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Title: Neotropical primates
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 Material Information
Title: Neotropical primates a newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCNSSC Primate Specialist Group
Abbreviated Title: Neotrop. primates
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
Conservation International
Center for Applied Biodiversity Science
Publisher: Conservation International
Place of Publication: Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Publication Date: June 1994
Frequency: quarterly
regular
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Subject: Primates -- Periodicals -- Latin America   ( lcsh )
Primates -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Wildlife conservation -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: review   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Brazil
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Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Language: English, Portuguese, and Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Mar. 1993)-
Issuing Body: Issued jointly with Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, <Dec. 2004->
General Note: Published in Washington, D.C., Dec. 1999-Apr. 2005 , Arlington, VA, Aug. 2005-
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 13, no. 1 (Apr. 2005).
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098814
Volume ID: VID00006
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28561619
lccn - 96648813
issn - 1413-4705

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    Back Cover
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NEOTROPICAL
VOLUME 2, NUMBER 2
PRIMA TES JUNE, 1994 R
A Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Ptimate Specialist Group


pRIMATE LIBRARY
University of Wisconsin


Editors: Anthony B. Rylands and Ernesto Rodriguez Luna
PSG Chairman: Russell A. Mittermeier
PSG Deputy Chairman: William R. Konstant


CONSERVATION
INTERNATIONAL


SPECIES SURVIVAL
COMMISSION


FUNDAQAO
BIODIVERSITAS




Neoropical Primates 2(2), June 1994


TRANSLOCACION Y SEGUIMIENTO DE UN
GRUPO DE MONos ALOUATTA PALLIATA
LIBERADO EN UNA ISLA (1988-1994)

Introducci6n: Frente a la fragmentaci6n del habitat
de las species de primates se propone, como una
media conservacionista, la translocaci6n de
poblaciones de un Area natural amenazada a otra
donde los animals puedan ser preservados. Esta
tActica conservacionista ha venido cobrando mayor
importancia y un nimero creciente de instituciones
se interest por realizar reintroducciones de
organismos, preferentemente cuando se trata de
species cuyo estado en la naturaleza es critic
(Rodriguez-Luna y Cortds-Ortiz, 1993). Sin
embargo, es precise advertir los riesgos inherentes
al uso de esta tActica, y para ello, es necesario
evaluar los resultados hasta ahora obtenidos en la
translocaci6n de animals. Por tal raz6n,
consideramos oportuno presentar este informed
donde, de manera sumaria, describimos el
comportamiento de un grupo de monos aulladores
(Alouatta palliata) liberados en una isla del lago de
Catemaco (Los Tuxtlas), Veracruz, Mexico.

En tdrminos generals, la translocaci6n ha sido
definida como el movimiento de organismos
silvestres (individuos o poblaciones) de un Area a
otra donde son liberados. Dependiendo del destino
Altimo de estos animals, podemos hablar de una
"reintroducci6n", cuando se liberan dentro de lo
que originalmente fue el rango de distribuci6n
natural de la especie, pero donde ya no existen
individuos conespecificos; o bien de una
"introducci6n", cuando la liberaci6n ocurre en un
sitio ajeno a dicho rango (Konstant y Mittermeier,
1982; Mackinnon et al., 1986; IUCN, 1987).

A pesar de tan sencillo planteamiento, un
program de este tipo require una series de etapas
de trabajo antes y despuis del manejo t6cnico de
los animals, que son importantes para el 6xito de
la maniobra.

El objetivo general de nuestro program fue
evaluar las diversas t6cnicas empleadas en cada
una de las fases de la translocaci6n. Para tal fin se
propusieron los siguientes objetivos particulares:

* Conducir studios que permitieran la
identificaci6n de poblaciones candidates para
translocaci6n.


. Capturar poblaciones con bajas expectativas de
sobrevivencia.
Analizar el comportamiento de grupos de monos
translocados bajo condiciones de cautiverio.
Realizar studios clinics con los monos de los
grupos capturados.
Integrar grupos de animals aptos para
introducci6n y/o reintroducci6n.
Seleccionar Areas apropriadas para introducci6n
y/o reintroducci6n.
Introducir y/o reintroducir poblaciones
translocadas de monos.
Analizar el uso del nuevo ambito hogarefio por
los animals translocados.
Estimar el impact de las poblaciones
translocadas en su nuevo Ambito hogarefio.
Desarrollar diversos studios sobre las
poblaciones transferidas.
Disefiar un modelo bAsico para translocaci6n de
species de mamiferos amenazadas de extinci6n.
Desarrollo del Programa: Este program inici6
desde 1986, con un studio demografico de las
poblaciones de monos aulladores existentes en
algunos municipios del sur del Estado de Veracruz
(Los Tuxtlas), para determinar la situaci6n de estos
primates en la fragmentada regi6n boscosa que ahi
se encuentra (Rodriguez-Luna et al., 1987).
Durante este studio se identificaron various grupos
de monos que se encontraban en situaci6n critical
debido a la gran perturbaci6n a la que habia sido
sujeto su habitat y al consecuente aislamiento de
esas poblaciones.

En 1987 fue capturado el primer grupo de animals
en el ejido Mirador Pilapa (Los Tuxtlas). En esa
ocasi6n se capturaron seis individuos.
Posteriormente, en el mismo aflo, se atraparon
otros 18 animals en un rancho pr6ximo al rio San
Juan Evangelista (Rodriguez-Luna et al., 1993).
De los animals capturados se tomaron datos
morfomdtricos y muestras para andlisis clinics
(biometria hemitica, frotis de orificios naturales,
analisis coproparasitosc6picos). En general, el
estado de salud de los monos fue considerado malo,
acusando sintomas de desnutrici6n y altas cargas
parasitarias (Villanueva-Jim6nez, 1988; Canales-
Espinosa, 1992).

El process de capture fue mejorando con la
experiencia (* existe informaci6n tdcnica en video-
tape). El equipo utilizado consisti6 en un rifle Cap-


Cover photograph by Russell Mittermnneier: muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides), see page 12.


Page 1






Neotropical Primates 2(2), June 1994 Page 2


chur que proyecta dardos de aluminio mediante los
que se inyect6 un tranquilizante (Clorhidrato de
Ketamina). Alternativamente se utiliz6 una pistola
de aire, de fabricaci6n domdstica, que impulsa
dardos elaborados a partir de jeringas desechables,
conteniendo la misma droga. El farmaco permiti6
la inmovilizaci6n de los animals, quienes en la
mayoria de los casos se sujetaban firmemente a las
ramas con la cola. En algunas ocasiones fue
necesario subir a los Arboles por ellos, en otras,
caian y eran detenidos con una lona antes de tocar
el suelo. La utilizaci6n del fArmaco fue satisfactoria
y el manejo de los animals no tuvo
complicaciones (Canales-Espinosa, 1992).

El transport se realize mediante jaulas
individuals sin contratiempos; sin embargo, es
precise advertir que existen riesgos por mantener
prolongadamente a los animals en este tipo de
jaulas. Es recomendable reducir el tiempo y el
manejo para evitar el estrds excesivo causado por el
confinamiento y extremar precauciones en
situaciones que pongan en riesgo la vida de los
individuos.

Los monos fueron transladados a dos jaulas
colectivas de mayores dimensions (4 m de largo x
2 m de ancho x 2 m de alto y 4 m de largo x 2 m de
ancho x 1.8 m de alto) ubicadas en una de las islas
del lago de Catemaco (Totogochillo), a fin de
realizar studios preliminares sobre
comportamiento y preferencias alimenticias
(Dominguez-Dominguez, en revision). Al mismo
tiempo se intent mejorar el estado de salud de los
animals.

De los animals capturados se constituyeron dos
grupos confinados en sendas jaulas: un macho y
cuatro hembras en el primero y un macho y seis
hembras en el segundo. Estos fueron
aprovisionados con ramas de seis species de
drboles que constituyen recursos alimenticios
importantes para A. palliata en estado silvestre:
Ficus pertusa, F. insipida, F. obtusifolia, Inga
vera, Bursera simaruba y Cecropia obtusifolia.
Adicionalmente se les aprovision6 con frutas
cultivadas, a fin de contar con un medio alternative
para la alimentaci6n en su nuevo Ambito. La
permanencia en cautiverio se prolong por 17
meses para ambos grupos. Dos hembras del
segundo grupo perecieron durante el cautiverio,
probablemente a causa de un severe grado de
parasitosis.

Paralelamente a la capture, se realize un studio
botanico del Area candidate para la liberaci6n de
los animals (isla de Agaltepec en el lago de


Catemaco). En esta area se realize un program
piloto que permiti6 probar las tdcnicas relatives a
la liberaci6n y seguimiento de los animals bajo
condiciones de semilibertad. Antes de la liberaci6n
fue necesario establecer medidas precautorias para
que los animals pudieran ser recapturados con
facilidad en caso de que se suscitara algun
problema.

La isla de aproximadamente 10 ha estaba poblada
por 1605 Arboles que tenian un diametro superior a
los 30 cm a la altura del pecho. Con el prop6sito de
analizar la estrategia de forrajeo de los animals, se
elabor6 un mapa vegetacional de la isla y cada
irbol file marcado con un ndmero. Los Arboles
pertenecian a 63 species, de las cuales 18 habian
sido reportadas como fuente alimenticia para
Alouatta palliata y otras 18 species pertenecian a
g6neros que eran consumidos por monos aulladores
en otros sitios de studio, por lo que esperabamos
que los animals utilizaran un alto porcentaje de
esos Arboles con fines alimenticios (Rodriguez-
Luna et al., 1993). Diversas consideraciones
ecol6gicas nos hicieron pensar que la isla podria
tener suficiente capacidad de carga para un grupo
inicial de 10 adults.

Antes de la liberaci6n del primer grupo se hizo una
nueva evaluaci6n del estado de salud de los
animals, la mayoria de los cuales mostraron
mejoria en diversos parametros clinics (Canales-
Espinosa, 1992).

El primer grupo se liber6 el 26 de octubre de 1988
y a partir de ese moment se inici6 su monitored.
El macho adulto desapareci6 a los pocos dias de la
liberaci6n y una hembra pari6 al primer mono en
la isla. el 31 de octubre de ese afio. El segundo
grupo ingres6 a la isla el 17 de abril de 1989. Al
poco tiempo los dos grupos se integraron en uno
solo (8 hembras adults, 1 macho adulto y 1
infante).

De 1988 a la fecha se han realizado diversos
studios sobre esta tropa de monos en la isla:
desplazamiento (Costello, 1991); habitos
alimenticios y patr6n diario de actividades (Serio-
Silva, 1992); distancia social (Serio-Silva y
Rodriguez-Luna, 1992); conduct durante los
primeras semanas de vida (Serio-Silva y
Rodriguez-Luna, 1992); repertorio conductual
(Carrera-Sanchez, 1993); socializaci6n y relaci6n
madre-infante (Cabrera-Rojas,1993). Actualmente
se encuentran en curso studios sobre
estrategias de forrajeo, preferencias alimenticias y
anAlisis bromatol6gicos, y comportamiento
sexual.


Neotropical Primates 2(2), June 1994


Page 2






Page 3 Neotropical Primates 2(2), June 1994


El patr6n diario de actividades y los hAbitos
alimenticios manifestados en este grupo son
similares a los reportados para otras poblaciones en
estado silvestre (Chivers, 1969; Mittermeier, 1973;
Milton, 1980; Glander, 1981; Estrada, 1984). La
alimentaci6n consiste principalmente de hojas y
frutos, explotando de manera predominante
algunos Arboles de un nimero reducido de species
(Serio-Silva, 1992). De acuerdo a la proporci6n
estacional de hojas, flores y frutos, las rutas de los
animals a lo largo de la isla varian durante el aflo.

Al principio, todo el grupo (10 animals) se movia
de manera cohesiva. Actualmente los animals (36)
tienden a forrajear en subgrupos que se fusionan y
fisionan eventualmente, explotanto distintas parties
de la isla. El nimero y composici6n de estos
subgrupos no siempre es constant. Es possible
apreciar sincronizaci6n de los animals adults
para la alimentaci6n, descanso y locomoci6n.

Desde su liberaci6n, los monos no han sido
manipulados y todos los studios que se han
desarrollado han sido de carActer observacional. No
obstante, dichos studios revelan que su
comportamiento general es similar al de
conespecificos en estado silvestre y que, en
apariencia, los monos en la isla gozan de buena
salud.

En el aspect reproductive, el grupo ha
manifestado una evoluci6n favorable a partir de su
liberaci6n en la isla. De octubre de 1988 a abril de
1994 han ocurrido 31 nacimientos, de los cuales
s6lo dos infants perecieron. Las 8 hembras adults
iniciales han sido reproductivamente activas y una
de las hembras nacida en la isla ya pari6 a su
primera cria (diciembre, 1993). En relaci6n a los
machos, el que se liber6 en el segundo grupo muri6
en diciembre de 1992. A la fecha (abril, 1994)
existen 5 machos (nacidos en la isla) que ya han
sido observados en interacciones sexuales
completes (c6pulas).

Actualmente la tropa consta de 36 animals de los
cuales, siguiendo el criterio de clasificaci6n por
edades de Glander (1980) 1 es "infante 2" (2-21
dias), 2 son "infante 3" (21-90 dias), 3 son juvenilel
1" (3-6 meses), 8 son juvenilel 2" (6-30 meses), 7
son "subadultos" (30-48 meses) (2 machos y 5
hembras) y 15 son adultso" (mas de 48 meses) (4
machos y 11 hembras).

Podemos considerar exitoso el- program piloto de
translocaci6n, debido a que los objetivos planteados
para este proyecto se han cumplido hasta el
moment. Creemos que, con la experiencia y


conocimientos obtenidos, somos capaces de
desarrollar un program de translocaci6n efectivo a
mayor escala, reduciendo al minimo los riesgos
inherentes al manejo de poblaciones silvestres de
animals.

Discusi6n: El desarrollo de este program nos ha
permitido valorar la translocaci6n como una tActica
conservacionista de gran utilidad. El rescate de
poblaciones silvestres en situaci6n de riesgo y su
posterior liberaci6n en areas ecol6gicamente
apropiadas puede parecer un proyecto interesante
para muchos conservacionistas; sin embargo, es
necesario definir con claridad los objectives de la
translocaci6n, asi como los indicadores de 6xito de
la operaci6n, antes de someter a los animals a un
plan de manejo. Cada una de las fases del
program opone diferentes dificuldades y riesgos
que es indispensable anticipar y asi evitar el
sacrificio involuntario de animals.

De acuerdo a los lineamientos propuestos en un
primer borrador, por los miembros del Grupo
Especialista en Reintroducci6n de la Comisi6n
para la Supervivencia de Especies de la Uni6n
Mundial de la Naturaleza (IUCN/SSC
Reintroduction Specialist Group, 1993), una
reintroducci6n deberA tener como meta establecer
una poblaci6n viable y libre en la naturaleza,
tratindose de species y subespecies que han sido
previamente extintas o extirpadas.

Estas reintroducciones pueden tener diferentes
fines:

1. Incrementar la sobrevivencia a largo tdrmino
de una especie.
2. Restablecer una especie clave (en un sentido
ecol6gico o cultural) dentro de un ecosistema.
3. Incrementar la biodiversidad.
4. Brindar beneficios econ6micos a largo plazo a
la economic local y/o national.
5. Promover la conciencia conservacionista.

Los objetivos 1, 2 y 5 aqui planteados,
definitivamente se correspondent con el espiritu de
nuestro program, aunque nuestros objetivos se
dirigen principalmente hacia diversos aspects
tdcnicos y de conocimiento, para evaluar la tActica.
Cabe recorder que el trabajo que nosotros
realizamos inici6 en 1986, cuando todavia existian
muchas dudas acerca de la viabilidad de este tipo
de maniobras y s6lo unos cuantos programs se
estaban desarrollando. Consideramos que nuestra
experiencia contribute al perfeccionamiento de la


Neotropical Primates 2(2), June 1994


Page 3







Neotropical Primates 2(2), June 1994 Page 4


tactica en cuanto al incremento de la sobrevivencia
a largo t6rmino de una especie, puesto que permit
el establecimiento de pautas de manejo para
poblaciones en hAbitat fragmentado, cuando no hay
alternatives para la manipulaci6n de la especie en
grandes extensions de hAbitat continue.

Los resultados de este program piloto nos hacen
optimistas para iniciar una operaci6n a gran escala
de rescate y preservaci6n de poblaciones
actualmente bajo peligro, siendo necesario planear
un siguiente paso en el que un conjunto de
poblaciones de monos pueda ser manejado en un
sistema de fragments de selva para asegurar la
permanencia de una metapoblaci6n representative
de la especie; ante la inevitable fragmentaci6n de
las selvas y la imposibilidad local para manejar
grandes extensions de hAbitat.

En este moment, el desarrollo de nuestro
program nos plantea dos cuestiones cruciales: 1)
en qu6 moment la capacidad de carga de la isla
estA siendo vencida por la poblaci6n de monos, 2)
en caso de que el nfimero de animals sea excesivo,
qu6 individuos deberAn ser removidos.

Agradecimientos: Este proyecto fue financiado por:
Secretaria de Educaci6n Piblica (PROIDES).
World Wildlife Fund (WWF Primate Action
Fund), Wildlife Preservation Trust International
(WPTI), Chicago Zoological Society (Brookfield
Zoo) y U.S.Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington,
D.C. Los autores agradecen especialmente el
financiamiento del Patronato Pro-Universidad
Veracruzana, A.C., dignamente presidido por la
Sra.Hilda Avila de O'Farrill.

Ernesto Rodriguez-Luna y Liliana Cortis-Ortiz,
Institute de Neuroetologia, Universidad
Veracruzana, Apartado Postal 566, C.P.91000,
Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico.

Referencias
Cabrera-Rojas, G. 1993. Socializaci6n y relaci6n
madre-infante del mono aullador (Alouatta
palliata, Merriam, 1902) en la isla de Agaltepec,
Catemaco, Veracruz, Mexico. Tesis professional.
Facultad de Biologia zona C6rdoba,Universidad
Veracruzana. 99pp..
Canales-Espinosa, D. 1992. Program piloto de
translocaci6n del mono aullador (Alouatta
palliata). Tesis professional. Facultad de Medicina
Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad
Veracruzana. 75pp.
Carrera-Sanchez, E. 1993. Etograma del mono
aullador (Alouatta palliata mexicana Merriam,


1902) en la isla de Agaltepec, Lago de Catemaco,
Veracruz. Tesis professional. Facultad de Biologia
zona Xalapa, Universidad Veracruzana. 105pp.
Chivers, D. 1969. On the daily behaviour and
spacing of a howler monkey group. Folia
Primatol., 10:48-102.
Costello, M.B. 1991. Troop progressions of free-
ranging howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) PhD
Dissertation. University of California, Riverside.
78pp.
Dominguez-Dominguez, L.E. (En revision). Una
aplicaci6n de las t6cnicas estadisticas
exploratorias para determinar patrons de
conduct y preferencias alimenticias en mono
aullador (Alouatta palliata) en condiciones de
cautiverio. Tesis professional. Faculdad de
Estadistica e Informatica, Universidad
Veracruzana.
Estrada, A. 1984. Resource use by howler monkeys
(Alouatta palliata) in the tropical rain forest of
Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, M6xico. Int. J.Primatol.,
5(2):105-131.
Glander, K. A. 1981. Feeding patterns in mantled
howler monkey. En: Foraging Behavior:
Ecological, Ethological and Physiological
Approaches, A. C. Kamil y T. D. Sargent
(eds.)., pp. 231-257. Gartland Press STPM, New
York.
IUCN. 1987. The IUCN Position Statement on
Translocation of Living Organisms. IUCN,
Gland, Switzerland.
IUCN/SSC Reintroduction Specialist Group. 1993.
Draft Guidelines for Re-introduction.
Unpublished manuscript. 5pp.
Konstant, W. y Mittermeier, R.A. 1982.
Introduction, reintroduction and translocation of
neotropical primates: past experiences and future
possibilities. Int. Zoo Yearbook, 22:69-76.
Mackinnon, K., Child, G. y Thorsell, J. 1986.
Managing Protected Areas in the Tropics. IUCN,
Gland, Switzerland.
Mittermeier, R.A. 1973. Group activity and
population dynamics of the howler monkeys on
Barro Colorado Island. Primates 14:1-19.
Milton, K. 1980. The Foraging Strategy of Howler
Monkeys: A Study in Primate Economics.
Colombia University press. New York.
Rodriguez-Luna, E., Fa. J.E., Garcia-Ordufia, F.,
Silva-L6pez, G. y Canales-Espinosa, D. 1987.
Primate conservation in Mexico. Primate
Conservation, (8): 114-118.
Rodriguez-Luna, E., Garcia-Ordufia, F. y Canales-
Espinosa, D. 1993. Translocaci6n del mono
aullador Alouatta palliata: una alternative
conservacionista. En: Estudios Primatol6gicos en
Mexico, Vol.1., Estrada, A., Rodriguez-Luna, E.,
L6pez-Wilchis, R. y Coates-Estrada, R. (eds.),


Neotropical Primates 2(2), June 1994


Page 4






Page 5 Neotropical Primates 2(2), June 1994


pp.129-177. Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa,
Mexico.
Rodriguez-Luna, E. y Cortes-Ortiz, L. 1993. La
translocaci6n y la reintroducci6n en el manejo y
conservaci6n de las species. Memorias del
Curso-taller "Conservaci6n de los Recursos
Naturales y Desarrollo Sustentable", pp. 155-177.
Secretaria de Desarrollo Social, Programa de las
Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo y
Universidad Juar6z Aut6noma de Tabasco,
Villahermosa, Tabasco, M6xico.
Serio-Silva, J.C. 1992. Patr6n diario de actividades
y hAbitos alimenticios de Alouatta palliata en
semilibertad. Tesis professional. Facultad de
Biologia zona C6rdoba, Universidad
Veracruzana. 66pp.
Serio-Silva, J.C. y Rodriguez-Luna, E. 1992.
Howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) behavior
during the first weeks of age. Abstracts. XIVth
Congress of the International Primatological
Society, p.345. Strasbourg, France, 16-21
August, 1992.
Serio Silva, J.C. y Rodriguez-Luna, E. 1992. Social
distance in howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata)
in a tropical rain forest fragment.
Am.J.Primatol., 27(1):58.
Villanueva-Jim6nez, E.A. 1988. Identificaci6n de


helmintos del tracto digestive del mono aullador
(Alouatta palliata) en poblaciones silvestres.
Tesis professional. Facultad de Medicina
Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad
Veracruzana. 44pp.
*Video-Tape: Capture, management and
reintroduction of howler monkeys (Alouatta
palliata), 1987. Material depositado en la
colecci6n "Audiovisual Resources in
Primatology", Wisconsin Regional Primate
Research Centre, University of Wisconsin, 1223
Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715-1299, USA.
Septiembre, 1990.


CONSERVATION DEL MONO CAPUCHINO
DE MARGARITA (CEBUS APELLA
MARGARITAE) EN LA ISLA DE
MARGARITA, VENEZUELA

Venezuela cuenta con una rica diversidad de
primates, con al menos 13 species, todas
pertenecientes a la Familia Cebidae. Las
investigaciones dedicadas al studio de este grupo
han sido escasas y aisladas, carecidndose de una
evaluaci6n seria sobre el estado actual de las
poblaciones de primates en este pais. A pesar de


1400' W 6420'W
Figura 1. Localizaci6n de las zonas montafiosas en la Isla de Margarita. l=Parque Nacional Cerro El Copey, 2=Cerro El
Tamoco y Cerro Los Micos, 3=Cerro Santa Elena, 4=Cerro Taragaplata, 5=Cerro La Valla, 6=Monumento Natural Cerro
Matasiete, 7=Monumento Natural Cerro Guayamuri, 8=Cerros de Macanao.


Neotropical Pritnates 2(2), June 1994


Page 5






Neotropical Primates 2(2), June 1994 Page 6


esta situaci6n se puede asegurar que el primate mais
amenazado de Venezuela es Cebus apella
margaritae. En este pais la especie Cebus apella
estA representada por dos subespecies: C. a. apella,
restringida al Estado Amazonas y C. a.
margaritae, end6mica de la Isla de Margarita (920
km ), la mayor de las islas caribefias venezolanas
(Bodini y Pdrez-Hernindez, 1987). La distancia
entire ambas localidades es de mAs de 800 km; esta
discontinuidad tan grande en su distribuci6n aidn
no ha sido debidamente aclarada.

Entre julio de 1989 y marzo de 1990 se realize la
unica investigaci6n existente hasta la fecha
relacionada con la subespecie insular con el fin de
evaluar su estado en la isla. El proyecto en cuesti6n
cont6 con el apoyo financiero de World Wildlife
Fund-


A trav6s de trabajos de campo y entrevistas a
lugarefios se pudo conocer que el mono capuchino
de Margarita habitat en todos los cerros de mas de
500 m de altura de la parte este de la isla (Fig. 1).
Podria decirse que ha sufrido extinciones locales ya
que anteriormente ocupaban el cerro Los Micos
pero desde hace aproximadamente 15 a 20 aflos los
campesinos no los ven por la zona.

En relaci6n al tipo de habitat utilizado, los
capuchinos margaritefios son bastante generalistas,
encontrindose desde bosques secos hasta hfmuedos,
bosques de la palma Coccothrinax barbadensis
(enddmica de la isla) y en zonas intervenidas por el
hombre.

Si bien no fue possible hacer una estimaci6n
ajustada del tamafio poblacional, se comprob6 que
efectivamente estos monos son muy escasos y


Tabla 1. Lista de las species y parties vegetables mis importantes consumidas por C.apella
margaritae. 0 = observaciones directs, R = rastros, I = informaci6n de los
lugarefios, CD = contenido digestive.


Especie
Mangifera indica (0,R.I)

Anthurium huegelii (0,R)
Philodendron acutatum (R)
A echmea fendleri (R)
Yriesea splendens (R,I)
Bursera simaruba (R)
Protium neglectum (0,R)
Cereus hexagonus (R)
Maytenus karsteni (R)
Olyra sp. (CD)
Saccharum officinarum (I)
Zea mays (0,R,I)
Mammea americana (R,I)
Clusia sp. (I,CD)
Ocotea sp. (0)
Persea americana (R,I)
Calliandra laxa (0,R)
Cecropia peltata (O,R)
Ficus nimphiifolia (R)
Ficus sp. (0,RI)
Ficus sp. (R)
Heliconia bilhai (R,I)
Psidium guajava (R,I)
Acrocomia aculeata (R)
Bactris setulosa (R)
Coccothrynax barbadensis (0,I)
Passiflora laurifolia (R)
Coccoloba latifolia (0)
Guettarda divaricata (0)
Guettarda scabra (R)
Cupania americana (R)
Manilkara zavota (R.I)


Familia
Anacardiaceae

Araceae
Araceae
Bromeliaceae
Bromeliaceae
Burseraceae
Burseraceae
Cactaceae
Celastraceae
Graminae
Graminae
Graminae
Guttiferae
Gutifferae
Lauraceae
Lauraceae
Mimosoidea
Moraceae
Moraceae
Moraceae
Moraceae
Musaceae
Myrtaceae
Palmae
Palmae
Palmae
Passifloraceae
Polygonaceae
Rubiaceae
Rubiaceae
Sapindaceae
Savotaceae


Parte Consumida
Frutos maduros e inmaduros,
medulas de los peciolos
Base foliar
M6dula, inflorescencias maduras
Base foliar
Base foliar, inflorescencia madura
M6dula
M6dula
Frutos maduros
Frutos inmaduros
Frutos
M6dula
Semillas
Frutos maduros
Frutos maduros
M6dula
Frutos maduros e inmaduros
Semillas
Mddulla de los peciolos
Frutos maduros
Frutos maduros e inmaduros
Frutos maduros
M6dula
Frutos maduros e inmaduros
Frutos maduros
M6dula
Frutos maduros, inflorescencia
Frutos maduros e inmaduros
M6dula
Frutos maduros
M6dula
M6dula
Frutos maduros e inmaduros


Neotropical Primates 2(2), June 1994


Page 6






Page 7 Neotropical Primates 2(2), June 1994


Tabla 2. Registro de insects consumidos por C. apella
mnargaritae.
Orden Familia Item
Hymenoptera Formiciidae Adultos, ninfas,
huevos
Hymenoptera Vespidae Larvas, adults
Hymenoptera Anthophoridae Adultos
Orthoptera Acridiidae Adultos
Coleoptera Scolytidae Larvas, adults
Coleoptera Scarabeidae Larvas, adults
Lepidoptera ? Orugas
Hemiptera Ligaeidae Adultos
Hemiptera Reduviidae Adultos
Isoptera ? Ninfas, adults
posiblemente la especie pueda considerarse en
estado criticc" de extinci6n, con un estimado de
solamente 250 a 300 individuos en toda la isla.
Todos los lugarefios entrevistados conincidieron en
sefialar que el tamafto poblacional ha disminuido
en las 61timas d6cadas y lo atribuyen a la elevada
presi6n de caceria a la que estAn sujetos. El tamafio
de grupo vari6 entire tres a seis individuos con un
promedio de 4,5 ind/grupo. Este valor esta muy por
debajo de lo reportado para la especie en otras
localidades, donde el tamafio de la manada
comunmente oscila entire seis y quince individuos,
pudiendo llegar hasta viente en bosques lluviosos
primaries (Klein y Klein, 1976; Izawa, 1980;
Defler, 1982; Soini, 1986). Esto puede ser
consecuencia de la existencia de habitats mas bien
secos en la isla y/o de la caceria.

La dieta estA basada principalmente en frutas e
insects y como complement m6dulas de ramas
j6venes o peciolos, bases foliares, semillas y flores
(Tablas I y 2). Durante el period de studio
utilizaron 45 species de plants pertenecientes a
24 families. De estas, Moraceae (4), Palmae (3) y
Bromeliaceae (3) presentaron el mayor nfmero de
species consumidas, incluyendo principalmente
los frutos de las dos primeras y las bases foliares de
la iltima. Es muy interesante resaltar que el uso de
bromeliiceas en C. apella s6lo habia sido
reportado por Brown et al. (1986) en el norte de
Argentina y Soini (1986) en bosques hfmedos del
Peri. Brown et al. lo consideran como una
consecuencia de la deficiencia de frutos carnosos
en los bosques. El clima predominante en
Margarita genera precipitaciones impredecibles,
escasas y muy variables de afio a afio, por lo que la
cantidad de frutos disponibles varia. Esta raz6n,
sumada a la disponibilidad continue de m6dulas
foliares y bromelias en el bosque h6medo y su
sabor mas bien dulce, podria haber inducido a la
utilizaci6n de dichos recursos.

Los principles factors que amenazan la
supervivencia de C. a. mnargaritae son la caceria y


el hAbitat reducido y fragmentado. En Margarita,
por tratarse de una isla, la poblaci6n total de la
subespecie se encuentra geogrdficamente aislada y
limitada en el nuimero mAximo que puede alcanzar.
La distribuci6n actual de C. a. margaritae esta
altamente fraccionada. Se puede considerar que
cada cerro mantiene una subpoblaci6n aislada de
las restantes, donde no hay intercambio gendtico
entire las poblaciones que habitan en cada cerro.
Esto es consecuencia de que los cerros estan
separados entire si por valles donde hoy en dia hay
pueblos, zonas agricolas o carreteras altamente
transitadas debido al acelerado crecimiento
econ6mico y urbanistico experimentado por
la Isla de Margarita a partir de la d6cada de los 70.

La caceria es consecuencia de la interacci6n de los
monos con los cultivos, y los primates son
eliminados porque son considerados plagas
agricolas por los campesinos. Los cultivos
preferidos por los monos son los de maiz, cafia de
azfcar y frutales como mangos (Mangifera indica),
nisperos (Manilkara zapota) y mamey (Mammea
americana). La presi6n de caceria no es constant
a lo largo del afto, acentuAndose con el period de
fructificaci6n de las plants cultivadas,
especialmente maiz.

Tambidn se les capture para mantenerlos como
mascotas. Afortunadamente esta prActica no estA
muy extendida y en ningfn caso comparable a la
caceria en cuanto al efecto de merma que produce
en las poblaciones naturales de monos. La elevada
presi6n de caceria podria conducir a la extinci6n de
la especie en pocos afios. En un period de nueve
meses se registraron un total de 28 animals
extraidos de su hAbitat natural. De dstos, s6lo
cuatro infants fueron capturados para mantenerlos
como mascotas.

La disminuci6n de los niveles poblacionales se
mantiene a pesar de que la disponibilidad de
hAbitat se ha incrementado en relaci6n con unas
cinco a seis d6cadas atris, debido al abandon de
los cultivos en las montafias y la subsecuente
recuperaci6n natural de los bosques. Incluso es
possible que la capacidad de carga del ambiente se
haya elevado porque perduran gran cantidad de
Arboles frutales cultivados que son consumidos por
los monos.

La convivencia entire C. a. margaritae y el hombre
blanco es la mAs antigua entire todos los primates
sudamericanos, ya que la Isla de Margarita fue uno
de los primeros asentamientos establecidos en
America. Tomando en cuenta que
aproximadamente desde el afio 1520 comenz6 la


Neotropical Primates 2(2), June 1994


Page 7






Neotropical Primates 2(2), June 1994 Page 8


intervenci6n de los ecosistemas de la isla con las
actividades agricolas, la subespecie ha demostrado
que, dada su versatilidad en el uso de los recursos y
adaptabilidad a distintos habitats, puede resistir por
much tiempo condiciones que no son las mAs
apropiadas. Esto permit ser optimista en cuanto a
la posibilidad de recuperar su tamafio poblacional a
niveles aceptables y asegurar su supervivencia.

Aunque dos de los cerros en los que habitan los
capuchinos, la serrania del Copey y el cerro
Matasiete, son Parque Nacional y Monumento
Natural respectivamente desde el afio 1974, existen
algunos factors que impiden que estas areas
protegidas cumplan su funci6n de protecci6n a la
fauna y flora en forma efectiva. La existencia de
actividad agricola dentro del Parque Nacional El
Copey, sumado a la escasa vigilancia, son
obstAculos para la eliminaci6n de la caceria. Si se
quiere tener 6xito en evitar la extinci6n de este
primate es necesario concebir un program de
conservaci6n integral que incluya trabajo con los
campesinos, informaci6n y educaci6n ambiental,
reforzamiento de la guarderia ambiental,
ampliaci6n de las areas con protecci6n legal,
realizar trabajos de investigaci6n y si se logran
buenos resultados con los planteamientos
anteriores incluso considerar la cria en cautiverio
con fines de repoblaci6n y estricto manejo de las
poblaciones silvestres.

Virginia Sanz, PROVITA, Apartado Postal 47552,
Caracas 1041-A, Venezuela y Luis Mirquez,
Calle Edison, Ed.San Diego, Apto. 6D, Caracas,
Venezuela.

Referencias
Bodini, R. and Pdrez-Hernmindez, R. 1987.
Distribution of the species and subspecies of
cebids in Venezuela. In: Studies in Neotropical
Mammalogy. Essays in Honor of Philip
Hershkovitz. B.D.Patterson y R.M.Tim (eds.),
Fieldiana (Zoology) n.s., 39:231-244.
Brown, A.D., Chalukian, S.C., Malmierca, L.M. y
Colillas, O.J. 1986. Habitat structure and feeding
behaviour of Cebus apella (Cebidae) in El Rey
National Park, Argentina. In: Current
Perspectives in Primate Social Dynamics,
D.M.Taub and F.A.King, (eds.), pp.137-151.
Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York.
Defier, T.R. 1982. A comparison of intergroup
behaviour in Cebus albifrons and Cebus apella.
Primates, 23:385-392.
Izawa, K. 1976. Group size and composition of
monkeys in the upper Amazon basin. Primates,
17(3):367-399.


Klein, L. y Klein, D. 1976. Neotropical Primates:
aspects of habitat usage, population density, and
regional distribution in La Macarena, Colombia.
In: Neotropical Primates Field Studies and
Conservation. R.W.Thorington Jr. y P.G.Heltne
(eds.), pp.35-69. National Academy of Sciences,
Washington, D.C.
Marquez, L. y Sanz, V. 1991. Evaluaci6n de la
presencia de Cebus apella margaritae (Hollister,
1914) en la Isla de Margarita. Trabajo Especial
de Grado, Universidad Central de Venezuela,
Caracas, 68 pp.
Soini, P. 1986. A synecological study of a primate
community in the Pacaya-Samiria National
Reserve, Perui. Primate Conservation, (7):63-71.


NUEVOS REGISTROS DE SAGUINUS
TRIPARTITUS EN LA AMAZONIA
ECUATORIANA

En el bosque humedo tropical de la amazonia
ecuatoriana quince species de primates han sido
registradas, de este nimero por lo menos 12,
habitan el Parque Nacional Yasuni, situado al este
de los Andes, en la baja amazonia ecuatoriana, al
sur del rio Napo (Albuja et al., 1988).

Algunas species de primates amaz6nicos son muy
poco conocidas, en lo referente a la distribuci6n y a
otros aspects biol6gicos, inclusive la taxonomia
no estA bien determinada, persistiendo los
problems de validez de las species. Una de ellas
es el chichico de manto anaranjado, S. tripartitus,
considerado por unos autores (Hershkovitz, 1977)
como subespecie de S. fuscicollis y por otros
(Emmons y Feer, 1992; Thorington, 1988), especie
vilida. Este pequefio calitrichido es uno de los
primates ecuatorianos mis hermosos; la coloraci6n
del pelaje, de la cual se deriva su nombre
especifico, se halla dividida en tres zonas bien
marcadas: la de la cabeza, negra; detris de la
cabeza, los miembros anteriores y las parties
ventrales, anaranjado brillante; y la posterior
grisaceo anaranjada.

En lo referente a la distribuci6n en la literature
consultada tembidn existen varias discrepancies,
causadas principalmente, por la falta de precision y
confusion de las localidades de colecci6n,
originadas por la costumbre que tiene la gente de
colectar estos animals y trasladarlos de un luger a
otro para mantenerlos o venderlos como mascotas.
A este particular hace referencia la publicaci6n de
Thorington (1988).


Neotropical Primates 2(2), June 1994


Page 8




Neotropical Primates 2(2), June 1994


Figura 1. Distribuici6n de Saguinus tripartitus en el Ecuador.
l=Tambococha, 2=Rio Tivacuno.

Durante un studio faunistico realizado por el autor
en el mes de noviembre de 1991, en varias
localidades dentro del Parque Nacional Yasuni
(Albuja, 1992), se registry la presencia de nueve
species de primates, una de dstas fue el chichico
de manto anaranjado, que fue observado en la
localidad de Tambococha y que el cual es objeto de
studio en el present articulo.

En las colecciones del Museo de Historia Natural
de la Escuela Politdcnica Nacional de Quito existen
dos ejemplares de esta especie: E-219 o adulto,
margen derecha del rio Napo, col. T.Mena; E-220
ojoven, sin otros datos.

La localidad Tambococha (750 35' 58" W y 000 54'
12" S, alt. 187 m, Fig.1) se encuentra situada en la
margen derecha del rio Napo, 5 km al sur de la
desembocadura del rio Tiputini en el Napo; la
localidad se halla atravesada por el rio del mismo


76W nombre, tributario del rio
Jatuncocha que a su vez,
M B I A desemboca en el Napo. El
tipo de bosque es el
Shpmedo tropical, el
relieve esta formado por
o- colinas bajas y
depresiones pantanosas
aico dando lugar a dos tipos
de formaciones vegetables:
o "terra firme" y los
... bosques inundados. La
T_ vegetaci6n es densa con
r.,,. -- n arboles que pasan los 20
o/ m de altura, en las areas
-- inundadas la vegetaci6n
esti dominada por las
palmas Ilamadas moretes
--~-- (Mauritiaflexuosa).
En los cinco dias que
dur6 el studio, se
S s- observ6 un total de 38
individuos pertenecientes
a seis grupos, con un
promedio de 6.3 por cada
PER U grupo y un rango de 4 a
10 individuos. Las horas
N ^ de observaci6n fueron en
o_ su mayor parte por la
obable mariana y tan solo un
grupo fue observado
300 kim | en la tarde. Algunos
individuos, al moment
de las observaciones se
Localidades con registros: encontraban comiendo
frutos. En el Area este
primate es el mis comim
de todas las species que alli habitan. Otros
primates con los que comparten el hAbitat son:
Cebus albifrons, Pithecia monachus, Lagothrix
lagotricha, Alouatta seniculus, Saimiri sciureus y
Cebuella pygmaea.

En base a los studios realizados en varias zonas de
la amazonia ecuatoriana por investigadores de la
Universidad Cat61lica del Ecuador y por el autor de
este articulo (de Vries et al., 1993; Albuja, 1988,
1989, 1989, 1992), se puede afirmar que esta
especie en la actualidad habitat al sur del rio Napo,
probablemente en los bosques situados entire este
rio y el Curaray, Area perteneciente al Parque
Nacional Yasuni.

Ultimamente (marzo de 1994), Richard Mufioz
(com.per.), bi6logo de la Universidad Central dle
Ecuador, observ6 tres grupos de esta especie (6 a 8


Distribuici6n pr


Page 9






Neotropical Prinates 2(2), June 1994 Page 10


individuos cada uno) en el bosque situado cerca de
la desembocadura del rio Tivacuno en el Tiputini,
es decir, al occidente de Tambococha.
En base a los studios realizados en varias zonas de
la amazonia ecuatoriana por investigadores de la
Universidad Cat6loca del Ecuador y por el autor de
este articulo (de Vries et at., 1993; Albuja et al.,
1988; Albuja, 1992a, 1992b) se puede afirmar que
esta especie en la actualidad habitat al sur del rio
Napo, probablemente en los bosques situados entire
este rio y el Curaray, Area perteneciente al Parque
Nacional Yasuni. No existen registros de esta
especie al norte del rio Napo, por lo que concuerdo
con la opinion de Thorington y ademis comparto
el criterio sobre la validez de esta especie, porque
consider que se trata de monos de mayor tamafio y
muy diferentes de S.f.lagonotus; por la coloraci6n
son facilmente diferenciables. Todos los individuos
de S.tripartitus observados en el medio natural y
dados a conocer en este trabajo poseian una
coloraci6n y forma muy similar entire si. Cabe
recalcar que las dos localidades estudiadas se
encontraron ejemplares de S.f lagonotus.

La poblaci6n de este primate aparentemente se
halla en buen estado de conservaci6n, los animals
no se muestran huidizos y soportan la presencia
humana sin presentar mayor alteraci6n en su
comportamiento. La localidad Tambococha, por
hallarse a various kil6metros de distancia de los
poblados de los rios Napo y Yasuni y por las
dificultades de acceso que present el Area debido a
las inundaciones del bosque, la caeeria por parte de
los natives quichuas y colonos es muy escasa y
afecta principalmente a los primates mas grandes
(Alouatta y Lagothrix).

El bosque del Area donde habitan estos primates se
present casi inalterado, existen pocos rastros de
intervenci6n humana, tales como las trochas y
campamentos realizados en los studios de sismica
para la prospecci6n petrolera. Sin embargo, debido
al hallazgo de petr61leo en varias zonas de este
sector amaz6nico, existe una inminente amenaza a
la vida y estabilidad de las poblaciones de esta
interesante especie, asi como tambi6n al rest de
species de este ecosistema, por efecto de los
impacts que ocasiona la explotaci6n petrolera,
especialmente por la construcci6n de la carretera
Pompeya-Iro, en plena ejecuci6n.

Se recomienda efectuar studios mas profundos
para complementary y actualizar la informaci6n
existente relacionada con la distribuci6n; puesto
que, si su distribuci6n se restringe a una pequefia


Area de bosque de la amazonia ecuatoriana, esta
especie estaria gravemente amenazada.
Luis Albuja V., Escuela Polit6cnica Nacional,
Apartado 2759, Quito, Ecuador.

Referencias
Albuja, L. 1992a. Fauna de vertebrados de la
Reserva de Producci6n Faunistica Cuyabeno, pp.
95-132. Informe Inedito.
Albuja, L. 1992b. Estudios de fauna de vertebrados
para la evaluaci6n de los impacts ambientales
en el proyecto Pafiacocha-Tiputini. Mamiferos,
pp. 67-110. Informe Inedito.
Albuja, L., Gallo, N., Cer6n, C. y Mena, P. 1988.
Prospecci6n del recurso flora y fauna del Parque
Nacional Yasuni. Informe Inedito. 60 pp.
De Vries, T., Campos, F., de la Torre, S., Asanza,
E., Sosa, A. y Rodriguez, F. 1993. Investigaci6n
y conservaci6n de la Reserva de Producci6n
Faunistica Cuyabeno. En: La Investigaci6n para
la Conservaci6n de la Diversidad Biol6gica en el
Ecuador. P.A. Mena y L. SuArez (eds.).
Ecociencia, Quito.
Emmons, L. y Feer, F. 1992. Neotropical
Rainforest Mammals. The University of Chicago
Press, Chicago. 281pp.
Hershkovitz, P. 1977. Living New World Monkeys
(Platyrrhini), Vol.1, with an Introduction to the
Primates. The University of Chicago Press,
Chicago.
Thorington, R. W., Jr. 1988. Taxonomic status of
Saguinus tripartitus (Milne-Edwards, 1878).
Am.J. Primatol., 15:367-371.


PARASITIC INFECTION IN RED HOWLING
MONKEYS IN FOREST FRAGMENTS

Red howling monkeys, Alouatta seniculus, in the
central Amazonian basin persist in forest
fragments resulting from deforestation which can
be as small as 10 ha. The highly arboreal howler
monkeys stay in the mid- to upper levels of the
forest and rarely travel out of the fragments into
secondary growth. Thus, they remain functionally
isolated in the fragments, unlike the sympatric
golden-handed tamarins, Saguinus midas, which
travel through low secondary growth.

In a study of the effects of habitat fragmentation on
red howling monkeys, I focused on the relationship
between primate density and endoparasitic
infection. Stuart et al. (1990) showed that the
prevalence of endoparasitic infections was higher
in Alouatta palliata populations occurring at
higher densities. With crowding in a restricted


Neotropical Primates 2(2), June 1994


Page 10






Page 11 Neotropical Primates 2(2), June 1994


area, there are greater opportunities for
transmission of infectious ova and larvae. I
predicted that the prevalence of infection would be
higher in groups in smaller forest fragments, since
the probability of infection and reinfection and that
of coming into contact with contaminated fecal
material would be greater due to increased host
density.

I carried out this study for fourteen months in
upland terra fire forest in the reserves of the
"Projeto Dinfimica Biol6gica de Fragmentos
Florestais" (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da
Amaz8nia/Smithsonian Institution), about 80 km
north of Manaus, Brazil. I worked with thirteen red
howling monkey groups in three isolated 10 ha
fragments, two isolated 100 ha fragments and in
continuous forest. Group size was found to be
similar between reserves of different sizes (mean =
6.07, range 4-8 individuals). However, the overall
density of howlers and other primate species was
considerably higher in the 10 ha reserves than in
the 100 ha fragments or continuous forest (Table
1).

To determine the prevalence of parasitic infection,
I collected fecal samples (N=217) from identified
individuals and examined them for the presence of
parasites. Overall, 37% of the samples contained
parasitic ova of eight helminth species. The
parasites found also included four nematodes, two
trematodes, one cestode and one acanthocephalan.
This is the first finding of an acanthocephalan in a
wild howling monkey. The most frequently
recorded ova were those of nematodes and
trematodes.

Parasitic infection and primate density were
positively correlated. The number of samples with
parasites present per reserve increased with the
density of red howling monkeys (r=0.79, p<0.05).
Samples from the 10 ha reserve monkeys had the
greatest number of parasites, followed by the
continuous forest, and those from the 100 ha
reserves had the lowest (Table 1). An even stronger

Table 1. Primate density and percentage of red
present. N = No. of fecal samples analyze


positive correlation existed between the percentage
of samples with parasites present and the total
primate density per reserve (r=0.88, p<0.01).
Again, the 10 ha reserves with the highest number
of primates had the highest number of samples
with parasites, while the 100 ha reserves, with the
lowest primate densities, had the lowest number of
samples with parasites. The same pattern resulted
when primate density excluding howling monkeys
was considered (r=0.09, p<0.005).

These results indicate that the higher the number
of red howling monkeys, and of all primates, in a
small isolated reserve, the greater the incidence of
endoparasitic infection. However, Stuart et al.
(1993), working with wild muriquis (Brachyteles
arachnoides), in the highly fragmented
southeastern Atlantic forest of Brazil, found that
the prevalence of endoparasitic infection was not
positively related to muriqui density. Fecal samples
from brown howling monkeys occurring
sympatrically with the muriquis contained no ova
or larvae. They suggest that differences in
vegetation, climate, and the level of disturbance
among sites may explain their results. The smaller
isolated reserves of the present study, resulting in
inflated host densities, crowding, and the use and
reuse of areas contaminated with infectious ova
and larvae may contribute to the higher prevalence
of endoparasitic infection in red howling monkeys
in 10 ha fragments.

I am grateful to the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas
da Amaz6nia (INPA), Manaus, for permission to
carry out this research, and to the "Projeto
Dinamica Biol6gica de Fragmentos Florestais"
(Smithsonian Institution/INPA) for logistical
support.
Kellen A. Gilbert, Department of Anthropology,
Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey
08903, USA.

References
Stuart, M.D., Greenspan, L.L., Glander, K.E. and

howling monkey fecal samples with parasites


Reserve Size Howler Total Primate No.Sympatric N % with
ha -Density Density Species Parasites
ind/km2 ind/km2
10 120 270 3 33 60.0
10 50 120 3 22 42.9
10 70 130 2 26 29.2
100 18 42 3 42 29.6
100 20 36 3 28 21.2
10000+ 23 61 6 66 38.1


Neotropical Primates 2(2), June 1994


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Neotropical Primates 2(2,), June 1994 Page 12


Clarke, M.R. 1990. A coprological survey of
parasites of wild mantled howling monkeys,
Alouatta palliata palliata. J.Wild.Dis., 26:547-
549.
Stuart, M.D., Strier, K.B. and Pierberg, S.M. 1993.
A coprological survey of parasites of wild
muriquis, Brachyteles arachnoides, and brown
howling monkeys, Alouatta fusca.
J.Helminthol.Soc. Wash., 60:111-115.


FOURTEEN NEW LOCALITIES FOR THE
MURIQUI BRACHYTELESARACHNOIDES

The woolly spider-monkey or muriqui, Brachyteles
arachnoides, is an endangered species endemic to
the Atlantic forest of southeastern Brazil. Its
biology and distribution have been reviewed by
Strier (1992), Mittermeier et al. (1987), and
Mendes and Chiarello (1993). According to
Coimbra-Filho et al. (1993), fewer than 2,000
individuals are believed to exist, distributed among
15 widely scattered localities. However, in this
paper we report the discovery of another 14
localities where muriquis, locally known as "mono-
carvoeiro", are known to occur in the states of Sao
Paulo, Parand and Rio de Janeiro. This work is the
result of several years of biological inventories, and
part of a broader effort by the Instituto Florestal de
Sao Paulo to gain a better knowledge of the native
fauna and to elaborate sound strategies for its
conservation.

Sao Paulo
The Ilha do Cardoso State Park (PEIC) is located
on the southern coast (around 25 03'S, 470 53'W).
This 14,000 ha park is covered by Atlantic forest
from see level to 950 m. In April 1989, four adult
muriquis were observed in tall (25-30 m) forest
(altitude 180 m) near the Pico dos Tres IrmAos.
Later, in January 1991, two individuals were seen
sunning themselves on a large emergent tree by the
side of the Pico do Cardoso (altitude 600 m). This
record represents the first population to be found
on an island. The known population is four
individuals in one group. A systematic study of the
island's fauna was conducted over four years,
starting in 1989, and this small troop was the only
one known to exist. Since 1991 no further record
or sign of these monkeys has been found, and it is
known that at least two of them were killed by
local inhabitants. This population is probably
extinct.

The Alto Ribeira State Park (PETAR) of 35,000 ha
is located in the karst region of the Serra de


Paranapiacaba massif (around 240 25'S, 480
35'W), and is mostly covered by middle (from 100
m altitude) to high (up to 1,000 m altitude)
elevation Atlantic forest. In November 1989, two
muriquis, an adult female and a three-month old
male, were captured by poachers at Bairro da
Serra, municipality of Iporanga. The male was sent
to the Rio de Janeiro Primate Center
(CPRJ/FEEMA) (see Coimbra-Filho et al., 1993).
In April 1990, 12 muriquis, including at least one
infant and two juveniles, were observed at
Caboclos valley, at an altitude of 400 m. The forest
there is dominated by 20-30 m tall trees with few
emergents, and a dense undergrowth with many
lianas and epiphytes. Local people informed us of
other groups, and it seems likely that there are at
least three, or about 25 individuals, in the Park.

The Serra do Mar State Park (Nftcleo Mongagud)
is located on the coast of Sao Paulo (around 230
55'S, 40 00'W). It has an area of 30,000 ha with
altitudes ranging from 100 to 800 m. In May 1982,
two adult monkeys were observed at 200 m at
Morro do Chap6u. According to locals, three
individuals were killed in 1980 at the same site.
We also found a purse which had been made from
the skin of a muriqui. The minimum estimated
population for this Park is one group, with two
individuals.

The Serra do Mar State Park (Nu2cleo Curucutu) is
located in the Serra do Mar massif (around 230
47'S, 460 25'W). This Park has an area of 23,697
ha, with altitudes ranging from 200 to 800 m above
sea level. In 1991, two muriquis were observed by
C. Coelho Jr, a biologist carrying out a faunal
inventory in the area. The animals were seen in a
forest at 600 m altitude, near the source of the Rio
Cubatao. The minimum estimated population is
one group with two individuals.

The Serra do Mar State Park (NXicleo Pedro de
Toledo/Itariri), on the central coast of Sao Paulo
(240 10'S, 470 07'W), has an area of 10,323 ha,
with altitudes from 100 to 500 m above sea level.
In July 1988, four Brachyteles were observed in
dense Atlantic forest at an altitude of 400 m near
Engenheiro Ferraz, a railway station between Slo
Vicente and Paralheiros. The Guarani indians who
live in the reserve are known to hunt monkeys in
this locality as well as the nearby indian settlement
of Bananal. Minimum estimated population is one
group with five individuals.

The Jurupard State Park is located in the Serra de
Paranapiacaba massif. This 26,300 ha reserve is
covered by middle to high elevation Atlantic forest.


Neotropical Primates 2(2), June 1994


Page 12










Minas Gerais .......... Rio de
Janeiro
BRAZIL b
S / .-.- ., ... ..... ...
South 3 a ,
America 2fs
Sao Paulo



6

13, 12 N.
11 *
10
Atlantic Ocean

14 25S-
Parana
0 60 120 180 km
ESCALA

49mW 45'W
Figure 1. Map showing known (squares) and new (circles) localities for the muriqui between Rio de Janeiro
and Parana. I=APA Cairuqu, 2=Bocaina, 3=Sao Francisco Xavier, 4=Mongagua, 5=Curucutu, 6=Jurupard,
7=Pedro de Toledo/Itariri, 8=Itatins, 9=Ilha do Cardoso, 10=Jacupiranga, ll=Alto Ribeira, 12=Fazenda
Intervales, 13=Jaguariaiva, 14=Guaraqueqaba, a= Cunha, b=Barreiro Rico, c=Carlos Botelho, d=Jur6ia.


In July 1990, five adult monkeys were observed at
an altitude of 400 m at Morro dos Souzas.
Minimum estimated population is one group with
five individuals.

Sao Francisco Xavier, in the Serra da Mantiqueira
massif (around 220 57'S, 450 30'W), on the border
with the state of Minas Gerais, is a privately-owned
forest of about 5,500 ha, with altitudes ranging
from 800 to 2,000 m. A group of 12 muriquis,
including two infants, was photographed by Luiz
Alberto Antonietto in April 1991. Later, on May
28 1994, one adult female and a subadult
were seen feeding on Inga fruits (altitude
1,100 m). The minimum population is 12
individuals.

The Jurgia-Itatins Ecological Station (Jurdia
massif). This area, with mountain ranges reaching
altitudes of 800 m, is located on the southern coast
of Sao Paulo (240 30'S, 470 15'W). The first
records of muriquis from the massif were made by
Carlos Eduardo Dias Camargo in 1982, and
Cecilia Torres de Assumpgdo in 1985. In January
1986, eight individuals were observed in the Rio
Verde valley at an altitude of 100. m. After 1989,
several further sightings were made by the


Reserve's staff, and the numbers seen varied from
four to eight (Fausto Pires de Campos, pers.
comm.). The estimated population is one group
with eight individuals.

Jurdia-Itatins Ecological Station (Itatins massif).
This mountain range is isolated both from the
Serra do Mar and the Jurdia ranges by about 40 km
of lowland, swampy forest. Its highest peak reaches
1,350 m. In September 1990 two infant muriquis
were captured by poachers in the area, and were
subsequently sent to Sao Paulo Zoo. During a
survey in this area in December 1993, we saw
signs indicating the presence of muriquis, such as
ripped-off palm leaves.

Fazenda Intervales. This well-known reserve in a
ranch in the Serra de Paranapiacaba massif (240
11'S, 480 23'W), has an area of 38,000 ha
comprised principally of low (60 m altitude) to
high (1,100 m) elevation Atlantic forest. A
systematic study of the ecology and behavior of a
group of 24 muriquis in the Carmo valley (altitude
600m) has been underway since July 1989 (Petroni,
1993). The forest is dominated by 20-25 m tall
trees with few emergents and a dense undergrowth
of giant bamboo and lianas. Surveys conducted


Neotropical Primates 2(2), June 1994


Page 13






Neotropical Primates 2(2,), June 1994 Page 14


throughout the reserve have indicated a minimum
of ten groups, with a total of 240 individuals.

Jacupiranga State Park. This large 150,000 ha
reserve is located in southern Sio Paulo (25 00'S,
480 20'W). Altitudes range from sea level to 1,250
m. In March 1992, three adult muriquis were
observed in tall (20 m) forest at 250 m altitude
near Caverna do Diabo. At Barra do Turvo, near
the ParanA border, muriquis are systematically
killed by local inhabitants. In February 1994, a
young female was captured by poachers and was
being held as a pet near Caverna do Diabo. A
minimum of three groups are known to occur in
the Park.

Rio de Janeiro
The Bocaina National Park (PNB) is located on the
southern coast of Rio de Janeiro (220 50'S, 440
15'W). It has an area 120,000 ha, with altitudes
ranging from sea level to 2,132 m. The forested
region is mainly along the coast. In July 1991 we
found some bones and one skull of Brachyteles in
the home of a poacher in the village of Patrimonio,
around 400 m above sea level. According to locals,
two muriquis were killed in the forest near Ponta
da Trindade. These two localities are close to the
southern border of the Park, at the limits between
Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo.

The Cairugu Environmental Protection Area (APA
Cairuqu) is close to the border between Rio de
Janeiro and Sao Paulo, and only 30 km from the
Serra da Bocaina. It includes a 10,000 ha forest
reserve ranging from sea level to an altitude of 600
m. Local inhabitants claim that the area holds a
sizeable population of muriquis. Five monkeys
were killed by local people in October 1990 near
the Cairuqu peak. In Indian language "cairugu"
means "large monkey".

Parana
Jaguariaiva. This locality is on private land, on the
northern coast of ParanA (near 240 15'S, 490
30'W). A partial skeleton and a broken skull were
found in a poacher's home in September 1993.
According to local people, two young muriquis
were sold to animal traffickers in January 1993.
Monkeys are systematically hunted for food in this
area.

The Guaraqueqaba Environmental Protection
Area (APA Guaraquegaba). On the Serra do Mar
massif of ParanA (25 05'S, 480 10'W) near the
border with So Paulo, this 80,000 ha reserve
ranges from sea-level to 1,100 m. In August 1992,


15 km from the Jacupiranga State Park, we
observed two muriquis at an altitude of 800 m,
close to the Morro Tres Pont6es, in the Serra da
Virgem Maria. Minimum estimated population is
one group with two individuals.

All the muriquis reported here were black-faced,
belonging to the subspecies B.a.arachnoides (see
Coimbra-Filho et al., 1993). The records from
Parana represent the first for the state and extend
the species' known distribution to the south. The
Rio de Janeiro records are important in that they
represent the only confirmed existing populations
for the state. However, interviews with locals in the
areas of Mambucaba and Parati, near Angra dos
Reis, also indicate that the species is well-known,
and further research is required. An individual in
the colony of the Rio de Janeiro Primate Center
(CPRJ/FEEMA) may have come from Parati
(Coimbra-Filho et al., 1993). Records from Sao
Paulo are interesting for a number of reasons. Most
come from areas which are already protected by
law (although this has meant little for some of
them). Some of the areas are very close to each
other and may hold continuous populations. The
large forest tract represented by the Alto Ribeira
Park, Fazenda Intervales, and the Carlos Botelho
State Park (see Mittermeier et al., 1987) probably
hold the largest extant population of the species,
and is the most promising area for its long-term
survival. There is the possibility of enlarging this
already large protected area through the addition of
privately-owned areas: the Aliperti Ranch, with
35,000 ha of mostly low to medium altitude
primary forest adjacent to the southern border of
Intervales, and a pool of eight ranches in the
municipalities of Pilar do Sul and Sao Miguel
Arcanjo, close to Carlos Botelho, and totalling
20,000 ha. This could result in a continuous
reserved area of 180,000 ha.

The Sao Francisco Xavier population deserves
further study being the only one known from the
southern Serra da Mantiqueira, an area of different
climate and vegetation, including as it does
Araucaria forest, to the coastal massifs. The
muriquis observed at this locality evidently belong
to the nominal subspecies (black-faced), as is so for
others collected along the Serra da Mantiqueira
north to the Serra dos Orgaos (Rio de Janeiro)
(Coimbra-Filho et al., 1993; Lemos de SA et al.,
1993). If the Serra da Mantiqueira is a barrier
between the southern (nominal) and northern
(B.a.hypoxanthus) subspecies, it is probably due to
vegetational changes at higher elevations and on
the western side of the mountains. Muriquis are
well-known at Sao Francisco Xavier on the eastern


Neotropical Primates 2(2), June 1994


Page 14





Neotropical Primates 2(2), June 1994


side, but reportedly absent on the western side
where Araucaria and Podocarpus forest occur.

The state of Sao Paulo holds the largest remaining
area of Atlantic forest, and by far the largest
population of muriquis, with 60% of the known
localities. Most existing reserves are larger than
15,000-20,000 ha, and theoretically large enough
to hold viable populations of the species.
Nevertheless, habitat fragmentation is leading to
the isolation of these populations, due to the
building of roads crossing the reserves, large areas
degraded by human activities, and natural barriers.
Today, there are few reserves with continuous
forest larger than 10,000 ha. With the protection of
biodiversity as a priority, the Instituto Florestal de
Sao Paulo (IF) has begun efforts to protect their
long-neglected reserves, and to create new ones in
areas with significant species diversity.

The fourteen localities almost double the number of
area where Brachyteles is known to survive. A
minimum of 23 groups and 303 individuals must
be added to the estimate of Mittermeier et al.
(1987). Although we have more than doubled the
known population, the situation has proved to be
alarming. Most parks have serious problems with
poachers and squatters. For example, Jacupiranga
has had its forest area largely destroyed, with less
than 30,000 ha remaining of its original 150,000
ha, with an estimated 5,000 families living inside
the Park, even in close to proximity to the
headquarters. In the short-term, poaching is the
single most important factor contributing to the
species' decline, as can be seen in the accounts of
the localities reported here. Brachyteles is a "k-
strategist", a slow-growing and slow-maturing
species (Milton, 1986; Petroni, 1993), and easily
overexploited by hunters. Coupling this with the
fact that muriqui meat is a favored food for
"traditional" inhabitants (locally called "caboclos"
and "caigaras") living in or around the reserves, it
is easy to see that the problems are serious (most of
our records are of animals killed for food). The
monkeys from the Ilha do Cardoso were eaten to
extinction by the local caigaras, one of whom
reported killing 15 muriquis in the Jurdia
Ecological Station over the last few years.

The recent trend, widely adopted by
anthropologists, sociologists, and politicians, that
views "traditional" communities as living in
harmony with the natural environment, that they
are an integral part of it, and therefore, should be
allowed to live in parks and reserves, has taken a
hold even within official agencies. Such an
unfortunate policy has already produced disastrous


results in several reserves and is one of the greatest
threats for the conservation not only of muriquis,
but of all that remains of the Atlantic forest.

Acknowledgements: We thank Clemente Coelho
Junior, Luiz Alberto Antonietto, and Fausto Pires
de Campos for their help during data gathering and
the writing of this manuscript.

Paulo Martuscelli, Instituto Florestal de Sao
Paulo, Caixa Postal 194, Peruibe, 11750-970 Sao
Paulo, Brazil, Liege Mariel Petroni, Instituto de
Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa
Postal 20520, Sao Paulo, 01452-990 Sao Paulo,
Brazil, and Fibio Olmos, Parque Estadual de
Ilhabela, Rua Morro da Cruz 608, Ilhabela, 11630-
000 Sao Paulo, Brazil.

References

Coimbra-Filho, A.F., Pissinatti, A. and Rylands,
A.B. 1993. Breeding muriquis Brachyteles
arachnoides in captivity: the experience of the
Rio de Janeiro Primate Centre (CPRJ-FEEMA).
Dodo, J. Wildl. Preserve. Trusts, 29:66-77.
Lemos de SA. R.M., Pope, T.R., Struhsaker, T.T.
and Glander, K.E. 1993. Sexual dimorphism in
canine length of woolly spider monkeys
(Brachyteles arachnoides, E.Geoffroy 1806).
Int.J.Primatol., 14(5):755-763.
Mendes, S.L. and Chiarello, A.G. 1993. A
proposal for the conservation of the muriqui in
the state of Espirito Santo, southern Brazil.
Neotropical Primates, 1(3):2-4.
Milton, K. 1986. Ecological background and
conservation priorities for the woolly spider-
monkeys (Brachyteles arachnoides). In:
Primates: The Road to Self-Sustaining
Populations, K. Bernirscke, (ed.), pp.241-250.
Springer Verlag, New York.
Mittermeier, R.A., Valle, C.M.C., Santos, I.B.,
Pinto, C.A.M., Strier, K.B., Young, A.L., Veado,
E.M., Constable, 1.0., Paccagnella, S.G. and
Lemos, de SA, R.M. 1987. Current distribution of
the muriqui in the Atlantic forest region of
northeastern Brazil. Primate Conservation,
(8):143-149.
Petroni, L.M. 1993. Aspectos da ecologia e
comportamento do mono-carvoeiro (Brachyteles
arachnoides E.Geoffroy, 1806 Cebidae,
Primates) na Fazenda Intervales, Serra da
Paranapiacaba, Sao Paulo. Unpublished Master's
thesis, Pontificia Universidade Cat6lica do Rio
Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre.
Strier, K.B. 1992. Faces in the Forest: The
Endangered Muriqui Monkeys of Brazil. Oxford
University Press, New York.


Page 15






Neotropical Primates 2(2), June 1994 Page 16


JAGUAR PREDATION ON
BRACHYTELES ARACHNOIDES


MURIQUI


So far, no natural enemy, apart from man, has been
recorded for the muriqui, Brachyteles arachnoides.
However, the species' defensive behavior suggests
it is not free from predation, the lack of records
being due to a lack of studies in areas where both
muriquis and predators, such as big cats and
raptors, co-exist (Galetti, in press). One such area
is the Fazenda Intervales (for a site description see
Olmos, 1991), where there is both a sizeable
muriqui population (Martuscelli and Petroni, 1994)
and some of the last living jaguars (Panthera onca)
in the Atlantic forest domain.

On 1 November 1989, while conducting a bird
survey near the Saibadela research base in an area
of primary forest at an altitude of 65 m, I found a
dried jaguar scat (recognizable by general
appearance and size) composed almost entirely of
the soft, pale golden hairs of a muriqui, along with
a few bone fragments. This is the first record of a
jaguar feeding on a muriqui.

Although the monkey could have been scavenged, I
believe that predation is more likely. Wardens at
Intervales report that jaguars feed on muriquis, and
the marked mobbing behavior displayed by the
monkeys in the presence of a jaguar suggest that
they recognize it as a threat, and predation may
even occur during such encounters (Galetti, in
press, pers. comm.), or when the monkeys descend
to the ground for drinking.

Popular tradition has it that the jaguar is fond of
monkey flesh (Santos, 1984) but the only accounts
qualifying this are given by Schaller (1983), who
reported predation on Aotus and Alouatta caraya
in the Brazilian Pantanal, and Emmons (1987)
who found one Ateles paniscus among 40 prey
items in the diet of jaguars in the Peruvian
Amazon. The paucity of data on neotropical big
cats does not permit speculation on their impact on
primate populations.

Fibio Olmos, Parque Estadual de Ilhabela, Rua
Morro da Cruz 608, Ilhabela, 11630-000 Slo
Paulo, Brazil.

References

Emmons, L. 1987. Comparative feeding ecology of
felids in a Neotropical forest. Behav. Ecol.
Sociobiol., 20: 271-283


Galetti, M. (in press). Comportamentos
antipredat6rios de quatro esp6cies de primatas no
sudeste do Brasil. Rev. Brasil. Biol.
Martuscelli, P. and Petroni, L.M. 1994. Fourteen
new localities for the. muriqui Brachyteles
arachnoides. Neotropical Primates, 2(2):12-15.
Olmos, F. 1991. Observations on the behaviour and
population dynamics of some Brazilian Atlantic
forest rodents. Mammalia, 55(4):555-565.
Santos, E. 1984. Entro o Gambd e o Macaco: Vida
e Costumes dos Mamiferos do Brasil. Editora
Itatiaia, Belo Horizonte. 287pp.


MURIQUI CONSERVATION: THE URGENT
NEED OF AN INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT
PLAN

The Need of a Plan: In previous numbers of this
newsletter, Sdrgio Mendes and Adriano Chiarello
(vol. 1, no. 2) and Karen Strier (vol. 1, no.3)
revived an important issue: the necessity of human
interference for the long term conservation of the
muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides). Two
conflicting considerations can be drawn from the
two articles. The first is the urgent need of action.
The species is known to occur today in a few
fragments of the once widespread Brazilian
Atlantic Forest. Many of these fragments are
located within privately owned areas, or in official
reserves that are in need of better protection.
Mendes & Chiarello suggested that, at least in the
case of the state of Espirito Santo, muriquis from
small private forests should be translocated to
larger protected reserves with low population
densities.

The second consideration is the need of scientific
data to diminish costs and risks of conservation
measures. For Mendes and Chiarello,
translocations should be preceded by the
confirmation of the size and composition of
remaining groups, and accompanied by the
acquisition of genetic and morphological data.
Strier suggested that systematic studies on the
ecology and demography of the involved
populations should also be conducted for three
years before and after translocations.

The suggested accompanying studies illustrate how
measures cannot to be taken in isolation, and in
both articles it is implicit that translocations would
help us develop a long term management plan for
Brachyteles. I agree on the urgent necessity of both
translocations and a management plan, but in my
opinion the latter should be our most immediate
goal at the moment. There are many management


Neotropical Primates 2(2),- June 1994


Page 16






Page 17 Neotropical Primates 2(2), June 1994


options to be considered, each one representing
different interrelated problems, and requiring
different sets of data (Strier, 1992). An efficient
plan should integrate how much we already know
about muriquis and the different management
options, "and also what relevant data are still
unavailable. Option priorities could then, be
established, and isolated measures could be put in a
more comprehensive and pragmatic perspective.

The idea of an integrated plan for muriqui
management is not new. Cdlio Valle, pioneer
muriqui researcher and conservationist, has been
informally proposing it for a few years now. In
part, Cdlio's ideas never took off because muriqui
ecology and behavior has only been the subject of
intensive field research within the past decade.
Decisions depending on the knowledge of the
natural habits of the species were hindered by lack
of data. On the other hand, Brachyteles has quickly
become one of the most studied Brazilian primates
(Bernardes et al., 1988).

Integrating Available Information: Decisions
concerning translocations of muriquis to new areas
illustrate the need of an integrated plan. The
success of such measures will depend on the
impact they have on both source and target
populations, and on the chances translocated
individuals will have to survive and reproduce.
Accompanying studies (Mendes & Chiarello, 1994;
Strier, 1994) can help in our attempts to predict
and measure this success, but only if their results
are evaluated in a comparative perspective.

Previous research on muriqui feeding behavior and
socioecology (i.e., Milton, 1984; Fonseca, 1985;
Strier, 1991; Rimoli, 1994), and on demography
(i.e., Milton & de Lucca, 1984; Lemos de SA, 1991;
Paccagnella, 1991; Strier et al., 1993) are therefore
of great importance. This research can indicate
relevant parameters to be quantified during
accompanying studies, and serve as sources of
comparative data. In this way, we can better
evaluate the proximate causes of different
population densities at different sites, and their
suitability as source and target areas for
translocation.

Muriquis subjected to management action will not
only face new ecological constraints, but new social
environments as well. Data on muriqui social
relationships (i.e., Mendes, 1990; Strier, 1992b;
Rimoli, 1993) should also be considered whenever
we are to form or. break social groups. Males, for
instance, remain in their natal group throughout
their life, and establish hierarchical relationships


based on strong affiliative bonds, rather than
dominance hierarchies based on agonistic
interactions (Mendes, 1990). They are otherwise
intolerant of males from other groups. Intergroup
male interactions are generally restricted to
disputes associated with the monopolization of
estrous females and large food sources (Strier et
al., 1993). Males left with little or no allies of the
same sex may reach very low rates of reproductive
success, depending on the level of intrasexual
competition they will face. Likewise, the
establishment of captive groups containing
unfamiliar males may be hindered by their lack of
predisposition to form affiliative bonds.

Results of previous muriqui research can provide
scientific support for decisions on how to conduct
specific measures for conservation. Other decisions
will require further data, since there are many
aspects of muriqui ecology and behavior that are
still poorly understood. Assessing how much we
know, and what we should learn through field
research is an immediate necessity.

Priorities: As Mendes and Chiarello and Strier
point out, capturing and moving individuals will
represent costs as well as risks. Acquired funds
should therefore be carefully allocated so that areas
and populations in greater need of action are not
given low priorities. The necessity, risks, and costs
of translocations should also be weighted in
relation to those of other measures, such as the
creation and development of captive breeding
programs, and the protection of legal and private
reserves.

Setting priorities immediately is hindered by the
lack of at least two relevant sets of data: the exact
number and location of muriquis remaining in the
wild; and the extent of deleterious effects of
inbreeding in present populations. New muriqui
groups are still being discovered, as illustrated by
Mendes and Chiarello's survey of Brachyteles in
the state of Espirito. Santo, and the report by
Martuscelli and Petroni (1994) for Sao Paulo, Rio
de Janeiro, and Parana. Estimates of the total
population and the degree of inbreeding at known
sites remain largely speculative. At the Caratinga
Biological Station, for example, earlier suggestions
of inbreeding depression were offset by the
observed high rate of population growth and low
rates of infant mortality in the past 11 years (Strier
et al., 1993).

A better picture of the current distribution of
Brachyteles, and the degree of inbreeding
depression at different sites, will certainly help us


Page 17


Neolropical Primates 2(2), June 1994






Neotropical Primates 2(2), June 1994 Page 18


to decide on priorities, and to evaluate the role
different types of reserves could play. Protecting
large official reserves is of obvious importance.
Besides their overall greater biodiversity, they may
hold large viable muriqui populations that may
need little or no human interference in the short
term.

Small private reserves may have, on the other
hand, a complementary role in the preservation of
Brachyteles. There are very few large areas of
Atlantic Forest that are both demarcated as official
reserves and efficiently protected, and each has a
limited carrying capacity. Despite the recent
progress at the Rio de Janeiro Primate Center,
captive individuals have yet to reach the two digits
mark. Each privately owned forest currently
containing muriquis thus represents a valuable
summation of genetic material, which can be
stocked now for future action. Besides, measures
may be used to enhance genetic diversity at
relatively small sites as well as larger ones (Strier,
1992), augmenting the total number of viable
populations and individuals.

Most of what we know of muriqui natural habits
comes from one private reserve, the Caratinga
Biological Station. This site, .along with larger
areas now being studied (e.g., Carlos Botelho State
Park and Fazenda Intervales, both in Sao Paulo)
are also important for the continuation of research
and the acquisition of comparative data. In Carlos
Botelho, for instance, two years of trail cutting and
habituation were necessary before systematic data
began to be collected (Oswaldo Carvalho Jr., pers.
comm.). Establishing further field sites for muriqui
research is important but also time consuming, and
the already productive field sites should be
respected for their potential as guaranteed sources
of rapid data acquisition.

Perspectives: Other plans for preserving wild
primate populations demonstrate the complexity of
management action. The reintroduction program of
the golden lion tamarin, for instance, was
accompanied by prior and follow-up studies of the
behavior and ecology of captive and wild groups, a
carefully designed environmental awareness
campaign, and the reinforcement of the protection
of the Pogo das Antas Biological Reserve (Dietz et
al., 1986). Even then, unpredicted factors, such as
the need to train groups to locomote on flexible
supports and to search for food through
micromanipulation, prior to release into the wild,
delayed the success of the project. For
Leontopithecus, the effect of this delay was


counterbalanced by an extensive and successful
captive breeding program.

Muriquis have slow rates of infant development,
take approximately six years to mature, and
mothers give birth to a single infant every two
years at best (Strier, 1992). Success in captive
breeding is beginning to be achieved for the first
time at the Rio de Janeiro Primate Center
(Coimbra-Filho et al., 1993, 1994), but the
establishment of a viable captive genetic bank
could be a matter of many years. There is little
room for trial and error, or the misplacement of
priorities. Saving Brachyteles requires a thoughtful
and scientifically sound plan.

Karen Strier is currently organizing a symposium
on field studies of muriqui ecology and behavior, to
be held at the VIth Congress of the Brazilian
Primatological Society in July, 1994. Each
researcher will summarize his/her objectives and
results, and their significance to the conservation
and management of Brachyteles. Likewise, the
IUCN/SSC Captive Breeding Specialist Group is
planning a Population and Habitat Viability
Analysis (PHVA) workshop for early 1995. The
symposium and workshop will tell us how much
we know and what we 'should learn in the
immediate future, and help us establish our
priorities. It will represent the first opportunity for
Cdlio Valle's old idea of a truly comprehensive
plan to take off.

Acknowledgement: Dr Cdsar Ades provided
valuable suggestions and criticisms of the first
draft of this paper.

Francisco Dyonisio C. Mendes, Departamento de
Psicologia Experimental, Instituto de Psicologia,
Universidade de Sao Paulo, Avenida Professor
Mello Moraes 1721, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, Sao
Paulo, Brazil.

References
Bernardes, A.T., Rylands, A.B., Valle, C.M.C.,
Machado, R.B., Coimbra-Filho, A.F. and
Fischer, L.R.B. 1988. Primate Field Studies in
Brazil: A Bibliography. Sociedade Brasileira de
Primatologia, Belo Horizonte.
Coimbra-Filho, A.F., Pissinatti, A. and Rylands,
A.B. 1993. Breeding muriquis Brachyteles
arachnoides in captivity: the experience of the
Rio de Janeiro Primate Centre (CPRJ-FEEMA).
Dodo, J Wildl. Preserve. Trusts, 29:66-77.


Neotropical Primates 2(2),,June 1994


Page 18






Page 19 Neotropical Primates 2(2), June 1994


Coimbra-Filho, A.F., Pissinatti, A. and Rylands,
A.B. 1994. Muriquis at the Rio de Janeiro
Primate Centre. Neotropical Primates, 2(1):5-7.
Dietz, J.M., Coimbra-Filho, A.F. and Pessamilio,
D.M. 1986. Projeto mico-leao I. Um modelo para
a conservacqo de espdcie ameaqada de extinqco.
In: A Primatologia no Brasil 2, M.T.de Mello
(ed.), pp. 217-222. Sociedade Brasileira de
Primatologia, Brasilia.
Fonseca, G.A.B. (1985). Observations on the
ecology of the muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides
E. Geoffroy 1806): implications for its
conservation. Primate Conservation, (5):48-52.
Lemos de SA, R.M. 1991. A populaqao de
Brachyteles arachnoides (Primates, Cebidae) da
Fazenda Esmeralda, Rio Casca, Minas Gerais.
In: A Primatologia do Brasil 3, A.B.Rylands
and A.T. Bernardes (eds.), pp.235-238. Fundaqco
Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte.
Martuscelli, P. and Petroni, L. 1994. Fourteen new
localities for the woolly spider monkey,
Brachyteles arachnoides. Neotropical Primates,
2(2):12-15.
Mendes, F.D.C. 1990. Afiliacio e hierarquia no
muriqui: o grupo MatAo de Caratinga. Master's
thesis, Instituto de Psicologia, Universidade de
Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo.
Mendes, S.L. and Chiarello, A.G. 1994. A
proposal for the conservation of the muriqui in
the state of Espirito Santo, southeastern Brazil.
Neotropical Primates, 1(2):2-4.
Milton, K. 1984. Habitat, diet, and activity patterns
of free-ranging woolly spider monkeys
(Brachyteles arachnoides E.Geoffroy 1806).
Int.J.Primatol., 5: 491-514.
Milton, K. and Lucca, C. de 1984. Population
estimate for Brachyteles at Fazenda Barreiro
Rico, Sao Paulo state, Brazil. IUCN/SSC Primate
Specialist Group Newsletter, (4):27-28.
Paccagnella, S.G. 1991. Censo da populaciao de
monos (Brachyteles arachnoides) do Parque
Estadual Carlos Botelho, Estado de Sao Paulo.
In: A Primatologia do Brasil 3, A.B.Rylands
and A.T.Bernardes, (eds), pp.225-233. Fundagio
Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte.
Rimoli, A.O. 1993. 0 filhote muriqui (Brachyteles
arachnoides): um estudo do desenvolvimento da
independencia. Master's thesis, Instituto de
Psicologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao
Paulo.
Rimoli, J. 1994. Estratdgias de forrageamento de
um grupo de muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides,
Primates, Cebidae) da Estacgo Biol6gica de
Caratinga, Minas Gerais. Master's thesis,
Institute de Psicologia, Universidade de Sao
Paulo, Sao Paulo.


Strier, K.B. 1991. Diet in one group of woolly
spider monkeys, or muriquis (Brachyteles
arachnoides). Am. J. Primatol., 23: 113-126.
Strier, K.B. 1992a. Faces in the Forest: The
Endangered Muriqui Monkeys of Brazil. Oxford
University Press, New York.
Strier, K.B. 1992b. Causes and consequences of
nonaggression in woolly spider monkeys. In:
Aggression and Peacefulness in Humans and
Other Primates. J.Silverberg and P.Gray (eds.),
pp. 100-116. Oxford University Press, New York.
Strier, K.B. 1993. Conservation of the muriqui in
the state of Espirito Santo, southeastern Brazil.
Neotropical Primates, 1(3):1-2.
Strier, K.B., Mendes, F.D.C., Rimoli, J. and
Rimoli, A.O. 1993. Social organization and
demography in one group of muriquis.
Int.J.Primatol., 14: 513-526.



News

PROJECT KEYSTONE PLANTS FOR LARGE
FRUGIVORES IN THE ATLANTIC FOREST
OF BRAZIL

The importance of fruits for the community of
large frugivores (including birds and mammals)
has been studied since 1986 by Mauro Galetti in a
semideciduous forest near Campinas, in the state of
Sao Paulo. In this study the diets of tufted
capuchins (Cebus apella) (see Galetti and Pedroni,
1994) and brown howling monkeys (Alouatta
fusca) (see Galetti et al., 1994) were compared
with the whole community. The study was
presented as a master's thesis at the State
University of Campinas (Unicamp) under the
supervision of Dr. Patricia Morellato (Galetti,
1992; Galetti, 1993). In contrast to studies in the
Amazon region, keystone plant species were not
evident. Primates shift their diets during the
periods of fleshy fruit scarcity (dry season),
whereas birds usually migrate or eat fruits of low
nutritional value. During the dry season capuchins
became seed and flower predators while howlers
increased the amount of leaves in the diet (Galetti
and Peres, 1993).

To determine if this pattern is a general trend in
the Atlantic forest, Mauro Galetti is continuing his
studies as a Ph.D. candidate at the University of
Cambridge, England, under the supervision of Dr.
David J. Chivers. His field work started in October
1993 at Fazenda Intervales, Sete Barras, Sao Paulo,
where he is studying the population density and


Neotropical Primates 2(2), June 1994


Page 19






Neotropical Primates 2(2), June 1994 Page 20


diet of muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides),
capuchin monkeys, tapirs, agoutis and large
frugivorous birds, such as guans, cotingas and
toucans, together with the plant phenology. This 2-
year project has the logistical support of the State
University of Sao Paulo (UNESP) at Rio Claro and
the Fundacqo Florestal do Estado de Sao Paulo.
Financial support is being provided by the
Brazilian Science Council (CNPq), NYZS The
Wildlife Conservation Society, Fundac~o 0
BoticArio de ProteoiAo a Natureza, The John D.and
Catherine T.MacArthur Foundation and The
World Wide Fund for Nature (Brazil).

The project has two phases. The first involves the
determination of the phenology, floristic
communities, and the structure of the forest,
together with the seasonality of occurrence of birds
and mammals. The second phase will determine
the importance of fruits in the diets' of the various
large frugivores throughout the year. The results of
this study will be important not only to understand
the role of large frugivores on seed dispersal, but
also in the determination of the diet of several
poorly known and endangered species, such as
muriquis, jacutingas and toucans, and principally
to estimate the impact of logging (or harvesting) of
key plants on the community of large frugivores in
the Atlantic forest of Brazil. Preliminary results
have shown that palms, fig trees and Lauraceae
trees which are usually considered important for
large frugivores are absent or rare in the logged
forest.

Mauro Galetti, Wildlife Research Group,
Department of Anatomy, University of Cambridge,
Cambridge, UK, and Departamento de Botinica,
UNESP, Caixa Postal 199, 13506-900 Rio Claro,
Sio Paulo, Brazil. E-mail: Galetti@ibi.unicamp.br


References

Galetti, M. 1992. Sazonalidade na dieta de
vertebrados frugivoros em uma floresta
semidecidua no sudeste do Brasil. Master's thesis,
State University of Campinas (Unicamp), Brazil.
Galetti, M. 1993. Diet of the scaly-headed parrot
(Pionus maximiliani) in a semideciduous forest in
southeastern Brazil. Biotropica, 25: 419-425.
Galetti, M. and Pedroni, F. 1994. Seasonal diet of
capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) in a
semideciduous forest in south-east Brazil. J.
Trop. Ecol., 10: 27-39.
Galetti, M. and Peres, C.A. 1993. "Plantas-chave"
em florestas tropicais. Cidncia Hoje, 95:57-58.


Galetti, M., Pedroni, F. and Morellato, L.P.C.
1994. Diet of the brown howler monkey
(Alouatta fusca) in a forest fragment in Brazil.
Mammalia, 58:111-118.


ECOLOGY AND SOCIAL RELATIONS OF
THE BLACK-CHINNED EMPEROR
TAMARIN

A study of the ecology and social relations of
Saguinus imperator imperator in the Zoobotanical
Park of the Federal University of Acre (90-100 S,
680 W; 155 m, above sea level, area 100 ha) has
been underway since August, 1993. The vegetation
of the study site is composed mainly of secondary
forest in different successional stages. The most
frequent plant species are: "aricuri" Attalaea
excelsa, "castanheira" Bertolletia excelsa,
"cumarii-ferro" Coumarouma speciosa, "embaiba"
Cecropia sp., "murumuru" Astrocaryum
murumuru, "sapd" Imperata brasiliensis,
"seringueira" Hevea brasiliensis, "sumaima"
Ceiba pentandra, and "taboca" Olyra cordifolia
(see Deus and Forneck, 1992). Troops of
saddleback tamarins (Saguinus fuscicollis
weddelli), titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus
cupreus), and night monkeys (Aotus nigriceps)
also inhabit the area (Bicca-Marques et al., 1993).
The first step of the study, a survey of the
population by the transect method, used a pre-
existing trail of 2.7 km. During this period one
study group was selected. This group, composed of
seven individuals (one adult male, one adult
female, two subadult males, one subadult female,
and two infant females), was captured in a so-
called "Saguinus trap" (Encarnaci6n et al., 1990).
All individuals (except infants) were anesthetized,
fitted with collars of different colors, weighed and
measured. The next steps involve opening up a
trail system, habituating the group, and a
systematic botanical survey. After the conclusion of
these steps the study of the ecology (feeding,
ranging, daily activity patterns) and social relations
will begin.

The importance of this research is related to the
endangered status of this subspecies (Rylands et
al., 1993) and the lack of field studies within its
small geographic distribution; the region between
the Rios Purus and Acre in the eastern and
southeastern part of the states of Acre and
Amazonas, respectively (Hershkovitz, 1979) an
area that has been increasingly altered by human
activities, such as cattle ranching. The study is
supported by a Regional Scientific Development
Fellowship of the Brazil Science Council (CNPq).


Neolropical Primates 2(2), June 1994


Page 20






Page 21 Neotropical Primates 2(2), June 1994


Cliudia Calegaro-Marques and Julio Cesar
Bicca-Marques, Parque Zoobotanico and
Departamento de Ciencias da Natureza,
Universidade Federal do Acre, 69908-210 Rio
Branco, Acre, Brazil.

References
Bicca-Marques, J.C., Calegaro-Marques, C. and
Azevedo, M.A.O. 1993. Censo de primatas no
Parque Zoobotinico da Universidade Federal do
Acre: Resultados preliminares. Resumos do VII71
Encontro de Pesquisadores da Amazonia, p. 168.
Deus, C.E. and Forneck, M.C. 1992. Parque
Zoobotinico da Universidade Federal do Acre:
Um instrument de educaqAo e preservagqo
ambiental. Rev. Inst. Flor., Sao Paulo, 4:1139-
1143.
Encarnaci6n, F., Moya, L., Soini, P., Tapia., J. and
Aquino, R. 1990. La capture de Callitrichidae
(Saguinus y Cebuella) en la Amazonia Peruana.
In: La Primatologia en el Peru, pp. 45-56.
Proyecto Peruano de Primatologia, Iquitos.
Hershkovitz, P. 1979. Races of the emperor
tamarin, Saguinus imperator Goeldi
(Callitrichidae, Primates). Primates, 20(2):277-
287.
Rylands, A.B., Encarnaci6n, F. and Mittermeier,
R.A. 1993. South American primates and the
IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals.
Neotropical Primates, 1(4):1-2.


QUANTIFICAOAO MORFOLOGICA EM
PRIMATAS NEOTROPICAIS
Hershkovitz (1977) abordou amplamente diversos
aspects da morfologia dos calitriquideos, mas
outras andlises ainda podem ser propostas com o
uso de t6cnicas de quantificagao morfol6gica,
atualmente recomendadas. Este tem sido o escopo
dos estudos que realizamos no acervo do Museu
Primatol6gico do Centro de Primatologia do Rio de
Janeiro (CPRJ-FEEMA). Os dados amostrados
nesta colecgo sdo do tipo "cross-sectional", isto 6,
varios individuos estudados em diversas idades.

As tdcnicas que empregamos seguem os
pressupostos da alometria (Gould, 1966) e analises
multivariadas como as analises discriminate (AD)
e dos components principals (ACP). 0 primeiro
estudo que realizamos na colegao do CPRJ
investigou o relacionamento alom6trico do peso
cardiac (g) com o peso corporal (g) e o
comprimento cabega-corpo (mm) em Callithrix
jacchus (n=17) e Callithrix penicillata (n=14).
Encontramos alometria positive para a relagAo do
peso cardiac com o peso corporal para ambas


esp6cies (exceto para femeas de C. penicillata que
foi isom6trico) e comparado com o comprimento
cabega-corpo em femeas de C. jacchus e machos de
C. penicillata. Os machos de C. jacchus foram
isom6tricos enquanto as femeas de C. penicillata
mostraram-se alom6trico-negativas, A hip6tese
nula nao pode ser rejeitada para o dimorfismo
sexual nas elevaqges dos grdficos.

Em estudo subsequent, analisamos a variagqo do
peso corporal e comprimento cabeca-corpo em tres
esp6cies do g6nero Callithrix (C. kuhli, n=90; C.
geoffroyi, n=76; e C. aurita, n=25) nas diversas
faixas etArias. Os resultados sugerem que todas as
esp6cies estudadas sao monom6rficas quanto aos
parimetros corporais estudados. C. aurita mostrou-
se maior que C. geoffroyi e C. kuhli, apesar das
diferengas interespecificas nao serem significativas
(p> 0,05).

0 estudo morfomdtrico da cabega nas mesmas
espdcies de Callithrix mencionadas acima constou
da terceira etapa de estudos na coleqao do CPRJ.
Constatamos dimorfismo sexual na largura da
cabeca (mm) em C. kuhli (analise univariada) e no
relacionamento alomdtrico (andlise bivariada) nas
tres esp6cies na largura inter-orbitaria (mm). A
andlise discriminate (analise multivariada) falhou
em discriminar as tr6s espdcies.

Estes estudos, assim como outros que realizaremos
na colecao de primatas do CPRJ, contribuem para
um maior conhecimento de aspects morfol6gicos
destes primatas ameagados de extingao. Agradego a
toda equipe do CPRJ-FEEMA pelo apoio, bem
como aos Drs. Adelmar F. Coimbra-Filho e
Alcides Pissinatti pelas critics e sugest6es.

Carlos Henrique de F. Burity, Departamento de
Anatomia. Institute de Biologia, Universidade do
Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Av. 28 de Setembro, 87
funds, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro,
Brasil.

Refercncias

Burity, C.H.F. e Mandarim-de-Lacerda, C.A.
Submetido. Weight of heart in Callithrix
Erxleben, 1777: Allometric study.
Burity, C.H.F., Mandarim-de-Lacerda, C.A. e
Pissinatti, A. Submetido. Body size growth in
three marmosets of the genus Callithrix
Erxleben, 1777 (Callitrichidae, Primates).
Burity, C.H.F., Mandarim-de-Lacerda, C.A. e
Pissinatti, A. Submetido. Morphometry of the
head in three species of the genus Callithrix


Page 21


Neotropical Primates 2(2), June 1994






Neotropical Primates 2(2), June 1994 Page 22


Erxleben, 1777: univariate, bivariate and
multivariate analyses.
Gould, S.J. 1966. Allometry and size in ontogeny
and phylogeny. Biol.Rev., 41:587-640.
Hershkovitz, P. 1977. Living New World Monkeys,
Vol.1. Platyrrhini, with an Introduction to
Primates. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.


1993 INTERNATIONAL STUDBOOK FOR
THE GOLDEN-HEADED LION TAMARIN

The international studbook for the golden-headed
lion tamarin, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, is
developed and maintained under the auspices of
the International Recovery and Management
Committee (IRMC) for the species, chaired by
Jeremy J.C.Mallinson (Jersey Wildife Preservation
Trust) and Adelmar F.Coimbra-Filho (Centro de
Primatologia do Rio de Janeiro). This sixth edition
was organized by the new keeper, Helga de Bois
(Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp), and its
publication by the Antwerp Zoo was financed by
the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust. Jon Ballou
(National Zoological Park, Washington, D.C.) and
Helga de Bois are the Regional Coordinators for
North America and Europe, respectively. The
Studbook covers the period 1st September 1992 to
the 31st December 1993, and is maintained in the
SPARKS studbook program developed by the
International Species Information System (ISIS).
Following an introduction, it gives a listing of
recent bibliography and the institutions involved in
the program, and the studbook proper includes the
living animals by institution, deaths (1 September
1992 to 31 December 1993), and the complete
studbook listing to 31 December 1993. It records
575 living animals (293.232.50) in South America
(235 in 11 institutions), North America (101 in 18
institutions), Europe (208 in 18 institutions) and
Asia/Australia (31 in two institutions), with 49
participating institutions in all. Overall, the growth
of the captive population since 1 September 1992
was 22%, but was not even between the regions
maintaining the species. North American
populations remained stable from 31 August 1992,
while in Europe and Brazil the population
increased by nearly 30%, and in Asia/Australia by
more than 50%. In a progress report to the IRMC,
Helga de Bois argued that considering space
availability, and taking into account minimum
requirements to ensure long-term demographic and
genetic health of the captive population, the most
important management action at present is to aim
for zero population growth, achieved at present
only in North America thanks to the intensive
management of the coordinator Jon Ballou and the


cooperation of the participating institutions.
Concerning the genetic status of the population,
the report recorded 154 founders, of which only a
small part is not yet represented (lacking living
descendants). However, despite this relatively large
number of founders it will be important to continue
management for more equal representation,
illustrated by a comparison of the genetic situation
between North America and Europe. Although
Europe has twice as many founders, genetic
analysis showed that both regions have lost about
equal amounts of genetic diversity (North America
4.4% and Europe 4%). This is because the
variation in genetic representation of the individual
founders is much higher in Europe, resulting in a
relatively higher loss due to random drift,
compared to North America. A free copy of the 6th
International Studbook for the golden-headed lion
tamarin is available on request from the studbook
keeper.

Helga de Bois, Royal Zoological Society of
Antwerp, Koningin Astridplein 26, 2018
Antwerpen, Belgium. Fax: (03) 231 0018.

References
De Bois, H. 1994. Golden-Headed Lion Tamarin
Leontopithecus chrysomelas 1993 International
Studbook 6. Royal Zoological Society of
Antwerp, Antwerp.
De Bois, H. 1994. Progress Report on the Captive
Population of Golden-Headed Lion Tamarins -
L.chrysomelas May 1994. Unpublished Report
to The International Recovery and Management
Committee for Golden-Headed Lion Tamarin
Leontopithecus chrysomelas. 2pp.


1993 U. S. REGIONAL COTTON-TOP
TAMARIN STUDBOOK

The North American Regional Cotton-top tamarin
studbook for 1993 (data accurate to 31 December
1993) was published in March 1994 by Gerald
D.Aquilina, N.A.Regional Studbook Keeper, with
the help of Jean Miller, Buffalo Zoo Registrar. It
reports live animals only and the data is presented
in three ways: living animals by studbook number,
living animals by location, and living animals in
work sheet form (including sibling and offspring
counts and founder representation). 238 animals
were registered (113.112.13) in 49 institutions.
The total number of founders represented in the
population is 81, with a Founder Representation
Parity of 1.23. The 1993 Studbook used SMS,
provided and supported by the Houston and Toledo
Zoological Gardens and Andrew Odum, and is now


Neotropical Primates 2(2), June 1994


Page 22






Page 23 Neotropical Primates 2(2), June 1994


also in the SPARKS format. It was produced with
the support and financial backing of the Zoological
Society of Buffalo, Inc., Executive Director, Minot
H.Ortolani.

Gerald D. Aquilina, Buffalo Zoological Gardens,
300 Parkside Avenue, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA.

Reference
Aquilina, G.D. 1994. N.A.Regional Cotton-Top
Tamarin Studbook. Buffalo Zoological Gardens,
Buffalo, NY. March 1994.


ILLUSTRATED MONOGRAPHS OF LIVING
PRIMATES


This is an entirely new and completely up-to-date
series of reviews, which will eventually cover all of
the 200 or so living species, and many more
subspecies, of primates. They are edited by Jan
B.Kaiser, Marc van Roosmalen and Russell
A.Mittermeier. Profits raised by sales of this
important new work will be used to purchase key
areas of natural habitat or to otherwise assist in the
protection of some of the world's most threatened
species. Each publication deals with one species,
including subspecies. Since the amount of
information available varies between species, the
size and price will also vary. The Monographs,
limited editions of 1500, will not look like ordinary
books, they will be looseleaf, enabling the addition
of new information from time to time, and the size
of each page will be approximately 70 x 50 cm.
The text and color illustrations will be printed on
250 g paper, lacquered to protect from
fingermarks.


The first Monograph deals with the white-faced
saki, Pithecia pithecia pithecia, from the Guianas
and northern Brazil, and the gold-faced saki,
P.p.chrysocephala from the Brazilian Amazon. It
has many exquisite full-color plates by the late
Italian artist Piero Cozzaglio and the German
artist/zoologist Arnd Knijnenberg, along with
original contributions by Roberta Bodini, Warren
Kinzey, Anthony Rylands, Eleonore Setz, Ingo
Homburg, Angela Peetz, Jean-Christophe Vi6 and
others. In addition to four large drawings of the
two subspecies, this monograph comprises some 60
pages of text, with more than 25 smaller color
illustrations and a wealth of previously
unpublished material on the appearance, behavior,
and lifestyle of these small monkeys, including a
new subspecies, the Manacapuri gold-faced saki.
In addition, for the academic reader, there are
detailed distribution maps (with a gazetteer),
transcripts of previously published texts which
make reference to the animal from the time of
Linnaeus to the present day, a chapter on food
plants (with color drawings) and forest types, and
an extensive bibliography.

Because we believe that the publication of a special
work such as these monographs should contribute
to the preservation of primates, the profits will be
dedicated to supporting conservation projects
especially with regard to the maintenance and
improvement of existing nature reserves. More
detailed information can be obtained on request. In
practice, it means that after production expenses
have been covered, half of the additional revenue
will be spent on nature conservation, while the
other half will be used to fund the publication of
the second and third monographs, resulting in
approximately one-third of the price going to
primate conservation projects. Two projects have
been chosen as beneficiaries of the first
monograph: the Mamiraui Project on the upper
Amazon, and the Wildlife Rescue Program and
proposed wildlife reserve at Petit-Saut in French
Guiana. The price for the first Monograph will be
170 or US$250 (shipping and tax not included).
Subscriptions received before publication date (by
1st October 1994) will be entitled to a 20%
discount: the pre-publication price is therefore
135 or US$195. Pre-publication subscribers will
be mentioned by name in the Monograph, and they
will also be eligible for a discount on future
Monographs. Subscriptions or inquiries to the
address below.

There are 14 different plates by Piero Cozzaglio
(posters of 20" x 27") of a number of primates
(including mountain gorilla, ring-tailed lemur,


Page 23


Neotropical Primates 2(2), June 1994






Neotropical Primates 2(2), June 1994 Page 24


black lemur, black spider monkey, muriqui, gold-
faced saki and buffy-headed marmoset). These,
along with 11 postcard sized illustrations, are
available separately at a special offer price (contact
address below for further details).
Jan B. Kaiser, (Foundation) Illustrated
Monographs of Living Primates, P.O.Box 160,
8091 PA Wezep, The Netherlands. Fax: +31 (for
Holland) 5253.3123.

PRIMATE PREDATORS

Dr Robert W. Sussman and Donna L.Hart of the
Primate Biology Program, Department of
Anthropology, Washington University, St. Louis,
are carrying out a survey dealing with predation on
primates. They are requesting information on
predation or mobbing by means of a simple
questionnaire. Information collected from the
questionnaire will form part of a Ph.D dissertation
by Donna Hart. In addition, they would welcome
information on unanalyzed fecal samples or nest
debris of carnivores or raptors, and would be
prepared to study the material to determine the
presence of primate remains. Please contact:
Prof. R. W. Sussman or Donna L. Hart, Primate
Biology Program, Department of Anthropology,
Washington University, Campus Box 1114, One
Brookings Drive, St Louis, Missouri 63130-4899,
USA. E-mail:dhart@artsci.wustl.edu.


COMMUNITY
CONSERVATION
CONSULTANTS


CATALYSTS FOR RURAL CONSERVATION

Community Conservation Consultants (CCC) is an
organization designed to meet the emerging new
challenges facing both local and global
conservation by stimulating localized community
conservation activism. CCC strives to establish
community sanctuaries based on voluntary
participation and respect for the capacity, ability,
and desire of rural people and landowners to be
stewards of their own lands. CCC provides local
groups appropriate approaches regarding the
conservation of target species and/or habitats. Our
goal is to empower local people to manage their
own lands with minimal outside interference. Its
programs strive to leave a local organization or
group in charge of managing and perpetuating the
newly formed community-based sanctuary.
Community conservation demands creative


solutions to individual situations. Each project or
conservation situation is unique and requires
unique solutions often revolving around flagship
species, specific habitats or natural landmarks,
areas surrounding protected core areas, and species
which are endangered or have small distributions,
or which are locally prominent or historically
important.

CCC began as Howlers Forever, Inc. in 1989 to aid
the Community Baboon Sanctuary (CBS), Belize;
an experimental grassroots conservation effort by
rural Belizean subsistence farmers to protect the
black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra). By
approaching landowners from a position of
respecting their autonomy, decision-making
capacity, and way of life, while underscoring the
benefits of proper management on their own lands,
the CBS has succeeded in placing control of the
stewardship of lands with the individual
landowner. The CBS has become a successful
model spawning a new wave of conservation
projects in Belize and internationally.

CCC was formed under Howlers Forever, Inc. to
broaden its functions to meet the growing interest
in community conservation. Since the concept has
the potential to be used commonly by local
conservation groups, it thus has wide ramifications
for protecting private and public lands throughout
the world. Stimulated by the success of the CBS
methods, other community projects are in various
stages of planning or development. Presently, they
center on Wisconsin and Central America, but
CCC has answered inquiries from a wide variety of
international conservationists interested in
community sanctuaries.

CCC is currently involved in four main community
projects as well as consultations on others and a
number of research and publishing projects. The
Community Baboon Sanctuary, initiated in 1985,
involves seven villages and over 100 landowners to
protect approximately 18 square miles of private
lands. There is a tourism and education program
centered on a small natural history museum at
Bermudian Landing. The sanctuary is managed by
a local committee with representatives of each
village. Financial administration is currently by the
Belize Audubon Society. CCC is working with
participants to expand tourism to other villages,
and in the creation of a history/forest use museum
in St.Paul's Bank.

The Gales Point, Manatee project involves helping
the community of Gales Point to create a protected
area of the 170,000 acres surrounding the village


Neotropical Primates 2(2), June 1994


Page 24


0c-16


I






Page 25 Neotropical Primates 2(2), June 1994


and encompassing a large river and lagoon system.
The area extends through a cross section of varied
ecosystems including: cayes, ocean tidal areas,
coastal beach and mangrove forests, pine forests,
lagoon mangrove forests, brackish lagoons,
broadleaf semi-deciduous tropical rain forests,
cohune palm forests, and riverine rain forests. The
area also includes many limestone caves within the
karst hills in which are found pot chards and
bones, indicating ancient Mayan burial grounds.
The Government of Belize has created two Special
Development Areas for the region as interim
protected areas. CCC volunteers have created a
zoning plan for the area as well as specifically for
the village which resides on a long narrow
peninsula extending into the Southern Lagoon.
Additional work includes carrying out a
biodiversity assessment with a USAID grant,
including a general survey of howlers (Alouatta
pigra) and spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi)
within the area. Village development work
included installing better sewage systems, planting
virus resistant coconuts, and creating a buoy
system for manatee protection. Research work with
the participation of villagers includes gathering
data on tree phenology, hunting and fishing yields,
monitoring and protecting sea turtle nests, as well
as creating vegetation and wildlife GIS maps. CCC
works with Belize Enterprises for Sustainable
Ecology and the Gales Point Progressive
Cooperative in these projects.

The Kickapoo River Community Reserve was
initiated by CCC to bring local control to lands in
Wisconsin along the Kickapoo River which have
been under the control of the US Army Corps of
Engineers as part of a failed dam project. The
9,500 acres, which were purchased under eminent
domain by the Federal Government, have been a
source of local conflict for 30 years. CCC initiated
a proposal to create a community sanctuary and a
rural education center for the area. Despite
historical problems, the proposal was approved by
the local community with little dissent. Recently,
the Wisconsin State Government passed
legislation, written by a local committee, for the
management of the lands. According to this
legislation, the area will be managed by a nine-
person Kickapoo Authority, six of whom will be
local residents. CCC is helping to plan a museum
of sustainability as well as creating a multi-use
design for the protection of endangered species and
for limited recreation.

Another project with primates as its focus involves
CCC working with Pronatura of Yucatan to help
the village of Punta Laguna in Mexico to protect


their local population of spider monkeys (Ateles
geoffroyi). The area is an archeological site which
the Mayan community hopes to develop for
additional tourism. There is also a rain forest
honey project to develop income. Future CCC
plans include gathering basic information on
spider monkey ecology, creating a conservation
plan for both Alouatta and Ateles, initiating tree
phenology studies, and helping to create an area
guidebook. The conservation plan will entail
attempting to connect spider and monkey
populations or habitats through expanding the
protected areas or through corridors.

CCC has always valued and stimulated educational
materials at all levels. Under the Orang-utan Press
name, it has recently reprinted "A Belizean Rain
Forest the Community Baboon Sanctuary" by
Robert Horwich and Jon Lyon. Other educational
material projects include writing a book on Creole
uses of rain forest plants, a guide to the Cockscomb
Basin Wildlife Sanctuary, a guide to community
tourism in Belize, and a booklet on converting
farming practices to organic methods in
Wisconsin.

A variety of research projects are also being carried
out by CCC volunteers. These include studies on
the ecology, social behavior, and population
changes of the black howler monkey, and the
phenology of trees in the Community Baboon
Sanctuary, Cockscomb Basin Widlife Sanctuary,
and the Manatee Special Development Area of
Belize. Another primate research project involves
reestablishing a population of howlers at the
Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary. This project
is being carried out with the Wildlife Conservation
Society and the Belize Audubon Society. Animals
have been translocated from the Community
Baboon Sanctuary to the Cockscomb Basin and are
being monitored using radio transmitters. In
addition to the study of animal movements, there is
a study of the ecology of the translocated animals
before movement and later while in their new
environment. Translocations of 63 animals have
been carried out in 1992, 1993, and 1994. Thus
far, survival rate of the translocated animals has
been over 85% for 1-2 years with 11 new
infants born to the new location.
Approximately 65 animals now comprise the new
population.

CCC is interested in providing a service to help
communities to protect their forests and wildlife. If
any groups or individuals would like to help
toward these goals or want additional information
on any of the CCC projects or wish to receive the


Neotropical Primates 2(2), June 1994


Page 25






Neotropical Primates 2(2), June 1994 Page 26


CCC newsletter, please contact the following
address.
Robert H. Horwich, Community Conservation
Consultants, RD 1, Box 96, Gays Mills, WI 54631,
USA. Tel: (608) 735-4717.


ROGER 0. AND BARBARA E. BROWN
PRIMATE RESEARCH FACILITY
CHICAGO FIELD MUSEUM

In 1991, the Chicago Field Museum of Natural
History received $25,537 from the U.S.National
Science Foundation to enhance the usefulness of a
new storage area for its collections of New World
and Old World primates. Formerly, these extensive
collections had been installed with other mammals
in "compact storage", which limited research
access by the many resident and visiting scientists
who study primates. Newly allocated space solved
the access problem by trebling the number of
access aisles. However, the new area lacked
adequate lighting, electrical outlets, and counters
to permit all desired research functions. NSF
support and significant matching commitments by
the Field Museum were used to: 1) paint and seal
the floor; 2) add work counters equipped with
electrical outlets for computers, microscope lights,
and other devices; 3) add flourescent lighting
throughout the collection area and over work
counters; and 4) open shutters on exterior windows
to permit the specimens to be examined under
natural light. The facility is now fully equipped
and is one of the most accessible worldwide for the
study of non-human primates. It has been named
the "Roger 0. and Barbara E.Brown Primate
Research Facility" in honor of two of the Museum's
most active and dedicated benefactors.
Bruce D. Patterson, Curator of Mammals,
Chicago Field Museum of Natural History,
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago,
Illinois 60605-2496, USA. E-mail: patterson@
fmnh785.fmnh.org.


ADELMAR COIMBRA-FILHO RETIRES AS
DIRECTOR OF THE RIO DE JANEIRO
PRIMATE CENTER (CPRJ/FEEMA)

This year saw the official retirement of Adelmar
F.Coimbra-Filho as Director of the Rio de Janeiro
Primate Center. The leading Brazilian
primatologist over the last thirty years, just one of
many of Coimbra's remarkable achievements in
favor of the conservation of the Brazilian Atlantic
forest and its primates was the founding of the


Center in the late 1970's (inaugurated in November
1979). CPRJ (Centro de Primatologia do Rio de
Janeiro) is roughly 100 km north of Rio de
Janeiro, in a beautiful setting in the Serra dos
OrgAos. With the help of his colleagues, Alcides
Pissinatti, Roberto da Rocha e Silva, and Reginaldo
A.Queiroz Ferreira, Coimbra's determination and
foresight has made it today the most important
breeding center worldwide for Atlantic forest
primates, and most especially the lion tamarins and
other callitrichids. The Center has more than 75
enclosures for breeding programs for endangered
species, a headquarters, museum, library,
acclimatization laboratory, a management and
nutrition laboratory, and accommodation for visiting
scientists. The endangered species held and bred at
the Center include Leontopithecus rosalia,
L.chrysomelas, L.chrysopygus, Callithrix aurita
(subspecies aurita and flaviceps), C.geoffroyi,
C.kuhli, Saguinus bicolor (subspecies bicolor and
inartinsi), S.mystax, Cebus apella xanthosternos,
and Brachyteles arachnoides. The Directorship has
been passed to Alcides Pissinatti. Although retiring
as Director, Adelmar Coimbra-Filho is still active
in his research, and campaigning and writing
about the endangered Atlantic forest and its
primates.


PROJETO DINAMICA BIOL6GICA DE
FRAGMENTS FLORESTAIS CHAMADA
PARA PROPOSTAS

0 projeto multidisciplinar "Dinimica Biol6gica de
Fragmentos Florestais" do Instituto Nacional de
Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA) em convdnio
com o Smithsonian Institution, localizada
aproximadamente 80 km ao norte de Manaus,
Amazonas, iniciou-se em 1979. 0 objetivo central
6 estudar os efeitos ecol5gicos da fragmentacgo do
hAbitat de floresta tropical continue. Outros estudos
incluem pesquisas sobre a biologia da extincqo, os
efeitos de bordas de florestas, os processes de
regeneragao de florestas e a gen6tica de espdcies
tropicais em relarAo A fragmentaqao. Existe
tambem um program de treinamento intensive de
alunos de p6s-graduaqdo e de difusio de
informaq6es para a area de conservaqgo, tanto
dentro do Brasil como no cenirio international. Os
resultados da pesquisa tem implicaq6es importantes
no manejo de reserves de floresta que permanecem
em Areas desmatadas para a manutengco da maior
diversidade de esp6cies possivel. Al6m disto,
informag6es sobre o funcionamento do ecossistema
intacto podem ser obtidas atrav6s de comparagdes
de florestas perturbadas com Areas de control nAo
perturbadas.


Neotropical Primates 2(2), June 1994


Page 26






Page 27 Neotropical Primates 2(2), June 1994


Atrav6s de uma chamada, de maio de 1994, o
DBFF esti propondo um orcamento limitado para
financiamento de propostas de pesquisa que devem
tratar de um dos seguintes t6picos: 1) efeitos
bi6ticos e abi6ticos da fragmentagao da floresta; 2)
os mecanismos biol6gicos que resultam em
extingao; 3) o process de regeneraqAo da floresta;
4) os processes ecol6gicos afetados pela
fragmentacgo; e 5) a estrutura gendtica de
populag6es em areas isoladas fragmentsos.
Somente propostas de pesquisadores qualificados
(Ph.D ou equivalent) serao aceitas. Caso o projeto
represent o trabalho de p6s-graduaqao de urn
aluno, a proposta deve se acompanhada de uma
carta do pesquisador principal (orientador)
indicando o progress do aluno no program.
Propostas acompanhadas de CVs atualizados
devem ser enviadas ate o dia 1 de agosto de 1994
para o enderego abaixo. Maiores informaq6es sobre
o Projeto DBFF: Dr. Claude Gascon, Coordenador
Cientifico, PDBFF, Departamento de Ecologia,
Institute Nacional de Pesquisas da Amaz8nia
(INPA), Caixa Postal 478, 69011-000 Manaus,
Amazonas, Brasil. Tel: (092) 642-1148, Fax: (092)
642-2050.

PROGRAM DE POS-GRADUACAO EM
ECOLOGIA, CONSERVACAO E MANEJO

1 0 curso de p6s-graduagao em
FsawSa Ecologia, Conservacgo e
Manejo de Vida Silvestre
(ECMVS), iniciado em 1989, e
um curso em nivel de mestrado
dos departamentos de Biologia
Geral, Botinica e Zoologia do
Institute de Ciencias Biol6gicas
da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG),
Brasil. Slo objetivos centrals a formaq~o de
especialistas na Area de ecologia e conservagdo da
diversidade biol6gica, e cuja Enfase 6 o manejo de
esp6cies para uso sustentAvel e os mecanismos
ecol6gicos geradores e mantenedores da
biodiversidade. Os egressos deste curso terao as
bases ecol6gicas necessArias para atuar em ensino,
pesquisa, conservaqAo e manejo ambiental, em
universidades, institutes de pesquisa, agencies
governamentais e entidades privadas. As atuais
linhas de pesquisa incluem, entire outras: avaliagqo
de impacts em ecossistemas aquAticos e terrestres,
biologia reprodutiva de peixes, ecofisiologia
vegetal, ecologia de comunidades e comportamento
de abelhas e vespas, ecologia de parasites, ecologia
e comportamento de mamiferos, especialmente
primatas, ecologia e dinamica populacional de
pequenos mamiferos, ecologia e sistemitica de
anfibios anuros, ecologia evolutiva de herbivoros


tropicais, ecologia quantitativa, fitossociologia,
herbivoria e produgao primaria em ecossistemas
aquiticos. Em 1991, juntamente com a Faculdade
de Ciencias Econ8micas da UFMG, foi iniciado um
projeto (PADCT/CIAMB) que visa criar uma nova
linha de ensino e pesquisa, enfocando as interfaces
entire ecologia, demografia e economic, oferecendo
disciplines integradas nestas Areas e o
desenvolvimento de pesquisas conjuntas na region
do mddio rio Doce, Minas Gerais. 0 curso mantrm
convenios e acordos de colaboraqAo corn vArias
instituiqges nacionas e internacionais, como a
Fundagdo Biodiversitas, WWF e a Universidade de
Fl6rida, Gainesville, entire outros. Notavel 6 o
apoio significant do U. S. Fish and Wildlife
Service, Washington, D.C.
As inscriq6oes para as 12 vagas oferecidas este ano
estarrao abertas de 1 de agosto a 30 de setembro
de 1994. Informag6es e maiores detalhes podem ser
obtidos com o Coordenador, Dr. R6gerio P.
Martins, ou corn o Sub-Coordenador, Dr. G.
Wilson Fernandes, Departamento de Biologia
Geral, Instituto de Ciencias Biol6gicas,
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 31270-901
Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Fax: (031)
441-1412.

THE LINCOLN PARK Zoo SCOTT
NEOTROPIC FUND

In 1986, the Lincoln Park Zoo Scott Neotropic
Fund was initiated by the Lincoln Park Zoological
Society and Zoological Gardens in support of in
situ conservation efforts throughout Latin America
and the Caribbean. By emphasizing support for
young conservation biologists working in their own
countries, the fund assists a new generation of
researchers in becoming the environmental
decision-makers of tomorrow and strengthens the
core of conservation leadership throughout the
Americas. The emphasis of the fund is to support
new conservation initiatives with special
consideration to projects which have: direct impact
on wildlife conservation or conservation biology;
direct participation by graduate and/or
undergraduate students; involvement by students
and/or field assistants from Latin America; or links
to either the Lincoln Park Zoo animal collection or
conservation interests of the zoo curatorial staff.
Since its establishment, the Fund has awarded
nearly 45 grants in 13 Latin American and
Caribbean nations. Each year it typically supports
between five and 15 projects, including project
renewals for a second year. Awards are seldom
greater than US$7,500, and most fall into the
range of US$3,000-US$5,000. Initial support is for


Page 27


Neotropical Primates 2(2), June 1994





Neotropical Primates 2(2), June 1994


up to 12 months from the date of the award.
Maximum duration is two years. Some of the
projects supported during 1992-93 include:
Protection of riverine forest habitat for howler
monkeys (Belize); Survey of the non-flying
mammals of the Caetetus Ecological Station in Sao
Paulo (Brazil); Habitat use by mammalian
carnivores in Iguaqu National Park (Brazil);
Evaluation of community-based education
programs in support of the golden-headed lion
tamarin (Brazil); Assessment of large mammal and
habitat distributions in the Lacandon Forest
(Mexico); and Long-term studies of forest
fragmentation in Veracruz (Mexico). For more
information: Lincoln Park Zoo Scott Neotropic
Fund, Director of Conservation and Science, 2200
North Cannon Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60614-
3895, USA.


Primate Societies

PRIMATE FIELD STUDIES SUPPLEMENT -
PRIMATE EYE

Each year the Primate Society of Great Britain
(PSGB), Dr Hilary Box (University of Reading) -
President, publishes a supplement to their journal
Primate Eye which lists current field studies on
primates throughout the world. It includes
information on the location, species involved,
aims, starting date, duration, and personnel and
addresses. The most recent (15th) list was
published as a supplement to number 52 of the
journal. It is compiled through the analysis of
questionnaires sent to field researchers.

The number of field studies listed (307) is double
that recorded for 1991. The increase is due in part
to a general geographic expansion in the number of
countries involved in primate research, especially
in Africa and the Americas, but also to the
enthusiastic response to an exhuastive mail shot in
October 1993. This has resulted in a four-fold
increase in the Americas section and a doubling in
the number of Asian studies since 1991. According
to the listing the Ceboidea (86) are currently the
second most studied group, second to the
Cercopithecoidea (162) and followed closely by the
Hominoidea (68). The number of projects focussing
on Pongidae and cercopithecines in Africa has
remained largely stable, whilst in Asia they have
increased. More specifically, studies of orang-utans
have doubled and studies on cercopithecines have
quadrupled since the last supplement. It appears
that the focus on colobines has faded slightly in


Africa over the last two years, but intensified in
Asia, whereas studies of prosimians and
Hylobatidae have remained much the same.

For the Americas, field studies are listed for the
following countries: Argentina (4); Barbados (1);
Belize (1); Bolivia (6); Brazil (28); Colombia (4);
Costa Rica (7); Ecuador (2); Frnch Guiana (1);
Guatemala (2); Mexico (16); Panama (2); Peru (3);
Puerto Rico (4); St.Kitts (1); Venezuela (6). The
aims listed for the studies are dominated by aspects
of conservation, although the study of
psychological issues in free-ranging and feral
primates has become more popular, as has a more
general biological and ecological orientation.

The Field Studies Supplement is available from the
PSGB Treasurer (4.00): Dr Robin Crompton,
Department of Human Anatomy and Cell Biology,
PO Box 147, Liverpool L69 3BX, UK. Please send
information about your current field studies for the
next issue of the Supplement, and those who did
not contribute to the 1994 supplement are strongly
encouraged to get in touch at the address below so
that the listing can be as complete as possible and
furnish accurate data on the trends regarding
studies of primates in the wild.
Julia M. Casperd, Department of Anthropology,
University of College London, Gower Street,
London WCIE 6BT, UK. E-mail: ucsajmc@
ucl.ac.uk.


Recent Publications


BOOKS


Marmosets and Tamarins in Captivity,
edited by R.Colley, 72pp., 1992. Association of
British Wild Animal Keepers (ABWAK). Price
9.50. Proceedings of Symposium 17 of ABWAK,
Chester Zoo. Available from: Natural History Book
Service Ltd., 2-3 Wills Road, Totnes, Devon TQ9
5XN, UK. Fax: +44 803 865280.

Mata Atldntica: Evoluqdo dos
Remanescentes Florestais e Ecossistemas
Associados do Dominio da Mata Atldntica
no Periodo 1985-1990 Relat6rio, by the
Fundagdo SOS Mata Atlantica and Instituto
Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sdo
Paulo, 46pp., 1993. An analysis of the destruction
of the Brazilian Atlantic forest between 1985 and
1990, based on maps scale 1:250,000, in the
following states: Bahia, Minas Gerais, Goids, Mato


Page 28





Neotropical Primates 2(2), June 1994


Grosso do Sul, Sio Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Espirito
Santo, Parana, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do
Sul (the north-east Brazilian states will be the
subject of a subsequent publication). Contact:
Fundag5o SOS Mata AtlAntica, Rua Manoel de
Nobrega 456, 04001-001 Sao Paulo, Sto Paulo,
Brazil. Tel: (011) 887-1195, Fax: (011) 885-1680.

Utilizaci6n de la Fauna Silvestre en
Amdrica Latina: Situaci6n y Perspectivas
para un Manejo Sostenible, by Juhani Ojasti,
248pp., 1993. Guia FAO Conservaci6n 25,
Organizaci6n de las Naciones Unidas para la
Agriculture y la Alimentaci6n (FAO), Roma. In
Spanish. ISBN 92-5-303316-9. Contents:
Introduction; Patterns of Use; Principal Species
and Groups (turtles, lizards and snakes, caimans,
ducks, cracids, armadillos, primates, carnivores,
manatees, tapir, peccaries, camelids, deer, rodents,
hares and rabbits); Administrative, Socioeconomic
and Environmental Aspects; General Discussion
and Conclusions; Recommendations; Bibliography;
Appendices. Available from: United Nations, Food
and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), Viale delle
Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy. Fax:
52253152, 5782610, or 52255155.

Directorio de Centros de Capacitaci6n y
de Investigaci6n de la Pan-Amazonia
Miembros de la UNAMAZ, by Bernard Pirson,
503pp., 1993. Asociaci6n de Universidades
Amaz6nicas (UNAMAZ), Universidade Federal do
Para, Belim. This book is number 3 of the Serie
Informaci6n Amaz6nica of UNAMAZ. It is a
detailed catalogue of research institutions, training
centers, and universities in the Amazonian regions
of the nine Amazonian countries: Bolivia, Brazil,
Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru,
Suriname, and Venezuela. Contact: Coordenadoria
de Divulgaqio, UNAMAZ, Caixa Postal 558,
Bel6m, Para, Brazil. Fax: 010 55 (91) 224-2055.

Reframing the Green Window: An Analysis
of the GEF Pilot Phase Approach to
Biodiversity and Global Warming and
Recommendations for the Operation
Phase, by Ian A.Bowles and Glenn T.Prickett,
133pp., 1994. Conservation International (CI) and
Natural Resources Defence Council (NRDC),
Washington, D.C. Foreword by Russell
A.Mittermeier, President of Conservation
International, and John H. Adams, Executive
Director of the Natural Resources Defence Council.
This report looks at six GEF projects with a focus
on four themes: 1) the ability of GEF projects to


leverage policy and institutional changes; 2)
whether the GEF was addressing "priorities" at the
national or international level; 3) ownership who
in a wide range of stakeholders owns a given GEF
initiative; and 4) the nettlesome concept of
"incremental costs". Includes an Executive
Summary, and the following chapters: Global Life
Support Systems at Risk (discussions of global
climate change and biodiversity); GEF: The Pilot
Approach (What is the GEF?, Climate Change
Portfolio, and Biodiversity Portfolio); CI/NRDC
Analysis (methodology and case studies for Brazil -
Wood Brazilian Power Demonstration Project;
Mexico ILUMEX; Nigeria Escravos Flared Gas
Reduction; Bolivia Biodiversity Conservation
Project; Colombia Biopacific Project; and
Indonesia Biodiversity Conservation Project);
Recommendations for Reform; Conclusion;
Appendices (case studies); and Terms of Reference.
Available from: Legislative Programs,
Conservation International, 1015 18th Street NW,
Washington, D.C. 20036, USA, or Natural
Resources Defence Council, 1350 New York
Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20005, USA.

Systematics and Conservation Evaluation,
edited by P.L.Forey, C.J.Humphries and R.I.Vane-
Wright, 350pp., 1994. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
Price 50.00. This collection of essays reflects the
wide range of views that are held of what
constitutes biodiversity; from its perception in
terms of species numbers, categorization of
landforms, or different ecological levels, to a
dynamic and socio-political need for our own
survival. The problems of matching species
numbers, variety and the systematic hierarchy to
geographic areas which may wish to be saved are
also addressed. Given the need to set priorities for
conservation, it is suggested that the preservation
of the systematic hierarchy as the most complete
representation of the evolutionary legacy should
be the goal of conservation, and ways are proffered
by which this may be accomplished. Features:
Provides a synthesis of systematics and
conservation; Outlines methods for selecting
priority areas for conservation; Challenges the
concepts of 'megadiversity' and 'hotspots';
Discusses the problems of monitoring and
establishing databases. Available from: Oxford
University Press Distribution Services, Saxon Way
West, Corby, Northants NN18 9ES, England, UK.
Fax: 536 746 337.

Rainforest Remedies: One Hundred
Healing Herbs of Belize, by Rosita Arvigo and
Michael Balick, 255pp., 1993. Lotus Press, Twin
Lakes. Price US$9.95 (+$1.50 shipping). A


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Neotropical Primates 2(2), June 1994 Page 30


document on the ethnobotany of the rain forest
medicinal plants as well as the little-known
practices of healers. Available from: Lotus Press,
PO Box 325, Twin Lakes, WI 53181, USA. Fax:
(414) 889-8591.

The View from Airlie: Community Based
Conservation in Perspective, edited and
published by the Liz Claiborne and Art Ortenberg
Foundation, New York. 33pp., 1994. A brief
narrative sampling of the discussions that occurred
during the "Community Based Conservation
Workshop" held at Airlie, Virginia, in October
1993. The Workshop was sponsored by the Liz
Claiborne and Art Ortenberg Foundation. The
document is intended to convey the Foundation's
perceptions of the event. The full proceedings (in
press) have been edited by David Western (Wildlife
Conservation Society, Kenya), Michael Wright
(The Nature Conservancy, USA) and Shirley
Strum (WCS, Kenya). Available from: Liz
Claiborne and Art Ortenberg Foundation, 650 Fifth
Avenue, New York, NY 10019, USA.

The Digestive System in Mammals: Food,
Form, and Function, edited by David J.Chivers
and Peter Langer, 400pp., 1994. Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge. Price 55.00. Covers
a wide range of topics including gut function,
foraging and digestion, and nutritional ecology.
Available from: Natural History Book Service Ltd.,
2-3 Wills Road, Totnes, Devon TQ9 5XN, UK.
Fax: +44 803 865280.

ARTICLES
Agoramoorthy, G. and Rudran, R. 1993. Male
dispersal among free-ranging red howler
monkeys (Alouatta seniculus) in Venezuela.
Folia Primatol., 61:92-96.
Alvard, M.S. 1994. The sustainablity of primate
hunting in the neotropics: data from native
communities. Am.J.Phys.Anthrop., (Suppl. 18):
49. (Abstract).
Bidwell, J.L., Lu, P., Wang, Y., Zhou, K., Clay,
T.M. and Bontrop, R.E. 1994. DRB, DQA, DQB
and DPB nucleotide sequences of Saguinus
oedipus B95-8. European J.inmunogenet., 21 (1):
67-77.
Boinski, S. 1994. "Primate behavior: Information,
Social Knowledge, and the Evolution of Culture",
by D.Quiatt et al., Cambridge University Press,
New York, 1993, 322pp. Amn.J.Phys.Anthrop.,
93(3):399-400. (Book review).
Brown, L.M. 1994. Why are there no terrestrial
New World monkeys? Am.J.Phys.Anthrop.,
(Suppl. 18): 60. (Abstract).


Burnell, C.L., Teaford, M.F. and Glander, K.E.
1994. Dental microwear differs by capture site in
live-caught Alouatta from Costa Rica.
Am.J.Phys.Anthrop., (Suppl.18): 62. (Abstract).
Calegaro-Marques, C. and Bicca-Marques, J.C.
1993. Allomaternal care in the black howler
monkey (Alouatta caraya). Folia Primatol.,
61:104-109.
Cheverud, J., Routman, E., Jaquish, C., Tardif, S.,
Peterson, G., Belfiore, N. and Forman, L. 1994.
Quantitative and molecular variation in captive
cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus).
Conservation Biology, 8(1):95-105.
Chiarello, A.G. 1994. Diet of the brown howler
monkey Alouatta fusca in a semi-deciduous
forest fragment of southeastern Brazil. Primates,
35(1):25-34.
Cole, T.M., III 1994. Skull growth and
morphological integration in red howler monkeys
(Alouatta seniculus). Ainm.J.Phys.Anthrop.,
(Suppl. 18): 69. (Abstract).
Cuba-Cuba, C.A. and Marsden, P.D. 1993.
Marmosets in New World leishmaniasis research.
Medicine, 53(5): 419-423.
Cunningham, E.P. 1994. A preliminary analysis of
a Pithecia pithecia long call. Amn.J.Phys.Anthrop.
(Suppl.18):74-75. (Abstract).
Davis, L.C. 1994. Locomotor and postural
adaptations of an unusual platyrrine, Callimico
goeldii. Am.J.Phys.Anthrop., (Suppl.18): 84.
(Abstract).
Diamond, A.C. and McGrew, W.C. 1994. True
handedness in the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus
oedipus)? Primates, 35(1): 69-77.
Digby, L.J. Infanticide, infant care and female
reproductive strategies in a wild population of
common marmosets. Am.J.Phys.Anthrop.
(Suppl.18): 80-81. (Abstract).
Dolins, F.L. 1994. Cotton-top tamarins' use of
spatial relational learning in foraging.
Amn.J.Phys.Anthrop., (Suppl.18): 81. (Abstract).
Fahrig, L. and Merriam, G. 1994. Conservation of
fragmented populations. Conservation Biology,
8(1):286-290.
Fernandes, M.E.B. 1993. Tail-wagging as a
tension relief mechanism in pithecines. Folia
Primatol., 61:52-56.
Fleagle, J.G. and Reed, K.E. 1994. Comparing
primate communities: patterns of diversity and
density. Am.J.Phys.Anthrop., (Suppl.18): 87.
(Absract).
Ford, S.M. and Hobbs, D.G. 1994. Species
differentiation in the postcranial skeleton of
Cebus. Am.J.Phys.Anthrop., (Suppl.18): 88.
(Abstract).
French, J.A. 1994. Neoconservatism for
Neotropical primates: the multinational approach


Neotropical Primates 2(2), June 1994


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Page 31 Neotropical Primates 2(2), June 1994


a review of "Primates of the Americas",
P.Arambulo, III et al. (eds.), Battelle Press,
Columbus, 1993, 314pp. Am.J.Primatol.,
32(3):227-230.
Froehlich, J.W. and Froehlich, P.H. 1994.
Microtaxonomy and dermatoglyphics of Central
American howling monkeys (Alouatta).
Am.J.Phys.Anthrop., (Suppl.18): 90. (Abstract).
Galetti, M. and Pedroni, F. 1994. Seasonal diet of
capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) in a
semideciduous forest in south-east Brazil. J.
Trop. Ecol., 10(1):27-39.
Galetti, M., Pedroni, F. and Morellato, L.P.C.
1994. Diet of the brown howler monkey Alouatta
fusca in a forest fragment in southeastern Brazil.
Mammalia, 58(1): 111-118.
Garber, P.A. and Dolins, F.L. 1994. Use of spatial
information and perceptual cues in primate
foraging behavior. Am.J.Phys.Anthrop.,
(Suppl.18): 92. (Abstract).
Gilbert, K.A. 1994. Prevalence of endoparasitic
infection in red howler monkeys.
Am.J.Phys.Anthrop., (Suppl.18): 94. (Abstract).
Helvacioglu, A., Aksel, S., Yeoman, R.R.,
Williams, L.E. and Abee, C.R. 1994. Age-related
hormonal differences in cycling squirrel monkeys
(Saimiri boliviensis boliviensis). Am.J.Primatol.,
32(3):207-213.
Hess, G. 1994. Conservation corridors and
contagious disease: a cautionary note.
Conservation Biology, 8(1): 256-262.
Hirasaki, E., Kumakara, H. and Matano, S. 1993.
Biomechanical analyses of vertical climbing in
Macaca fuscata and Ateles geoffroyi (1).
Reichorui Kenkyu/Primate Research, 9(3):292.
(In Japanese, Abstract).
Izawa, K., Solano, C. and Porras, M. 1993.
"Sumiwake" of Aotus and Callicebus. Reichorui
Kenkyu/Primate Research, 9(3):265. (In
Japanese, Abstract).
James, R.A. and Karl, S.A. 1994. Genetic
relationships among A louatta genera.
Am.J.Phys.Anthrop., (Suppl.18): 115. (Abstract).
Jaquish, C.E., Cheverud, J.M. and Tardif, S.D.
1994. Relationships between infant growth and
survival in the common marmoset (Callithrix
jacchus). Am.J.Phys.Anthrop., (Suppl.18): 116.
(Abstract).
Kay, R.F. and Madden, R.H. 1994. Paleoecology of
an equatorial Miocene neotropical vertebrate
assemblage. Am.J.Phys.Anthrop., (Suppl.18):
120. (Abstract).
Kimura, K. 1993. Social relations among adult
males in the red howler monkey group. Reichorui
Kenkyu/Primate Research, 9(3):275. (In
Japanese, Abstract).


Koenig, A. and Rothe, H. 1994. Effects of
familiarity on the behaviour towards intruders in
captive common marmosets (Callithrixjacchus).
Primates, 35(1): 89-93.
Leigh, S.R. 1994. Relations between captive and
noncaptive weights in anthropoid primates. Zoo
Biology, 13(1):21-43.
Lemelin, P. 1994. Manual grasping behavior in
Saguinus midas and its relevance for early
primate evolution. Am.J.Phys.Anthrop.,
(Suppl.18): 128-129. (Abstract).
Mallinson, J.J.C. 1994. Saving the world's richest
rainforest. The Biologist, 41(2):57-60.
Martin, L.B., Kinzey, W.G. and Mass, M.C. 1994.
Enamel thickness in pithecine primates.
Am.J.Phys.Anthrop., (Suppl.18): 138. (Abstract).
Masterson, T.J. 1994. A comparison of cranial
sexual dimorphism in the white-fronted capuchin
(Cebus albifrons) and the tufted capuchin (Cebus
apella). Am.J.Phys.Anthrop., (Suppl.18): 142.
(Abstract).
Meldrum, D.J. and Fleagle, J.G. 1994. New
postcranial fossils and positional behavior
diversity in extinct Patagonian primates.
Am.J.Phys.Anthrop., (Suppl.18): 146. (Abstract).
Molinari, J. 1993. El mutualismo entire frugivoros
y plants en las selvas tropicales: aspects
paleobiol6gicos, autecol6gicos, papel
comunitario. Acta Biol. Venez., 14(4): 1-44.
Natori, M. 1994. Craniometrical variations among
eastern Brazilian marmosets and their systematic
relationships. Primates, 35(2): 167-176.
Nisbett, R.A. 1994. A naturalistic positional
behavior study of the problematic 'climbing'
category in a New World arboreal quadruped.
Am.J.Phys.Anthrop., (Suppl.18): 153-154.
(Abstract).
Noble, V.E., Teaford, M.F. and Glander, K.E.
1994. Dental microwear in wild-caught
Brachyteles and other cebid genera. Am.J.Phys.
Anthrop., (Suppl.18): 154. (Abstract).
Nunney, L. and Elam, D. 1994. Estimating the
effective population size of conserved
populations. Conservation Biology, 8(1):175-
184.
Peres, C.A. 1993. Anti-predation benefits in a
mixed-species group of Amazonian tamarins.
Folia Primatol., 61:61-76.
Peres, C.A. 1993. Notes on the primates of the
Jurua River, western Brazilian Amazonia. Folia
Primatol., 61:97-103.
Peres, C.A. 1994. Exploring solutions for the
tropical biodiversity crisis. Trends in Ecology
and Evolution, 9(5):164-165.
Peres, C.A. 1994. Primate responses to
phenological changes in an Amazonian terra
firme forest. Biotropica, 26(1):98-112.


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Neotropi cal Primates 2(2), June 1994 Page 32


Pifieros, M.C. 1994. Population characteristics of
spider monkeys (A teles geoffroyi panamensis) in
Parque Nacional Corcovado, Costa Rica.
Am.J.Phys.Anthrop., (Suppl.18): 160. (Abstract).
Propst, K.B. 1994. An analysis of wood gouging
and scraping by captive marmosets.
Am.J.Phys.Anthrop., (Suppl.18): 163. (Abstract).
Reddy, S.M., Ray, A.K. and Gupta, P. 1992. The
assisted reproductive technologies (ART) in
conserving endangered wildlife: a review.
Proceedings of the Zoological Society, Calcutta,
45 (Suppl.A): 149-159.
Riede, K. 1993. Monitoring biodiversity: analysis
of Amazonian rainforest sounds. Ambio,
22(8):546-548.
Riley, G., Lanter, C. and Froehlich, J.W. 1994.
Cranial nonmetric character distribution,
geographic dispersion, and taxonomy of South
American spider monkeys (Ateles).
Am.J.Phys.Anthrop., (Suppl.18): 169-170.
Roush, R.S. and Snowdon, C.T. 1994. Ontogeny of
food-associated calls in cotton-top tamarins.
Anim.Behav., 47:263-273.
Sato, S. 1993. Social interactions of Cebus apella,
a case study. Reichorui Kenkyu/Primate
Research, 9(3):274. (In Japanese, Abstract).
Savage, A., Giraldo, L.H., Blumer, E.S., Soto,
L.H., Burger, W. and Snowdon, C.T. 1993. Field
techniques for monitoring cotton-top tamarins
(Saguinus oedipus oedipus) in Colombia. Am. J.
Primatol., 31:189-196.
Sawada, T. and Saito, R. 1993. Infant-carrying
behavior of laboratory born common marmoset
(Callithrix jacchus). Reichorui Kenkyu/Primate
Research, 9(3):276. (In Japanese, Abstract).
Schneider, H., Harada, M.L., Encarnaci6n, F. and
Montoya, E. 1993. Comparison of ABO blood
groups from two species of Peruvian squirrel
monkeys (Saimiri sciureus macrodon, Saimiri
boliviensis peruviensis) with a natural population
of S.b.peruviensis S.s.macrodon hybrids.
Rev.Bras. Genet., 16(3):661-669.
Schneider, H., Schneider, M.P.C., Sampaio, I.,
Harada, M.L., Stanhope, M., Czelusniak, J. and
Goodman, M. 1993. Molecular phylogeny of the
New World monkeys (Platyrrhini, Primates).
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 2(3):
225-242.
Schoeninger, M.J., Iwaniec, U.T. and Glander,
K.E. 1994. Stable isotope variation in Costa
Rican primates: implications for diet selectivity.
Am.J.Phys.Anthrop., (Suppl.18): 178. (Abstract).
Silva, G.S.da and Monteiro da Cruz, M.A.O. 1993.
Comportamento e composiqAo de um grupo de
Callithrix jacchus Erxleben (Primates,
Calitrichidae) na Mata de Dois Irmnos, Recife,


Pernambuco, Brasil. Revta. Bras. Zool.,
10(3):509-520.
Strier, K.B. and Kelley, J. 1994. Male aggression
and canine size in atelines and hominoids.
Am.J.Phys.Anthrop., (Suppl.18): 191. (Abstract).
Takai, M. and Anaya, F. 1993. New specimens of
the oldest fossil platyrrhine (Branisella
boliviana) from Salla, Bolivia. Reichorui
Kenkyu/Primate Research, 9(3):287. (In
Japanese, Abstract).
Tanaka, H., Inagaki, H. and Yamashita, T. 1993.
A preliminary study on blood protein
polymorphisms in capuchins. Reichorui
Kenkyu/Primate Research, 9(3):371. (In
Japanese, Abstract).
Teaford, M.F., Pastor, R.F., Glander, K.E. and
Ungar, P.S. Dental microwear and diet: Costa
Rican Alouatta revisited. Am.J.Phys. Anthrop.,
(Suppl.18): 194. (Abstract).
Ueno, Y. 1993. How can tufted capuchins
discriminate urine odors from five different
species? Reichorui Kenkyu/Primate Research,
9(3):276. (In Japanese, Abstract).
Walker, S.E. 1993. Positional adaptation and
ecology of the Pitheciini (Pithecia pithecia,
Chiropotes satanas, Cacajao calvus).
Dissertation Abstracts International
A54(9):3497, 1994. (University Microfilms, Inc.,
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106, #AAD94-05596).
Walker, S.E. 1994. Habitat use by Pithecia
pithecia and Chiropotes satanas.
Am.J.Phys.Anthrop., (Suppl. 18): 203. (Abstract).
Westergaard, G.C. and Suomi, S.J. 1993. Hand
preference in the use of nut-cracking tools by
tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Folia
Primatol., 61:38-42.
Westergaard, G.C. and Suomi, S.J. 1994. The use
and modification of bone tools by capuchin
monkeys. Current Anthropology, 35(1): 75-77.
Westergaard, G.C. and Suomi, S.J. 1994.
Hierarchical complexity of combinatorial
manipulation in capuchin monkeys (Cebus
apella). Am.J.Primatol., 32(3): 171-176.


Meetings

1994
CHEMICAL SIGNALS IN VERTEBRATES VII, 18-22
July 1994, University of Tuibingen, Tilbingen,
Germany. A symposium on the multidisciplinary
study of chemical signals (olfaction and taste) in
all vertebrates including humans. Contact: Prof.Dr
R.Apfelbach, University of Tubingen, Dept. of
Zoology, Auf der Morgenstelle 28, 72076


Neotropical Primates 2(2), June 1994


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Page 33 Neotropical Primates.2(2), June 1994


Tibingen, Germany. Tel: 49-7071-292624, Fax:
49-7071-294634.

I ENCONTRO CIENTIFICO DA RESERVE DA
BIOSFERA DA MATA ATL^ANTICA, 19 e 20 de julho
de 1994, Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo,
Vit6ria, Brasil. Organizado pelo Conselho
Nacional da Reserva da Biosfera da Mata AtlAntica
(RBMA) e o Instituto de Pesquisas da Mata
Atlintica (Ipema). Contact: Sdrgio Lucena
Mendes, Museu de Biologia Mello Leitio, Santa
Teresa, 29650-000 Espirito Santo, Brasil. Tel/Fax:
(027) 259-1182.

JOINT ANNUAL MEETING ANIMAL BEHAVIOR
SOCIETY (ABS) AND AMERICAN SOCIETY OF
PRIMATOLOGIST (APS), ABS 23-28 July 1994,
ASP 27-31 July 1994, Regional Primate Research
Center, University of Washington, Seattle. A joint
meeting will be held on 28 July. Contact: James C.
Ha (jcha@u.washington.edu) or Carolyn Crockett
(crocket@u.washington.edu), Primate Center SJ-
50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195,
USA. Tel: (206) 543-1440.

XX CONGRESS BRASILEIRO DE ZOOLOGIA, 24-
29 de julho de 1994, Universidade Federal do Rio
de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro. A tematica a ser
abordada estA baseada na questao: "Os Rumos da
Zoologia", incluindo aspects referentes a
SistemAtica, pesquisa bAsica e aplicada, filosofia e
historic de zoologia, cole6oes, publicac6es e a dtica
de zoologia. As political referentes as legislates
ambientais, areas de protecgo e esp6cies ameacadas
de extinoo, terfo espagos em mesas redondas e/ou
conferencias. Envio de resumes at6 30 de
novembro de 1993. Informacges: Secretaria do XX
CBZ, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade
Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, 21949-
900 Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Tel:
(021) 280-7993, 590-9522 r. 343 ou 340, Fax:
(021) 280-7993.

VI CONGRESS BRASILEIRO DE PRIMATOLOGIA,
24-29 de julho de 1994, Universidade Federal do
Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro. SerA realizado como
parte das atividades do XX Congresso Brasileiro de
Zoologia. Programagao: HorAcio Schneider/
Stephen F. Ferrari, Departamento de Genetica,
Universidade Federal do Para, Caixa Postal 8607,
66075-150 Beldm, ParA, Brasil. Fax: (091) 229-
9785, e-mail: ferrari@saci.ufpa.br. Outras
informac6es: Secretaria do XX CBZ,
Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal
do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, 21949-900 Rio
de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.


4TH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF VERTEBRATE
MORPHOLOGY, 31 July-4 August 1994, Chicago.
Contact: Dr Susan Herring, Chair, ICVM
Organizing Committee, Department of
Orthodontics SM-46, University of Washington,
Seattle, Washington 98195, USA, Tel: (206) 543-
3203, Fax: (206) 685-8163, e-mail:
HERRING@u.washington.edu.

XVTH CONGRESS OF THE INTERNATIONAL
PRIMATOLOGICAL SOCIETY, 3-8 August 1994,
Kuta, Bali, Indonesia. Organizers: Directorate
General of Forest Protection and Nature
Conservation (PHPA), the Indonesian Wildlife
Society (IWS) and the International Primatological
Society (IPS). The theme of the Congress will be
"Biodiversity Conservation to Enrich Life and
Option for Progress". Contacts: Secretariat, 15th
IPS Congress, c/o M.I.C.E. Division, PT Bayu
Buana Gelar Pariwicara, Wisma Bank Dharmala
19th Floor, JI.Jend.Sudirman, Kav. 28, Jakarta
12910, Indonesia, or Dr Linda Prasetyo, c/o Perth
Zoo, 20 Labouchere Road, Western Australia 6151,
Australia, Tel: 09 368-1916, Fax: 09 367-3921, or
Dr Soegardjito WWF/US Asia-Pacific Program,
1250 Twenty-fourth Street, N.W., Washington,
D.C. 20037, USA, Tel: (202) 861-8300, Fax: (202)
223-6971.

VTH INTERNATIONAL BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY
CONGRESS, 14-20 August 1994, University of
Nottingham, England. Contact: ISBE 1994,
Conference Nottingham, The Business Information
Centre, 309 Haydn Road, Nottingham NG5 IDC,
UK.

VITH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF ECOLOGY:
ECOLOGICAL PROGRESS TO MEET THE
CHALLENGE OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE, 20-26
August 1994, University of Manchester, England.
Symposia include: Learning from the Past (org.
A.G.Hildrew, R.M.May); Predicting Outside our
Experience (org. J.Grace, R.M.May); Managing
Change and Uncertainty (org. M.V.Angel,
P.J.Grubb). Symposia + related poster sessions will
be organized around the following titles: General
Ecology; Applied Ecology; Geographical Regions
and Ecosystems; Ecological Affairs. Deadline for
abstracts: 15 September 1993. Registration
deadline: 1 May 1994. Contact: The Secretary, VI
International Congress of Ecology, The
Manchester Conference Centre, U.M.I.S.T.,
P.O.Box 88, Manchester M60 IQD, England.

1994 ANNUAL MEETING OF THE CAPTIVE
BREEDING SPECIALIST GROUP (CBSG), 26-28
August 1994, hosted by the Fundagio Parque


Page 33


Neotropical Primates2(2), June 1994






Neotropical Primates 2('2), June 1994 Page 34


Zool6gico de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo. To be held in
the Sao Paulo Hilton. Contact: CBSG Conference
Coordinator, Marsans International, Rua Sete de
Abril 404. 110 Andar, 01044-000 Sio Paulo, Sao
Paulo, Brazil. Tel: 55 11 255-5744, Fax: 55 11
255-2478.
VI CONGRESS LATINOAMERICANO DE BOTANICA
Y XXIV JORNADAS ARGENTINAS DE BOTANICA, 2-
8 October 1994, Mar del Plata, Argentina.
Organizers: Asociaci6n Latinoamericana de
Botanica y Sociedade Argentino de BotAnica.
Contact: Secretaria Ejecutiva, Ren6e H.Fortunato,
Institute de Recursos Biol6gicos, C.C.R.N.,
I.N.T.A., 1712 Castelar, Provincia de Buenos
Aires, Argentina. Tel: 54 1 621-0840, 621-1819,
624-6903. Fax: 54 1 481-2360.
RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING,
3-7 October 1994, Niter6i, Brazil. Contact: Roberto
Pereira da Cunha, INPE, Caixa Postal 12201, Sao
Jos6 dos Campos, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

FOREST CANOPIES ECOLOGY, BIODIVERSITY
AND CONSERVATION, 10-13 November 1994,
Marie Selby Botanical Gardens, Sarasota, Florida,
USA. Contact: Dr Meg Lowman, Director of
Research, Selby Botanical Gardens, 811 South
Palm Avenue, Sarasota, Florida 34236, USA.

EUROPEAN MARMOSET RESEARCH GROUP, 1ST
GENERAL ASSEMBLY, November 1994, Paris.
Includes the inaugural workshop of the European
Marmoset Research Group (EMRG) with the
theme "Fundamental and Applied Aspects of
Marmoset Science", including spoken review
papers and specialist spoken posters in six broad
fields of fundamental and applied science. Topics
include: Housing and Husbandry; Nutrition and
Health; Social and Reproductive Biology; Learning
and the Central Nervous System; and Physiology.
Anthony B.Rylands will present the special guest
lecture on "The Callitrichidae: a Biological
Overview". The edited proceedings will be
published as a "EMRG Laboratory Handbook of
Marmoset Science". Contact: Christopher Pryce,
Anthropologisches Institut, Universitat Ziirich-
Irchel, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zuirich,
Switzerland.
II CONGRESS BRASILEIRO DE ECOLOGIA, 5-9
December 1994, Londrina State University,
Parand, Brazil. Contact: Dr Ndlio Roberto dos
Reis, Coordenador Cientifico do II CBE,
Departamento de Biologia Animal e Vegetal,
Centro de Ciencias Biol6gicas, Campus
UniversitArio, Universidade Estadual de Londrina,


Caixa Postal 6001, Londrina 86051, Parana,
Brazil, Tel: (0432) 21-2000, Fax: (0432) 27-6932.



Contributions


We would be most grateful if you could send us
information on projects, research groups, events
(congresses, symposia, and workshops), recent
publications, activities of primatological societies
and NGOs, news items or opinions of recent events
and suchlike, either in the form of manuscripts
(double-spaced) or in diskettes for PC compatible
text-editors (MS-Word, Wordperfect, Wordstar).
Articles, not exceeding six pages, can include
small black-and-white photographs, figures, maps,
tables and references, but please keep them to a
minimum.

Please send contributions to the editors: ANTHONY
RYLANDS, Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de
Ciencias Biol6gicas, Universidade Federal de
Minas Gerais, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Brazil,
Fax: (031) 441-1412, or c/o Conservation
International, Avenida Ant6nio Abrahao Caram
820/302, Pampulha, 31275-000 Belo Horizonte,
Minas Gerais, Brazil, Fax: (031)441-2582 or
ERNESTO RODRIGUEZ LUNA, Parque de La Flora y
Fauna Silvestre Tropical, Universidad
Veracruzana, Apartado Postal 566, Xalapa,
Veracruz 91000, Mexico, Fax: (281) 8-77-30.

LILIANA CORTES-ORTIZ (Universidad Veracruzana)
and MIRIAM MENEZES LIMA (Conservation
International, Belo Horizonte) provide invaluable
editorial assistance. LUDMILLA AGUIAR,
Conservation International Brazil Program, Belo
Horizonte (address above), is responsible for the
distribution of Neotropical Primates. Please keep
us informed of any address changes.

Correspondence, messages, and texts can be sent to
Anthony Rylands/Ludmilla Aguiar: cibrasil@ax.apc.org
Fundacgo Biodiversitas: cdcb@ax.apc.org

NEOTROPICAL PRIMATES is produced in
collaboration with Conservation International,
1015 18th Street NW, Suite 1000, Washington DC
20036, USA, and Fundaoio Biodiversitas, Rua
Maria Vaz de Melo 71, Dona Clara, Belo
Horizonte 31260-110, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Design and Composition YURI L. R. LEITE and
RICARDO B. MACHADO, Biodiversity Conservation
Data Center (CDCB), Fundaqao Biodiversitas.


Neotropical Primates 2(2), June 1994


Page 34
























































NEOTROPICAL PRIMATES
Anthony Rylands/Emesto Rodriguez Luna, Editors
Conservation International
Avenida Ant6nio Abrahlo Caram 820/302
31275-000, Belo Horizonte
Minas Gerais, Brazil


Recognizing the outstanding contribution of the IUCN/SSC volunteer networks of
biodiversity experts worldwide for the conservation of endangered species, Earthkind
(The Humane Society's international arm) has joined us in supporting this newsletter.
The chairman and the editors extend their thanks and welcome Earthkind in this
initiative.

Earthkind do Brasil, Caixa Postal 91160, 25620 Petr6polis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Tel: +55 24 242-3807, Fax: +55 24 242-3200. Executive Director: ClAudia Menezes.


*Nd




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