewhere to observe these animals in
naturalistic settings.

Regardless of their abundance in nature or the
species' ease of husbandry, many species are
declining in numbers within their natural range
while simultaneously becoming more difficult to
export from the wild. Given this growing situation,
zoos and zoo associations in many regions outside
Central and South America are developing
programs to manage better those species already
present in their collections. These programs
frequently have several levels of management,
depending on the conservation needs of the species,
number of original wild born ancestors (founders)
present in the current population, the number and
size of captive populations, and the amount of cage
"space" available to maintain the species. In order
to minimize competition for space with less needy
species, several zoo organizations have developed
Taxon Advisory Groups or TAGs to evaluate better
which species of New World primates should be
maintained within their region. Other species with
lesser conservation needs and extant captive
populations are reduced or eliminated following
the decision that captive breeding programs are
less urgent.


Neotropical Primates 3(l), Afarch 1995


Page 15





Neotropical Primates 3(1), March 1995


The following itemization lists which taxa are
being managed by zoos in North America, Europe,
and Australasia, and the location of the respective
programs.

New World Primate TAG of the American Zoo
and Aquarium Association (AZA). Co-Chairs,
Anne Baker, Burnet Park Zoo, 500 Burnet Park
Drive, Syracuse, NY 13204, USA, and Andrew
Baker, Curator of Primates, Philadelphia
Zoological Gardens, 3400 West Girard Avenue,
Philadelphia, PA 19104-1196, USA.

Species Survival Plan (SSP) Coordinators
Saguinus oedipus Anne Savage, Roger
Williams Park Zoo
Leontopithecus rosalia Devra Kleiman,
National Zoo
Callimico goeldii Anne Baker, Burnet
Park Zoo
Saguinus leucopus SSP recommended,
September 1994


Regional Studbooks
Cebuella pygmaea

Callithrix geoffroyi

Saguinus oedipus


Saguinus geoffroyi


Saguinus imperator

Saguinus bicolor

Leontopithecus rosalia


Leontopithecus
chrysomelas

Callimico goeldii


Callicebus spp.

Aotus spp.

Pithecia pithecia

Alouatta caraya

Lagothrix lagotricha
A teles geoffroyi


Deborah Baker, Folson
Children's Zoo
Beth Bahner,
Philadelphia Zoo
Gerald Aquilina,
Buffalo Zoological
Gardens
Alan Sironen,
Cleveland Metroparks
Zoo
Lee Nesler, Pittsburgh
Zoo
Andrew Baker,
Philadelphia Zoo
Jonathan Ballou,
National Zoological
Park
Jonathan Ballou,
National Zoological
Park
Mark Warneke,
Chicago Zoological
Park
Ken Kaemmerer, Dallas
Zoo
Robin Brockett, Zoo
Atlanta
Anthony Vecchio,
Roger Williams Zoo
Barbara Baker,
Pittsburgh Zoo
Vacant
Kathryn Pingry,
Brookfield Zoo


Ateles fusciceps

Ateles belzebuth

A teles paniscus

Callithrix kuhli


Kristi Flanders,
Sedgewick County Zoo
Kristi Flanders,
Sedgewick County Zoo
Kristi Flanders,
Sedgewick County Zoo
Petition pending, Jeffrey
French, University of
Nebraska at Omaha


International Studbooks
Saguinus oedipus William Langbauer,
Pittsburgh Zoo
Saguinus imperator Lee Nesler, Pittsburgh
Zoo
Leontopithecus rosalia Jonathan Ballou,
National Zoo
Callimnico goeldii Mark Warneke,
Chicago Zoological
Park
Alouatta caraya Barbara Baker,
Pittsburgh Zoo


European Endangered Species Programme
(EEP) Co-chairs Miranda Stevenson, Royal
Zoological Society of Scotland, Edinburgh Zoo,
Murrayfield, Edinburgh EH12 6TS, Scotland, UK,
and Christian Schmidt, Zoologischer Garten der
Stadt Frankfurt am Main, Alfred-Blehm-Platz 16,
D6000 Frankfurt am Main 1, Germany. This
-listing was drawn up with the help of J. Bryan
Carroll, Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust.

EEP Coordinators
Saguinus oedipus Michael Schropel,
Magdeburg Zoo
Saguinus imperator Eric Bairrilo Ruivo,
Lisbon Zoo
Leontopithecus rosalia Ron Willis, Dublin Zoo
Callimico goeldii Gustl Anzenberger,
University of Zuirich
Pithecia pithecia Sian Waters, Bristol Zoo
Lagothrix lagotricha Wim Mager, Apenheul
Zoo
Regional Studbooks
Cebuella pygmaea Wim Mager, Apenheul
Zoo
Leontopithecus Helga de Bois, Antwerp
chrysomelas Zoo
Callimico goeldii Gustl Anzenberger,
University of Zurich
International Studbooks
Cebuella pygmaea Wim Mager, Apenheul
Zoo
Leontopithecus Helga de Bois, Antwerp
chrysomelas Zoo


Page 16




Neotropical Primates 3(1), March 1995


Primate TAG of the Federation of Zoological
Gardens of Great Britain and Ireland, Chairman
Neil Bemment, Paignton Zoological and Botanical
Gardens, Totnes Road, Paignton TQ4 7EU, Devon,
England. Chairperson for Cebidae, Sian Waters,
Clifton and West of England Zoological Society,
Clifton, Bristol BS8 3HA, UK. Chairperson for
Callitrichidae, J. Bryan Carroll, Jersey Wildlife
Preservation Trust, Les Augres Manor, Trinity,
Jersey JE3 5BF, Channel Islands, GB. Note: Any
British Isles management program is automatically
integrated with that of the EEP whenever it exists.
This listing was drawn up with the help of J. Bryan
Carroll, Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust.


Management Programs
Callithrix argentata

Callithrix geoffroyi

Saguinus labiatus

Saguinus oedipus

Saguinus imperator

Leontopithecus rosalia
Aotus spp.

Cebus capucinus

Pithecia pithecia

Ateles spp.


Stewart Muir, Shaldon
Zoo
Jersey Wildlife
Preservation Trust
Miranda Stevenson,
Edinburgh Zoo
Robert Colley, Penscynor
Wildlife Park
Robert Colley, Penscynor
Willdife Park
Ron Willis, Dublin Zoo
John Pullen, Zoological
Society of London
David Hughes, Glasgow
Zoo
Paddy Vaughan, Fota
Wildlife Park
Neil Bemment, Paignton
Zoo


Regional Studbooks
Cebuella pygmaea John Stronge, Belfast Zoo
Pithecia pithecia Paddy Vaughan, Fota
Wildlife Park
Ateles spp. Neil Bemment, Paignton
Zoo

Primate TAG of the Australasian Species
Management Program (ASMP). Convener
Amanda S. Embury, Royal Melbourne Zoological
Gardens, P.O. Box 74, Parkville, Victoria 3052,
Australia.

Management Programs and Regional Studbooks
Saguinus oedipus Amanda Embury,
Melbourne Zoo
Leontopithecus rosalia Amanda Embury,
Melbourne Zoo
Saimiri spp. Vacant
Ateles spp. Vacant


Other International Programs

International Studbooks
Leontopithecus Claudio Valladares-
chrysopygus Padua, University of
Brasilia, Brasilia
Cebus apella Alcides Pissinatti, Centro
xanthosternos de Primatologia do Rio de
Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro.

Alan Shoemaker, Riverbanks Zoological Park,
P.O.Box 1060, Columbia, SC 29202, USA.

References

Anonymous. 1993. Primate TAGs. Neotropical
Primates l(1):9-10.
Baker, A. (ed.). .1994. New World Primate
Regional Collection Plan for North America. 1st
Edition. Prepared by the New World Primate
Taxon Advisory Group of the American
Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums,
September 1994. Burnet Park Zoo, Syracuse.
Bemment, N. (ed.). 1994. Primate Taxon Advisory
Group for the British Isles. Reports from the
Meeting held at Bristol Zoo, 7-8 April, 1994.
Joint Management and Species Committee,
Federation of Zoological Gardens of Great
Britain and Ireland.
Brouwer, K., Stevenson, M. and Schmidt, C.R.
1993. European Endangered Species Programme
(EEP) Primate TAG. Neotropical Primates, 1(4):
17-18.
Embury, A.S. 1993. Primate TAG of the
Australasian Species Management Plan.
Neotropical Primates, 1(3): 3-5.
Embury, A.S. (ed.). 1995. Primate T.A.G. News:
Australasian Species Management Program,
January 1995, (9): 1. Melbourne Zoo, Victoria.



STATUS, DISTRIBUTION AND VIABILITY
OF WILD POPULATIONS OF ATELES
BELZEBUTH MARGIN TUS

The white-whiskered spider monkey, Ateles
belzebuth marginatus, the subspecies endemic to
Brazilian Amazon, occurs in the state of Pani,
between the Rios Tapaj6s and possibly Tocantins:
an area of numerous cattle-ranches, proposals for
the construction of hydroelectric dams, and intense
mining activities.

A.b.marginatus is the most endangered and least
known subspecies of Brazilian spider monkeys.


Page 17







Neotropical Primates 3(1), March 199S Page 18


Even its geographic distribution is controversial
and requires investigation, most especially since
the results of a short investigation which indicated
the possibility of a misunderstanding regarding the
origin of the holotype which extends its range to
the east of the Rio Xingli, doubling what might be
its real distribution (Martins et al., 1988).

At the end of 1994 a project was set up, funded by
the Fundo Nacional do AMeio Ambiente, to assess
the status and viability of the wild populations.
Field surveys will be carried out in 1995, in several
localities along the Rios Tapaj6s and Tocantins,
investigating in particular the southern limits of its
distribution, and examining genetic viability, and
such population parameters as density, group size,
composition, and primary sex ratio. Special
attention will be given to the populations
inhabiting the Tapaj6s National Forest, the only
protected area for the subspecies.

The project will be supervised by Andrea Nunes
(Departamento de Zoologia, Museu Paraense
Emilio Goeldi, Beldm), and carried out with the
help of a team of master's students of the
Universidade Federal do Par,!. It is part of a
cooperation agreement between scientists of the
Zoology Department of the Goeldi Museum and
the Genetics Department of the Federal University
of ParA.

Andrea Nunes, Departamento de Zoologia, Museu
Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Caixa Postal 399, 66040-
170 Bel6m, Para, Brazil.

Reference

Martins, E.S., Ayres, J.M. and do Valle, M.B.R.
1988. On the status of Ateles belzebuth
marginatus with notes on other primates of the
Iriri river basin. Primate Conservation, (9): 87-
91.


DUETTING IN THE TITI MONKEY
CALLICEBUS CUPREUS

A detailed study of duetting in wild titi monkeys
was carried out by Robinson (1977, 1979a, 1979b,
1981). However, recordings of captive animals
permit a more detailed analysis, and in the case of
newly-formed pairs, to follow the development of
the duet. In this study duets were recorded and
analysed from 13 animals (seven females and six
males) held at the California Regional Primate
Research Center, Davis. Five of these animals had
been paired with two different mates, yielding a


total of nine different pair combinations. Two pair
combinations involved close relatives, one father-
daughter pair and one mother-son. One of the pairs
studied was together for only one day, while for
another duets were available from three different
time periods. The study addressed three main
topics: 1) In-depth analysis of the duet structure; 2)
Comparison of intra- versus inter-pair variability
(i.e., are duets pair-specific?); and 3) If ducts are
pair-specific, how do they develop over time?

A Callicebus cupreus duet1 is composed of
successive sequences sung by both mates. Both
female and male sequences are composed of two
consecutive and comparably structured parts:
bellow-and-pumping and pant-and-pumping,
respectively. A duet is composed of alternately
uttered male and female sequences, that is while
the male is singing bellow-and-pumping, the
female is singing pant-and-pumping and vice-
versa.

Bellows, the loudest calls in a duet, are individual-
specific. Individuals of the same sex housed in the
same or adjacent cages always differ regarding
their bellow frequencies. Statistical comparison of
sequence lengths (the longest repeated units within
a duct) across individuals yielded no significant
differences, i.e., sequence lengths seem to be
species-specific. However, when comparing two
pair combinations in which one mate remained
constant, differences were found only if the male
was changed. If the male changed, the length of
male and female sequences altered, whereas this
was not the case if the female changed. The
difference resulted from new individual part
lengths.

Callicebus duets are pair-specific in so far as
individuals contribute specific part lengths and
bellow frequencies. As a corollary, the pair-
specificity of duets results from a summing of
individual attributes of the two mates rather than
from an adaptation of one mate to the other or from
mutual adaptation. The length of the duet parts
seem to be determined by the female rather than
the male, and the transition between the two parts
is most probably induced by the females.

To investigate the development of ducts, first those
of two newly-formed pairs were compared with
duets of established pairs. These first ducts showed

I Systematics according to P. Hershkovitz (Titis, New World
monkeys of the genus Callicebus (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): a
preliminary taxonomic review, Fieldiana, Zoologia (new series),
55: 1-109, 1990). It follows from this that the animals investigated
by Robinson (1979a, 1979b, 1981) and in the present study
belong to the same species.


Neolropical Primates 3(l), March 1995


Page 18






Page 19 Neotropical Pri,,,ates 3(1), Marc/i 199S


a greater variability in sequence and part lengths
than those of established pairs. At the beginning of
a new partnership, duets do not follow a very
regular pattern. Contrary to some earlier reports,
however, in captivity new pairs do perform duets
from the first day.

This text is a summary of a diploma thesis
supervised by Dr G. Anzenberger and Prof. R. D.
Martin. The thesis (in German) may be requested
from Alexandra Mtiller at the address below. A full
publication in English is in preparation.

Alexandra Miiller, Anthropologisches Institut,
Universitiit Zfirich-Irchel, Winterthurerstrasse 190,
CH-8057 Zuirich, Switzerland.

References

Miller, A. 1994. Duettieren bei Springaffen
(Callicebus cupreus). Diploma thesis, University
of Zurich, Zurich.
Robinson, J.G. 1977. Vocal Regulation of Spacing
in the Titi Monkey Callicebus moloch. Ph.D.
dissertation, University of North Carolina,
Chapel Hill.
Robinson, J.G. 1979a. An analysis of the
organization of vocal communication in the titi
monkey Callicebus moloch. Z.Tierpsychol., 49:
381-403.
Robinson, J.G. 1979b. Vocal regulation of use of
space by groups of titi monkeys Callicebus
moloch. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 5: 1-15.
Robinson, J.G. 1981. Vocal regulation of inter- and
intragroup spacing during boundary encounters
in the titi monkey, Callicebus moloch. Primates,
22: 161-172.


MURIQUIS IN THE ITATIAIA NATIONAL
PARK, BRAZIL


'L BRAZIL ,'

'\ ...- ,

National


The Itatiaia National
Park, situated in the
Atlantic forest of the
Serra da Mantiqueira in
south-east Brazil, was
created in 1937, and as
such the first protected
area in Brazil. Although
quite frequently reported
to occur in the Park over


the last decades (see, for example, Aguirre, 1971;
Coimbra-Filho, 1972), concrete evidence for the
presence of the muriqui, Brachyteles arachnoides,
has been lacking and cast doubts on its continued
survival there (Fonseca, 1994). Visiting the Park in


January 1995, I found a complete skeleton of B.
arachnoides in the possession of Prof. Elio
Gouvda. The animal had been electrocuted while
crossing transmission lines near to the Park's
headquarters. This happened within the last five
years, although due to the brevity of my visit I was
unable to ascertain the exact date, which is,
however, recorded in the Park's registers. Adding
to the list of new localities reported by Martuscelli
et al. (Neotropical Primates, 2(2): 12-15, 1994),
confirmation of the continued existence of a
population of muriquis in this Park of 30,000 ha,
which is also contiguous with other forested areas,
indicates yet another and significant stronghold for
this threatened species.

Ibsen de Gusmino CAmara, Fundaqiio Brasileira
para a Conservagiio da Natureza (FBCN), Rua
Miranda Valverde 103, 22281-000 Rio de Janeiro,
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

References

Aguirre, A.C. 1971. 0 mono, Brachyteles
arachnoides (E.Geoffroy). SiluagVo Alual da
Espicie. Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, Rio de
Janeiro. 53pp.
Coimbra-Filho, A.F. 1972. Mamiferos ameagados
de extingiao no Brasil. In: Espicies da Fauna
Brasileira Ameagadas de Extingiao, pp. 13-98.
Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, Rio Janeiro.
Fonseca, G.A.B. da. 1994. Mono-carvoeiro,
muriqui, Brachyteles arachnoides (E.Geoffroy,
1806). In: Livro Vermelho dos Alamiferos
Brasileiros Ameagados de Extingdo, G.A.B. da
Fonseca, A.B. Rylands, C.M.R. Costa, R.B.
Machado and Y.L.R. Leite (eds.), pp.191-199.
Fundaqiio Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte.


GERALD M. DURRELL, O.B.E, D.Sc.
1925-1995

Gerald Durrell, naturalist, writer, and founder of
the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust (JWPT),
died on the 30th January 1995. Few people have
accomplished so much during their lifetime for the
conservation of wildlife. The Jersey Zoo he set up
in 1959 led the way for the establishment of the
new role of zoos not only as breeding centres for
the preservation of endangered species but as
institutions which are deeply committed to the
conservation of wildlife, through research,
international training programmes, and in situ
projects for reintroduction and the preservation of
the habitat of the species under their care. Gerald
Durrell argued that no species are difficult to


Page 19


Neotropical Primates 3(l), Alarch 1995






Neo tropical Prj,,,ates 3(1), March 1995 Page 20


breed, it just being a matter of providing the right
diets and captive environments. The research
carried out at the Zoo has resulted in innumerable
successes in establishing healthy breeding
populations of otherwise rare and "difficult"
animals, and has led the way for the organisation
and scientific management of captive populations
worldwide.

The International Training Programme for
conservationists, zoo biologists and vets, most
particularly from "habitat countries", was
established in 1978, and the International Training
Centre at Les Noyers was inaugurated by the Trust
Patron, The Princess Royal, in 1984.
Approximately 430 people from 72 countries have
participated in the programme, involving residency
and courses of up to 16 weeks; 94 of these came
from Latin America, and 32
from Brazil. In 1989, the "On behalf of t
University of Canterbury, would ke to expire
Kent, U.K., created the the death of the fou
Durrell Institute of reservation Trust,
Conservation and Ecology, made a lasting
providing a follow-up showing that zo
course to the JWPT o and
Training Programme, and between in situ and
leading to a Diploma in bridged. He was on
Endangered Species tie conservation
Management. the v onservation


Wildlife Preservation Trust
International (WPTI), based
in Philadelphia, and
Wildlife Preservation Trust
Canada (WPTC), initiatives
of Gerald Durrell, and
which with JWPT comprise
the Wildlife Preservation
Trusts, were set up in 1971


thereby changed
community for ev
tremendous debt of
(Extract from a le
Director, Jersey Wild
David McDowell, D
Conservation Union


February 1995.)


and 1985, respectively, to raise funds and organize
financing for in situ conservation programmes,
aimed at following up the investment in trainees by
helping them to put into action in their r na
countries the lessons they had learned in ,ersry.
This has resulted in the support of numerous
research and conservation projects in Latin
America, amongst them, and which are focused
on Neotropical primates, are a major survey of
endangered arboreal mammals in the Atlantic
forest of south-east Brazil (carried out by Ilmar B.
Santos and William L. R. Oliver), support for the
Rio de Janeiro Primate Centre (CPRJ), including
the construction of an enclosure for muriquis,
Brachyteles (Adelmar F. Coimbra-Filho), the
reintroduction and research programme for the
golden lion tamnarin (Devra Kleiman and Benjamin


Beck), Rio de Janeiro, the Black Lion Tamarin
Project (including research, management and
environmental education) in Silo Paulo, Brazil
(Claudio Valladares-Padua and Suzana Padua), the
environmental education programme for the
golden-headed lion tamarin (Maria Cristina Alves)
and research on its ecology and behavior (James
Dietz) in southern Bahia, Brazil, the Black-Faced
Lion Tamarin Project (Vanessa Persson and Maria
Lucia Lorini), support for wildlife surveys in Belize
and the Belize Zoo and Tropical Education Center
(Sharon Matola), a major primate survey in
Mexico (Ernesto Rodriguez-Luna), and genetic
studies of muriqui populations (Thomas
Struhsaker). Illustrating well JWPT's philosophy of
combining ex situ and in situ conservation
programmes and its deep involvement in the
conservation of the animals it breeds, is the leading


he whole IUCN family, I
ss our sympathy to you on
under of the Jersey Wildlife
Gerald Durrell. Gerald
impact on conservation,
os can be conservation
that the traditional tension
ex situ conservation can be
e of the few visionaries in
movement who did what
eight was impossible, and
the nature of the zoo
er. We all owe him a
gratitude".
'tter to Jeremy Mallinson,
(life Preservation Trust, from
director General, The World
(IUCN), Gland, Switzerland. 6


the J'WPT Council),


role that it has played,
especially through its
Director, Jeremy J. C.
Mallinson, in the
establishment of the
international committees for
the breeding and
conservation of lion
tamarins, and their support
for research, management,
and education projects in
their natural ranges. JWPT
has carried out fund-raising
activities specifically for
lion tamarins, notably in
such events as the annual
visits to Jersey by the
Pavilion Opera Company,
organized by Anne Binney
(Chairman of the JWPT
Landscape Committee) and
Marcus Binney (member of
which raised money for a


survey of the distribution of the golden-headed lion
tamarin in 1992. In 1994, they raised 16,000 for
the conservation of the gentle lemur, Hfapalemur,
and in 1995 performances by the Pavilion Opera
Company will be providing money for the
redevelopment of the facilities for marmosets and
tamarins. The Lion Tamarins of Brazil Fund,
aimed particularly at raising money from zoos
participating in the lion tamarin breeding
programs, was launched by Gerald Durrell in 1992,
and has already provided for field projects for all
four species. (see Neotropical Primates, 1(3):7-9,
and 2(suppl.), December 1994).

The Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust is pioneer
and dynamic, always improving and moving


Neotropical Primates 3(l), 1farch 1995


Page 20






Page 21 Neotropical Primates 3(1), A'Iarch J99S


forward, and as such reflects the personality of its
founder, who has left a legacy for which the zoo
community, conservationists, the natural world,
and Mankind will always be indebted.

Gerald Durrell A Personal Perspective by
Jeremy Mallinson

Like hundreds and thousands, if not millions of
other people, I first came across Gerald Durrell
through his writings.

It was 1958 and I had returned home to Jersey after
spending some two and a half years in Southern
Central Africa when my brother Miles, gave me
'My Family and Other Animals' as my Christmas
present along with a note informing me that
Gerald Durrell was about to set up a zoo in the
Island of Jersey, and that he was just the type of
person that I would be sure to get on well with.

Little did I consider at the time how such a book
would influence my future and sow the seeds of a
lifetime dedication. Whereas Gerald Durrell had
been bitten by what he referred to as 'zoomania' at
the tender age of two and had decided by the time
he was six that he wanted a zoo of his own, I, by
comparison, was a late convert to recognizing the
real significance of a modern zoo in terms of
conservation, education, and research.

Nevertheless, inspired by his humour and by his
writings about so many different aspects of the
animal kingdom and the places that he had visited,
I decided to take a temporary summer job at the
newly formed Jersey Zoological Park on 1st May
1959. What I had not bargained for was thfit it
would not take long for me to fall under Gerald
Durrell's charismatic spell and become one of his
most ardent disciples.

It was Gerald Durrell's arrival on the island in June
1959, along with his collection of animals from
Argentina, that provided us with our first
encounter. It was indeed a 'treasure chest' of exotic
animals with which he arrived at the zoo, ranging
from a wealth of colourful parrots, black-necked
and coscoroba swans, seriema birds and a giant
anteater, to Claudius the tapir, all about which he
subsequently wrote in one of his best-selling books
- 'The Whispering Land'.

It was after this first meeting with Gerald that I
soon came to appreciate the creative vision which
led him, in the early summer of 1963, to create the
Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust.


It was Gerald Durrell who helped make the term
'conservation' a household word; he who promoted
the development of captive breeding programmes -
thereby changing the role of the modern zoo; he
who saw the need to establish an international
training centre to train conservationists from
developing countries. It was Gerald Durrell who,
through his 37 best-selling books, 12 television
series and numerous appearances on individual
radio and television programmes, had such a
profound influence on people of all ages and in all
walks of life.

Those of us who had the privilege of knowing him
personally could not help but be greatly inspired by
his integrity, wisdom, and breadth of vision. On
the one hand he could be uproariously funny,
saying the most amusing and sometimes
outrageous things at the most unexpected time. Yet
at other times he could be deeply profound about
his conservation ambitions for the future.

Gerald was also a naturalist of the old school with
a desire to know about all living things and to pass
on his knowledge and passion to everyone who was
willing to listen and learn. Similar to a large piece
of blotting paper, he absorbed everything he was
exposed to and which he encountered. But it is the
great personal warmth which he generated
whenever one was with him for which he will be
particularly remembered. Such a quality
represented his personal hallmark and will
undoubtedly help to sustain all those who knew
him for many years to come. And although such a
phenomenal person is irreplaceable, the Trust
could not be more fortunate to have Lee Durrell a
kindred spirit full of the curiosity of the field
naturalist and the sharp, precise intelligence of the
trained scientist to carry on the Durrell name
with her appointment as the Trust's Honorary
Director.

As the Trust's Patron, the Princess Royal, recorded
in her foreword to Gerald Durrell's book 'The
Stationary Ark', written about the Trust's work; 'It
beholds us all as guardians of the living world
which we have inherited to see that we pass on this
priceless inheritance to the next generations.'
Gerald Durrell, a pioneer in conservation both by
words and action, and by his remarkable abilities to
delight and inspire an international audience,
accomplished a great deal in his lifetime as a
guardian of the living world. He sowed many seeds
of awareness to millions of fans and left the world
with a much greater understanding of the
importance of living in harmony with the fauna


Neotropical Primates 3(1), March 1995


Page 21






Neotropical Primates 3(1,), March 1995 Page 22


and flora that we have inherited and with which we
share our planet.

His death, at the General Hospital on the afternoon
of Monday 30th January, was not simply a loss for
Jersey, or even the British Isles, but for the whole
world. Apart from being my alter-pater of 36 years
standing and one my finest friends, the
international conservation community has
undoubtedly lost one of its most significant
ambassadors and the animal world its Francis of
Assisi.

Reprinted with kind permission from 'Jersey Now'
Magazine, Spring 1995, pp.8-9.

Jeremy J. C. Mallinson, Director, Jersey Wildlife
Preservation Trust, Les Augres Manor, Trinity,
Jersey JE3 5BP, Channel Islands, GB.


CURso ECOLOGIA DA FLORESTA
AMAZONICA

Ecologia da Floresta Amaz6nica, um curso
intensive em nivel de p6s-graduaqfo, serA
realizado no period de 15 de julho a 16 de agosto
de 1995. 0 curso visa a capacitaqilo de
pesquisadores para investigar e interpreter, em
vArios niveis, fen6menos ecol6gicos em contextos
naturais e prever efeitos de intervenqio humana,
para fins de manejo e conservaqAo. 0 curso segue o
modelo da discipline de p6s-graduaqao ministrada
pela Organizacqo para Estudos Tropicais (OET),
"Biologia Tropical: uma Abordagem Ecol6gica",
que com sua forte 8nfase na problemitica da
biodiversidade tropical, al6m de ser um grande
sucesso como iniciaqio A pesquisa de campo,
ajudou a catalisar o mundialmente reconhecido
program de conservaqio, em conjunto corn
ecoturismo, atualmente praticado na Costa Rica. 0
Curso serA oferecido pela OET (um cons6rcio de
55 instituiq6es norteamericanas e centre-
americanas promovendo cursos de campo em
espanhol e em ingles desde 1962) e os Programas
de Ecologia da Universidade Estadual de Campinas
(UNICAMP) e do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas
da Amazonia (INPA). Estas instituiqces contam
corn a ajuda das infra-estruturas do INPA e do
Projeto Dinamica Biol6gica de Fragmentos
Florestais (PDBFF), da Smithsonian Institution,
que administram estagqes e acampamentos de
pesquisa na regiflo de Manaus.

0 Curso tem como objetivos gerais prover os
seguintes t6picos: 1) a biodiversidade excepcional
dos organismos da Floresta Amaz6nica; 2) a


heterogeneidade de hAbitats dentro das florestas
imidas incluindo as de terra firme, varzea e igap6;
3) a gama de metodologias empregadas para
conduzir pesquisas ecol6gicas no ambiente tropical
nimido; e 4) a aplicaqAo dos metodos e principios
cientificos em situagqes em que o conhecimento
pr6vio e apoio logistico sio minimos. 0 Curso 6
realizado inteiramente no campo. Possui pesquisas
diarias, coin etapas de planejamento, coleta e
analise de dados, e apresentaqilo vespertina dos
resultados. Os alunos compartilham condiqes
simples e rfsticas nas bases principals do INPA
(Reserva Ducke, Estaqilo Experiental de
Silvicultura Tropical, e os barcos) e do PDBFF. 0
curso culmina coin um projeto individual de
pesquisa de oito dias em que cada aluno planeja e
implement um estudo.

Candidates ao Curso de qualquer pais devem
apresentar at6 15 de abril de 1995 (data de
postagem: 1) Ficha de pr6-inscriqiio padrio; 2)
.carta de exposigilo de motives, descrevendo seus
interesses e os motives de participaqilo; 3) curriculo
atualizado; 4) Hist6rico escolar; 5) c6pia de
Diploma de Graduaq~io; 6) duas cartas de
recomendaq~io; 7) esbogos curtos de dois projetos
alternatives para desenvolver num prazo de oito
dias (corn introduqAo, e justificativa, hip6teses a
serem avaliadas, metodologia, referencias e lista de
materials necessarios, indicando aqueles que
podem ser fornecidos pelo pr6prio aluno). 0 Curso
tem 20 vagas. Preferencia 6 dada para alunos no
inicio de p6s-graduaqio em ecologia ou numa Area
relacionada de trabalho nos neotr6picos. Os alunos
aceitos podero se matricular como alunos
especiais no Curso de P6s-Graduaqio da
UNICAMP e receber 5 crdditos (= 225 horas e
atividades) acad8micos. 0 Curso serA realizado em
Portugu8s.

Os Coordenadores do Curso silo: Dr Renato Cintra
(INPA), Dr MArcio Martins (Universidade do
Amazonas) e Dr Claude Gascon (PDBFF). 0 Curso
fornece alimentagio, redes de dormir, alojamento e
transport local enquanto no campo. 0 Curso
tambdm tenta providenciar a cada participate dos
paises neotropicais uma passage area de ida e
volta da cidade da instituigio A qual o aluno esta
vinculado atd Manaus. Durante a discipline, naio
sera permitida a coleta de material biol6gico sem
as devidas autorizag6es (e.g., INPA, PDBFF,
Ibama). A divulgaqiio do resultado da selegqlo
ocorrerA na segunda quinzena de maio de 1995.

Para maiores informaq6es: Dr Claude Gascon,
PDBFF/INPA, Coordenag~o de Pesquisas em
Ecologia, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da


Areotropical Primates 3(l), March 1995


Page 22






Page 23 Neotropical Primates 3(1), A'farch 1995


Amaz6nia (INPA), Caixa Postal 478, 69011-970
Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil. Tel: (092) 1148, Fax:
(092) 642-2050.


PRIMATE CONSERVATION INCORPORATED

Primate Conservation Incorporated (PCI) is a new
non-profit making organization established to fund
field research in support of wild populations of
primates. PCI will grant seed monies for graduate
students and primatologists to study rare and
endangered primates. Priority will be given to
projects that study the least known and most
endangered species in their natural habitat. The
results of this original research will be directed to
larger organizations which can in turn provide the
resources necessary to implement conservation
action plans to save primate species and their
habitats. PCI is open to all appropriate projects but
is presently particularly interested in funding
studies of guenons, tarsiers and Douc langurs. For
further information: Primate Conservation, Inc.,
Box 1707, East Hampton, New York 11937, USA.
From IPS Newsletter, 21(3), December 1994, p.2.



Primate Societies



E rT EUROPEAN FEDERATION
FOR PRIMATOLOGY

The European Federation for Primatology (EFP)
was founded on December 17, 1993, in Strasbourg,
France, during a meeting hosted by Nicolas
Herrenschmidt and chaired by Bertrand L. Deputte.
Two preliminary meetings, organized during the
XIVth IPS Congress of the International
Primatological Society in Strasbourg (August
1992), had demonstrated the need to develop more
ties between the European Primatologists, and
most particularly, with colleagues from eastern
Europe. The EFP is constituted as a network which
includes the five European Primatological
Societies, and four groups of primatologists from
countries with a limited number of primatologists
but no national society. Each Society and Group
affiliated has a representative in the Federation.
Members of the affiliated Societies and Groups are,
de facto, members of the EFP.

The purpose of the EFP is as follows: 1) to
coordinate actions related to primatology between


the different European Societies including, a)
circulation of information between the different
national primatological societies and primatology
groups, b) meetings of the different national
societies, specialist groups, along with events such
as workshops, and c) scientific activities, research,
and educational projects relevant to primatology;
2) to promote rational management of captive
primates and to make primate subjects and study
sites available to a maximum number of students
and researchers; 3) to provide the Council of
Europe and other European institutions with
experts on all issues related to primatology; 4) to
participate, through the Council of Europe, in
decisions relevant to primate trade and primate
captive breeding; and 5) to promote the
establishment of national primatological societies,
national groups, and European specialist groups of
primatologists.

The Council of the Federation meets each year at
the annual meeting of one of the affiliated Societies
or Groups. The 1994 Meeting was held in
Montpellier, France, and the 1995 Meeting will be
hosted by the Primatological Group in Prague,
Czech Republic.

Several important steps have already been taken.
The international scientific publication Folia
Primatologica has been established as the Official
Journal of the European Federation for
Primatology. The EFP participated in the European
Union Working Party for the "Preparation of the
Multilateral Consultation of the Parties to the
European Convention on the Protection of
Vertebrate Animals Used in Experiments or Other
Scientific Purposes". This meeting was held at the
European Council in Strasbourg in September
1994. The EFP will be sponsoring two scientific
meetings in 1995: "Primate Ontogeny", an
International Symposium organized by the Czech
Group in Trest, 10-15 September 1995; and an
International Conference and Workshop on the
Biology and Conservation of Prosimians, to be held
at the North of England Zoological Society,
Chester, UK, 14-16 September 1995.

The composition of the Council of the European
Federation for Primatology is currently as follows:
President Bertrand L. Deputte, Socidtd
Francophone de Primatologie, CNRS/URA 373,
University de Rennes I, France; General Secretary
R6gine Vercauteren Drubbel, Groupe Beige de
Primatologie, Universitd Libre de Bruxelles,
Belgium; Officers: Fernando Colmenares,
Asociaci6n Espafiola de Primatologia, Universidad
Computense, Madrid; Robin Crompton, Primate


Neotropical Primates 3(l), Afarch 1995


Page 23






Neotropical Primates 3(1), A'Iarch 1995 Page 24


Society of Great Britain, University of Liverpool,
UK; Jan A. R. A. M. van Hooff, Dutch Group of
Primatologists, Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht, The
Netherlands; Robert D.Martin, Swiss Group of
Primatologists, Universitiat Zfirich-Irchel, Zuirich,
Switzerland; Paul Winkler, Gesselschaft fur
Primatologie, Universitait G6ttingen, Germany;
Marina VancatovA, Primatological Group in Czech
Republic, Research Institute for Pharmacy and
Biochemistry, Konarovice, Czech Republic;
Elisabetta Visalberghi, Associazione Primatologica
Italiana, Istituto di Psicologia del C.N.R., Roma,
Italy.

Some European countries already have links with
Latin American primatological research groups,
and the EFP hopes to establish official contacts
with South American primatological societies in
the future.

Bertrand L. Deputte, President, European
Federation for Primatology, Lab. Primatologie-
Biologie 6volutive, CNRS URA 373, Universitd de
Rennes I, Station Biologique, 35380 Paimpont,
France.


D _INTERNATIONAL
f 0 ^ PRIMATOLOGICAL
Research SOCIETY
Conservation
The International Primatological Society will be
holding its XVIth Congress from 11-17th July
1996, at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, in
collaboration with the American Society of
Prinmatologists. The organizer is Dr John Hearn,
Director of the Wisconsin Regional Primate
Research Center. IPS is predicting a record
attendance; it will undoubtedly be the best attended
IPS Congress ever. The aims of IPS are to
encourage all areas of nonhuman primatological
scientific research, to facilitate cooperation among
scientists of all nationalities engaged in p .,ia:
research, and to promote the conservative of -til
primate species. Apart from the Congresses, held
every two years (the 1998 Conference will be held
in Madagascar), IPS is also affiliated with the
publication of the International Journal of
Primatology (six issues per volume and available
to members at a substantial discount), and
circulates twice yearly newsletters to its members.
A Conservation Committee promotes and
coordinates the Society's programs dealing with
conservation and habitat protection, and, likewise,
a Captive Care and Breeding Committee plays an
active role in acquiring and disseminating


information on ethical and welfare issues and on
new technology dealing with captive care and
primate breeding. Regional Secretaries represent
the special concerns of the Society and its members
in different geographical areas; Africa, Asia,
Europe and the Americas. The current officers of
IPS are as follows: President Alison B. Jolly
(Princeton University, New Jersey); Secretary
General Sally Mendoza (University of California,
Davis); Treasurer Rheinhold Hutz (University of
Wisconsin, Milwaukee); Vice President for
Conservation Jeanne Altmann (Chicago Zoological
Society, Brookfield); Vice President for Captive
Care Hilary 0. Box (University of Reading,
Reading); Vice President for Membership Dorothy
Fragaszy (University of Georgia, Athens);
Regional Secretary for Asia Jaka Gurmaya Kankun
(UNPAD, Indonesia); Regional Secretary for
Africa Nicolas Mwanda Ndunda (CREF, Zaire);
Regional Secretary for the Americas Ernesto
Rodriguez-Luna (Universidad Veracruzana,
Mexico); Regional Secretary for Europe R6gine
Vercauteren Drubbel (European Federation for
Primatology, Brussels). We encourage all primate
researchers and those working actively for primate
conservation and welfare to become members of
the Society. Contact: Dorothy M.Fragaszy, IPS
Vice President for Membership, Psychology
Department, University of Georgia, Athens,
Georgia 30602, USA. Fax: (706) 542-3275, e-mail
cmspsy37@uga.cc.uga.edu.


VII CONGRESS BRASILEIRO DE
PRIMATOLOGIA

0 VII Congresso Brasileiro de
Primatologia seri realizada nos
dias 23-28 de julho de 1995 na
Universidade Federal do Rio
Grande do Norte, Natal, Rio
Grande do Norte. A
programaqio do Congresso incluiri sess6es de
comunicaq6es coordenadas, mini-cursos, paineis,
conferencias e mesas-redondas. 0 prazo para envio
dos resumes foi adiado para o dia 28 de abril de
1995. HaverA um espaqo reservado ia exposiqiio de
fotografias de e sobre primatas para os
pesquisadores que participarem do event. Contato:
Secretaria do VII Congresso Brasileiro de
Primatologia, Universidade Federal do Grande do
Norte, Centro de Biociencias, Setor de
Psicobiologia, Caixa Postal 1511, 59072-970
Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. Tel: 084 206
1147, Fax: 084 231 9587, e-mail:
fximenes@ncc.ufm.br.


Neotropical Primates 3(l), Allarch 1995


Page 24






Page 25 Afeotropical Primates 3(79, A larch 1995


Recent Publications


SPECIAL BILINGUAL EDITION OF
PRIMA TE REPORT- PRIMATES OF PERU

A bilingual edition (English/Spanish) of the
Primate Report (40) on the Primates of Peru,
by Rolando Aquino and Filomeno
Encarnaci6n, both of the Universidad
Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, and
C.I.IVITA Research Station, Iquitos, Peru,
provides an up-to-date overview of the extant
primates of Peru. Following short
introductory chapters on the geography of
Peru, tropical forests and their fauna, and on
general aspects of platyrrhine systematics, the
following information is provided for each
Peruvian primate species: common and local
names, external characteristics; general
information (e.g., habitat, diet, group size,
and social structure), status, and distribution.
An extensive list of references provides an
overview of primatological field research
carried out on Peruvian primates.

La edici6n bilingue (inglds/espariol) de la
revista Primate Report (40) present una
sinopsis actual de los primates del Peri,
compilado por Rolando Aquino y Filomeno
Encarnaci6n, de la Universidad Nacional
Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, y C.I. IVITA,
Iquitos. Los breves capitulos de la
introducci6n tratan de la geografia del Per6,
de los bosques tropicales y su fauna, y de
aspects generals de la sistemitica de los
platirrinos. Despuds se present las siguientes
informaciones para cada especie de primate
de Peri: nombres comunes y locales, rasgos
caracteristicos, informaciones generals
(p.ej., habitat, dieta, tamaiio de grupos,
estructura social), situaci6n actual, y
distribuci6n. La lista de referencias
bibliogrificas es muy extensa y cubre todas
las publicaciones actuales sobre
investigaciones primatol6gicas en el Peru.

Primates of Peru Los Primates del Peru, by
Rolando Aquino and Filomeno Encarnaci6n.
Primate Report, (40), 1994, 127pp., 14 maps,
19 figs, 4 plates. Price US$12.00 or DM18.00
(including postage and packing, delivery by
surface mail). Available from: Erich Goltze,
GmbH, Postfach 1944, 37009 G6ttingen,
Germany. Fax: +49 551-5067622.


LA CIENCIA Y EL HOMBRE SPECIAL
EDITION ON NEOTROPICAL PRIMATES

La Ciencia y el Hombre is a quarterly scientific
journal of the Universidad Vcracruzana, Xalapa,
Veracruz, Mexico, edited by Marco Tulio
Aguilera. Number 18, September-December
1994, was dedicated to articles on Neotropical
Primates. Price: N$10.00 M.N. Annual
subscription: N$30.00 M.N. Overseas: USA,
Canada and Latin America US$35.00; Europe
US$60.00. Further information: La Ciencia y el
Hombre, Apartado Postal 97, Xalapa, Veracruz,
Mexico. The articles included arc as follows:
Contrcras, J.M. El descubrimiento hist6rico de
los p6ngidos: el Pongo, pp.7-21; Serio Silva,
J.C. Primates: primeros studios de campo,
pp.23-29; Romero, C.A.G. Consideraciones
acerca de los programs de conservaci6n en los
zool6gicos: el caso de los primates, pp.31-35;
Wong, G. and Carillo, E. Manejo y conservaci6n
del mono tili (Saimiri oerstedii citrinellus) en
Costa Rica, pp.37-42; Estrada, A. and Coates-
Estrada, R. La contracci6n y fragmentaci6n de
las selvas y las poblaciones de primates
silvestres: el caso de Los Tuxllas, Veracruz,
pp.45-70; Espinosa., D.C. Monos aulladores
(Alouatta palliata): evaluaci6n clinic de dos
grupos capturados en hlibitat fragmentado,
pp.71-87; Mayagoitia, L. and Flores-Treviflo,
A.A. Conducta sociosexual: el hostigamiento a
la conduct sexual en macacos cola de muii6n,
pp.89-103; Dominguez-Doininguez, L.E.
Preferencias alimenticias y comportamiento
agonistico de Alouatta palliata on condiciones
de cautiverio, pp.105-125; Sainchez, E.C.
Descripci6n del comportamiento de un grupo de
mono aullador, pp.127-149; Cortis-Ortiz, L.,
Rodriguez-Luna, E., Martinez-Morales, M. and
SAnchez, E.C. ParAimetros demogrnficos y
reproductivos de un grupo de monos aulladores
(Alouatta palliata) en semilibertad, pp. 151-
166.


ORYX- SPECIAL ISSUE ON WILDLIFE USE
IN THE NEOTROPICS

Number I of Volume 29 (January 1995) of Orvx,
the Journal of the Fauna and Flora Preservation
Society (FFPS), was given over to a series of
articles on wildlife use in the Neotropics. The
Guest Editors were Kent H. Redford (The
Nature Conservancy, Virginia) and Richard E.
Bodmer (University of Florida, Gainesville).
The articles included are as follows: Novaro,


Page 25


Neotropical Primates 3(l), 11arch 1995







Neotropical Primates 3(1), A'Iarch 1995 Page 26


A.J. Sustainability of harvest of culpeo foxes in
Patagonia. pp.18-22; Bodnier, R.E. Priorities
for the conservation of mammals in the
Peruvian Amazon, pp.23-28; Stearman, A.M.
and Redford, K.H. Game management and
cultural survival: the Yuqui Ethnodevclopnent
Project in lowland Bolivia, pp.29-34; SuArez, E.,
Stallings, J. and Suiarez, L. Small-mammal
hunting by two ethnic groups in north-western
Ecuador, pp.35-42; Raiez-Luna, E.F. Hunting
large primates and conservation of the
Neotropical rain forests, pp.43-48; Jorgensen,
J.P. Maya subsistence hunters in Quintana Roo,
Mexico, pp.49-57; Alvard, M. Shotguns and
sustainable hunting in the Neotropics, pp.58-66.


BOOKS

Aotus, The Owl Monkey, edited by J. F. Baer,
R.E. Weller and I. Kakoma. Academic Press, San
Diego, 1994, 380pp. ISBN 0-12-072405-7. Price
US$74.95. This book includes the following
chapters: Ford, S.M. Taxonomy and distribution of
the owl monkey, pp. 1-57; Aquino. R. and
Encarnaci6n, F. Owl monkey populations in Latin
America: field work and conservation, pp.59-95;
Wright, P.C. The behavior and ecology of the owl
monkey, pp.97-112; Dixson, A.F. Reproductive
biology of the owl monkey, pp.113-132; Baer, J.F.
Husbandry and medical management of the owl
monkey, pp.133-164; Malaga, C.A. Handrearing
the owl monkey, pp.165-176; Weller, R.E.
Infectious and noninfectious diseases of owl
monkeys, pp. 177-215; Collins, W.E. The owl
monkey as a model for malaria, pp.217-244; King,
N.W. The owl monkey in oncogenic virus research,
pp. 245-261; Ogden, T.E. Opthalmologic research
in the owl monkey, pp.263-286; Allman, J., Jeo, R.
and Sereno, M. The functional organization of
visual cortex in owl monkeys, pp.287-320; Kaas,
J.H. The organization of sensory and motor cortex
in owl monkeys, pp.321-351; Tantalcan, M. and
Gozalo, A. Parasites of the Aotus monkey, pp. 353-
374. Available from: Academic Press, 6277 Sea
Harbor Drive, Orlando, Florida 32887, USA. Tel:
800 545 2522, Fax: 800 874 6418.

Motherhood in Human and Nonhuman
Primates: Biological and Social
Determinants, edited by Christopher Pryce,
Robert Martin and David Skuse, S.Karger, Basel,
viii + 180pp, 1995. Hard cover. To be published in
1st quarter 1995. Normal price: US$120,00. Pre-
publication price: US$78.50. The Proceedings of
the 3rd Schultz-Beigert Symposium at Kartause


Ittingen, 26 September 1 October 1994.
Following an introduction by C.R.Pryce,
"Determinants of motherhood in human and
nonhuman primates: a biosocial model", the 16
chapters are divided into three sections. Section 1.
Mother-Infant Behavior as a Life-History Strategy.
Phylogenetic aspects of primate reproduction: the
context of advanced maternal behavior -
R.D.Martin; The evolution and adaptive
significance of hominid maternal behavior -
R.Foley; Ecological and social correlates of
maternal expenditure on infant growth in
Haplorhine primates C. Ross and A. Maclarnon;
The influence of ecology and energetic on primate
mothers and infants P.Lee and J.Bowman;
Maternal styles in Old World primates; their
adaptive significance M. Gomendio. Section 2.
Causes and Correlates of Mother-Infiant Behavior.
Neurochemical changes accompanying the
reproductive process: their significance for
maternal care in primates and other mammals -
B.Keverne; Prepartum sex steroid hormones and
infant care, abuse and neglect in primiparous
marmoset mothers C. R. Pryce; Experiential and
hormonal correlates of care-giving in female
rhesus monkeys S.Holman and R.Goy;
Experience and hormones; their significance for
infant directed behavior in captive gorillas N.
Bahr; Sensory and hormonal control of maternal
behavior in rat and human mothers A. Fleming;
Meternal personality, marital quality, social
support and infant temperament: their significance
for infant-mother attachment in human families -
J. Belsky; Risk factors for child abuse and neglect
in human parents D. Halp6rin; Depression and
human motherhood: the significance of biology,
psychodynamics and socioculture J. Cox. Section
3. Consequences of AMaternal Well-Being and
Behavior for Infant Development. Maternal
exposure to prenatal stress: its significance for
infant behavior in pigtail macaques J. Worlein;
The significance of social attachment in primate
infants: the caregiver-infant relationship and
volition G. Kraemer; Failure-to-thrive in human
infants: the significance of maternal well-being
and behavior. Available from: S.Karger AG,
Alschwilerstrasse 10, P.O.Box, CH-4009 Basel,
Switzerland, Fax: (061) 306 1234, or S.Karger
Publishers, Inc., 26 West Avon Road, P.O.Box
529, Farmington, CT 06085, USA. Postage and
handling free with prepayment.

New World Primate Regional Collection
Plan for North America. 1st Edition, prepared
by the New World Primate Taxon Advisory Group
(TAG) of the American Association of Zoological
Parks and Aquariums, September 1994, and edited


Neotropical Primates 3(l), AIarch 1995


Page 26






Page 27 Neotropical Primates 3(1), A'farch 1995


by Anne Baker, Burnet Park Zoo, Syracuse, NY.
20pp. + 3 apendices. This Regional Collection Plan
identifies captive breeding priorities for
Neotropical primates in the United States, thereby
providing direction to institutions as they develop
their collection plans. Establishing priorities on a
regional basis helps to insure that captive habitat is
used to support sufficient numbers of specified taxa
for the maintenance of viable populations. Contact:
Anne Baker, Burnet Park Zoo, 1 Conservation
Place, Syracuse, New York 13204, USA.

Amazonian Ethnobotanical Dictionary, by
James Alan Duke and Rodolfo Vasquez, CRC
Press, Inc., Boca Raton, 1994. Available from CRC
Press, Inc., 2000 Corporate Blvd., N.W., Boca
Raton, Florida 33431, USA.


BIBLIOGRAPHIES

Metazoan Endoparasites in Nonhuman
Primates: a Selective Bibliography, 1987-
September 1994, by M.McLean, 24pp. Price
US$10.00. Available from: Primate Information
Center, Regional Primate Research Center SJ-50,
University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195,
USA.

Audiophysiology of Nonhuman Primates:
a Selective Bibliography, 1952-November
1994, by M.McLean, llpp. Price US$6.50.
Available from: Primate Information Center,
Regional Primate Research Center SJ-50,
University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195,
USA.


ARTICLES

Abbott, D.H. 1992. Reproduction in female
marmoset monkeys, Callithrix jacchus. In:
Reproductive Biology of South American
Vertebrates, W. C. Hamlett (ed.), pp.245-261.
Springer-Verlag, New York.
Adams, L.J., Clapp, N., Collman, I.R. and Fuhr, J.
1994. Colon diseases in the cotton-top tamarin:
evaluating a primate model for ulcerative colitis
and colorectal carcinoma in humans. Agents
Actions, 41(Spec. conf. iss.): C243-C245.
Agoramoorthy, G. and Rudran, R. 1995.
Infanticide by adult and subadult males in free-
ranging red howler monkeys, Alouatta seniculus,
in Venezuela. Ethology, 99: 75-88.


Alexander, J.P. 1994. Sexual dimorphism in
notharctid primates. Folio Primatol., 63: 59-62.
Alves, G., Seuinez, H.N. and Fanning, T. 1994.
Alpha satellite DNA in neotropical primates
(Platyrrhini). Chromosoma, 103(4): 262-267.
Anderson, J.R. and Henneman, M.-C. 1994.
Solutions to a tool-use problem in a pair of Cebus
apella. Manmmnalia, 58(3): 351-361.
Anonymous. 1994. More golden lion tamarins
discovered. Lab. Prim. Newsl., 33(4): 14.
Anonymous. 1994. Species profile: lion tamarins,
Brazil. On the Edge, (50): 18-19.
Avila-Pires, F. D. de 1994. MNimiferos descritos do
estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Rev. Brasil.
Biol.., 54(3): 367-384.
Baker, A.J. 1994. Bicolored tamarins born at the
Philadelphia Zoo. AZA Conmmunique, (October):
18.
Baker, A. 1994. Variation in parental care systems
of mammals and the impact on zoo breeding
programs. Zoo. Biol., 13(5):413-421.
Bedford, M.E. 1994. Mechanoreceptors in knee
joint ligaments of two callitrichid primate species
(Callithrix jacchus and Saguinus oedipus) and
the cat (Felis domesticus). Diss. Abstr. Int.,
B55(6): 2053. (Order #AAD94-27464, University
Microfilm, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI 48106, USA).
Biben, M.. 1994. Eye contact and vocal
responsiveness in squirrel monkey infants and
their caregivers. Early Development and
Parenting, 3(1): 29-36.
Bicca-Marques, J.C. 1994. PadrAo de utilizaqiio de
uma ilha de mata por Alouatta caraya (Primates:
Cebidae). Rev. Brasil. Biol., 54(1):161-171.
Bicca-Marques, J.C. and Calegaro-Marques, C.
1994. Feeding behavior of the black howler
monkey (Alouatta caraya) in a seminatural
forest. Acta Biologica Leopoldensia, 16(2): 69-
84.
Boinski, S., Noon, C., Stans, S., Samnudio, R.,
Sammarco, P. and Hayes, A. 1994. The
behavioral profile and environmental enrichment
of a squirrel monkey colony. Lab. Prim. Newsl.,
33(4): 1-4.
Carlstead, K. and Shepherdson, D. 1994. Effects of
environmental enrichment on reproduction. Zoo
Biol., 13(5): 447-458.
Charles-Dominique, P. 1993. Speciation and co-
evolution: an interpretation of frugivory
phenomena. Vegetatio, 107/108: 75-84.
Chiarello, A.G. 1995. Os reis do barulho. Cidncia
Hoje, 18(107): 70-72.
Clarke, M.R., Zucker, E.L. and Glander, K.E.
1994. Group takeover by a natal male howling
monkey (Alouatta palliata) and associated
disappearance and injuries of immatures.
Primates, 35(4): 435-442.


Page 27


Neotropical Primates 3(l), Alarch 1995







NeotropiCcil Primates 3(1), AlarcI, 1995 Page 28


Clapp, N., Adams, L. and Fuhr, J. 1994.
Pathogenesis of spontaneous idiopathic colitis in
cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus). Agents
Actions, 41(Spec. conf. iss.): C238-C240.
Cole, F.R., Reeder, D.M. and Wilson, D.E. 1994.
A synopsis of distribution patterns and the
conservation of mammal species. JA.ammal.,
75(2): 266-276.
Crook, G. 1994. Primates of the Americas -
Strategies for Conservation and Sustained Use in
Biomedical Research, P. Armnbulo III, F.
Encarnaci6n, J. Estupiffiin, H. Samamin, C. R.
Watson, and R. E. Weller (eds.), Batelle Press,
Columbus. Australian Primnatology, 8(4): 15-16.
(Book review).
Dasgupta, A., Mandal, A., Henke, M., Clapp. N.
and Das K.M. 1994. Cotton-top taniarins with
spontaneous colitis contain circulating antibodies
reactive to human colonic Mr 40k protein, and
autoantigen associated with human ulcerative
colitis (UC). Agents Actions, 41 (Spec. conf. iss.):
C250-C251.
Desmond, T. and Laule, G. 1994. Use of positive
reinforcement training in the management of
species for reintroduction. Zoo Biol., 13(5): 471-
477.
Di Fiore, A. and Rendall, D. 1994. Evolution of
social organization: a reappraisal for primates
using phylogenetic methods. Proc. Nat. Acad.
Sci. U.S.A., 91(21): 9941-9945.
Dixson, A.F. 1993. Sexual selection, sperm
competition and evolution of sperm length. Folia
Primatol., 61(4): 221-227.
Dumas, C. ard Brunet, C. 1994. Object
permanence of capuchin monkeys: a study in of
invisible displacements. Canadian Journal of
Exp. Psychol., 48(3): 341-358. (French with
English summary).
Estrada, A., Coates-Estrada, R., Meritt Jr., D.,
Montiel, S. and Curiel, D. 1993. Patterns of
frugivore species richness and abundance in
forest islands and in agricultural habitats at Los
Tuxtlas, Mexico. Vegetatio, 107/108: 245-257.
Ferrari, S.F. and Rylands, A.B. 1994. Activity
budgets and differential visibility in field studies
of three marmosets (Callithrix spp.). Folia
primatol., 63:78-83.
Fleming, T.H. and Sosa, V.J. 1994. Effects of
nectarivorous and frugivorous mammals on
reproductive success of plants. J.Mafamual., 75(4):
845-851.
Fuhr, J.E., Petersen, M., Clapp, N. and Collman,
I.R. 1994. DNA analysis of colon biopsies from
tanmarins with inflammatory bowel disease.
Agents Actions, 41(Spec. conf. iss.): C252-C253.


German Primate Center DPZ. 1994. Annual
Scientific Report 1993. Primate Report, 39: 1-
149.
German Primate Center DPZ. 1994. The general
development of the Institute. Primate Report, 39:
5-12.
Gingerich, P.D. and Uhen, M.D. 1994. Time of
origin of primates. J. Hum. Evol., 27(5): 443-
445.
Gozalo, A.S., Dagle, G.E., Montoya, E.J. and
Weller, R.E. 1994. Spontaneous colitis cystica
profunda in captive tamarins. J. Aled. Primatol.,
23(5): 309-312.
Guillotin, M., Dubost, G., and Sabatier, D. 1994.
Food choice and food competition among three
major primate species of French Guiana. J. ZooL.,
Lond., 233(3): 551-579.
Harrison, M.L. and Tardif. S.D. 1994. Social
implications of gummivory in marmosets. Am. J.
Phys. Anthropol., 95(4): 399-408.
Hartup, B.K. 1994. Community conservation in
Belize: demography, resource use, and attitudes
of participating landowners. Biol. Conserv.,
69(3): 235-241.
Hatt, J.-M. and Guscetti, F. 1994. A case of
mycobacleriosis in a common marmoset
(Callithrix jacchus). AAZV Ann. Proc., (1994):
241-243.
Hocking, P. 1992. Large Peruvian mammals
unknown to zoology. Crvptozoologv, 11: 38-50.
Horrocks, J. and Baulu, J. 1994. Food competition
between vervets (Cercopilhecus aethiops
sabaeus) and farmers in Barbados: implications
for management. Revue d'Ecologie (Terre et la
Vie), 49(3): 282-294.
Izawa, K. 1994. Group division of wild black-
capped capuchins. Field Studies of New World
Aonkeys, La Macarena, Colombia, 9: 5-14.
Izawa, K. 1994. Social changes within a group of
wild black-capped capuchins, IV. Field Studies of
New World Monkeys, La Macarena, Colombia,
9: 15-21.
Izawa, K. and Lozano M, H. 1994. Social changes
within a group of red howler monkeys, V. Field
Studies of New World Monkeys, La Macarena,
Colombia, 9: 33-39.
Julliot, C. 1994. Predation of a young spider
monkey (Ateles paniscus) by a crested eagle
(MAorphnus guianensis). Folia Primatol., 63: 75-
77.
Jurke, M.H. and Pryce, C.R. 1994. Parental and
infant behaviour during early periods of infant
care in Goeldi's monkey, Callimico goeldii.
Anim. Behav., 48(5): 1095-1112.
Jurke, M.H., Pryce, C.R., Dobeli, M. and Martin,
R.D. 1994. Non-invasive detection and
monitoring of pregnancy and the post-partum


Neotropical Nimates 3(l), A.-farch 1995


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Page 29 Neotropical Primates 3(J), A larch 1995


period in Goeldi's monkey (Callimico goeldii)
using urinary pregnanediol-3-alpha-glucuronide.
Am. J. Primatol., 34(4): 319-331.
Kaumanns, W. 1994. The "quality" of captive
primate populations. Primate Report, 39: 127-
132.
Kay, R.F. 1994. "Giant" tamarin from the Miocene
of Colombia. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 95(3):
333-353.
Kimura, K., Nishimura, A., Izawa, I. and Mejia,
C.A. 1994. Annual changes of rainfall and
temperature in the tropical seasonal forest at La
Macarena Field Station, Colombia. Field Studies
of New World Monkeys, La Macarena,
Colombia, 9: 1-3.
Kleiman, D.G. 1994. Mammalian sociobiology and
zoo breeding programs. Zoo Biol., 13(5): 423-
432.
Kobayashi, M. and Izawa, K. 1994. Seed dormancy
and germination in the herbaceous bambusoid
grasses Pharus latifolius, Ph. parvifolius, and
Streptochaeta spicata from the neotropical
rainforest of La Macarena, Colombia. Field
Studies of New World Monkeys, La Macarena,
Colombia, 9: 41-46.
Kuhn, H.-J. 1994. The German Primate Center
(DPZ) in 1993. Primate Report, 39: 3-4.
Kuroda, S. 1993. Creation of reserves in tropical
forests and researchers. Biology hInternational
(Spec.issue 29): 53-58.
Larsson, K. 1994. The psychobiology of parenting
in mammals. Scandinavian Journal of
Psychology, 35(2): 97-143.
Lehman, S.M. and Robertson, K.L. 1994.
Preliminary survey of Cacajao melanocephalus
melanocephalus in southern Venezuela. Int. J.
Primatol., 15(6): 927-934.
Leigh, S.R. and Jungers, W.L. 1994. A re-
evaluation of subspecific variation and canine
dimorphism in woolly spider monkeys
(Brachyteles arachnoides). Am. J. Phys.
Anthropol., 95(4): 435-442.
Maas, M.C. 1994. Paleoecology in primate
evolution. Evol. Anthropol., 3(1): 6-8.
Montali, R.J. 1994. Diseases of zoo marmosets,
tamarins, and Goeldi's monkeys. AAZV Ann.
Proc., (1994): 237-240.
Niedobitek, G., Agathanggelou, A., Finerty, S.,
Tierney, R., Watkins, P., Jones, E.L., Morgan,
A., Young, L.S. and Rooney, N. 1994. Latent
Epstein-Barr virus infection in cottontop
tamarins: a possible model for Epstein-Barr virus
infection in humans. Am. J. Pathol., 145(4): 969-
978.
Nishimura, A. 1994. Social interaction patterns of
woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha): a
comparison among the atelines. Doshisha


Daigaku Rigogaku Kenkvu Hokoku / Sci. Engrg.
Rev. Doshisha Univ., 35(2): 235-254.
Ohigashi, H. and Koshimizu, K. 1993. Biodiversity
in tropical forest and chemical ecology. Biology
International, (Spec. issue 29): 48-52.
Perry, S. and Rose, L. 1994. Begging and transfer
of coati meat by white-faced capuchin monkeys,
Cebus capucinus. Primates, 35(4): 409-415.
Phillips, K.A., Bernstein, I.S., Dettmer, E.L.,
Devermnann, H. and Powers, M. 1994. Sexual
behavior in brown capuchins (Cebus apella). Int.
J. Primatol., 15(6): 907-917.
Pretzer, D., Ghaiada, J.A. and Rhune, G.M. 1994.
Growth factors (EGF, IGF-I) modulate the
morphological differentiation of adult marmosets
(Callithrix jacchus) Sertoli cells in vitro. J.
Androl., 15(5): 398-409.
Rappold, I. and Erkcrt, H.G. 1994. Re-
entrainment, phase-response and range of
entrainment of circadian rhythms in owl
monkeys (Aotus lemurinus g.) of different age.
Biological Rhythm Research, 25(2): 133-152.
Schneider, M.P.C., Sampaio, M.I. da C.,
Schneider, H., Encarnaci6n, F., Montoya, E.,
Pissinatti, A., Coimbra-Filho, A.F. and Salzano,
F.M. 1994. Comparative study of lactate
dehydrogenase in fifteen genera of New World
monkeys. Rev. Brasil. Genetica, 17(3): 321-329.
Setuinez, H.N., Alves, G. and O'Brien, S.J. 1994.
Gene mapping in the spider monkey (Ateles
paniscus chamek). J. Hered., 85(66): 466-473.
Small, M. 1994. "Juvenile Primates: Life History,
Development, and Behavior" M. E. Pereira et al.
(eds.). Oxford University Press, New York, 1993.
Am. J. Phys. Anthrop., 95(2): 243-244. (Book
review).
Stavisky, R.C. 1994. Socioendocrinology: non-
invasive techniques for monitoring rcpoductive
function in captive and free-ranging primates.
Diss. Abstr. Int., A55(4):1018. Order #AAD94-
24821, University Microfilms, Inc., Ann Arbor,
MI 48106, USA.
Stoner, K.E. 1993. Habitat preferences, foraging
patterns, intestinal parasitic infections, and
diseases in mantled howler monkeys, Alouatta
palliata (Mammalia: Primates: Cebidac), in a
rainforest in northeastern Costa Rica. Diss.
Abstr. Int., B55(5):1734, 1994. (Order #AAD94-
25967, Unversity Microfilms Inc., Ann Arbor,
MI 48106).
Strier, K.B. 1994. Myth of the typical primate.
Yrbk. Phys. Anthropol., 37: 233-271.
Takai, M. 1994. New specimens of Neosaimiri
fields from La Venta, Colombia: a middle
Miocene ancestor of the living squirrel monkeys.
J. Hum. Evol., 27(4): 329-360.


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Neotropical Primates 3(1,), March 1995 Page 30


Teaford, M.F. 1994. Dental microwear and dental
function. Evol. Anthropol., 3(1): 17-30.
Tobi, M. and Clapp, N. 1994. Is the cotton-top
tamarin (Saguinus oedipus) an appropriate model
for human inflammatory bowel disease? Agents
Actions, 41(Spec. conf. iss.): C246-C248.
Tovar, N.V. 1994. Activity patterns of Saguinus
nigricollis hernandezi at the Tinigua National
Park, Colombia. Field Studies of New IVorld
Monkeys, La Macarena, Colombia, 9: 23-31.
Vitale, A. 1994. Individual differences in the
manipulation of a jacket by socially housed tufted
capuchins (Cebus apella). Folia Primiatol., 63:
88-90.
Warren, B.F., Henke, M. and Clapp, N.K. 1994.
Extraintestinal manifestations of cotton-top
tamarin colitis. Agents Actions, 41 (Spec. conf.
iss.): C241-C242.
Waters, S.S. and Caputo, M. 1993. An observation
of paternal care in captive white-throated
capuchins (Cebus capucinus). Ratel, 20(4): 113-
114.
Webley, G.E. and Hearn, J.P. 1994. Embryo-
maternal interactions during the establishment of
pregnancy in primates. Oxford Reviews of
Reproductive Biology, 16: 1-32.
Westergaard, G.C. The subsistence technology of
capuchins. Int. J. PrimatoL., 15(6): 899-906.
Westergaard, G.C. and Suomi, S.J. 1994. Stone-
tool bone-surface modification by monkeys.
Current Anthropology, 35(4): 468-470.
Westergaard, G.C. and Suomi, S.J. 1994. A simple
stone-tool technology in monkeys. J. Hum. Evol.,
27(5): 399-404.
Westergaard, G.C. and Suomi, S.J. 1994.
Asymmetrical manipulation in the use of tools by
tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Folia
Primatol., 63: 96-98.
Woodroffe, R. and Vincent, A. 1994. Mother's
little helpers: patterns of male care in mammals.
Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 9(8): 294-297.


ABSTRACTS

Dixson, A.F. 1995. Neuroendocrinology and sexual
behaviour. Primate Eye, (55): 14.
Hardie, S.M. 1995. Do individuals in mixed-
species groups of tamarins benefit from incerased
foraging efficiency? Primate Eye, (55): 27-28.

In Folia Primatologica, 62(4), 1994:

Byrne, R.W. Cognitive aspects of foraging: food
for thought. p.216.


Dolins, F.L. and Garber, P.A. Tihe use of spatial
cognition and perceptual cues in foraging by
captive cotton-top tamarins (Sagtuinus o. oedipus)
and wild moustached tamarins (Saguinus
mystax), pp.216-217.
Eeley, H. Biodiversity, phylogeny and primate
species area. p.224.
Gautier, J.P. and Gautier-Hion, A. Functioning of
tropical forest ecosystems: the role of primates,
and its significance for conservation. p. 197.
Ludes, E. Introduction of a new female to a group
of Cebus apella, p.203.
Macleod, M. The woolly monkey: another
patrilineal primate? p.228.
Mendes Ponte, A.R. Environmental determinants
of primate abundance in Maracl Island, Roraima,
Brazilian Amazonia. p.230.
Snowdon, C.T. Socio-endocrinology of cotton-top
tamarins. pp.210-211.
Vella, A. Primate population dynamics. p.233.


In European Marmoset Research
Newsletter, (3), December 1994:


Group


Rylands, A.B. The Callitrichidae: a biological
overview. p.1.
Hubrecht, R. Current practice in maintaining
marmosets: results of a U.K. survey. pp. 1-2.
Prycc, C. and Milkowski, N. Integrating the
requirements of marmosets and marmoset
research. p.2.
Dettling, A. and Pryce, C. Physical environment
and its influence on behaviour in captive
common marmosets. p.2.
Heath, M. Improving the marmoset's captive
environment under experimental constraints. p.2.
Vitale, A., Santamaria, F. and Queyras, A.
Response to novel object by socially-housed
common marmosets. pp.2-3.
Carroll, J.B. A comparative summary of the
nutritional adaptations and needs of callitrichids.
p.3.
Robert, N. and Carroll, J.B. Comparative
pathological-clinical aspects in captive
callitrichids. p.3.
Box, H.O. Callitrichid social biology and its
significance for captive management. p.3.
Pryce, C. Evolutionary and comparative biology:
their significance to callitrichids as "biomedical
models". pp.3-4.
Erkert, H. Circadian rhythms in the marmoset:
their significance for fundamental and applied
research. p.4.
Jones, B. Quantitative analysis of marmoset vocal
communication. p.4.


Neotropical Primates 3(l), Alfarch 1995


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Page 3J Neotropical Priniates 3(1,), A larch J995


Buchanan-Smith, H. Toward identification of
sufficient and optimal environments for captive
callitrichids. p.4.
Nievergelt, C. and Pryce, C. Monitoring and
controlling reproduction in captive common
marmosets on the basis of urinary oestrogen
metabolites. p.5.
Hornung, J.-P. Neurotransmission in the
marmnoset. p.5.
Scott, L_ Behavioural conditioning in the
marmoset. p.5.
Schnell, C. The marmoset as a
pharmacological model for cardiovascular
function: repsonses to social and nonsocial
stress events. pp.5-6.
McAnulty, P., Stewart, J.S. and Owen. S.R. The
relative merits of the marmoset in toxicological
testing. p.6.
Lunn, S.F. The relative merits of the marmoset as a
model in reproductive medicine. pp.6-7.
Ferhenbach, A., Einspanier, A. and Hodges,
J.K. Paracrine and autocrine events in the
corpus luteum of the marmoset monkey
(Callithrix jacchus): studies by in vitro
analysis. p.7.
Watkins, P. and Warren, B.F. Primate models of
inflammatory bowel disease. p.7.



IMeetings



1995

SYMPOSIUM ON THE HEALTH AND NUTRITION
OF NEW WORLD PRIMATES, 12 March 1995,
Louisville Zoo, Kentucky. Organized by the
New World Primate Taxon Advisory Group of
the American Zoo and Aquarium Association
(AZA). Preceding the Great Lakes Regional
Meeting of the AZA. The one-day symposium
will emphasize primate life cycles (i.e.,
pregnancy, lactation, neonatal and geriatric). To
be held at the Seelbach Hotel, Louisville, KY.
Contact: Dr Peregrine Wolff, Minnesota
Zoological Garden, 1300 Zoo Boulevard, Apple
Valley, Minnesota 55124, USA. Tel: (612) 431
9361, Fax; (612) 431-9367.

SYMPOSIUM ON NEOTROPICAL PRIMATE
PHYLOGENY, 28 March-I April 1995. Oakland,
California. In conjunction with the American
Association of Physical Anthropology. Focus:
New World primate relationships and
evolutionary history. Abstract deadline: 30 June


1994. Contact: Jeff Meldrum, Departments of
Biological Sciences and Anthropology, Campus
Box 8007, Idaho State University, Pocatello,
Idaho 93209-8007, USA. Tel: (208) 236-4379,
Fax: (208) 236-4570, e-mail: meldd@fs.isu.edu.

X ENCONTRO DE ZOOLO;IA DO NORDESTE, 2-5
April de 1995, Universidade Federal da Paraiba,
Joao Pcssoa, Paraiba. Organized in conjunction
with the Sociedade Nordestina de Zoologia
(SNZ). Contact: Priscila Muniz Dijck, Comisslio
Organizadora X EZNE, Universidade Federal da
Paraiba, CCEN/Depto. de Sistcmiitica e
Ecologia, 58.059-900 Joaio Pessoa, Paraiba,
Brazil.

PRIMATE SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN SPRING
MEETING, 5-6 April 1995, Institute of Cell,
Animal and Population Biology, Edinburgh
University. The first day will consist of papers
dealing with current field studies of primates.
The second day second day will be held at
Edinburgh Zoo, with primate staff talking of
their work. Contact: Elizabeth Rogers, ICAPB,
Ashworth Building, University of Edinburgh,
West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT,
Scotland. Tel: +44 31 650-5510, Fax: +44 31
650-6564.

2ND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON
WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT IN AMAZONIA, 7-11
May, 1995, Iquitos, Peru. Organized by the
Tropical Conservation and Development
Program, Center for Latin American Studies,
University of Florida, Gainesville, and Facultad
de Ci6ncias Biol6gicas, Universidad Nacional de
la Amazonia Peruana. The conference will
address wildlife and fisheries management in
Amazonia by focussing on the importance of
local community participation and the
development of economic alternatives to
conserve habitats and prevent extinctions. For
more information, contact: Conference, TCD
Program, P.O.Box 115531, Gainesville, FL
32611-5531, USA, Tel: (904) 392-6548, Fax:
(904) 392-0085, or Coordinador Nacional de
Congress, Facultad de Cindcias Biol6gicas,
Universidad Nacional de la Amazonia Peruana,
PI. Serafin Filomeno s/n, Iquitos, Peru, Tel: (51-
94) 23-6121, Fax: (51-94) 23-4723.

V SIMIPOSIO DE LA ASOCIACION MEXICANA DE
PRIMATOLOGIA Y III REUNION DE LA SOCIEDAD
LATINOMERICANA DE PRIMATOLOGIA, 23 al 26
de mayo de 1995, Puebla, M6xico. Para mayor
informaci6n contactar con Ernesto Rodriguez
Luna a: Apartado Postal 566, C.P.91000,


Neotrapical Primates 3(l), Afarch 1995


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Neotropical Priniates 3~'7,), March 1995 Page 32


Xalapa, Veracruz, M6xico. Tel./Fax: (28) 12-
57-48, e-mail: primates@bugs. invest. uv. mx.

18TH MEETING OF TIE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF
PRIMATOLOGISTS, 21-24 June 1995, Safari
Resort, Scottsdale, Arizona. Hosted by the
Primate Foundation of Arizona and Arizona
State University. Abstract deadline: 13 January
1995. Contact for registration with abstract:
Evan Zucker, ASP Program Chair, Department
of Psychology, Box 194, Loyola University,
6363 St. Charles Avenue, New Orleans, LA
70118, USA. Tel: (504) 865-3255. Contact for
registration (no abstract): Jo Fritz, Primate
Foundation of Arizona, P.O.Box 20027, Mesa,
AZ 85277-0027, USA.

VII CONGRESS BRASILEIRO DE
PRIMATOLOGIA, 23-28 de julho de 1995,
Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte,
Natal, Rio Grande do Norte. A programaq~o do
Congress incluirA sess6es de comunicaq6es
coordenadas, mini-cursos, paineis, conferencias
e mesas-redondas. Prazo para envio dos
resumos: 28 de abril de 1995. Havera um espago
reservado A exposigqo de fotografias de e sobre
primatas para os pesquisadores que participarem
do event. Contato: Secretaria do VII Congresso
Brasileiro de Primatologia, Universidade
Federal do Grande do Norte, Centro de
Biocidncias, Setor de Psicobiologia, Caixa
Postal 1511, 59072-970 Natal, Rio Grande do
Norte, Brasil. Tel: 084 206 1147, Fax: 084 231
9587, e-mail: fximenes@ncc.ufm.br.

24TH INTERNATIONAL ETIIOLOGICAL CONGRESS,
10-17 August 1995, Honolulu, Hawaii. Sponsored
by the University of Hawaii. Contact: Conference
Secretariat, 800 N. W. Loop 410, Suite 150-S, San
Antonio, TX 78216-5674, USA. Tel: (210) 341-
8131, Fax: (210) 341-5252, e-mail: iec@zoogate.
zoo.hawaii.edu.

INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON PRIMATE
ONTOGENY, 10-15 September 1995, Congress
Castle of Czech Academy of Sciences, Trest, Czech
Republic. Organized by the Primatological Group
in Czech Republic of the Czech Anthropological
Society, in cooperation with the Research Institute
for Pharmacy and Biochemistry. The aim is to
discuss primate ontogeny as an integral process to
help the future development of an interdisciplinary
approach, focussing on variability of growth and
developmental processes. All topics from from
traditional branches of primatology and
morphology, growth, reproductive biology,
ethology, genetic and molecular biology,


physiology, ecology, or evolutionary primatology
and anthropology are welcomed. Contact: Dr
Marina Vancatovi, VUFB Konairovice, 28125
KonArovice, Czech Republic. Fax: 42 321 26246.

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON HABITAT
FRAGMENTATION AND INFRASTRUCTURE AND THE
ROLE OF ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING, 17-21
September 1995, Holiday Inn, Maastricht, The
Hague, Netherlands. In cooperation with The
International Ecological Engineering Society
(IFES) and The Ecological Society of the
Netherlands and Belgium (NEVECOL). Contact:
Congress Office ASD, P.O.Box 40, 2600 AA Delft,
The Netherlands. Tel: +31 15 120234, Fax: +31 15
120250.

4TII CONGRESS OF THE GESELLSCIIAFT FOR
PRIMATOLOGIE (GFP), 20-24 September 1995,
Kassel, Germany. The main topic of the Congress
will be the interaction between primatological field
and laboratory research, for example, the
application of laboratory-based physiological,
endocrinological and genetic methods in primate
field research. Papers and posters on any other
primatological topics are welcome. For more
information contact: Prof. Dr Christian Welker,
Zoologie und Vergl. Anatomie, Primatenethologie,
Universitiat Kassel, D-34109 Kassel, Germany.
Fax: + 49 561 804 4604.

1995 ANNUAL MEETING OF THE CONSERVATION
BREEDING SPECIALIST GROUP (CBSG), 28
September-I October 1995, Zoological Society of
Ireland, Dublin. Secretariat/ Correspondence: 1995
Annual Meeting of the CBSG, c/o Conference
Management Services, 26 Temple Lane, Dublin 2,
Ireland.

III CONGRESS LATINOAMERICANO DE ECOLOGIA,
22-28 Octubre 1995, Universidad de Los Andes,
Merida, Venezuela. Los resfmenes de los trabajos
a ser presentados deben ser enviados antes del 30
de Julio de 1995 (Ponencia oral o de Cartel). Los
idiomas oficiales: Espafiol y Portuguds. Se
aceptarin ponencias en Ingles y Francs,
esperAndose contar con sistemas de traducci6n
simultinea. Inscripciones: Hasta 30/12/94 -
Profesionales US$70.00, Estudiantes de postgrado
US$40.00, Estudiantes de pregrado US$30.00;
Hasta 30/05/95 Profesionales US$85.00,
Estudiantes de postgrado US$55.00, Estudiantes de
pregrado US$45.00; Al Congreso Profesionales
US$100.00, Estudiantes de postgrado US$70.00,
Estudiantes de pregrado US$60.00. Informaciones:
Dr Jaime E. Pffaur, Secretario Ejecutivo, III
Congress Latinoamericano de Ecologia, Facultad


Neotropical Primates 3(l), Allarch 1995


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Page 33 Neotropical Primates 3(1), Alarcli 1995


de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida,
Venezuela 5101. Tel: (58)(74) 401305, Fax:
(58)(74) 401286, e-mail: clae@ula.ve.

PRIMATE SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN (PSGB)
WINTER MEETING: BIOLOGY AND
CONSERVATION OF NEW WORLD PRIMATES, 29
November 1995, Zoological Society of London,
London. Contact: Hilary 0. Box, Department of
Psychology, University of Reading, 3 Earley
Gate, Whiteknights Road, Reading RG6 2AL,
Berkshire, UK. Tel: +44 734 875123, Fax: +44
734 316604.


1996

XVITH CONGRESS OF THE INTERNATIONAL
PRIMATOLOGICAL SOCIETY, 11-17 August 1996,
University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin. In
collaboration with the American Society of
Primatologists. Contact: Dr John P. Hearn,
Congress Organizer, Wisconsin Regional Primate
Research Center, University of Wisconsin, 1223
Capitol Court, Madison, Wisconsin 53715-1299,
USA. Fax: (608) 263 4031.

IUCN WORLD CONSERVATION CONGRESS, 14-23
October 1996, Montreal Conference Centre,
Montreal, Canada. Contact: John Burke, Director
of Communications, IUCN The World
Conservation Union, rue Mauverney 28, 1196
Gland Switzerland. Tel: +41 22 999 0123.



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information on projects, research groups, events
(congresses, symposia, and workshops), recent
publications, activities of primatological societies


and NGOs, news items or opinions of recent events
and suchlike, either in the form of manuscripts
(double-spaced) or in diskettes for PC compatible
text-editors (MS-Word, Wordperfect, Wordstar).
Articles, not exceeding six pages, can include
small black-and-white photographs, figures, maps,
tables and references, but please keep them to a
minimum.

Please send contributions to: ANTHONY RYLANDS,
Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Ciencias
Biol6gicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais,
31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Brazil, Fax: (031) 441-
1412, or c/o Conservation International, Avenida
Ant6nio Abrahilo Caram 820/302, Pampulha,
31275-000 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil,
Fax: (031)441-2582 or ERNESTO RODRIGUEZ
LUNA, Parque de La Flora y Fauna Silvestre
Tropical, Universidad Veracruzana, Apartado
Postal 566, Xalapa, Veracruz 91000, Mexico, Fax:
52 (28) 12-5748.

LILIANA CORTES-ORTIZ (Universidad Veracruzana)
and MIRIAM MENEZES LIMA (Conservation
International, Belo Horizonte) provide invaluable
editorial assistance. LUDMILLA AGUIAR,
Conservation International Brazil Program, Belo
Horizonte (address above), is responsible for the
distribution of Neotropical Primates. Please keep
us informed of any address changes.

Correspondence, messages, and texts can be sent to
Anthony Rylands/Ludmilla Aguiar: cibrasil@ax.apc.org
Fundag~o Biodiversitas: cdcb@ax.apc.org
NEOTROPICAL PRIMATES is produced in
collaboration with Conservation International,
1015 18th Street NW, Suite 1000, Washington DC
20036, USA, and Fundacgo Biodiversitas, Rua
Maria Vaz de Melo 71, Dona Clara, Belo
Horizonte 31260-110, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Design and Composition YURI L. R. LEITE and
RICARDO B. MACIIADo, Biodiversity Conservation
Data Center (CDCB), Fundacqfo Biodiversitas.


Neolropical Priniales 3(l), March 1995


Page 33






Neotropical Primates 3(1), Afarcl, 1995 Page 34


Cotton-top tamarins are one of the most endangered primates in Colombia today. Efforts to help preserve this
species have focused on working with local communities and developing effective education and public
awareness campaigns in the regions where wild populations still survive. To assist in supporting the
educational activities of Proyecto Titi, these cotton-top tamarin stuffed toys are available for purchase
(US$10.00 in the U.S., and US$13.00 outside the U.S., including postage). Please send orders to Dr Anne
Savage, Roger Williams Park Zoo, 1000 Elmwood Avenue, Providence, Rhode Island 02907, USA. Checks
payable to "Roger Williams Park Zoo Research Proyecto Titi".


Page 34


Aleotropical Primates 3(l), March 1995















































NEOTROPICAL PRIMATES
Anthony Rylands/Ernesto Rodriguez Luna, Editors
Conservation International
Avenida Antinio Abrahlo Caram 820/302
31275-000, Belo Horizonte
Minas Gerais, Brazil


This issue of Neotmpical Primates was kindly sponsored
by the Houston Zoological Gardens Conservation
Program, Houston Zoological Gardens, General
Manager Donald G. Olson, 1513 North
MacGregor, Houston, Texas 77030, and
the Columbus Zoological Gardens, Director I.k i
Gerald W. Borin, Box 400, Powell,
Aiisoh. Ohio 43065, USA. Columbus ZOO
Parkt -d Recren Dlpartmnwt




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