• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Main
 Main














Title: Neotropical primates
ALL VOLUMES CITATION PDF VIEWER THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098814/00009
 Material Information
Title: Neotropical primates a newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCNSSC Primate Specialist Group
Abbreviated Title: Neotrop. primates
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
Conservation International
Center for Applied Biodiversity Science
Publisher: Conservation International
Place of Publication: Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Publication Date: December Supplement 1994
Frequency: quarterly
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Primates -- Periodicals -- Latin America   ( lcsh )
Primates -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Wildlife conservation -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: review   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Brazil
 Notes
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Language: English, Portuguese, and Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Mar. 1993)-
Issuing Body: Issued jointly with Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, <Dec. 2004->
General Note: Published in Washington, D.C., Dec. 1999-Apr. 2005 , Arlington, VA, Aug. 2005-
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 13, no. 1 (Apr. 2005).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098814
Volume ID: VID00009
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28561619
lccn - 96648813
issn - 1413-4705

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:

NP2 ( PDF )


Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Main
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Main
        Main
Full Text








..... .Y...I.H
.. ...RMAflf..


A Newsletterof-tibeNeotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group
Editors: Anthony B. Rylands and Ernesto Rodriguez Luna
PSG Chairman: Russel A. Mittermeier
PSG Deputy Chairman: William R. Konstant


Proceedings of the 2nd Symposium on Leontopithecus
held during the Annual Meeting of the International Committees for the
Preservation and Management of the Four Lion Tamarin Species, May 1994


K


CONSERVATION
INTERNATIONAL


SPECIES SURVIVAL
COMMISSION


FUNDAQAO
BIODIVERSITAS


. .. ........
::VOLUME Z SUPPLEMEN
T,
...... . ...... ......







Page 2 Neotropical Primates 2(suppl.), December, 1994

Editorial

This supplement of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group Newsletter Neotropical Primates presents the summa-
rized proceedings of a two-day symposium on the genus Leontopithecus held during the Annual Meeting of the
International Committees for the Preservation and Management of the four species: the golden lion tamarin
(Leontopithecus rosalia), chaired by Devra G.Kleiman (National Zoological Park, Washington, D.C., and Adelmar
F.Coimbra-Filho (formerly Director of the Rio de Janeiro Primate Center, Rio de Janeiro); the golden-headed lion
tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysomelas), chaired by Jeremy J.C.Mallinson (Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, Jersey)
and Adelmar F.Coimbra-Filho; the black lion tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysopygus), chaired by"FAiqal Simon
(Fundaglo Parque Zool6gico de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo) and Devra G.Kleiman; and the black-facedj.on tamarin
(Leontopithecus caissara), chaired by Admiral Ibsen de Gusmio Cimara (Sociedade Brasileira de Protecgo
Ambiental, Rio de Janeiro) and Jeremy J.C.Mallinson.

The International Committees were recognized formally by the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Renew-
able Natural Resources (Ibama) in 1990 (L.rosalia, L.chrysomelas, and L.chrysopygus) and 1992 (L.caissara). Be-
sides acting as consultative committees for Ibama, their aim is to coordinate the captive breeding programs for the
species and promote and advise on actions on behalf of their conservation in the wild. A listing of the members of
each committee is given on page 58. Each year, Ibama hosts a meeting of the four committees. That held in Casimiro
de Abreu, Rio de Janeiro, in May 1993, was preceded by a short symposium to provide the opportunity for those
present to hear reports on the status of the captive breeding programs, and the progress in the research and conserva-
tion efforts for wild populations. The success of the symposium, organized by Devra G.Kleiman and Ines Castro
(Golden Lion Tamarin Conservation Program, National Zoological Park, Washington, D.C.) (see Neotropical Pri-
mates, 1(2): 10-12, 1993), resulted in the exercise being repeated at the 1994 meeting, held in Ilhdus, Bahia, 24-27
May.

The 1994 symposium and meeting were organized by Maria Iolita Bampi, Head of the Wildlife Department of Ibama,
and hosted by Maria Cristina Alves, the coordinator of the Projeto Mico-Leio Baiano, the environmental education
program for L.chrysomelas begun in 1990. Two events also contributed to the meeting. Prior to the symposium, a set
of three Brazilian stamps depicting endangered callitrichids (Saguinus bicolor bicolor, Saguinus imperator and
Leontopithecus rosalia) were given their First Day of Issue, and on 26 May a Nature Education Center and the Lion
Tamarin Rehabilitation Center were inaugurated, both within the grounds of the Cocoa Research Center (CEPEC),
Itabuna. The Nature Center is specifically for the environmental education activities of the Projeto Mico-Ledo
Baiano, a program which has received support from the Wildlife Preservation Trusts (WPTI, JWPT, and WPTC), the
World Wildlife Fund (WWF), Conservation International (CI), the Santa Cruz University, the Regional Cocoa Grow-
ing Authority (CEPLAC), Itabuna, and Ibama. The Rehabilitation Center, sponsored by CEPLAC, Mars, Inc., Con-
servation International (CI), the Philadelphia Zoo, and Ibama, was established to provide temporary lodging for
golden-headed lion tamarins, confiscated or donated, prior to their inclusion in the worldwide captive breeding
program.

The publication of these 17 summaries was made possible through the generous support of Wildlife Preservation
Trust International (WPTI), Executive Director Mary C. Pearl, and the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust (JWPT),
Zoological Director, Jeremy J.C.Mallinson, and not least because of the efficient and ready response of the contribu-
tors, for which the editors are most grateful.

Anthony B. Rylands and Ernesto Rodriguez Luna
Co-Vice Chairmen, IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group Neotropical Section


Cover photograph by Adelmar F. Coimbra-Filho:
golden liontamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia)










Contents

The Lion Tamarins of Brazil Fund: with Reference to the International Management Committees for
Leontopithecus. Jeremy J. C. M allinson ........................... ............................. .............................................. 4

Capitalizing the Ark: The Economic Benefit of Adding Founders to Captive Populations. Jane A. Mansour and
Jonathan D Ballou...................................................................................................................................... 8

Conservation Units and the Protection of Atlantic Forest Lion Tamarins. Anthony B. Rylands and Paulo
N ogueira N eto ..................................................................................................................................................... 12

Habitat Preservation and the Translocation of Threatened Groups of Golden Lion Tamarins, Leontopithecus
rosalia. Maria Cecilia M. Kierulif and Paula P. de Oliveira ............................................................................... 15

Revegetation of Deforested Areas in the Pogo das Antas Biological Reserve, Rio de Janeiro. Dionizio M.
Pessam ilio ............................................................................... ...................................................................... 19

Population Structure and Territory Size in Golden-Headed Lion Tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysomelas. James
M. Dietz, Saturnino Neto F. de Sousa and Josd Renato 0. da Silva................................................................... 21

Inventory and Conservation Status of Wild Populations of Golden-Headed Lion Tamarins, Leontopithecus
chrysomelas. Luiz Paulo de S. Pinto and Luciano I. Tavares ............................................................................ 24

Progress Report on the Captive Population of Golden-Headed Lion Tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysomelas -
M ay 1994. Helga D e Bois.......................................................... ...................................... .......................... 28

Preliminary Results on the Evaluation of Contraceptive Implants in Golden-Headed Lion Tamarins,
Leontopithecus chrysomelas. Linda van Elsacker, Michael Heistermann, J. Keith Hodges, Ann de Laet and
R udolf F. V erheyen ............................................................ ............................................... ............................. 30

Evaluation of Community-Based Conservation Education: A Case Study of the Golden-Headed Lion Tamarin
Education Program in the State of Bahia, Brazil. Elizabeth Yoshimi Nagagata ................................................ 33

The Conservation Biology of the Black Lion Tamarin, Leontopithecus chrysopygus: First Ten Years' Report.
Claudio Valladares-Padua, Suzana M. Padua and Laury Cullen Jr. ................................................................... 36

Behavior of the Black Lion Tamarin, Leontopithecus chrysopygus, in Different Forest Levels in the Caetetus
Ecological Station, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Fernando de Camargo Passos ................................................................ 40

A Contribution to the Study of the Arboreal Vegetation of the Caetetus Ecological Station, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Ana Cristina Kim and Fernando de Camargo Passos ..................................................................................... 42

Environmental Education and the Black Lion Tamarin, Leontopithecus chrysopygus. Suzana M. Padua............. 45

Conservation Status of the Black-faced Lion Tamarin, Leontopithecus caissara. Ibsen de GusmAo CAmara ........ 50

Status of Field Research on Leontopithecus caissara: The Black-Faced Lion Tamarin Project. Maria Liicia
Lorini and Vanessa G. Person ............................ ..................................................................................... 52

The Superagiui National Park: Problems Concerning the Protection of the Black-Faced Lion Tamarin,
Leontopithecus caissara. Guadalupe Vivekananda ........................................................................................ 56

International Committees for the Preservation and Management of Lion Tamarins, Leontopithecus -
Com m ittee M em bers M ay 1994 ........................................................................................................................... 58


Page 3







Page 4


The Lion Tamarins of Brazil Fund: with Reference to the International
Management Committees for Leontopithecus


Jeremy J. C. Mallinson, Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, Les Augres Manor, Trinity, Jersey JE3 5BF, Channel
Islands, GB.


Introduction

The conservation significance of the lion tamarin
programmes (for the golden lion tamarin
Leontopithecus rosalia, golden-headed lion tamarin
L.chrysomelas, black lion tamarin L.chrysopygus, and,
more recently, the black-faced lion tamarin
L.caissara), highlights so well how the adoption of
'flagship' species and the publishing of the plight of
remnant populations in depleted environments can
promote considerable public attention and support, re-
sulting in the preservation and conservation of both
animal species and associated habitat (Mallinson,
1986, 1987, 1989, 1994; Dietz et at, 1994).

Thanks to the participation of numerous specialists,
who have provided the impetus, technical advice, and
finance for the successful running and coordination of
the Lion Tamarin Committees, so much has been
achieved to secure the viability of both captive and wild
populations of the lion tamarin genus. During the past
few years, through the unique collaboration of the Bra-
zilian Institute of the Environment and Renewable
Natural Resources (Ibama), zoo personnel and their
supporters have promoted fund raising activities to
help secure sufficient habitat to sustain viable wild
populations and helped to develop environmental edu-
cation programmes, as well as studies of the
demography, behavioral biology and evolution of the
species in the states of Bahia, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo
and Parana.

Management Committees

In June 1990, the International Research and Manage-
ment Committees (IRMC) provided the main driving
force, in collaboration with the Fundagao
Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte, and Ibama, Brasilia, for
the organization of the "Leontopithecus Population Vi-
ability Analysis Workshop", held in Belo Horizonte,
Minas Gerais, Brazil (Seal et al., 1990). The IRMC's
include field scientists, zoo specialists, environmental
educators, and personnel of governmental and non-


governmental organizations. They are recognized by
Brazilian Law as technical advisors to Ibama on all is-
sues concerning both wild and captive populations.
The Committees meet with Ibama on an annual basis,
adopting an interdisciplinary approach on all matters
relating to the conservation of the lion tamarin genus,
and promoting the interactive management of in situ
and ex-situ populations (Mallinson, 1989).

The majority of the golden and golden-headed lion
tamarins and all of the black lion tamarins in captivity
outside of Brazil are subject to Management Agree-
ments. These populations remain in the Trusteeship of
Ibama, and none of the animals can be sold, traded or
otherwise used in commercial transactions (Mallinson,
1994).

The Lion Tamarins of Brazil Fund (LTBF)

The Lion Tamarins of Brazil Fund (LTBF) was estab-
lished by the International Committees in 1991. An
appeal, signed by Gerald Durrell (Founder and Honor-
ary Director, Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust), was
mailed to all holders of lion tamarins outside of Brazil
in January 1992. The letter requested donations in sup-
port of in situ conservation work, in particular the
funding of Brazilian field assistants studying lion
tamarins in the wild. The appeal raised just over
US$10,000 in 1992, a sum that the Committees de-
cided should be evenly distributed between the
programmes for the four species, in support of surveys
and censuses, behavioral and ecological studies,
translocation, and environmental education. The Ap-
pendix provides details of the programmes that were
supported by the LTBF in 1993.

Recognising the increasing importance of interactive
management between captive and wild populations of
endangered species, the Management Committees de-
cided to continue to appeal on an annual basis for do-
nations to the LTBF from all holders of lion tamarins.
In this way, zoos that are already participating in the
development of the scientifically managed captive


Areotropical Primates 2(suppl.), December, 1994







Areotronical Primates 2(suppl.), December, 1994 Pg


populations of lion tamarins outside of Brazil, are also
able to contribute funds to aid the conservation of the
remnant wild populations of this critically endangered
primate genus.

In October 1993, the second appeal was sent out to all
overseas holders of lion tamarins. The letter high-
lighted the International Committees' hope that this
annual appeal will continue to generate sufficient
funds to enable the Committees to build on past suc-
cesses, as well to promote further these model
programmes for the conservation of endangered spe-
cies and associated habitats. At the time of the meeting
of the Committees in May 1994, a sum in excess of
US$17,000 had been donated by 12 collections, includ-
ing a significant contribution of US$10,000 received
from the Japan Marmoset Institute, Tokyo. This sum
was divided equally amongst the four species' Com-
mittees to be allocated to research and conservation
projects.

Although the donations to the fund have been largely
one-off contributions, it is important to mention one
particularly laudable long-term fund-raising
programme set up by the Adelaide Zoological Gardens,
Australia. The appeal letter sent out in 1992 resulted in
the zoo launching a most innovative fund-raising effort
on behalf of the LTBF, with an undertaking to raise
US$3,000 per year for a three-year period. As
McAlister and Langdon (1993) record:

"During 1992 considerable work was undertaken at the
Adelaide Zoological Gardens, South Australia, to im-
prove conditions and display facilities for both golden
lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) and cotton-top
tamarins (Saguinus oedipus). Because of their threat-
ened status, an education and conservation campaign
was set up featuring the lion tamarins and using the
idea of "A Golden Coin for a Golden Animal". In brief,
thanks to generous support from the Electricity Trust
of South Australia (ETSA) which paid for the exhibit
improvements, a video was made featuring the well-
known conservationist, the Honorary Director of the
Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust (JWPT), Dr Gerald
Durrell. The video is activated by dropping a $1.00
coin (a golden coin in Australia) through the slot. Ex-
cellent footage of golden lion tamarins is then dis-
played, with a message from Dr Durrell detailing the
plight of this beautiful creature, and encouraging
people to assist in its preservation and conservation.
Contributors are assured that all money raised will be
used to contribute to the revegetation project in the
Pogo das Antas Biological Reserve, Rio de Janeiro, and


the reintroduction of captive-born groups of this "flag-
ship" species in its native habitat, projects which form
part of the Golden Lion Tamarin Conservation
Programme of the National Zoological Park,
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. The funds
are being channeled through the "The Lion Tamarins
of Brazil Fund", an international appeal started by Dr
Durrell in December 1991, and managed by Jeremy
Mallinson, Zoological Director of JWPT, and Devra
Kleiman of the National Zoological Park, Washington,
D.C. Adelaide Zoo's particular campaign for golden
lion tamarins has been able to guarantee the funding
for a field assistant for three years, and the first alloca-
tion of money was forwarded in early 1993.

The publicity surrounding the golden lion tamarin did
not stop with this particular project, but continued, us-
ing some very provocative posters, to try to boost mem-
bership of the Royal Zoological Society of South Aus-
tralia Inc., and to encourage people to become involved
with conservation. The posters and full page advertise-
ments in the local newspapers, once again sponsored
by ETSA, were certainly very eye-catching and effec-
tive and raised the profile of the Adelaide Zoo consid-
erably."

Summary

The coordinated work of the International Committees
for the conservation of the lion tamarin genus repre-
sents model programmes that provide excellent ex-
amples of what can be achieved through an interdisci-
plinary approach involving science, interactive man-
agement, politics, environmental education, and habi-
tat preservation and restoration.

With our growing understanding of the science of con-
servation today, the significance of the lion tamarin
programmes highlight so well how the importance of
'flagship' species for publishing the plight of remnant
populations in degraded environments can promote
considerable public attention and support, providing
for action on behalf of the animals and their habitats.

As the Management Committees for the lion tamarins
provide excellent models for the interactive manage-
ment of wild and captive populations of endangered
species, it is also hoped that the Lion Tamarins of Bra-
zil Fund will, in a similar way, instigate and promote
fund-raising efforts by the international zoo commu-
nity to contribute funds in support of the remaining
wild populations of endangered species they have rep-
resented in their zoological collections.


Page 5







Page 6


References

Dietz, J.M., Dietz, L.A. and Nagagata, E.Y. 1994. The
effective use of flagship species for conservation of
biodiversity: the example of lion tamarins in Brazil.
In: Creative Conservation: Interactive
Management of Wild and Captive Animals,
P.J.S.Olney, G.M.Mace and A.T.C. Feistner (eds.),
pp.32-49. Chapman and Hall, London.
McAlister, E.J. and Langdon, D.J. 1993. Fund-raising
and golden lion tamarins at Adelaide Zoo.
Neotropical Primates, 1(4): 24-25.
Mallinson, J.J.C. 1986. The Wildlife Preservation
Trusts' (J.W.P.T./W.P.T.I.) support for the
conservation of the genus Leontopithecus. Dodo,
J.Jersey Wildl.Preserv.Trust, 23:6-18.
Mallinson, J.J.C. 1987. International efforts to secure a
viable population of the golden-headed lion
tamarin. Primate Conservation, (8): 124-125.
Mallinson, J.J.C. 1989. A summary of the work of the
International Recovery and Management
Committee for Golden-Headed Lion Tamarin
Leontopithecus chrysomelas 1985-1990. Dodo,
J.Jersey Wildl. Preserve. Trust, 26: 77-86.
Mallinson, J.J.C. 1994. Saving the World's richest
rainforest. Biologist, 41(2):56-60.
Seal, U.S., Ballou, J.D. and Valladares-Padua, C.
(eds.) 1990. Leontopithecus Population Viability
Analysis Workshop Report. IUCN/SSC Captive
Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG), Apple Valley,
Minnesota.

Appendix

Leontopithecus Conservation Programmes Supported
by the Lion Tamarins of Brazil Fund

1. Golden Lion Tamarin Leontopithecus rosalia

Project: Survey and Translocation of Isolated Lion
Tamarin Groups, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Principal Investigator/Field Worker: Maria Cecilia
Martins Kieruliff, Federal University of Minas Gerais

Project Objectives: A survey of golden lion tamarins
outside of the Pogo das Antas Biological Reserve, Rio
de Janeiro, and translocation of isolated groups to a
larger protected area, considering that these geneti-
cally important animals will almost certainly disap-
pear in the near future as a result of continuing defores-
tation and/or genetic or demographic problems. Tech-
niques already developed for wild and reintroduced


tamarins are to be used to trap animals and conduct
medical/physical examinations, and to accompany
groups and compare behaviour before and after trans-
location. Project to accomplish rescue of targeted
groups; secure protection for the translocation site;
provide experience and information necessary for fu-
ture transfers of wild and reintroduced individuals be-
tween subpopulations which will probably be required
in the future management of the species, and; increase
knowledge of the biological effects of isolation and
small population size (see Kierulff, M.C.M., Status
and distribution of the golden lion tamarin in Rio de
Janeiro, Neotropical Primates, 1(4): 23-24, 1993, and
Kierulf, M.C.M. and Oliveira, P. P. de. Habitat preser-
vation and the translocation of threatened groups of
golden lion tamarins, Leontopithecus rosalia, Neotro-
pical Primates, 2(suppl.): 15-18, 1994).

1993 Lion Tamarins of Brazil Fund Grant: US$2,500,
paid to Dr Devra Kleiman, National Zoological Park,
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20018,
USA. (Chair of the IRMC for Leontopithecus rosalia).

2. Golden-Headed Lion Tamarin Leontopithecus
chrysomelas

Project: Conservation, Ecology, and Behaviour of
Golden-Headed Lion Tamarins in the Una Biological
Reserve, Bahia, Brazil

Principal Investigator/Field Worker: James M.Dietz,
University of Maryland/Jose Renato Oliveira da Silva,
Una, Bahia

Project Objectives: 1) To obtain the biological infor-
mation necessary to complete a population viability as-
sessment and make management recommendations to
Brazilian authorities and funding agencies for the con-
servation of the species in the Una Biological Reserve;
2) To compare aspects of the behavioral ecology of the
species in the Una Reserve with those of the golden
lion tamarin in the Pogo das Antas Biological Reserve,
Rio de Janeiro, and; 3) to create a centre in the Una
Reserve for the training of Brazilian scientists and stu-
dents in the techniques of conservation biology and the
study of behavioral ecology. The project was begun in
July 1991, following the receipt of authorization from
the Brazilian Institute for the Environment (Ibama
No.060/91 of 27 February 1991, Edict No.383 of 8 July
1991). Interim progress reports and proposal updates
provided in June 1992 and February 1993.

1993 Lion Tamarins of Brazil Fund Grant: US$1,250,


lVeotropical Primates 2(suppl.), December, 1994







Page 7


paid to Dr James M.Dietz, Department of Zoology,
College Park, University of Maryland, Maryland
20742, USA (Member of the IRMC for Leontopithecus
chrysomelas).

3. Golden-Headed Lion Tamarin Leontopithecus
chrysomelas

Project: "Projeto Mico-Leao-Baiano" Environmental
Education Programme

Project Director: Maria Cristina Alves, Ilh6us, Bahia.

Project Objectives: To promote an environmental edu-
cation programme for the preservation of the golden-
headed lion tamarin and its forests by developing an
understanding of conservation within local communi-
ties. The programme began in 1990 through the com-
bined efforts of national and international NGO's and
funding organizations. A Centre for Nature Education
has been developed for professionals, school children
and the general public. Environmental education
programmes for schools, consisting of slide shows for
students and specific courses for teachers, help to
achieve the Project's principal target by stimulating
conservation awareness and the participation of the
target community in southern Bahia.

1993 Lion Tamarins of Brazil Fund Grant: US$1,250,
paid to Maria Cristina Alves, Director "Projeto Mico-
Leao-Baiano", Rodovia Ilhdus-Itabuna Km22, 45600
Itabuna, Bahia, Brazil (Member of the IRMC for
Leontopithecus chrysomelas).

4. Black Lion Tamarin Leontopithecus chrysopygus

Project: Metapopulation Management for the Black
Lion Tamarin in the State of Sao Paulo

Principal Investigator/Field Worker: Claudio
Valladares-Padua/Laury Cullen Jr., IPE Instituto de
Projetos e Pesquisas Ecol6gicos, Sao Paulo

Project Objectives: To carry out studies that will en-
able metapopulation management for the species, inte-
grating in this way all known subpopulations which
have been confirmed to date in five isolated forests
(only two of which are in protected areas; the Morro do
Diabo State Park and the Caetetus State Ecological
Station). Population viability analysis for the species
suggests that without active management the chances
of its survival over the next 100 years are extremely


poor. Translocation and managed dispersal between
fragmented populations will be investigated, and the
long-term behavioural/ecological studies will be con-
tinued. Although the forest fragmentation that exists
among the several subpopulations means that they are
capable of tolerating stochastic problems, it also im-
pedes natural migration and the guarantee of genetic
variability. (See Valladares-Padua, C., Padua, S.M.
and Cullen Jr, L., The conservation biology of the
black lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysopygus: first
ten years' report, Neotropical Primates, 2(suppl.): 36-
39, 1994.)

1993 Lion Tamarins of Brazil Fund Grant: US$2,500,
paid to Dr Claudio Valladares-Padua through Dr
Faical Simon, Fundagio Parque Zool6gico de Sao
Paulo, Avenida Miguel Stefano 4241, Caixa Postal
12.954, 04301 Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil (Chair of
the IRMC for Leontopithecus chrysopygus).

5. Black-Faced Lion Tamarin Leontopithecus
caissara

Project: Distribution, Status, and Conservation of the
Black-Headed Lion Tamarin, Superagfii

Principal Investigators/Field Workers: Vanessa
G.Persson, Museum of Natural History "Capgo da
Imbuia", Curitiba, and Maria Lficia Lorini, National
Museum, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Project Objectives: To establish population size,
threats and habitat viability, and investigate the ecol-
ogy and behaviour of the species, as well as factors re-
stricting population expansion, in order to formulate a
coordinated conservation programme, following the
proposals of the Action Plan drawn up by the IRMC for
L.caissara (see Camara, I.de G., Action Plan for the
Black-Faced Lion Tamarin, Neotropical Primates,
1(3):10-11, 1993; Camara, I.de G., Conservation sta-
tus of the black-faced lion tamarin, Leontopithecus
caissara, Neotropical Primates, 2(suppl.): 50-51,
1994). (See also Lorini, M.L. and Persson, V.G., Status
of field research on Leontopithecus caissara: The
Black-Faced Lion Tamarin Project, Neotropical Pri-
mates, 2(suppl.): 52-55, 1994).

1993 Lion Tamarins of Brazil Fund Grant: US$2,500,
paid to Admiral Ibsen de G.Camara, Avenida das
Am6ricas 2300 C-40, 22640-101 Rio de Janeiro, Rio
de Janeiro, Brazil (Chair of the IRMC for
Leontopithecus caissara).


Areotropical Primates 2(suppl.), December, 1994










Capitalizing the Ark: The Economic Benefit of Adding Founders to
Captive Populations


Jane A. Mansour, Program in Sustainable Development and Conservation Biology, University of Maryland at
College Park, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA, and Jonathan D. Ballou, Department of Zoological Research,
National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20008, USA.


The number of species that can be genetically managed
in zoos is resource limited (Maguire and Lacy, 1990).
Existing facilities can accommodate less than half of
the species likely to require captive breeding in the
next century (Soul6 et al., 1986; Conway, 1986). One
means of reducing the size of captive populations,
while achieving management objectives, is to add
wild-caught founders. Using the world captive popula-
tions of the three lion tamarin species currently in cap-
tivity, we explore the potential economic benefit of
adding new founders to these populations. The result is
a reduction in the population sizes required to main-
tain 90% heterozygosity for a period of 100 years, the
stated management objective for lion tamarins. Benefit
is measured as the consequent reduction in the total
projected cost of each program.

The founding and subsequent breeding of a captive
population can be viewed as a series of genetic bottle-
necks, in which the population will lose genetic varia-
tion due to the random sampling of alleles, or genetic
drift (Franklin 1980; Frankel and Sould, 1981). One
effect of drift is an increase in the level of homozygos-
ity (inbreeding), which can lead to a loss of fitness,
seen as reduced fecundity and viability of individuals
in the population (inbreeding depression). The per
generation rate at which a population will lose genetic
variation is 1/(2N,), where N, is the effective popula-
tion size. There is a consensus that a goal of maintain-
ing 90% of the genetic variation (defined in terms of
expected heterozygosity) represents a threshold be-
tween a tolerable loss of heterozygosity and the damag-
ing effects of inbreeding (Sould et al., 1986).

The size of a captive population required to achieve the
90% per 100 year management goal is affected by a
number of variables, including the size of the founding
population, generation length, population growth rate,
and effective population size. The latter three affect the
frequency and rate of loss of heterozygosity; manage-
ment that maximizes these variables minimizes the


loss of variation over the life of a program (Ballou,
1987). The number of founders determines the propor-
tion of genetic variation sampled from the wild (the
size of the initial bottleneck).

The greater the number of founders, the higher the ini-
tial level of heterozygosity. Genetically front-loading
the captive population in this manner decreases the se-
verity of the initial bottleneck, allowing for a greater
rate of genetic erosion over the duration of the pro-
gram, while still maintaining the target level of 90%
heterozygosity (Fig. 1). Because there is an inverse re-
lationship between the rate of loss of heterozygosity
and population size, more founders means that a
smaller population can be maintained. We would argue
that there is a distinct economic advantage to maxi-
mizing founder numbers as early as possible. The re-
sult is a smaller population from the outset of the pro-
gram, which has a considerable effect on the total cost


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 S 9 10 11 12 13 14 13 16 17 15 19
Generations
Figure 1. A larger founding population allows a
greater rate of genetic erosion, i.e., a smaller mainte-
nance population size, while still achieving the man-
agement goal of 90% H over 100 years. Figure 1 de-
picts the actual heterozygosity of the BLT population
and with 25 additional founders.


Page 8


Neotropical Primates 2(suppl.) December 1994







Page 9


As of the end of 1992, there were 524 captive T
golden lion tamarins (GLT) (Leontopithecus E
rosalia), 472 golden-headed lion tamarins,
(GHLT) (L. chrysomelas), and 81 black lion tama-
rins (BLT) (L. chrysopygus) (Ballou, 1992; Mace,
1992; Valladares-Padua and Simon, 1992), occu-
pying about a third of the 3,000 spaces available to
small primates. The black-faced lion tamarin
(BFLT) (L. caissara) was first described only in
1990; there are currently none in captivity.

We modeled the addition of founders and its im-
pact on population size using Capacity, a com-
puter program designed to estimate the population
size required to maintain a target level of heterozygos-
ity over the specified duration of a captive breeding
program (N,) (Ballou, 1993). Capacity calculates Nk
using a number of variables, summarized for each of
the three species in Table 1. From an analysis of the
recent history of the GHLT population, we assumed a
40% success rate in incorporating the genes of new
founders. Figure 2 shows the reduction in Nk for each
species as founders are added. Adding founders has
very little impact on the GHLT population. A substan-
tial reduction, however, may be realized in the GLT
population. The BLT population doesn't even ap-
proach a manageable size without the addition of 20-
25 founders.

To appreciate the economic benefit new founders may
have on these management programs, it was necessary
to calculate the cost of keeping a tamarin in captivity.
Using the same categories as Kleiman et al. (1991), we
estimated the cost of keeping a single tamarin for a pe-
riod of one year to be $1,143. Once we had this esti-
mate, we calculated the Present Discounted Value
(PDV) of the cost of keeping a tamarin for 100 years.
The fundamental idea behind discounting is that a dol-
lar is worth more today than at some point in the fu-
ture, i.e., money has time value. We therefore place the
highest value on costs and benefits that occur now, and
then discount them into the future. PDV is calculated
using the formula:

SC
PDV = ,
t=o (1+r)'

where Ct is the cost of maintaining a tamarin in year t
($1,143), n is the number of years in the program
(100), and r is the discount rate. Using a 3% discount
rate, the discounted cost of keeping a tamarin for 100
years is $37,250. Multiplying this value by the reduc-
tion in Nk that can be achieved by adding a certain


'able 1. Population parameters used in Capacity (as of 31
)ecember 1992).

GHLT GLT BLT
Population size (N) 472 524 81
Effective population size (N,) 142 157 24
N/N ratio 0.3 0.3 0.3
Founders 106 48 30
Founder genome equivalents (f ) 39.32 12.80 6.31
Gene diversity (GD) 0.9873 0.9609 0.9208
Generation length (T) 5.2 5.2 5.2
Annual growth rate (1) 1.316 1.316 1.316



number of founders yields the total economic benefit of
doing so. For example, the addition of even 25 GHLTs
has an insignificant effect on total cost. N, is reduced
by only 10 individuals to 333, and the reduction in total
cost is only $283,121, or just over 2%. In the case of
GLTs, however, the addition of 25 new founders would
reduce Nk from 483 to 380 for a saving in excess of $3
million, a reduction of 18%. The results are most dra-
matic in the case of BLTs, where 25 new founders
would bring Nk from 7,413 to 510, decreasing the hy-
pothetical cost of $182 million by 91% to just under
$17 million.

We can also take an incremental, or marginal, view of
benefit by looking at the cost savings that accrue with
each new founder. Using a discount rate of 3%, we can
say that bringing one more GLT in from the wild
would have a Marginal Benefit (MB) of $204,000 over
the next hundred years, while the MB of the next BLT
founder is $98.5 million (Figure 3). We call the MB of
each new founder the founder dividend (fd). Like vari-
able inputs in production, however, founders in a cap-

2J"


0 10 Add al 2 30
Additional founders


Figure 2. The reduction in maintenance population
size (Nd) that can be achieved by addition founders to
the three captive populations.


-ghlt git ---blt


Neotropical Primates 2(suppl.), December, 1994


40







Neotropical Primates 2(suppl.), December, 1994


tive population are subject to the Law of Diminishing
Marginal Returns, which is to say that the f, of each
new founder is something less than the one before, un-
til there is nothing further to be gained.

How many founders are enough? Ideally, one would
continue to add founders until the genetic variation in
the captive population mirrored that of the source
population, and no further reduction in N, could be
achieved. Practically speaking, however, the number of
founders will be determined by the ability of the wild
population to withstand the further loss of individuals.
The removal of individuals from the wild will probably
have costs not reflected in the added cost of maintain-
ing them in captivity. Costs and benefits that are not
reflected in financial analysis are referred to as exter-
nalities (Mishan, 1982). The external costs of remov-
ing more lion tamarins from the wild are likely to be
fairly low. In the case of GLTs and GHLTs, particularly,
the wild populations appear to be at carrying capacity
in currently available habitat. As a result, there is high
mortality among dispersing juveniles unable to find
unoccupied territory. Habitat vacated by removing in-
dividuals is likely to be reoccupied very quickly. While
we don't know the size of the BLT population with re-
spect to carrying capacity, current population estimates
suggest that it, too, could withstand the removal of a
significant number of individuals. Social costs are also
likely, however. Consensus among members of the
management committee would lessen social or politi-
cal ramifications.

If we divide equally the approximately 3,000 spaces in
the world's zoos currently available to small primates
(callitrichids) among the 10 endangered callitrichid
species now in captivity, we can maintain populations
of about 300 each. At present, GLTs and GHLTs far
exceed this allocation. If we are to meet current carry-
ing capacity, both need to be reduced. We believe that a
target population size of 300 for each species of lion
tamarin is a realistic goal.

Based on this study, the fas for GHLTs are small and we
would not recommend actively recruiting new
founders. The GLT population could benefit signifi-
cantly from adding founders, and we would recom-
mend adding as many as 25-30, provided this can be
done without jeopardizing the viability of the wild
population. Beyond 30, the fds become negligible. In
both cases, we would advocate that confiscated or in-
jured individuals be added to the captive populations.
The benefit of doing so may well exceed the costs of
rehabilitation and reintroduction. If the captive BLT


population is to be expanded, a substantial number of
founders must be added in order to achieve manage-
ment objectives at a reasonable population size. The
addition of 60 founders would reduce Nk from 7,413 to
430.

Further reduction in Nk would best be achieved
through more effective genetic management. If we can
reach Nk of 300 for each of the three species, the total
value of the additional founders, in terms of cost reduc-
tion, would be in excess of $175 million. While it may
seem distasteful to place a dollar value on wild ani-
mals, the idea of founder dividends can provide species
managers with a tangible argument for removing indi-
viduals from the wild that can be understood by biolo-
gists and policy-makers alike.

Some would argue that captive breeding is a misplaced
and inefficient use of scarce conservation resources.
We maintain that, to the extent that captive breeding
programs remain within current zoo carrying capacity,
captive breeding allows conservation biologists to take
advantage of non-reallocatable resources that would
otherwise be unavailable to them. In the case of lion
tamarins, the captive breeding programs have been
carefully reviewed and are considered essential to an
overall conservation strategy. Maximizing the founder
size of individual captive populations is one means of
minimizing the resource requirements of managed
species. In so doing, we can extend the life of existing
facilities available to captive breeding and delay the
day when in situ and ex situ conservation efforts in
zoos do battle.

References

Ballou, J.D. 1987. The concept of effective population
size and its role in the genetic management of
captive populations. American Association of
Zoological Parks and Aquariums Regional
Conference Proceedings, (1987):43-49.
Ballou, J.D. 1992. 1992 International Studbook,
Golden Lion Tamarin, Leontopithecus rosalia.
National Zoological Park, Washington, D.C.
Ballou, J.D. 1993. Capacity 4.0. National Zoological
Park, Washington, D.C.
Conway, W. 1986. The practical difficulties and
financial implications of endangered species
breeding programmes. Int. Zoo Yearb., 24/25:210-
219.
Frankel, O.H. and Soul6, M.E. 1981. Conservation
and Evolution. Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge, UK.


Page 10







Neotropical Primates 2(suppl.), December, 1994

Franklin, I.R. 1980. Evolutionary change in small
populations. In: Conservation Biology: An
Evolutionary-Ecological Perspective, M.E.Sould
and B.A.Wilcox (eds.), pp.135-149. Sinauer
Associates, Inc., Sunderland, Massachusetts.
Kleiman, D.G., Beck, B.B., Dietz, J.M. and Dietz,
L.A. 1991. Costs of re-introduction and criteria for
success: accounting and accountability in the
Golden Lion Tamarin Conservation Program.
Symp. Zool. Soc. London, 62:125-42.
Mace, G.M. 1992. 1992 International Studbook
Golden-Headed Lion Tamarin (Leontopithecus
chrysomelas) Number 5. Jersey Wildlife
Preservation Trust (JWPT), Jersey.


Page 11


Maguire, L.A. and Lacy, R.C. 1990. Allocating scarce
resources for conservation of endangered
subspecies: partitioning zoo space for tigers.
Conservation Biology, 4:157-166.
Mishan, E. J. 1982. Cost-Benefit Analysis: An
Informal Introduction. George Allen & Unwin,
London, England.
Sould, M.E., Gilpin, M., Conway, W. and Foose, T.
1986. The millennium ark: how long a voyage, how
many staterooms, how many passengers? Zoo
Biology, 2:101-113.
Valladares-Padua, C. and Simon, F. 1992. 1992
International Studbook Black Lion Tamarin
Leontopithecus chrysopygus. Fundacqo Parque
Zool6gico de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo.








Page 12 Neotropical Primates 2(suppl.), December, 1994


Conservation Units and the Protection of Atlantic Forest Lion Tamarins


Anthony B. Rylands, Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Ciencias Biol6gicas, Universidade Federal de Minas
Gerais, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, and Paulo Nogueira Neto, Departamento de Ecologia Geral,
Institute de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 11461, 05422-970, Sdo Paulo, Brazil.


Tropical forests are rapidly being destroyed throughout
Brazil, and most particularly those of the Atlantic
forest (Teixeira and Camara, 1988; Camara, 1991). In
Amazonia, the rate of destruction is more than
1,000,000 ha per year, while less than 10% of the
Atlantic forest, which once far exceeded 1,000,000
km2 throughout eastern Brazil along the coast and
inland as far west as the basin of the Rio Sao Francisco,
remains today. The large majority is highly fragmented
and degraded through logging and destruction. In the
long term (centuries or millennia) the preservation of
the biodiversity of these biomas will depend almost
entirely on conservation units, and most particularly
those which guarantee complete protection of the
ecosystems they contain (Nogueira Neto and Carvalho,
1979; Pidua and Quintio, 1984; Rylands, 1991;
Cimara, 1991; Nogueira Neto et al., 1992). If these
areas are properly chosen, based on a knowledge of
species' distributions, richness and diversity, and
criteria including socioeconomic aspects of land use, it
will still be possible to preserve a high proportion of
the biological diversity so threatened in these rain
forests. There are serious problems still facing the
current system of conservation units in Brazil (see, for
example, Rylands, 1991), but many are now reasonably
well maintained.

There are currently 41 species and subspecies of
callitrichids recognized for the Amazon, three north of
the Amazon in Colombia and Central America, and 10
species in the Atlantic forest region of Brazil
(Mittermeier et al., 1992; Rylands et al., 1993). All
except two of the Atlantic forest species are endemic
and considered threatened (Groombridge, 1993).

The four lion tamarins, Leontopithecus, are endemic to
the Atlantic forest, they have very restricted
distributions, and the number of protected areas for
each is insufficient in both number and size (see Table
1) (Seal et al., 1990). Heltne (1978) argued that an area
of at least 10,000 ha is necessary to maintain viable


populations of callitrichids, and this is being gradually
confirmed through improved knowledge of the
population dynamics and ecology of the species, and
through the Population Viability Analyses (PVA) and
Population and Habitat Viability Analyses (PHVA)
now widely used in conservation biology, and which
call for an understanding of population parameters,
effects of small population size, isolation (migration),
and rates and causes of population decline (Seal et al.,
1990; Caughley, 1994).

The situation concerning the population sizes and the
possibilities remaining for the establishment of further
reserves, or for increasing the size of those already
existing, is different for each of the lion tamarin
species (Table 1). Possibilities remain for
L.chrysomelas in southern Bahia, where populations
still survive throughout a fair portion of its original
distribution (Pinto and Tavares, 1994). The area of
forest effectively protected in the Una Biological
Reserve was recently expanded due to the acquisition
of 1,717 ha of adjacent forests (Coimbra-Filho et al.,
1993). However, the Reserve, which now totals 7,059
ha, will unfortunately remain as the largest single
conservation unit for the species, and is still below the
minimum size required for a viable population (see
Dietz et al., 1994). Further reserves are urgently
needed for this species.

The possibilities for the creation of new conservation
units are practically zero for L.rosalia in the lowland
areas of the state of Rio de Janeiro (Kierulff, 1993), and
L. chrysopygus in the western and central part of the
state of Sao Paulo (see Valladares-Padua et al., 1994).
Although the Morro do Diabo State Park (34,156 ha) is
more than three times the size of any other reserve
containing lion tamarins, studies have indicated that
L.chrysopygus have very large home ranges and the
population there is very low (between 80 and 450; see
Valladares-Padua et al., 1994) not exceeding the
potential population size for L.rosalia in the Pogo das


Neotropical Primates 2(suppl.), December, 1994


Page 12


v








Neotropical Primates 2(suppl.), December 1994 Page 13


Antas Biological Reserve (5,500 ha). The prin
options remaining for these species include(
creation of some few, small private reserves, bu
involve mainly active management of the
remaining populations, including the us
reintroductions, translocations, and reforest,
(Valladares-Padua et al., 1994: Kierulff and Oli
1994; Pessamilio, 1994).

The recently discovered black-faced lion tam
L.caissara Lorini and Persson 1990, is relat
privileged in relation to the amount of ha
remaining within and around its known distribute
the extreme north-east of the state of Parand and s&
east Sao Paulo, along the coastal lowlands. Howev
is also extremely rare and populations are mir
(Martuscelli and Rodrigues, 1992; Lorini and Per
1994), and it is probably the most endangered pri
in South America. This emphasizes the ne(
consolidate the protection of the Superagiii Nat
Park (see Camara, 1994) and also the urgent nee
the establishment and maintenance of further res
in areas where populations are still surviving. M
Rodrigues, a doctoral student from the
University of Sio Paulo carrying out studies
on the distribution and ecology of species, and
the Environmental Secretariat of the State of
Sao Paulo, have drafted separate but similar
proposals for an Ecological Station in the
lowland region of Ariri in the state of Silo
Paulo, both of which have been submitted to
the State Government (see Rodrigues et al.,
1992). Hopefully this will bear fruit, but
further research on the distribution of this
species in the state of Sao Paulo is required in
order to confirm its distribution there
(especially the northern limits to its range),
with the possibilities still remaining of the
discovery of new populations. The
establishment and protection of conservation
units is undoubtedly the key strategy for the
species' survival.

References

Camara, I.de G. 1991. Piano de Ag~o para a
Mata Atldntica. Fundag~o SOS Mata
Atlintica, Sio Paulo. 152pp.
Cimara, I.de G. 1994. Conservation status of
the black-faced Lion tamarin,
Leontopithecus caissara. Neotropical
Primates, 2(suppl.):50-51.
Caughley,G. 1994. Directions in conservation
biology. J. Anim. Ecol., 63: 215-244.


cipal Coimbra-Filho, A.F., Dietz, L.A., Mallinson, J.J.C.
e the and Santos, I.B. 1993. Land purchase for the Una
t will Biological Reserve, refuge of the golden-headed
few lion tamarin. Neotropical Primates, 1(3):7-9.
e of Groombridge, B. 1993. 1994 IUCN Red List of
nation Threatened Animals. World Conservation
veira, Monitoring Centre, Cambridge, UK.
Heltne, P.G. 1978. Demography and wildlife
management of tamarins and marmosets.
arin, Prim.Med., 10: 30-36.
ively Kierulff, M.C.M.. 1993. Avaliagqo das populaq5es
bitat selvagens do mico-ledo-dourado, Leontopithecus
on in rosalia, e proposta de estrat6gia para sua
outh- conservagao. Unpublished Master's thesis,
er, it Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo
dimal Horizonte.
sson, Kierulff, M.C.M. and Oliveira, P.de P. 1994. Habitat
mate preservation and the translocation of threatened
ed to groups of golden lion tamarins, Leontopithecus
ional rosalia. Neotropical Primates, 2(suppl.): 15-18.
d for Lorini, M.L. and Persson, V.G. 1990. Nova esp6cie de
erves Leontopithecus Lesson, 1840, do sul do Brasil
arcia (Primates, Callitrichidae). Bol.Mus.Nac., Nova

Table 1. Protected areas for the Lion Tamarins, Leontopithecus.
Sources: 'Kierulff (1993), 2Dietz et al. (1994), 3Valladares-Padua
et al. (1994), 4Lorini and Persson (1990, 1994), 5Martuscelli and
Rodrigues (1992).
Leontopithecus rosalia'
Distribution Rio de Janeiro
Protected Area Pogo das Antas Biological Reserve (5,500 ha)
Population = c.360 individuals
Other Areas 5 (privately owned) + 12 isolated groups
Leontopithecus chrysomelas'
Distribution Bahia
Protected Area Una Biological Reserve (7,059 ha)
Population = c.450
Other Areas Numerous
Leontopithecus chrysopygus3
Distribution Sao Paulo
Protected Areas Morro do Diabo State Park (34,156 ha)
Population = 80-450
Caitetus State Ecological Station (2,178 ha)
Population = 8-30
Other Areas 3 (privately owned)
Leontopithecus caissara4.5
Distribution ParanA, Sao Paulo
Protected Areas Superagiii National Park (21,400 ha)
Population = c.160
Jacupiranga State Park? (150,000 ha)
Population unknown
Other Areas Uncounted


Areotropical Primates 2(suppl.), December, 1994


Page 13







Page 14


Sgrie, 338:1-14.
Lorini, M.L. and Persson, V.G. 1994. Status of field
research on Leontopithecus caissara: The Black-
Faced Lion Tamarin Project. Neotropical Primates,
2(suppl.): 52-55.
Martuscelli, P. and Rodrigues, M.G. 1992. Novas
populaq6es do mico-lego-caigara, Leontopithecus
caissara (Lorini and Persson, 1990) no sudeste do
Brasil (Primates Callitrichidae). Rev.Inst.Flor.,
Sao Paulo, 4: 920-924.
Mittermeier, R.A., Schwarz, M. and Ayres, J.M. 1992.
A new species of marmoset, genus Callithrix
Erxleben, 1777 (Callitrichidae, Primates) from the
Rio Mauds region, state of Amazonas, central
Brazilian Amazonia. Goeldiana Zoologia, (14): 1-
17.
Nogueira Neto, P. and Carvalho, J.C.de M. 1979. A
programme of Ecological Stations for Brazil.
Environmental Conservation, 6(2): 95-104.
Nogueira Neto, P., Rylands, A.B., Camara, I.de G.,
Cano, G., Guillaumon, R. and Campos, V.F. 1992.
Unidades de Conservagqo e biodiversidade. In: Uma
Estratigia Latino-Americana para a Amaz6nia:
Relat6rio Sintese e RecomendagSes, C.Pavan, N. R.
R. Barcellar and P.W.Leitdo (eds.), pp.32-37.
FundagAo Memorial de Am6rica Latina, Sao Paulo.
Padua, M.T.J. and QuintAo, A.T.B. 1984. A system of
National Parks and Biological Reserves in the
Brazilian Amazon. In: National Parks,
Conservation and Development. The Role of
ProtectedAreas in Sustaining Society, J.A.McNeely
and K.R.Miller (eds.), pp.565-571. Smithsonian
Institution Press, Washington, D.C.


Pessamilio, D.M. 1994. Revegetation of deforested
areas in the Pogo das Antas Biological Reserve, Rio
de Janeiro. Neotropical Primates, 2(suppl.): 19-20.
Pinto, L.P.S. and Tavares, L.I. 1994. Inventory and
conservation status of wild populations of golden-
headed lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysomelas.
Neotropical Primates, 2(suppl.): 24-27.
Rodrigues, M.G., Katsuayama, S. and Rodrigues,
C.A.G. 1992. Estrat6gias para conservagQo do
mico-leao-caigara, Leontopithecus caissara.
Analise da situagqo econ6mico-social da
comunidade do Ariri Parte I. Rev.Inst.Flor., Sao
Paulo, 4:1118-1125.
Rylands, A.B. 1991. The Status of Conservation
Areas in the Brazilian Amazon. World Wildlife
Fund and the Conservation Foundation,
Washington, D.C. 146pp.
Rylands, A.B., Coimbra-Filho, A.F. and Mittermeier,
R.A. 1993. Systematics, distributions and some
notes on the conservation status of the
Callitrichidae. In: Marmosets and Tamarins:
Systematics, Behaviour, and Ecology, A.B.Rylands
(ed.), pp. 11-77. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Seal, U.S., Ballou, J.D. and Valladares-Padua, C.
(eds.) 1990. Leontopithecus Population Viability
Analysis Workshop Report. IUCN/SSC Captive
Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG), Apple Valley,
Minnesota.
Teixeira, D.M. and CAmara, I.de G. 1988. A terra
desert. Ciencia Hoje, 7(39): 19-23.
Valladares-Padua, C., Padua, S.M. and Cullen Jr, L.
1994. The conservation biology of the black lion
tamarin, Leontopithecus chrysopygus: first ten
years' report. Neotropical Primates, 2(suppl.): 36-
39.


Aleotrupical Primates 2(suppl.), December, 1994










Habitat Preservation and the Translocation of Threatened Groups of
Golden Lion Tamarins, Leontopithecus rosalia


Maria Cecilia M. Kierulff and Paula P. de Oliveira, Reserva Biol6gica de Pogo das Antas, Caixa Postal 113049,
28820-000 Silva Jardim, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.


In 1968, Coimbra-Filho and Magnanini recorded the
threatened status of the golden lion tamarin,
Leontopithecus rosalia, and a subsequent paper by
Coimbra-Filho (1969; see also Coimbra-Filho and
Mittermeier, 1973) provided the first detailed
documentation of the species' distribution in the
lowland coastal Atlantic forest in the state of Rio de
Janeiro, Brazil (Fig.1). Coimbra-Filho (1969)
demonstrated the extreme reduction in the animal's
geographic range, and likewise the extreme
fragmentation of the remaining forests and the
concurrent demise of the species.

The principal factors which threaten the survival of
L.rosalia in the wild today include the small size and
fragmented nature of the populations and the
extremely limited amount of remaining habitat
available (Fig. 1, Table 1). It is on these two fronts that
the principal conservation efforts are concentrated.
The resolution of the first problem will depend on the
introduction of captive animals (Beck et al., 1991) and
also the translocation of isolated endangered groups to
safer and larger forests (Table 1). The second problem
involves measures to reverse habitat loss and increase
the protection of the remaining habitat, comprising
to a large extent small privately-owned forest
patches. This involves reforestation in protected
areas, especially in the Pogo das Antas Biological
Reserve, where the potential to increase the amount
of forest totals 2,000 ha (Pessamilio, 1994), along
with environmental education (Kleiman et al.,
1986; Dietz, et al., 1994).

During 1991-1992, as part of the activities of the
Golden Lion Tamarin Conservation Program of the
National Zoological Park, Washington D.C., and
following the recommendations of the International
Management Committee for the species, a major
survey was carried out to examine the status and
distribution of golden lion tamarins,


Leontopithecus rosalia, outside of the Pogo das Antas
Biological Reserve, and throughout its known and
possible range in the state of Rio de Janeiro (Kieruiff,
1993a, 1993b). It was carried out using satellite images
to locate remnant forests, the large majority of which
were visited to check for the existence or otherwise of
lion tamarin populations (see Fig. 1). One of the results
of this survey was the location of 12 single and isolated
groups in very small and very degraded forest patches
(Table 1). These groups were found to be in serious
danger of disappearing. All of the very small and
isolated forests where they survive are hunted, logged,
and threatened by pasture burning. The groups
themselves are threatened by animal dealers, predation
by domestic animals, and outright deforestation. Their
importance, representing as they do a significant
portion of the wild population outside of the Pogo das
Antas Biological Reserve (Table 1), and in terms of the
genetic variability they represent, obviated the need for
their translocation to a larger and protected forest In
1994, a translocation program was set up, having
located an area of well preserved and protected forest
of 2,400 ha in the Fazenda Uniao, municipality of Rio
das Ostras, owned and managed by the Brazilian


Original distribution of L rosafa ESPiN RTO
Distribution of L. rosais after Kierulff (1993) SANTO
SPogo das Antas Biological Reserve /-- ta n

MINAS GERAIS c s


00 doAbrm

PAULO M-a.rat
Rio de Cabo Frio


Figure 1. The distribution of Leontopithecus rosalia in the
state of Rio de Janeiro.


Page 15








Page 16 Neotropical Primates 2(suppl.), December~ 1994


Railway Company (Rede Ferroviara Federal) (see Fig.
2). After four months of negotiation, an agreement was
signed between the Railway Company and the
Associaago Mico-Ledo Dourado, created in 1993 to
administer on-site the Golden Lion Tamarin
Conservation Program, underway since 1983. The
Agreement included the introduction of golden lion
tamarin groups and the use of a house, which was
restored as lodging and a laboratory for researchers.

The isolated groups were captured, measured,
weighed, tattooed, and marked, and radio collars were
placed on the adults. One of these 12 groups (A), a
pair, found in a forest patch of 24 ha in the
municipality of Cabo Frio (see Fig.1), was captured
and followed for 15 days. In order to avoid unnecessary
stress or interference in their already precarious
situation, the pair were located and their sleeping sites
recorded just once a day. During these 15 days, the
animals were seen leaving their forest patch to enter
two others, each of 1 and 5 ha. This involved crossing
open grassland, and on the fifteenth day the male was
found dead, probably predated by a dog. Traps were
subsequently set up to capture the surviving female,
but a search using play-back recordings failed to locate
the animal, and, according to locals in the region, she
had been caught by an animal dealer.

The second group (B) located in Bfizios, in the
municipality of Cabo Frio (Fig.2), was captured in July
1994, and accompanied during two months until the
radio of the collared individual lost its antenna. The
forest where they lived was hunted and there was some
degree of forest cutting. The vegetation in this group's
range was so dense that habituation was impossible,
making it difficult to obtain data
on feeding and behavior. Table 1. Numbers
Information was limited to forests where they
plotting the group's movements
according to the radio signals. Populations of L. r
The group was formed initially
of five individuals which used PoRo das Antas Bic
the entire forest patch as well as serve
an area of scrub and bushes Other wild popular
(macega), totalling 20 ha. Only
one sleeping site recorded. Two Reintroduced popu
infants were born at the end of e popu)
August 1994, and in October the (before May 1994)
group was caught and Isolated groups whi
translocated to the Fazenda be translocated
Uniao. The seven lion tamarins TOTAL
are being followed by Total
Total area of Pogo das
triangulation only, in order to ** Estimatedarea.
minimize disturbing them. *** These groups will be


Figure 2. Location of the isolated groups of lion
tamarins which will be translocated first to the
Fazenda Uniao.

During the first week in the Fazenda the group already
occupied an area of 15 ha, and they are increasing their
range day-by-day.

Groups C and D were found in the Fazenda Cabista,
also in the municipality of Cabo Frio (Fig.2). The two
forests of 57 and 81 ha where these two groups are
surviving are the only ones left standing in the region,
and scrub adjacent to them was cut for charcoal during
our observations. It proved impossible to capture these
groups using traditional methods. The traps were
baited every two days during nine months. Eight

of surviving wild groups of L. rosalia and the sizes of the
occur.

rosalia Forest size Number of groups
logical 2,760 ha* 48 groups (Seal et al.,
1990)
ions 6,857 ha (4 areas 43 groups (Kierulff,
of 340-4,600 ha) 1993a)
nation 1,700 ha** 28 groups (A. Martins,
pers. com.)
ich will 865 ha (9 isolated 12 groups (A. Martins,
areas of 20-250 ha)*** pers. com.)
12,182 ha 131 groups
rntas is 5,500 ha.
translocated to the Fazenda Uniao (2,400 ha of forest).


Page 16


Neotropical Primates 2(suppl.), December, 1994







Neotropical Primates 2(suppl.), December, 1994

different fruits were used, including some native to the
forest patches. The groups would reply to tape-
recorded calls, but never approached. Our continuing
efforts to catch these groups will include the use of
artificial tree-hole traps.

Groups E, F and G, also in the municipality of Cabo
Frio, are isolated by drainage canals. Two of the groups
are in two patches of gallery forest, of 48 and 61 ha,
along the Rio Sao Joao. The other group was located in
a forest of 120 ha, isolated by canals and large
expanses of pasture. These forests suffer from hunting,
fires and selective logging. They are accessible only by
boat, but traps are being baited twice a week, and the
groups will be translocated by the end of 1994. The
remaining groups will hopefully be translocated in the
first six months of 1995.

The effort and man-hours involved in translocating
these groups is well compensated when considering
their important genetic contribution to the wild
population and the highly degraded state of the small
and isolated forest and scrub where they are surviving
now. The formation of a new population at the Fazenda
Uniao reserve, besides providing important experience
regarding translocation techniques, will without doubt
be a significant contribution for the species' survival in
the wild. On the other hand the
presence of the lion tamarins,
the ongoing environmental
education program, and the
presence of the researchers
themselves will certainly
contribute to the preservation of
the forest at Fazenda Uniao, one
of the largest and best preserved
areas of Atlantic forest in the
lowland coastal region of Rio de
Janeiro.

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to the
coordinators of the Golden Lion
Tamarin Conservation Program
(National Zoological Park,
Washington, D.C), Devra
G.Kleiman, Andrew J.Baker,
James M.Dietz, Benjamin Beck,
Lou Ann Dietz, and Denise
Rambaldi, for their support, and
to Anthony B.Rylands (Federal
University of Minas Gerais) and Golden lion
Alcides Pissinatti (Rio de


Page 17


Janeiro Primate Center). The program is being
financed by the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, the
International Endangered Species Program (IESP) -
Smithsonian Institution, the World Wildlife Fund -
US, the Fundagao o Boticirio de Protegdo A Natureza,
the John D. and Catherine T.MacArthur Foundation,
and the Brazilian Science Council (CNPq). Finally,
our thanks for the support of the Brazilian Institute for
the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources
(Ibama).

References

Beck, B.B., Kleiman, D.G., Dietz, J.M., Castro, I.,
Carvalho, C., Martins, A. and Rettberg-Beck, B.
1991. Losses and reproduction in reintroduced
golden lion tamarins. Dodo, J. Jersey Wildl.
Preserve. Trust, 27:50-61.
Coimbra-Filho, A.F. 1969. Mico-ledo, Leontideus
rosalia (Linnaeus, 1766), situaqio atual da esp6cie
no Brasil (Callithricidae Primates).
An.Acad.Brasil.Cignc., 41(supl.): 29-52.
Coimbra-Filho. A.F. and Magnanini, A. 1968.
Animais raros ou em vias de desaparecimento no
Brasil. Anudrio Brasileiro de Economia Florestal,
(19): 149-177.
Coimbra-Filho, A.F. and Mittermeier, R.A. 1973.


tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia). Photo by R. Mittermeier.







Page 18


Distribution and ecology of the genus
Leontopithecus Lesson, 1840 in Brazil. Primates,
14(1):47-66.
Dietz, J.M., Dietz, L.A. and Nagagata, E.Y. 1994. The
effective use of flagship species for conservation of
biodiversity: the example of lion tamarins in Brazil.
In: Creative Conservation: Interactive
Management of Wild and Captive Animals,
P.J.S.Olney, G.M.Mace and A.T.C. Feistner (eds.),
pp.32-49. Chapman and Hall, London.
Kierulff, M.C.M. 1993a. Avaliagao das populac6es
selvagens de mico-ledo-dourado, Leontopithecus
rosalia, e proposta de estrat6gia para sua
conservaqao. Unpublished Master's thesis, Instituto
de Ci8ncias Biol6gicas, Universidade Federal de


Neotropical Primates 2(suppl.), December, 1994

Minas Gerais. 172pp.
Kieruliff, M.C.M. 1993b. Status and distribution of the
golden lion tamarin in Rio de Janeiro. Neotropical
Primates, 1(4):23-24.
Kleiman, D.G., Beck, B.B., Dietz, J.M., Dietz, L.A.,
Ballou, J.D. and Coimbra-Filho, A.F. 1986.
Conservation program for the golden lion tamarin:
captive research and management, ecological
studies, educational strategies, and reintroduction.
In: Primates: The Road to Self-Sustaining
Populations, K.Benirschke (ed.), pp.959-979.
Springer Verlag, New York.
Pessamilio, D.M. 1994. Revegetation of deforested
areas in the Poqo das Antas Biological Reserve, Rio
de Janeiro. Neotropical Primates, 2(suppl.): 19-20.






Neotropical Primates 2(suppl.), December, 1994


Revegetation of Deforested Areas in the Popo das Antas Biological
Reserve, Rio de Janeiro


Dionizio M. Pessamilio, Director, Pogo das Antas Biological Reserve, Caixa Postal 113049, 28820-000 Silva
Jardim, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.


Introduction

For some years now, studies of the golden lion tamarin,
Leontopithecus rosalia, have shown that the Pogo das
Antas Biological Reserve has insufficient forest to
maintain a viable population of the species (Green,
1980; Kleiman et al., 1986; Seal et al., 1990). This is
especially serious considering that this is the largest
forested area maintaining a wild population of this
species. Nearly half of the Reserve's 5,500 ha consists
of vegetation which is inappropriate for lion tamarins.
For this reason, the Brazilian Institute for the
Environment and Renewable Natural Resources
(Ibama), responsible for the maintenance and
protection of the Reserve (Brazil, MA/IBDFIFBCN,
1981), has been developing a series of projects in
conjunction with the Golden Lion Tamarin
Conservation Program of the National Zoological
Park, Washington, D.C., to promote natural recovery
processes as well as direct planting to increase the area
of forest in the mid- to long-term.

Research and Reforestation Programs

The first reforestation program was begun by Suzanne
Kolb, University of Georgia, Athens, in late 1989,
financed by the Golden Lion Tamarin Conservation
Program and the World Wildlife Fund US (Kolb,
1992, 1993). The main concerns of the study included
not only increasing the suitable habitat for lion
tamarins, but also reforestation as a means of reducing
the frequency and extent savanna fires, common
during the dry season. The initial stages of the project
included investigation on the role of isolated patches of
secondary growth in old pastures. It was found that
they were important regeneration foci, that they were
increasing in size, and that closed canopy patches were
more effective for seed germination than open canopy
patches. This resulted in a second stage of the Project
(1991-1992) examining the more cost-effective
strategy of planting islands of native trees rather than
uniformly spaced seedlings.


1993 saw the start of the "Revegetation Project for
Poco das Antas", following on from the research of
Suzanne Kolb, and coordinated by researchers and
technicians from the Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden
(administered by Ibama) in collaboration with the
Margaret Mee Foundation, Rio de Janeiro. This
involves 12 research projects and programs in the
following areas: floristics and phytosociology; animal-
plant interactions; secondary succession; wood
anatomy; the development of an information and
service center; phenology and seed collections; seed
conservation; population dynamics; ecophysiology;
revegetation; mapping of the Reserve; and
ecophysiology of vegetation in inundated areas.

This major research and revegetation program is being
financed by Shell do Brasil S.A., The John D. and
Catherine T.Macarthur Foundation, the Brazil Science
Council (CNPq) and the Fundacgo o Boticdrio para
Conservacgo da Natureza. In addition, the forest
engineering company Biovert Florestal e Agricola
Ltda. has submitted a proposal to the Botanical Garden
and World Wildlife Fund US, which involves the
planting of 300 ha of native forest trees free of charge.

Fire Prevention

Successive fires, principally in the peatbogs covering
part of the Reserve, have prevented forest regeneration
over hundreds of hectares. Combatting fires in these
peaty soils is impossible due to difficulties of access
and the fact that the fires smoulder up to one meter
below ground. To resolve this, a revegetation project is
underway involving a strip of 3,000 x 50 m along the
Aldeia Velha canal, to act as a barrier to fires which
spread from neighboring ranches.

The damaging extent of the fires over recent years, and
the threat they pose to the forest habitat of the golden
lion tamarins, has resulted in international interest in
establishing a fire prevention system, including the
participation of the US Forest Service and NASA. The


Page 19







Page 20


Reserve now has a meteorological station, and is also
well stocked with fire-fighting equipment, including
look-out towers and fixed and portable radio-
telephones. Reserve personnel have undergone
training courses in Brazil and overseas.

References

Brazil, MA/IBDF/FBCN. 1981. Plano de Manejo.
Reserva Biol6gica de Pogo dasAntas. Ministdrio da
Agriculture (MA), Instituto Brasileiro de
Desenvolvimento Florestal (IBDF), Fundagao
Brasileira para a Conservagio da Natureza (FBCN),
Rio de Janeiro. 95pp.
Green, K.M. 1980. An Assessment of the Pogo das
Antas Reserve, Brazil, and Prospects for Survival of
the Golden Lion Tamarin, Leontopithecus rosalia
rosalia. Unpublished report, World Wildlife Fund,
Washington, D.C. 18pp.
Kleiman, D.G., Beck, B.B., Dietz, J.M., Dietz, L.A.,
Ballou, J.D. and Coimbra-Filho, A.F. 1986.
Conservation program for the golden lion tamarin:


captive research and management, ecological
studies, educational strategies, and reintroduction.
In: Primates: The Road to Self-Sustaining
Populations, K.Benirschke (ed.), pp.959-979.
Springer Verlag, New York.
Kolb, S.R. 1992. Reforestation Research Report: A
Reforestation Study Conducted in the Pogo das
Antas Reserve in Brazil for the National Zoological
Park's Golden Lion Tamarin Project. Unpublished
report in the Golden Lion Tamarin Conservation
Program Annual Report 1992, National Zoological
Park, Washington, D.C. 6pp.
Kolb, S.R. 1993. Islands of Secondary Vegetation in
Degraded Pastures of Brazil: Their Role in
Reestablishing Atlantic Coastal Forest.
Unpublished Doctoral Thesis, University of
Georgia, Athens.
Seal, U.S., Ballou, J.D. and Valladares-Padua, C.
(eds.) 1990. Leontopithecus Population Viability
Analysis Workshop Report. IUCN/SSC Captive
Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG), Apple Valley,
Minnesota.


Aleotrupical Primates 2(suppl.), December, 1994







Neotropical Primates 2(suppl.), December, 1994 Page 21

Population Structure and Territory Size in Golden-Headed Lion Tamarins,
Leontopithecus chrysomelas


James M. Dietz, Department of Zoology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA, Saturnino
Neto F. de Sousa, Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renovaveis (Ibama), Reserva
Biol6gica de Una, 45690 Una, Bahia, Brazil, and Jose Renato 0. da Silva, 45690 Una, Bahia, Brazil.


Introduction


With the exception of studies by Rylands (1982, 1983,
1989) conducted for three months on one group at
Lemos Maia Experimental Station, Bahia, very little
quantitative information has been published on the
reproductive success, and population density and
structure of free-ranging golden-headed lion tamarins
(GHLTs). In addition to intrinsic scientific value, this
kind of data is essential to the formulation of an
effective conservation strategy for any Leontopithecus
species (Seal et al., 1990). We have been conducting
continuous field observations on GHLTs in Una
Biological Reserve, Bahia, since July 1991. The
general objectives of our research include a
quantitative assessment of the viability of the Una
population of GHLTs and a comparison of behavioral
and ecological data with that collected on golden lion
tamarins (GLT) in the Poqo das Antas Biological
Reserve, Rio de Janeiro. The results of the first
objective have and will continue to generate
suggestions about the appropriate size and habitat
composition for the Una Reserve (Coimbra-Filho et
al., 1993). The comparative approach used in the
second objective will allow us to understand better the
adaptive significance of behaviors common to both
species, for example, the maintenance of territories
that are large relative to those of other Neotropical
forest primates. Here we report on selected preliminary
findings for both objectives.

Study Area

The study area covers approximately 400 ha along the
northern and northeastern borders of the 7000 ha Una
Reserve. The forest in this portion of the Reserve is
characterized by emergent trees about 30 m in height,
covered with bromeliads and vines and with a well-
developed understorey comprised of small trees, shrubs
and bamboos. Although it is likely that selective
cutting of economically valuable trees took place prior


to the creation of the Reserve, we have no evidence that
clear cutting took place in this locale.

Methods

The lion tamarins in the study area were captured
using modified Tomahawk live-traps baited with
grapes. All individuals were tattooed and fur-dyed for
identification. Radio transmitter collars were put on
two individuals in each group. The groups were
followed until they became habituated to the presence
of human observers, at which time systematic focal
observations were initiated. The location of the focal
group was plotted at intervals of 30 min. Group
compositions were monitored at intervals no greater
than one week (see methods in Kleiman et al, 1986;
Dietz and Baker, 1993). The results presented here are
based on at least one year of data for each study group.

Results

Our study included 34 GHLTs in seven groups,
presumably all the lion tamarins in the study area
(Table 1.). The composition of the study groups was
similar to that reported for golden lion tamarins
(GLT): a single reproductive (parous) female, 1-3 adult
males plus the offspring of 2-3 litters. The mean size

Table 1. Composition of Study Groups
Group Composition at First Capture
GHLT 8 1RF
VIV IRF, 2AM
PRI 1RF, 2AM, 2SaF
PIA 1RF, 1AF, 3AM, 2SaM, 1JF, 1JM
FRU 1RF, 2AM
GHLT 10 IRF
JER 1RF, 1AF, 1AM?, ISaM, lJF, 1JM
RF = parous female, F = female, M = male, A = adult
Sa = subadult, J = juvenile.







Page 22 ATe tropical Primates 2(suppl.), Decembet 1994


for reproductive groups was 5.2 for GHLTs and 5.4 for
GLTs. The number of offspring surviving to six months
of age/reproductive female/year was 1.1 for GHLTs
(estimated from group compositions and birth data)
and 1.7 for GLTs monogynouss groups only). Results
on GLTs are taken from Dietz and Baker (1993).

With the exception of GHLTs 8 and 10, which were
dispersing individuals, all the study groups maintained
relatively stable territories defended against all other
adult tamarins (Fig. 1). The mean territory area was 75
ha for GHLTs (n= 4) and 42 ha for GLTs (n = 47). The
Concave polygon model in MCPAAL software
(Conservation and Research 'Center, Smithsonian
Institution) was used to calculate territory areas in both
studies. To calculate the density of GHLTs in the Una
Reserve we merged the datafiles from the study groups
and calculated the total area occupied by the four
groups. Based on these calculations, the maximum
density of GHLTs in the Reserve is one per 12 hectares.
If 5,000 ha of the Una Reserve contain suitable habitat
for GHLTs, and our data are representative for the
entire area, the estimated population size would be 416
animals in 80 groups. Under these assumptions the
effective population size for the Reserve would be
about 160, a number far smaller than the minimum
theoretically necessary for longterm conservation of
genetic diversity in isolated populations (Sould, 1980).
However, both of these assumptions need to be
examined carefully before accepting this population
estimate as the basis of management
recommendations.


Although the social organization and mating
system of GHLTs appear to be similar to that of
GLTs, group size is apparently smaller and territory
size larger. We speculate that the smaller group
sizes in the Una Reserve may reflect higher
mortality, perhaps as a result of higher predation
pressure in this relatively undisturbed forest than in
the secondary forests of the Pogo das Antas Reserve.
Larger territories in Una may be the result of
interspecific differences in habitat use, or, may
result from a greater resource availability in the
forests of Pogo das Antas. If the latter explanation is
correct, we would predict a decrease in lion tamarin
density in Pogo das Antas as the degraded forests in
that reserve mature.

In conclusion, large patches of relatively
undisturbed forest adjacent to the Una Reserve
presently contribute to much larger effective
population sizes for GHLT's and most forest
vertebrates, than would be the case in the Reserve


alone. Given the rapid rates of deforestation in the
region, we suggest that every effort be made to annex
these remaining large forests to the Reserve. Where
land acquisition is impossible we suggest intensive
work with landowners to encourage the development
of private forest reserves. In a few years we will no
longer have these options.

Acknowledgements

We wish to thank the Brazilian Institute for the
Environment and Renewable Natural Resources
(Ibama), the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), the
University of Maryland, and the Jersey Wildlife
Preservation Trust (JWPT), Jeremy J.C. Mallinson,
Zoological Director, in particular, for their generous
support of our research.

References

Coimbra-Filho, A.F., Dietz, L.A., Mallinson, J.J.C.
and Santos, I.B. 1993. Land purchase for the Una
Biological Reserve, refuge for the golden-headed
lion tamarin. Neotropical Primates, 3(3):7-9.
Dietz, J.M. and Baker, A.J. 1993. Polygyny and female
reproductive success in golden lion tamarins,
Leontopithecus rosalia. Anim. Behav., 46:1067-
1078.
Kleiman, D.G., Beck, B.B., Dietz, J.M., Dietz, L,
Ballou, J.D. and Coimbra-Filho, A.F. 1986.


Figure 1. Territory perimeters for four groups of golden-
headed lion tamarins in the Una Biological Reserve.


Page 22


Neotropical Primates 2(suppl.), December, 1994







Neotropical Primates 2(suppl.), December, 1994


Conservation program for the golden lion tamarin:
captive research and management, ecological
studies, educational strategies, and reintroduction.
In: Primates: the Road to Self-sustaining
Populations, K. Benirschke (ed.), pp.959-979.
Springer-Verlag, New York.
Rylands, A.B. 1982. The Ecology and Behaviour of
Three Species of Marmosets and Tamarins
(Callitrichidae, Primates) in Brazil. Unpublished
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Cambridge,
Cambridge.
Rylands, A.B. 1989. Sympatric Brazilian callitrichids:
the black tufted-ear marmoset, Callithrix kuhlii, and
the golden-headed lion tamarin, Leontopithecus
chrysomelas. J. Hum. Evol., 18:679-695.


Rylands, A.B. 1993. The ecology of the lion tamarins,
Leontopithecus: some intrageneric differences and
comparisons with other callitrichids. In: Marmosets
and Tamarins: Systematics, Behaviour, and
Ecology, A.B.Rylands (ed.), pp. 296-313. Oxford
University Press, Oxford.
Seal, U.S., Ballou, J.D. and Valladares-Padua, C.
(eds.) 1990. Leontopithecus Population Viability
Analysis Workshop Report. IUCN/SSC Captive
Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG), Apple Valley,
Minnesota.
Sould, M.E. 1980. Thresholds for survival:
maintaining fitness and evolutionary potential. In:
Conservation Biology: An Ecological-Evolutionary
Perspective, M. Soule and B. Wilcox (eds.), pp. 151-
169. Sinauer Assoc., Sunderland, Massachusetts.


Page 23







Page 24


Inventory and Conservation Status of Wild Populations of Golden-Headed
Lion Tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysomelas


Luiz Paulo de S. Pinto and Luciano I. Tavares, Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Ciencias Biol6gicas,
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.


The endangered status of the golden-headed lion
tamarin has been recognized since the early 1970's
(Coimbra-Filho, 1970, 1972). However, only in the last
ten years has L.chrysomelas been the focus of
considerable attention regarding its conservation. The
principal stimulus for this arose as a result of concern
over the illegal export of 50-60 animals to Belgium
and Japan in 1983/84 (Konstant, 1986). Due to this,
the Brazilian Institute for the Environment (Ibama)
established the International Committee for the
Recovery and Management of the species (Mallinson,
1986, 1987). The recovery was highly successful, and
the Committee established a breeding program and
studbook for the species. The 1993 studbook, now
coordinated by Helga de Bois of the Antwerp Zoo,
reported 575 animals in 49 institutions, and efforts are
underway to reduce the growth of the population (De
Bois, 1993). A Population Viability Analysis
Workshop for the entire genus, organized by the IUCN/
SSC Captive Breeding Specialist Group (now the
Conservation Breeding Specialist Group) and the
Fundag o Biodiversitas, held in Belo Horizonte,
Brazil, in 1990, established recommendations and
priorities for the Conservation Plan for the species
(Seal et al., 1990). On the occasion of this workshop,
the International Committee was formerly recognized
by Ibama, and its mandate was changed to include all
aspects of the species' conservation, including the wild
populations.

One of the principal recommendations of the 1990
Workshop, concerning specifically L.chrysomelas, was
the need for studies on the status and distribution of the
species in the wild, considering that the captive
population was by then well-established and healthy.
This paper reports on an inventory of the wild
populations of L.chrysomelas, and the information
obtained on the status of the species in the context of
the status of its natural habitats in northeast Brazil.

From April 1991 to March 1993, we conducted field
work throughout an area of approximately 37,000 kinm,
including the entire known distribution of the species


in the south of the state of Bahia, and a small part of
the extreme north of the state of Minas Gerais. This
region is within the domain of the Atlantic forest, there
divided into two principal forest formations: tropical
evergreen rain forest in the eastern, coastal part, and
seasonal, semideciduous forest in the parts inland and
to the west (Mori and Silva, 1980).

Three main approaches were used in this study. The
first involved informal interviews of local inhabitants,
enquiring about the primates they recognized as
occurring in the region. A total of 418 interviews of
620 people were made throughout the region. The
second method involved direct censusing of forest
patches using recordings of lion tamarin long calls
("playback") to increase the encounter rate (see
Kierulff, 1993). Amplified recordings were played
every 200 m along parallel trails (200 m apart) so as to
cover all of smaller forest patches, or a known fraction
of larger patches, in 33 areas. The third approach
involved a survey of the archives of the regional office
of the Brazilian Institute for the Environment (Ibama)
and the Regional Cocoa Growing Authority
(Commissdo Executiva do Piano da Lavoura Cacueira
- CEPLAC), principal supervisors and administrators
of the socioeconomic activities of the region. The
specific aim was to obtain an understanding of the
economic growth of the region over recent years, and
with this the trends regarding principal agricultural
activities and deforestation. The analysis of this data
and the elaboration of distribution maps for the species
was carried out using the Geographic Information
System (CISIG) developed by Conservation
International, Washington, D.C., and installed at the
Biodiversity Conservation Data Center of the
Fundacao Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte.

The "playback" technique was evidently crucial for the
success of the direct censuses. A total of 35 groups
were registered during censusing, 26 (74%) of which
resulted from responses to the long call recordings.
Increasing the likelihood of finding groups, it
increases the efficiency of censuses in a large number


Afeotropical Primates 2(suppl.), December, 1994







Page 25


of areas. It also means
that the observers can -,-
spend longer with each .
group, the animals Bahia
being attracted by the -"
long calls, and allowing M .
more time for more Minas
,"- vGerais '
accurate counts of the Gerais
composition and size.

The interview program SCALE
was essential as a 0 30 60 90L
complement to the A
censuses. The lion
tamarins are clearly
recognizable and easily
described, and the ( *.
interviews provided in
most cases reliable
information on their
occurrence or otherwise
in the locality, and
therefore a more --
complete picture of
their distribution and
total population size
than would be possible
through direct
censusing alone. The
interviews also
provided valuable Figure 1. TI
information on the
capture of primates for pets and on hunting. Positive
replies concerning the occurrence of L.chrysomelas
were obtained for 72% of 181 interviews within the
species' range.

Of the 27 areas censused, all within the known
geographic distribution, 24 provided direct sightings
of L.chrysomelas groups, and combining these results
with those of the interviews, 94 localities were
registered as still maintaining populations of the
species. Combining these with results from previous
studies (Rylands et al., in press) provides a total of 122
localities where the golden-headed lion tamarin still
survives. The geographic distribution, based on these
localities, was estimated at 19,462 km2 (Fig.1);
amongst the smallest recorded for any callitrichids.

The geographic distribution of L.chrysomelas is
divided into two distinct regions in terms of land use.
Cattle ranching predominates in the western part,
which has resulted in highly fragmented forest. The
eastern part corresponds to the principal cocoa


growing region of Brazil, where forests are intermixed
with cocoa plantations. Cocoa is frequently grown
under a system referred to as cabruca, where a small
number of the forest canopy trees are left standing to
provide shade. This provides marginal habitat for
numerous vertebrates, including the lion tamarins
(Alves, 1990).

Habitat loss, estimated at about 0.5% per year, along
with the fragmentation and degradation of forests, and
the restricted distribution of the species, indicates that
the golden-headed lion tamarin is highly endangered.
The largest known subpopulation is in the Una
Biological Reserve, now totalling 7059 ha (Coimbra-
Filho et al., 1993), where Dietz et al. (1994) have
estimated approximately 416 individuals, with an
effective population size of 160. These factors are
sufficient to place L.chrysomelas in the endangered
category, following the Mace-Lande Criteria, adopted
by the World Conservation Union (IUCN) (Mace and
Lande, 1991; Mace and Stuart, 1994). Urgent
measures are required to guarantee the maintenance of


Neotropical Primates 2(suppl.), December, 1994






Page 26


adequate habitat for this species, and others such as the
yellow-breasted capuchin (Cebus apella
xanthosternos), and the northern masked titi
(Callicebus personatus melanochir) (see Santos et al.,
1987; Oliver and Santos, 1991). Since the public sector
lacks the wherewithal for such a proposition,
fundamental will be the participation of private
landowners. This will require environmental
education programs, and particularly the use of the
Private Natural Heritage Reserve (RPPN) category of
conservation unit now provided for in the Brazilian
legislation.

Acknowledgements: We thank Anthony B.Rylands for
his support and advice, Maria Cecilia Kierulfffor her
assistance in establishing the methodology involved in
the use of "playback", and Dr Devra
Kleiman for the equipment and re-
cording. The Fundacgo Bio-
diversitas provided valuable techni-
cal support, and the Regional Cocoa
Growing Authority (CEPLAC) lo-
gistic support. The regional office
of the Brazilian Institute for the En-
vironment (Ibama) kindly supplied
much information relevant to the
study. We are also grateful for the
collaboration of the U.S.Fish and
Wildlife Service, the Federal Uni-
versity of Minas Gerais, and the
"Projeto Mico-Leao Baiano". Fi-
nancing was kindly provided by
Conservation International, the Jer-
sey Wildlife Preservation Trust
(thanks particularly to the Land-
scape Committee Chairperson), and
the Zoological Society of London.

References

Alves, M.C. 1990. The Role of Ca-
cao Plantations in the Conserva-
tion of the Atlantic forest of
Southern Bahia, Brazil. Unpub-
lished Master's thesis, Univer-
sity of Florida, Gainesville.
Coimbra-Filho, A. F. 1970.
Considerag6es gerais e situaqio
atual dos micos-leoes escuros,
Leontideus chysomelas (Kuhl,
1820) e Leontideus chrysopygus
(Mikan, 1823) (Callithricidae,
Primates). Rev. Brasil. Biol.,
30(2): 249-268. Golden-headed liot


Neotropical Primates 2(suppl.), December, 1994

Coimbra-Filho, A.F. 1972. Mamiferos amearados de
extingio no Brasil. In: Espicies da Fauna
Brasileira Ameagadas de Extincao, Academia
Brasileira de Ciencias (ed.), pp. 13-98. Academia
Brasileira de Ciencias, Rio de Janeiro.
Coimbra-Filho, A.F., Dietz, L.A., Mallinson, J.J.C.
and Santos, I.B. 1993. Land purchase for the Una
Biological Reserve, refuge of the golden-headed
lion tamarin. Neotropical Primates, 1(3):7-9.
De Bois, H. 1993. Golden-Headed Lion Tamarin
Leontopithecus chrysomelas 1993 International
Studbook 6. Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust
(JWPT), Jersey.
Dietz, J.M., Souza Filho, S.N. de and Silva, J.R.O.da
1994. Population structure and territory size in
golden-headed lion tamarins, Leontopithecus


totq.-'


tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysomelas). Photo by R.







Page 27


chrysomelas. Neotropical Primates, 2(suppl.): 21-
23.
Kieruliff, M.C.M. 1993. Avaliaqao das populaq6es
selvagens do mico-leao-dourado, Leontopithecus
rosalia, e proposta de estrat6gia para sua
conservaqao. Unpublished Master's thesis,
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo
Horizonte.
Konstant, W. 1986. Illegal trade in golden-headed lion
tamarins. Primate Conservation, (7): 29-30.
Mace, G.M. and Lande, R. 1991. Assessing extinction
threats: towards a re-evaluation of IUCN
Threatened Species Categories. Conservation
Biology, 5:148-157.
Mace, G.M. and Stuart, S. 1994. Draft IUCN Red List
categories, Version 2.2. Species, (21-22): 13-24.
Mallinson, J.J.C. 1986. The Wildlife Preservation
Trusts' (J.W.P.T./W.P.T.I.) support for the
conservation of the genus Leontopithecus. Dodo,
J.Jersey Wildl.Preserv.Trust, 23:6-18.
Mallinson, J.J.C. 1987. International efforts to secure a
viable population of the golden-headed lion
tamarin. Primate Conservation, (8): 124-125.
Mori, S.A. and Silva, L.A.M. 1980. 0 herbArio do


Centro de Pesquisas do Cacau em Itabuna, Brasil.
Boletim Thcnico 78, Comissao Executiva do Piano
a Lavoura Cacaueira CEPLAC, Ilheus, Bahia.
Oliver, W.L.R. and Santos, I.B. 1991. Threatened
endemic mammals of the Atlantic forest region of
south-east Brazil. Wildl.Preserv. Trust, Special
Scientific Report (4): 1-126.
Pinto, L.P.S. 1994. Distribuigio geogrifica, populaaio
e estado de conservacqo do mico-leao-de-cara-
dourada, Leontopithecus chrysomelas
(Callitrichidae, Primates). Unpublished Master's
thesis, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo
Horizonte.
Rylands, A.B., Santos, I.B. and Mittermeier, R.A. In
press. Distribution and status of Leontopithecus
chrysomelas in the wild. Primate Conservation.
Santos, I.B., Mittermeier, R.A., Rylands, A.B. and
Valle, C.M.C. 1987. The distribution and
conservation status of primates in southern Bahia,
Brazil. Primate Conservation, (8): 126-142.
Seal, U.S., Ballou, J.D. and Valladares-Padua, C.
(eds.) 1990. Leontopithecus Population Viability
Analysis Workshop Report. IUCN/SSC Captive
Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG), Apple Valley,
Minnesota.


lVeotropical Primates 2(suppl.), December, 1994









Progress Report on the Captive Population of Golden-Headed Lion
Tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysomelas May 1994


Helga De Bois, Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp, Koningin Astridplein 26, 2018 Antwerpen, Belgium.


Background

Managed captive breeding of the golden-headed lion
tamarin, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, has a relatively
recent history (Ballou, 1989). In 1979, the captive
population consisted of less than 20 individuals, all at
the Rio de Janeiro Primate Center (CPRJ/FEEMA).
The captive breeding programme was begun in the
early 1980's, when illegally exported animals were
discovered in Belgium, France and Japan (Mallinson,
1987). The Brazilian Institute for the Environment
(Ibama), seriously concerned about this, established
the International Recovery and Management
Committee, chaired by Jeremy Mallinson (Jersey
Wildlife Preservation Trust) and Adelmar Coimbra-
Filho (Rio de Janeiro Primate Centre), which was
extremely successful in returning the animals to
Brazil, and at the same time in organizing a worldwide
captive breeding program and studbook. By 31 August
1989, a captive population of 285 animals in 22
institutions was registered in the species' studbook
(Mace, 1989). As pointed out by Ballou (1990), the
founding of this captive population is "an interesting
case history and an excellent example of how pressure
brought to bear by international governmental and
non-governmental conservation organizations can
achieve successful conservation strategies".

Captive Population Today

The 1992 golden-headed lion tamarin studbook
reported 472 (238.178.56) living animals in 47
institutions (Mace, 1992). On 31 December 1993, the
living captive population of the golden-headed lion
tamarin, managed by the International Recovery and
Management Committee (IRMC), consisted of 575
(293.232.50) animals, distributed over 49 institutions
in Brazil, Asia, North America, and Europe (Table 1)
(De Bois, 1994a, 1994b). Comparing this with the
status of the species on 31 August 1992, the population
increased by more than 22% in 18 months. Population
growth differed significantly between the regions. The
North American population remained stable during
this period, while in Europe and Brazil the number of


L.chrysomelas in captivity increased by nearly 30%,
and in Asia by more than 50%.

Considering space availability for callitrichids in
general, and taking into account the minimum
requirements to ensure long-term demographic and
genetic health of the captive golden-headed lion
tamarin population, it is evident that the most
important management procedure now is to aim for
zero population growth. At present, this is being
achieved only for the North American population
(Fig. 1), thanks to the intensive management of the lion
tamarin regional coordinator, Jonathan D.Ballou
(National Zoological Park, Washington, D.C.), and the
cooperation of the participating institutions. Four
institutions in Europe have now provided females with
contraceptive implants and established non-breeding
groups (see Van Elsacker et al., 1994), but many more
animals should be restrained from breeding in the near
future.

Breeding can be limited through such as contraception,
sterilization and the formation of single-sex groups.
However, there are still many questions and problems
to be solved regarding the practical application of
population control. I list here some examples
concerned with the health of the female and possible
social problems in non-breeding groups which should
be considered captive research priorities in the coming
years:

- What are the long-term consequences of hormonal
implants on the health of the female?


Table 1. Golden-headed lion tamarins in captivity.
Numbers Growth
31 Dec 1993 since 31 Aug 1992
Brazil 235 29%
North America 101 1%
Europe 208 27%
Asia 31 55%
TOTAL 575 22%


Page 28


Neotropical Primates 2(suppl.), December, 1994







Page 29


Size
- What is the effect of hormonal 130-
implantation of the dominant female 123-
on the reproductive status of her ito-
daughters in the group? 104-
97-
- If breeding is stopped, how will the 91
youngest animals in the group obtain 84-
breeding experience? 78-
71-
- What types of non-breeding social 65-
groups are stable, and how is this 58-
influenced by the size and design of 52-
45-
the enclosures? 39-
32-
The present captive population has 19-
26-
many founders (154), only a small 13\
number of which still lack descendants 6
0-
(Table 2). However, even with this 86
large number of founders, it will be
important to continue management for Figure
more equal founder representation. rains in
This can be illustrated by a comparison
of the genetic situation of the North
American and European populations. Although
Europe has twice as many founders as North America,
analysis shows that both regions have lost about equal
amounts of genetic diversity (North America 4.4%
and Europe, 4.0%). This is because the variation in
genetic representation of the individual founders is
much higher in Europe, resulting in a relatively higher
loss due to random drift when compared to the North
American population.

References


87 88 89 90 91 92 93
All 0 Females O Males
1. Evolution of population size of golden-headed lion tama-
North America.


Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust (JWPT), Jersey.
Mace, G.M. 1992. 1992 International Studbook
Golden-Headed Lion Tamarin (Leontopithecus
chrysomelas) Number 5. Jersey Wildlife
Preservation Trust (JWPT), Jersey.
Mallinson, J.J.C. 1987. International efforts to secure a
viable population of the golden-headed lion
tamarin. Primate Conservation, (8): 124-125.
Van Elsacker, L., Heistermann, M., Hodges, J.K., De
Leat, A. and Verheyen, R.F. 1994. Preliminary
results on the evaluation of contraceptive implants
in golden-headed lion tamarins, Leontopithecus


Ballou, J.D. 1989. Emergence of the captive cnrysomeias. Neotropical Primates, z.suppi.): 3
population of golden-headed lion tamarins 32.
Leontopithecus chrysomelas. Dodo,
J.Jersey Wildl. Preserve. Trust, 26:70-77. Table 2. Genetic status of the regional golden-headed lion tamari
De Bois, H. 1994a. Golden-Headed Lion populations on 31 December 1993.
Tamarin Leontopithecus chrysomelas 1993
International Studbook 6. Royal Zoological No. of founders* Loss of genetic
Society of Antwerp, Antwerp. diversity (heterozygosity,
De Bois, H. 1994b. 1993 International Brazil 115 (30) 1.4%
studbook for the golden-headed lion North America 21 (0) 4.4%
tamarin. Neotropical Primates, 2(2): 22. Europe 47 (2) 4.0%
Mace, G.M. 1989. 1989 International Asia 11 (0) 10.5%
Studbook Golden-Headed Lion Tamarin
(Leontopithecus chrysomelas) Number 2. *In parentheses: Number of founders without living descendants.


n



)


Areotropical Primates 2(suppl.), December, 1994


I-










Preliminary Results on the Evaluation of Contraceptive Implants in
Golden-Headed Lion Tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysomelas


Linda van Elsacker, Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp, Koningin Astridplein 26, B-2018 Antwerpen, Belgium,
Michael Heistermann and J. Keith Hodges, German Primate Centre (DPZ) GmbH, Kellnerweg 4, D-3077
Gottingen, Germany, Ann de Laet, and Rudolf F. Verheyen, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp,
Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk, Belgium.


Introduction


Methods


A summary of the research on golden-headed lion
tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas) underway at
the Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp, Belgium,
was presented by De Bois and Van Elsacker (1993).
Each of the behavioral research projects aim to find
practical solutions to zoo-related problems, as well as
supplying basic data on the animals. This is important
in terms of gaining the interest and support of
academic researchers as well as zoo managers for
projects which are of interest to each but for differing
reasons (Van Elsacker et al., 1993).

One of the practical problems concerning the breeding
programme for L.chrysomelas is the urgent need to
stabilize population growth (De Bois, 1993, 1994a,
1994b). A number of techniques are possible, but in the
Antwerp Zoo we have chosen the use of melengesterol-
acetate (MGA) implants. We have been evaluating the
effect of this contraceptive on the reproductive status of
implanted females and their eldest female offspring
since December 1993. At the same time we are
studying the effect of the implant on the female's
behaviour, particularly concerning the sexual
behaviour of the breeding pair, to examine if and how
the mother-daughter and father-daughter relationships
are influenced.

In callitrichids, spontaneous social contraception
prevents offspring from reproducing within their natal
group (Abbott and Hearn, 1978; Abbott et al., 1993). It
is not unlikely, however, that changes in the formerly
reproductive female resulting from an implant, be they
physiological or behavioral, may prevent further
suppression of reproduction in the offspring. In this
case, one of the daughters may replace the mother as
the group's breeding female, and even reproduce with
her own father. Needless to say, the inbred offspring
would be disastrous in terms of the management of the
captive breeding stock.


The Study Animals: Two groups of golden-headed lion
tamarins were studied: In both only the breeding
female was given the hormonal implant. The
reproductive status of the implanted females and their
eldest daughters was monitored. Table 1 gives the
composition of the two groups..

The implant: The silicone implants are the size of the
tip of a cigarette filter (0.5 cm high). They are supplied
through Dr E.D.Plotka, Wisconsin, USA. The
implants were carried out three to four days after the
female had given birth. The female was caught
immediately following a suckling bout and the transfer
of the infants to another group member. The implant
was inserted under the skin between the scapulae. The
incision required three to four stitches, and the female
was returned to her group two hours later.

Observations: Social and sexual behaviour of the
breeding male, the female, and the eldest daughter
were observed on a daily basis using the method of
focal animal and continuous recording. Observation
was begun prior to the birth of the offspring (10 days
before for Fabiola, and 35 days before for Josepha), and
are still continuing. Urine samples from the mother
and daughter were collected daily to record ovarian
cycles.

Table 1. The composition of the two golden-headed
lion tamarin study groups.
Group 1 Group 2
Mother's name Fabiola Josepha
Age >8 years >8 years
Father's name Boudewijn Bonaventure
Age >8 years >8 years
Eldest daughter's name Trees Tina
Age 20 months 18 months
No.of other offspring 5 8


Page 30


Neotropical Primates 2(suppl.), December, 1994








Neotropical Primates 2(suppL), December 1994 Page 3)


350
300 -
250
200
150 -
100 -
50 -
0

50
50 -

40

30

20

10

0
C


Fabiola mother)
rV birth
SV ImpJl-antation
'.




*7 ^


1000

600 -



400

200

0 -,----,--
0 10 20
60
Tina (dwst
50 -

40 -



20

10 /


0 10 20


30 40 50 60 70


Days of sample collection
Figure 1. Estrone conjugate profiles for two female L.
chrysomelas, Fabiola (>8 years) and Trees (20
months).

Analyses: Hormone analyses of the urine samples were
carried out at the German Primate Center, Gottingen.
Measuring the changes in the concentrations of
oestrone-conjugates has proved to be efficient in
monitoring reproductive status in Callithrix (see
Eastman et al., 1984), Cebuella (see Ziegler et al.,
1990), Saguinus oedipus (see Ziegler et al., 1987),
Saguinus fuscicollis (see Heistermann and Hodges,
1994), Leontopithecus (see French and Stribley, 1985;
French et al., 1989) and Callimico (see Carroll et al.,
1990). In the absence of any information on hormone
excretion in golden-headed lion tamarins, urinary
oestrone conjugate E1C excretion was also expected to
reliably reflect ovarian function in this species, and
was therefore used to investigate reproductive function
in the four study females.

Results and Discussion

The behavioral studies and hormone analyses are still
underway, and the results presented here are. therefore,
only preliminary.

Hormonal data: As can be seen in Figs. 1 and 2, both
the former breeding females had a very high E1C level
during late pregnancy which fell following parturition.


Days of sample collection

Figure 2. Estrone conjugate profiles for two female L.
chrysomelas, Josepha (>8 years) and Tina (18
months).

Both females then showed consistently very low E1C
concentrations during the remaining sampling periods
(4-8 weeks), and did not resume ovarian cycles post-
partum. Whether or not this is a direct result of the
hormonal implant remains to be seen. However, the
two non-breeding daughters showed E1C levels
(presumably reflecting follicular phase values) which
at their lowest were 10 times higher, which suggests
that the implants were being effective in suppressing
normal ovarian fiction. Further research will examine
the post-partum hormonal profiles of non-implanted
females.

Another interesting result is that both daughters
showed regular cycles during the entire sampling
period. The cycles had a duration of approximately 18-
20 days, very similar to that reported for
Leontopithecus rosalia by French and Stribley (1985).
As for golden lion tamarins, therefore, it would appear
that at least the eldest daughters remain
physiologically fertile and are not hormonally
suppressed by the presence of the breeding female
(French and Stribley, 1987), as has been reported for
other callitrichid species (Ziegler et al., 1987, Epple
and Katz, 1984; Heistermann et al., 1989; Abbott et
al., 1993).


|hter)








k Vrl


10 20 30 40 50 60 70


10 20 30 40 50 60 70 1

Trees (Caught.er


-',- -


m


Neotropical Primates 2(suppl.), December, 1994


Page 31






Page 32


Behavioural data: As with the hormonal study, the
research is ongoing and the results are preliminary.
Although the mothers were hormonally suppressed
during the period of implantation, the general
behavioral pair-bond between them and their mates
continued to exist. Completed copulations never
occurred however, with mating attempts by the males
being frustrated by the females who, although
permitting mounting, were otherwise not fully
cooperative. Although the daughters were cycling, we
never witnessed any sexual interactions with their
fathers, and there were no obvious changes in the
relationship between mother and daughter.

Although the results are as yet inconclusive with
respect to the effects of the implant, they are providing
us with the first information on endocrine reproductive
parameters for the species. The results should help us
to interpret the behavioral data with respect to the
mother-daughter relationship, and in particular to
examine if and how the mother will manage to
maintain her dominance in terms of preventing her
daughters from breeding. If, as is becoming evident,
Leontopithecus breeding females, unlike other
callitrichids. do not maintain physiological dominance
but only behavioral dominance over subordinate
females (for review see Abbott et al., 1993), one might
expect that the implant will have no effect, although
the lack of breeding in itself might be a behaviorala"
aspect which eventually brings about a change in the
subordinate role of the daughters. It would be of great
interest to carry out similar studies on callitrichids
showing physiological inhibition of subordinate
females.

References

Abbott, D.H. and Heam, J.P. 1978. Physical, hormonal and
behavioral aspects of sexual development in the
marmoset monkey, Callithrix jacchus. J Reprod. Fert.,
53: 155-166.
Abbott, D.H., Barrett, J. and George, L.M. 1993.
Comparative aspects of the social suppression of
reproduction in female marmosets and tamarins. In:
Marmosets and Tamarins: Systematics, Behaviour and
Ecology, A.B.Rylands (eds.), pp.152-163. Oxford
University Press, Oxford.
Carroll, J.B., Abbott, D.H., George, L.M., Hindle, J.E. and
Martin, RD. 1990. Urinary endocrine monitoring of the
ovarian cycle and pregnancy in Goeldi's monkey
(Callimico goeldii). J.ReprodFert., 89: 149-161.
De Bois, H. 1993. Golden-Headed Lion Tamarin
Leontopithecus chrysomelas 1993 International
Stuabook 6. Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust (JWPT),


Neotropical Primates 2(suppl.), December, 1994

Jersey.
De Bois, H. 1994a. 1993 International studbook for the
golden-headed lion tamarin. Neotropical Primates, 2(2):
22.
DeBois,HI 1994b. Progress reporton the captive population
of golden-headed lion tamarins, Leontopithecus
chrysomelas May 1994. Neotropical Primates,
2(suppL): 28-29.
De Bois, H. and VanElsacker, L. 1993. Research on-golden-
headed lion tamarins at Antwerp Zoo. Neotropical
Primates, 1(4):18-19.
Eastman, S.AK.,Makawiti,D.M., Collins,WP. andHodges,
J.K. 1984. The pattern of excretion of urinary steriod
metabolites during the ovarian cycle and pregnancy in the
marmoset monkey. JEndocr., 102:19-26.
Epple, G. and Katz, Y. 1984. Social influences on estrogen
excretion and ovarian cyclicity in saddle-back tamarins
(Saguinus fiscicollis). Am.J.Primatol., 6: 215-227.
French, J.A. and Stribley, J.A. 1985. Patterns of urinary
estrogen excretion in female golden lion tamarins
(Leontopithecus msalia). J.ReprodFert., 75: 537-546.
French, J.A. and Stribley, J.A. 1987. Synchronization of
ovarian cycles within and between social groups in
golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia). Am. J.
Primatol., 12:469478.
French, J.A., Inglett, B.J. and Dethlefs, T.D. 1989.
Reproductive status of non-breeding group members in
captive golden lion tamarin social groups.
Am.JPrimatol., 18:73-86.
Heistermann, M. and Hodges, J.K. 1994. Endocrine
monitoring of the ovarian cycle and pregnancy in the
saddle-back tamarin (Saguinus fuscicollis) by
measurement of steroid conjugates in urine. Am. J.
Primatol., in press.
Heistermann, M, Kleis, E., PrOve, E. and Wolters, J. 1989.
Fertility status, dominance and scent marking behavior of
family-housed female cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus
oedipus) in the absence of their mothers. Am.JPrimatol.,
18:177-189.
VanElsacker, L., ervaecke, H., Walraven, V and Verhayen,
RE 1993. Zoo management and research: a symbiotic
relationship. Paper given at the 48th Annual Conference
of the World Zoo Organization (IUDZG), Antwerp,
1993.
Ziegler, T.E., Snowdon, C.T. and Bridson, WE. 1990.
Reproductive performance and excretion of urinary
estrogens and gonadotropins in the female pygmy
marmoset (Cebuellapygmaea). Am.JPrimatol., 22:191-
203.
Ziegler, TE., Savage, A., Schefller, G. and Snowdon, C.T.
1987. The endocrinology of puberty and reproductive
functioning in female cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus
oedipus) under varying social conditions. BioLReprod.,
37:618-627.






Neotropical Primates 2(suppl.), December, 1994


Evaluation of Community-Based Conservation Education: A Case Study of
the Golden-Headed Lion Tamarin Education Program in the State of Bahia,
Brazil


Elizabeth Yoshimi Nagagata, Department of Park and Education Resources, Michigan State University, East
Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA. Current address: 1312 Oak Ridge Avenue, Apartment 112, East Lansing, MI 48823,
USA.


Introduction

This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of
the community-based conservation education program
"Projeto Mico-Leao-Baiano" (Bahian Lion Tamarin
Project) in changing the knowledge, attitudes, and
behavior of people in the region around the Una
Biological Reserve in the south of the state of Bahia,
Brazil (Nagagata, 1994). More specifically, the aim
was also to determine if a conservation education
program should be developed which targets the
landowners and farmers in the Una region. Initiated in
1989, and concentrating primarily on the communities
of Ilhdus and Itabuna, the "Projeto Mico-Lefo-
Baiano", run by Maria Cristina Alves, uses the
endemic and endangered golden-headed lion tamarin
(Leontopithecus chrysomelas) as a symbol and focal
point to encourage the conservation of the rapidly
dwindling Atlantic coastal forest of the region (Alves,
1991).

Methods

A questionnaire was used to compare target
(community) and non-target (farmers) groups.
Seventy-five community people and 145 farmers were
interviewed. Data were obtained on knowledge,
attitudes, and behavioral intent towards the
golden-headed lion tamarin (GHLT) and the
local forest. An "ex post facto" quasi- Table 1
experimental design was chosen to compare benefits
between the groups (Tull and Hawkins,
1990).

Results and Discussion
Commu
Knowledge: The golden headed lion tamarin
was found to be well known in the region. A Farmer
high percentage of respondents in both
groups (78.7% of the community and 77.9% Total


of the farmers) recognized the GHLT from a
photograph. However, only 37% of the community and
19.6% of the farmers also recognized the GHLT as the
most endangered local animal. Thus, although more
than three-quarters of the interviewees recognized the
GHLT, considerably fewer were cognizent of its
endangered status. There was evidently a "knowledge
gap" between recognizing the animal and knowing
that it is an endangered and endemic species. The gap
was more pronounced amongst the farmers.

Attitudes: Both groups showed fairly positive attitudes
toward the GHLT and the forest, although the
community rather more so than the farmers. Eighty-
nine percent of the community and 68.8% of the
farmers thought that the forest has benefits for man
(Table 1). This difference is statistically significant.

Approximately 68% of the community and 70% of the
farmers thought that deforestation in the region was a
serious problem (Table 2). In contrast, 6.7% of the
community and 27.4% of the farmers thought that the
amount of deforestation was not serious, while 25.3%
of the community and 2.2% of the farmer's "did not
know". There is a significant difference between the
groups, resulting from the difference in the "not
serious" and "do not know" categories.


. Comparison between the community and farmers regarding
s from the forest. "Do you think the forest has any benefit?"
Frequency Observed (%)
Frequency Expected*
Yes No Don't know Total
inity 67 (89.3) 3 (4.0) 5 (6.7) 75 (34.2)
56.8 11 7.2
s 99 (68.8) 29 (20.1) 16 (11.1) 144 (65.8)
109.2 21 13.8
166 (75.8) 32 (14.6) 21(9.6) 169 (100.0)
10.52, p = 0.005


Page 33







Page 34 Neotropical Primates 2(suppl.), Decembe,; 1994


Table 2. Comparison between the community and farmers re
the amount of deforestation in the municipality. "How serious
think the amount of deforestation is in the municipality?"
Frequency Observed (%)
Frequency Expected*
Not Serious Don't know Serious Total
Community 5 (6.7) 19 (25.3) 51 (68.0) 75 (3
7.9 15 52.1
Farmers 37 (27.4) 3 (2.2) 95 (70.4) 135
14.1 2.7 93.9
Total 42 (20.0) 22 (10.5) 146 (69.5) 210
* X' = 31.56, p = 0.0001

Behavior: Few respondents in either group claimed to
have participated in some type of conservation activity
(Table 3).

Recommendations

1. Information from this study indicates that the
"Projeto Mico-Leao-Baiano" could benefit from at
least two additions. First, the project could place
greater emphasis on the fact that the golden-headed
lion tamarin is endemic and endangered, and as a
"flagship species" for the local forests. Second, the
project could incorporate more participatory
conservation activities into its program.
Evaluations of the project in future years could
address how long-term changes in knowledge and
attitudes affect behavior and values regarding
conservation of local natural resources.

2. The principal finding of this study is that the
community-based program is not reaching the
farmers. This argues strongly for the need for a
conservation education program designed
specifically for them. Different kinds of farmers
(poor farmers v. wealthy farmers, small
landholders v. large landholders) will require
different kinds of education programs. The
author's personal experience further suggests that
the most effective program should be delivered on a
personal basis (the educator working directly with
individual farm owners). In addition, farmers are
more likely to be positively influenced by other
local farmers who already have positive attitudes
about conserving the forest and who have already
participated in conservation activities (Reading
and Kellert, 1993).

3. A conservation program for farmers should
incorporate the following features:


garding


a) Self-reference. An effective rural


do you conservation education program should
include many specific references to the
farmers and their problems (Rogers, 1977).
In this case the principal problem is the need
to integrate agricultural production (their
livelihood) with forest production. The
5.7) educator should obviously also have a clear
understanding of the problems specific to the
(64.3) region and to the crops fanned, and hence
the economic aspects of conservation-
(100.0) oriented practices. In Una, the predominant
crop is the perennial cocoa, which over
recent years has been suffering from
epidemics of witch's broom disease, and low
international market prices. Likewise, there are a
number of methods for the cultivation of cocoa in
terms of the shade plants used, which include
Erythrina, canopy trees of the original forest
(cabruca), and numerous others such as bananas
and even rubber trees (see.Alves, 1990).

b) Problem-solving. An important characteristic of
a good conservation education program is a focus

Table 3. Conservation activities participated in by
members of the community and farmers.
Frequency %
COMMUNITY (N = 14)
Presentation in school 4 5.3
Planting seedlings 4 5.3
Cleaning the beach 2 2.7
Conservation of the forest 2 2.7
CEPLAC seminar' 1 1.3
Member of Green Party 1 1.3
FARMERS (N= 23)
Planting with CEPLAC' 6 4.1
Forest conservation 2 1.4
Cocoa cultivation 2 1.4
Advisor on conservation 2 1.4
Agricultural technician 2 1.4
Planting seedlings 2 1.4
Planting trees 1 0.7
Defending nature 1 0.7
Research 1 0.7
Motorsaw licence 1 0.7
Helping Ibama2 1 0.7
Conservation foundation 1 0.7
EMAQ activities (military) 1 0.7
1Comissao Executiva do Plano daLavoura Cacueira (CEPLAC), the
Regional Cocoa Growing Authority.
2Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais
Renovdveis (Ibama), the Brazilian Institute for the Environment


Page 34


lVeotropical Primates 2(suppl.), December, 1994







Neotropical Primates 2(suppl.), December, 1994

on specific problem-solving. If the farmers are
given an opportunity to help solve some of the
problems they are causing, they are more likely to
be interested in participating in conservation.

c) Audience analysis. Different problems are
caused by and affect different groups (audiences). It
is important to determine and understand which
problems need to be addressed for each. Audience
analysis should take place before the conservation
education program is begun, but should also be
carried out during and after the program as well
(McDonough, 1984).

d) Evaluation. An evaluation protocol should be
developed and implemented prior to initiating the
conservation education program.

e) Clear objectives. An important element for the
success of a rural conservation education program
and for its accurate evaluation is to establish clear
objectives from the start. Formal evaluations are
usually designed to assess whether the
predetermined objectives are being met. The
objectives must clearly state whether knowledge,
attitudes, and behaviors, or some combination of
them will be changed (McDonough, 1986).

References

Alves, M.C. 1990. The Role of Cocoa Plantations in
the Conservation of the Atlantic forest of Southern
Bahia, Brazil. Unpublished Master's thesis,


Page 35


University of Florida, Gainesville.
Alves, M.C. 1991. Community conservation education
for the Atlantic forests of southern Bahia, Brazil,
with emphasis on the golden-headed lion tamarin
(Leontopithecus chrysomelas). Unpublished report,
World Wildlife Fund, Washington, D.C.
McDonough, M.H. 1984. Audience analysis
techniques. In: Implements to a Guide to Cultural
and Environmental Interpretation in the U.S. Army
Corps of Engineers. Instruction Report R-81-1,
pp.89-134. U.S.Army Corps of Engineers
Waterways Experimental Station, Vicksburg,
Mississippi.
McDonough, M.H. 1986. Evaluation: the interpreter's
dilemma. In: Interpretive View, G.Machlis (ed.),
pp.40-44. National Parks and Conservation
Association, Washington, D.C.
Nagagata, E.Y. 1994. Evaluation of Community-Based
Conservation Education: A Case Study of the
Golden-Headed Lion Tamarin Education Program
in the State of Bahia, Brazil. Unpublished Master's
thesis, Department of Park and Recreation
Resources, Michigan State University, East
Lansing. 100pp.
Reading, R.P. and Kellert, S.R. 1993. Attitudes toward
a proposed re-introduction of black-footed ferrets
(Mustela nigripes). Conservation Biology, 7(3):
569-580.
Rogers, T.B. 1977. Self-reference in memory:
recognition of personality items. J.Res.Personality,
11(3): 295-305.
Tull, D.S. and Hawkins, D. 1990. Marketing
Research: Measurement and Method. Macmillan
Publishing Co., New York.







Neotropical Primates 2(suppl.), December, 1994


The Conservation Biology of the Black Lion Tamarin, Leontopithecus
chrysopygus: First Ten Years' Report


Claudio Valladares-Padua, The Nature Conservancy, 1815 North Lynn Street, Arlington, Virginia 22209, USA,
Suzana M. Padua, IPE Instituto de Projetos e Pesquisas Ecol6gicas, Avenida dos Operarios 587, 13416-460
Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil, and Wildlife Preservation Trust International Inc., 3400 West Girard Avenue,
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-1196, USA, and Laury Cullen Jr., IPE Instituto de Projetos e Pesquisas
Ecol6gicas, Avenida dos Operriios 587, 13416-460 Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil.


Introduction


Project Description


The black lion tamarin conservation biology project
began ten years ago. The long term research on this
species has resulted in information on its genetics,
behavior, ecology, demography and habitat
characteristics. It has also provided additional benefits
such as the protection of forest fragments which belong
to private landowners. The involvement of ranch
owners in this species' conservation has enhanced the
protection of forest fragments within the original range
of the black lion tamarin. The protection of remnants
of their habitats which are scarce nowadays, enhances
the protection not only of this primate, but of all other
species found in the same ecosystems.

Other important aspects of the black lion tamarin
project have been the training of field professionals
and environmental education activities. University
students and field assistants, Brazilians and from
abroad, are constantly being trained and absorbed in
this study or in other field studies, resulting in an
effective training program for the conservation of
endangered species. Similarly, educational activities
are conducted in all research sites as an important part
of the species conservation strategy.

The recent phase of the long term conservation
management plan for the black lion tamarin resulted
from the Leontopithecus Population Viability Analysis
Workshop, held in 1990 (Seal et al., 1990), which
showed that the survival of the black lion tamarin was
threatened in the middle to long term. Based on these
findings we proposed that the conservation of the
species must rely on the effective protection of
officially protected areas, privately-owned habitat
fragments and captive colonies. These different
populations or sub-populations should be integrated in
a metapopulation plan which involves translocation,
managed dispersal and the continuity of the long term
comparative studies underway.


Definition of the Problem: In a world increasingly
affected by humans, where large tracts of relatively
undisturbed habitats are being shredded and
fragmented, one of the major challenges for
conservation biology is ameliorating the long term
consequences of population fragmentation. As
indicated above, the black lion tamarin is an extreme
example of this habitat fragmentation requiring
management for its long term survival (Seal et al.,
1990). In the wild, there are around 1000 animals in
five confirmed sub-populations; two in protected areas
(Morro do Diabo State Park and the Caetetus
Ecological Station) and three in privately owned forest
fragments (Valladares-Padua and Cullen, in press)
(Fig. 1). A Population Viability Analysis carried out


Figure 1. Reserves, recently discovered populations
and potential localities for reintroduction or
translocation of black lion tamarins. Numbers on the
map correspond to the following areas. Reserves: 1.
Morro do Diabo State Park, 2. Caetetus State
Ecological Station. Areas with recently discovered
populations of black lion tamarins: 3. Tucano/
Rosanella Ranch, 4. Ponte Branca Ranch, 5. Rio Claro
Ranch. Potential areas for reintroduction/
translocation: 6. Santa Rita Farm, 7. Mosquito Ranch,
8. Vista Bonita Farm, 9. Bartira Farm.


Page 36









ANpntmnical Primates 2(suvvl., December 1994Pae3


for the black lion tamarin suggested that, if not
managed, its survival probability for the next 100 years
is very remote even with the most optimistic scenarios
for the species.

Previous Information on the Black Lion Tamarin
Project: The success of the long term conservation
project for L. chrysopygus is highly correlated to the
amount of knowledge acquired on the species. The
Black Lion Tamarin Project has developed one of the
largest existing data bases for any neotropical mammal
species. It includes information on: 1) distribution and
status; 2) genetics; 3) demography in the wild and in
captivity; 4) ecology and behavior; 5) captive breeding;
6) habitat restoration; and 7) environmental education.

Current Situation: Presently the Black Lion Tamarin
Project is confronting the challenge of designing
management plans based on updating the concept of
metapopulation (the series of isolated sub-populations
of a species) developed by Levins (1969, 1970). To
understand the conservation approach we are
proposing, it is important to know that when Levins
coined the term "metapopulation", what he had in
mind was an infinite number of sub or local
populations of one species. His main interest was not
conservation, but the development of a mathematical
model to optimize biological control of crop pests. The
idea was to balance local extinction of pest-predators
by re-migration from other populations. Thus, in his
view, a metapopulation could be regarded as the net
result of the establishment, survival, and extinction of
local populations.

The approach we are using was developed
subsequently, mainly by Gilpin (1987) and Hanski and
Gilpin (1991). They proposed an adaptation of Levin's
model to conservation biology using a finite number of
sub-populations. Their concept identified the
minimum viable size of a population as not solely
dependent on its size, but also on the patchiness of the
existing habitats and on the movement of each
individual between habitable patches. The extreme
version of their model is the case where discontinuous
habitats may result in the total impossibility of natural
migration among local populations. These
fragmentation processes create small isolated sub-
populations enhancing their probability of extinction
due to genetic, demographic and environmental forces
acting within patches (Sould, 1980; Rails and Ballou,
1983). Even if the sub-populations survive, isolation
itself might cause differentiation and consequent
speciation (Wright, 1977; Franklin, 1980; Otte and
Endler, 1989). In the cases where fragmentation


precludes natural migration, metapopulation
management entails artificially moving animals from
one patch to another. Translocation and managed
animal migration must also take into consideration
previous knowledge about the species so the animals
can survive and reproduce in the new area (Foose,
1990).

Since the black lion tamarin is reduced to small
fragmented sub-populations (Fig. 1), we believe it is
close to the extinction scenario, which can be
reversed if we adopt metapopulation management
as the central conservation strategy for the species.
We have begun to implement this strategy, and in
1995 we intend to complete the following three
major steps:

1. A study of potential translocation habitats for
the species. Areas with habitat significantly
similar to the habitat found in the areas occupied
by black lion tamarin subpopulations;

2. A long term monitoring of a series of
neighboring groups in one of the black lion
tamarins sub-populations;

3. Translocation of one or two of these monitored
groups to a protected and uninhabited, pre-
selected habitat area.

Methods/Action Plan: To determine the habitat areas
appropriate for translocation we are using multivariate
analysis to statistically compare potential areas with
areas effectively used by the species. The potential
areas are the Fazendas Mosquito, Santa Rita and Vista
Bonita in the western part of the State of Sdo Paulo and
the "palmital" (palm heart plantation) section of the
Fazenda Rio Claro. We surveyed these areas in 1991,
and found no tamarins. These areas are being
compared to those at Morro do Diabo where we
conducted a long term study on the ecology and
behavior of the tamarins between 1987 and 1990. If the
data collected for the habitat of a potential area are not
statistically different from those found at Morro do
Diabo where the tamarins inhabit, the area will be
considered as appropriate for the species and may
receive translocated animals.

Together with the translocation, we will develop a long
term monitoring of the group to be translocated as well
as its neighbors. This will furnish information on
habitat selection among lion tamarins. In practical
terms, we will be able to analyze how the newly vacant


Page 37








Page 38 Z'Jeotropical Primates 2(supvl.). December 1994


home range will or will not be occupied by the
surrounding individuals or groups of lion tamarins.
The resulting data will be very important in a
theoretical view point where little is known on habitat
selection. However, the most important aspect is the
information obtained on minimum and maximum
home range sizes and the carrying capacity of a given
area which will allow us to calculate the minimum
viable habitat for the species.

Personnel Involved: The following professionals are
involved in this project, full or part time:
* Claudio Valladares Padua, General Coordinator
* Laury Cullen Jr., Field Coordinator
* Cristiana S. Martins, Field Coordinator
* Carolina Mamede, Local Coordinator at Duraflora
* Evandro L. Gonpalves, Local Coordinator at Morro
do Diabo
* Eduardo Ditt, Local Coordinator at Caetetus
* Fabiana Prado, Researcher at Caetetus
* Marilene M. Silva, Researcher at Duraflora
* Jose Maria de Sousa, Field Assistant
* Luiz Homero Gomes, Field Assistant
* Jose A.G. Garcia, Field Assistant
* Jos6 Maria AragAo, Field Assistant
* Suzana M. Padua, Environmental Education
Coordinator

There are also a number of trainees and other
professionals who have been involved part time with
the field work.

The Project's Most Important Results

Black Lion Tamarin Project Continuity: The following
activities have been developed in the past ten years, or
are being conducted currently:

Already concluded:
a. Preliminary survey of the current distribution of the
species;
b. Genetic study of some wild and captive populations;
c. Demographic study of wild and captive populations;
d. Long term study on the ecology and behavior of the
species at the Morro do Diabo State Park;
e. Environmental education program at the Morro do
Diabo State Park;
f. Survey for new populations in the State of Sao
Paulo;
g. Pre-selection of potential areas for translocation and
reintroduction;
h. Census at the Caetetus Ecological Station.


In Progress:
a. Periodic census of the newly discovered sub-
populations;
b. Field study on the ecology and behavior of different
sub populations;
c. Comparative study on habitats;
d. Pilot project on habitat recovery in Morro do Diabo;
e. Environmental education program for the Caetetus
Ecological Station.

To be developed in 1994-1995:
a. A pilot project on translocation;
b. A new survey for wild populations;
c. Field study on the ecology and behavior of different
sub-populations.

Training and Environmental Education: One of the
most important aspects of this project has been the
training of students and field assistants. We have been
training people in the field since 1988, when the Morro
do Diabo study began. More than 20 people, varying
from university students to field assistants, have
participated. Environmental education has become a
crucial part of the Black Lion Tamarin Project. The
Morro do Diabo education program which began in
1989, was receiving in 1991 an average of 1,500
students per month (Padua, 1994). The field staff have
begun a similar project at the Duraflora site (Lenqois
Paulista), with the students living at the Fazenda Rio
Claro, one of the research sites. This education
program still needs to be structured and evaluated so it
can expand and benefit other communities. The idea is
to multiply the experience of the Morro do Diabo to the
other sites where L. chrysopygus is found.

Acknowledgments

We would like to thafik the Forestry Institute of the
State of Sao Paulo (IF), the Slo Paulo Electricity
Company (CESP) and the Secretary of the
Environment of the State of Sao Paulo for supporting
this program. We are grateful to the communities of
Teodoro Sampaio and other towns in the Pontal region
which welcomed our conservation initiatives. We also
thank individuals and institutions who have supported
our work, such as Apenheul Holland, the Canadian
Embassy, in Brazil, Conservation International, the
Brazil Science Council (CNPq), Duraflora S.A.,
Fanwood Foundation, the Fauna and Flora
Preservation Society, Fazenda Rosanella, Fazenda
Ponte Branca, the Brazilian Institute for the
Environment (Ibama), the International Committee for


Page 38


Areotr( ical Primates 2(suppl.), December, 1994







Neotropical Primates 2(suppl.), December, 1994

the Preservation and Management of the Black Lion
Tamarins, the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust,
Lincoln Park Zoo, Whitley Animal Protection Trust,
Wildlife Preservation Trust International, World
Wildlife Fund US and the University of Florida,
Gainesville.

References

Foose, T.J. 1990. Interactive management of small
wild and captive populations. In: Leontopithecus -
Population Viability Analysis Workshop Report,
U.S.Seal, J.D.Ballou and C. Valladares-Padua
(eds.), pp.67-77. IUCN/SSC Captive Breeding
Specialist Group (CBSG), Apple Valley, Minnesota.
Franklin, I.R. 1980. Evolutionary change in small
populations. In: Conservation Biology: An
Evolutionary Ecological Perspective, M.E Soul6
and B.A Wilcox (eds.), pp.135-149. Sinauer
Associates, Sunderland, Massachusetts.
Gilpin, M.E. 1987. Social structure and population
vulnerability. In: Viable Populations for
Conservation, M.E.Soul6 (ed.), pp.125-139.
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. pp: 125-
139.
Hanski, I. and Gilpin, M. 1991. Metapopulation
dynamics: brief history and conceptual domain.
Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 42:3-16.
Levins, R. 1969. Some genetic and demographic
consequences of environmental heterogeneity for
biological control. Bull. Ent. Soc. Am., 15:237-240.
Levins, R. 1970. Extinction. In: Some Mathematical
Questions in Biology, Vol.2, M. Gerstenhaber (ed.),
pp.75-108. American Mathematical Society,
Providence, Rhode Island.


Page 39


Otte, D. and Endler, J.A. 1989. Speciation and Its
Consequences. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland,
Massachusetts.
Padua, S. 1994. Conservation awareness through an
environmental education programme in the
Atlantic forest of Brazil. Environmental
Conservation, 21(2): 145-151.
Rails, K. and J.D. Ballou. 1983. Extinction: Lessons
from Zoos. In: Genetics and Conservation: A
Reference for Managing Wild Animals and Plant
Populations, C.M. Schonewald-Cox, S.M.
Chambers, B. MacBryde and L.Thomas (eds.),
pp.164-184. Benjamin-Cummings, Menlo Park,
California.
Seal, U.S., Ballou, J.D. and Valladares-Padua, C.
(eds.) 1990. Leontopithecus Population Viability
Analysis Workshop Report. IUCN/SSC Captive
Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG), Apple Valley,
Minnesota.
Sould, M. E. 1980. Thresholds for survival:
maintaining fitness and evolutionary potential. In
Conservation Biology: An Evolutionary-Ecological
Perspective., M. E. Soul6 and B. A. Wilcox (eds.),
pp.151-169. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland,
Massachusetts.
Valladares-Padua, C. and Cullen Jr., L. In press.
Distribution, abundance and minimum viable
metapopulation of black lion tamarins
Leontopithecus chrysopygus. Dodo, J. Wildl.
Preserve. Trusts.
Wright, S. 1977. Evolution and Genetics of
Populations. Vol. III. Experimental Results and
Evolutionary Deductions. University of Chicago
Press, Chicago.







Page 40


Behavior of the Black Lion Tamarin, Leontopithecus chrysopygus, in
Different Forest Levels in the Caetetus Ecological Station, Sao Paulo, Brazil


Fernando de Camargo Passos, Programa de P6s-Graduaqao em Ecologia e Recursos Naturais, Universidade
Federal de Sao Carlos, Caixa Postal 676, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo, Brazil.


Introduction

This paper reports on one of the aspects under study in
a project underway examining the ecology and
behavior of the black lion tamarin, Leontopithecus
chrysopygus, in the Caetetus Ecological Station. Little
is known of the behavior of lion tamarins concerning
their use of different vegetation levels in the forest. It is
emphasized, however, that further data are being
collected, and the results reported here are preliminary.

Material and Methods

The Caetetus Ecological Station (22' 23'S, 49' 41'W)
is a small forest reserve of 2,179 ha, administered by
the Sao Paulo Forestry Institute. The study group, of
six individuals in December 1993, was by March 1994
composed of just four: an adult female, two adult
males, and an infant female. The group has been
accompanied since December 1993, using
radiotelemetry. Basic data is obtained using scan-
sampling (Altmann, 1974), recording the following
four activities: feeding, moving, resting and foraging,
each of which are divided into descriptive
subcategories. Feeding includes the manipulation and
ingestion of foods, whereas foraging is recorded
when the tamarins are evidently searching for 80
animal prey. The forest height is recorded for 70
each behavioral record: understorey 0-8 m,
middle layers 8-16 m, and canopy above 16 m, 60
in order to obtain a picture of the association 5
between their behaviors and the forest layers. F


Results

To date, 1,410 behavior records have been
obtained during 119 hours of direct observation:
feeding N=505 (35.8%), moving N=465
(33.0%), foraging N=237 (16.8%), and resting
N=203 (14.4%). All four of these behaviors
were carried out mainly in the middle layers of
the forest (8-16 m) (Fig.1).

A little more than half (51.5%) of the feeding


records were in the middle layers, largely due to fruit-
feeding (N=242). Feeding on fruits in the canopy was
registered for a further 36.6% (N=184) of the feeding
records, due to such important trees as Celtis
pubescens, Cordia superba, Rhamnidium
elaeocarpum and Ficus sp. Feeding in the understorey
(11.6%, N=60) was restricted to animal prey and
exudate feeding. With regard to locomotion, again a
little more than half of the records for moving were in
the middle layers (55.5%, N=258). However, different
from the pattern seen for feeding, 34.0% (N=158) were
in the understorey, and only 10.5% (N=49) were in the
canopy. The use of the middle layers was most
accentuated for resting. 72.9% of the resting records
were in the middle layer, 19.7% (N=40) in the
understorey, and 7.4% (N=15) in the canopy. Foraging
showed a similar pattern to that observed for
locomotion: 57.0% (N=135) in the middle layers,
29.9% (N=71) in the understorey, and 13.1% (N=31)
in the canopy.

Discussion

A preference for the middle layers of the forest was


marked for all of the behavior


FEEDING


MOVING RESTING
BEHAVIOR


categories sampled.


FORAGING


*0-7mE8-15mO >16m

Figure 1. Behavior of black lion tamarins in different forest levels
in the Caetetus Ecological Station, Gilia, Sao Paulo.


lVeotropical Primates 2(suppl.), Decenther, 1994


...................................................................................................................







A~eotropical Primates 2(suppl.), Decembe, 1994 Page 41


Feeding on fruits was the principle reason for their use
of the canopy, and moving and foraging for their use of
the understorey. Information on the use of different
forest levels has also been obtained for four groups
studied by Valladares-Padua (1993) and his colleagues
in the Morro do Diabo State Park. The height at which
they recorded the lion tamarins was most frequently
between 7 and 8,5 m, and on occasion they were
observed going to the ground to obtain food, also seen
at Caetetus (Keuroghlian, 1990; Passos, 1992). No
studies on the vertical use of space have been published
for the golden lion tamarin, L.rosalia. However,
observations by Coimbra-Filho and Mittermeier
(1973) suggested that they spend much of their time
between three and 10 m. Rylands (1989) observed
L.chrysomelas spending more of their time higher in
the forest, above 12 m in the majority of records (80%),
with foraging occurring generally between 13 and 19
m. The foraging level corresponded to that containing
the highest abundance of large bromeliads, one of their
preferred foraging sites, but non-bromeliad foraging
was also largely restricted to these levels. Rylands
(1989) also obtained data on the syntopic marmoset,
Callithrix kuhli, which foraged at lower levels than
L.chrysomelas. The majority of sightings (78%) were
below 15 m, and slightly more than half of all the
records (53%) were between 8 and 15 m (Rylands,
1989).

A number of factors determine the use of different
levels of the forest in these animals, which
undoubtedly differ between sites and most particularly
for the different populations of each species. They
include the relative importance of aerial and terrestrial
predators, the vertical distribution of fruit and animal
prey, and the forest structure, notably the height,
degree of stratification and the vegetation density at
each level. Sympatric primate species can also be
expected to influence the use of different levels, and the
presence of C.kuhli at Rylands'(1989) study site may
well be contributing to a greater use of higher levels
than has been found for other species. The lion
tamarins at Caetetus are probably suffering
competition from the high density of capuchin
monkeys, Cebus apella (see Coimbra-Filho, 1976). A
comparison of the vertical use of the forest in the four
lion tamarin species along with an understanding of
the habitat differences for each population would be of
great interest to understand better the factors
influencing the relative use of the different heights of
the forest, and hence to understand better the adaptive
behavior of these species.


Acknowledgements

I am grateful to the Sao Paulo Forestry Institute (IF-
SP), and the Brazilian Institute for the Environment
(Ibama) for permission to carry out this study. Dr
Cleber J.R.Alho, Dr Claudio Valladares-Padua, Dr
FaiQal Simon, and Dr Cory Teixeira de Carvalho
provided valuable support and advice. My thanks to Dr
Anthony B.Rylands for his suggestions and translation
of the manuscript. The research is being financed by
the Brazilian Higher Education Authority (CAPES),
the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), the
FundaqAo o Boticario de Protegao A Natureza, the
Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, and the Lincoln
Park Zoo Scott Neotropic Fund, and is part of a
doctoral degree for the Federal University of Sio
Carlos, Sao Paulo, Brazil.


References

Altmann, J. 1974. Observational study of behavior:
sampling methods. Behaviour, 49:227-267.
Coimbra-Filho, A.F. 1976. Leontopithecus rosalia
chrysopygus (Mikan, 1823), o mico-leao do estado
de Sao Paulo (Callitrichidae, Primates). Silvic. Sao
Paulo, 10:1-36.
Coimbra-Filho, A.F. and Mittermeier, R.A. 1973.
Distribution and ecology of the genus
Leontopithecus Lesson, 1840 in Brazil. Primates,
14(1): 47-66.
Keuroghlian, A. 1990. Observations on the Behavioral
Ecology of the Black Lion Tamarin (Leontopithecus
chrysopygus) at Caetetus Reserve, Sao Paulo,
Brazil. Unpublished Master's thesis, West Virginia
University, Morgantown. 76pp.
Passos, F.C. 1992. Habito Alimentar do Mico-Leao-
Preto, Leontopithecus chrysopygus (Mikan, 1823)
(Callitrichidae, Primates) na EstaqIo Ecol6gica dos
Caetetus, Municipio de GAlia, SP. Unpublished
Master's thesis, State University of Campinas,
Campinas.
Rylands, A.B. 1989. Sympatric brazilian callitrichids:
the black-tufted-ear marmoset, Callithrix kuhli, and
the golden-headed lion tamarin, Leontopithecus
chrysomelas. J.Hum.Evol., 18:679-695.
Valladares-Padua, C. 1993. The Ecology, Behavior and
Conservation of the Black Lion Tamarin
(Leontopithecus chrysopygus, Mikan, 1823).
Unpublished PhD dissertation. University of
Florida, Gainesville.


Areotropical Primates 2(supplj, December, 1994


Page 41






Neotropical Primates 2(suppl.), December, 1994


A Contribution to the Study of the Arboreal Vegetation of the Caetetus
Ecological Station, Sao Paulo, Brazil


Ana Cristina Kim, Departamento de Botanica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Caixa
Postal 6109, 13083-970 Campinas, Slo Paulo, and Fernando de Camargo Passos, Programa de P6s-Graduagao
em Ecologia e Recursos Naturais, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Caixa Postal 676, 13565-905 Slo Carlos, Sao
Paulo, Brazil.


Introduction


Results


The Caetetus Ecological Station is in the north-west of
the state of Slo Paulo, in the municipalities of GAlia
and Alvinlindia. With an entirely forested area of
2,178 ha, it is forms the largest single block of forest in
the region. The forest is semi-deciduous, at altitudes
ranging from 550 to 700 m. The climate is seasonal,
with a hot rainy season, and a cooler dry season. Much
of the Reserve is dissected by streams and swampy
areas.

Here we report on the first study of the phytosociology
of the forest in the Ecological Station, in a region
where most has already been destroyed, reflecting the
situation throughout the state of Sao Paulo where only
about 3% of the forests still stand. Although being an
important study in itself, the primary objective of the
survey was to evaluate the distribution and abundance
of food resources for the black lion tamarin,
Leontopithecus chrysopygus (see Passos, 1992).

Material and Methods

The quadrant method (Martins, 1991) was used for the
vegetation survey due to the rapidity and ease of data
collection, and its adequacy in terms of supplying the
information needed for an understanding of food
availability for the L.chrysopygus groups in the
Reserve. Data was obtained on the density, dominance
and absolute frequency of the tree species. Quadrants
(N = 157) were marked at 40 m intervals along eight
trails, totalling about 6 kin. All tree species in each
quadrant which had a diameter at breast height >25 cm
were marked and identified. The study was carried out
from August 1993 to February 1994. The plant species
are being identified by specialists at the Herbarium of
the State University of Campinas, the Forestry Institute
of Sao Paulo, and the Botany Institute of Sao Paulo.


A total of 628 trees (528 identified to species), with
heights ranging from 1.5 to 30 nm, have been marked.
The maximum circumference recorded was 2.7 m. One
hundred species have been identified to date,
distributed among 36 families. The most abundant
families in terms of individuals recorded are, in order,
Euphorbiaceae (N = 170 individuals), Myrtaceae (N =
49), Lauraceae (N = 47), and Rutaceae (N = 42)
(Fig. 1). In terms of species richness, the most speciose
families recorded were Myrtaceae (10 spp.), Rutaceae
(8 spp.), Fabaceae (7 spp.), Euphorbiaceae (6 spp.),
Mimosaceae (5 spp.) and Moraceae (5 spp.) (Fig.2).

The most abundant species were two representatives of
the Euphorbiaceae: Securinega guaraiuva (N = 113)
and Crotonfloribundus (N = 35). These were followed
by Aspidosperma polyneuron (Apocynaceae, N = 19),
Piptadenia gonoacantha (Mimosaceae, N = 17),
Astronium graveolens (Anacardiaceae, N = 16), and
Alchornea triplinervia (Euphorbiaceae, N = 15). All
of these species were used by the lion tamarins for
sleeping holes.

A number of other species which were recorded in the
survey have been found to be important as food
resources for the lion tamarins. Those providing fruits
include: Chrysophyllum gonocarpum (N = 11),
Syagrus romanzoffiana (N = 10), Protium widgrenii (N
= 10), Inga spp. (N = 7), Duguetia lanceolata (N = 6),
Cordia ecalyculata (N = 6), Rhamnidium elaeocarpum
(N = 5), and Tapirira guianensis (N = 3).
L.chrysopygus differs from the other lion tamarins in
its more extensive use of tree exudates (Passos and
Carvalho, 1991; Rylands, 1993). Species they use to
obtain gums were also represented: Crotonfloribundus
(N = 35), Piptadenia gonoacantha (N = 17), Euterpe
edulis (N = 11), Pilocarpus pauciflorus (N = 11), and
Esenbeckia leiocarpa (N = 9).


Page 42







Neotropical Primates 2(suppl.), December, 1994


180
160
4 140
o 120
100
o 80
S60
40
20
0



0 0 < 5

FAMILY
Figure 1. Relative abundance of trees in terms of the number of individuals of each
family identified in the Caetetus Ecological Station, Sgo Paulo, Brazil.


Discussion

Although the results presented here are only partial,
they indicate a forest with a high degree of similarity to
others studied in the state of Sao Paulo (C6sar and
Leitao-Filho, 1990; Pagano and Leitao-Filho, 1987).
There are of course local and regional variations in flo-
ristic composition (Pagano etal., 1987), but the overall
pattern conforms to the conclusion of Leitao-Filho
(1987) that the semi-de-
ciduous forests of the up-
land plain of SAo Paulo [
typically demonstrate a
marked presence of 8~
Fabaceae, Rutaceae, 2 7 UU -
Euphorbiaceae, Lauraceae, L 6- I -
and Myrtaceae. 0 5


The continuation of this
study will permit a better
understanding of the ecol-
ogy and behavior of the
black lion tamarin, notably
in terms of understanding
its group size, ranging be-
havior and seasonality in
reproduction. A knowl-
edge of the floristic compo-
sition, and the distribution
and abundance of the food
resources available to and


U


exploited by L.
chrysopygus is also an
invaluable tool for the
translocations and
meta-population
management pro-
posed by Valladares-
Padua et al. (1994),
and will hopefully
provide us with a bet-
ter understanding of
the differences in the
ecological and behav-
ioral parameters of
the four species
(Rylands, 1993).

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to the
Sio Paulo Forestry In-
stitute (IF-SP), and
the Brazilian Institute


for the Environment (Ibama) for permission to carry
out this study. Dr J. B. Baitello, Dr H. F. LeitAo-Filho,
and Dr Inds Cordeiro kindly identified the plant speci-
mens. Dr Anthony B. Rylands kindly translated the
manuscript. The research is being financed by the Bra-
zilian Higher Education Authority (CAPES), the Bra-
zil Science Council (CNPq), the World Wide Fund for
Nature (WWF), the Fundagao o Boticario de Proteqco a


LUUWLULUL UlUlUU V LlU I, l lUU LUlUUJU tULUI UJ WllUJ LUIU LULU LULULLJ.


OP V) 0 E < oI 8
0coo M >I- >- 8

FAMILY
Figure 2. Tree species richness for the families identified in the Caetetus Ecological
Station, Sao Paulo, Brazil.


Pagge 43


Page 43








Pa.ze 44 Neotropical Primates 2(suppl.), December~ 1994


Natureza, the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, and
the Lincoln Park Zoo Scott Neotropic Fund.

References

Cdsar, 0. and Leitao-Filho, H.F. 1990. Estudo
floristico quantitative de mata mes6fila
semidecidua na Fazenda Barreiro Rico, Municipio
de Anhembi, SP. Rev. Brasil. Biol., 50(1): 133-147.
Leitao-Filho, H.F. 1987. Consideraq6es sobre a
floristica de florestas tropicais e subtropicais do
Brasil. Inst. Pesq. Est. Florest., 35: 41-46.
Martins, F.R. 1991. Estrutura de Uma Floresta
Mes6fila. Editora da Universidade Estadual de
Campinas, Campinas.
Pagano, S.N. and Leitao-Filho, H.F. 1987. Composiqao
floristica do estrato arb6reo de mata mes6fila
semidecidua, no Municipio de Rio Claro (Estado de
Sao Paulo). Rev. Brasil. Bot., 10: 37-47.
Pagano, S.N., Leitao-Filho, H.F. and Shepherd, G.J.
1987. Estudo fitossociol6gico em mata mes6fila
semidecidua no Municipio de
Rio Claro (Estado de Sao
Paulo). Rev. Brasil. Bot.,
10:49-61.
Passos, F.C. 1992. Habito
Alimentar do Mico-Leao-
Preto, Leontopithecus


chrysopygus (Mikan, 1823) (Callitrichidae,
Primates) na Estagao Ecol6gica dos Caetetus,
Municipio de Gdlia, SP. Unpublished Master's
thesis, State University of Campinas, Campinas.
Passos, F.C. and Carvalho, C.T. de 1991. Importincia
de exsudatos na alimentagqo do mico-lego-preto,
Leontopithecus chrysopygus (Callithricidae,
Primates). In: Resumos. XVIII Congresso Brasileiro
de Zoologia, p.392. Universidade Federal da Bahia,
Salvador.
Rylands, A.B. 1993. The ecology of the lion tamarins,
Leontopithecus: some intrageneric differences and
comparisons with other callitrichids. In: Marmosets
and Tamarins: Systematics, Behaviour, and
Ecology, A.B.Rylands (ed.), pp.296-313. Oxford
University Press, Oxford.
Valladares-Padua, C., Padua, S.M. and Cullen Jr, L.
1994. The conservation biology of the black lion
tamarin, Leontopithecus chrysopygus: first ten
years' report. Neotropical Primates, 2(suppl.): 36-
39.


Black lionfl amann (Leonoivpditeciis chrtn sp~gis)


Page 44


v


Areotropical Primates 2(suppl-), December, 1994







Page 45


Environmental Education and the Black Lion Tamarin, Leontopithecus
chrysopygus


Suzana M. Padua, IPE Instituto de Projetos e Pesquisas Ecol6gicas, Avenida dos Operarios 587, 13416-460
Piracicaba, Sdo Paulo, Brazil.







Introduction


People are unaware of the importance of natural areas
because they are so rarely used for education purposes.
This is especially true for Brazil, while significant
exceptions can be found in the education projects
designed for the conservation of lion tamarins,
Leontopithecus (v. Dietz et al. 1994). The first, set up
on behalf of the golden lion tamarin, L.rosalia, began
in the early 1980's (Dietz and Nagagata, 1986;
Kleiman et al., 1986; Deitz et al., 1994), and opened
up a whole new conservation scenario, providing the
basis on which subsequent programs were established
for the golden-headed lion tamarin, L.chrysomelas, in
Bahia (Alves, 1991; Nagagata, 1994) and the black
lion tamarin, L.chrysopygus, in Sio Paulo (Jacobsen
and Padua, 1992, in press a and b; Padua, 1991, 1994,
in press a, b; Padua et al., 1990; Padua and Jacobsen,
1993). These programs, although varying in their
context, are in general designed to involve local
communities in the conservation process and
disseminate scientific findings in a simple and direct
language so that the information can be understood by
all. As the lion tamarins are charismatic, beautiful, and
highly threatened, they have been highly effective in
attracting attention and stimulating pride in the
communities within their geographic ranges, and as
such enhancing the protection of the forests they live in
(Padua et al., 1990; Dietz et al., 1994). In addition,
some of these education projects have applied research
methods important for improving the strategies
employed, in assessing their overall effectiveness, and
in pinpointing those which have been effective and
those which have not, so that other educators and
education programs can benefit.

The environmental education program for the
conservation of the black lion tamarin began in 1988/
89, and was centered on the Morro do Diabo State
Park, which harbors the most significant surviving
population of the species. The Park is administered by


the Sao Paulo State Forestry Institute (IF). Education
initiatives have likewise been carried out in other sites
where L.chrysopygus is found. In June 1992, a course
for teachers was held at the Caetetus Ecological Station
(also of the Sao Paulo Forestry Institute). It served as a
starting point for a continuous school program
maintained by the Station's new administration.
Another program centered on the Fazenda Rio Claro of
the Duartex Co., where L.chrysopygus was recently
discovered (Valladares-Padua et al., 1994). Activities
with local students included a study of the extent to
which information was passed on to their parents
(Padua et al., in press). The results of this study were
adapted and translated into Portuguese for the journal
Educador Ambiental (Padua et al., 1994).

The education program for the black lion tamarin has
been carried out according to specific methodologies,
the most thorough of which was that centered on the
Morro do Diabo State Park, and which I will
summarize here. It was continuously and
systematically evaluated following the PPP model
(Planning/Process/Product), designed by Jacobsen
(1991), and adopted by Padua and Jacobsen (1993) and
Padua (in press a). This model helps ensure
effectiveness in each step of the program, from
conception to completion, through the planning stage,
implementation (process) and the evaluation of the
results (product).

Planning Stage

The needs, goals, objectives, target public, constraints,
and available resources are defined during the
planning stage. A preliminary survey conducted
among the local population showed that people had
very little environmental knowledge. Although they
showed great interest, the majority knew little about
the local flora and fauna. The need to instil a broader
knowledge and understanding was evident.


Xeotropical Primates 2(suppl.), December, 1994







Page 46 iVeotropical Primates 2(suppl.), December~ 1994


The goals and objectives of the program were also
defined based on information gathered through
preliminary surveys. Since the Park is the largest
surviving remnant of the Atlantic forest in the west of
the state of Sao Paulo, and threatened as such, the main
goal was the preservation of the integrity of the Park
itself. The objective, therefore, was to foster among
local people an appreciation of the Park and its rich
wildlife.

A specially designed school program introduced
students to the Park and furnished means for them to
increase their knowledge of ecological concepts, and
stimulate positive attitudes towards nature. Strategies
that would impact the value and increase the
knowledge of individuals were systematically applied
during all stages of the program: research has shown
the importance of these aspects to increase awareness
and change people's behavior (Swan, 1974; lozzi,
1989; Hungerford and Volk, 1990; Stapp, 1974).
Although the environmental education program was
targeted mainly at local students, many activities were
specially designed for a broader public.

The involvement of the communities surrounding the
Morro do Diabo State Park was of great importance
due to the increasing rate of destruction of the natural
environments of the region. Students alone may not
have the chance to halt this destructive process since
little may be left for them to fight for when they
eventually become the decision-makers. For this
reason, the environmental education program
sponsored several out-reach activities targeting the
entire community, from local authorities to
businessmen and laborers.


The planning stage also included seeking institutional
support and participation, crucial for the program's
implementation. The Park's employees were
encouraged to collaborate, and as a consequence nature
trails were set up and educational activities in the Park
were carried out with little extra expense. Although the
SAo Paulo Forestry Institute was very supportive of the
program, and provided help in a number of ways,
additional sponsorship was obtained from several
institutions concerned about the conservation of the
Park (see 'Acknowledgements'). This was most
important in giving the program an impetus and pace
that enabled the full realization of its objectives and
goals.

Process Stage

The program's content, its implementation strategies,
and the evaluation procedures were defined in the
Planning Stage. The content of the black lion tamarin
environmental education program was selected based
on the information gathered in the planning stage and
on the scientific findings of a long-term study of the
species (Valladares-Padua, 1993; Valladares-Padua et
al., 1994). Program strategies were designed
accordingly and included the elaboration of
educational materials for local teachers who lacked
information on the Park, its natural resources, and
history. Visitors watched a slide presentation before
their visit to the Park. Three nature trails were set up
for students, each focusing on a different aspect of the
Park. A Visitor's Center included an area for exhibits
and one where objects could be handled during
activities which were specially designed to stimulate
curiosity and learning. There students play games and
have contact with live animals. As snakes were
especially feared in the region, three
were kept and presented to students to
turn their feelings of fear into
admiration. Class contests were
sometimes held, and after the visits
the students received hand-outs with
C information and games.

All activities were designed to
encourage appreciation of the black
lion tamarin and the Park. Each
activity was pilot-tested and
constantly evaluated using
straightforward questions as
advocated by Nowak (1984). This
process evaluation furnished helpful
information for the improvement of
'.. the program during its


Page 46


Neotropical Primates 2(suppl.), December, 1994






Page 47


implementation. Among the many community-
oriented activities were art exhibits, art or sports
competitions and workshops. The local radio station
played an important role in broadcasting special
activities and supplying information on the
environmental education program in general.

Two Park employees and some local high school
students were trained as nature guides. They helped
design the program by contributing with new ideas and
activities. These were pilot-tested and, depending on
the results, adopted by all as an educational strategy.
As most of the program's participants were members of
the local community, they were important in helping to
solve specific implementation problems, and
facilitated the local community's acceptance of the
program as a whole.

Product Stage

The Product Stage assessed whether the goals and
objectives were being achieved, as well as the direct
and indirect effects of the program. A formal
evaluation procedure helped assess its effectiveness,
and the results were used to improve, change or
abandon the various strategies. Results based on
systematic data collection were also used to obtain
institutional and funding support.

The black lion tamarin environmental education
program was able to count on considerable public
interest, acceptance, and participation. By the end of
the first year, 6,000 students had visited the Park, and
the average annual visitation in the following three
years was 8,000. A systematic evaluation with 144
students assigned to experimental and control groups
were tested on three occasions: a pre-test, prior to
exposure to the program; a post-test, immediately after
visiting the Park; and a retention test, one month later.
The tests were written questionnaires which measured
the student's knowledge and attitude. Statistical
analyses showed that there were significant differences
between the experimental and control groups
(F=98.29, p<0.05) indicating the program's
effectiveness (Padua, 1994, in press b).

Other indicators of the program's success were: the
increase of families visiting the Park during weekends;
university students spending weekends at the Park's
lodging house; local teachers requesting
environmental education courses; and the nature
guide's increasing interest to improve their
performance. Several events demonstrated people's


interest in the Park's conservation. Some were related
to festivities, such as floats for the town's anniversary
celebration, end-of-year parties of the Rotary and
Lion's Club and other public initiatives. However, the
most important indications of community involvement
referred to the protection of the Park itself. After a
radio interview in which the education staff explained
the threats to the Park and its wildlife resulting from
the relocation of the garbage dump of the nearby town
of Teodoro Sampaio, people wrote and telephoned to
the Town Mayor requesting an immediate solution.
The garbage was removed in less than a week. The
community also voluntarily helped the Park employees
to extinguish a forest fire. Fires had occurred in
previous years, but the community's collaboration was
unprecedented. A third instance of community
willingness to participate in nature conservation
occurred outside the Park. A nearby farm was being
illegally logged, and through public pressure this was
stopped and the farmer was fined.

In order to improve the socioeconomic conditions of
the poorer sections of the communities, local
businessmen formed a group with the purpose of
establishing development plans which gave priority to
problems of pollution, as well as using local
underprivileged and unskilled labor: concerns which
would have been lacking in solutions imported from
the outside. Finally, the community became active in
demanding the continuity of the program itself. Letters
were sent to the Park's administration in Sio Paulo and
to the Town Mayor requesting a local director to
guarantee the continuity of the education program
during a temporary hiatus in the program's activities.

Conclusions

The environmental education program for the lion
tamarins, together with other conservation measures
should serve as examples of integrated and effective
efforts towards species and habitat protection. Through
public programs of this sort, people increase their
knowledge concerning local environmental problems
and shift their values and attitudes to an extent that
encourages them to act. Giving power to local
communities in terms of their understanding of
environmental problems can greatly contribute to the
conservation of natural areas. In Brazil, this is
especially important due to the richness of its natural
environments and the lack of resources to protect them.
The lion tamarin example should be shared and
disseminated so that other species and ecosystems can
benefit from the lessons learned.


Neotropical Primates 2(suppl.), December, 1994






Neotropical Primates 2(suppl.), December, 1994


Acknowledgements

Fundamental for the successes of the black lion
tamarin environmental education program has been
the support of the local communities and the
enthusiasm of the education team. We are also grateful
to the following institutions: the Forestry Institute (IF)
of Sao Paulo, SMA, Apenheul, Holland, the Canadian
Embassy in Brazil, the Fanwood Foundation, the U.S.
Fish and Wildlife Service, Wildlife Preservation Trust
International (WPTI), the Whitley Animal Protection
Trust, the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), the Brazil
Science Council (CNPq), and the Center for Latin
American Studies, the Program for Studies in Tropical
Conservation, and the Tropical Conservation and
Development Program, all of the University of Florida,
Gainesville.

References

Alves, M.C. 1991. Community conservation education
for the Atlantic forests of southern Bahia, Brazil,
with emphasis on the golden-headed lion tamarin
(Leontopithecus chrysomelas). Unpublished report,
World Wildlife Fund, Washington, D.C.
Dietz, J.M., Dietz, L.A. and Nagagata, E.Y. 1994. The
effective use of flagship species for conservation of
biodiversity: the example of lion tamarins in Brazil.
In: Creative Conservation: Interactive
Management of Wild and Captive Animals,
P.J.S.Olney, G.M.Mace and A.T.C. Feistner (eds.),
pp.32-49. Chapman and Hall, London.
Dietz, L.A. and Nagagata, E. 1986. Projeto Mico-Leao
V. Program de educaqao comunitdria para a
conservacao do mico-leio-dourado -
Leontopithecus rosalia (Linnaeus 1766).
Desenvolvimento e avaliagao de educaqao como
uma tecnologia para a conservacao de uma esp6cie
em extingao. In: A Primatologia no Brasil 2,
M.T.de Mello (ed.), pp.249-259. Sociedade
Brasileira de Primatologia, Brasilia.
Hungerford, H. and Volk, T. 1990. Changing learner
behavior through environmental education.
J.Environ.Educ., 21(3):8-21.
lozzi, L. 1989. What research says to the educator. Part
one: environmental education and the affective
domain. J.Environ.Educ., 20(3): 3-9.
Jacobsen, S. 1991. Evaluation model for developing,
implementing, and assessing conservation
education programs: examples from Belize and
Costa Rica. Environmental Management, 15(2):
143-150.
Jacobsen, S. and Padua, S. 1992. Pupils and parks:
environmental education using National Parks in


developing countries. Childhood Education, 68(5):
290-293.
Jacobsen, S. and Padua, S. In press a. Pupils and parks.
The Forum, Harvard Institute for International
Development, Cambridge.
Jacobsen, S. and Padua, S. In press b. Conservation
education using parks in Malaysia and Brazil. In:
Wildlife Conservation: International Case Studies
of Education and Communication Programs,
S.Jacobsen (ed.). Methods and Studies in
Conservation Biology Series, Columbia University
Press, New York.
Kleiman, D.G., Beck, B.B., Dietz, J.M., Dietz, L.A.,
Ballou, J.D. and Coimbra-Filho, A.F. 1986.
Conservation program for the golden lion tamarin:
captive research and management, ecological
studies, educational strategies, and reintroduction.
In: Primates: The Road to Self-Sustaining
Populations, K.Benirschke (ed.), pp.959-979.
Springer Verlag, New York.
Nagagata, E.Y. 1994. Evaluation of community-based
conservation education: a case study of the golden-
headed lion tamarin education program in the state
of Bahia, Brazil. Neotropical Primates, 2(suppl.):
33-35.
Nowak, P. 1984. Direct evaluation: a management tool
for program justification, evaluation, and
modification. J.Environ.Educ., 15(4): 27-31.
Padua, S. 1991. Conservation awareness through an
environmental education school program at the
Morro do Diabo State Park, Sao Paulo State, Brazil.
Unpublished Master's thesis, University of Florida,
Gainesville.
Padua, S. 1994. Conservation awareness through an
environmental education programme in the
Atlantic forest of Brazil. Environmental
Conservation, 21(2): 145-151.
Padua, S. In press a. Environmental education
programmes for natural areas in underdeveloped
countries a case study in the Brazilian Atlantic
forest. In: Towards Better Planning of Education to
Care for the Planet. World Conservation Union
(IUCN), Gland.
Padua, S. In press b. Uma pesquisa em educaqco
ambiental: a conservaqAo do mico-leao-preto
(Leontopithecus chrysopygus). In: Manejo de Vida
Silvestre no Brasil Tropical, R.Bodmer and
C.Valladares-Padua (eds.).
Padua, S. and Jacobsen, S. 1993. A comprehensive
approach to an environmental education program in
Brazil. J.Environ.Educ., 24(4): 29-36.
Padua, S., Dietz, L.A., Nagagata, E. and Alves, C.
1990. Educacao ambiental e os micos-le6es. In:
Leontopithecus: Population Viability Workshop,


Page 48







Neotropical Primates 2(suppl.), December, 1994

U.S.Seal, J.D.Ballou and C.Valladares-Padua
(eds.), pp.299-301. IUCN/SSC Captive Breeding
Specialist Group (CBSG), Apple Valley, Minnesota.
Padua, S., Mamede, C., Silva, M. and Martins, C.
1994. Os pais aprendem com os filhos? Educador
Ambiental, May/June: 5-6.
Padua, S., Mamede, C., Silva, M. and Martins, C. In
press. Do parents learn from their children? In:
Proceedings of the 22ndAnnual Conference of the
North American Association for Environmental
Education, Montana, 1993.
Stapp, W.B. 1974. Historical setting of environmental
education. In: Environmental Education: Strategies
Toward a More Liveable Future, J.A.Swan and
W.B.Stapp (eds.), pp.42-49. Sage Publications,


Page 49


Beverly Hills, California.
Swan J.A. Some human objectives for environmental
education. In: Environmental Education: Strategies
Toward a More Liveable Future, J.A.Swan and
W.B.Stapp (eds.), pp.26-41. Sage Publications,
Beverly Hills, California.
Valladares-Padua, C. 1993. The Ecology, Behavior and
Conservation of the Black Lion Tamarin.
Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of
Florida, Gainesville.
Valladares-Padua, C., Padua, S.M. and Cullen Jr., L.
1994. The conservation biology of the black lion
tamarin, Leontopithecus chrysopygus: first ten
years' report. Neotropical Primates, 2(suppl.): 36-
39.







Page 50


Conservation Status of the Black-faced Lion Tamarin, Leontopithecus
caissara


Ibsen de Gusmao CAmara, Avenida das Americas 2300 C-40, 22640-101 Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.


In May 1993, the International Committee for the
Management of the Black-faced Lion Tamarin
(Leontopithecus caissara), created by the Brazilian
Institute for the Environment and Renewable Natural
Resources (Ibama) in September 1992 (Edict No. 106-
N, 30 September 1992), met on the occasion of the 1st
International Symposium for the Lion Tamarins at the
Pogo das Antas Biological Reserve, Rio de Janeiro, to
draw up an emergency action plan for the species. This
Emergency Action Plan was based on a previous and
similar document presented at the Leontopithecus
Population Viability Workshop held in Belo Horizonte
in June 1990 (Teixeira, 1990). It was finalized and sent
to Ibama in June 1993 (CAmara, 1993a, 1993b). The
principle proposals and priorities can be summarized
as follows:

- the creation of new conservation units within the
known distribution of the species;
- transformation of the entire or substantial part of its
continental distribution into a fully protected area;
- improvement of the protection afforded to the
already existing conservation units;
- research programs to study the ecology and behavior
of the species;
- the elaboration of an environmental education
program;
- studies on the feasibility of translocating individuals
between the Island of Superagiii and the continent.
following appropriate genetic research;
- establish a captive breeding program, involving at
least two institutions, one in Brazil and a second
overseas, using preferentially animals arising from
confiscation;
- the preparation of management plans for the existing
protected areas, notably the Superagtii National
Park.

The International Committee met again in April 1994
to analyze the current status concerning the measures
proposed in the July 1993 Action Plan, and discuss


methodologies currently being used by two teams
which are studying the distribution, habitat, and status
of Leontopithecus caissara from: a) the National
Museum in Rio de Janeiro and the "CapAo de Imbuia"
Natural History Museum in Curitiba (Vanessa Persson
and Maria Lucia Lorini, see Lorini and Persson, 1990,
1994a, 1994b; Persson andLorini, 1993, 1994) and the
University of Sao Paulo in collaboration with the Sio
Paulo State Forestry Institute (Paulo Nogueira Neto,
Paulo Martuscelli and Marcia Rodrigues, see
Martuscelli and Rodrigues, 1992).

The following conclusions were reached at this
meeting:
- none of the priorities or proposals contained in the
Action Plan had yet been attended to by the Brazilian
Institute for the Environment and Renewable
Natural Resources (Ibama);
- research on the distribution and habitat of the species
was continuing, and beginning to provide estimates
with some degree of confidence regarding their
accuracy as to the status of the species, although this
is made difficult by the rarity of the species and the
finding that a number of at least more northerly
populations are isolated;
- attempts to capture a group for an ecological/
behavioral study (the project of Marcia Rodrigues,
University of Sao Paulo) had till then proved
unsuccessful;
- the Sao Paulo State Government had received a
formal proposal for the creation of a reserve in the
northern part of the species' range, but to date
nothing had resulted;
- there is an urgent need for a captive breeding
program;
- action needs to be taken concerning the recent
finding that indian groups had settled in the
Superagui National Park, the most important
protected area for L.caissara, and that the National
Indian Foundation (FUNAI) was intending to
establish an Indigenous Area within the Park.


Neotropical Primates 2(suppl.), December, 1994






Neotropical Primates 2(suppl.), December, 1994

Concerning this last point, the Committee members
agreed on the serious consequences for the survival of
L.caissara should the integrity of the Superagiii
National Park be compromised by the superimposition
of an Indigenous Area. The Ministry of the
Environment and Legal Amazonia, of which Ibama is
part, was contacted alerting to the situation.

Finally, the Committee discussed the vital need for
Ibama to act on the Action Plan submitted to them.
Conservation measures must be taken immediately if
the future of the black-headed lion tamarin is to be
guaranteed even in the short term.

References

Camara, I.de G. 1993a. Piano de Aqao Emergencial
para a Conservagco do Mico-Leao-de-Cara-Preta,
Leontopithecus caissara. Unpublished document,
Institute Brasileiro do Meio-Ambiente e dos
Recursos Naturais Renoviveis (Ibama), Brasilia.
9pp.
Camara, I.de G. 1993b. Action Plan for the Black-
Faced Lion Tamarin. Neotropical Primates, 1(3):
10-11.
Lorini, M.L. and Persson, V.G. 1990. Nova esp6cie de
Leontopithecus Lesson, 1840, do sul do Brasil
(Primates, Callitrichidae). Bol.Mus.Nac., Nova
Sbrie, 338:1-14.
Lorini, M.L. and Persson, V.G. 1994a. Densidade.
populacional de Leontopithecus caissara Lorini &


Page 51


Persson, 1990, na Ilha de Superagdi / PR (Primates,
Callitrichidae). In: Resumos, XX Congresso
Brasileiro de Zoologia, p.145. Universidade
Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 24-29
July 1994.
Lorini, M.L. and Persson, V.G. 1994b. Status of field
research on Leontopithecus caissara: The Black-
Faced Lion Tamarin Project. Neotropical Primates,
2(suppl.): 52-55.
Martuscelli, P. and Rodrigues, M.G. 1992. Novas
populag6es do mico-leao-caigara, Leontopithecus
caissara (Lorini & Persson, 1990) no sudeste do
Brasil (Primates-Callitrichidae). Rev.Inst.Flor., Sao
Paulo, 4:920-924.
Persson, V.G. and Lorini, M.L. 1993. Notas sobre o
mico-leao-de-cara-preta, Leontopithecus caissara
Lorini & Persson, 1990, no sul do Brasil (Primates,
Callitrichidae). In: A Primatologia no Brasil 4,
pp.169-181, M.E.Yamamoto and M.B.C.de Sousa
(eds.). Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia, Natal.
Persson, V.G. and Lorini, M.L. 1994. Distribuigqo
geografica do mico-leao-de-cara-preta,
Leontopithecus caissara Lorini & Persson, 1990.
In: Resumos, AX Congresso Brasileiro de Zoologia,
p.145. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio
de Janeiro, 24-29 July 1994.
Teixeira, D.M. 1990. Conservation action plan for the
black-faced lion tamarin, Leontopithecus caissara.
In: Leontopithecus: Population Viability Analysis
Workshop Report, pp.53-54, U.S.Seal, J.D.Ballou
and C.Valladares-Padua (eds.). IUCN/SSC Captive
Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG), Apple Valley,
Minnesota.






Page 52


Status of Field Research on Leontopithecus caissara: The Black-Faced Lion
Tamarin Project


Maria Luicia Lorini, Seoo de Mastozoologia, Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Quinta da
Boa Vista, 20940-040 Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, and Vanessa Guerra Persson, Museu de Historia Natural
"Capao da Imbuia", SMMA-PMC, Rua Benedito Conceigdo 407, 82810-080 Curitiba, Parana, Brazil.


During five years of field research
on mammals in the state of ParanA,
our attention was consistently
drawn to the presence of a third
primate species on the northern
coast of the state, which was
MICO-IEAO distinct from Cebus apella and
4A Alouattafusca. Records go back to
CAR-PRETA the XIX century, when Vieira-dos-
Santos (1850) indicated the
presence of a Callithrix species in
the region of ParanaguA. Nearly a century later, this
primate caught the interest of the mammalogist Carlos
C.Vieira (1944) of the Museum of Zoology of the
University of Sio Paulo, who ascribed the record to the
buffy-tufted-ear marmoset, Callithrix aurita. At his
request, the Paranaense Museum (now called the
"Capdo de Imbuia" Natural History Museum) carried
out an expedition to the area to look for the species, but
without success. Further rumours of this third primate
arose in the 1980's, this time coming from the
municipality of Guarequegaba. As a result, the
Sociedade de Pesquisa em Vida Selvagem (SPVS),
based in Curitiba, ParanA, organized a survey in the
GuaraqueQaba Environmental Protection Area (APA)
from 1987 to 1989. This survey resulted in the
conclusion that the third species was identifiable as the
masked titi, Callicebus personatus, with no evidence
for the presence of a callitrichid (Oliveira and Pereira,
1990). However, the rumours persisted, and we were
informed of the presence of a "sagtii" (the Brazilian
common name for marmosets and tamarins) on the
Island of Superagui, and which in no way
corresponded to any description of a titi monkey. We
consequently set up an expedition in early 1990 to
search for the animal along the northern coastal area of
Parand and adjacent Sao Paulo. To our surprise, we
were able not only to confirm the presence of a
callitrichid, but found that it was an undescribed
species of Leontopithecus. The new species, the black-
faced lion tamarin was named Leontopithecus caissara
(Lorini and Persson, 1990) as a tribute to the


inhabitants of the Island of Superagiii called
"caicaras", who participated and helped in our search
with such enthusiasm.

At the time of its description, we lacked information
which could result in any evaluation of its conservation
status, although it was evident that it was locally rare,
and that its distribution was very limited; facts which
alone were cause for concern. On this basis, we
presented an Action Plan for the preservation of the
species on the occasion of the Leontopithecus
Population Viability Workshop, organized by the
Fundagao Biodiversitas in collaboration with the
IUCN/SSC Captive Breeding Specialist Group, in Belo
Horizonte, Minas Gerais, in June 1990 (Seal et al.,
1990). This plan included five proposals: 1) a survey of
the geographic distribution and an evaluation of the
populations of L.caissara; 2) research on its behavior
and ecology; 3) measures for the protection of its
habitats; 4) an environmental education program; and
5) a captive breeding program (Teixeira, 1990).
Amongst the conclusions drawn up in the final
document of the Workshop was the urgent need for
basic research on the species, above all examining its
distribution and habitat preferences (Seal et al., 1990).
In keeping with this recommendation, the Black-Faced
Lion Tamarin Project was set up in July 1990
specifically to attend to the first of the proposals in the
Action Plan. The Project included the following
objectives: 1) delimit the geographic distribution and
characterize the habitats available; 2) estimate
population sizes; 3) bring together all available
information on the biology of the species; and 4)
identify threats to its survival and evaluate its
conservation status. The project was financed by
Conservation International (CI) and the Fundacgo o
Boticario de Protepao a Natureza, and supported by the
Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Renewable
Natural Resources (Ibama).

Geographic Distribution and Habitat

In order to delimit the distribution, we surveyed a strip
of 200 x 50 km along the coast, extending from the


lVeotropical PImates 2(suppl.), December, 1994







Page 53


Baia de Guaratuba in Parana to the mouth of the Rio
Ribeira de Iguape, in Sio Paulo (Fig.1.). The first
stage of the Project involved a program of interviews
adapted specifically for the region, of local people
who knew well the forest and fauna where they lived.
Any skins or bones found were collected and captive
animals (pets) were registered and photographed. In
the second stage, surveys were carried out using
"play-back" of recordings of Leontopithecus long-
calls (see Kierulff, 1993; Pinto and Rylands, 1992;
Pinto, 1994), some of which were kindly supplied by
Devra Kleiman (National Zoological Park,
Washington, D.C.). The information obtained to date
indicates that the distribution of L.caissara is very
restricted (Fig.2), totalling approximately 300 km2,
and divided into the Island of Superagiii and adjacent
parts of the continent in the states of Parand
(municipality of Guaraquegaba) and Sao Paulo
(municipality of Canandia) (Persson and Lorini,
1991, 1993, 1994). The region is comprised of
predominantly flat lowlands with a mosaic of
vegetation types. These are being studied and
described with the help of botanists and forest
engineers from the Federal University of ParanA, the
"Capao da Imbuia" Natural History Museum, and the
Georg-August University of Gottingen, Germany.
Locations suitable for reintroduction or translocation
of the lion tamarins are being catalogued. A number of
different vegetation types are occupied by L.caissara.
They include: coastal pioneer sub-xerophilous forest
on sandy soil restingga; swamp forest with a
predominance of Tabebuia cassinoides


PR' [ 'Si _'EA

WA6Aual STUDY ARE A
SIntervmews


Mi 2'mCuAnA


Figure 1. The study area showing the regions included
in the interview survey and the playback study.


Figure 2. The geographic distribution of Leontopithecus
caissara.

(Bignoniaceae), referred to as caxetal, a pioneer
formation of 8-10 m in height near to rivers; and
dense, coastal lowland, humid forest on the Quaternary
plains (Persson and Lorini, 1991, 1993).

Population Estimate

Besides the geographic distribution, population
estimates are fundamental for the elaboration of a
conservation strategy for the species. For this reason,
we carried out preliminary surveys by the conventional
method of linear transect censuses, which resulted in
density estimates of 0.3 groups/km2 or 1.5 ind./km2;
values below those recorded for other Leontopithecus
species (Lorini and Persson, 1994a). With the
available habitat totalling about 17,300 ha throughout
its geographic distribution, this gives an estimate of a
wild population of about 52 groups or 260 individuals
divided into two or three sub-populations. This
population size is small enough to indicate that the
species is seriously threatened. We are also beginning a
survey of the population on the Island of Superagiii
using the playback method adopted by Kierulff (1993).
This will enable direct counts of all groups in a
population, reducing as such the biases inherent in the
transect method.

Biological Aspects

Due to the fact that nothing was known of the biology


Areotropical Primates 2(suppl.), December, 1994







Page 54 ATeotropical Primates 2(suppl.), December~ 1994


CONSERVATION ._
-TruSEOPWULATIONS

^*PJy TheSer-ea lSd







O1 a


'I DL"L.] 0 lo"o m
ln ]as:1 rl ,
r Pe l
...- _u-



Figure 3. The distribution of Leontopithecus caissara
(cross- hatched), indicating the conservation status of the
populations on the basis of the degree of isolation and
threats to each.

of L.caissara, we collected any information we could
on the species during our censuses. Although scant and
preliminary, our findings suggest that it is, like other
lion tamarins, a frugivore-insectivore: including to
date 27 plant food items and eight species of
invertebrates recorded in its diet. The invertebrates
resulted from the analysis of one stomach (MN28861,
the holotype; Person and Lorini, 1991), in which we
found 12 items (one mollusc, two spiders and nine
insects). The number of insects in one stomach, the
results of one morning of feeding, confirm its
categorization as a specialized predator (see Coimbra-
Filho, 1981). Fruits are important in the plant part of
the diet, with Myrtaceae being predominant, but we
have also recorded them eating the leaf bases of small
bromeliads (for example, Vriesia sp.), and the nectar of
the inflorescences of Norantea brasiliensis (see Lorini
and Persson, 1994b). Shelters used by L.caissara
include bunches of bromeliads, moss-covered dens
among root tangles, and holes in trees. We have no
evidence to suggest other than once-yearly breeding,
with newborn infants being carried in November and
December, and juveniles being present in the groups in
April and May.

Conservation and Status

The most serious threats faced by L.caissara result
from its small geographic distribution and very small


population size, estimated at less than 300
individuals. The total population is divided into
three isolated sub-populations: the Island of
Superagui (121 individuals), and the continental
valleys of the Rios Patos and Branco (35 individuals)
and the Rios Varadouro and Araqaiba (100
individuals). It range is approximately 300 kin2,
smaller than the known distribution of any of the
Leontopithecus species (Persson and Lorini, 1993,
1994). Only one-third of its distribution is within
protected areas (Fig.3), represented by the Iha de
Superagoi National Park (21,400 ha), Parand, and
the Jacupiranga State Park (150,000 ha), Sao Paulo.
The remainder falls within the Environmental
Protection Areas (APA) of Guaraquecaba (291.500
ha), Parana, and Canandia-Iguape-Peruibe (160,000
ha), Sao Paulo; conservation units which do no more
than provide for the regulation or prohibition of
activities prejudicial to the environment. Such
activities in the region include buffalo farming,
extractivism (caxeta, firewoood and timber, and
notably palmheart), agriculture (manioc, bananas,
rice), uncontrolled tourism, road construction
(notably the planned federal highway, BR-101), and
most recently the occupation of the area by
indigenous tribes (principally in the Superaguiii
National Park) (Lorini and Persson, 1991; CAmara,
1994). The local population do not hunt the lion
tamarins, although they do capture them occasionally
for pets. We have recorded at least 25 cases as
occurring in the last 50 years (Lorini and Persson,
1991), but one cannot rule out the possibility of illegal
traffic on a greater scale, as has occurred recently for
another local endemic, the highly threatened blue-
cheeked parrot, Amazona brasiliensis, when more than
100 were captured (Lorini and Persson, 1991). It is
important to emphasize that environmental controls
and supervision in the region are extremely precarious,
lacking sufficient personnel and equipment compatible
with the size and characteristics of the conservation
units involved.

With the information currently available, L.caissara is
clearly an endangered species, following the
traditional categories of The World Conservation
Union (IUCN) Red Lists of Threatened Animals
(Groombridge, 1993). The more recent Mace-Lande
System (Mace and Lande, 1991; Mace, 1993; Mace
and Stuart, 1994) places the status of this animal as
"Critical", the highest threatened category, on the basis
of its population size and geographic distribution
alone. We intend to continue our research to obtain a
more detailed and accurate appraisal of its status,
along with the development of management strategies,


Page 54


Areotropical Primates 2(supplj, December 1994







iVeotropical Primates 2(suppL), December 1994 Page 55


using also computer models to analyze extinction
probabilities and the loss of genetic variability. The
black-faced lion tamarin is undoubtedly the most
threatened of the Neotropical primates and initiatives
to promote its survival and well-being should be
considered the highest priority for primate
conservation in South America.

References

Coimbra-Filho, A.F. 1981. Animais predados ou
rejeitados pelo saui-piranga, Leontopithecus r rosalia
(L. 1766) na sua area de ocorrEncia primitive
(Callitrichidae, Primates). Rev. Brasil. BioL., 41: 717-
731.
Groombridge, B. 1993. 1994 IUCN Red List of
ThreatenedAnimals. World Conservation Monitoring
Centre (IUCN/WCMC), Cambridge, UK.
Kierulff, M.C.M. 1993. Avaliaqio das populaqges
selvagens de mico-leao-dourado, Leontopithecus
rosalia, e proposta de estrategia para sua conservago.
Unpublished Master's thesis, Universidade Federal de
Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, 185pp.
Lorini, M.L. and Persson, V.G. 1990. Nova espdcie de
Leontopithecus Lesson, 1840, do sul do Brasil
(Primates, Callitrichidae). Bol.Mus.Nac., Nova SMrie,
338:1-14.
Lorini, M.L. and Persson, V.G. 1991. Distribuigao e
biologia do mico-leao-de-cara-preta, Leontopithecus
caissara. Unpublished report, Conservation
International (CI), Washington, D.C. 25pp.
Lorini, M.L. and Persson, V.G. 1994a. Densidade
populacional de Leontopithecus caissara Lorini &
Persson, 1990, na Ilha de Superagui / PR (Primates,
Callitrichidae). In: Resumos, XX Congresso
Brasileiro de Zoologia, p.145. Universidade Federal
do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 24-29 July 1994.
Lorini, M.L. and Persson, V.G. 1994b. Provivel
polinizacgo de Norantea brasiliensis
(Marcgraviaceae) por Cebus apella and
Leontopithecus caissara. In: Resumos, XX Congresso
Brasileiro de Zoologia, p.145. Universidade Federal
do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 24-29 July 1994.
Mace, G.M. 1993. An investigation into methods for
categorizing the conservation status of species. In:
Large-Scale Ecology and Conservation Biology,
P.J.Edwards, R.M.May and N.R.Webb, pp.293-312.
Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.
Mace, G.M. and Lande, R. 1991. Assessing extinction
threats: towards a re-evaluation of IUCN Threatened
Species Categories. Conservation Biology, 5:148-
157.


Mace, G. and Stuart, S. 1994. Draft IUCN Red List
Categoires, Version 2.2. Species, (21-22): 13-24.
Oliveira, K. and Pereira, L.C.M. 1990. Levantamento de
primatas na Area de Protecao Ambiental (APA) de
Guarequegaba PR (BR). In: Resumos, XVII
Congress Brasileiro de Zoologia, p.235,
Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Londrina, 28
January-2 February 1990.
Persson, V.G. and Lorini, M.L. 1991. Notas sobre o
mico-leao-de-cara-preta, Leontopithecus caissara
Lorini & Persson, 1990, no sul do Brasil (Primates,
Callitrichidae). In: Resumos, XVIII Congresso
Brasileiro de Zoologia, p.385, Universidade Federal
da Bahia, Salvador, 24 February-I March 1991.
Persson, V.G. and Lorini, M.L. 1993. Notas sobre o
mico-leao-de-cara-preta, Leontopithecus caissara
Lorini & Persson, 1990, no sul do Brasil (Primates,
Callitrichidae). In: A Primatologia no Brasil 4,
pp. 169-181, M.E.Yamamoto and M.B.C.de Sousa
(eds.). Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia, Natal.
Persson, V.G. and Lorini, M.L. 1994. Distribuigao
geogrAfica do mico-leio-de-cara-preta,
Leontopithecus caissara Lorini & Persson, 1990. In:
Resumes; XX Congresso Brasileiro de Zoologia,
p. 145. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de
Janeiro, 24-29 July 1994.
Pinto, L.RS. 1994. Distribuico geografica e situacao
atual do mico-leao-de-cara-dourada, Leontopithecus
chrysomelas (Callitrichidae, Primates). Unpublished
Master's thesis, Universidade Federal de Minas
Gerais, Belo Horizonte, 143pp.
Pinto, L.P.S. and Rylands, A.B. 1992. Situacao e
distribuigio do mico-leao-de-cara-dourada,
Leontopithecus chrysomelas (Primates,
Callitrichidae). In: Resumos, XIX Congresso
Brasileiro de Zoologia, p.174, Universidade Federal
do Para, Beldm, 26-31 July 1992.
Seal, U.S., Ballou, J.D. and PAdua, C.V. (eds.) 1990.
Leontopithecus: Population Viability Analysis
Workshop Report. IUCN/SSC Captive Breeding
Specialist Group (CBSG), Apple Valley, Minnesota.
Teixeira, D.M. 1990. Conservation action plan for the
black-faced lion tamarin, Leontopithecus caissara.
In: Leontopithecus: Population Viability Analysis
Workshop Report, U. S. Seal, J. D. Ballou and C.
Valladares-Padua (eds.), pp.53-54. IUCN/SSC
Captive Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG), Apple
Valley, Minnesota.
Vieira, C.C. 1944. Os simios do Estado de Sao Paulo.
Pap. Avuls. Dep. Zool., Sao Paulo, 4(1):1-31.
Vieira-dos-Santos, A. 1850. MAem6ria Hist6rica da
Cidade de Paranagud e seu Municipio. Museu
Paranaense, Curitiba. 407pp.


Areotrovical Primates 2(suppl.), December, 1994


Page 55









The Superagiii National Park: Problems Concerning the Protection of the
Black-Faced Lion Tamarin, Leontopithecus caissara


Guadalupe Vivekananda, Superintend~ncia do Parana, Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos
Naturais Renovaveis (Ibama), Rua Brigadeiro Franco 1733, 80420 Curitiba, Parand, Brazil.


The Superagiii National Park is located on the
northern coast of the state of Parand. It was created by
Decree No.97688 on 25 April 1989. It includes two
coastal islands, the Ilha de PeQas and the Ilha de
Superagiii and, excluding areas in the proximity of
fishing villages, totals 21,400 ha. The principal
ecosystems include Atlantic forest, resting (coastal
forest and scrub on sandy soil), mangrove swamps,
dunes and beaches. Superagiii was formerly part of the
mainland of the state of Sao Paulo, and the island was
created only in 1953 when the Canal do Varadouro was
constructed in order to facilitate navigation for small
boats between the neighboring states of Sao Paulo and
ParanA.

The Park lies within the estuarine-lagoon complex of
Iguape-Canandia-Paranagua, within the boundaries of
the Environmental Protection Area (APA) of
Guaraquecaba, in the municipality of the same name.
This APA was created by Decree No.90883 on 31
January 1985, with an area of 313,400 ha. Besides the
Park, there is also the Guaraquegaba Ecological
Station (14,000 ha) created on 31 May 1982 by Decree
No.87222 for the protection of the mangroves and
areas of resting, and the Area of Relevant Ecological
Interest (ARIE) of the Ilha de Pinheiro and Ilha do
Pinheirinho (109 ha) created on 5 November 1985 by
Decree No.91888, specifically to protect roosts of the
endangered blue-cheeked parrot, Amazona
brasiliensis.

The Guaraquegaba Environmental Protection Area,
therefore, serves as a buffer zone for these protected
areas, and it should be emphasized that the Superagiii
National Park is not, as such, isolated. However,
despite this, and despite the wealth of environmental
legislation governing the Park and its surrounding
protected area categories, its effective protection is no
way guaranteed. The black-faced lion tamarin,
Leontopithecus caissara, was discovered in the Park


only in 1990 (Lorini and Persson, 1990), one year after
it was created. Distributional studies have since shown
that the species occurs throughout a large part of the
Park as well as on the mainland in both Parand and
southernmost coastal Sao Paulo (Persson and Lorini,
1993; Lorini and Persson, 1994).

When the Superagiti National Park was created, a
decision was to made to allow for the permanence of
the local and traditional human populations, the
principle occupations of which involved fishing, by
excluding them from the Park limits. There are six on
the island: Barra do Superagii, Barbados, Canudal,
Vila FAtima, Ararapira and Barra do Ararapira, with a
total population of 747 people. The existence of these
fishing villages is not in itself a threat to the integrity
of the Park. Incursions into forested areas are
infrequent. However, a real threat arises from the
pressures on the part of tourists to sell their land for the
construction of holiday homes, as well as their serving
as bases for palm-heart gatherers. The northern part of
the island is near to the town of Ariri, already in the
state of SAo Paulo and a popular tourist resort. It is
there that the pressures are greatest, and where there is
also a minor industry involving the supply of sand for
construction. Likewise the entire coastline on the east
of the island is excluded from the Park, and there is a
serious threat in the short term of the establishment of
housing lots and a tourist infrastructure along the
beach area which would be highly prejudicial.

Patrolling of the area is carried out by the Brazilian
Institute for the Environment (Ibama), the ParanA
State Environment Institute and the Forest Police.
However, the number of personnel is minimal and
insufficient for the large areas under their jurisdiction.
There are besides, some problems which current
legislation is incapable of resolving. This is the case
with groups of Mbya-Guarani indians occupying parts
of the island in the north and south. Besides cutting


Page 56


Areotropical Primates 2(supplj, December, 1994






Neotropical Primates 2(suppl.), December, 1994


and burning the forest for small-scale agriculture (they
usually destroy areas larger than they need), they also
hunt directly and using traps. They also make
extensive use of a palm, locally known as JerivA, and
which is an important food resource for the lion
tamarins. They have also been observed attempting to
sell lion tamarins and the blue-cheeked parrots to
tourists.

Discussions are underway between Ibama, responsible
for the maintenance of the Park, and the Indian
Foundation (FUNAI) to resolve this conflict (see
CAmara, 1994). FUNAI is, however, demanding the
delimitation of indian reservations within the Park.
Although sympathizing with the indians, it must be
emphasized that there are-numerous other areas in the
region of Guaraquegaba providing identical living
conditions which they could occupy, whereas
Superagii is the only protected area within the tiny
distribution of the already scarce lion tamarins.


References

CAmara, I.de G. 1994. Conservation status of the
black-faced lion tamarin, Leontopithecus caissara.
Neotropical Primates, 2(suppl.): 50-51.
Lorini, M.L. and Persson, V.G. 1990. Nova esp6cie de
Leontopithecus Lesson, 1840, do sul do Brasil
(Primates, Callitrichidae). Bol.Mus.Nac., Nova
Sgrie, 338:1-14.
Lorini, M.L. and Persson, V.G. 1994. Status of field
research on Leontopithecus caissara: The Black-
Faced Lion Tamarin Project. Neotropical Primates,
2(suppl.): 52-55.
Persson, V.G. and Lorini, M.L. 1993. Notas sobre o
mico-lego-de-cara-preta, Leontopithecus caissara
Lorini & Persson, 1990, no sul do Brasil (Primates,
Callitrichidae). In: A Primatologia no Brasil 4,
pp.169-181, M.E.Yamamoto and M.B.C.de Sousa
(eds.). Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia, Natal.


Black-faced lion tamarin (Leontopithecus caissara). Photo by Zig Koch.


Page 57







Page 58


International Committees for the Preservation and Management of Lion
Tamarins, Leontopithecus Committee Members May 1994


Members of the International Cooperative Research and
Management Committee for the Golden Lion Tamarin,
Leontopithecus rosalia, Brazilian Institute for the Envi-
ronment and Renewable Natural Resources (Ibama),
Edict No.2432, 20 November 1990: Devra G.Kleiman
(Chair, National Zoological Park, Washington, D.C.),
Adelmar F. Coimbra-Filho (formerly Centro de
Primatologia do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro),
Jonathan D.Ballou (Studbook keeper, National Zoologi-
cal Park, Washington, D.C.), David Langdon (Royal
Zoological Society, Adelaide), Andrew J. Baker (Phila-
delphia Zoological Society, Philadelphia), Maria lolita
Bampi (Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente Ibama,
Brasilia), Rosemary Mamede (Instituto Brasileiro do
Meio Ambiente Ibama, Brasilia), Robert Barnes (Los
Angeles Zoo, Los Angeles), Ibsen de Gusmao Camara
(Sociedade Brasileira de Protecqo Ambiental, Rio de
Janeiro), John Wortman (Denver Zoological Gardens,
Denver), Ron Willis (Royal Zoological Society of
Dublin, Dublin), Jeremy J.C.Mallinson (Jersey Wildlife
Preservation Trust, Jersey), Jonathan I-W.Gipps (Lon-
don Zoological Society, London), Jack Grisham (Okla-
homa City Zoo, Oklahoma), Dionizio Pessamilio
(Reserva Biol6gica de Poqo das Antas, Rio de Janeiro),
Alcides Pissinatti (Centro de Primatologia do Rio de
Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro), Alan Shoemaker (Riverbanks
Zoo, Columbia), Faigal Simon (Fundagao Parque
Zool6gico de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo), Ann Baker (Burnet
Park Zoo, Syracuse).

Members of the International Committee for the Recov-
ery and Management of the Golden-Headed Lion Tama-
rin, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, Brazilian Institute for
the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources
(lbama), Edict No.1.204, 18 July 1990: Jeremy
J.C.Mallinson (Co-Chair, Jersey Wildlife Preservation
Trust, Jersey), Adelmar F. Coimbra-Filho (Co-Chair, for-
merly Centro de Primatologia do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de
Janeiro), Helga de Bois (Studbook keeper, Royal Zoo-
logical Society of Antwerp, Antwerp), Ibsen de Gusmao
Cimara (Sociedade Brasileira de Proteco Ambiental,
Rio de Janeiro), Devra G.Kleiman (National Zoological
Park, Washington, D.C.), Russell A.Mittermeier (Con-
servation International, Washington, D.C.), Anthony
B.Rylands (Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo
Horizonte), Faical Simon (Fundac~o Parque Zool6gico
de Sio Paulo, Sio Paulo), Maria Cristina Alves (Projeto
Mico-Lego Baiano, Itabuna), Saturnino Neto F. da Sousa
(Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente Ibama, Una),
James Dietz (University of Maryland, Virginia), Ilmar
B.Santos (Fundacqo Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte),


Maria lolita Bampi (Instituto Brasileiro do Meio
Ambiente Ibama, Brasilia), Rosemary Mamede
(Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente Ibama,
Brasilia).

Members of the International Committee for the Man-
agement of the Black Lion Tamarin, Leontopithecus
chlysopygus, Brazilian Institute for the Environment and
Renewable Natural Resources (Ibama), Edict No.1.203,
18 July 1990: Faiqal Simon (Co-Chair, Fundaq~o Parque
Zool6gico de Sao Paulo, Sio Paulo), Devra G.Kleiman
(Co-Chair, National Zoological Park, Washington,
D.C.), Claudio Valladares-Padua (Studbook keeper, The
Nature Conservancy, Virginia), Adelmar F.Coimbra-
Filho (formerly Centro de Primatologia do Rio de
Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro), Alcides Pissinatti (Centro de
Primatologia do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro), Jeremy
J.C.Mallinson (Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, Jer-
sey), Obdulio Menghi (CITES, Gland), Maria lolita
Bampi (Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente Ibama,
Brasilia), Rosemary Mamede (Instituto Brasileiro do
Meio Ambiente Ibama, Brasilia), Leticia Brandio
(Instituto Florestal, Sao Paulo). Also Technical Advisors:
Anthony B.Rylands (Universidade Federal de Minas
Gerais, Belo Horizonte), and Jonathan D. Ballou (Na-
tional Zoological Park, Washington, D.C.).

Members of the International Management Committee
for the Black-faced Lion Tamarin, Leontopithecus
caissara, Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Re-
newable NaturalResources (Ibama), Edict No. 106-N, 30
September 1992: Ibsen de Gusmio CAmara (Co-Chair,
Sociedade Brasileira de Prote9io Ambiental, Rio de
Janeiro), Jeremy J.C.Mallinson (Co-Chair, Jersey Wild-
life Preservation Trust, Jersey), Alcides Pissinatti
(Centro de Primatologia do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de
Janeiro), Dante M.Teixeira (Museu Nacional, Rio de
Janeiro), Anthony B.Rylands (Universidade Federal de
Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte), Maria lolita Bampi
(Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente lbama,
Brasilia), Rosemary Mamede (Instituto Brasileiro do
Meio Ambiente Ibama, Brasilia), Maria Licia Lorini
(Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro), Paulo Nogueira Neto
(Universidade de Sio Paulo, Salo Paulo), Russell
A.Mittermeier (Conservation International, Washing-
ton, D.C.), Vanessa G.Persson (Museu de Historia Natu-
ral "Capdo de Imbuia", Curitiba), Marcia G. Rodrigues
(Universidade de Slo Paulo, Sio Paulo), Claudio
Valladares-Padua (The Nature Conservancy, Virginia),
Guadalupe Vivekananda (Instituto Brasileiro do Meio
Ambiente Ibama, Curitiba).


Aleotropical Primates 2(suppi.), December, 1994






Neotropical Primates 2(suppl.), December, 1994


NEOTROPICAL
PRIMATES
A Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of
the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group


Contributions


We would be most grateful if you could send us infor-
mation on projects, research groups, events (con-
gresses, symposia, and workshops), recent publica-
tions, activities of primatological societies and NGOs,
news items or opinions of recent events.and suchlike,
either in the form of manuscripts (double-spaced) or in
diskettes for PC compatible text-editors (MS-Word,
Wordperfect, Wordstar). Articles, not exceeding six
pages, can include small black-and-white photo-
graphs, figures, maps, tables and references, but please
keep them to a minimum.

Please send contributions to the editors: ANTHONY
RYLANDS, Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de
CiEncias Biol6gicas, Universidade Federal de Minas
Gerais, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Brazil, Fax: (031)
441-1412, or c/o Conservation International, Avenida
Ant6nio Abrahlo Caram 820/302, Pampulha, 31275-
000 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, Fax:
(031)441-2582 or ERNESTO RODRIGUEZ LUNA,
Parque de La Flora y Fauna Silvestre Tropical,
Universidad Veracruzana, Apartado Postal 566,
Xalapa, Veracruz 91000, M6xico, Fax: (281) 8-77-30.


LILIANA CORT2S-ORTIZ (Universidad Veracruzana)
and MIRIAM MENEZES LIMA (Conservation Interna-
tional, Belo Horizonte) provide invaluable editorial as-
sistance. LUDMILLA AGUIAR, Conservation Interna-
tional Brazil Program, Belo Horizonte (address
above), is responsible for the distribution of Neotropi-
cal Primates. Please keep us informed of any address
changes.

Correspondence, messages, and texts can be sent to
Anthony Rylands/Ludmilla Aguiar: cibrasil@ax.ape.org
Fundaglo Biodiversitas: cdcb@ax.apc.org

NEOTROPICAL PRIMATES is produced in
collaboration with Conservation International,
1015 18th Street NW, Suite 1000, Washington
DC 20036, USA, and Fundacio Biodiversitas,
Rua Maria Vaz de Melo 71', Dona Clara, Belo
Horizonte 31260-110, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Design and Composition YURI L. R. LEITE
and RICARDO B. MACHADO, Biodiversity
Conservation Data Center (CDCB), Fundacqo
Biodiversitas.


Page 59
















































NEOTROPICAL PRIMATES
Anthony Rylands/Ernesto Rodriguez Luna, Editors
Conservation International
Avenida Ant6nio AbrahAo Caram 820/302
31275-000, Belo Horizonte
Minas Gerais, Brazil


This supplement of Neotropical Primates was sponsored by Wildlife
Preservation Trust International (WPTI), 3400 West Girard Avenue,
Philadelphia. PA 19104, USA, Executive Director Mary C. Pearl, and
Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust (JWPT), Les Augres Manor, Trinity,
Jersey JE3 5BF, Channel Islands, GB, Zoological Director, Jeremy J. C.
Mallinson. Both organizations have a long history of active participation
in, and financial support for, the captive breeding and conservation of the
endangered Brazilian lion tamarins.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs