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Title: Neotropical primates
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Title: Neotropical primates a newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCNSSC Primate Specialist Group
Abbreviated Title: Neotrop. primates
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
Conservation International
Center for Applied Biodiversity Science
Publisher: Conservation International
Place of Publication: Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Publication Date: December 1994
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Primates -- Periodicals -- Latin America   ( lcsh )
Primates -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Wildlife conservation -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
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periodical   ( marcgt )
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Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Mar. 1993)-
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General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 13, no. 1 (Apr. 2005).
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Full Text

A Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group

Editors: Anthony B. Rylands and Ernesto Rodriguez Luna
PSG Chairman: Russell A. Mittermeier
PSG Deputy Chairman: William R. Konstant




Volume 2
March-December, 1994

NUMBER 1 (MARCH, 1994)
The urgency of finding new directions for primate conservation in western Amazonia.
Bodmer, R.E., Puertas, P.E. and Fang, T.G. ....................................................... ........................ 1-3
Recovery and release of an infant muriqui, Brachyteles arachnoides, at the Caratinga Biological
Station, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Nogueira, C.P., Carvalho, A.R.D., Oliveira, L.P., Veado, E.M.
and Strier, K .B ............................................................................................................ ................... 3-5
Muriquis at the Rio de Janeiro Primate Centre. Coimbra-Filho, A.F., Pissinatti, A.
and Rylands, A .B ....................................................................................................................... 5-7
A case of geophagy in the black howling monkey Alouatta caraya. Bicca-Marques, J.C.
and Calegaro-M arques, C ......................................... .. .................................... ....................... 7-9
More untufted capuchins in southeastern Amazonia? Ferrari, S.F. and Souza Jr., A.P. de ................. 9-10
Ilhabela State Park: a poorly known reserve in southeast Brazil. Olmos, F ................................... ... 10-11
The distribution of the black-headed marmoset, Callithrix nigriceps: a correction. Ferrari, S.F......... 11-12
Uma experiencia de conservaqao na varzea da AmazBnia Brasileira. Queiroz, H.L.de .................... 12-13
A global conservation strategy for zoos ......................................... 13-14
1993 North American regional studbook for the white-faced saki. Vecchio, A. and Miller, A. ......... 14-15
The European Marmoset Research Group. Scott, L., Pryce, C. and Schnell, C. ............................... 15-16
Neotropical Primates: Setting the Agenda for the Future essays in honor of Warren G. Kinzey ............16
Wildlife rescue Petit Saut, French Guiana .............................................................17
IN FO R M A M ........................................................................................ ...................................... 17-18
A new mammal journal for the tropics. Ojeda, R.A. ............................................. 18-19
Journal ofManmmalian Evolution ......................................................19
Environmental Law and Policy in Latin America a new journal ....................... .......................19
Program de p6s-graduaq~o em animals silvestres ....................................... ......................19
Fundac o o Boticario de Protecgo A Natureza. Milano, M.S.................................. ....................... 19-20
Sophie Danforth Conservation Biology Fund ........................................................ ......................20
N ew D director for W CM C ....................................................................................... ..........................20
N ew program in biodiversity ............................................ .. .................... ..............................21
Natureza e sociedade: um program de apoio para alunos de p6s-graduaqio sobre conservacqo
e m anejo am biental no Brasil ......................................................................... ....... .......................... 21
The Conservation Media Center: an environmental news agency. Jukovsky, D. and Wille, C. ................21

Neotropical Primates Index

Program de Intercambio para Manejadores de Areas Protegidas de Amdrica Latina (PIMAPAL) ..........22
Postdoctoral position in primate enrichment ............................................................ 22-23
M am m al slide library ..................... ....................................................... ............................................. ..23
Software for population viability analyses .............................................................. .....................23
Newsletters for chelonia and edentates ........................................ .............................................23
VI Congress Brasileiro de Primatologia ............................................................ ........................ 24
American Society of Primatologists Awards ....................................................... ........................ 24
R ECENT PUBLICATIONS.................................................................................... ............................ 25-31
M E ET IN G S ......................................................................................................................................... 3 1-33

NUMBER 2 (JUNE, 1994)
Translocaci6n y seguimiento de un grupo de monos Alouatta palliata liberado en una
isla (1988-1994). Rodriguez-Luna, E. and Cortds-Ortiz, L ..................................... ........................ 1-5
Conservaci6n del mono capuchino de Margarita (Cebus apella margaritae) en la Isla de Margarita,
Venezuela. Sanz, V. and M rquez, L. ................................................................... ..................... 5-8
Nuevos registros de Saguinus tripartitus en la Amazonia Ecuatoriana. Albuja V., L. ........................ 8-10
Parasitic infection in red howling monkeys in forest fragments. Gilbert, K.A.................................. 10-12
Fourteen new localities for the muriqui Brachyteles arachnoides. Martuscelli, P., Petroni, L.M.
and O lm os, F ............................................................................ ....................................... 12-15
Jaguar predation on muriqui Brachyteles arachnoides. Olmos, F. .................... ......................16
Muriqui conservation: the urgent.need of an integrated management plan. Mendes, F.D.C. .......... 16-19
Project Keystone Plants for Large Frugivores in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Galetti, M. ............... 19-20
Ecology and social relations of the black-chinned emperor tamarin. Calegaro-Marques, C.
and B icca-M arques, J.C .................................................................................. ...................... 20-21
Quantificaco morfol6gica em primatas neotropicais. Burity, C. H. de F ......................................... 21-22
1993 International Studbook for the Golden-Headed Lion Tamarin. H. de Bois. .....................................22
1993 U.S. Regional Cotton-Top Tamarin Studbook. Aquilina, G.D........................................... 22-23
Illustrated Monographs of Living Primates. Kaiser, J.B. ............................................................. 23-24
Prim ate predators ......................... .................. .... .............................. .....................................24
Community Conservation Consultants: catalysts for rural conservation. Horwich, R.H. .................. 24-26
Roger 0. and Barbara E. Brown Primate Research Facility Chicago Field Museum. Patterson, B.D. ....26
Adelmar Coimbra-Filho retires as Director of the Rio de Janeiro Primate Center (CPRJ/FEEMA). .........26
Projeto Dinmica Biol6gica de Fragmentos Florestais chamada para propostas. ........................... 26-27
Program de p6s-graduacao em ecologia, conservagao e manejo. ..........................................27
The Lincoln Park Zoo Scott Neotropic Fund .......................... ...................... 27-28

2 Vol. 2, March-December, 1994

Primate Field Studies Supplement Primate Eye. Casperd, J.M. ........................................................28
RECENT PUBLICATIONS........................... .............................................. ....... ....... 28-32
M E ET IN G S ........................................ ................................................... ......................... 32 -34

Current status of primates in Venezuelan zoos. Waugh, D.R. ........................................................... 1-3
Sao Francisco Xavier: a new site for primatological research and conservation in the Brazilian
Atlantic Forest. Antonietto, L.A. and Mendes, F.D.C. ............................................. 3-4
Levantamento de primatas e zoneamento das matas na regigo do Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca,
Minas Gerais, Brasil. Hirsch, A., Subira, R.J. and Landau, E.C ............................... ...................... 4-6
Twins or adoption? Bicca-Marques, J.C. and Calegaro-Marques, C. ............................................... 6-7
An update on the long-term field research on red howler monkeys, Alouatta seniculus, at Hato
M asaguaral, Venezuela. Agoramoorthy, G. ........................................................ ...................... 7-9
Muriqui births at the Rio de Janeiro Primate Center. Pissinatti, A., Coimbra-Filho, A.F.,
Santos, J.L. dos and Rylands, A .B. ...................... .............. .... ........... ...................... 9-10
A study on the behavioral ecology of the spider monkey, Ateles geoffroyi, in the Montes Azules
Biosphere Reserve, Chiapas, Mexico. Ruiz-Vidal, R., P6rez-Ruiz, A. and Ramos-Fernandez, G. ...... 10-11
The black uakari monkey in the Pico da Neblina National Park. Boubli, J.P. ................................. 11-12
Cytogenetic studies in neotropical primates. Pieczarka, J.C. ................................. ................... 12-13
Social structure of semi-captive brown capuchins. Izar, P. .......................................................... 13-14
Development of a Panamanian Primate Center. Rasmussen, D.R. ................................ ............ 14-15
Posici6n de la UICN sobre la cria en cautividad. ................................................................ 15-17
Primate Conservation the journal of the IUCN Primate Specialist Group. Mittermeier, R.A. and
R lands, A .B ................................................................................. ......................................... ...... 17
IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group newsletters -African Primates. Butynski, T.M. ..........................17
Curso: Introdu o a Prim atologia. ......................................... .......................... ................................. 18
Evolution of the Primates: an international primatology course Strasbourg, France. ...........................18
Reactivaci6n de la revista international Vida Silvestre Neotropical. ................................................. 19
Wildlife Disease Association Latin American Section. ................................... ....................19
Applied ethology and animal welfare e-mail network. .................................. .......................20
W wildlife trade and C ITE S ..................... .................................................. .............................................20
Post in conservation biology. ............................................................. ...............................................20
Post in ecology and behavior of nonhuman primates. ........................................ ........................20
Post in animal behavior and biology Bucknell University ................................... ..................... 20-21
VI Congress Brasileiro de Primatologia ............................ .............. ............. ........................ 21
Assembldia Geral da Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia. Sampaio, I. ....................................... 21-22

Neotropical Primates Index 3

Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia cadastro de pesquisas. Azevedo, A. Da R. de and Schneider, H. .22
XVth Congress of the International Primatological Society, Bali. ........................................................ 22
RECENT PUBLICATIONS ....... .................. ................................................. ......... ............. 22-33
M E ET IN G S ...................................... ................................................................................................... 3 3 -34

Conservation and population status of the brown howling monkey (Alouattafusca clamitans) in
Argentina. Di Bitetti, M.S., Placci, G., Brown, R.D. and Rode, D.L. .................................................. 1-4
Injury and disease of the mantled howler monkey in fragmented habitats. Jones, C.B. ........................ 4-5
Infanticide in the brown howler monkey, Alouattafusca. Galetti, M., Pedroni, F. and Paschoal, M. ..... 6-7
Capture and radio-telemetry of masked titi monkeys, Callicebus personatus melanochir.
M miller, K .-H and Schildger, B.J. ........................................................................ ..................... 7-8
The Nisia Floresta Common Marmoset Research Station. Santee, D.P. and Arruda, M. de F. .......... 8-11
A black howling monkey study in Belize. Pav6n, D.G. ...................................... 11-12
Pacific Primate Sanctuary. W ormser, L.L. ........................................................ .................... 12-13
Feeding ecology of golden-faced sakis. Setz, E. .................................................... 13-14
A comparative study of parental care and infant development in callitrichids. Santos, C.V. ..................14
European Marmoset Research Group (EMRG) 1st General Assembly. Pryce, C.R. ....................... 15-17
Parque Estadual do Rio Doce: um convite A pesquisa. ........................................ 17-18
Warren G. Kinzey a founding father of platyrrhinology. Rosenberger, A.L. and Norconk, M.A....... 18-23
R obin K ingston. ................................................................................................. ......................... 23-24
TRAFFIC Sudamerica. Villalba-M acias, J.S. ................................................... ........................24
Breeding and Conservation of Endangered Species JWPT Summer School. ................................. 24-25
Sophie Danforth Conservation Biology Fund. ........................................................ ..................... 25
The BP Conservation Expedition Awards student expeditions ..................... ........................25
Duke University visiting assistant professors. ................................ ..........................................25
Field assistants Cayo Santiago. ....................................................................... ..................... 25-26
EstagiBrio Projeto DinAmica Biol6gica de Fragmentos Florestais. ............................. 26
Creaci6n de la Asociaci6n Primatol6gica Espaiiola. ................................................ ....................26
V Simposio de la Asociaci6n Mexicana de Primatologia y III Reuni6n de la Sociedad Latinomericana
de P rim atologia. ................................................................................................... ............ ............ 26-27
VII Congresso da Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia. ........................................ ....................27
VII Curso de EspecializagFo em Primatologia: Ecologia e Comportamento de Primatas Neotropicais. ....27
American Society of Primatologists Awards 1994. ........................................... ........................... 27
R E CENT P UBLICATIO NS ............................................................................ ..... .................... .... 27-33
M E E T IN G S .......................................................................................................................................... 33 -34

4 Vol. 2, March-December, 1994

Page 1 Neoropical Primates 2(4), December 1994



The Present
Due to widespread habitat destruction, the original
distribution of the brown howling monkey, Alouatta
fitsca, has been dramatically reduced (Mittenneier,
1986; Mittermeier and Cheney 1987). Its present
distribution is limited to small populations scattered
throughout its original range, surviving mainly in
small nature reserves in south-east Brazil and the
Misiones province in Argentina. Little is known about
the size and conservation status of the renmant
populations, and the records of their occurrence are
imprecise (Mendes, 1989). This report is an update of
the occurrence and status of the brown howling
monkey in Argentina.

Originally, Alouatta fusca ranged throughout the
Atlantic and Paranaense forests of Brazil from the
States of Bahia and Espirito Santo in the north to Rio
Grande do Sul and the Argentine Province of
Misiones in the south (Cordeiro da Silva, 1981;
Kinzey, 1982). Two subspecies of brown howlers are
commonly recognized: A. f fiscal, from the northern
part of the species range, is on the verge of extinction
(Mittermeier, 1986) and the 1994 IUCN Red List of
Threatened Animals gave the status of this taxon as
endangered (Groombridge, 1993). The southern
subspecies, A. f clamitans, is considered vulnerable by
IUCN due to extreme fragmentation and the evident
decline of populations in many parts of its range.

The first record of the brown howler in Argentina was
by Crespo (1954), who reported an individual
captured in an Araucaria (Araucaria angustijblia)
forest (Fig. 1). In 1974, the same author reported
another three individuals which had died in the 1965-
66 regional yellow fever epidemic (Crespo, 1974).
Recently, Massoia et al. (1992) reported two further
individuals captured in Misiones in 1976 and 1978
respectively. In January 1991, we recorded the
vocalizations of brown howlers (at least two groups
were howling simultaneously) at Cmrce Caballero
Provincial Park, a 435 ha reserve of unspoiled
Araucaria subtropical forest. hi November 1993, at the
same site, we encountered a group of brown howlers
composed of one adult male, one subadult male, three
adult females and one dependent offspring. According
to local people, several other groups were living in the

proximity of the Cruce Caballero Provincial Park at
this time, in areas of high human pressure. Cmnce
Caballero Provincial Park is currently the only
location in Argentina with a confirmed population of
brown howling monkeys.

Figure 1. Locations of the records of Alouatta fusca
in Argentina. Also shown are the largest protected
areas in Misiones province. 1. Crespo (1954). 2.
Crespo (1974), 3. & 4. Massoia et al. (1992). 5.
Living groups at Cruce Caballero Provincial Park.
6. Iguazui Na National Park, 7. Uniguai Provincial
Park, 8. Yaboti Reserve.

The Problems
Although the knowledge on the status of the brown
howler in Argentina is an ongoing challenge, there
are some important points to take into account to
understand the conservation problems of this species
in this part of its range.

Unsuited protected areas and habitat fragmentation.
There are no records of brown howlers- in the most
important reserves in the region: the Iguazu National
Park, the Uruguai Provincial Park, and the Yaboti
Reserve (Fig.1). Afusca has apparently some kind of
association with Araucaria forest in Argentina, and
there is a serious lack of protection for this type of
forest in Misiones. The Cruce Caballero Provincial
Park and the San Antonio Strict Natural Reserve are
the only reserves protecting tiny fractions of Araucaria
forest, and both are suffering the deleterious effects of
fragmentation and small size (see for example, Sould,

Cover photograph by Clara B. Jones: Aggressive interaction between male (left) and female (right) Alouatta palliata (see page 4).

Neoropical Primrate~s 2(4), Decemr~ber 1994

Page 1

Neotropical Primates 2(4), December 1994

Land use and development. Outside the protected
areas the native forest is in an advanced state of
degradation and fragmentation due to increasing
human pressure. Big timber companies are
transforming huge portions of native forest into Pinus,
Araucaria and Eucalyptus monospecific plantations.
Those lands not converted into plantations are being
highly impacted by squatters (poor families from
Brazil and Argentina) seeking land for subsistence
fanning. The high degree of poverty, the problem of
land tenure and the misuse of natural resources near
Cnmcc Caballero are important problems to resolve in
order to ensure the conservation of the forest

Rarity of the species and susceptibility to diseases.
Both species of howling monkeys living in Misiones,
the brown howler (A:fiusca) and the black howler (A.
caraya) have extremely low population densities as
noted by the extreme difficulty in encountering them
(Crespo 1982). In April 1994, a field trip to Cnmce
Caballero Provincial Park was made in which over 70
km were walked searching for brown howlers without
success. We estimate that no more than three groups
live within the Park boundaries. This low population
density may best be attributed to the devastating
effects of the 1965-66 yellow fever epidemic which
decimated populations of both species in Misiones
province and areas nearby in Brazil and Paraguay
(Bejarano, 1974; Crespo, 1974, 1982). Yellow fever
has been known to have harmful effects on other
howling monkey populations (Collias and Southwick,
1952; Tinnm, 1994; K.Stoner, pers. conun.). The
surrounding areas of the Cnrce Caballero Provincial
Park also have a high incidence of Derinatobia sp. in
domestic animals and humans (pers. obs.). At high
levels this parasite has been known to increase
howling monkey mortality rates (Milton, 1982; Arditi
and Placci 1990; Brown and Zunino, 1994). The
increased incidence of epidemics due to habitat
fragmentation and the ever growing human presence
around Cruce Caballero Provincial Park may have a
disastrous impact on the surviving population of
brown howling monkeys. There is growing
understanding that nongenetic factors, and
particularly catastrophic events, may be more likely to
limit the viability of populations than genetic factors
(Lande, 1988 in Young, 1994).

Competition with the black howler. The sympathy of
the black and brown howlers in Argentina is still open
to controversy. While some authors have reported
sympatry (Cordeiro da Silva, 1981; Crespo, 1982;
Crockett and Eisenberg, 1987; Redford and Eisenberg,
1992), the scarce information available gives the
impression of an area of intermingled populations of
Alouatta carava and brown howlers and the

Page 2

replacement of one species by the other. Whichever is
the case, the coexistence of black howling monkeys in
the same area is an important point to take into
account. The black howler lives in very fragmented
and disturbed forests and has a large capacity to
disperse and colonize patches and remnants of forest
in the Bolivian-Chaco region. Higher densities of
black howlers are maintained on the Paran, river
islands with a secondary growth vegetation and a
lower concentration of secondary compounds (Rumiz,
1990). On the other hand, the brown howler seems to
prefer moister forest than A. caraya and is found in
Brazilian Atlantic forest, the southern Araucaria forest
of Brazil and Misiones, Argentina (Redford and
Eisenberg 1992), all of which were continuous in the
past. The recovery of A. fusca populations could be
prevented because of the extreme fragmentation of the
Paranaense forest and its transfonnation into
secondary patches. However, A. caraya populations
may be relatively unaffected by these changes and
consequently replace brown howlers in this part of
their range.

The Future
Any conservation project must have as its first
objective the study and protection of the environment,
considering the conservation of forests and monkeys
as a whole. The development of an action plan with
the aim of improving the conservation of Argentine
forests requires not only interdisciplinarity but also a
compromise between conservation and development,
to include the rural people that live and use these areas
(Brown, 1990). Conservation and development
programs for alternative and sustainable agricultural
and forestry practices are highly desirable in the
region. It is necessary to consider people's needs and
social promotion by including local people in the
discussion and execution of conservation programs.

To preserve the Paranense forest of Misiones it will be
cnrcial to develop an integrated plan to manage the
reserved areas of the northern part of the province and
the Iguaqfl National Park in Brazil. It is important to
promote the formation of state and private reserves
(including Araucaria forests) that constitute a-
continuous corridor connecting the former area to the
Yaboti Reserve and the Turbo National Park in Brazil.
It will also be important to increase the area of the
Cruce Caballero Provincial Park while it is still
possible, and link it to other protected areas (Rode and
Di Bitetti, 1994).

The development of a plan for the conservation of the
brown howling monkey and its environment in
Argentina will require considerable research and
investigation. Misiones still has some 1,200,000 ha of
natural forest, approximately 400,000 ha of which are

Page 3 Neotropical Primates 2(4), December 1994

under protected status. This area, together with the
Brazilian part of Igua9i and the Turbo National Park,
is the largest area of continuous subtropical
Paranaense forest remaining (Laclau, 1994). This
provides an outstanding opportunity to develop
conservation programs in this important natural area
in the neotropics. Not only the brown howling monkey
but also other endangered species, such as the harpy
eagle, the giant river otter and the jaguar, probably
have their last opportunity to continue inhabiting the
Paranense forest only if efforts are concentrated in
developing a coherent conservation plan for this

Acknowledgments. We acknowledge Sr. Arce, keeper
of the Cruce Caballero Provincial Park for his
hospitality. Andris Johnson and the Fundaci6n Vida
Silvestre Argentina for their logistic and technical
field support. The Subsecretary of Natural Resources
of Misiones provided permission to do field work in
Cruce Caballero. We are also grateful to Miguel
Castelino, Sandra Chediack, James Stanford, H6ctor
Grau, Martin Kovalewski, Susana Bravo, Mariana
Diuk, and Marcela Amaya Santi for their company
and help during the field surveys. Miguel Castelino
also helped by tape recording howler vocalizations.
Juan Manuel Morales, James Stanford, Maria Eugenia
Morales and Charles Janson helped with the
translation of the manuscript.

Mario S. Di Bitetti, Guillermo Placci, Alejandro D.
Brown and Daniela L Rode, Laboratorio de
Investigaciones Ecol6gicas de las Yungas (LIEY),
Universidad Nacional de Tucumin, CC. 34, (4107)
Yerba Buena, Tucunin, Argentina, and Fundaci6n


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Bejarano, L. 1974. Estudio sobre fiebre amarilla
selvatica en la Repuiblica Argentina. Ministerio de
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Brown, A. D. and Zunino, G.E. 1994. Habitat,
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Groombridge, B. 1993. 1994 IUCN Red List of
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Kinzey, W. G. 1982. Distribution of primates and
forest refuges. In: Biological Diversification in the
Tropics, G. T. Prance (ed.), pp.455-482. Columbia
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naturales y el hombre en la selva paranense. Boletin
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(20): 1-139.
Massoia, E, Chebez, J.C., Bosso, A., Parera, A. and
Masaniche, M. 1992. Nuevas localidades de
nmamiferos amenazados de la Argentina primera
parte). APRONA, Bol. Cient. 21:1-11.
Mendes, S. L. 1989. Estudo ecol6gico de Alouatta
fusca (Primates: Cebidae) na EstaqC o Biol6gica de
Caratinga, MG. Rev. Nordestina Biol., 6(2):71-104.
Milton, K. 1982. Dietary quality and demographic
regulation in a howler monkey population. In: The
Ecology of a Tropical Forest: Seasonal Rhythms
and Long-Term Changes, E. G. Leigh, A. Stanley
Rand and D. M. Windsor (eds.), pp.273-289.
Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Mittermeier, R A. 1986. A global overview of primate
conservation. In: Primate Ecology and
Conservation, J. G. Else and P. C. Lee (eds.),
pp.325-340. Cambridge University Press,
Mittermeier, R. A. and Cheney, D. L. 1987.
Conservation of primates and their habitats. In:
Primate Societies. B. Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R M.
Seyfarth, R W. Wrangham and T..T. Struhsaker
(eds.), pp.477-490. The University of Chicago Press,

Neotropical Primlates 2(4, Decemrber 1994

Page 3

Neotropical Primates 2(4), December 1994

Redford, K. H. and Eisenberg, J.F. 1992. Mammals of
the Neotropics: The Southern Cone. Volume 2. The
University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Rode, D. I. and Di Bitetti, M.S. 1994. Parque
Provincial Cruce Caballero, Misiones, Argentina.
YIingas, 4(1-2):8-10.
Rumiz, D. I. 1990. Alonatta carava: population
density and demography in northern Argentina. Am.
J. Primatol. 21:279-294.
Soul6, M. E. 1986. Consetation Biology: The
Science of 'Scarcity and Diversity. Sinauer
Associates, Sunderland, Massachusetts.
Tinun, R M. 1994. The mammal fauna. In: La Se/va:
Ecology and Natural History of a Neotropical
Rainforest, L. A. McDade. K. S. Bawa, H. A.
Hespenheide and G. S. Hartshorn (eds.). pp.229-
237. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Young T. P. 1994. Natural die-offs of large mammals:
implications for conservation. Consenation
Biologv, 8(2):410-418.


Vulnerability to extinction of a population may be a
consequence of insults visiting the bodies of
individuals, thereby depressing competitive abilities,
reproduction, or predator defense (see Scott, 1988).
This note presents data on injury and disease in the
mantled howler monkey (Aloualta palliata Gray) in
three fragmented habitats at Hacienda La Pacifica,
Cailas, Guanacaste, Costa Rica. The history of the
ranch, its habitats, and a detailed map may be found
in Clarke and Zucker (1994), and methods of capture
and release are outlined in Scott et al. (1976). The
study's main purpose was an exhaustive census and
morphometric analysis of all howler monkey age-sex.
classes on the ranch, and was conducted in the early to
mid 1970's by Dr Norman J.Scott Jr (U.S.Fish and
Wildlife Service, Albuquerque, New Mexico) and Iis
assistants, including this author.

Ad libilttn notes of bodily insults were recorded while
morphometrics were collected on individual animals.
Subjects were classified according to site of capture:

Page 4


- ,.
-v\ '





riparian habitat (RIP), deciduous habitat (DEC), and
irrigation fields (IRR) (habitats of tropical dry forest
environment), and analyzed by sex. Only adults were
counted, and individuals could be included in more
than one category (for example, "injury" or "disease").
Injuries included dislocated and broken bones,
missing teeth, blinded eyes, torn tissue, and scars.
while disease included lymphadenopathy.
ectoparasites (for example, botfly larvae), fungi, and
herpes-like lesions. Table 1 gives these results.

Within habitats, events occur equally between the
sexes, similar to the findings of Stuart et al. (1990).
Between habitats (Total columns), injury occurs
equally in RIP, DEC, and IRR (y2= 2.69, n.s.) while
disease occurs much more frequently in the RIP
habitat (p<.02, z2 = 8.9, df = 2). These results cannot
be explained by differences in the representation
across habitats of males and females in Scott's census
(Table 1, parentheses). Thus, disease appears to be
more frequent in RIP habitat as Stuart et al., (1990)
found for one specific pathogen of the La Pacifica
howlers. These authors identified no ectoparasites (for
example, botfly larvae) in their sample. This suggests
possible seasonal differences, since the present study
was conducted mainly during the dry season months,
while that of Stuart el al. was carried out primarily
during wet season months.

Frankie el al. (1974) showed that RIP sites of tropical
dry forest environment in Costa Rica are more similar
in "tempo and mode" to wet forest sites than to DEC

o0 o -0km

Table 1. Frequencies of "injury" and "disease" in a fragmented population of howler monkeys at
Hacienda La Pacifica, Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Numbers in parentheses = total number of adults by
sex and habitat in Scott's census.
I Males 1 Females I Total Males Females I Total



Page S Neotropical Primates 2(4), December 1994

forests. The higher rate of infection in RIP habitat may
be explained by a higher rate of disease in a forest
more favorable to its spread, possibly related to higher
humidity (Stuart et al., 1990). Further, the RIP habitat
is, in essence, a corridor of forest extending about 30
m in width along riverbanks, as mandated by law
(W.Hagnauer, pers.comm.). Recent wildlife corridor
theory predicts a higher incidence of disease in
corridors, bringing into question their utility in the
design of areas to preserve biodiversity and in the
management of the effects of habitat fragmentation
(McEuen, 1993; Simberloff and Cox, 1987).
Attributing higher incidence of disease in RIP habitat
to higher population density (Stuart et al., 1990;
Gilbert, 1994) is problematic since in the present study
population density was highest in the most fragmented
habitat: IRR with 130 individuals/km2, compared to
70 individuals/kin2 for RIP, and 25 individuals/km2
for DEC (estimated from a map of La Pacifica
provided by W.Hagnauer). Finally, if the RIP forest is
a "better" habitat than DEC or IRR, then coefficients
of competition may be higher there, leading to higher
interaction rates and greater opportunities for the
spread of disease.

Milton (1982) suggested that botfly infestations in
howlers may contribute to howler mortality on Barro
Colorado Island, Panama. The present results and the
report by Stuart et al. (1990) do not support such a
conclusion. No differences were detected between
mean body weights for males and females by habitat
for disease (including botflies) or injuries compared
with body weights by habitat and sex in Scott's
complete census. It is not possible, however, to rule
out costs to survivorship and fecundity not affecting
body weight.

Injuries are expected to show no habitat differences if
they occur primarily as a result of non-interactive or
random causes (for example, falls from trees). On the
other hand, injuries may arise from competitive
interactions common to all habitats, possibly because
of the species-typical dominance hierarchy in which
younger adults fight their way to high rank and do not
secure group membership unless they obtain an age-
related position in the hierarchy (see Milton, 1982).
Social structure, then, may correlate with likelihood
of injury as well as disease. Higher occurrences of
injury might also be expected to occur with higher
population densities, but there was no evidence for this
in this study.

In conclusion, adults in RIP habitat appear to be
significantly more susceptible to disease than adults in
other habitats. Several explanations are considered.
The drier and more heterogeneous habitats, DEC and
IRR, appear to provide some protection 'from

pathogens (see Stuart et al. 1990). Indeed IRR habitat
may "behave" more like DEC than RIP habitat. If this
is so, then microclimate (for example, temperature
and humidity) and microhabitat factors (for example,
tree architecture, floristic composition, and tree
density and dispersion) rather than population density
per se may account for most of the variance in
susceptibility to disease in addition to individual
effects such as dominance rank and age. Injuries occur
equally in all habitats, possibly due to accidents and
social organization. Further quantitative studies are
required to determine the role of injury and disease in
howler monkeys and other primate populations.

I thank N. J. Scott Jr, J. K. Palmer, and the W.
Hagnauer family for assistance in many ways.

Clara B. Jones, Institute of Animal Behavior, Rutgers
University Newark, 101 Warren Street, Newark,
New Jersey 07102, USA.


Clarke, M. R. and Zucker, E. L. 1994. Survey of
the howling monkey population of La Pacifica: a
seven-year follow-up. Int. J. Primatol., 15: 61-73.
Frankie, G. W., Baker, H. G. and Opler, P. A.
1974. Comparative phenological studies of trees
in tropical wet and dry forests in the lowlands of
Costa Rica. J. Ecol., 62: 881-919.
Gilbert, K. A. 1994. Parasitic infection in red
howling monkeys in forest fragments.
Neotropical Primates, 2(2): 10-12.
McEuen, A. 1993. The wildlife corridor
controversy: a review. Endangered Species
Update, 10:1-12.
Milton, K. 1982. Dietary quality and demographic
regulation in a howler monkey population. In:
The Ecology of a Tropical Forest: Seasonal
Rhythms and Long-Term Changes, E.G.Leigh Jr,
A.S.Rand and D.M.Windsor (eds.), pp. 273-290.
Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Scott, M. E. 1988. The impact of infection and
disease on animal populations: implications for
conservation biology. Conservation Biology,
Scott, N.J., Scott, A.F. and Malmgren, L.A. 1976.
Capturing and marking howler monkeys for field
behavioral studies. Primates, 17:527-534.
Simberloff, D. and Cox, J. 1987. Consequences
and costs of conservation corridors. Conservation
Biology, 1: 63-71.
Stuart, M.D., Greenspan, L.L., Glander, K.E. and
Clarke, M.R. 1990. A coprological survey of
parasites of wild mantled howling monkeys,
Alouatta palliata palliata. J. Wildl. Dis., 26: 547-

Neotropical Prim~ates 2(4) Decemtber 1994

Page 5

Neotropicili Prj,,,ates 2(4), December 1994 Page 6


Fatal aggression by adult males toward infants
(infanticide) has been reported in several of the
Neotropical howler monkey species, including
Alouatta seniculus (see Crockett and Sekulic, 1984),
A.palliata (see Clarke, 1983), and A.caraya (see
Zunino et al., 1985). We observed infanticide for the
first time in the brown howler, Alouatta fisca, during
a long-term study of the species at the Santa Genebra
Reserve, Campinas, state of Sao Paulo. The Reserve is
a 250 ha fragment of Atlantic coastal forest, known
for its high density of howlers, the highest yet
recorded throughout its distribution (Chiarello and
Galetti, 1994). For information on the Reserve and the
research there see Chiarello (1993a, 1993b, 1994) and
Galetti et al. (1994).

The study group was composed of one adult male, one
female + infant, and one young juvenile male. On 23
November 1989, we observed the group's adult male
fighting and chasing a solitary male we had seen
occasionally near to the group. The fighting was
preceded by howling sessions by both males. One
week later, we found a dead infant in the area, which
had bites on the head and shoulder, and was missing a
leg (Fig. 1). The infant, weighing 170 g, was
deposited in the Natural History Museum at the State
University of Campinas (UNICAMP, ZUEC 1315).
We discarded the possibility of predation because
Santa Genebra is too small to support large predators
such as eagles or wild cats, and the pattern of injuries
was similar to that reported for A.seniculus in'
Venezuela by Crockett and Pope (1988). The
possibility of infanticide was strengthened when we
found the group to have a new male, and lacking the
infant. The young juvenile remained in the group for
another two weeks, but subsequently disappeared. We
had no evidence that the new male had expelled
him. Although infanticide was reported only
once for our study site, we expect that the
increase in the already large population there
might result in more cases being observed in the
near future.

We are grateful to Paulo S.Oliveira for comnuents
on the manuscript, to the Fundagdo Jose Pedro
de Oliveira for penrission to work at Santa
Genebra, and to the Fundagdo de Amparo a
Pesquisa de Sao Paulo (FAPESP), the Brazilian
Higher Education Authority (CAPES), and to the
Brazil Science Council (CNPq) for financial

Mauro Galetti, Wildlife Research Group,
Department of Anatomy, University of F

Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3DY, England, UK,
Fernando Pedroni, Departamento de Botinica, and
Maristela Paschoal, Departamento de Zoologia,
Universidade Estadual de Canipinas (UNICAMP),
Caixa Postal 6109, 13081-970 Campinas, Slo Paulo,


Chiarello, A.G. 1993a. Activity pattern of the brown
howler monkey Alouattafusca, Geoffroy 1812, in a
forest fragment of southeastern Brazil. Primates, 34:
Chiarello, A.G. 1993b. Home range of the brown
howler monkey Alouatta fusca in a forest fragment
of southeastern Brazil. Folia Primatol., 60: 173-175.
Chiarello, A.G. 1994. Diet of the brown howler
monkey Alouatta fusca in a semi-deciduous forest
fragment of southeastern Brazil. Primates, 15: 25-
Chiarello, A.G. and Galetti, M. 1994. Conservation of
the brown howler monkey in south-east Brazil.
Oryx, 28:37-42.
Clarke, M.R. 1983. Infant killing in a group of
howling monkeys in Costa Rica. Am.J.Primatol., 5:
Crockett, C.M. and Sekulic, R. 1984. Infanticide in
red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus). In:
Infanticide: Comparative and Evolutionary
Perspectives, G.Hausfater and S.B.Hrdy (eds.),
pp.173-191. Aldine Publishing Co., New York.
Crockett, C.M. and Pope, T. 1988. Inferring patterns
of aggression from red howler monkey injuries.
Am.JPrimatol., 15: 289-308.
Galetti, M., Pedroni, F. and Morellato, L.P. 1994. Diet
of brown howler monkey Alouatta fusca in a forest
fragment in southeastern Brazil. Manmnalia, 57:
Zunino, G.E., Chalukian, S.C. and Rumiz, D.I. 1986.

-,- sassif... : .. :- w ^',- a

TI- -* '' /o

S. ..-. .. .. .- ._' .
. f,;t:.Jsca, pressed to be victi-of ilaticide.
igure 1. Infant A. fusca, presunled to be victim of inlfanticide.

Page 6

)Veotropical Primates 2(4), Decemrber 1994

Page 7

Infanticidio c desaparici6n de infants asociados al
reemplazo de machos en gmrpos de A loiatall carvaa.
In: A Prinmalologia no Brasil 2, M.T.de Mello
(ed.), pp.185-190. Sociedade Brasileira de
Primatologia, Brasilia.


Introduction: Masked titi monkeys, Callicebius
personaltus. are extremely shy, quick, and quiet,
making behavioral-ecological studies in the wild a
difficult task. Their reaction to observers is to flee into
the canopy, which in the tall rain forests where they
occur can be between 20 and 25 m high. In addition,
they are quite small (between 1.5 and 2 kg) and highly
cryptic. During a one-year pilot study of the masked
titi, C.p.melanochhr, in southern Bahia. we found that
habituation just by following the animals was
unsuccessful. Using "play back" of recordings of their
calls was helpful only in locating the monkeys, but
was equally inefficient for habituating them. The
problem was solved only through capturing them and
fitting them with radio transmitters.

SlSttuv Site: The study site was a forest fragment of
about 100 ha in the Lemos Maia Experimental
Station, of the Cocoa Research Center (CEPEC) of the
Conmissao Execuliva do Piano da Lavoura Cacaueira
(CEPLAC). the Regional Cocoa Growing Authority,
located in Una. southern Bahia. Brazil. A description
of the area was given by Rylands (1982).

Capture Techniques: The first
attempts to capture the titi
monkeys used five traps placed in
trees frequented by them at a
height of about 15 m. The traps
were baited with a variety of fruits
and observed daily over three
months. This method was
unsuccessful. We then resorted to
chemical immobilization using a
carbon dioxide powered dart gun
(Telinject, R6merberg, Germany:
Type Vario IV.3 1 NP) and
reusable syringe darts with a 20
nun needle. The darts were loaded
with a mixture of 0.6-0.9 ml (30-
45 mg) Ketavct (Ketamine
hydrochloride50 mg/ml) and 0.3-
0.45 ml (6-9 mg) Romipun
(Xylacine, 20 mg/ml). If it was

Neotropical Primates 2(4), December 1994

necessary to prolong anaesthesia, 0.3 ml (15 ing) of
Ketavet was injected subsequently. For revival, we
injected a mixture of 0.3 ml Yohimbin (5% solution)
and 0.3 ml Effortil (Boehringer, Germany). To
prevent bacterial infection, we gave 0.4 ml
Tardomyocel (Bayer, Germany). All injections were
given intramuscularly into the hind leg. Darting
attempts were limited to individuals within 8 in and
with the thigh or rump prominent in order to prevent
injury. Because of the extended period of recovery and
because the group requires several hours to find a
sleeping tree, no monkey was darted after 12 a.m.

Results: Five successful darlings were carried out
between July 1992 and November 1993. See Table 1
for the details of each. The first animal (No.l). a
subadult male, was darted by fixing the gun in a
sleeping tree of the study group. Early in the morning
the dart gun was fired using a long distance switch.
The animal was easily caught as it fell. A radio
transmitter Type I (weight 42 g: K.Wagener, K61n,
Germany) (Fig. 1) was strapped to the monkey's neck.
The batteries have a lifetime of about nine months.
The titi monkeys were measured and marked and the
mixture of antibiotic and reviver were injected. They
were kept in a burlap bag in the shade until they
recovered. The animal's reintegration to the group and
its well-being were monitored using a radio-receiver
and H-antenna (K.Wagener). Normally the group
stayed nearby after one of its members were darted.
They emitted long distance calls and quieter "intra-
group" calls. After six weeks, the collared animal was
found to be in poor condition. There were skin
abrasions and infection of the mandible close to the

-- r A
- --
Figure 1. Radio-collar Type 1 (left), weight 42 g. and Type II (right). weight
22 g.

Table 1. Details of the capture, treatment, and release of Callicebus personatus melanochir.

No. Dale Dosage (m1) Locality Int action Antidote Reappearace Time Released Beaviorafter Reitegationin
ofit periodof (nin.) ofpalpedal offirt after release thegroup
anesthesia reflex movement (nit)
(min) (min) (nimn)
Kdavet Rompun
1 09.VI 92 09 0.45 paraveteal <1 63 104 120 220 fledon thegronwad group naby integaed after
nimcles vocalization 45 in.
2 26.VIII92 0.6 0.3 femor <1 25 44 65 310 fledonthegrotud groupnearby itegated aler
Muscle vocalization 30 mitn
3 01.V.93 0.6 03 upper 30 40 80 95 133 uncordinated goupreained
0.72* 0.36* abdotnen 35 climbed up te inegation immediate
4 20.VI.93 0.9 0.45 lettpantof 4 19 66 92 120 uncoordinated group neay integrated after
abdom climbed up tree 40 ni
5 06.X93 0.6 0.3 rigItloer 10 55 62 69 120 unordinated goupfound by vcalization,
03* leg muscle 15 climbeduptree itegated aler 162 mil
* 2nd dose.

In the second darting (No.2), the group was easier to
follow, and a male was darted directly while feeding
in a fruit tree. The radio-transmitter Type I was fitted
to the hip. During the first two weeks it showed some
problems when jumping but was not injured. It was
recaptured (No.3) nine months later, and a smaller
transmitter (Type II, weight 22 g) was fitted to its
neck, which, however, failed after six weeks. It was
captured again (No.4), and we found minor
lacerations of the skin on both sides of the mandibular
region. As a result we refitted a transmitter (Type I) to
the hip again (No.4). Two biologists continued the
observations and the transmitter was replaced again

Conclusion: The attachment of a radio-collar to the
neck of a titi monkey is evidently dangerous. It
resulted in infections through wounds caused by the
tight radio-collar. The angular region of the titi's
mandible is very large. The caudoventral part of the
lower jaw is extended to provide for a resonance cavity
and the space required for the radio-collar on the neck
is insufficient. On the other hand, attaclunent of a
radio-collar to the hip of a female would be dangerous
in the case of pregnancy. The best solution is to use a
hip attaclunent only on males. For females, we will be
designing and testing a backpack-style harness (see,
for example, Savage et al., 1993).

Acknowledgements: We thank Dr Alcides Pissinatti
(Centro de Primatologia do Rio de Janeiro -
CPRJ/FEEMA) for his helpful advice, and our
assistant Clea Serra Silva for help in the field. The
project was supported by the Deutscher Akademischer
Austaschdienst (DAAD), and the equipment was
provided by the Deutsches Primatenzentrum (DPZ),

Klaus-Heinrich Miiller, German Primate Centre
(DPZ), Kellnerweg 4, D-37077 G6ttingen, and Bernd

J. Schildger, Zoological Garden of Frankfurt, Alfred-
Breluh Platz 3, D-60316 Frankfrt, Gennany.


Rylands, A.B. 1982. The Behaviour and Ecology of
Three Species of Mannosets and Tamarins
(Callitrichidae, Primates) in Brazil. Unpublished
Ph.D. thesis, University of Cambridge, Cambridge.
Savage, A., Giraldo, L.H., Blumer, E.S., Soto, L.H.,
Burger, W. and. Snowdon, C.T. 1993. Field
techniques for monitoring cotton-top tamarins
(Saguinus oedipus oedipus) in Colombia.
Am.J.Primatol, 31:189-196.



Introduction: The psychobiology group at the Federal
University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal,
Brazil, began using the conunon marmoset (Callithrix
jacchus), native to north-east Brazil, as a research
model in the early 1970's. The "N'icleo de
Primatologia" was established in 1985: a breeding
colony to support the increasing research demand. It
was not long, however, before the need was felt to
establish a field site to carry out studies on the ecology
and behaviour of wild groups in order to complement
or gain a better understanding of the behavioral and
physiological research being carried out on the captive

Our search for an adequate field site resulted in the
choice of the Experimental Forestry Station (EFLEX)
of the Brazilian Institute for the Enviromnent and
Renewable Natural Resources (Ibama), 2 lan from the
town of Nisia Floresta and 45 km from Natal.
Following due permission obtained from the Brazil

Neotropical Primlates 2(4), Decem~ber 1994

Page 8

Page 9 Neotropical Primates 2(1,), Decemmiber 1994

Science Council (CNPq), the first study of the
marmoset population there began in January 1991.
Due to collaboration between Ibama and UFRN, the
research has prospered. Here we briefly describe the
site, the research underway and the site's potential for
the future.

The Study Site: The
EFLEX/Ibama study site
(605' S, 35012' W) is ,N-ta. L
located 2 km from Nisia
Floresta, and about 45 kma BRAZIL
from Natal, the capital of
the state ofRio Grande do .
Norte. The Research
Station has an area of 180
ha, including 80 ha of
secondary Atlantic coastal forest and 40 ha of
experimental plantations. The plantations are of pine,
eucalyptus, coconut, and various conunercial fruit and
timber species. Trees in the plantation reach up to 30
m in height, and the understorey is kept clear. The
secondary forest can reach 20 m in height, with some
trees having trunks as large as 50 cm in diameter at
breast height. Vines, bromeliads, orchids and grasses
are abundant. The soils are sandy, and the humus
layer is generally about 20 cm in depth. All the areas
occupied by marmoset study groups, both in and away
from the forest, are divided into 50 x 50 m quadrants
and the intersections are marked with flagging tape.
The quadrant trail system currently covers 28 ha of
forest and 15 ha of the plantation area. Although the
north-east of Brazil is mostly dry, the coastal regions
have distinct seasonality in rainfall. The dry season
peaks in December, and the rainy season in May.
However, rain rarely interferes seriously with
observation schedules. Temperatures are highest
during the dry season, reaching 330C, and lowest
during the rainy season, dropping to as low as 200C.
Ibama has allocated a small two-bedroom house to the
research group, providing accommodation and
laboratory space.

The Marmoset Groups: Three groups have been
observed continuously since 1991: Bel6m (Group B),
Chui (Group C), and Plantagio (Group P). Groups B
and C live in the forest area, while Group P inhabits
the plantations. Six more groups were included in
January 1993: Argentinos (Group A), Atlintico
(Group A, which recently split up), Meio (Group M,
new arrivals), Nisia (Group N, which split from
Group A), and Oeste (Group O), all in the forested
area, and lastly Quatro (Group Q, neighbors to Group
P) in the plantation area. Figure 1 indicates the
location of the groups in the study area. All
individuals in the groups which are followed have
been captured, measured, tattooed and fitted with

colored beads on metal chains. The beads, in
combinations of two or three, identify the group and
the individual. A permanent file is kept recording
information on each of the marked individuals.

Routine Activities Captures: The study groups or
individuals are routinely captured for collar fitting or
replacement, dye marking and biometry.
Compartmented traps are baited for several
consecutive days and manually operated for the
selective capture of individuals. Before new groups are
captured they are followed for several days for the
identification of areas of exclusive use. Automatic
traps are used on occasion. The traps are made of
small gauge wire mesh over a wooden frame, with
either five or seven compartments, each measuring

Figure 1. Schenatic representation of the study area
(1:15,000). Numbered circles indicate marked and
followed groups, traced circles indicate known but
unmarked groups. Letters indicate the predominant
vegetation types of the different areas. Groups: 1 =
Argentinos, 2 = Nisia, 3 = Oeste, 4 = Meio, 5 = Chui,
6 = Atlintico II, 7 = Atlantico I, 8 = Belem, 9 =
Plantac~o, 10 = Quatro. Vegetation: C = coconut
plantation, E = eucalyptus plantation, F = forest, M =
mahogany plantation, P = pine plantation, S = scrub.

Page 9

Aleotropicarl Primatcs 2(4), Decem~ber 1994

Neotropical Primates 2(4), December 1994

roughly 50 x 10 x 20 cm. They are placed on a I m
high platform at the base of heavily used gum trees.
The marmosets are trapped by manual closure of a
hinged, vertically-closing door, using nylon fishing
line. The operator, a few meters away from the trap, is
usually hidden in a blind of coconut palm leaves.
Initial trapping and handling does cause some stress to
the animals, but groups re-habituate quickly to being
followed and the procedure appears to do no damage
to observations in the long run.

Routine Activities Monitoring: In addition to the
collection of data for specific research projects, each
researcher is assigned a group for long-term
monitoring. This involves weekly checking of the
composition and apparent health and reproductive
condition of the individuals, along with records of the
use of space and any observable changes in the
habitat. This gives us a picture of the long-term
history of the groups, and has been routine since the
beginning of the study.

Routine Activities Meetings: Administrative and
scientific meetings are held regularly by the Nisia
Research Group. Aspects of the administration of the
research and the study site, the results of the routine
monitoring and research projects are discussed at
these meetings. Attendance is obligatory for all the
participants in the program.

Research Projects Dissertations: The three groups
B, C, and P were studied by Leslie J.Digby (University
of California, Davis) from January 1991 to June 1992,
as part of her doctoral research which examined
particularly reproductive strategies and social
organization. Dr Steven Ferrari (Federal University of
Para, Bel6m) also participated in this study. Fabiola
Albuquerque, a Master's student in the Psychobiology
Course at UFRN, studied the distribution of parental
care in Groups B and P from August 1992 to
December 1993. Carla Soraia de Castro, also a
Master's student in the Psychobiology Course at
UFRN, studied rhytlmlicity in grooming and
locomotion during the same period (Groups C and P).
From January 1993 to January 1994, ClAudio Barreto
(UFRN), who acted as field assistant to Leslie Digby,
studied differences in scent-marking behavior between
two reproductive females of Groups C and P. The
data are currently being analyzed. Arrilton Araijo, a
doctoral student from the Universitd de Paris Nord,
has been observing the Nisia marmosets since March
1993, studying behavioral, kinship and ecological
influences on individual migration (Groups B and P),
and Catherine Chojnacki, also a doctoral student from
the same university, has begun observation on scent-
marking and olfactory recognition. Maria Carla

Nascimento and Beatriz Stunpf have begun studies
on the vocal repertoire and the contextual use of
vocalizations, both for UFRN Master's degrees.

Research Projects Long-Term Project: An integrated
project "Ecology, Communication, and Social
Development in Wild Groups of Callithrixjacchus" is
currently being developed by Dr Maria de Fatima
Arruda (social development and parental care), Dr
Dwain Santee communicationo, vocal signatures), and
Maria Socorro Borges Freire (ecology, botany), with
partial support from the Brazil Science Council
(CNPq). This project is assisted by the graduate
students listed above, visiting students from the
University of Slo Paulo (Rogdrio Zanaga de Camargo
Neves Jr., Marcos Roberto Pinheiro, and Ruth
Teixeira Nunes), and an undergraduate student
Rozinelly Queiroz de Miranda.

Funding: Activities at the field station are maintained
by small grants from ANAP (Associagio Norte-
Riograndense de Amparo a Pesquisa) for the purchase
of utilities and equipment. Some equipment has also
been purchased with a grant from FINEP
(Financiadora de Estudos e Pesquisas, Rio de
Janeiro). The Department of Physiology at UFRN
provides daily stipends for their staff and also
contributes to the daily running of tie house. The
integrated project mentioned above also counts on a
grant from the Brazil Science Council (CNPq) for
contracting unskilled labor and the purchase of field
materials. The funds available are evidently
insufficient, however, for the development of the site
and the equipping of the laboratory. The maintenance
of the field site is guaranteed in large part by the
researchers themselves. Visiting researchers support
their own projects and contribute a small daily fee.

Potential: There are a number of advantages offered
by this field station. In terms of the logistics,
geography and climate: the terrain is flat and
relatively sparse understoreys mean that it is easy to
walk through the forest, rainfall is minimal (only a
few weeks of the year) as are temperature variations,
the area is protected by Ibama, is only 2 km from the
town of Nisia Floresta and 45 kmn from Natal, can be
reached by bus, and being near the Equator has a
photoperiod of 12L:12D15 miin. The numerous
groups allow for diverse types of socio-ecological
studies: new group formation, migrations, and group
splitting are not uncommon; groups can be found
living in contrasting habitats, from secondary forest to
bushes and pine/eucalyptus plantations; and the high
density means that intergroup encounters are frequent
(sometimes seen several times a day, and involving
more than two groups).

Page 10

Page ii Neotropical Pri,,,ates 2(4), December 1994

The research at the Nisia Floresta study site follows
the regulations imposed by Ibama and CNPq.
Researchers linked to academic institutions interested
in conducting field research at the site should contact
Dr. Maria de Fitina Amida (Research Coordinator)
or Dr. Dwain Santee.

Dwain P. Santee and Maria de Fatima Arruda,
Setor de Psicobiologia, Departamento de Fisiologia,
Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte,
Campus, Caixa Postal 1511, 59072-970 Natal, Rio
Grande do Norte, Brazil. Fax: (084) 231-9587, e-mail:


Albuquerque, F.S. 1994. Distribuicgo do Cuidado ,
Prole em Grupos de Callithrix jacchus
(Callitrichidae: Primates), no Ambiente Natural.
Unpublished Master's thesis in Psychobiology,
Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal.
Albuquerque, F.S. and Arrda, M.F. 1993.
Distribuiqio do cuidado prole em um grupo de
Callithrixjacchus no ambient natural. In: Anais de
Etologia 11, A.F.Nascimento Jr. (ed.), p.260.
Editor UNESP, Baunu. (Abstract).
Albuquerque, F.S. and Arruda, M.F. 1994.
Distribution of infant care in the first three months
of infant's life in natural habitat. In: Handbook and
Abstracts: AX Congress of the International
Primatological Society, p.246. Kuta, Bali,
Indonesia, 3-8 August, 1994. (Abstract).
Arruda. M.F. and Araujo, A. 1993. Analise
sociomntrica de um grupo de Callithrix jacchus
(Primates: Callitrichidae) em ambiente natural. In:
Anais de Etologia 11, A.F.Nascimento Jr. (ed.),
p.259. Editora UNESP, Bauni. (Abstract).
Arruda, M.F., Araujo, A., Santee, D.P. and
Embirussu, C. 1993. Estabilidade na composicgo de
gnrpos de Callithrixjacchus em habitat natural. In:
Anais'de Etologia 11, A.F.Nascimento Jr. (ed.),
p.258. Editora UNESP, Baum. (Abstract).
Arruda, M.F., Araijo, A., Santee, D.P. and Barreto,
C. 1994. Stability in group composition in naturally
occurring groups of conmnon marmosets (Callithrix
jacchus). In: Handbook and Abstracts: XV Congress
of the International Primatological Society, p. 151.
Kuta, Bali, Indonesia, 3-8 August, 1994. (Abstract).
Barreto, C.E. and Amida, M.F. 1994. Scent-marking
behavior of two conunon mannoset Callithrix
jacchus (Callitrichidae) reproductive females in
natural habitat. In: Handbook and Abstracts: XV'
Congress of the International Primatological
Society, p.115. Kuta, Bali, Indonesia, 3-8 August,
1994. (Abstract).

Castro, C.S.S., Moreira, L.F.S., Arruda, M.F. and
Menezes, A.A.L. 1993. Estudo comparative de
heterocataciio em femeas reprodutoras de saguii-
comum (Callithrix jacchus, Linnaeus, 1758) em
ambiente natural. In: Anais de Etologia 11,
A.F.Nascimento Jr. (ed.), p.256. Editora UNESP,
Baumn. (Abstract).
Castro, C.S.S., Menezes, A.A.L., Queiroz, W.J., and
Moreira, L.F.S. 1994. Estudo dos ritmos biol6gicos
da catagio no sag(ii-comum (Callithrixjacchus) em
ambiente natural. In: Resumos: VI Congresso
Brasileiro de Primatologia, p.27. Universidade
Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 24-29 July 1994.
Digby, L.J. 1994. Social Organization and
Reproductive Strategies in a Wild Population of
Conunon Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).
Unpublished Ph.D dissertation in Anthropology,
University of California, Davis. 156pp.
Digby, L.J. and Barreto, C.E. 1993. Social
organization in a wild population of Callithrix
jacchus 1. Group composition and dynamics. Folia
Primatol., 61:123-134.
Digby.L.J. and Ferrari, S.F. 1994. Multiple breeding
females in free-ranging groups of Callithrixjacchus.
Int.J.Primatol., 15(3): 389-397.



January 1993 marked the onset of a year-long study of
the black howling monkey (Alouatta pigra) in
northern Belize. Observations were made on three
troops of marked monkeys (colored ankle tags), living
in a semi-deciduous riverine habitat at the Bermudian
Landing Sanctuary, in the Community Baboon
Sanctuary, Belize. These troops of marked monkeys
were selected for study based on their accessibility,
size, and cohesiveness. The majority of troops
consisted of one adult male, several adult females, and
juvenile offspring: 5-6 individuals in total. An average
troop range size was 3 ha, and in two of the observed
troops ranges were overlapping.

Each troop was observed from sunrise to sunset for
several consecutive days each month (four days for
two troops and two days for the third). Data were
collected using scan sampling, recording the activity
of each troop member in sight. Six main categories
were recorded: feeding, resting, moving, travelling,
howling, and playing. When feeding, the plant part
and name were noted, and a sample of the food item

Neolropical Primatles 2(4f), Decemrber- 1994

Page 11

Neotropical Primates 2(4), December 1994

was collected when possible. Howling by troops other
than the study troop was also noted during each five
minute period.

The study was completed on 2 December 1993. Over
1,500 hours were spent in the field in direct
observation, data collection, and the mapping and
censusing of other marked troops. The data will yield
a series of diurnal behavioral profiles, as well as
monthly and seasonal patterns. Preliminary analysis
suggests there are some behavioral differences
between A.pigra and its neighbor, the mantled
howling monkey (Aloiatta palliata). For example,
mantled howler alpha males
conunonly initiate travel
(Milton, 1980), whereas in this
study this role belonged to the
adult females predominant in
instigating troop travel to
feeding sites. Likewise, it was
not unusual to observe one of
the study troops travelling 2-10
m along the ground to reach
feeding trees in a field.

The project was carried out
with field assistance from my
husband, Franklin Pav6n, and
with supervision from Dr
Robert Horwich, Conmunmity
Conservation Consultants,
Gays Mills, Wisconsin. It was
supported by a grant from the
Lincoln Park Zoo Scott
Neotropic Fund, Chicago. Figure 1. Lucy W
rehabilitated adult m

Deborah Goin Pav6n, Route 1, Box 141, Prospect,
Virginia 23960, USA.


Milton, K. 1980. The Foraging Strategy of Howler
Monkeys. Columbia University Press, New York.


The Pacific Primate Sanctuary is
a nonprofit organization.
dedicated to the protection,
preservation, and propagation of threatened,
endangered or distressed primates. Since 1984, the
Sanctuary has maintained a captive breeding program
in Hawaii for several species of New World monkeys,
including Callithrix jacchus, Ca/lithrix melannra,
Cebuella pygmaea, Saguinus geoffioyi, and Cebus
capucinus (Fig. ). The work at the Sanctuary includes
rehabilitation: providing the necessary nutritional,
psychological, and emotional support to facilitate the
recovery of the primates who have been victims of
trauma and abuse, and restoring them to health. The
Sanctuary is creating habitats for primate family
groups to live in safety and in relatively natural
surroundings, with an abundant variety of organically
grown food, and dedicated care. The tropical climate
allows the primates to be in outdoor enclosures year

Sanctuary personnel have grown organically-fanned
fruits and vegetables for the primates for the last ten

onnser. Director of the Pacific Primate Sanctuary, with a
ale Cebus capucinus. Photograph: Brian Davis.

Page 12

Page 13 Neotropical Primates 2(0, Decenber 1994

years. The Zoological Horticulture project began over
four years ago in order to provide more "natural" food
and forage. Over 100 trees have been planted from
seed for later introduction into the "jungle
environments" for each colony of marmosets and
tamarins. Special emphasis is placed on growing plant
species related to South American sources of gums
(for example, Acacia farnesiana and Samanea sanan,
"monkey pod"), to accommodate the specific dietary
specialization of gumivores. Primate nutritionists are
interested in analyzing gum samples with the aim of
producing gum supplements which may improve the
nutrition and health of captive callitrichid colonies

The Pacific Primate Sanctuary offers innovative
environmental education to volunteers, students,
educators, members of other conservation
organizations, and local communities. They are given
the opportunity to consider the pressing need and their
role in protecting threatened animals on a local,
national, and global level. Representatives from the
facility have appeared as guest lecturers on the
subjects of rain forest preservation and the changing
global environment. Schools have "adopted" the
Sanctuary as their yearly Community Service Project.
The Pacific Primate Sanctuary has recently initiated a
program to facilitate these vital environmental
partnerships between nonprofit organizations and
Maui's school system. The objective is to assist the
children in becoming environmental stewards,
problem solvers, educators, and powerful forces for
change through direct experience with their
environment and the groups working to preserve it.

The inumediate goal of the organization is to expand
the space available for more species of callitrichids
through the creation of a large rain forest preserve on
Maui with naturalistic habitats. The Sanctuary has
recently obtained enough property in Haiku to ensure
safe boundaries, with sufficient acreage to grow more
organic produce and plants. Volunteers, research
assistants, and funds are needed to construct habitats,
assist with zoological horticulture, and care for the
growing mnuber of threatened and endangered
primates in need of protection. Plans are also
underway to set up a reintroduction program for the
Cebus capucinus maintained at the Sanctuary. They
will be reintroduced in Costa Rica. Any assistance in
facilitating the success of this effort and the captive
breeding project for marmosets and tamarins would be
greatly appreciated. Please contact Lucy L.Wormser at
the address below.

Lucy L. Wormser, Executive Director, Pacific
Primate Sanctuary Inc., 130 Haloa Road, Haiku,

Maui, Hawaii 96708, Tel: 808 572-8089, Fax: 808


Eleonore Setz, Assistant Professor at the Zoology
Department, State University of Campinas
(UNICAMP), Sao Paulo, completed her doctoral
thesis for the Ecology Course at UNICAMP, on the
feeding ecology of golden-faced saki monkeys,
Pithecia pithecia chrysocephala, in a forest fragment
in the Central Amazon, in December 1993. It was
financed by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF-US), the
Smithsonian Institution, and the Brazilian Science
Council (CNPq) and Higher Education Authority
(CAPES). The research was associated with the
Biological Dynamics of Forests Fragments Project of
the Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C., and
the National Institute for Amazon Research (INPA),
Manaus. The following summarizes the thesis.

The feeding ecology of a group of golden faced sakis
(P.p.chrysocephala) in a 10 ha fragment of terra fine
forest, 80 km north of Manaus, was studied with the
aim of determining the influence of seasonal variation
in food abundance on diet and other behaviors. After
the group was habituated, the first detailed
observations were made in July 1986 (133 observation
hours; dry season, fruit scarcity) and in March 1987
(135 observation hours; rainy season; fruiting peak).
Approximately 1000 hours of observation provided
additional data between February 1985 and January
1991. During this time, the single polygynic family
group occupying the 10 ha fragment reproduced
regularly and showed a low mortality. Time budgets
for all group individuals were quantified through scan
sampling. The floristic composition and structure of
the forest fragment was compared to continuous forest
where sakis were also seen, using the point-centered
quarter method to sample plants in three size classes,
at 45 points in each area. The phenology of 1080
plants was followed from June 1989 to May 1991,
evaluating new leaves, flower buds, flowers, innuature
and mature fruits. The number of plant species,
floristic diversity, plant density and the number of
species for 50% IVI did not differ between the forest
fragment and the continuous forest, although larger
trees were significantly less tall and tree mortality was
significantly higher in tde fonner. The Morisita
Similarity Index revealed significant differences
between the fragment and continuous forest only for
the species composition of meditun-sized plants, and
the difference was not great. New leaf production was
higher in the fragment. The fruiting peak for

Neotropical Primateas 2(4), Decem~ber 1994(

Page 13

Neotropical Primates 2(4,), Deceuuber 1994 Page 14

individuals and species was from November
through March. Fruiting intensity was correlated
with monthly rainfall. The activity period of the
sakis did not differ between seasons (7 h 52 min. in
the dry season v. 8 h 3 min in the wet season) and
is very short when compared to other monkeys.
Saki time budgets did not differ between dry and
wet seasons (e.g., feeding 30% in the dry season v.
28% in the wet season; moving 52% in the dry
season v. 49% in the wet season). They did,
however, cover longer distances in the rainy season
(1115 m per day v. 720 m per day in the dry
season). Fruits comprised 91% and leaves 4% of
the wet season diet (based on time spent feeding).
In the dry season fruits comprised 61.5%, leaves
18% and flowers 16% of the diet. Immature fruits
and seeds contributed between 26% and 31% of
their diet. Diet diversity was significantly higher in
the rainy season (H'1ol,41 v. 1.21) when fruit was
more abundant and varied. Sakis like other
frugivores change from a strategy of low cost
(moving less), low return (more leaves, less
nutritious items, expanding their diet) in the dry
season when high quality food (fruit) is scarce, to a
strategy of high cost (moving more and faster),
high return (eating abundant fruits) in the rainy
season. The high number of plant species eaten
(190) is comparable to that reported for other sakis.

Eleonore Setz, Departamento de Zoologia,
Institute de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de
Campinas, 13083-970 Campinas, Sao Paulo,


Setz, E.Z.F. 1993. Ecologia alimentar de um grupo
de parauacus (Pithecia pithecia chrysocephala)
em um fragmento florestal na Amaz8nia Central.
Unpublished doctoral thesis, Institute of Biology,
State University of Campinas, Campinas. 237pp.


Cristina Valeria Santos completed her Master's
thesis in Experimental Psychology at the
University of Sao Paulo in early 1994 entitled "A
Comparative Study of Parental Care and Infant
Development in Callitrichids (Callithrix and
Leontopithecus) According to Group Size". The
study was supervised by Dr Emma Otta of the
Institute of Psychology, and financed by the
University of Sao Paulo, the Brazil Science Council

(CNPq), and the Fundagio de Amparo a Pesquisa
do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP). The following
is the abstract of the thesis.

"Cooperative breeding is a feature of the social
behavior among species of tamarins and
marmosets. As most births result in twins, the
contribution of the father and older siblings
(alloparents) is essential for decreasing the
mother's effort to rear the infants and guarantee
offspring survival. Cooperative breeding is
characterized mainly by carrying and food sharing.
In order to verify differences between group/infant
relations, observations were made on 21 infants of
Callithrix (C.kuhli and Cgeoffroyi) and 29 of
Leontopithecus (L.rosalia, L.chrysomelas, and
L.chrysopygus) at the Rio de Janeiro Primate
Center. They were born into two types of groups:
small (with 0-2 alloparents) or large (with 3-6
alloparents). The results showed that on the whole
the effort related to caring was bigger in
Leontopithecus than in Callithrix. Leontopithecus
infants were rejected less by the father, spent
smaller amounts of time independent on the
branch, and displayed more frequent suckling
bouts than Callithrix infants. The results were
interpreted based on concepts such as reproductive
costs, maturation patterns, and ecological
differences between the two genera".

Cristina Santos is currently carrying out Doctoral
research on parental care and reproductive
behavior of captive groups of Callithrix kuhli. The
hormonal bases underlying both behavioral
processes, such as changes in testosterone and
estrogen levels after birth and possible suppression
by the dominant female on the other females, will
be studied through urine sampling. The research
will be carried out at the Rio de Janeiro Primate
Center (CPRJ/FEEMA), and supervised by Dr
Emma Otta, University of Sao Paulo, and Dr
Jeffrey French, University of Nebraska at Omaha
(hormonal assays).

Cristina V. Santos, c/o Dr Emma Otta, Instituto
de Psicologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Avenida
Professor Mello Moraes 1721, 05508-900 Sao
Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.


Santos, C.V. 1994. Estudo comparative do cuidado
parental e desenvolvimento de filhotes de
calitriquideos (Callithrix e Leontopithecus) em
fungf o do tamanho do grupo. Master's thesis,
Institute of Psychology, University of Sao Paulo,
Sao Paulo. 62pp.

Areotropical Primates 2(4),' Dcemrber 1994

Page 14

Page 15 Neotropical Primates 2~'4,), Dece,,,ber 1994


Since its foundation in
the Spring of 1993 the
EMRG has been steadily F
gaining momentum in
terms of the number of its
registered participants and the number of countries
(even some non-European!) and scientific disciplines
which they represent. So it was that 60 people
involved directly with callitrichids and callitrichid
research met in Paris in November for a three-day
EMRG workshop entitled "Fundamental and Applied
Aspects of Marmoset Science". The philosophy of the
workshop (as is that of the EMRG itself) was to
stimulate coninunication about mannosets and
tamarins between individuals from various professions
and working across the very broadest spectrum of
disciplines and interests. This thinking was reflected
in the title of the workshop. The quality of the output
of biological research, biomedicine, and R & D, is
always going to depend directly on fundamental
scientific understanding; this is true for science based
on callitrichids just as much as it is for that based on
any other animal group. Ideally, we hoped to create an
informal workshop atmosphere in which people from
the following disciplines could openly discuss their
theoretical knowledge and practical experience with
marmosets and tamarins: animal welfare scientists,
ethologists, laboratory-animal tecluicians, pharmaco-
logists, physiologists, psychologists, toxicologists,
veterinary scientists, and wildlife and zoo biologists.
As idealistic as this concept might have seemed to us
prior to the workshop, and might seem to many people
who were not present and are reading this now, the
formula worked and it worked very well indeed.

Workshop discussion was based around the 22 invited
spoken presentations which were divided into four
theme sessions: housing and husbandry, nutrition and
health, physiology and behaviour, applications. The
scene was set by Anthony Rylands' (Federal University
of Minas Gerais, Brazil) special guest lecture entitled
"The Callitrichidae: a biological overview". Anthony
provided the non-fieldworkers among the audience -
that is to say the vast majority of us with an
extremely vivid and lively account of the ecological,
biological, and behavioral adaptations of the four
genera and some 25 species of callitrichid, followed by
an informed and heart-felt account of the conservation
status of this primate group in its natural habitats. The
relevance of the lecture and of Anthony's attendance at
the workshop were appreciated by all. Most of those
present were familiar with only a few of the species to

which Anthony referred: usually the common
marmoset and one or two others. Even more to the
point, for most, it is all too easy to slip into the frame
of mind that perceives callitrichids as "good laboratory
primates", and to stop thinking about the animals in
our research colonies in tenrs of the ecosystems of
which they are an integral part and in which they are
morphologically and behaviourally adapted to live.

Robert Hubrecht (Universities Federation for Animal
Welfare, UK) began the session on housing and
husbandry with a presentation of the results of a
United Kingdom survey of current laboratory practice
in breeding and experimental colonies of common
marmosets. The survey was based on the
questionnaire returns of 24 laboratories belonging to
government agencies, pharmaceutical companies,
animal suppliers, and university departments. This
survey analysis provided the first evidence of what
constitutes 'average marmoset husbandry' in the UK at
present. There had been an outstanding response to
the questionnaire. Christopher Pryce (Anthropology
Institute, Zirich) and Nicole Milkowski (SmithKline
Beecham Pharmaceuticals, UK) presented a joint
paper in which they described and compared current
practice in their own laboratories, and emphasized the
advantages of the integration of husbandry,
management, and research methods for successful
callitrichid research. The above two papers stimulated
some very constructive and frank discussion about
laboratory practice. Some of us were made aware of
certain short-comings of our own current practice
compared to other laboratories. It became clear that
simply because a husbandry, management or research
method works in a particular laboratory, this does not
mean that it is necessarily the optimal approach, and,
furthermore, that only through workshops such as this
will information exchange be achieved and the various
options addressed. Three talks that focused on
specific aspects of housing and husbandry completed
the session, all concerned with the conunon
marmoset. Andrea Dettling (Anthropology Institute,
Zirich) gave an account of a research project in which
she had investigated the effects of providing branches
at various orientations and of various diameters on
marmoset behaviour and activity budgets. Augusto
Vitale (Istituto Superiore di Saniti, Italy) described an
elegant experiment demonstrating that the familiarity
(and perhaps quality) of the home environment is vital
to the positive, stimulatory effects that novel
environmental features can exert on behaviour (for
example, play). Martin Heath (Glaxo Research and
Development Ltd., UK) gave a compelling sununary
of his efforts and successes as a chief technician in the
pharmaceutical industry, in simultaneously looking
after welfare and experimental requirements. His take-
home message was the intimate interdependence of

Neolr~opical Primatets 2(4)/, DeemberCI 1994/

Page 15

A'eo tropical Primates 2(4), 1)ece,,iber 1994 Page 16

the quality of marnoset husbandry and of the
scientific data which marmosets yield.

While the session on housing and husbandry was very
Callithrix jacchus orientated, that on nutrition and
health had a definite comparative flavour. Bryan
Carroll (Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, Jersey)
gave a detailed account of the attention paid to
callitrichid morphological, physiological, and
behavioral adaptations in the formulation of diets for
the some 12 callitrichid species which are maintained
and exhibited at the Trust. Nadia Robert (Zoological
Park, Bern, Switzerland) complemented this neatly in
her presentation of comparative pathological-clinical
work with the Trust's callitrichids. Although there was
only a small number of cases, she described the
relationship of pathological findings to clinical
symptoms and considered this in the light of
husbandry and nutrition practices. Under the
provocative title (suggested by us) of "Experimental
development of the complete marmoset diet", Allan
Thornhill (Special Diet Services Ltd., UK) described
the 25-year history of development of captive
marmoset diets. He provided examples of how specific
nutritional requirements of this specialized primate
group come to be recognised and incorporated in
commercial diets. The contribution that
supplementary foods can make to environmental
stimulation was also discussed.

The physiology and behaviour of callitrichids was the
opening theme of the workshop's second day. Hilary
Box (University of Reading, UK) discussed natural
patterns of social organisation and behaviour (for
example, group size, dispersal of individuals, and
gender differences) that are important to consider in
captive management. The importance of integrating
knowledge across various fields was emphasized,
including the observation that the validity, reliability,
standardisation and generalisation of research
protocols are dependent on the effects, to a large
extent unknown, of interaction between captive
management and biobehavioural propensities.
Christopher Pryce then talked about the importance of
evolutionary and comparative biology to
understanding the relationship between human
biology and that of other species and, therefore, to
assessing the absolute and relative worth of
biomedical models, namely callitrichids versus rodents
and Old World primates. He argued for the need to
apply these two biological disciplines in biomedicine
much more widely than is the present case, and took
examples from reproduction and the central nervous
system to support his argument. Hans Erkert
(Universitait Tiibingen, Genrany) gave a fascinating
and thorough account of the significance of biological
rhythmicity for fundamental and applied research, and

presented various physiological and behavioral
examples of diurnal and circadian rhythms from his
own work with common marmosets. The need for
circadian standardisation of captive conditions as well
as phase-constant timing of experimental procedures
was emphasised. Bidda Jones (Royal Society for
Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, UK) then alerted
our attention to the importance of marmoset vocal
communication, a long neglected subject in captive
research and management. She described the acoustic
structure of some species-characteristic marmoset
calls, including inter-individual differences. The
effects on these calls of changes in social conditions
were described; these elegant experiments were
indicative of the important function of vocalisation in
the mediation of callitrichid lifestyle, not only in the
wild but also under captive conditions. Hamnah
Buchanan-Smith (University of Stirling, UK), another
participant with scientific experience of callitrichids
both in their natural habitats as well as in captivity,
talked about ways of attempting to identify sufficient
and optimal captive environmental features which
enable primates to deploy decision-making, choice
between alternatives, and environmental control. On
the topic of endocrinology, Caroline Nievergelt
(Anthropology Institute, Zirich) described methods
for routine monitoring of reproductive state and for
reproduction control in captive colonies of conunon
marmosets. Metabolites of reproductive hormones
were measured in urine samples to time ovulation,
detect pregnancy, and assess the efficiency of early
pregnancy termination. Talking about the brain of the
common marmoset, Jean-Pierre Hornung (Universitd
de Lausanne, Switzerland) described, firstly, its
proven value in comparative neuroanatolny, and
secondly some of his own work on the study of
neurochemnical organisation during development and
in adulthood.

In the final session our attention was turned
specifically to aspects of marmoset science per se: of
course, applied biomedicine had been included in
some of the presentations and in all the discussions
throughout the 'fundamental' sessions. Leah Scott
(Biology Division, CBDE, UK) provided an overview
of the techniques which have been developed for
behavioral conditioning in marmosets. She then went
on to provide examples of how these techniques have
been deployed in many different areas of research,
both applied (for example, psychopharmacology) and
fundamental (for example, behavioral enrichment).
Christian Schnell (CIBA GEIGY AG, Switzerland)
took up the theme of the continuum between
fundamental and applied research in his presentation
on the marmoset as a pharmacological model for
understanding cardiovascular function, including the
telemetric monitoring of responses to stress events.

Neolropical Primartes 2(4)j, DecemberC 19941

Page 16

Page 17 iVeotropical Primates 2(4), Dece,,,her 1994

The application of telemetry in physiological and
behavioral monitoring appears to be limited only by
human ingenuity at present. The relative merits of the
marmoset in toxicological testing were succinctly
sunmuarised and elegantly presented by Peter
McAnulty (PHARMACO LSR, UK), who gave many
of those present a first glimpse into what toxicology
actually involves and how those people involved in it
pay great attention to the husbandry and welfare of
callitrichids in the course of their product screening.
Antonia Fehrenbach (Deutsches Primatenzentnun,
Gottingen) provided the first of two papers on the
connuon marmoset in reproductive biomedicine,
describing a microdialysis technique for studying both
paracrine and autocrine events in die ovary of he
common marmoset. Stephen Lunn (MRC
Reproductive Biology Unit. Edinburgh) then
presented an overview of why there is a pressing need
for reproductive research and the advantages and
disadvantages of the conunon marmoset relative to
other mammals, in this context. Paul Watkins
(University of Bristol, UK) completed this session and
the programme with an inimitable account of the
merits of die cotton-top in the study of inflanunatory
bowel disease. Although the main impetus behind his
work is to achieve a better understanding of intestinal
diseases in humans, it will also make an important
contribution to the captive breeding programmes that
have been or are being established for the many
endangered species of callitrichids, a point
emphasized by Anthony Rylands during discussion.
Indeed, Paul Watkins typified the ethos and attitude
that characterized this workshop; he travelled through
the night from England to France in order to present
and discuss his paper, and then had to leave
inunediately afterwards to be back in England for a
meeting that evening. With such motivated and
detennined participants, the EMRG will undoubtedly
succeed in its objectives. The inaugural general
assembly was a success, certainly according to
everybody who attended. For those that did not, the
proceedings of the workshop will be published.

The EMRG coordinating conumittee is Christopher
Pryce, Zirich, Switzerland, Leah Scott, Salisbury,
U.K., and Christian Schnell. Basel, Switzerland.

Christopher R Pryce, Anthropologisches Institut,
Universitit Zfirich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057
Ztirich, Switzerland.


O Parque Estadual do Rio Docc, localizado na regilo
leste de Minas Gerais, abrange part dos municipios

de Marlidria, Dionisio c
Tim6teo, e dista 248 km n -.*L
de Belo Horizonec. Foi .
criado atravs do Decreto- (
Lei No.1119 de 14 de \ BRASIL
julho dc 1944. estando
sob a administracio do
Institute Estadual de a/' rque
Florestas (IEF) do Estado Estdual do
de Minas Gerais desde
1962. Possui 35,974 ha, constituindo urna das maiores
areas continues de remanescente da Mata Atlintica,
protegida em Minas Gerais. As altitudes variam entire
230 e 515 m.

Os principals limits naturais do Parque slo: o Rio
Doce a leste c o Rio Piracicaba ao note. Plantaq6es de
eucalipto c sidemrrgias instaladas na region
caracterizam o restante da paisagem em seu entorno.
O seu sistema lagunar 6 formado por
aproximadamente 40 lagoas c brejos, contornados pela
cobertura florestal. O interior do Parque 6 cortado por
dois c6rregos afluentes da margem esquerda do Rio

O Parque apresenta infraestnrtura adequada para
realizaqAo de prqjetos de pesquisas c ensino,
possuindo um centro de treinamento constituido por
16 apartamentos coin banheiro, frigobar, e quarto coin
cinco camas em m6dia, sala de aula, audit6rio corn
recursos autdio-visuais e restuarante. Oferece tamb6m
dois laborat6rios corn 650 m2, corn duas camaras frias,
um herbArio de refer6ncias, area de secagem e
processamento de sementes, bancadas e pias, estufas,
mnicrosc6pios, estereosc6pios, destiladores c
instalaq6es eldtricas. Os pesquisadores interessados em
desenvolver programs de pesquisa a long prazo,
como por exemplo, teses de mestrado e de doutorado,
podem contar coin tres residEncias. Al6m disso, possui
tamb6m um centro de infornaqCes, camping turistico,
administragilo, campo de pouso, telefone, facsimile, c
um sistema de ridio-comunicaqnio interno. O centro
urban maior e mais pr6ximo, 6 a cidade de Ipatinga
que esti localizada a 60 minutes do Parque e que
conta cor 6timos servigos m6dico-hospitalares.
Passando pelo portaria do Parque existe linha regular
de 6nibus.

Primatas do Parque do Rio Doce
Callithrix auritcr
Callithrix geoffroyi
Callicebus personatus nigrifions
A ouattafitsca2
Brachvteles arachnoides hypoxanthu.is
1 Introduzido e cruzando com C.geoffioyi no sul do Parque
2 Raros

Neoli-ropical frirhnafes 2(4r), December 1 994

Page 17

Neotropical Primates 2(4), December 1994

Os pesquisadores intercssados em desenvolver projetos
no Parque nio terio dificuldades corn relagqo a
problems burocriticos. Dever~o mandar c6pia do seu
projeto de pesquisa para avaliaqao, assim como a
programagao de viagens de campo. E important que
o pesquisador program corn devida antecedencia seus
trabalhos de campo, para que possa contar corn o
apoio logistico que a adminiistra~io do Parque deseja c
pode oferecer.

O Parque do Rio Doce faz parte da Reserva da
Biosfera da Mata Athlntica, em vias de implantacto,
constituindo-se num important instrument de
conservaglo das florestas tropicais ilmidas. Continuar
a mante-lo, como centro de pesquisas de campo, de
fornnaco professional e de cducaq~ o ambiental, e unma
das prioridades do IEF.

Para maiores esclarecimentos, deverio entrar cm
contato corn a: Coordenadoria de Prote(io da Vida
Silvestre, Instituto Estadual de Florestas (IEF), Rua
Paracatu 304. Barro Preto, 30180-090 Belo Horizonte,
Minas Gerais, Brazil. Tel: (031) 295-1655 ramal 20,
Fax: (031) 295-2803.


Prates, M.T.C., Oz6rio, L.M., Drumond, M.A.,
Nogueira, D.F. et al. (eds.). 1994. (oletlnea
Bibliogrjfica sobre o Parque Estadual do Rio Doce.
Institute Estadual de Florestas (IEF), Belo
Horizonte. 61pp.
Rylands, A.B. and Lamas, I.R. (compiladores). 1994.
Anais do Iorkshop sobre Pesquisas Priorit6rias
para o Parque Estadual do Rio Doce. Institute
Estadual de Florestas (IEF). e Engevix Engenlharia
S.A., Belo Horizonte. 89pp.
Rylands, A.B. and Lamas, I.R. (compiladores). 1994.
Pesquisas Priorit6rias para o Parque Estadual do
Rio Doce, Brasil / Research Priorities Jbr the Rio
Doce State Park, Brazil. Institute Estadual de
Florestas (IEF), e Engevix Engenharia S.A., Belo
Horizonte. 35pp.
Stallings, J.R. e Robinson, J.G. 1991. Disturbance,
forest heterogeneity and primate communities in a
Brazilian Atlantic forest park. In: A Primalologia no
Brasil 3, A.B.Rylands and A.T.Bernardes (eds.),
pp.357-368. Sociedade Brasileira de Prinatologia,
and Fundagio Biodiversilas, Belo Horizonte.


Warren Kinzey died peacefully on October 1, 1994,
at his home in Tarrytown, New York. Although he
had been suffering from a crippling neurological

illness, ALS (Lou Gehrig's disease), he worked
almost until his final days on the subject he dearly
loved, the neotropical primates. His last project, an
edited book entitled "New World Primates:
Ecology, Behavior and Evolution" was delivered to
the publisher while Warren lay in hospital with the
bout of pneumonia that claimed him.

Warren G. Kinzey (1935-1994)

Warren is remembered not only for his pioneering
research on New World monkeys but also for his
genius as a mentor. He loved teaching and his
inspiration was felt internationally, among young
people across the United States where he taught
and developed a large professional presence in
primatology and anthropology, and also in several
Latin American countries, where he carried out
fieldwork for 20 years. Warren's capacity to
influence so many derived from his warm,
engaging personality and also from his scientific
background. He held degrees and taught in the
fields of anthropology, zoology, biostatistics, and
anatomy. He published original research in such
areas as endocrinology, paleoanthropology,
primatology, human biology, allometry,
zoogeography, conservation and functional
morphology. His platyrrhine research began in the
early 1970's, as a study of form-and-function and

Page 18

Page 19 A~eoIropicaI Priuaies 2(4,), December 1994

also social behavior. Warren hoped to use the
neotropical primates as analogues for early
hominid evolution. He began with Callicebu.s,
initiating a field project in Amazonian Peru in
1974-1975,, and gradually expanded his focus to
include pitheciins, trying to understand the
adaptations and feeding strategies of this unusual
group of frugivores.

Primatology knew what it would lose with the
passing of Warren Kinzey, a founder and tireless
advocate of platyrrhine studies. And so, in
February 1994 some sixty of us gathered at the
Smithsonian Institution's National Zoological Park
in Washington, D.C., to honor and thank Warren
with a two-day conference on New World
monkeys. He was too modest at first to be placed
on a pedestal, but we prevailed. Although he
arrived weak and almost immobile, there was
delight and pride in his eye, and warm satisfaction
in his voice. We were his family, his friends, his
students, his colleagues, his admirers, and the
bearers of his legacy. In private, Warren mused
about the significance of this gathering, for
meetings about platyrrhines are rare in the United
States. He realized where we had started 20 years
ago, when primatology here was hardly developed
and the research was almost totally devoted to
catarrhines and how far we had travelled. Always
looking forward, Warren asked if we could make
this event an annual occurrence, without a sliver of
regret that he would not be with us again. For
Warren, there was always another project to do and
more people to,encourage. What mattered to him
most was not the discoveries he made but the
understanding he gave.

Alfred L Rosenberger, Department of Zoological
Research, National Zoological Park. Washington,
D.C. 20008, USA.

A Personal Remembrance by Marilyn Norconk
On a November evening three years ago, Warren and
I sat across from each other at his dinner table while
we chatted about how research was progressing at our
field site in Venezuela. I had returned for a short visit
and, as had become customary, my first stop was his
home in Tarrytown, New York. After dinner that
night, he told me that he was having difficulty lifting
his anns above his head to erase the chalkboard
during his anatomy lectures. I tried to determine how
concerned he was about this development, this man
who I had known for 10 years, as a field colleague for
six years, and who had always seemed to be in the
peak of health. Even though he attributed the
weakness to bursitis that evening, he was plainly

worried. After all, he was an anatomist, and knew that
he was losing muscle mass in his upper arms.

Our first meeting was in Peru in 1982 at his field site
near Iquitos. I was looking for a location to study
Saguinusfitscicollis and spent two weeks at Mislhana.
We had conununicated only by letter before that time,
but the youthful middle-aged man I met at Don
Giovanni's restaurant in Iquitos, with pens and index
cards stuffed in the breast pocket of his short-sleeved
shirt was clearly the same person who had thoroughly
(and without delectable anguish or sarcasm) answered
a steady stream of my naive, question-packed letters.
After stocking up with cans of tuna and tuco. oatmeal.
pasta, peanuts, and pisco we departed the next
morning for the relatively short trip to Mislana. My
clearest memories of that brief trip were his patience
and clarity of purpose in conducting his research, his
interest in my budding career even though I was not
his student, and his energy, particularly at 4:30 in the
morning as he cheerfully prepared our daily breakfast
of oatmeal and raisins. He was the first one up in the
morning and the last one to bed at night.

The next time we met, Warren was preparing to do a
long-term field study in Surinam: feeding ecology of
spider monkeys and bearded sakis. I had just
completed my degree and the idea of studying "big"
monkeys was appealing. I took a late flight from the
west coast and joined him in New York for the flight
to Trinidad and on to Paramaribo. 1 soon learned how
he conserved Iis energy. He was asleep within
seconds after the plane took off, and, as I got to know
him better, I discovered that he could be fully
refreshed after even the shortest of "cat-naps". He
loved being in the field. He loved the novelty of each
day. the challenge of dealing with day-to-day
problems of being in a remote camp, fixing the primus
stove, deciding where new trails ought to be cut,
adjusting to the rapid pace set by bearded sakis as they
moved from feeding tree to feeding tree. He was an
astute observer, a problem-solver who had impressive
observational skills and a comfortable knowledge of
and appreciation for quaniattative methods. His
calculator and binoculars were never far away. One
day when army ants had taken over the camp, I found
him down at the stream counting them by the
hundreds and trying to determine travel speed as they
crossed the only log llat provided a safe passage over
the water.

We continued to work together, moving our study a
year later to Venezuela. He was not able to get away
from his university duties as often as he liked, but he
was unquestionably field director, even from New
York. He took great joy in his energetic, whirlwind
visits, and I was always amazed at his even

Page 19

Neoll-opical Primaleols 2(45), D~ecemberr 1994

Neotropical Primates 2(4), December 1994

temperament, his attention to detail, his social skills
with everyone he encountered, his generosity in
making sure that the project was well-supplied, and
his ability to make things happen. We were building a
camp on an island in Guri Lake during the summer of
1988 and it soon became apparent that we had to have
a boat and outboard motor if we were to work there.
Having gone into town to make arrangements for his
flight the next day. he reappeared driving our new
boat, grinning from ear to ear. Clearly, I thought, this
man knows how to have fun.

His generosity extended far beyond the project itself.
We established the custom of taking both graduate
and undergraduate students with us, particularly
during the summer. He firmly believed that field
experience was essential for students. I remember
vividly the occasions when we had reached our
predetermined limit of students and he would call, "I
just talked to so-and-so and they sound great. Couldn't
we find room for them this year?" We advertised in
Physical Anthropolofy Newsletter the first year but
never had to do it again.

I was in the field when the diagnosis of Lou Gehrig's
disease was made. It progressed in an unusual manner
and was difficult to diagnose, even after muscle
biopsies. He was losing the ability to lift his arms, but
his legs were still strong and he insisted on coming to
the field in May, 1992. I had not seen him for six
months and when we met at the airport it was clear
that about 80% of his energy came from his
determination. He tired easily, but we went through
our usual monthly observations. Always creative and
virtually undeterred by his disabilities, he figured out
that if he lay on his back on the ground he could still
use his binoculars and follow the monkey's feeding
activities in the trees above. Unfortunately, we soon
realized that his poor balance made every trip away
from camp a perilous adventure and he was able to
stay only two short weeks.

Tnre to his nature, he turned his illness into a
learning experience. But he continued to work only
with the intensive care and love of his wife, Julie
Kelly. and his students. That must have been the
hardest transition for him to make and I often
heard the frustration in his voice an active mind
confined in a body that would not work any more.
Still, I wonder. If he had not started out with such
an intense joy of living, the course of dying would
have been much, much worse.

Marilyn A. Norconk, Department of Anthropology,
Kent State University. P.O.Box 5190, Kent, Ohio
44242-0001, USA.

Publications of Warren G. Kinzey
Bibliography compiled by Marilyn A. Norconk and
Alfred L. Rosenberger.

Brozek, J. and Kinzey, W.G. Age changes in skinfold
compressibility. J. Geront., 15(1): 45-51.
Kinzey, W.G. Observations on the opposability of the
primate thumb. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop., 18(4): 361.
Kinzey, W.G. Book review ofl W.E.Le Gros Clark The
Antecedents of Alcm. Human Biolog,, 32(4): 380-381.
Kinzey, W.G. Book review of' R.H.Osbomne and F.V.
D)eGeorge Genetic Basis of A lophlological Ic liation.
Human Biology, 33(3): 275-278.
Dahlberg, A.A. and Kinzey, W.G. Etude microscopique de
I'abrasion e de l'attrition sur la surfaces des dents. Bull.
Gioupe. Intemnat. Recherche Scient. en Stomarologie,
5(2): 242-251.
Kinzey, W.G. mad Srebnik, H-.HI. Maintenance of
pregnancy xith pituitary honnones in protein-deficient
rats. Anal. Rec., 145(2): 249 (Abstrct).
Kinzey, W.G. and Srebnik, H.-H. Maintenance of
pregnancy in protein-deficient rats with short-term
injections of ovarian honnones. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol.
Aed., 114: 158-160.
Kinzey, W.G. Endocrine fiction of rat placenta in the
absence of dietary protein. Anat. Rec., 148: 301.
Kinzey, W.G. Concentration of gonadotropin in the urine
of the pregnant monkey, Al.mtdlata. Anat. Rec., 151:
372-373. (Abstract).
Kinzey, W.G. Prolonged protein deficiency and deciduoma
cell response. Anal. Rec., 154(2): 369. (Abstract).
Kinzey, W.G. The elect of protein deficiency on
deciduoma fonnation in the rat. F'ed. Poc., 25(2): 676.
Kinzey, W.G. llTe cllect of 6-aminonicotinainida on
deciduoma response. Anat. Rec., 157(2): 270. (Abstract).
Kinzey, W.G. Prelace. Sympositun on Primate
Locomotion.Am. 1A PI. Ps.Anthrop., 26(2): 115-118.
Kinzey, W.G. Range of movement at the limb joints in the
tree shrew. Am. J. Plhys. Alntirop., 27(2): 241-242.
Kinzey, W.G. Hormonal activity of the rat placenta in the
absence of dietary protein. Endocrinology, 82(2): 266-
Kinzey. W.G. The Glen Ridge Mine. Signpost (The
Official Publication of the Women's Chlb of Glen Ridge,
New Jersey), 9(7): 19-20, 26.
Kinzey, W.G. Tubal transport of fertilized ova in protein-
deficient rats. Endocrinology, 84(5): 1266-1267.

Page 20

Page 2] Neotrapical Primates 2t'4,l, December 1994

Kinzey, W.G. The effect of protein deficiency on uterine
sensitivity in the pseudopregnant rat. Acta Endocrinol.,
61(2): 232-238.
Kinzey, W.G. Maintenance of pregnancy in protein-
deficient rats with dietary supplements of methionine.
Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 133(2): 499451.
Kinzey, W.G. Endocrine fiction of the placenta in
thiamine-deficient rats. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med.,
134(1): 14.
Kinzey, W.G., Sands, L., and Bonds, P. Maintenance of
pregnancy in absence of dietary protein with
progesterone. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 134(1): 72-73.
Kinzey, W.G. Rates of evolutionary change in the hominid
canine teeth. Nature, Lond., 225: 296.
Kinzey, W.G. The canine tooth problem. Am. J.. Phys.
Anthrop., 33(1): 135. (Abstract).
Kinzey, W.G. The basic rectangle of the mandible.
Nature, Lond., 228: 289-290.
Kinzey, W.G. Evolution of the hunan canine tooth. Ant.
Anthrop., 73(3): 680-694.
Kinzey, W.G. Reconstruction of the original crown height
of worn human canine teeth. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop.,
35(2): 285. (Abstract).
Kinzey, W.G. Male reproductive system and
spenmatogenesis, hi: Comparative Reproduction of
Nonhlman Primates, E.S.E.Hafez (ed.), pp.85-114.
Charles C.Thomas, Springfield.
Kinzey, W.G. Comnaent on "Assunption and Inference on
Htunan Origins" by Carroll Quigley. Current
Anthropology, 12(4-5): 531.
Kinzey, W.G. Book review of J.R. and P.H. Napier (eds.)
Old World Monkeys: Evolution, Systematics, and
Behavior. J.Almmal., 53(2): 408409.
Kinzey, W.G. Allometric transposition of brain/body size
relationships in hominid evolution. Am. J. Phyvs.
Anthrop., 37(3): 442443. (Abstract).
Kinzey, W.G. Canine teeth of the monkey, Callicebus
moloch: lack of sexual dimorphism. Primates, 13(4):
Kinzey, W.G. Reduction of the cingulun in Ceboidea. hi:
Craniofacial Biology of Primates, M.R.Zingeser (ed.),
pp.101-127. S.Karger, Basel.
Kinzey, W.G. Book review of: Albert A. Dahlberg (ed.)
Dental Alortphology and Evolution. An. J. Phys.
Anthrop., 40(1): 108-111.
Kinzey, W.G. Ceboid models for the evolution of
hominoid dentition. J. Hum. Evol., 3: 193-203.
Kinzey, W.G. Book review of: J.Biegert, W.Leutenegger
and H.Kumner (eds.) Proceedings of the 3rd
International Congress of Primatology. J.Mammal.,
55(2): 481483.
Kinzey, W.G. and Rosenberger, A.L. Occlusal fiction in
some platyrrhine primates. An. J. Phys. Anthrop., 41(3):
488. (Abstract).
Kinzey, W.G. The ecology of locomotion in Callicebus
torquatus. Ant. J. Phys. Anthrop., 42(2): 312. (Abstract).

Kinzey, W.G., Rosenberger, A.L. and Ramirez, M.
Vertical clinging and leaping in a neotropical
anthropoid. Nature, Lond., 255: 327-328.
Rosenberger, A.L. and Kinzey, W.G. Functional patterns
of molar occlusion in platyrrhine primates. Am. J. Phys.
Anthrop., 45(2): 281-298.
Kinzey, W.G., Rosenberger, A.L., Heisler, P.S., Prowse,
D.L. and Trilling, J.S. A prelimiinary field investigation
of the yellow-handed titi monkey, Callicebus torcptatus
torquatus, in northem Peru. Primates, 18(1): 159-181.
Kinzey, W.G. Dietary correlates of molar morphology in
Callicebus and Aotus. Am. J. Phys. Antihrop., 47(1):
142. (Abstract).
Kinzey, W.G. Diet and feeding behaviour of Callicebus
torquatis. hi: Primate Ecology: Studies of Feeding and
Ranging Behaviour in Lenmns, M/onkeys, and Apes,
T.H.Clutton-Brock (ed.), pp.127-151. Academic Press,
Kinzey, W.G. Positional behavior and ecology of
Callicebus torpatlus. Yrbk. Phys. Andirop., 20: 468-
Kinzey, W.G. Film review of: "Of Monkeys and Men".
Am. Anthrop., 80(2): 501.
Kinzey, W.G. Feeding behaviour and molar features in
two species of titi monkey. hi: Recent Advances in
PHinatology, Vol.1, Behaviour, D.J.Chivers and
J.Herbert (eds.), pp.373-385. Academic Press, London.
Kinzey, W.G. and Gentry. A.H. Habitat utilization in two
species of Callicebus. hi: Primate Ecology: Problem-
Oriented Field Studies, R.W.Sussman (ed.), pp.89-100.
Jolm Wiley and Sons, New York.
Kinzey, W.G. Book review of: D.G.Kleiman (ed.) The
Biology and Conservation of the Callittichidae. Science,
203: 879.
Kinzey, W.G. Distribution and centers of dispersal of the
south-east Brazilian primates. Ant. J. Phys. Anthrop.,
5(3): 454. (Abstract).
Stark, N., Kinzey, W.G. and Pawlowski, P. Soil fertility
and animal distribution. hi: Proceedings, Symposium of
Tropical Ecology, Kuala Lumpur, 1978, pp. 101-1l11.
Kinzey, W.G. and Robinson, J.G. Intergroup loud calls
serve different roles in two species of Callicebus. Am. J.
Phys. Anthrop., 54(2): 240. (Abstract).
Easley, S.P., and Kinzey, W.G. Territorial shift in
Callicebus torquatus. An,. J. Phys. Anthrop., 54(2): 216.
Kinzey, W.G. The titi monkeys, genus Callicebus. hi:
Ecology and Behavior of Neotropicil Primates,
A.F.Coimbra-Filho and R.A.Mittenneier (eds.), pp.241-
276. Academia Brasileira de Ciancias, Rio de Janeiro.
Kinzey, W.G. Distribution of primates and forest refilges.
Ii: Biological Diversification in the Tropics, G.T.Prance
(ed.), pp.455482. Columbia hUniversity Press, New

Neolropical Pprimrate~s 2(4), Decemrber 1994

Page 21

Neotropical Primates 2(4), December 1994

Kinzey, W.G. Gazetteer of collecting localities of primates
in southeast Brazil, and collecting localities for
Callicebus nioloch and Callicebus torluatus. National
Auxiliary Publications Service (NAPS) Document
#3659. Available from Microfiche Publication, P.O.Box
3513, Grand Central Station, New York, NY 10017,
Kinzey, W.G. and Redhead, C.S. Male titi monkey fails to
preserve territory without mate. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop.,
57(2): 202. (Abstract).
Kinzey, W.G. Book review of: N.M.Tanner On Becoming
Human. An,. Antirop., 84(4): 963-964.
Kinzey, W.G. and Wright, P.C. Grooming behavior in the
titi monkey, Callicebus torqucatus. An. J. Primatol., 3
(14): 267-275.
Kinzey, W.G. and Robinson, J.G. Intergroup loud calls,
range size and spacing in Callicebus torquatus. Am. J.
Phys. Anthrop., 60(4): 539-544.
Kinzey, W.G. Is daily path length determined by group
size? Ant. Piy's. Anthrop., 60(2): 214. (Abstract).
Kinzey, W.G. and Becker, M. Activity pattern of the
masked titi monkey, Callicebus personatus. Prinates,
24(3): 337-343.
Sleeper, B., with photographs by W.G.Kinzey. Trail of the
titi monkey. Animals, 116(2): 15-21.
Sleeper, B., with photographs by W.G.Kinzey. Titis. South
American Explorer, 9(January): 29-34.
Sleeper, B., with photographs by W.G(.Kinzey. lie family
life of the yellow-handed titi monkey. Wildlife,
September 352-357.
Sussman, R.W. and Kinzey, W.G. The ecological role of
the Callitrichidae: a review. Am. J. Phys. Antlrop.,
Kinzey, W.G. The dentition of the pygmy chimpanzee,
Pan paniscus. Il: The Pygmy C(himpxnzee, Evolutionary
Biology and Behavior, R. L. Susnan (ed.), pp. 65-88.
Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York.
Kinzey, W.G. Titi monkey family life. In: The
Encyclopaedia of eMammals, D. W. Macdonald (ed.),
pp. 366-367. George Allen and Unwin, London.
Kinzey, W.G. On arriving at Intipunku. (hticor, 3(1):
Kinzey, W.G. Titi monkey family life. Reprinted in All the
World's Animals: Primates, pp.70-71. Torstar Books,
hic., New York.
Kinzey, W.G. Book review of: D. J. Chivers, B. A. Wood
and A. Bilsborough (eds.) Food Acquisition and
Processing in Primates. Science, 229: 42-43.
Kinzey, W.G. New World primates studies: what's in it for
Anthropology? Ann. Rev. Anlthtp., 15: 121-148.
Easley, S.P. and Kinzey, W.G. Territorial shift in the
yellow-handed titi monkey. Am. J. Primatol., 11(4):
Kinzey, W.G. Recipients of Ph.D. degrees in
Physical Anthropology since 1968: where are
they teaching today? Ant. J. Phys. Anthrop., 69: 222-
223. (Abstract).
Kinzey, W.G. Feeding, travel distance and group size in
Callicebus tortipatus. Prim. Rep., 14: 11. (Abstract).

Kinzey, W.G. (ed.) Prinmate Models Jbr the Evolution of
Human Behavior. State University of New York Press,
Kinzey, W.G. Introduction. In: Primate Models for the
Evolution of Human Behavior, W.G.Kinzey (ed.),
pp.vii-xvi. State University of New York Press, Albany.
Kinzey, W.G. A primate model for human mating
systems. In: Primate Models for the Evolution of Human
Behavior, W.G.Kinzey (ed.), pp.105-114. State
University of New York Press, Albany.
Robinson, J.G., Wright, P.C. and Kinzey, W.G.
Monogamous cebids and their relatives: intergroup calls
and spacing. In: Primate Societies, B.B.Smuts,
D.L.Cheney, R.M.Seyfarth, R.W.Wrangham and T.T.
Stmhsaker (eds.), pp.44-53. University of Clicago
Press, Chicago.
Kinzey, W.G. Comparative fictional morphology of the
dentition of bearded saki and spider monkeys.
Anat.Rec., 218(1): 72A. (Abstract).
Kinzey, W.G. Becoming htunan: a family story. Faces,
The Magazine about People, 4(4): 23-26.
Kinzey, W.G. Book review of. W.W.Denham West Indian
Green AMlonkeis: Problems in Historical Biogeography.
Ant. Anthrop., 90(1): 172-173.
Kinzey, W.G. Correlates of seed processing and dental
morphology in Chiropotes. Int. J. Primatol., 8(5): 434.
Rosenberger, A.L. and Kinzey, W.G. Biogeography of the
Atlantic coastal forest primates. Itt. J. Primatol, 8(5):
470. (Abstract).
Kinzey, W.G. and Norconk, M.A. Dureza como un criterio
de selecci6n de frutos por capuchinos del Orinoco y
marimonldas. Acta Cient. Venezolana, 39(supl.l): 218.
Norconk, M.A., Alvarez-Cordero, E. and Kinzey, W.G.
Levantamento preliminar de primates en la Guayana
Nororiental Venezolana, Estado Bolivar. Acta Cient.
Venezolana, 39(supl. 1): 218. (Abstract).
Kinzey, W.G. and Norconk, M.A. Primate ecology in
eastern Venezuela. Phys. Antirop. News, 7(2): 1-2.
Kinzey, W.G. Anthropology Program at the National
Science Foundation. Phys. Anthrop. News, 7(2): 4-5.
Kilney, W.G., Norconk, M.A. and Alvarez-Cordero, E.
Primate survey of eastern Bolivar. Primate
Conseriation, (9): 66-70.
Kinzey, W.G. Dietary and dental adaptations in the
Pitheciinae. Am.J.Phys Antlrop., 78(2): 253. (Abstract).
Mittenneier, R.A., Kinzey, W.G. and Mast, R.B.
Neotropical primate conservation. J. Humn. Evol., 18(7):
Kimzey, W.G. Anthropology Program at the National
Science Foundation. Phys. Antrrop. News, 8( 1): 5-6.
Kinzey, W.G., Norconk, M.A., and Homburg, I. Ecologia
alimentaria de la viuda negra (Pithecia pithecia) en el
Estado Bolivar, Venezuela. Acta Cient. Venezolana,
40(supl.1): 206. (Abstract).
Kinzey, W.G. and Norconk, M.A. Hardness as a basis of
fruit choice in two sympatric fnigivorous primates. Ant.
J. Phys. Anthrop., 81(1): 5-15.

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Neotropical Primates 2(4), December 1994

Kinzey, W.G. and Norconk, M.A. Primate ecology and
conservation in Venezuela. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop.,
81(2): 250-251.
Norconk, M.A. and Kinzey, W.G. Preliminary data on
feeding ecology of Pitheciai pithecia in Bolivar State,
Venezuela. Am. J. Prinmtol., 20(3): 215. (Abstract).
Kinzey, W.G., Norconk, M.A. and Leighton, M.
Preliminary data on physical and chemical properties of
fruit eaten by Pithecia pithecia. Am J. nimatol., 20(3):
Kinzey, W.G. "High risk" Anthropology. Letter to the
Editor. Science, 250: 193.
Kinzey, W.G. and Norconk, M.A. Seed predation by
bearded saki monkeys.In. Am. J Prmatol., 27(1): 38-39.
Kinzey, W.G. Dietary and dental adaptations in the
Pitheciinae. Am.. J. Pys. Antirop., 88(4): 499-514.
Garber, P.A. and Kinzey, W.G. Feeding adaptations in
New World primates: an evolutionary perspective:
Introduction. Am. J. PhIys. Anthrop., 88(4): 411-413.
Kinzey, W.G. Variability in platyrrhine social
organization. In: Abstracts of the XIV' Congress of tihe
Inte1iational Primatological Society, Strasbourg, p.61.
Norconk, M.A. and Kinzey, W.G(. Foraging patterns and
troop fragmentation in bearded sakis and black spider
monkeys. In: Abstracts of the XIV Congress of the
hItem7ational Primanological Society, Strasbourg, p.58.
Peetz, A., Norconk, M.A. and Kinzey, W.G. Predation by
jaguar on howler monkeys (Alouatta senicuils) in
Venezuela. n.. P. Primatol., 28(3): 223-228.
Kinzey, W.G. and Norconk, M.A. Physical and chemical
properties of fruits and seeds eaten by Pillecia and
Chiropotes in Surinam and Venezuela. Int. J. Primatol.,
14(2): 207-227.
Norconk, M.A. and Kinzey, W.G. Feast or famine? A
comparison of bearded saki feeding ecology in terra
tinne and insular habitats. Am. J. Phys. Antlhrop.,
Supplement 16: 151-152. (Abstract).
Kinzey, W.G. Book review of K.Strier I'aces in the
Forest: The Endangered Ah'liqui AMonkevs of Brazil.
Am. Anithrop., 95(3): 779-780.
Glazer, I.I. and Kinzey, W.G. Do gossip and lack of
grooming make us hunan? Behlav.Brmi Sci., 16(4):
Kinzey, W.G. and Cunningham, E.P. Variability in
platyrrhine social organization. Am. J Priniatol.,
34(2): 185-198.
Norconk, M.A. and Kinzey, W.G. Challenge of
neotropical frugivory: travel patterns of spider
monkeys and bearded sakis. Aml 1. Primnatol., 34(2):
Norconk, M.A., Conklin, N.L. and Kinzey,-W.G.
Nutritional and deterrent properties of seeds
ingested by white-faced and bearded sakis
(Pitheciinae) in Venezuela. In: Handbook and
Abstracts: XV Congress of the Inhernational
Primatological Society, Kuta, Bali, Indonesia, p.364.

Martin, L.B., Kinzey, W.G. and Maas. M.C, Enamel
thickness in pithecine primates. Ant. J. Pl's. Anlthrop.,
Suppl. 18: 138. (Abstract).
In press
Kinzey, W.G., Walker, S. and Rosenberger, A.L. The
living platyrrhines. In: Treatise of Paleoantlropology
Fol.1., Y. Coppens, J. Laitman and II. 'nTomas, Jaca
Books, Milan.
Kinzey, W.G. (ed.) New World Primates: Ecology,
Evolution, and Behavior: Aldine de Grnyter Publishing
Co., Hawthorne, New York.
Kinzey, W.G. Parallel evolution of platlrhTine dietary
adaptations. In: ANe'I World Primates: Ecology,
Evolution, and Behavior, W.G.Kinzey (ed.),.Aldine de
Gruyter Publishing Co., H-awmhome, New York.
Kinzey, W.G. Is dietary adaptation determined by
phylogeny or morphology? Am. J. Phys. Anthirop.


It is with great sadness that we report on the death of
Robin Kingston, on the 9th September 1994. William
Robin Kingston received the American Society of
Primatologists' Senior Biology and Conservation
Award in 1993 for his lifelong dedication to the
conservation and breeding of primates, notably
callitrichids. He was a pioneer in setting up and
running primate breeding facilities, first in Europe,
and in the 1970's he was the PAHO/WHO consultant
for the establishment of the national primate breeding
centers in Iquitos, Peru, and Belem, Brazil. Hilary
Box, President of the Primate Society of Great Britain,
wrote the following at the time of the presentation of
his ASP award: "It is not possible to list here all the
achievements of someone who has been active in
biology for more than thirty years. Suffice it to say that
very many of us welcomed the opportunity to applaud
Iris achievements publicly, and to thank the man who
had 'set us up' in primate research. We have always
appreciated his skills, his enthusiasm, his drive, his
charm, and irrepressible sense of humour".

Publications of William R. Kingston

Kingston, W.R. 1969. Mannosets and tamarins. Ltb. Anint.
Handb., 4:243-250.
Kingston, W.R. 1970. On the breeding of mamnosets and
tamarins. Lab. Prim. Newsl., 9: 9-10.
Kingston, W.R. 1972. Diseases of marmosets. In: Medical
Primatolog,, E.J.Goldsmith and J.Moor-Jankowski (eds.),
p.68. S.Karger, Basel.
Kingston, W.R. 1972. Further observations on an
established mannoset breeding colony. In: Breeding
Primates, W.1.B.Beveridge (ed.), pp.158-160. S.Karger,
Kingston, W.R. 1975. lhe breeding of endangered species
of marmosets and tanarins. hi: Breeding of Endangered
Species in C(aptivit, R.D.Martin (ed.), p.213-222.
Academic Press, New York.

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Neotropical Primates 2(4,), December 1994 Page 24

Kingston, W.R. 1978. The cost of developing and managing
a mannoset colony. In: The Biology and Conservation of
the Callittichidae, D.G.Kleiman (ed.), pp.311-315.
Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Kingston, W.R. and Miuniz, J.A.P.C. 1983. Preliminary
report on the establisluhent in Brazil of a breeding colony
of mannosets (Callitmrix mhmemlifem humemrlifem). Lab.
Prim. Newsl., 22(4): 1-2.
Muniz, J.A.P.C. and Kingston, W.R. 1983. Relato da
situatgo atual do Centro Nacional de Primatas. hn: La
Pinmatologia en Latiinoamrica, C. J. Saavedra, R. A.
Mittenneier and I. B. Santos (eds.), pp.271-273. World
Wildlife Fund, Washington, D.C.
Kingston, W.R. 1984. Brazilian primates threatened.
Primate Report, (11): 36-38.
Kingston, W.R. 1984. Tucutni hydro-electric project.
Primate Eve, (23): 20-23.
Kingston, W.R. 1984. The Brazilian National Primate
Centre. Primate Ee, (23): 24-28.
Muniz, J.A.P.C. and Kingston, W.R. 1984. Situagio atual do
Centro Nacional de Primatas. hi: Prinatologia no Bmrsil,
M.T.de Mello (ed.), pp.153-157. Sociedade Brasileira de
Primatologia, Brasilia.
Kingston, W.R. 1985. Conservation of the Callitrichidae.
Lab. Prim. Newsl., 24(1): 1-3.
Kingston, W.R. 1985. Note on the behaviour of the
"difficult" neo-tropical primate genera in captivity. Lab.
Prim. NMesl., 24(1): 10-11.
Kingston, W.R. and Muniz, J.A.P.C. 1985. Note on the
gestation period of callitrichids. Lab. Prim. Newsl., 24(3):
Muniz, J.A.P.C. and Kingston, W.R. 1985. The Brazilian
National Primate Center. Primate Conservation, (6): 39-
Kingston, W.R. 1986. Cotton-tops, colitis, colon cancer and
conservation. Lab. Prim. Newsl., 25(1):1-3.
Kingston, W.R. 1986. Captive breeding of endangered
species. Primate Eve, (30): 27-30.
Kingston, W.R. 1986. Establishunent of primates rescued
from the Tucunui dam flooding in the Brazilian National
Primate Centre. Primate Eye, (28): 18-20.
Muniz, J.A.P.C., Malacco, M.A.F. and Kingston, W.R.
1986. Progress report on the captive breeding of
Callitrichidae at the Centro Nacional de Primatas, Bel6n,
Pari. hi: A Primatologia no Brasil 2, M.T.de Mello
(ed.), p.411417. Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia,
Kingston, W.R. 1987. Captive breeding ofAlouatla belzebul
and Chiropotes salanas niahicki. Lab. Prim. NewsL.,
26(3): 8.
Muniz, J.A.P.C., Malacco, M.A.F. and Kingston, W.R.
1987. Reproduction and maintenance of non-lhunan
primates in captivity for use in biomedical research. In:
Laboratoy Animal Science: LaboratorvAnimal Studies in
the Quest of Health and Knowledge, H.A.Rothsclild,
A.Rosenkranz, F.A.M.Duarte (eds.), pp.253-257.
Sociedade Brasileira de Gen6tica, Sao Paulo.
Kingston, W.R. 1989. Sustained primate conservation. Lab.
Prim. Newsl., 28(1): 1-2.
Kingston, W.R. 1990. Conservation costs. Lab. Prin.
Newsl., 29(4): 13-14.
Kingston, W.R. 1990. Efficiency and costs of captive
breeding programmes. Primate Eye, (42): 34-35.

Kingston, W.R. 1992. A primate gene bank. Lab. Prim.
Newsl., 31(4): 15-16.
Kingston, W.R. 1993. Tine to ban imports? A European
perspective. Lab. Prin. NewsL., 32(3): 9-10.
Kingston, W.R. 1994. Sources of primates for biomedical
research. Primate Eye, (54): 23-26.


Las dos mayores amenazas que tiene la naturaleza
son: la destmcci6n de los ambientes naturales y el
comercio de fauna y flora y sus derivados. Conscientes
de esta situaci6n, el Fondo Mundial para la Naturaleza
(WWF), y la Uni6n Mundial para la Naturaleza
(UICN), han establecido las oficinas TRAFFIC, sigla
derivada de "Trade Records Analysis of Flora and
Fauna in Conunerce". Estas oficinas, distribuidas en
todo el mmndo, son coordinadas por TRAFFIC
International y trabajan en estrecha relaci6n con la
Secretaria de la Convenci6n sobre el Comercio
International de Especies Amenazadas de Fauna y
Flora Silvestres (CITES), en el monitoreo del
comercio international de plants y animtales

En 1985, se estableci6 la primer oficina regional de la
Red en la ciudad de Montevideo, la cual ha recebido el
reconocimiento del Gobierno de Uruguay como
organismo international sin fin lucrative. TRAFFIC
Sudamerica no se ha limitado a un trabajo meranente
estadistico, sino que en estos nueve afios de vida ha
colaborado con los paises de la region tratando. de
lograr una adecuada aplicaci6n de CITES, y asi
nismo ha participado en acciones directs como por
ejenplo el rescate de animales vivos en poder de

Para el cumplimiento de su labor de fiscalizaci6n y
inonitoreo del comercio regional, resulta de
fundamental importancia la colaboraci6n de todas
aquellas personas preocupadas por la conservaci6n de
la naturaleza, por lo cual seri de gran utilidad toda
informaci6n relative al comercio de fauina que se nos
laga llegar a la oficina de Montevideo.

Juan S. Villalba-Macias, Director, TRAFFIC
(Sudamdrica), Carlos Roxlo 1496/301, 11200
Montevideo, Uruguay. Tel/Fax: (598-2) 49 33 84.


The Jersey Wildlife Preservation
Trust will be holding its annual
sununer school "Breeding and
Conservation of Endangered
Species" from 31 July to 19 August

Neotropical Pfinttes 2(4l), Decem~ber 1994

Page 24

Neotropical Primates 2(4), December 1994

1995. The course will be based at the Trust's
headquarters in Jersey, Channel Islands, GB, and will
consist of morning and afternoon lectures, discussion
sessions, and individually supervised research
exercises. It is suitable for students, zoo and veterinary
staffand others with an interest in conservation and/or
captive animals. The course and its associated project
work are flexible to suit most abilities and
backgrounds. Participation is limited to approximately
24 students selection based on merit and suitability.
Early application is essential. Fee per person 880
(includes 1996 free membership to the Trust). Full
accommodation provided from 29 July to 19 August
1995. The Course Directors are the Trust Training
Officer, Dr John E. Fa, and two internationally
recognized scientists. The Course tutor is Dr Anna
T.C.Feistner, Trust Research Officer, and the Co-
ordinator is Mr Chris Clark. Assistant Training
Officer at the Trust. Closing date for applications: 31
January 1995. Applications to: The Sunmmer School,
Co-ordinator, Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust,
Trinity, Jersey JE3 5BP, Channel Islands, British
Isles. Tel: +44 1534 864666. Fax: +44 1534 865161.


RHODE ISLAND The Sophie Danforth Conservation
ZOOLOGICAL Biology Fund was established by
SOCIETY the Roger Williams Park Zoo and
the Rhode Island Zoological Society to help protect the
World's threatened wildlife. Each year grants of up to
US$1,000 are awarded to individuals or institutions
working in conservation biology. Projects and
programs that enhance biodiversity and maintain
ecosystems receive the highest funding priority. Field
studies, environmental education programs,
development of techniques that can be used in a
natural environment, and captive propagation
programs that stress an integrative and or
multidisciplinary approach to conservation are also
appropriate. Proposals for single species preservation,
initial surveys, or seed money for technique
development are not appropriate. Recipients are
required to acknowledge the Roger Williams Park Zoo
and the Rhode Island Zoological Society in any
publications that result from the project. Recipients
must also submit a progress report which includes an
update on the status of the project. This report is due
one year after funding. Limit your application to the
fonn (available from the address below), and a two-
page curriculum vitae. All proposals must be
submitted by 1 May, 1995. Applications will be
reviewed by a conunittee of zoo, zoo society, and
outside advisors. Grants will be awarded in July 1995.
For further information contact: Dr Anne Savage,

Director of Research, Roger Williams Park Zoo,
Elmwood Avenue, Providence, RI 02905. USA. Tel:
(401) 785-3510, Fax: (401) 941-3988.

Birdlife International and the Fauna and Flora
Preservation Society, with support from British
Petroleum, hold an annual competition for
conservation exploration projects "The BP
Conservation Expedition Awards". Projects entering
the competition are judged especially on the level of
host country involvement and the global importance of
the conservation issues on which the project is
focused. The project must fall within one of the
following categories: Tropical rain forest, wetlands,
oceanic islands and marine, globally threatened
species. The expedition should consist of young
people, preferably undergraduate students, although it
is recolunended that at least one postgraduate in life
sciences should be included. Proposals for 1995
Expeditions must be entered by no later than 31st
December 1994. Entrants will be informed of the
results by the end of February. For further information
contact: Michael K.Poulson, Birdlife International,
Wellbrook Court, Girton Road. Cambridge CB3 ONA,
UK, Tel: +44 223 277318, Fax: +44 223 277200.

The Department of Biological Anthropology and
Anatomy of Duke University. Durham, North
Carolina, anticipates filling 1-3 year teaching/research
posts in the following areas: Primate behavior and
socioecology: Primate morphology: Primate or human
evolution; and Medical gross anatomy. Ph.D. or
anticipated award of Ph.D. within two months of
appointment is required. Salary competitive and
commensurate with qualifications. Starting date:
September 1995. Application deadline: 15 February
1995. Send letter of application, current CV and at
least three letters of reference to Prof Richard F. Kay,
Department of Biological Anthropology and
Anatomy. Box 3170, Duke University Medical Center,
Durham, NC 27710, USA.

Field assistants are needed to collect behavioral data
and conduct playback trials on free-ranging rhesus
macaques in Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, January-
August 1995. Field experience preferred but not
required. Applicants must be serious, dedicated
students, willing to work long hours under difficult

Page 25

Neciropical Primales 2(4), December 1994 Page 26

conditions. In exchange, extensive training in
observational and experimental data collection
techniques will be offered. No funding provided. Send
cover letter, restun6, and two letters of
recommendation to: Katherine Hardy, 10126 Shady
River, Houston, TX 77042, USA. Please include
mailing address, phone number, and e-mail address if
you have one. Applications will be considered on a
rolling basis.



Kellen Gilbert (Southeastern Louisiana University) e
Silvia Egler (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da
Amaz6nia) iniciarTo em 1995 umn projeto sobre a
diversidade e densidade de primatas em fragments
florestais e floresta continue na Amaz6nia central,
como parte das atividades do projelo multidisciplinar
"Dinimica Biol6gica de Fragmentos Florestais
(PDBFF)" do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas de
Amaz6nia (INPA), Manaus, em conv6nio cor o
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Estudantes
brasileiros interessados em realizar um cstagio (urna
vaga) junto com este projeto tnm umra excelente
oportunidade para ganlhar experi6ncia de campo e
tamb6m obter dados iniciais para elaborar projeto
individual como uma tese de mestrado. Os
interessados devem mandar curriculo e pelo menos
duas cartas de referencia para Kellen Gilbert comn
c6pias para Silvia Egler. Endereqos: Kellen Gilbert,
Department of Sociology, Social Work and Criminal
Justice, Southeastern Lousiana University, Hammond,
Louisiana 70403, USA. Tel: 504 543 0068. e-mail:
fsoc2750@selu.edu. Silvia Egler, Departamento de
Ecologia V8, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da
Amaz6nia (INPA), Caixa Postal 478. Manaus 69011,
Amazonas, Brasil.

Primate Societies


En 1993, los primat6logos espailoles fundaron la
Asociaci6n Primatol6gica Espafiola (APE). Sus
objetivos son: fomentar la investigaci6n cientifica de
los primates, respetando las normas 6ticas sobre el
manejo de los aninales; impulsar la divulgaci6n de
los conocimientos de todas las ireas de la
primatologia; promover la conservaci6n de todas las
species de primates: facilitar la cooperaci6n entire

todos los cientificos que trabajan con primates, dentro
y fuiera del territorio national: y eslablecer vinculos
con asociaciones nacionales e internacionales que
persigan fines similares. La APE edita un boletin dos
veces al aflo, y esti afiliada oficialmente a la European
Federation for Prinatology (EFP). El Presidente de la
APE es miembro del Consejo de la EFP.

Los miembros de la Junta Directiva de la APE son:
Dr. Fernando Colmenares (Universidad Complutense
de Madrid), Presidente: Dr. Joaquin Vei (Universidad
Central de Barcelona), Vice-Presidente; Dr. Fernando
Pelaez (Universidad Aut6noma de Madrid, Secretario;
Dr. Carlos Gil Burman (Universidad Aut6noma de
Madrid), Tesorcro; Dr. Juan Carlos G6mez
(Universidad Autonoma de Madrid) y Dra. Maribel
Baldellou (Universidad Central de Barcelona),
Vocales de Investigaci6n: Adolfo Aguirre
(Universidad Complutense de Barcelona) y Mateo
Escobar (Universidad Central de Barcelona). Vocales
de Educaci6n: Carmne Mat6 y Francisco G6mez
(Universidad Central de Barcelona), Comile de

Para mayor informaci6n, ponerse en contact con: Dr
Fernando Colmenares, Departamento de
Psicobiologia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid,
Campus de Somosaguas, 28223 Madrid, Espafia. Tel:
34 (9)1 3943073. Fax: (34) (9)1 3943189, e-mail:
pspsc06@sis.ucm.cs: o Dr Fernando Pelaez,
Departamento de Psicologia Biol6gica y de la Salud,
Facultad de Psicologia, Universidad Aut6noma de
Madrid, Espaiia. Tel: 34 (9)1 3974658, Fax: 34 (9)1
3975215, e-mail: fpelaez(@ccuam3.sdi.uam.es.


Del 23 al 26 de mayo de 1995, se Ilevari a cabo el
IV Simposio de la AsociaciOn AM exicana de
Primatlokgia, en la ciudad de Puebla. Mexico.
Durante cl pasado XV Congreso de la Sociedad
International de Primatologia (IPS). celebrado en
Bali. Indonesia, convenimos realizar la III Reuniin de
la Sociedad Lalinoamnericana de Prinatologia en
conjunci6n con el Simposio antes mencionado.
Estamos muy interesados en quc al menos una
persona de cada Sociedad de Latinoam6rica y/o una
persona de cada pais donde existan poblaciones
silvestres de primates, acuda este event. Asimismo,
en el marco de esta reuni6n sc debera elegir la nueva
mesa directive de la SLAP, que como un acuerdo de la
reuni6n pasada. debera scr la mesa dircctiva de alguna

ji'colropical Primatles 2(4), DecemberC 1994

'Page 26

Page 27

de las Sociedades nacionales de primatologia, a fin de
evitar los problems que se presentan cuando se
trabaja a larga distancia. Para mayor infomiaci6n
contactar con Ernesto Rodriguez Luna, Presidente de
la SLAP a: Apartado Postal 566, C.P.91000, Xalapa,
Veracruz, M6xico. Tel./Fax: (28) 12-57-48.


Sera realizado no period de 23 a
28 de julho de 1995, na
Universidade Federal do Rio
Grande do Norte, o VII
Congress Brasileiro de
Primatologia. A programa~io do
Congress incluird sessbes de comunicaqces
coordenadas, mini-cursos, paineis, conferencias e
mesas-redondas. O prazo para envio dos resumes sera
15 de marqo de 1995, e os fornulhrios ja estlio sendo
encaminhadas aos s6cios por meio de carta-circular.
Maiores infomnnages: Cannen Alonso, Depto. de
SistemAtica e Ecologia CCEN, Universidade Federal
da Paraiba, Campus Universitirio, 58059-900 Joaio
Pessoa, Paraiba, Brasil. Fax: (083) 224 3688.


O Departamento de Fisiologia da Universidade
Federal do Rio Grande do Norte em conjunto corn a
Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia, vai realizar o
VII Curso de Especializaq~o em Primatologia. O tema
do curso serfi "Ecologia e Comportamento de Primatas
Neotropicais". Sert3o abordados mntodos de estudo de
primatas em campo e cativeiro. O curso terA a duraqio
de 480 horas e devern acontecer de 1 de agosto a 30
de outubro de 1995, em Natal, Joio Pessoa e Recife.
As inscriq6es para as 15 vagas estarbo abertas de 15
de abril a 15 de maio de 1995, para graduados em
CiEncias Biol6gicas, Medicina Veteriniria, Zootecnia,
Psicologia e Areas afins. A selegio serA feita atrav6s de
Curriculum vitae do candidate e unma carta de
indicacio de professor, orientador, empregador ou
equivalent. Apenas um candidate de cada instituig~o
sera aceito, a nio ser que haja vagas ociosas. Maiores
informac es e inscriqces: Dra. Maria Emilia
Yamamoto ou Dr. Dwain Phillip Santee, Caixa Postal
1511, 59072-970 Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil.
Tel: (084) 206 1147 ou 231 1266 x 359, Fax: (084)
231 9587.

Neotropical Primates 2(4), December 1994

& I AWARDS 1994

The Awards and Recognition Conunittee of the
American Society of Primatologists made three
awards at their annual meeting in Seattle in July 1994.
The Distinguished Primatologist Award was presented
to Charles H. Soulthwick, Professor Emeritus,
University of Colorado at Boulder, for his exceptional
career achievements in primate ecology, field
research, teaching, international consulting and
service on numerous government and primatology
advisory committees. Professor Southwick will present
the Distinguished Primatologist's Lecture at the 1995
meeting in Arizona. A Distinguished Service Award
was given to Dr Leo A. W1hitehair, Director of the
Comparative Medicine Program, National Center for
Research Resources, National Institutes of Health, for
his outstanding support of primate research during a
lengthy career at the Animal Resources Branch and
Comparative Medicine Program. ASP also presented a
Distinguished Service Award to Dr Richard Harrison
for his dedicated work and service to the Society as
ASP Historian during the past decade. Journal
Subscription Awards were continued for 13 past
recipients, and two new awards were made to Dr
Maria de Fcntia Arruda, Federal University of Rio
Grande do Norte, Brazil, and to Dr Gilbert Isabitye-
Basuta, Makerere University Biological Field Station
at Kibale Forest, Uganda. Small conservation grants
were made Dr A.U. Choludbiyv, Gauhuti University,
India, to A. K .Gupta, Forest Training Division,
Sepahijala, India, to Dmin Hmakins, University
College, London, and to MAadhu Rao, Duke
University, North Carolina. The Senior Biology and
Conservation Award went to Hilali Aatama, Gombe
Stream Research Centre. From ASP Bulletin, 18(3),
September 1994.

IRecent Publications

Volume 34(2) of the American Journal of
Primatology was given over to the publication of
the proceedings of a symposium "Social
Organization in Neotropical Primates: Relation to
Ecology, Body Size and Patterns of Infant Care",
organized by Suzette Tardif (University of
Tennessee, Knoxville), Paul Garber (University of

Aeotropical Primates 2(4), December 1994

Illinois, Urbana). and Anne Savage (Roger
Williams Park Zoo, Rhode Island), held during
the 1992 Congress of the International
Primatological Society, Strasbourg, France, 16-21
August 1992.

The papers in the symposium were centered on
three issues: 1) the relation between body size,
ecology, and reproduction (Dictz el al., Tardif el
al., and Williams el al.; 2) ranging and dispersal
patterns as determinants of social structure
(Boinski and Mitchell. Norconk and Kinzcy,
Kinzey and Cunningham): and 3) phylogenetic and
comparative analyses of behavioral and anatomical
traits (Ford and Garber). Within these areas the
papers provide new information and new
syntheses of existing information on platyrrhine
socioccology. In addition, many detail
innovative methodological approaches which
could fruitfully be applied to other

Boinski, S. and Milchell. C.L. 1994. Male
residence and association patterns in Costa Rican
squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oeir~ledi). Ant. J.
Primatol., 34(2): 157-170.
Dietz, J.M., Baker, A.J. and Miglioretti. D. 1994.
Seasonal variation in reproduction, juvenile
growth, and adult body mass in golden lion
tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia). Ami. J.
Primatol., 34(2): 115-132.
Ford. S.M. 1994. Evolution of sexual dimorphism
in body weight in platyrrhincs. .Am. J. l'rimatol.,
34(2): 221-244.
Garber, P.A. 1994. Phylogenetic approach to the
study of tamarin and marmoset social systems.
Am. J. Primaitol., 34(2): 199-219.
Kinzey. W.G. and Cunningham. E.P. 1994.
Variability in platyrrhine social organization.
Am. J. Priimatol. 34(2): 185-198.
Norconk. M.A. and Kinzey. W.G. 1994. Challenge
of neotropical frugivory: travel patterns of spider
monkeys and bearded sakis. Amn. J. Primatol..
34(2): 171-183.
Tardif. S.D. 1994. Relative energetic cost of infant
care in small-bodied Neotropical primates and its
relation to infant-care patterns. Aml J. Primalol.,
34(2): 133-143.
Tardif, S.D. and Garber. P.A. 1994. Social and
reproductive patterns in Neotropical primates:
relation to ecology, body size. and infant care.
Am... J. Primalo., 34(2): 111-114.
Williams. L.. Gibson. S, McDaniel, M., Bazzel, J.,
Barnes. S. and Abee. C. 1994. Allomaternal
interactions in the Bolivian squirrel monkey
(Saimiri boliviensis holiviensis). Am. J.
Primalto.. 34(2): 145-156.


The Argentinian Society for the Study of Mammals
(SAREM), Rub6n M. Bairquez (UNT, Tucummn)
President, has edited the second number of the first
volume of its journal A astozoologia Neotropical. The
editor is Ricardo A. Ojeda (IADIZA, Mendoza).
Besides an editorial on Neotropical biodiversity and
the role of the region's mammalogists, it includes five
articles, three short notes and a book reiew.
Neotropical mammalogists are encouraged to join
SAREM (receiving the journal free of charge). Annual
dues are US$40 (US$25 for students) plus US$5 for
handling and shipping. Contact: Dr Janet Braun,
International Secretary, SAREM, 1335 Asp Avenue,
Oklahoma Museum of Natural History. Norman, OK
73019. USA. or M6nica Diaz, Tesoreria SAREM,
Facultad de Ciencias Naturales Miguel Lillo 205,
(4000) Tucumtn, Argentina.


Introduction to Primate Behavior, by Nancy
E.Collinge, Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company,
Dubuque. Iowa. 1993. Price: US$25.95 (soft cover). In
five parts: Part I. Introduction to the World of
Primates; Part II. Introduction to the Life-Way
Patterns of Non-Human Primate Species: Part III.
Primatological Concepts: Part IV. Primate
Intelligence: Part V. Applied Primalology. Available
from: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, 2460
Kerper Boulevard, Dubuque. Iowa 52004-0539, USA.

The Marmoset: Role in Pharmaceutical
Development, compiled by John S.L.Fowler,
Pharmaco LSR. UK, 1994, 88pp. Proceedings of an
Advanced Seminar. Brome Grange Hotel. Suffolk,
England. 6-7 June 1994. ISBN 0 9514367 1 6.
Includes 11 papers: Marmosets as models for man (L.
Scott): Marmoset care and reproduction (P. A.
McAnully); Spontaneous and background pathology
in marmosets (P. F. Wadsworth); ADME and kinetic
studies in manrosets (J. S. L. Fowler): Marmosets:
their use in safety pharmacology and animal models of
CNS disorders (S.Close); The marmoset facilities of
Pharmaco LSR (J.S.Stewart): The use of C(allithrix
jacchus in toxicity studies: study direction and clinical
monitoring (A.Woolley): Hepatic effects of
ciprofibrate in the marmoset (T. J. B.Gray, F. W.
Bonner & S. Winthrop): Pathological changes in the
marmoset elicited by novel chemicals (J. E. Watson);
Pharmaceutical development: first-into-man studies (J.
S. L. Fowler): Use of marmoset in pharmacology and
toxicology: the regulatory position (B. Rich): and an

Page 28

Page 29 Neotropical Primates 2(4,), December 1994

appendix on background data relating to marmosets at
Pharmaco LSR. Available from: Phannaco LSR, Eye,
Suffolk IP23 7PX, UK.

Restoration of Endangered Species:
Conceptual Isswes, Planning and
Implementation, edited by Marlin L. Bowles and
Christopher Whelan, Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge, 1994, 420pp. Price Hdbk 35.00. As the
human impact on earth leads to ever increasing
environmental degradation, the restoration of
dwindling populations of numerous plant and animal
species is becoming ever more important. In this
volume the political, biological, and experimental
procedures affecting the restoration of populations of
both plants and animals are examined using case
studies to illustrate basic points. Available from:
Customer Services Department, Cambridge University
Press, The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 IBR,

The Rainforest Edge: Plant and Soil Ecology
of Maracd Island, Brazil, edited by John
Hemming, Manchester University Press, Manchester,
UK. 1994. Price 45.00. Available from: Manchester
University Press. Oxford Road, Manchester M 3 9PL,
England, or Manchester University Press, St. Martins
Press, Inc., 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, New York
10010, USA.

Anais do Workshop sobre Pesquisas
Pirioririas para o Parque Estadual do Rio
Doce, compiled by Anthony B.Rylands and Ivana
R.Lamas, Instituto Estadual de Florestas IEF/MG,
and Engevix Engenharia S.A., Belo Horizonte, Minas
Gerais, 1994, 89pp. Proceedings of a Workshop on
Research Priorities for the Rio Doce State Park, Minas
Gerais, Brasil, 7-10 March 1994. Also Pesquisas
Prioriatrias para o Parque Estahial do Rio Doce,
Brasil, a sununary in Portuguese and English, 35pp.
Available from: Coordenadoria de Protecio a Vida
Silvestre, Diretoria de Proteqio da Biodiversidade,
Institute Estadual de Florestas (IEF), Rua Paracatu
304/1001, Barro Preto, 30180-090 Belo Horizonte,
Minas Gerais, Brazil. Fax: +55 31 295-2803.

Coletdnea Bibliogrdfica sobre o Parque
Esladual do Rio Doce, organized by Maria Teresa
Coimbra Prates et al., Instituto Estadual de Florestas -
IEF/MG, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, 1994, 61pp.
A listing of bibliographical references pertinent to the
Rio Doce Slate Park in Minas Gerais, Brazil; the
largest remaining block of Atlantic forest in the state
(35,793 ha). Available from: Coordenadoria de
Protecqo a Vida Silvestre, Diretoria de Proteqico da

Biodiversidade, Instituto Estadual de Florestas (IEF),
Rua Paracatu 304/1001, Barro Preto, 30180-090 Belo
Horizonte, Minas Gerais. Brazil. Fax: +55 31 295-

Stress and Animal Welfire, by D.M.Broom and
K.G.Jolmson, Chapman and Hall, London, 1993, 211
pp. Available from: Chapman and Hall, 2-6 Boundary
Row, London SE1 8HN, England, UK, or Chapman
and Hall, Inc., One Penn Plaza, 41st Floor, New York,
New York 10119, USA.

Primate IHunmor, Volume 1, published by the
American Society of Primatologists Conservation
Conunittee, 1994. Price: US$10.00 (+US$1.00
shipping). A collection of primate humors. Send a
check or money order payable to "ASP Conservation
Fund". Contact: Dr Janette Wallis, Department of Ob-
Gyn 4SP700, University of Oklahoma HSC, Box
26901, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73190, USA.


Agoramoorthy, G. and Rudran, R. 1994. Field
application of Telazol (Tiletamine hydrochloride
and Zolazepamn hydrochloride) to inunobilize wild
red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniciuhs) in
Venezuela. J. IVildl. Dis., 30(3): 417-420.
Anonymous. 1994. Colombia makes substantive
reforms to conserve biological diversity. Biodiversity
Conservation Strategy UPDATE, 6(3): 7.
Anonymous. 1994. Why do capuchins have big
brains? Inside Yerkes, (Fall): 2-5.
Anonymous. 1994. New population of 65 howlers in
Cockscomb. Community Conservation Consultants
Baboon Update, (Spring/Summer): 1.
B6s, A., Probst, B. and Erkert, H.G. 1993. Urinary
estradiol-17p excretion in conummon marmosets,
Callithrix.jacchus: diurnal pattern and relationship
between creatinine-related values and excreted
amount. Comp. Biochem. Phvsio., 105A(2): 287-
Boinski, S., Moraes, E., Kleiman, D.G., Dietz, J.M.
and Baker, A.J. 1994. Intra-group vocal behaviour
in wild golden lion tamarins, Leontopithecus
rosalia: honest conununication of individual
activity. Behaviour, 130(1-2): 53-75.
Christie, M.I. 1994. Estado del conocimiento sobre
mamiferos argentinos: species, ejemplares y
documentaci6n. Mastozoologia Neotropical, 1(2):
Defler, T.R. 1994. La conservaci6n de primates en
Col6mbia. Trianea (Act.Cien.Tecn. INDEREAI), 5:

Meolrropical Primatles 2(4-), December~r 1994

Page 29

Neotropical Primates 2(4), December 1994

Dietz, J.M., Dietz. L.A. and Nagagata. E.Y. 1994.
The effective use of flagship species for conservation
of biodiversity: the example of lion tamarins in
Brazil. In: Creative Conservatonn: Interactive
Management of Wild and Captive Animals,
P.J.S.Olney, G.M.Mace and A.T.C.Feistner (eds.),
pp.32-49. Chapman and Hall, London.
Durant, S. M. and Mace, G. M. 1994. Species
differences and population structure in population
viability analysis. In: Creative Conservation:
Interactive Management of Vild and Captive
Animals, P. J. S. Olney, G. M. Mace and A. T. C.
Feistner (eds.), pp.67-91. Chapman and Hall,
Eudey, A. and Rylands, A.B. 1994. Primate Specialist
Group. Species, (21-22): 85-86.
Evans, S. and Price, E. 1994. Mating system enigma:
a missed opportunity. Am. J. Primatol., 34(3): 289-
292. (Review of Rylands. A.B. (ed.) 1993.
AIarmosets and Tamarins: Systematics, Behaviour,
and Ecology, Oxford University Press, Oxford).
Gyllensten, U., Bergstrom, T., Josefsson, A., Sundvall,
M., Savage, A., Blumer, E.S. Giraldo, L.H.. Soto,
L.H. and Watkins, D.I. 1994. The cotton-top
tamarin revisited: Mhc class I polymorphism of wild
tamarins, and polymorphism and allelic diversity of
the class II DQAI, DQBI, and DRB loci.
Immnuogenetics, 40(3)167-176.
Hirter, L. and Erkert, H.G. 1993. Alteration of
circadian period length does not influence the
ovarian cycle length in common marmosets,
Callithrix jacchus (Primates). Chronobiol. Int.,
10(3): 165-175.
Hartwig, W.C. 1994. Setting the future agenda for
research on neotropical primates: a symposium
in honor of Warren G. Kinzey. Evolutionary
Anthropology, 2(6): 189-192.
Hartwig, W.C. 1994. Comparative morphology,
ontogeny and phylogenetic analysis of the
platyrrhine cranium. Di.ssertation Abstracts
International A54(10): 608. Order #AAD94-07993.
University Microfilms, Inc., Amn Arbor, MI 48106,
Hawksworth, D. (ed.) 1994. Biodiversity:
measurement and estimation. Phil. Trans. Roy.Soc.,
London, B., 345: 1-136.
Hearn, J.P. 1994. Conservation of primate species
studied in biomedical research: introduction. Am. J.
Primatol., 34(1): 1-2.
Hearn, J.P. 1994. New World primates for research in
human reproductive health. Am. J. Primatol., 34(1):
Held, J.R. and Wolfle, T.L. 1994. Imports: current
trends and usage. Am. J Primatol., 34(1), 85-96.
Horwich, RH., Koontz, F., Saqui, E., Saqui, H. and
Glander, K. 1993. A reintroduction program for the

Page 30

conservation of the black howler monkey in Belize.
Endangered Species Update. 10(6):1-6.
Hrdy, S.B. 1993. Infanticide as a primate reproductive
strategy. In: Exploring Animal Behavior: Readings
from American Scientist, P.W.Sherman and
J.Alcock (eds.). pp.21-30. Sinauer Associates,
Sunderland, MA.
Hunt, R.D. and Desrosiers, R.C. 1994. New scientific
opportunities: study of spontaneous infectious
diseases of primates: contributions of the Regional
Primate Research Centers Program to conservation
and new scientific opportunities. Am. J. Primatol.,
34(1): 3-10.
Jacobsen, L. 1994. Infonnation programs for
primatologists: Wisconsin Regional Primate
Research Center. Am. J. Primatol., 34(1): 101-108.
Jaquish, C.E. 1994. Evidence of hybrid vigor in
subspecific hybrids of the saddle-back tamarin
(Saguinus fitscicollis). Am.J.Primatol., 33(3): 263-
Jaquish, C.E. 1994. Genetic, behavioral and social
effects on fitness components in marmosets and
tamarins. Dissertation Abstracts International
B54(10): 5060. Order #AAD94-09509. University
Microfilms, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI 48106, USA.
Kappeler, P.M. 1993. Female dominance in primates
and other manuals. In: Perspectives in Ethology
10: Behaior and Evolution, P.P.G.Bateson et al
(eds.), pp.143-158. Plenum Press, New York.
Kingston, W.R. 1994. Sources of primates for
biomedical research. Primate Eye, (54): 23-26.
Kleiman, D. G., Price, M. R. S. and Beck, B. B. 1994.
Criteria for reintroductions. In: Creative
Conservation: Interactive Management of IWild and
Captive Animals, P. J. S.Olney, G. M. Mace and A.
T. C. Feistner (eds.), pp.287-303. Chapman and
Hall, London.
Mace, G.M. and Stuart, S. 1994. Draft IUCN Red List
Categories, Version 2.2. Species, (21-22): 13-24.
Medellin, R. 1994. Mammal diversity and
conservation in the Selva Lacandona, Chiapas,
Mexico. Conservation Biology, 8(3): 780-799.
Mittermeier, R. A., Konstant, W. R. and Mast, R. B.
1994. Use of Neotropical and Malagasy primate
species in biomedical research. Am. J. Primatol.,
34(1): 73-80.
Nagamachi, C.Y., Pieczarka, J.C., Schwarz, M.,
Paiva, C.M.C., Barros, R.M.S. and Mattevi, M.S.
1994. Karyotype of Callithrix mauesi
(Callitrichidae, Primates) and its relations with those
of Cemiliae and C.jacchus. Am.J.Primatol.,
Nagle, C.A., DiGianon, L.. Paul, N. Terlato, M.,
Quiroga, S. and Mendizabal, A.F. 1994.
Interovarian communication for the control of
follicular growth and corpus luteum function in the
cebus monkey. Am. J. Primatol., 34(1): 19-28.

Neotropical Priimates 2(4), Decemher 1994

Natori, M. 1994. Metrical variations of the dentition
in Callithrix species and their evolutionary
relationships. Anthropological Science, 102(2):119-
Nisbett, R.A. 1994. The functional ecology of howling
monkey positional behavior: proximate effects of
habitat structure, tree architecture, phenophase and
body size upon Alouatla palliata foraging in discrete
forest and crown types. Dissertation Abstracts
International A55(3): 628. Order #AAD94-21172,
University Microfilms, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI 48106.
Peres, C.A. 1994. Composition, density, and fruiting
phenology of arborescent palms in an Amazonian
terra fire forest. Biotropica, 26(3): 285-294.
Petrucci, S.T. 1993. Observations of the foraging
behaviour of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciurens
boliviensis) at the Tulsa Zoological Park. Bios.
64(3): 64-71.
Polanco-Ochoa. R. and Cadena, A. 1993. Use of space
by Callicebus cupreus ornatus (Primates: Ccbidac)
in Macarena, Colombia. Field Studies of Neiw IWorld
AMonkeys, La Macarena, Colombia, 8: 19-31.
Pryce, C.R. 1994. Mtarnmosets and Tamarins in
Captivity: 17th Annual Symposium of the
Association of British Wild Animal Keepers,
R.Colley cd. 1993. Association of British Wild
Animal Keepers, Bristol. Primate Eve, (54): 33-34.
(Book review).
Pryce, C.R., Schwarzenberger. F. and Doebeli, M.
1994. Monitoring fecal samples for estrogen
excretion across the ovarian cycle in Goeldi's
monkey (Callimnico goeldii). Zoo Biology.
Ravosa. M.J. and Ross, C.F. 1994. Craniodental
allometry and heterochrony in two howler monkeys:
A loatta seniculits and A.palliata. .An. J. Primatol.,
Robinson, J.G. and Redford, K.H. 1994. Measuring
the sustainability of hunting in tropical forests. O(yx,
28(4): 249-256.
Rose, L.M. 1994. Benefits and costs of resident males
to females in white-faced capuchins, Cebius
capucinus. Am. J. Primatlo., 32: 235-248.
Rosenberger, A.L. and Stafford, B.J. 1994.
Locomotion in captive Leontopilhecus and
Callimico: a multimedia study. Am. J. Phys.
Anthrop.. 94(3): 379-394.
Saltzman, W., Schultz-Darken, N.J., Scheffler, G.,
Wegner, F.H. and Abbott, D.H. 1994. Social and
reproductive influences on plasma cortisol in female
marmoset monkeys. Physiol.Behav., 56(4): 801-810.
Seal. U. S., Foose, T. J. and Ellis, S. 1994.
Conservation Assessment and Management Plans
(CAMPs) and Global Captive Action Plans
(GCAPs). In: (Creative Conservation: Interactive
Management of Wild and Captive Animals.

P.J.S.Olney. G.M.Macc and A.T.C.Feistncr (eds.).
pp.312-325. Chapman and Hall, London.
Silva M. and Downing. J. 1994. Allometric scaling
of minimal mammal densities. Consellation
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Sodaro. V. 1993. Hand-rearing and reintroduction of a
black handed spider monkey .Alteles geojtfrovi at
Brookfield Zoo. nt. Zoo Ybk., 32: 224-228.
Stafford, B.J., Rosenberger. A.L. and Beck. B.B.
1994. Locomotion of free-ranging golden lion
lamarins (Leoniopithecus rosalia) at the National
Zoological Park. Zoo Biol.. 13(4): 333-344.
Stevenson, P.R. and Quiiones. M.J. 1993. Vertical
stratification of four New World primates, at
Tinigua National Park. Colombia. Field Studies of
VNew [Vorld Mlonkeys, La MAacarena, Colonbia. 8:
Stoner, K.E. 1994. Population density of the mantled
howler monkey (l/onalla palliata) at La Selva
Biological Reserve, Costa Rica: a new technique to
analyze census data. Biotropica. 26(3): 332-340.
Tomblin, D.C. and Cranford J.A. 1994. Ecological
niche differences between A-louatia palliata and
Cehibs captucinus comparing feeding modes, branch
use, and diet. Primates 35(3): 265-274.
Ueno, Y. 1994. Olfactory discrimination of eight food
flavors in the capuchin monkey (Cehus apella):
comparison between fnrity and fishy odors.
Primates, 35(3): 301-310.
Ueno. Y. 1994. Olfactory discrimination of urine
odors from five species by tufted capuchin (Cebus
apella). Primates. 35(3): 311-323.
Valenzuela, N. 1993. Social contacts between infants
and other group members in a wild Chebus apella
group at La Macarena, Colombia. Field Studies of
New Worldi Monkevs, La Macarena, Colombia, 8: 1-
Vasirhelyi, K. and Martin. R.D. 1994. Evolutionary
biology, genetics and the management of
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Hall, London.
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Page 31

Neotropical Primates 2(4), December 1994

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Einspanier, A., Ivell, R., Rune, G.M. and Hodges, J.K.
1994. Follicular oxytocin in the ovary of the
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50(suppl.1): 134.
Rosenbusch, J., Dias, J.A. and Hodges, J.K. 1994.
Development of an enzymeinununoassay (EIA) for
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Fragaszy, D.M. and Adams-Curtis, L.E. Growth and
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Gibson, S., Brady, A., Williams, L. and Abee, C.
Placentation in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri spp.).
Gibson, S., Williams, L., Brady, A. and Abee, C.
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(Saimiri spp.). p.211.
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Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology. Wayne
Stale University School of Medicine. 540 E. Canfield
Avenue, Detroit. MI 48201. USA. The conference will
deal with advances in the study of molecular evolution
that relate to the human species. Four working
sessions: Process of Evolution in Complex Genomes:
Molecular Evolution in Relation to Phylogeny: DNA
Evidence on the Evolutionary History of Primates and
Other Mammals; Molecular Evolution in the Human
Species. Professionals and qualified students will be
accepted for attendance at these sessions. There will
also be a public lecture "Population Genetics and
Human Evolution" by Dr Francisco Ayala on 14
March, 4:00 pm. Contact: Drs Morris Goodman (313-
577-1138). G.W.Lasker (313-577-1061). or Mark
Weiss (313-577-2935). E-mail: mwciss(,',cms.cc.
waync.edu. Fax: (313) 577-3125.

PIIYLOGENY. 28 March-I April 1995. Oakland.
California. In conjunction with the American

Neotropical 1'riinates 2(4), December 1994

Association of Physical Anthropology. Focus: New
World primate relationships and evolutionary history.
Abstract deadline: 30 June 1994. Contact: Jeff
Mcldrum. Departments of Biological Sciences and
Anthropology. Campus Box 8007. Idaho State
University. Pocatello. Idaho 93209-8007. USA. Tel:
(208) 236-4379. Fax: (208) 236-4570. c-mail:

MErTINc. 5-6 April 1995. Institute of Cell. Animal
and Population Biology. Edinburgh University. The
first day will consist of papers dealing with current
field studies of primates. The second day will be held
at Edinburgh Zoo. with primate staff talking of their
work. Contact: Elizabeth Rogers. ICAPB. Ashworlh
Building. University of Edinburgh. West Mains Road.
Edinburgh EH9 3JT. Scotland. Tel: +44 31 650-5510.
Fax: +44 31 650-6564.

Iquitos. Peni. Organized by the Tropical Conservation
and Development Program. Center for Latin
American Studies. University of Florida. Gainesville.
and Facullad de Ci6ncias Biol6gicas. Universidad
Nacional de la Amazonia Peruana. The conference
will address wildlife and fisheries management in
Amazonia by focussing on the importance of local
community participation and the development of
economic alternatives to conserve habitats and prcvcnt
extinctions. For more information. contact:
Conference, TCD Program. P.O.Box 115531,
Gainesville. FL 32611-5531. USA, Tel: (904) 392-
6548. Fax: (904) 392-6548, or Coordinador Nacional
de Congrcso. Facultad de Cidncias Biol6gicas,
Universidad Nacional dc la Amazonia Pcnuana, PI.
Scrafin Filomeno s/n. lquitos, Peni. Tel: (51-94) 23-
6121. Fax: (51-94) 23-4723.

mayo de 1995. Puebla. Mexico. Para mayor
informaci6n contactar con Ernesto Rodrigucz Luna a:
Apartado Postal 566. C.P.91000. Xalapa, Veracruz,
M6xico. Tel./Fax: (28)12-57-48. e-mail: primates(ci
bugs.invest.uv.mx. (See "Primate Societies")

PRIMNATOLOGIST'S. 21-24 June 1995, Safari Resort.
Scollsdalc. Arizona. Hosted by the Primate
Foundation of Arizona and Arizona Slate University.
Abstract deadline: 13 January 1995. Contact for
registration with abstract: Evan Zuckcr. ASP Program
Chair. Department of Psychology, Box 194. Loyola
University. 6363 St. Charles Avenue, New Orleans,

Neotropical Primates 2(4), December 1994

LA 70118, USA. Tel: (504) 865-3255. Contact for
registration (no abstract): Jo Fritz. Primate Foundation
of Arizona. P.O.Box 20027. Mesa. AZ 85277-0027.

23-28 dcjulho de 1995, Universidade Federal do Rio
Grande do Norte, Natal. Rio Grande do Nortc. A
programaq~io do Congresso incluiri sess6es de
comunica pes coordenadas. mini-cursos, paineis.
conferencias e mesas-redondas. Prazo para envio dos
resumos: 15 de marco de 1995. Contato: Carmen
Alonso, Depto. de Sistemaitica c Ecologia CCEN,
Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Campus
Universitario. 58059-900 Joaio Pcssoa. Paraiba. Brasil.
Fax: (083) 224 3688. (See "Primate Societies").

10-17 August 1995. Honolulu. Hawaii. Sponsored by
the University of Hawaii. Contact: Conference
Secretariat, 800 N.W.Loop 410. Suite 160-S. San
Antonio, TX 78216-5674. USA. Tel: (210) 341-8131.
Fax: (210) 341-5252. c-mail: icc(ii!zoogate.zoo.

PRINIATOIAX;IE (GFP), 20-24 September 1995,
Kassel, Germany. The main topic of the Congress will
be the interaction between primatological field and
laboratory research, for example, the application of
laboratory-based physiological, endocrinological and
genetic methods in primate field research. Papers and
posters on any other primatological topics are
welcome. For more information contact: Prof. Dr
Christian Welker. Zoologic und Vergl. Anatomic,
Primatenethologie. Universitlit Kassel. D-34109
Kassel, Germany. Fax: + 49 561 804 4604.

22-28 Octubre 1995. Universidad de Los Andes.
Merida. Venezuela. Los resfimenes de los trbajos a
ser presentados deben scr enviados antes del 30 de
Julio de 1995 (Ponencia oral o de Cartel). Los
idiomas oficiales: Espafiol y Portugu6s. Se aceptarin
ponencias en Ingl6s y Frances. csperindose contar con
sistemas de traducci6n simullinea. Inscripciones:
Hasta 30/12/94 Profesionalcs US$70.00. Estudiantes
de posigrado US$40.00. Estudiantes de pregrado
US$30.00: Hasta 30/05/95 Profesionalcs US$85.00,
Estudiantes de postgrado US$55.00. Estudiantcs de
pregrado US$45.00: Al Congreso Profesionales
US$100.00, Estudiantcs de postgrado US$70.00.
Estudiantes de prcgrado US$60.00. Informaciones: Dr
Jaime E.Pdfaur, Secretario Ejecutivo. III Congresso
Latinoamericano de Ecologia. Facultad de Ciencias.
Universidad de Los Andes. Merida. Venezuela 5101.

'age 34

Tel: (58)(74) 401305. Fax: (58)(74) 401286. e-mail:


We would be most grateful if you could send us
information on projects, research groups, events
(congresses, symposia, and workshops). recent
publications, activities of primatological societies
and NGOs, news items or opinions of recent events
and suchlike, either in the form of manuscripts
(double-spaced) or in diskettes for PC compatible
text-editors (MS-Word. Wordperfect. Wordstar).
Articles. not exceeding six pages. can include
small black-and-whitc photographs. figures. maps.
tables and references. but please keep them to a

Please send contributions to the editors: ANTIIONY
RYIANDS. Deparlamento de Zoologia. Institute de
Cicncias Biol6gicas. Universidade Federal de
Minas Gerais. 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Brazil,
Fax: (031) 441-1412. or c/o Conservation
International. Avenida Ant6nio Abrahaio Caram
820/302. Pampulha. 31275-000 Belo Horizontc.
Minas Gerais, Brazil, Fax: (031)441-2582 or
Fauna Silvestre Tropical. Universidad
Veracnizana, Apartado Postal 566. Xalapa.
Veracruz 91000. Mexico. Fax: (281) 8-77-30.

LILIANA CoRTI'Is-ORTIZ (Universidad Veracruzana)
and MIRIAM MENEZES LIMA (Conservation
International. Belo Horizonte) provide invaluable
editorial assistance. LUDMILLA AcG.IIAR,
Conservation International Brazil Program. Belo
Horizonte (address above). is responsible for the
distribution of Neotropical l'rimales. Please keep
us informed of any address changes.

Correspondence. messages, and texts can be sent to
Anthony Rvlands/Ludmilla Aguiar: cibrasil(ii/ax.apc.org
Fundacio Biodiversitas: cdcbhiaux.apc.org

NEOTROI'c.-i. PIUM.ITE is produced in
collaboration with Conservation International.
1015 18th Street NW. Suite 1000. Washington DC
20036. USA, and Fundaafio Biodiversitas, Rua
Maria Vaz de Melo 71. Dona Clara, Belo
Horizonte 31260-110 Minas Gerais. Brazil.
Design and Composition YURI L. R. LIiTr and
RICARDO B. MACcHAo. Biodiversity Conservation
Data Center (CDCB). Fundacio Biodiversitas.

Anthony Rylands/Emesto Rodriguez Luna, Editors
Conservation International
Avenida Ant6nio Abrahao Caram 820/302
31275-000, Belo Horizonte
Minas Gerais, Brazil

This issue of Neotropical Primates was kindly sponsored by the Houston Zoological
Gardens Conservation Program, Houston Zoological Gardens, General Manager
Donald G. Olson, 1513 North MacGregor, Houston, Texas 77030, and the Detroit
Zoological Institute, Director Ron Kagan, P.O.Box 39, Royal Oak, Michigan
48068-0039, USA.

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