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Title: Neotropical primates
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098814/00005
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Title: Neotropical primates a newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCNSSC Primate Specialist Group
Abbreviated Title: Neotrop. primates
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
Conservation International
Center for Applied Biodiversity Science
Publisher: Conservation International
Place of Publication: Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Publication Date: March 1994
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Primates -- Periodicals -- Latin America   ( lcsh )
Primates -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Wildlife conservation -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: review   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Brazil
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Language: English, Portuguese, and Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Mar. 1993)-
Issuing Body: Issued jointly with Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, <Dec. 2004->
General Note: Published in Washington, D.C., Dec. 1999-Apr. 2005 , Arlington, VA, Aug. 2005-
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 13, no. 1 (Apr. 2005).
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A Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group
Editors: Anthony B. Rylands and Ernesto Rodriguez Luna
PSG Chairman: Russell A. Mittermeier
PSG Deputy Chairman: William R. Konstant




Page 1 Neoropical Primates 1(3), September 1993



Summary: Primate populations are declining
throughout Amazonia due to overhunting. In the
Peruvian Amazon, primate captures for biomedical
research contribute only between 0.4-2.0% of the
primate harvests, while 98.0-99.6% can be
attributed to local hunters. In these forests
(covering an area of 203,260 km ) we estimate that
between 40,000-200,000 primates are harvested
annually. In western Amazonia, conservation
efforts must focus on effective ways to curb hunting
of primates by local people. Managing wildlife
hunting with local communities outside of fully
protected areas is likely to result in reduced
harvests of primates.

Introduction: Primate populations are declining
worldwide due to habitat destruction and
overhunting (Mittermeier, 1986). In the western
Amazon, overhunting is the major cause of the
decline in primate populations (Peres, 1990;
Puertas and Bodmer, 1993). In Peru, the impact of
live-capture of primates for biomedical research
has received much conservation attention (Proyecto
Peruano de Primatologia, 1990), but primate
conservation in this region must focus more on
finding real solutions to the overhunting of
primates by rural communities who live outside
fully protected areas. During the past ten years
there has been considerable attention devoted to
environmental education as a means of curbing
overhunting of primates in the western Amazon.
While this can be successful in some cases, it often
fails because market forces overwhelm the effect of

Here we present findings that suggest that one
means of curbing primate hunting in western
Amazonia is through community-based wildlife
management. First we show the urgency of
reducing primate hunting. We then show how
current harvests of primates are linked to the
market economy of rural people, and the
importance of involving local communities in
developing wildlife management programs that
integrate economics with primate conservation.

Primate Conservation in Western Amazonia: To
set up primate conservation efforts in western

Amazonia outside fully protected areas it is
necessary to question the focus of primate
conservation in the region. The impact of live-
trapping of primates for biomedical research has
been one focus of primate conservation in the
Peruvian Amazon. This market has concentrated
on the smaller species such as pygmy marmosets
(Cebuella pygmaea), tamarins (Saguinus), night
monkeys (Aotus), and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri).
Populations of small-bodied primates are generally
more abundant and have higher reproductive rates
than larger-bodied species (Robinson and Redford,
1986), enabling them to recover rapidly from

Conversely, curbing hunting of primates by rural
people has received little attention in western
Amazonia, except for the occasional environmental
education initiative. This lack of emphasis on
hunting is because killing of primates by local
people is illegal in the western Amazonian
countries. While legislation aims at controlling
hunting of primates, management authorities in
this region lack resources to enforce the laws,
which even if enforced would cause social conflict
between government bodies and rural
communities. Primate conservation efforts in the
western Amazon should concentrate more on the
effects of hunting: considerably more deleterious
than harvesting for biomedical research. Hunters
usually take larger-bodied primates such as woolly
monkeys (Lagothrix), howling monkeys (Alouatta),
spider monkeys (Ateles), capuchin monkeys
(Cebus) and sakis and uacaris (Pithecia and
Cacajao). Populations of these species are less
resilient than the smaller primates because they
have lower reproductive rates (Robinson and
Redford, 1986; Bodmer, 1994).

We estimated the annual offtake of primates by
local hunters and compared this to the annual
average harvest for biomedical research. Data on
hunting of primates came from two study sites in
northeastern Peru. One was the 500 km Tahuayo
site, which is heavily hunted. There we recorded a
total of 515 primates killed over a one year period
(Bodmer et al., 1994). The second area was the
250 km Yavari Miri site which is lightly hunted,
and where a total of 52 primates were killed during
one year. These localities are within the land use
category of Production Forests, which i2
northeastern Peru cover 203,260 km
(COREPASA, 1986). Taking these figures as
representative of heavily and lightly hunted areas,
we estimated that rural communities hunt
somewhere between 40,000 and 200,000 primates

Cover photograph by Russell Mittermeier: black howling monkey (Alouatta caraya), see page 7

Neoropical Primates 1(3), September 1993

Page 1

Neotropical Primates 2(j), March 1994 Page 2

research during ten years (Tapia et al., 1990). The
average of 817 primates captured annually means
that 98-99.6% of the annual loss to wild
populations from these two causes is due to
hunting rather than capture.

At least in western Amazonia, hunting is reducing
populations to such low levels that local extinctions
will become frequent. For example, in the heavily
hunted Tahuayo site the biomass of the lrger-
bodied primates was estimated at 157 kg/km less
than half that estimated for the lightly hunted
Yavari Miri site, which was 420 kg/km (Puertas
and Bodmer, 1993). The species most affected
were the woolly monkey, spider monkeys, saki
monkeys, white-fronted capuchin (Cebus
albifrons), and the brown capuchin (Cebus apella).

New Directions: Conservation education in the
western Amazon is a way of reducing the hunting
of primates by rural communities. However, while
this has been effective in some restricted areas, it
has not produced real changes in the hunting
pressures inflicted on primates in the Peruvian
Amazon as a whole. Poverty is the reason that
conservation education has not produced the
expected results. Indeed, hunting of primates is
linked to local market economies, and only by
integrating these economies with primate
conservation can we hope to curb current

The value of game meat in local markets is an
important factor (Bodmer, 1990). Although
primates are only infrequently commercialized,
they do play an important part in the economics of
game hunters who seek ungulates and large-bodied
rodents for their greater market accessibility
(selling them for cash) while the primates and
other smaller mammals are consumed by the
hunters and their families. Thus, the primates are
experiencing substantial harvesting as subsistence

Primate conservation efforts in western Amazonia
will be fruitless unless they take a new direction.
The focus must be on currently unmanaged game
hunting. The challenge lies in attaining effective
management programs in the context of
impoverished economies, with management
authorities unable to control with effect the rural
hunters and small unlicensed meat vendors.
Legislation governing wildlife is ineffectual when
dealing with these lower income groups, especially
in rural areas. By contrast, informal legislation
developed by the rural communities themselves can
be highly effective. Implementing community-

based wildlife management for primate
conservation requires the integration of the
socioeconomics of local people with the population
biology of the primates (Bodmer, 1993).

How might this be done? One example may be
found in the Reserva Comunal Tamshiyacu-
Tahuayo in northeastern Peru. Studies conducted
in this reserve have examined 1) the impact of
hunting on mammals, 2) the connections between
market sales and subsistence uses of mammals, and
3) ways to develop management programs with
local people that incorporate both the biological
responses of mammals to hunting pressure and the
economic implications involved in converting an
unmanaged system to one that is managed
(Bodmer, 1993).

Population analyses of game species in the Reserve
suggest that peccaries, deer, and large rodents are
not currently overhunted. In contrast, populations
of primates and tapirs are. Thus, a more
sustainable system would require that hunting
primates and tapirs should cease, and the harvest
of peccary, deer, and large rodents should be set at
or below current levels. The communities in the
Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo Reserve have established a
management program that allows hunters to cull a
greater proportion of males of species that are not
currently overharvested, while prohibiting the
hunting of species which were being overexploited.
This male-directed hunt does not increase the
current harvest of peccaries, deer and large
rodents, because only males are commercialized,
while females are used for subsistence. Of interest
is that this management program should
dramatically curb the hunting of primates, because
primate meat will be substituted by meat from
female peccaries, deer and large rodents. The
management program takes into account the rural
communities' needs while simultaneously reducing
the hunting of threatened species. It will have
short term costs for hunters, but there will be real
social benefits, because opportunity costs will be
outweighed by benefits incurred from future
hunting revenue.

To summarize, we suggest that to conserve
primates outside fully protected areas in western
Amazonia we need new directions which will
consider: 1) that local hunters should be the focus
of conservation efforts; 2) that unmanaged hunting
can be converted to managed hunting; and 3) that
wildlife management programs must integrate the
socioeconomics of rural peoples with the need to
conserve primates.

Neotropical Primates 2(1), March 1994

Page 2

Page 3 Neotropical Primates 2(1), March 1994

We thank I:Vilchez, L.Moya, and J.Penn for their
varied and kind assistance in preparing this
manuscript. The Chicago Zoological Society, the
Amazon Conservation Fund, the Universidad
Nacional de la Amazonia Peruana, the Proyecto
Peruano de Primatologia "Manuel Moro Sommo",
and the Direcci6n Regional de Recursos Naturales
y de Medio Ambiente, Loreto, provided logistic
and financial support.

Richard E. Bodmer, Tropical Conservation and
Development Program, Latin American Studies,
319 Grinter Hall, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida 32611-5531, USA, Pablo E.
Puertas, Instituto Veterinario de Investigaciones
Tropicales y de Altura, Apartado 621, Iquitos,
Peru, and Tula G. Fang, Facultad de Ciencias
Biol6gicas, Universidad Nacional de la Amazonia
Peruana, Plaza Serafin Filomeno, Iquitos, Peru.


Bodmer, R.E. 1993. Managing Wildlife with
Local Communities: The Case of the Reserva
Comunal Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo. Liz Calibome
and Art Ortenburg Foundation, Airli, Virginia,
Case Study 12b, 32pp.
Bodmer, R.E. 1994. Susceptibility of mammals to
overhunting in Amazonia. J. Wildl.Manage., in
Bodmer, R.E. Bendayin, N.Y., Moya, N.Y. and
Fang, T.G. 1990. Manejo de ungulados en la
Amazonia Peruana: analisis de la caza de
subsistencia y 1I comercializaci6n local, national y
international. Boletin de Lima, 70:49-56.
Bodmer, R.E., Fang, T.G., Moya, L. and Gill, R.
1993. Managing wildlife to conserve Amazonian
rainforests: population biology and economic
considerations of game hunting. Biol.Conserv.,
COREPASA. 1986. Plan Maestro de la Reserva
Nacional Pacaya-Samiria. Editorial e Imprensa
DESA, Loreto, Peru, 239pp.
Mittermeier, R.A. 1986. A global overview of
primate conservation. In: Primate Ecology and
Conservation, J.G.Else and P.C.Lee (eds.),
pp.325-340. Cambridge University Press,
Peres. C.A. 1990. Effects of hunting on western
Amazonian primate communities.
Biol.Conserv., 54:47-59.
Proyecto Peruano de Primatologia. 1990. La
Primatologia en el Peru: Investigaciones
Primatol6gicas. Propaceb, Lima, 624pp.
Puertas, P. and Bodmer, R.E. 1993. Conservation
of a high diversity primate assemblage.
Biodiversity and Conservation, 2:586-593.

Robinson, J.G. and Redford, K.H. 1986. Intrinsic
natural increase in Neotropical forest mammals:
relationship to phylogeny and diet. Oecologia,
Tapia, J., Encarnaci6n, F., Aquino, R., Moya, L.
and Soini, P. 1990. Censos poblacionales y saca
periodicas de primatas en la Amazonia Peruana
(1976-1985). In: La Primatologia en el Peru:
Investigaciones Primatol6gicas, Proyecto
Peruano de Primatologia (ed.), pp.325-341.
Propaceb, Lima.


Unexplained disappearances of primate infants
have been reported from a number of long-term
field studies, but rarely do observers encounter
living infants which have been abandoned by their
mothers and other group members. This report
describes one such discovery, involving a 4-month
old infant muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides) at
the Caratinga Biological Station (EBC), Minas
Gerais, Brazil, which was successfully returned to
her mother in the wild within 27 hours of contact.
Muriquis are among the most endangered primates
worldwide, and our active intervention was a
conscious effort on behalf of this species'

At 0750 h on 11 November 1992, observers
detected cries and movement from the forest floor
close to where the 48-member muriqui group had
spent the night. A female infant was sighted; she
was cold to the touch, her eyes were closed, and
her reflexes were poor. The rest of the group was
nowhere in sight. One observer (CN) brought the
infant back to the research house while another
(LO) searched for the group. The infant was given
a blanket for warmth, kept in a dimly lit room, and
bottle-fed whenever she cried with a mixture of 20
ml powdered milk (Nutricia, FAbrica de Laticinios
Nutricia S.A.) and 80 ml filtered and boiled water
(Table 1). After the second feeding, the infant's
temperature and reflexes appeared to return to
normal, and her eyes were open and clear.
Examination revealed no visible wounds or broken
bones; rough measurements are shown in Table 2.

By early afternoon, the rest of the study group was
located and the infant's identity was established by
confirming the presence of all other members,
which are distinguishable by their natural

Neotropical Primates 2(l), March 1994

Page 3

Neotropical Primates 2(1), March 1994 Page 4

Table 1. Infant feeding schedule

Date Feeding
11/11/92 1
12/11/92 13/14/15




20 ml
20 ml
10 ml
10 ml
10 ml
10 ml
20 ml
25 ml
20 ml
30 ml
30 ml
65 ml**
20 ml

*Composition of powdered milk: lactose-38%, protein-27%, fat-
26%, minerals-6%; preservatives-3%.
**Total for three early morning feeds (0000-0500).
markings. The infant's mother was travelling
alone, with visibly swollen nipples.

Bottle-feeding continued throughout the day and
night whenever the infant cried, and was
supplemented twice with mashed apple fed with a
teaspoon. Feeding quantities and frequencies are
shown in Table 1. Contact with the infant was
kept to a minimum; one observer (ARC) assumed
principle responsibility for the infant's care. A
small branch was brought in from the forest which
the infant clung to between feedings. Fecal and
urine samples were collected and frozen;
ectoparasites were preserved in 94% alcohol, and
sent to Dr.Michael Stuart at the University of
North Carolina-Ashville for identification. They
appeared to be a species of louse, Cebidicola
arnatus, which Stuart had previously identified
from Brachyteles at two other sites (unpublished).

On 12 November 1992, two observers tracked the
study group, while a third stayed with the infant at
the research house. When the group was located,
one observer kept the infant's mother in sight while
the other returned to the house to retrieve the
infant, which was carried to the forest inside the
blanket so that the other monkeys would not
witness her contact with humans. The infant
responded to vocalizations exchanged between
group members.

At 1039, the infant was left inside the blanket at
the base of a small tree closest to her mother; the
observers withdrew from view. The infant
immediately climbed the tree and vocalized. Her
mother had -been feeding; when her daughter
vocalized she immediately stopped and looked in

the direction of the calls. She spotted her infant,
and moved toward her. Other females in the group
also oriented toward the calls but did not approach.
At 1051, the mother pulled her infant onto her
back and began to move off. Two minutes later,
the infant climbed off her mother and screamed.
Her mother remained within a meter, calling to her
infant. At 1105, the infant approached her
mother's ventrum, but when her mother began to
move she separated herself and screamed again.
Her mother maintained close proximity, softly
clucking to her infant, and five minutes later, the
infant returned to her mother's ventrum and began
to suckle. The infant continued to nurse as her
mother began to move off as if no separation had
occurred. The infant is now apparently healthy
and developing normally.

We do not know why this infant was alone on the
forest floor in the first place. During the 10 years
that this group has been under study (Strier, 1991,
1992), falls involving infants and other age classes
have been observed occasionally, but usually they
climb back up the trees immediately or, in the case
of young infants, are immediately retrieved by their
mothers. In this case, the distance between the rest
of the group and the infant when she was
discovered suggests that she had been abandoned
after she fell. She was her mother's first offspring,
and it is possible that her mother's inexperience
was responsible for her neglect. In any case, the
infant's young age and poor condition when she
was found suggest that she would have died
without human intervention.

Once she was brought to the research house, two
options for her future were discussed. One was to
care for her until arrangements could be made to
send her to the Centro de Primatologia do Rio de
Janeiro where captive breeding facilities for this
species exist (Coimbra-Filho et al., 1993). In
addition to concern for her survival during the 10-
12 hours of transit, however, we have never
observed a wild female muriqui adopt an infant,
and we did not know how she would fare with
other unrelated muriquis in a captive setting.
Consequently we opted to attempt to return her to
her mother in the wild.

Table 2. Measurements of the 4-month old female
Brachyteles arachnoides.
Weight c.900 g (weighed with 5 kg scale)
Body length 21.0 cm (top of head to base of tail)
Tail length 27.0 cm (base of tail to point)
Foot length 8.0 cm (heel to tip of middle digit)
Hand length 6.0 cm (wrist to tip of middle digit)
Head length 9.5 cm (tip of nose to occipital)

Neotropical Primates 2(l), March 1994

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Page 5 Neotropical Primates 2(1), March 1994


Coimbra-Filho, A.F., Pissinatti, A.
and Rylands, A.B. 1993.
Breeding muriquis Brachyteles
arachnoides in captivity: the
experience of the Rio de Janeiro
Primate Centre (CPRJ -
FEEMA). Dodo, J. Wildl.
Preserve. Trusts, 29:66-77.
Strier, K. B. 1991. Demography
and conservation of an
endangered primate, Brachyteles
arachnoides. Conservation
Biology, 5:214-218.
Strier, K.B. 1992. Faces in the
Forest: The Endangered
Muriqui Monkeys of Brazil.
Oxford University Press, New

The success of the return may have been facilitated
by our ability to identify the infant and to release
her near her mother. Furthermore, by not feeding
the infant immediately prior to her release, she
may have been hungry and therefore more
responsive to her mother's initiative.

We recognize that similar recoveries of wild
primates may not always be merited. In particular,
if a primate has had extended contact with
humans, it may be risky to return it to the wild,
because it may transmit infectious pathogens.
Similarly, if a dependant infant cannot be returned
to its biological mother, releasing it in the wild
may be condemning it to starvation. However, the
success of our release indicates that such efforts are
feasible and, under circumstances similar to those
we describe, may be desirable, particularly for
species as endangered as the muriqui.

Cliudio P. Nogueira, Universidade de Guarulhos,
Rua Jos6 Bonificio 152, Cagapava, 12280-000 Sao
Paulo, Brazil, Ana Rosi D. Carvalho,
Departamento de Ciencias Biol6gicas,
Universidade de Taubate, Praga Marcelino
Monteiro 63, 12100 Taubat6, Sao Paulo, Brazil,
Lucio P. Oliveira, Departamento de Zoologia,
ICBG, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora,
36035-330 Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil,
Eduardo M. Veado, Estacgo Biol6gica. de
Caratinga, Caixa Postal 82, 36950-000 Ipanema,
Minas Gerais, Brazil, and Karen B. Strier,
Department of Anthropology, University of
Wisconsin Madison, 1180 Observatory Drive,
Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA.


Very few muriquis, Brachyteles arachnoides, have
been kept in captivity. Without exception, these
were housed in inappropriate cages and lacked
adequate husbandry, often being maintained alone,
or in conditions which were unfavourable for
reproduction, and receiving diets which in no way
corresponded to their nutritional requirements. The
continuing and drastic degradation and loss of
habitat for these monkeys, the Brazilian Atlantic
forest from the states of Bahia to Parand (see
Aguirre, 1971; Coimbra-Filho, 1972; Strier, 1992),
has long since obviated the urgent need for an ex
situ breeding program, and in 1984 the Rio de
Janeiro Primate Centre (CPRJ/FEEMA) completed
the construction of a large enclosure, designed
specifically for the species (Anon., 1985; Coimbra-
Filho et al., 1993). It was financed by Wildlife
Preservation Trust International (WPTI). It
consists of a large exercise area (15.4 x 5.8 x 4.7
m), with a lean-to at each end, one for preparing
food and the other as a retreat for the animals and
to facilitate their capture. Part of one end of the
exercise area is covered to provide shade and
shelter from the rain. As such, the enclosure took
into account the need to maximize space, and
opportunities for exercise were also provided by
positioning poles and supports in such a way that
they could fully use their capacity for semi-

The experimental colony obtained its first member,

Neotropical Primates 2(1), March 1994

an immature female of 3-4 months (Registration
No.850), on the 11 September 1987. It arrived
with breathing and gastrointestinal problems, and
also showed signs of an abnormal "imprinting" on
humans. It was being kept as a pet, its mother
having been shot for food, in a village in the east of
the state of Minas Gerais. It died on the 25 July
1990. Two other subadult females (Nos. 891 and
924) were acquired in January and July 1988, also
from the state of Minas Gerais. As with the first
female, they arrived in terrible condition, but
recovered well following intensive veterinary care.
The two females were first introduced to each other
and to the cage, on the 15th May 1989. They
demonstrated immediate affiliative behaviour
(embracing) and vocalizing, either hanging by the
tail side-by-side, or sitting beside each other
emitting low friendly sounds. Subsequently two
immature males (Nos. 1012 and 1091) were
acquired from the state of Sao Paulo, in May 1989
and January 1990. The still infant male (No.1012)
was introduced to the three females on the 19th
June 1989. He was accepted immediately, the
females repeatedly touching him without any signs
of aggression. Although still of an age, none of the
three females attempted to carry him. The second
male (No. 1091) was introduced on the 5th January
1990, with a similar outcome. The group has
remained completely stable.

Muriquis are folivore-frugivores (Strier, 1992), and
the most folivorous of the atelines (sensu
Rosenberger and Strier, 1989), excepting Alouatta.
The foods provided for the captive muriquis reflect
this high degree of folivory, and leaves of species
preferred by wild populations are mixed with the
commercial foods included in the diet. They
include garapa, (Apuleia leiocarpa), jacaranda-
branco (Platypodium elegans), bicuiba (Virola sp.),
young embauba leaves (Cecropia sp.) and a
number of other smaller trees, including for
example cana-de-macaco (Costus spp.). These
trees have been planted in the grounds of the
Primate Centre. The commercial fruits and leaves
in the diet include cabbage, chicory, bananas,
mangos, and apples. A special feeder has been
developed in order to minimize waste as well to
facilitate provisioning (Rocha e Silva et al., 1991).
This diet has been highly successful, evidenced by
the recovery and now excellent state of health of
the subadult females, and by the rapid growth of
the young males and infants (see below). The
young males now weigh over 15 kg.

Recent studies have demonstrated the likelihood of
two subspecific forms of muriqui, a southern
nominal form from the state of Sao Paulo and the

northern form, B.a.hypoxanthus, from Espirito
Santo and Minas Gerais. The existence of two
muriqui subspecies was first argued by Vieira
(1944). Based on observations of the captive
colony at CPRJ, we recognized the validity of his
supposition (Coimbra-Filho, 1990, 1992) and
studies of some genetic and morphological
characters of populations from the south of its
range in the state of Sao Paulo and from Minas
Gerais have also reinforced this (see Lemos de Sa
and Glander, 1993; Lemos de Sa et al., 1993).
Lemos de Si et al. (1993) suggest that the Rios
Grande and Paraiba do Sul and the Serra da
Mantiqueira divide the two populations.

The two females from Minas Gerais and the two
males from Slo Paulo in the CPRJ colony show
marked differences. The nominal southern form is
more robust, the skin is uniformly pigmented black
(notable on the hairless parts of the face, and
scrotum or vulva), and lacks a rudimentary thumb.
Lemos de Sa and Glander (1993) confirmed the
lack of a thumb in two individuals captured in the
Fazenda Barreiro Rico, Sio Paulo. The skin of the
northern subspecies, B.a.hypoxanthus, is mottled
black interspersed with numerous pinkish patches
and spots, and all individuals from the north of the
species' range that we have observed have a
rudimentary thumb (illustrated in Rosenberger and
Strier, 1989; p.723). Lemos de Sa and Glander
(1993) recorded a small thumb on all of 10
individuals captured in the Fazenda Esmeralda,
Minas Gerais. Lemos de Sa et al. (1993) also found
a regional difference in canine length. Strong
sexual dimorphism was found for individuals
belonging to populations south of 220 latitude but
none for individuals north of 210 latitude. Studies
of genetic distance and similarity between the
Minas Gerais (Fazenda Esmeralda) and Sio Paulo
(Fazenda Barreiro Rico) muriquis have also
indicated a high level of divergence between the
populations (T.R.Pope, manuscript submitted, cited
in Lemos de Sa and Glander, 1993).

The first birth occurred on the 10th September
1991, the result of a mating between the black-
faced male (No.1091) of the subspecies
B.a.arachnoides and the female (No.924) of the
subspecies hypoxanthus. The skin of the neonate
was dark grey with a slightly purple tone. The
ventral parts were also well pigmented but a little
paler. The face was entirely pigmented black. In
general, the fur was sparse, and dull yellowish, and
denser on the back and crown, particular on the
forehead and above the eyes. The hairs on the
limbs and tail were short and sparse, particularly
on the inner parts. The tail was hairless on the

Page 6

Page 7 Neotropical Primates 2(1), March 1994

ventral distal parts, and already functionally
prehensile. The hands and feet were relatively
large. Most significant was the presence of an
outline of a rudimentary thumb, characteristic of
the northern subspecies B.a.hypoxanthus. The
infant unfortunately died two days after its birth.
The second infant, a female (No.1286), was born
on the 30th October 1991. The parents were the
wild-born male B.a.arachnoides (No. 1091) and the
wild-born female B.a.hypoxanthus (No.891). The
female B.a.hypoxanthus No.924 gave birth again to
a female (No.1335) on the 3rd June 1992. As in
the previous two births, the father was the male
wild-born B.a.arachnoides No.924. On two
occasions it was necessary to carry out veterinary
care for inflammations caused by botfly infections.
This may have been a reflection of a certain lack of
care on the part of the mother. Both this and the
second infant were born uniformly pigmented and
with small thumbs, typical of B.a.hypoxanthus.

The recent evidence consolidating the arguments
for two subspecies (see above) has led to the
realization that our initial births have been hybrids.
Unfortunately, we have as yet been unable to
acquire a founder population at CPRJ which could
permit separate programmes, a vital next step
which will depend on the collaboration of field
researchers in setting up management programs for
the isolated populations and which will include
measures for the consolidation and diversification
of the captive founders, without of course in any
way prejudicing the survival of surviving wild

Adelmar F. Coimbra-Filho, Alcides Pissinatti,
Centro de Primatologia do Rio de Janeiro
(CPRJ/FEEMA), Rua Fonseca Teles 121, SAo
Cristovaio, 20940-050 Rio de Janeiro, Rio de
Janeiro, Brazil and Anthony B. Rylands,
Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Ciencias
Biol6gicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais,
31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.


Aguirre, A.C. 1971. 0 mono Brachyteles
arachnoides (E.Geoffroy). Situa go atual da
Espicie no Brasil. Academia Brasileira de
Ciencias, Rio de Janeiro.
Anonymous. 1985. In the Brazilian jungle it rises:
member's contributions build muriqui breeding
facility. On the Edge, Newsl. Wildl.Preserv. Trust
Int., (26):1.
Coimbra-Filho, A.F. 1972. Mamiferos ameagados
de extingdo no Brasil. In: Espicies da Fauna
Brasileira Ameafadas de Extingdo. Academia

Brasileira de Ciencias (ed.), Rio de Janeiro.
pp. 13-98.
Coimbra-Filho, A.F. 1990. Sistemitica,
distribuigAo geogrifica e situaqio atual dos
simios brasileiros (Platyrrhini-Primates).
Rev.Brasil.Biol. 50:1063-1079.
Coimbra-Filho, A.F. 1992. Endangered animals.
In: Ecology in Brazil: Mythes and Reality,
Fundagco Pr6-natureza (Funatura) (Ed.). Grafica
JB, Rio de Janeiro. pp. 120-143.
Coimbra-Filho, A.F., Pissinatti, A. and Rylands,
A.B. 1993. Breeding muriquis Brachyteles
arachnoides in captivity: the experience of the
Rio de Janeiro Primate Centre (CPRJ-FEEMA).
Dodo, J. Wildl.Preserv. Trusts, 29:66-77.
Lemos de Sa, R.M. and Glander, K.E. 1993.
Capture techniques and morphometrics for the
woolly spider monkey, or muriqui (Brachyteles
arachnoides, E.Geoffroy 1806). Am.J.Primatol.
29: 145-153.
Lemos de SA, R.M., Pope, T.R., Struhsaker, T.T.
and Glander, K.E. 1993. Sexual dimorphism in
canine length of woolly spider monkeys
(Brachyteles arachnoides, E.Geoffroy 1806).
Int.J.Primatol., 14(5):755-763.
Rocha e Silva, R.da, Coimbra-Filho, A.F. and
Pissinatti, A. 1991. Modelos de comedouros
experimentais para espdcies das families Cebidae
e Atelidae (Primates). In: A Primatologia no
Brasil-3, A.B.Rylands and A.T.Bernardes (eds.),
pp.311-315. Sociedade Brasileira de
Primatologia and Fundacqo Biodiversitas, Belo
Rosenberger, A.L. and Strier, K.B. 1989.
Adaptive radiation of the ateline primates.
J.Hum.Evol. 18:717-750.
Strier, K.B. 1992. Faces in the Forest. The
Endangered Muriqui Monkeys of Brazil. Oxford
University Press, Oxford.
Vieira, C.da C. 1944. Os simios do Estado de Sio
Paulo. Papdis Avulsos, Zoologia, Sao Paulo


A case of geophagy by a black howling monkey
was observed during a 12-month (August 1989-
July 1990) field study on the ecology and behavior
of a group in a seminatural forest of two hectares at
the southernmost geographical limit of the species
(29037'S, 5617'W) (Bicca-Marques, 1990). It
occurred on 9 September 1989, when a juvenile
female was observed nibbling on a small quantity
of clay from a deserted, unfinished nest of an
ovenbird (Furnarius rufus). The ovenbird

Neotropipal Primates 2(l), March 1994

Page 7

Neotropical Primates 2(1), March 1994

constructs its nest with wet mud. Whether there
was any difference in the composition of the mud
of the nest with that on the ground is not known,
but there was the evident advantage that the female
was not obliged to descend the tree. The nest was
located about 10 m above the ground in the fork of
an angico tree (Parapiptadenia rigida).

Earth-eating has been observed in many Old World
(for example, Davies and Baillie, 1988; Goodall,
1965; -Hall, 1962; Hladik, 1977a; Inoue, 1987;
Lindburg, 1977) and some New World primates,
such as Saguinus mystax (v. Heymann and
Hartmann, 1991), Callithrix jacchus (in captivity,
N.J.Junqueira, pers. comm.), Alouatta seniculus
(v.Izawa, 1975; M.B.Diogenes, pers.comm.),
Alouatta belzebul (R.Ghilardi Jr, pers.comm),
Ateles belzebuth (v.Izawa et- al., 1979); and
Lagothrix lagotricha (in captivity,
M.C.A.G.Fernandes, pers.comm.). At La
Macarena, Colombia, A.belzebuth and A.seniculus
have been observed eating soils from "salado"
(salty) sites, and in the case of A.seniculus, the soil
from arboreal termitaria (Hirabuki and Izawa,
1990; Izawa et al., 1990; Izawa and Lozano,
1990), also recorded for chimpanzees (Uehara,
1982). A.belzebuth, but not A.seniculus, have been
observed drinking the water from the "salado" sites
(Izawa and Mizuno, 1990; Izawa, 1993).

Five explanations have been proposed to interpret
the occurrence of geophagy: 1) as a dietary mineral
supplement (Clutton-Brock, 1977; Davies and
Baillie, 1988; Heymann and Hartmann, 1991;
Hirabuki and Izawa, 1990; Izawa et al., 1990;
Johns and Duquette, 1991; Jolly, 1985; Mahaney et
al., 1990;. Oates; 1977; Ozaki et al., 1989;
Waterman, 1984), although the mineral
concentrations available in soil samples analysed
frequently do not exceed those present in many
common foods and give no indication of elements
which may be influencing the soil-eating habits
(see Goodall, 1965; Hladik, 1977a, 1977b; Hladik
and Gueguen, 1974; Jolly, 1985, Lindburg, 1977;
Schaller, 1965); 2) the clay may act as an
adsorbent of tannins frequently found in small
quantities in leaves, and thus reduce their
inhibitory effects on protein absorption, as well as
increasing detoxification capacity for poisonous
secondary compounds (Hladik, 1977a, 1977b;
Johns and Duquette, 1991); 3) the earth provides
some mechanical aid to digestion (Jolly, 1985); 4)
alleviation of digestive disorders, such as
forestomach acidosis (Davies and Baillie, 1988) -
chemical analyses of soils eaten by A.seniculus
showed that they had higher pH values than those
which were not (Hirabuki and Izawa, 1990); and 5)

the soil of termite mounds eaten by chimpanzees
may provide information on the reproductive state
of the termites (Uehara, 1982).

In our case of oven-bird nest eating, any of the first
four explanations are possible. In comparison to
A.seniculus, however, this was evidently a very
rare behavior (Izawa and Lozano, 1990). Another
possibility is that geophagy may be related to
infestations of internal parasites. In the
Amazonian state of Acre, where red howling
monkeys (A.seniculus) have been observed
frequenting "barreiros" (the Brazilian equivalent of
"salado" sites, see Ayres and Ayres, 1979) to eat
soil, an analysis of the digestive tract of one
individual showed a very large quantity of earth
and a very high infestation of worms in the
stomach, whereas other digestive tracts analysed
presented few worms and little soil (F.L.Franqa,
unpubl.data). The black howling monkeys we
studied had large numbers of cestode worms in the

Jhilio CUsar Bicca-Marques and ClAudia
Calegaro-Marques, Departamento de CiEncias da
Natureza and Parque Zoobotdnico, Universidade
Federal do Acre, Caixa Postal 1012, 69908-210
Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil.


Ayres, J.M. and Ayres, C.M. 1979. Aspectos da
caqa no alto rio Aripuani. Acta Amazonica,
Bicca-Marques, J.C. 1990. A new southern limit
for the distribution of Alouatta caraya in the Rio
Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Primates, 31:449-
Clutton-Brock, T.H. 1977. Some aspects of
intraspecific variation in feeding and ranging
behaviour in primates. In: Primate Ecology,
T.H.Clutton-Brock (ed.), pp.539-556. Academic
Press, London.
Davies, A.G. and Baillie, I.C. 1988. Soil-eating
by red leaf monkeys (Presbytis rubicunda) in
Sabah, northern Borneo. Biotropica, 20:252-
Goodall, J. 1965. Chimpanzees of the Gombe
Stream Reserve. In: Primate Behavior, I.de Vore
(ed.), pp.425-473. Holt, Rinehart and Winston,
New York.
Hall, K.R.L. 1962. Numerical data, maintenance
activities and locomotion in the wild chacma
baboon, Papio ursinus. Proc.Zool.Soc.Lond.,
Heymann, E.W. and Hartmann, G. 1991.
Geophagy in moustached tamarins, Saguinus

Page 8

Page 9 Neotropical Primates 2W, March 1994

mystax (Platyrrhini, Callitrichidae), at the Rio
Blanco, Peruvian Amazonia. Primates, 32:533-
Hirabuki, Y. and Izawa, K. 1990. Chemical
properties of soils eaten by wild red howler
monkeys (Alouatta seniculus): a preliminary
study. Field Studies of New World Monkeys, La
Macarena, Colombia, 3:25-28.
Hiadik, C.M. 1977a. A comparative study of the
feeding strategies of two sympatric species of leaf
monkeys: Presbytis senex and Presbytis entellus.
In: Primate Ecology, T.H.Clutton-Brock (ed.),
pp.324-353. Academic Press, London.
Hladik, C.M. 1977b. Chimpanzees of Gabon and
chimpanzees of Gombe: some comparative data
on the diet. In: Primate Ecology, T.H.Clutton-
Brock (ed.), pp.481-501. Academic Press,
Hladik, C.M. and Gueguen, L. 1974. G6ographie
et nutrition mindrale chez les primates sauvages.
C.r.Acad.Sci., 279D:1393-1396.
Inoue, M. 1987. Soil-eating in Japanese macaques
(Macaca fuscata) at Arashiyama, Kyoto.
Primate Research, 3:103-111.
Izawa, K. 1975. Foods and feeding behavior of
monkeys in the upper Amazon basin. Primates,
Izawa, K. 1993. Soil-eating by Alouatta and
Ateles. Int.J.Primatol., 14:229-242.
Izawa, K. and Lozano, H.,M. 1990. Frequency of
soil-eating by a group of wild howler monkeys
(Alouatta seniculus) in La Macarena, Colombia.
Field Studies of New World Monkeys, La
Macarena, Colombia, 4:47-56.
Izawa, K. and Mizuno, A. 1990. Chemical
properties of special water drunk by wild spider
monkeys (Ateles belzebuth) in La Macarena,
Colombia. Field Studies of New World Monkeys,
La Macarena, Colombia, 4:38-46.
Izawa, K., Kimura, K. and Samper-Nieto, A.
1979. Grouping of the wild spider monkeys.
Primates, 20:503-512.
Izawa, K., Kimura, K. and Ohnishi, Y. 1990.
Chemical properties of soils eaten by red howler
monkeys (Alouatta seniculus), II. Field Studies of
New World Monkeys, La Macarena, Colombia,
Johns, A.D. amd Duquette, M. 1991.
Detoxification and mineral supplementation as
functions of geophagy. Am.J.Clin.Nutr., 53:448-
Jolly, A. 1985. The Evolution of Primate
Behavior. 2nd Ed., Macmillan Publishing, New
Lindburg, D.G. 1977. Feeding behaviour and diet
of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a Siwalik
Forest in north India. In: Primate Ecology,

T.H.Clutton-Brock (ed.), pp.223-249. Academic
Press, London.
Mahaney, W.C., Watts, D.P., and Hancock, R.G.V.
1990. Geophagis by mountain gorillas (Gorilla
gorilla beringei) in the Virunga monutains,
Rwanda. Primates, 31:113-120.
Oates, J.F. The guereza and its food. 1977. In:
Primate Ecology, T.H.Clutton-Brock (ed.),
pp.275-321. Academic Press, London.
Ozaki, M. Ishii, T., Funo. R. Torii, C., Ichiki, Y,
and Hagiwara, Y. 1989. Effect of soil-eating on
cobalt-vitamin B12 deficiency in lambs.
Bull.Fac.Agric. Tamagawa Univ., 29:69-80.
Schaller, G.B. 1965. The behavior of the
mountain gorilla. In: Primate Behavior, I.de
Vore (ed.), pp.324-367. Holt, Rinehart and
Winston, New York.
Uehara, S. 1982. Seasonal changes in the
techniques employed by wild chimpanzees in the
Mahale Mountains, Tanzania, to feed on termites
(Pseudacanthotermes spiniger). J.Hum.Evol.,
Waterman, P.G. 1984. Food acquisition and
processing as a function of plant chemistry. In:
Food Acquisition and Processing in Primates,
D.J.Chivers, S.A.Wood and A.Bilsborough
(eds.), pp. 177-211. Plenum Press, New York.


Until the description of Cebus kaapori Queiroz
1992 from the Brazilian State of Maranhuio, the
known distribution of untufted capuchins (Cebus
albifrons and Cebus nigrivittatus) in the Amazon
basin was restricted to the north and west of the
Amazonas/Tapaj6s river system. Lopes and
Ferrari (1993) extended the range of C.kaapori as
far west as the Rio Tocantins, but it remains
unclear whether untufted capuchins occur further
west. If an untufted capuchin does occur west of
the Tocantins, its absence from the literature may
be a consequence of the same two factors which
contributed to that of C.kaapori prior to 1992:
exceptionally low population densities (Queiroz,
1992; Lopes, 1993) and a restricted geographical

With this in mind, the region to the south of
Cametd on the left or west bank of the Tocantins
was visited in July and September 1993 in an
attempt to confirm, or otherwise, the occurrence of
an untufted capuchin in the lower Tocantins/Xingfi
interfluvium (fieldwork supported by the
Universidade Federal do Para). During interviews,
only about one in ten residents reported the

Neotropical Primates 2(l), March 1994

Page 9

Neotropical Primates 2(7,), March 1994 Page 10

presence of a "cairara" (untufted capuchin) in local
forests, although these reports seem reliable, given
that they invariably came from the older and most
experienced residents, who characterized the
animal as extremely rare and difficult to observe.
This is consistent with records of C.kaapori east of
the Tocantins.

Unfortunately, it was not possible to confirm these
reports through either sightings or specimens,
although further expeditions are planned. If an
untufted capuchin does exist in this region, it is
also likely to occur in the Caxiuana National
Forest, where a research station has been recently
established by the Goeldi Museum, Beldm.
Hopefully, then, we may have some more concrete
information in the not too distant future.

Stephen F. Ferrari and Arlindo P. de Souza
Junior, Departamento de Gendtica, Universidade
Federal do Para, Caixa Postal 8607, 66075-150
Beldm, ParA, Brazil.


Lopes, M.A. 1993. ConservaqAo do cuxi6-preto,
Chiropotes satanas satanas (Cebidae, Primates),
e de outros mamiferos na Amaz6nia oriental.
M.Sc. dissertation, Universidade Federal do Pari,
Lopes, M.A. and Ferrari, S.F. 1993. Primate
conservation in eastern Brazilian Amazonia.
Neotropical Primates, 1(4):8-9.
Queiroz, H.L. 1992. A new species of capuchin
monkey, genus Cebus Erxleben 1777 (Cebidae,
Primates), from eastern Brazilian Amazonia.
Goeldiana Zoologia, 15:1-13.


The Ilhabela State Park, created in 1977 by the

Forestry Institute of the state of Sao Paulo, covers
80% of the Island of Sao Sebastiso (Brazil's largest
offshore island) along with all of the smaller
islands belonging to the municipality of Ilhabela,
Sao Paulo. The Park covers 27,025 ha, and on the
Island of Sio Sebastiao has an altitudinal range
from sea level to 1,350 m, with a mean elevation of
800 m. The vegetation is typical of the Atlantic
coastal forest, varying according to the altitude and
slope. At higher altitudes the forest has remained
essentially untouched, although subsistence and
intensive agriculture (mainly sugar cane and
coffee) during the 19th and early 20th Centuries
completely devastated the lower slopes (below 300
m), today evidenced by large areas of secondary

Despite some collecting, practically nothing is
known of the island's flora, and very little of its
fauna (see Liiderwalt, 1929; Miller, 1966).
Expeditions have been carried out by the Zoology
Museum of the University of Sao Paulo, and a
current research project is inventorying the
avifauna of the islands. There is at least one
mammal known to be endemic to the island, a
spiny rat known as the cururuA, Nelomys thomasi
(Ihering, 1871) (also placed in the genus Echimys),
along with some amphibians and reptiles. Current
research is, however, already indicating further
endemics, including mammals. This is of special
interest because the island is separated from the
mainland by a channel only 2 km wide, and in
some places not more than 10 m in depth. The
time the island was separated from the mainland
can be determined with some accuracy, and the
Park provides a remarkable natural experiment for
island biogeography and for examining rates of

From the viewpoint of conservation, the Park is
important not only for its forests and endemics, but
also many species restricted to the Atlantic coastal
forest, and such as the oncilla (Leopardus
tigrinus), ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), piping guan
(Pipile jacutinga), the golden-tailed parrotlet
(Touit surda), and the solitary tinamou (Tinamus
solitarius). The only primate which is definitely
known to occur on the island is the black-horned
capuchin, Cebus apella nigritus (Goldfuss, 1809),
a large, dark colored race, which also occurs as far
north as the Rio Doce in the states of Espirito
Santo and Minas Gerais, and extends south into
northeastern Argentina (see Di Bitteto and Arditi,
1993). Local people also indicate the presence of a
large, paler monkey, as well as a black monkey
with white around its face, different to and larger
than the capuchin monkey. The first may be the

Areotropical Primates 2(l), March 1994

Page 10

Page 11 Neotropical Primates 2W, March J994

muriqui, Brachyteles arachnoides.
C.a.nigritus, however, like all capuchins
shows considerable individual variation,
and includes specimens ranging from black
to brown (juveniles tend to be more
brownish), and adults may also have white
or whitish hairs surrounding the face, as
well as white ear tufts (Hill, 1960). The
second species indicated by locals may not
therefore be valid. The possibility also
remains that Callithrix aurita, present on
the mainland nearby, may occur on the
island, but no evidence is yet available to
confirm or refute this.

Ilhabela offers excellent opportunities for
primatological studies, despite being only a
three-hour drive from the city of Sao Paulo,
and an important holiday resort. Inquiries
and further information concerning the
possibilities of research in this Park are

Fibio OImos, Parque Estadual de Ilhabela,
Rua Morro da Cruz 608, 11630-000
Ilhabela, Sao Paulo, Brazil.


Di Bitteto, M.S. and Arditi, S.I. 1993. La
primatologia de campo en Argentina.
Neotropical Primates, 1(4): 13-17.
Hill. W.C.O. 1960. Primates. Comparative
Anatomy and Taxonomy. IV Cebidae. Part A.
Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
Luderwalt, H. 1929. Resultados de uma excursao
scientific A Ilha de SAo Sebastiao no littoral do
Estado de Sao Paulo em 1925.
Rev.Mus.Paulista, 16:1-79.
Miller, P. 1966. Studien zur Wirbeltierfauna der
Insel von Sao Sebastiao. Inaugural dissertation,
Universitat des Saarlendes, Deutschland. 348pp.


In the article "An update on the black-headed
marmoset, Callithrix nigriceps Ferrari and Lopes
1992", published in Neotropical Primates 1(4),
1993, I reported on a new locality for C.nigriceps
on the west bank of the Rio dos Marmelos: the
Tenharin Indian Settlement. With the concurrent
finding that C.emiliae occurred on the east bank of
the river at the same locality, this confirmed our
supposition (Ferrari and Lopes, 1992) concerning

the eastern extreme of the species range: the
blackwater Rio dos Marmelos. The coordinates
given in the article were correct (07057'S,
62003'W), but the editors mistakenly placed
Tenharin too far to the north on the map (Figure 1,
p. 12). Here the map is republished with the correct
location of the Tenharin settlement. The type
locality for the species, Lago dos Reis (07o31'S,
62052'W, = Lago Paraiso), 17 km east of Humaiti,
Amazonas, Brazil, on the Trans-Amazon highway
BR-230 (right or east bank of the Madeira River),
and the paratype locality, Calama (08003'S,
62053'W), Rondonia, Brazil (right or east bank of
the Madeira River, east of the Jiparana River), are
also shown.

Stephen F. Ferrari, Departamento de Gendtica,
Universidade Federal do ParA, Caixa Postal 8607,
66075-150 Bel6m, Para, Brazil.


Ferrari, S.F. 1993. An update on the black-headed
marmoset, Callithrix nigriceps Ferrari and Lopes
1992. Neotropical Primates, 1(4):11-13.
Ferrari, S.F. and Lopes, M.A. 1992. A new
species of marmoset, genus Callithrix Erxleben
1777 (Callitrichidae, Primates), from western

Figure 1. Map showing the distribution of and three localities
for Callithrix nigriceps. This map replaces the one published in
Ferrari, S.F., Neotropical Primates, 1(4): 12, 1993.

Neotropical Primates 2(l), March 1994

Page 11

Neotropical Primates 2(1), March 1994 Page 12

Brazilian Amazonia. Goeldiana Zoologia,

Editor's note: The editors apologise for the error
reported here.


Desde o final de 1992 tem sido realizada uma
experiencia na tentative de conservar parte da
vArzea amaz8nica em territ6rio brasileiro. A
vArzea perfaz uma pequena fragco do bioma
amaz6nico, e 6 onde concentra-se a maior porgao
de sua populacgo humana. As presses sobre o
ambiente sao, por este motivo, geralmente mais
fortes que em outras parties da regiao. Tais
presses exercem uma constant ameaga A flora e
A fauna locais, caracterizadas por um alto grau de
endemismos. S6 existe uma Unidade de
Conservacqo destinada A protecgo da virzea
amaz6nica no Brasil, a Estaqfo Ecol6gica
Mamiraua (EEM), area do Governo do Estado do
Amazonas, e sob jurisdigco da Secretaria Estadual
do Meio Ambiente, Ciencia e Tecnologia deste
Estado (SEMACT-AM).

A EEM, com 1.240.000 ha. encontra-se na
confluencia dos Rios Solim6es e JapurA.
Constituida exclusivamente de
virzeas (terrenos sazonalmente
alagados por dgua branca, rica
em sedimentos e nutrientss,
toda a area fica completamente
submersa por, no minimo,
quatro meses a cada ano. 0
nivel d'Agua varia anualmente
em ate 12 metros. Em
condiq6es tAo adversas, sao
muitas as adaptaq6es ao stress
hidrico nas comunidades
animal e vegetal.

Neste ambiente inico, a
comunidade de primatas nao 6 d .M""'. .......
tao diverse quanto a das matas de terra firme
circundantes, mas apresenta formas mnicas.
Saimiri vanzolinii e Cacajao calvus calvus, nio s6
sao esp6cies endemicas da EEM, como tamb6m
apresentam duas das menores areas de distribuiqlo
geogrAfica entire os Cebidae. Sao tamb6m
encontrados na Estagqo Cebus apella, Saimiri
sciureus, Alouatta seniculus e Cebuella pygmaea.
Provavelmente ocorrem em pontos mais remotos
da EEM Ateles sp. e Pithecia sp.

A implantagio da Estaqco esti confiada A unma
organizaqAo nao-governamental, a Sociedade Civil
MamirauA, que executa o Projeto Mamiraua. A
iniciativa conta com o apoio institutional da
Secretaria do Meio-Ambiente do estado do
Amazonas (SEMACT-AM), do Conselho
Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e
Tecnol6gico Programa do Tr6pico Umido
(CNPq-PTU) e do Instituto Nacional do Meio
Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renoviveis
(Ibama). Aldm disto, outras instituiqces de
pesquisa brasileiras, como o Museu Goeldi
(MPEG) e o Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da
Amaz6nia (INPA), al6m de algumas
Universidades Federais, tomam parte nos
trabalhos desenvolvidos. 0 apoio financeiro vem,
em sua maior parte, do exterior, atravds de
agencias como a Overseas Development
Organisation (ODA), o World Wide Fund for
Nature (WWF), a NYZS-Wildlife Conservation
Society e o Conservation International (CI).
Entretanto, vArias outras instituig6es, brasileiras e
estrangeiras, governamentais ou nao, tamb6m
apoiam o projeto financeiramente.

Numa abordagem in6dita no pais, o projeto
MamirauA pretend realizar a implantagio da
EEM compatibilizando a preservaqdo do meio
ambiente corn a exploracgo sustentada de seus
recursos pela populaqao humana que habitat
tradicionalmente o local.
Considerando os custos de
vigilAncia e proteq~o de uma
Area tAo extensa, prop6em-se
que os habitantes atuem como
protetores, e que sua Area de
exploraqio sustentada funcione
IL como uma zona de
aortecimento das presses
externas. De modo a viabilizar
esta compatibilizaqAo, o Projeto
Mamiraua vem realizando as
primeiras tentativas de
zoneamento da area, enquanto
sao desenvolvidas pesquisas
...... .. ,, que visam, principalmente, os
mais relevantes recursos
naturais presents. Assim estao sendo estudadas
as madeiras e o process de desmadeiramento, a
pesca e as mais importantes esp6cies de peixes
comerciais e ornamentals, os jacards, os animals
de caga (como primatas), os mamiferos aquAticos,
dentre outros. Outros estudos acerca de aspects
mais amplos e gerais da ecologia da varzea, como
estudos botAnicos e de inventArio de fauna e flora,
os de comunidades de aves, de dispersao de
sementes, de limnologia das centenas de lagos

Neotropical Primates 2(l), March 1994

Page 12

Page 13 Neotropical Primates 2~'D, March 1994

presents, e de auto-ecologia de algumas espdcies-
chave, tambdm estao sendo desenvolvidos.

Aldm disto, a populaqgo humana tamb6m
acompanha o process de implantaqao da EEM.
Para tal, uma sdrie de estudos antrop6logicos e
s6cio-econ6micos estao sendo levados a termo,
junto a trabalhos de educaqdo ambiental, nutrigqo
e salde. De forma a possibilitar a articulagqo das
lideranqas locais em torno da questio, e das
autoridades dos municipios da region e os
interesses do Projeto, existe um trabalho de
participaqco comunitAria. Este trabalho tamb6m
harmoniza os infimeros contatos de Projeto e de
seus membros com as vArias comunidades
moradoras e/ou usuirias da EEM. As decisoes
quanto As prAticas de manejo e zoneamento sio
realizadas em conjunto com as liderangas
comunitArias, em reunites e assembliias gerais.

Neste primeiro moment o Projeto Mamiraua
centra suas atividades numa Area focal de 200.000
ha, com cerca de 4.000 usuArios diretos. Sua
infra-estrutura conta com um escrit6rio em Beldm
(PA) e outro em Tefe (AM). Existem
coordenadorias em que se agrupam todas as
atividades desenvolvidas. 0 Programa de
Participagao ComunitAria e Pesquisas S6cio-
Econ6micas executa todas as atividades relatives A
populagao humana local e os seus desdobramentos.
As pesquisas ambientais organizam-se nos
Programs de Sistemas AquAticos e de Sistemas
Terrestres. Por fim, um Programa de Banco de
Dados organize as informaq6es obtidas, e trata das
informaq6es geograficas e de sensoriamento
remoto. Sao cerca de 100 pessoas envolvidas,
entire pesquisadores e pessoal de apoio.

Esta nova concepqio de implantacgo e
funcionamento de Areas de conservagqo objetiva,
em especial, rediscutir o modulo de criagqo e
gerenciamento destas Areas na regiao amaz6nica.
Pretende-se garantir a manutenqgo da
biodiversidade e do uso sustentado dos recursos
naturais, minimizando os atritos que, em geral,
decorrem deste ponto de contato. As
peculiaridades do modelo desenvolvimentista
adotado pela iniciativa official e as caracteristicas
particulares da regiao amaz6nica (como a alta
biodiversidade, a grande extensio territorial e o
povoamento concentrado), terminal por exigir
um modelo de conservacqo igualmente peculiar.
E sobre estes temas que o Projeto MamirauA estara
se ocupando pelos pr6ximos anos.

Helder Lima de Queiroz, Sociedade Civil
Mamiraua, Caixa Postal 38, 69470-000 Tefe,

Amazonas, Brasil.


Ayres, J. M. 1993. As Matas de Vdrzea do
Mamiraua: Medio Rio Solimoes. MCT-CNPq
Program do Tr6pico Umido, Brasilia, e a
Sociedade Civil MamirauA, Tefe, Brasil.



In September 1993, The World Zoo Organization
(IUDZG The International Union of Directors of
Zoological Gardens) and the World Conservation
Union (IUCN)/Species Survival Commission
(SSC) Captive Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG)
launched a most important document The World
Zoo Conservation Strategy: The Role of Zoos and
Aquaria of the World in Global Conservation.
This is the result of two years of intensive
discussions, involving zoos and aquaria worldwide
which have an annual visitation estimated at 600
million people and as such the potential for one of
the largest conservation networks on earth. The
World Zoo Conservation Strategy points to the
great potential of this network, and concludes that
conservation must be a central theme of all
progressive zoos and aquaria.

The Strategy emphasizes that there are three major
areas in which zoos and aquaria can help to
achieve conservation goals:

1. By actively supporting the conservation of
populations of endangered species and their natural
ecosystems. Cdoperative zoo breeding programs,
300 of which are already operating, is but a start to
addressing an anticipated need for over 1,000 such
programs. Many species will only survive if a
captive population exists for reintroduction back
into the wild, and thus by their presence as
flagships support a multitude of other life forms
within such habitats.

2. By offering support and facilities to increase
scientific knowledge that will benefit conservation.
Effective conservation depends on an
understanding of the biology of species and the
relationship with their surroundings. The many
hundreds of zoological and veterinarian experts on
the staff of zoos and aquaria represent a

Neotropical Primates 2(l), March 1994

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Neotropical Primates 2(1), March 1994 Page 14

considerable potential contribution to this
understanding. Moreover, zoo acquired knowledge
is often crucial to the stimulation of further
research in the wild.

3. By promoting an increase in public
awareness of the need for conservation, a task for
which zoos and aquaria are preeminently suited.
Zoo education programs provide excellent
opportunities for this most important of functions.

The Strategy comprehensively presents these three
main aspects of zoo conservation. In doing so, it
seeks understanding and support for the
conservation potential of zoos from national and
international authorities as well as other social and
political bodies. Importantly, it gives guidance to
individual zoos and aquaria, their governing bodies
and staff in the formulation of conservation
policies and priorities.

The Strategy very clearly points to the fact that -
however powerful a role zoos and aquaria can play
in conservation such conservation should be
complementary to and not substitute for other
fields of conservation activity. It therefore strongly
advocates the integration of zoo conservation
efforts with those of other conservation bodies. By
endorsing The Strategy IUCN (the World
Conservation Union) and WWF (The World Wide
Fund for Nature) have affirmed their support of
this view. Additionally, The World Zoo
Conservation Strategy is based on IUCN's and
WWF's vision of global conservation, as
formulated in such documents as Caring for the
Earth, the successor to the World Conservation
Strategy, published in 1980.

The World Zoo Conservation Strategy indicates
how far zoos and aquaria have already progressed
in their support to conservation. Yet, The Strategy
is more than a description of the current situation
in the zoo and aquarium community. It looks into
the future and aims to increase all zoos'
contributions to conservation and sets out the paths
along which these goals can be achieved.

In his foreword, HRH Prince Philip, President of
WWF, warmly welcomed The World Zoo
Conservation Strategy, and expressed his hope that
it will achieve the necessary cooperation and
partnership between zoos and other conservation
organizations world-wide that are so vital to the
conservation of nature.

Taken from the official press release on the
launching of the publication. See also page 25.


IUCN, UNEP and WWF. 1991. Caring for the
Earth: A Strategy for Sustainable Living. The
World Conservation Union (IUCN), The United
Nations Environment Program (UNEP), and The
World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), published
by IUCN, Gland. In English, French and
Spanish. 200pp.
IUDZG and IUCN/SSC/CBSG. 1993. The World
Zoo Conservation Strategy: The Role of Zoos
and Aquaria of the World in Global
Conservation. The World Zoo Organization
(IUDZG), and the IUCN/SSC Captive Breeding
Specialist Group (CBSG), published by the
Chicago Zoological Society, Chicago. 76pp.
IUDZG and IUCN/SSC/CBSG. 1993. The World
Zoo Conservation Strategy: The Role of Zoos
and Aquaria of the World in Global
Conservation. Executive Summary. The World
Zoo Organization (IUDZG), and the IUCN/SSC
Captive Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG),
published by the Chicago Zoological Society,
Chicago. 12pp.


Recently published by the Roger Williams Park
Zoo, Rhode Island, USA, the North American
Regional Studbook for Pithecia pithecia registered
96 individuals (47.43.6) in 24 North American
Zoos as from 28 March 1993. The studbook
includes an introduction on the status of the species
and a short article by Anne Savage (Roger
Williams Park Zoo) and Susan Shideler and Bill
Lasley (ITEH, University of California Davis) on
the behavior and reproductive patterns of the
species in captivity. The Studbook proper includes
a list of the North American holding institutions, a
complete studbook, a studbook of the individuals
alive on 28 March 1993, age pyramids for males,
females and the total population, institution reports
and addresses, and a selected bibliography. In the
introduction to the status of the species, the authors
point out that only since the mid 1970's have
significant numbers been kept in captivity. Today,
with close to 100 individuals in American Zoos,
reproduction is a regular occurrence. The founder
representation is good and inbreeding low. Half of
the males and more than half (59%) of the females
are aged five years or less. A male on loan to the
Pittsburgh Zoo called Jay is 34 years old: the oldest
living individual. The authors conclude that the
white-faced saki is a species that could and should
benefit from cooperative management, and express

Neotropical Primates 2(l), March 1994

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Page 15 Neotropical Primates 2(j), March 1994

the hope that the studbook will aid zoo managers
in their attempts to maintain the species in

Anthony Vecchio, Studbook Keeper, and
Adrienne Miller, Studbook Registrar, Roger
Williams Park Zoo, Providence, Rhode Island
02905, USA.


Savage, A., Shideler, S. and Lasley, B. 1993. A
preliminary report on the behavior and
reproductive patterns of captive white-faced sakis
(Pithecia pithecia). In: 1993 North American
Regional Studbook for the White-faced Saki
(Pithecia pithecia), A.Vecchio and A.Miller
(compilers), 5pp. Roger Williams Park Zoo,
Rhode Island.
Vecchio, A. and Miller, A. 1993. 1993 North
American Regional Studbook for the White-faced
Saki (Pithecia pithecia). Roger Williams Park
Zoo, Providence, Rhode Island. 75pp.


Marmosets and tamarins are used widely in
European research. In 1992, in the UK, for
example, 1182 marmosets and tamarins were used
in scientific procedures, accounting for 34% of all
primates used (British Home Office Statistics).

The idea of a European Marmoset Research Group
(EMRG) was first aired during the 14th Congress
of the International Primatological Society in
Strasbourg in August 1992. The idea, formulated
by Christopher Pryce (Anthropology Institute,
Zurich University) and Leah Scott (Chemical and
Biological Defence Establishment, Salisbury, UK),
was well received during an informal meeting at
the Congress. Leah Scott, as Convenor of the
Captive Care Working Party (CCWP) of the
Primate Society of Great Britain (PSGB),
organized a subsequent meeting in London in
December 1992 in an attempt to foster
communication among groups engaged in
biomedical research on marmosets and tamarins in
the UK. Attended by researchers, study leaders,
animal technicians and veterinary surgeons,
representing a range of interests in the
pharmaceutical industry, zoos and academic
institutions, the programme included informal
discussions and formal papers. In April 1993, the
pharmaceutical company, Fisons Ltd., hosted a
second CCWP/PSGB meeting dedicated to

marmosets: specifically to promote information
exchange on caging, nutrition, and feeding in the
marmoset laboratory. The EMRG was founded at
this meeting. It is comprised of a coordinating
committee (Leah Scott, Christopher Pryce and
Christian Schnell (CIBA-GEIGY AG, Basle,
Switzerland)) and some 50 "participants", from
France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, and the UK.
One further, non-european, participant, is the Rio
de Janeiro Primate Centre (CPRJ/FEEMA).

The objectives of the EMRG include: 1) to identify
the needs, capabilities, and susceptibilities of
marmosets and tamarins; 2) to optimise the
laboratory maintenance and experimental
procedures performed on marmosets and tamarins
relative to their needs, capabilities, and
susceptibilities; 3) to act as a forum for
multidisciplinary information exchange via the
organisation of workshops and publications as well
as affiliation to and interaction with other
organizations; and 4) to identify the suitability of
marmosets and tamarins for fundamental and
applied research compared with other primate and
non-primate species.

At the April 1993 meeting, the EMRG was
presented with its first formal task: a request from
the British Home Office to identify the "best
current laboratory housing for marmosets". The
EMRG is currently working on this, including the
analysis of a questionnaire sent to UK users. The
results were discussed at a meeting held in
December 1993 and the final report will be
presented to the Home Office in April 1994. The
EMRG has also produced its first newsletter, which
besides reporting on the EMRG's activities
includes "Callinews" for announcements and news
items concerning callitrichids, a section for invited
review articles for highlighting the importance of
marmosets and tamarins as subjects of research
and for science in general, and bibliographies of
callitrichid publications. The newsletter will be
published twice a year. In 1993, the EMRG became
affiliated to the Primate Society of Great Britain
and the European Federation for Primatology. The
1st General Assembly and an Inaugural Workshop
of the EMRG will be held in Paris in November
1994 (see "Meetings", page ). The edited
proceedings of the workshop will be published as a
"EMRG Laboratory Handbook of Marmoset

Still in its early days, the EMRG has benefited
most especially from the help and support of The
Zoological Society of London, The Primate Society
of Great-Britain, Fisons UK Ltd., Special Diet

Neotropical Primates 2(l), March 1994

Page 15

Neotropical Primates 2~D, March 1994 Page J6

Services Ltd., and the establishments at which the
coordinators are employed.

Leah Scott, Biology Division, CBDE Porton
Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire SP4 OJQ, UK,
Christopher Pryce, Anthropologisches Institut,
Universitat Ziirich-Irchel, Winterthurerstrasse 190,
CH-8057 Zuirich, Switzerland, and Christian
Schnell, Ciba-Geigy AG, K 125 10.11,
Klybeckstrasse 141, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland.


A Conference in honor of the renowned New
World primatologist Dr Warren G.Kinzey of the
City College, City University of New York, was
hosted by the Department of Zoological Research
of the National Zoological Park, Smithsonian
Institution, Washington, D.C., from 26-27
February, 1994. The Conference was sponsored by
the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological
Research, the Friends of the National Zoo, the
National Zoological Park, the Office of the
Assistant Secretary for Research of the
Smithsonian Institution, and Kent State University.
It was organized by Alfred L.Rosenberger
(National Zoological Park) and Marilyn A.Norconk
(Kent State University). The following is an extract
from the organizers' introduction to the

"This conference has both a celebratory function
(the guest of honor, Dr Warren G.Kinzey, has been
a major contributor to the advancement of
platyrrhine biology and behavior) and a scientific
function. There has been a groundswell of interest
and research in the Neotropics with a focus on
platyrrhine biology and behavior over the past two
decades. At first considered to be the poor cousins
of chimpanzees and baboons of the Old World, the
platyrrhines are now recognized as extremely
diverse in evolutionary biology, behavior, and
ecology. There is still a sense of discovery in the
New World, indeed four new primate species have
been described from Brazil since 1990, and it has
become clear that behavioral/ecological/
evolutionary models developed from Old World
primate species are not necessarily applicable to
the platyrrhines. Faced with declining habitats and
a wide range of species that have never been
studied or are found only in remote areas, there has
been great attention focused on the study of as
many populations as possible. We feel like we

should take the time to reflect, to evaluate our
work, and to determine the most important
directions of future research on platyrrhine

Besides a number of panel discussions and a
"Conservation Roundtable" led by Dr Richard
Thorington (National Museum of Natural History),
the following papers were presented:
. Platyrrhinology: setting the agenda. Alfred
L.Rosenberger, National Zoo, and Marilyn
A.Norconk, Kent State University.
. Comparing primate radiations: diversity and
biogeography in two worlds. John G.Fleagle,
SUNY, Stony Brook.
. Why are there no terrestrial New World
primates? Linda Brown, Graduate Center,
. Inside the pitheciins. Suzanne Walker,
California State University, Sacramento.
. Nocturnality and diurnality: selection for activity
patterns. Patricia Wright, SUNY, Stony Brook.
. Rethinking variability in platyrrhine social
systems. Elena Cunningham, Graduate Center,
. A field biologist's view of reproductive
physiology. Karen Strier, University of
Wisconsin, Madison.
. Vocal behavior, social organization, and
coordination of troop movement in Saimiri,
Cebus, and Leontopithecus. Sue Boinski,
University of Florida, Gainesville.
. Testing paradigms of animal cognition in afield
setting. Paul Garber and Francine Dolins,
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.
. Quantifying food choice. Marilyn A.Norconk,
Kent State University.
. The other side of callitrichid gumivory:
digestibility and nutritional value. Michael
Power, National Zoological Park.
. Dietary strategies and lactation patterns. Olav
Oftedal, National Zoological Park.
. Dental microwear and function in Neotropical
primates. Mark Teaford, Johns Hopkins
. Directions for study of locomotor adaptations.
Susan Ford, Southern Illinois University.
. Evolution of the Neotropical fieldworker: theory
and method. Ken Glander, Duke University.
* Lago Guri, laboratory for extinction biology:
preliminary observations and speculations. John
Terborgh, Duke University.
. Issues in primate conservation. John
G.Robinson, NYZS The Wildlife Society.
. After the year 2000. Russell A.Mittermeier,
Conservation International.

Neotropical Primates 2(l), March 1994

Page 16

Neotropical Primates 2(1), March 1994


Ninety percent of French Guiana is covered with
rain forest. Its major part is presently intact due to
low human density and lack of penetrating roads.
Approximately 310 km of forest is currently being
flooded (as from January 1994) due to a
hydroelectric project. A wildlife rescue operation
is underway and will be financed by the public
company building the dam. This kind of operation
is controversial but we believe strongly that, if well
conducted and well documented, it will be very
useful and worthwhile. A large amount of
scientific information will be obtained.

Mammals, reptiles, amphibian and birds will be
captured under the surveillance of wildlife
veterinarians. A suitable release area has been
selected and will be prepared. Control animals
will be followed (radio-tracking and visual check)
for at least two to three years. This area is close to
the capture area and has been overhunted, so the
risk of disturbing populations in balance and of
importing diseases is minimal. The area will be
protected by law.

An important objective of the operation is public
awareness. Local actions are being planned and
will be focused on schools. International education
will be possible through the media which has
shown much interest in the operation. A scientific
study based on analyses of biological samples is
planned. A biological bank (serum, cells,
parasites, for example) will be constituted and
accessible to the international scientific
community, but there will be no funding for
shipment and research. Laboratories are invited to
express their interest and submit their proposals.
The possibility of adding new projects to the actual
plan will be considered if such propositions are

Several positions will be opened in January and
February 1994 for staff veterinarians, biologists
and volunteers with interest and experience in
wildlife restraint, care and management.
Candidates should be in good physical condition in
order to work under hard field conditions for seven
months. Knowledge of French is highly desirable.
Send either scientific proposals or a letter of intent,
a curriculum vitae and references to: Dr J.-
Christopher Vi6, Operation de Sauvetage de Petit
Saut, EDF/CNEH, Savoie Technolac, 73373 Le
Bourget-du-lac cedex, France. Fax: (33) 79-25-30-

Un..W.irdae Federal do Par,

A "m


Sistema de Informagao
Cientifica e Tecnol6gica
surgido da necessidade
de se conhecer as
informaq6es sobre a
Amaz6nia Brasileira de
forma rApida e eficiente.

De conformidade com o Acordo entire a Associagqo
de Universidades Amaz6nicas (UNAMAZ) e a
Universidade Federal do ParA (UFPA), o
INFORMAM atua como Centro Coordenador
Nacional do Sistema de Informagqo da Amazonia,
e tern por objetivo reunir, selecionar, organizer e
divulgar informaq6es cientificas e tecnol6gicas
sobre a Regiao Amaz6nica, colocando-as A
disposiqAo dos 6rg5ios governamentais, instituiq6es
piublicas e particulares, pesquisadores, t6cnicos e da
comunidade em geral.

A base bibliogrifica ji implantada possui registros
de documents produzidos. em CiEncia e
Tecnologia (C & T) sobre a Amaz6nia, com
enfoque especial a documents nao convencionais,
tais como relat6rios tdcnicos, dissertaq6es e teses.
Esta base de dados esti armazenada em
computador de Empresa de Processamento de
Dados do Estado do ParA (PRODEPA), com acesso
atrav6s de terminals localizados na Biblioteca
Central da Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), e
da rede ligada a mesma empresa. A Base
Referencial em fase de implantaqAo 6 constituida
de trds cadastros interligados: de Instituiq6es em C
& T que geram informaq6es sobre a Amaz6nia; de
pesquisas em C & T desenvolvidas ou em
desenvolvimento sobre a Amaz6nia; e de Recursos
Humanos que atuam em C & T na Amaz6nia.

O INFORMAM 6 um Sistema Cooperativo que
conta corn uma Unidade Central (UFPA) e
atualmente possui as seguintes Unidades
Cooperantes: Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi
(MPEG); Fundaqco Universidade do Amazonas
(FUA); Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da
Amaz6nia (INPA); Fundaqiao Universidade Federal
do Acre (UFAC); Fundagco Universidade Federal
de Rond6nia (UNIR); Fundacqo Universidade
Federal do Maranhio (UFMA); Fundaqao
Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso (UFMT); e a
Faculdade de Ciencias AgriArias do Para (FCAP).

O Serviqo de Divulgaqilo oferece bibliografias,
boletins de alertas especializados, calendArios de
events, e posteriormente, cadastros de instituicoes,
pesquisas e recursos humans que atuam na Regiao

Page 17

Neotropical Primates 2W, March 1994 Page 18

Amaz6nica. 0 proximo passo serA tornar o
INFORMAM disponivel via Rede Nacional de
Pesquisa; um projeto coordenado pelo Conselho
Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e
Tecnol6gico (CNPq) e que tern na UFPA um ponto
de presenqa. Instituic6es Publicas e Particulares,
pessoas fisicas devidamente cadastradas, tambdmn
terAo acesso ao Sistema de acordo com normas
estabelecidas. C6pias de documents sio
fornecidas corn o custo corrente de xerox da
instituigqo armazenadora do document ou atrav6s
do Programa de Comutagqo BibliogrAfica

Os interessados poderio cadastrar-se atrav6s das
Unidades Cooperantes ou nos estandes de events.
O acesso direto serA automitico via RNP assim que
o Sistema estiver incorporado a essa Rede. Para
acesso indireto As informaq6es das Bases de Dados
- solicitar As Unidades que compoem a Rede de
consultas formais por telefone, fax, ou correio.
Maiores informacqes: INFORMAM Unidade
Central, Biblioteca Central, Universidade Federal
do Para, Campus UniversitArio do Guamai s/n,
66075-900 Bel6m, Pard, Brasil. Tel: (091) 229-
2918, Fax: (091) 229-9677.


A new journal, Mastozoologia Neotropical, has
been launched by the Argentinian Society for the
Study of Mammals (SAREM). Ricardo A.Ojeda is
currently President of the Society and editor of the
journal. The following is the editorial of the first
issue of Volume I (January 1994).

"La revista Mastozoologia Neotropical constitute
un nuevo hito en la vida de la Sociedad Argentina
para el Estudio de los Mamiferos. Un desafio que
asumimos plenamente con el respaldo professional y
fuerza de nuestros miembros y colegas dedicados al
studio de la fauna de mamiferos. Mastozoologia
Neotropical busca convertise en el vehiculo donde
la comunidad de estudiosos de la teriologia
neotropical canalice los nmis variados aspects de
sus investigaciones.

La Sociedad Argentina para el Estudio de los
Mamiferos quiso contar, desde su inicio, con una
estructura editorial conformada por colegas
nacionales y extranjeros que expresaran su interns
de velar y participar activamente en el desarrollo y
consolidaci6n de la Revista. En este sentido nos
consideramos halagados por las palabras de
estimulo recibidas. Vayan en estas palabras

nuestro agradecimiento a todos por career en esta

Estamos empefiados en conformar una revista con
articulos cientificos originales, de opinion, ensayos
y revisiones que contribuyan a estimular,
desarrollar y abrir distintas lines de investigaci6n.
Desde biologia molecular y sistemitica. a
evoluci6n y palentologia. Desde anatomia y
fisiologia, a ecologia, comportamiento y

Con Mastozoologia Neotropical queremos rendir
homenaje a los fundadores, viajeros, naturalistas y
investigadores que sentaron las bases de los
studios teriol6gicos en la vasta region neotropical.

Tenemos una region cuya biodiversidad debe ser
expresada, investigada y protegida. Queremos que
esta experiencia nos pertenezca a todos. Creemos
en esta empresa como una tarea conjunta en la
elaboraci6n de bases s6lidas y estrategias para
hacer frente a los desaflos que enfrenta la
diversidad biol6gica neotropical.

Mastozoologia Neotropical busca desarrollarse en
una revista sin fronteras, donde nos encontramos e
interactuemos, de y para la communidad
international de estudiosos de los mamiferos. Si
bien nuestro primer n6mero contiene unicamente
articulos de colegas de Argentina, conflamos en un
acelerado crecimiento y diversidad en las
representaciones de los colegas y areas de

Este primer nfimero es una idea que iremos
trabajando y mejorando entire todos. Tenemos
secciones que desarrollar, como la dedicada a
Especies de la region y articulos de Opini6n, los
cuales tendrAn su espacio para discutir aspects,
temas y situaciones que estimulen la reflexi6n
critical y debate.

Somos conscientes que la tarea que iniciamos esta
llena de obstAculos, pero tambidn sabemos que
tenemos una fuerte comunidad de investigadores de
las mis variadas disciplines, y que con su estimulo,
dedicaci6n y profesionalidad continuaremos el
camino de nuestros fundadores, abriendo,
construyendo y consolidando los conocimientos en
el studio de los mamiferos neotropicales."

The first number of the journal includes the
following articles: Estudios paleoneurol6gicos en
marsupiales carnivoress" extinguidos de America
del Sur: neuromorfologia y encefalizaci6n -
M.T.Dozo; Conservaci6n de la fauna de tetrapodos

lVeotropical Primates 2(l), March 1994

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Page 19 Neotropical Primates 2(7,), March 1994

I. Un indice para su evaluaci6n A.R.Reca et al.;
Conservacion de la fauna de tetripodos II. Estado
de conservaci6n de los mamiferos del Parque y
Reserva Nacional Nahuel Huapi C.A.Ubeda et
al.; Feeding habits of Calomys musculinus in the
crop fields and its borders C.M.Dellafiore and
J.J.Polop; Nuevos aportes para el conocimiento de
la mastofauna del Parque Nacional Calilegua
(Provincia de Jujuy, Argentina) S.Heinonen y
A.Bosso; Las homologias en los disefios oclusales
de los roedores Caviomorpha: un modelo
alternative M.G.Vucetich y D.H.Verzi; Patrones
reproductivas y alimenticios de dos species
simpitricos del gdnero Sturnira (Chiroptera,
Phyllostomidae) A.G.Autino y R.M.Barquez;
Camdlidos silvestres y mortalidad por tormentos de
nieve en la cordillera frontal de la provincia de San
Juan, Argentina J.L.Cajal y R.A.Ojeda; El
huemul en peligro de extinci6n: los resultados de la
10 Reuni6n Binacional Argentino-Chileno sobre
estrategias de conservaci6n J.M.Smith-Flueck y

Ricardo A. Ojeda, Instituto Argentino de
Investigaciones de Zonas Aridas, C.C. 507, 5500
Mendoza, Argentina.


The official journal of the Society for Study
Mammalian Evolution. It focuses on phylogenetic
analyses and reconstruction of mammalian
evolution, problems of homology, adaptation,
function, character transformation, and other
features that enhance understanding of
evolutionary relationships. Upcoming issues
include: the possibility of mammalian pursuit
predators in the Tertiary; monophyly and
polyphyly of the order Rodentia and; a molecular
perspective on the phylogeny of placental
mammals. Editors: W.Patrick Luckett and Jean-
Louis Hartenberger. Subscription to Volume 1
(1993), 4 issues Personal Rate US$45.00 in US/
US$53.00 elsewhere. Contact: Plenum Publishing
Corporation, 233 Spring Street, New York, NY
10013-1578, USA.


The Journal on Environmental Law and Policy in
Latin America and the Caribbean will launch its
first issue in January 1994. It is supported by the
United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) and
the Fundaci6n Ambiente y Recursos Naturales

(FARN), Buenos Aires. The chief editors are Julio
Barberis (FARN) and Rafl Brafies (UNEP/
ROLAC). The Journal will address a variety of
issues such as hazardous waste, biological
diversity, climate change, desertification, industrial
siting and management, federal, state, and
municipal planning, public participation, mining,
oil, gas, fisheries, wildlife, protected areas, air and
water pollution, among others. It will be directed to
lawyers, public officials and governments,
businessmen, students, NGO's, international
organizations, and libraries, and will include
sections for articles, case law, legislation (both
national and international), news and policy
documents, and bibliography. The first number
contains the following articles: Agenda 21 and
Latin America Guillermo J. Cano; Biological
diversity and intellectual property rights Jorge
Cailleux; Free access to environmental information
- Ram6n Martin Mateo; and Constitutional
mechanisms for the protection of the environment
in Colombia German Sarmiento Palacio. For
more information contact: Fundaci6n Ambiente y
Recursos Naturales (FARN), Monroe 2142, (1428)
Buenos Aires, Argentina. Tel. and Fax: +54 1 781-


A Universidade Federal Fluminense, na cidade de
Niter6i, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, criou recentemente
um program para estudo da fauna silvestre, o
Nucleo de Estudos e Pesquisa em Animais
Silvestres (NAS), na Pr6-Reitoria de Pesquisa e
P6s-Graduagqio. 0 curso funcionarA na Faculdade
de Veterindria da Universidade. Os objetivos do
NAS sdio efetuar pesquisas e capacitar pessoal em
diferentes niveis, com dnfase na conservaqio da
biodiversidade. Como parte das atividades desse
Nicleo, sera realizada o primeiro Curso
Latinoamericano de Especializaqao em Animais
Silvestres, em meados de 1994. Para maiores
informaq6es, favor contactar: Prof. Milton Thiago
de Mello, Faculdade de Veterinaria, Universidade
Federal Fluminense, Rua Vital Brazil Filho 64,
Santa Rosa, 24230-340 Niter6i, Rio de Janeiro,
Brazil. Tel: (021) 714-8454, Fax: (021) 717-4553.


The Brazil-based Fundacgo o Boticdrio de
Prote9do a Natureza has been financing
conservation projects since 1990, already totalling

Neotropical Primates 2(l), March 1994

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Neotropical Primates 2W, March 1994 Page 20

192. They include numerous projects directly
related to primate conservation and listed below
are some of those approved in the second selection
for 1993. *Projects financed through resources
obtained in conjunction with the John D. and
Catherine T.MacArthur Foundation.

. Revegetation of degraded wetlands in the Poco
das Antas Biological Reserve Jardim Botanico
do Rio de Janeiro/Instituto Brasileiro do Meio
Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais RenovAveis
(Ibama), Poco das Antas Biological Reserve, Rio
de Janeiro.
. Monitoring of levels of fecal excretion of
progesterone and behavioral changes in female
golden-lion tamarins, Leontopithecus rosalia -
University of S5o Paulo/Federal University of
Minas Gerais, PoQo das Antas Biological
Reserve, Rio de Janeiro.
. Home range and behavior of the muriqui,
Brachyteles arachnoides (Cebidae, Primates) in
the Atlantic forest, Serra de Paranapiacaba, Sao
Paulo Sociedade de Protecqo a Vida Silvestre
(SPVS), Fazenda Intervales, Capio Bonito, Sao
* Distribution, biology and conservation status of
the black-faced lion tamarin, Leontopithecus
caissara. Maria Lticia Lorini, coastal areas of
northern Parana and southern SAo Paulo.
* Translocation of threatened groups of golden lion
tamarins, Leontopithecus rosalia. Golden lion
tamarin Association, Rio de Janeiro.
* Feeding, habitat use and daily activity patterns of
Alouatta fusca clamitans. Catholic University of
Rio Grande do Sul, Aracuri-Esmeralda
Ecological Station, Rio Grande do Sul (reported
in Neotropical Primates, 1(4):22).

The Fundagco o Botic6rio de Prote9io a Natureza
has recently changed their address. The new
address, valid as from January 1994, is given

Miguel Serediuk Milano, Diretor Tdcnico,
Fundaqao o BoticArio de Protecgo A Natureza,
Avenida Rui Barbosa 3450, Afonso Pena, 83065-
260 Sao Josd dos Pinhais, Parand, Brazil. Tel:
(041) 283-1603, Fax: (041) 283-5632.




This fund was established by the Roger Williams
Park Zoo and the Rhode Island Zoological Society
to help protect the world's threatened wildlife.
Each year grants are awarded of up to US$1,000 to
individuals or institutions working in conservation
biology. Projects and programs that enhance the
biodiversity and maintain ecosystems receive the
highest funding priority. Field studies,
environmental education programs, development of
techniques that can be used in a natural
environment, and captive education programs that
stress an integrative and/or multidisciplinary
approach to conservation are appropriate.
Proposals for single species preservation, initial
surveys, or seed money for technique development
are not appropriate. Recipients are required to
acknowledge the Roger Williams Park Zoo and the
Rhode Island Zoological Society in any
publications that result from the project. A
progress report is required, and a final report one
year after funding. Applications: a two-page
curriculum vitae and proposal, to be submitted by I
May 1994. Grants awarded in July 1994. For
further information, contact: Dr Anne Savage,
Director of Research, Roger Williams Park Zoo,
Elmwood Avenue, Providence, Rhode Island
02905, USA. Tel: (401) 785-3510, Fax: (401) 941-
3988, e-mail: BI599132@BROWNVM.BROWN.
EDU (From ASP Bulletin, 17(4):6, December


Dr. Mark Collins, previously Director of
Programmes, was recently appointed Director of
the World Conservation Monitoring Centre
(WCMC). WCMC, located in Cambridge,
England, collates and provides information on the
status, security, management, and use of the
world's biological diversity to support conservation
and sustainable development. Dr. Collins has
authored and edited many books, including The
Last Rain Forests, The Conservation Atlas of
Tropical Forests, The IUCN Invertebrate Red Data
Book, and Threatened Swallowtail Butterflies of
the World. He joined the Centre in 1982 after ten
years of research in the rain forests of Malaysia
and the savannas of West and East Africa. One of
his highest priorities is to align the Centre's
activities with the needs of the parties to the
Convention on Biological Diversity.

Neotropical Primates 2(l), March 1994

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Page 21 Neotropical Primates 2~1,), March 1994


The University of Connecticut seeks outstanding
Ph.D. candidates in ecology, evolutionary biology,
animal behavior, systematics, and conservation
biology to participate in a new program in
biodiversity. NSF Graduate Research Training
fellowships provide a $14,000 annual stipend, plus
up to $7,500 as a cost of education allowance. For
more information: Biodiversity Graduate
Fellowships, Dept. of Ecology & Evolutionary
Biology U-43, University of Connecticut, Storrs,
CT 06269-3043, USA, or Burma Stelmark, Tel:
(203) 486-4323, Fax: (203) 486-6364.


SPara criar uma massa critical de
pesquisadores qualificados, o WWF
(Fundo Mundial para a Natureza) e a
Fundagqo Ford estao apoiando
WWF pesquisas de tese de alunos de p6s-
graduaqgo (mestrado e doutorado)
tratando da conservaq~o e manejo de ecossistemas
brasileiros. 0 Programa tem dois grandes
enfoques: 1) Biologia da Conservagdo como uma
ferramenta para melhorar a aperfeiQoar a
informagqo necessaria para conservacgo da
biodiversidade; e 2) A relacao Florestas e Gente
buscando alternatives de uso sustentivel de
recursos naturais. O apoio seri destinada aos custos
da execucgo da pesquisa aprovada, incluindo
viagens ao campo, a aquisigqo de equipamento, e
material de consume, e a outras despesas que
viabilizem a excequo da pesquisa e a apresentaqAo
dos resultados. 0 valor mAximo (teto) 6 de
US$5.000 (mestrado) e de US$10.000 (doutorado).
Sao convidados a canditatar-se: alunos
regularmente aceitos em programs de p6s-
graduagqo do pais, em nivel de mestrado ou
doutorado, e alunos brasileiros, regularmente
aceitos em programs de p6s-graduagco no
exterior, que desejam executar pesquisas para a
tese no Brasil. As datas-limite para submissio de
propostas sAo: 31 de janeiro (julgamento atd 31 de
maio) e 31 de julho (julgamento atW 30 de
novembro). Para maiores informaq8es: Dr Cleber
J.R.Alho, WWF-Fundo Mundial para a Natureza,
SHIS EQ QL 06/08 Conj.E., 20 Andar, 71620-430
Brasilia, D.F., Brasil. Tel: (061) 248-2499, Fax:
(061) 248-7176.


The New York-based Rainforest Alliance's
Conservation Media Center, based in San Josd,
Costa Rica, generates news coverage of
environmental issues in Central America. As
conservationists, we have been pushing eco issues
in the media for more than 20 years, so we are
believers in the power of the press. Here, on the
front lines of tropical deforestation, we see
firsthand how the effectiveness of conservation
programs depends on media coverage.

The Center helps Central American environmental
groups to utilize the media, and we help journalists
to learn to tap non-governmental organizations for
information, opinions and ideas. We offer
individual training to Central American journalists
who are interested in eco reporting. Researchers
and journalists from around the world use the
Center as a clearinghouse for environmental
information. We give them stories, leads, contacts,
facts, photographs, and guidance. The Tropical
Conservation Newsbureau, a Media Center
Program, distributes articles about Central
American conservation issues to more than 1,000
select media outlets in the United States, Latin
America, Europe, Africa, and Japan. Many of these
stories are written by a growing team of Central
American field correspondents. Media are able to
reprint Newsbureau stories verbatim and free of
charge, or simply use them as sources of
information, ideas and background. The
Newsbureau reminds reporters that ecological
issues in Central America are of global importance,
and that tropical deforestation, for example, is an
urgent, multifaceted issue that affects everybody.
(Extracted from The Canopy, a publication of The
Rainforest Alliance, Fall 1993).

Diane Jukofsky and Chris Wille, Rainforest
Alliance Conservation Media Center, Apartado
138-2150, Moravia, San Jos6, Costa Rica. Tel:
(506) 36-3073, Fax: (506) 40-2543.


Jukofsky, D. and Wille, C. 1993. Conservation
and the media. The Canopy, Fall:4-5.
Jukofsky, D. and Wille, C. 1993. The
conservation media center: an environmental
news agency. The Canopy, Fall:5.
Jukofsky, D. and Wille, C. 1993. Difundan su
Mensaje: Guia para los Lideres de Grupos
Ambientales. Rainforest Alliance, New York.

Neotropical Primates 2(l), March 1994

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Neotropical Primates 2(1% March 1994 Page 22


La falta de personal entrenado ha sido uno de los
problems mis significativos en el manejo de las
Areas silvestres en el Neotr6pico. Con el proposito
de suplir esta deficiencia, en 1993 se inici6 en
California, los Estados Unidos; el Programa de
Intercambio para Manejadores de Areas Protegidas
de Amdrica Latina (PIMAPAL). Este program es
auspiciado por el Refugio Nacional de Vida
Silvestre Hopper Mountain y por la Sociedad de
Vida Silvestre de la Bahia de San Francisco.
Cuenta con el apoyo financeiro del Programa del
Hemisferio Occidental de la Oficina de Asuntos
Internacionales del Servicio de Pesca y Vida
Silvestre de los Estados Unidos de Amdrica.

El program tiene como prop6sito enfocar que las
comunidades que vivan cerca o dentro de las Areas
protegidas, deben estar involucradas en various
aspects de las operaciones realizadas en dichas
Areas. Los temas prioritarios del PIMAPAL
incluyen educaci6n ambiental, estrategias de
extension, desarrollo y mantenimiento de
programs de voluntariado; y formas para trabajar
efectivamente con comunidades locales y usuarios
de los recursos. AdemAs, integra aspects
referentes a la administraci6n general de las Areas
silvestres, tales como manejo de presupuestos y de
personal, y el desarrollo de herramientas necesarias
para el manejo apropriado de Areas silvestres.

El participate se integra en forma active en
proyectos relacionados con el manejo de Areas
silvestres y recursos naturales que se estin
efectuando en el sur de California. Los principles
sitios de trabajo son: el Refugio Nacional de Vida
Silvestre Hopper Mountain, en cual se desarrolla el
program de recuperaci6n del condor califomrniano;
el Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre de la Bahia
de San Francisco; y el Refugio Nacional de Vida
Silvestre Salton Sea. Ademis, se incluyen visits a
otros lugares como a los Zool6gicos de Los
Angeles o San Diego; y el Parque Nacional de
Channel Islands con el proposito de observer los
programs de" uso piblico, administraci6n y
educaci6n ambiental.

Este entrenamiento estA dirigido a dos grupos de
profesionales que trabajen en el Area de recursos
naturales: a) aquellos que estdn involucrados en la
ensefianza del manejo de Areas protegidas y que
trabajen en los programs de post-grado que apoya
el Servicio de Pesca y Vida Silvestre de los Estados
Unidos en Argentina, Brasil, Costa Rica e

Venezuela y b) personas que administran Areas
protegidas o trabajan en planificaci6n de Areas
silvestres en cualquier pais de Amdrica Latina.
Los postulantes deben tener un conocimiento del
idioma ingles que les permit el intercambio de
ideas con el personal de las Areas a visitar.

El program cubre los gastos de viaje entire el pais
de procedencia del participate y los Estados
Unidos; asi como la alimentaci6n y estadia durante
la realizaci6n del PIMAPAL. Ademas, include
material escrito relacionado con el tema de manejo
de Areas silvestres y con los proyectos en que el
participate se involucra. El PIMAPAL se realize
dos veces al afio (otofio y primavera) y consiste en
ocho semanas de entrenamiento. Las fechas
limits para recibir aplicaciones son las seguintes:
a) 1 de agosto para el program de otofio y b) 1 de
febrero para el program de primavera. El
resultado de la selecci6n se comunicarA un mes
despuds de la feche limited de la presentaci6n de
solicitudes. Las fechas de inicio del program de
entrenamiento seran flexibles y se definirAn en
mutuo acuerdo entire la direcci6n del program y el
participate seleccionado. La solicitud puede ser
enviada en ingles, espaflol o portugues. Contacte
a: Marc Weitzel, Project Leader, U.S.Fish and
Wildlife Service, Hopper Mountain National
Wildlife Refuge, P.O.Box 5839, Ventura, CA
93005, USA. Tel: (805) 644-5185, Fax: (805) 644-


Applications are invited for a postdoctoral position
at the Yerkes Primate Research Center, Emory
University, in the area of environmental
enrichment and psychological well-being of
nonhuman primates. Requirements: Doctoral
degree in psychology or related field; knowledge of
and experience with nonhuman primate behavior,
ideally in both social and individual settings.
Responsibilities: Close coordination with
veterinary and animal care staffs to participate in
implementing the Center's enrichment program for
2600 monkeys and 220 apes; hands-on
involvement in cage enrichmnent activities,
behavioral observation, formation of pairs and
small groups, detailed record-keeping, and
fostering communication among technical, animal
care, veterinary, and research staffs to primate
enrichment objectives; develop and implement
research under general supervision of behavioral
scientists at the Center to evaluate the efficacy of
existing enrichment efforts and to seek new and

Areotropical Primates 2(l), March 1994

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Page 23 Neotropical Primates 2W, March 1994

improved ways to achieve enrichment goals. The
applicant should be familiar with and contribute to
current literature in this field, and seek outside
funding support. Candidates with proven
organizational ability and strong interpersonal
skills will be preferred. Application: Letter of
interest and objectives; curriculum vitae; three
references to Dr Elizabeth Strobert, Primate
Enrichment Search; Yerkes Regional Primate
Research Center, Emory University; Atlanta, GA
30322, USA. (Taken from ASP Bulletin, 17(4):5,
December 1993).


The Mammal Slide Library is a non-profit
educational program of the American Society of
Mammalogists. The aim is to provide 35 mm color
slides of mammals for use in environmental
education worldwide. There are 1164 slides in the
program, representing more than 80% of the
families of mammals from all continents, including
Antarctica. There are nearly 100,000 slides in use
in approximately 30 countries. Slides have been
contributed by 150 photographers from 15
countries. They cost US$1.25 each (international
money order), with a 10% discount on orders of 50
or more. US$4.00 for postage and packing is
charged for institutions outside of the US. All
income from sales is used to maintain and expand
the program.

Until 1992 slides were distributed only through
cash sales. However, because the Mammal Slide
Library views environmental education as
requiring and deserving international support,
grants are now available for institutions which are
otherwise unable to purchase the slides for
whatever reason. On application, the Slide Library
provides a grant request form. Grants are limited
to one per institution per year. The initial request
cannot exceed 50 slides, and successful applicants
are awarded grants on a first-come, first-served
basis, with priority to those applying for the first
time. The number of grants each year depends on
the availability of resources. Grants are only made
to institutions, and it is assumed that the slides will
be shared by all the staff. Those wishing to donate
slides should contact the chairperson of the Slide
Library (address below). Slides obtained from the
Library can be used only for optical projection for
non-profit educational purposes. Other uses depend
on permission from the Library and in some cases
from the person who contributed the slide.

Slides of New World primates include the

following species: Callithrix argentata, C. jacchus,
Leontopithecus rosalia, Saguinus fuscicollis, S.
imperator, S. oedipus, Alouatta caraya, A.
palliata, A. seniculus, Aotus trivirgatus, Ateles
geoffroyi, A.paniscus, Cacajao calvus, Callicebus
moloch, Cebus capucinus, C. olivaceus,
Chiropotes satanas, Lagothrix flavicauda, L.
lagotricha, Pithecia pithecia, and Saimiri sciureus.

For more information, contact: Dr J.Alden Lackey,
Chairperson Mammal Slide Library, Department
of Biology, State University of New York, Oswego,
New York 13126, USA. Tel: 315-341-4250.
Business Office: Dwight W.Moore, Elmer J.Finck,
Division of Biological Sciences, Box 50, Emporia
State University, Emporia, Kansas 66801, USA.
Tel: 316-341-5611 (DWM), 316-341-5623 (EJF).


The Captive Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG)
have produced a new Vortex Version 6.2, a
computer model to evaluate the probabilities of
extinction and loss of genetic variation for
population viability analyses (PVA). It provides a
quantitative summary of the conservation status of
populations and permits the evaluation of the
effects of different management recommendations
on long-term survival. The software, with the
second edition of the user's manual, is available for
US$35.00 from CBSG, 12101 Johnny Cake Ridge
Road, Apple Valley, MN 55124, USA, Tel: 612-
431-9325, Fax: 612-432-2757. Questions and
comments regarding the software should be
referred directly to Dr Robert Lacy or Dr Kimberly
Hughes, Chicago Zoological Park, Brookfield,
Illinois 60513, USA, Tel: 1-708-485-0263, Fax: 1-


The first newsletter, Chelonia Neotropica, edited
by the Study Group for Brazilian Chelonia, was
published in January 1994 by the Fundaqao
Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte. Number 1 of the
newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Edentate Specialist
Group, Edentata, was also published in January
1994. Contact: Conservation International, Rua
Antonio Abrahao Caram 820/302, Pampulha,
31270-000 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil..
Fax: (031) 441-2582.

Neotropical Primates 2(l), March 1994

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Neotropical Primates 2(1% March 1994 Page 24

Primate Societies


1 J a/ 0 Congresso serA
realizado durante o XX
Congress Brasileiro de
Zoologia, na Universidade Federal do Rio de
Janeiro (UFRJ), 24-29 de julho de 1994, e incluird
a Assembleia Geral da Sociedade Brasileira de
Primatologia (SBPr). Conforme combinado com a
Diretoria da Sociedade Brasileira de Zoologia
(SBZ), a SBPr terA a sua disposigqo infra-estrutura
na UFRJ para a realizaqmo de palestras e simp6sios,
criando um event relativamente aut6nomo.
Pretendemos tambem produzir um volume pr6prio
de resumos. Nosso prazo para envio de resumos
serA de 30 de abril de 1994. Este deverio center no
maximo 300 palavras de texto, acompanhados de
titulo, nome(s), e vinculo(s) do(s) autor(es), e
agradecimentos. Ndo existem exigencias quanto ao
estilo, pois os mesmos serao editados pelo Comite
Organizador. Poderao ser enviados atrav6s de
disquete, fax (091-229-9785), ou correio eletr6nico
simp6sios, mesas-redondas, e mini-cursos, ainda
estio sendo aceitas sugest6es. Seguindo as normas
do XX Congresso de Zoologia, as inscriq6es serio
de US$20 (valor do dolar commercial no dia de
postagem) para alunos, US$40 para s6cios (SBZ ou
SBPr), e US$60 para nao s6cios. Cheques
cruzados nominais A SBPr deverao ser enviados ao
Comite Organizador. Enderego: VI Congresso
Brasileiro de Primatologia, Caixa Postal 8607,
66075-150 Beldm, Para, Brasil. Tel/Fax: (091)
229-9785. (Informagio da Ia. Carta Circular sobre
o VI Congresso da SBPr, 03 dejaneiro de 1994).


The ASP Conservation Committee stresses
conservation awareness and activities, especially in
countries with native primate faunas, by providing
recognition and journal awards and small grants.
The Senior Biology and Conservation Award for
1993 went to Robin Kingston, a British
primatologist with a long and distinguished career
in primate studies and captive breeding and
management. He was a pioneer in setting up and

running primate breeding facilities (especially for
callitrichids) first in Europe, and later in Peru
(Centro de Reproducci6n y Conservaci6n de
Primates, Iquitos) and Brazil (Centro Nacional de
Primatas, Bel6m) under the auspices of the World
Health Organization.

The Committee continued the Subscription Awards
for two awardees from 1992, four from 1991, and
gave four new awards in 1993. All were made
Honorary members of the Society. The 1993
Conservation Award was given to Eduardo Veado,
Director of the Caratinga Biological Station in
Minas Gerais (reported in Neotropical Primates,
1(3):13-14), and Conservation Small Grants were
given to Anne Savage (Roger Williams Park Zoo,
Rhode Island) and Thad Bartlett (Washington
University, St.Louis). An emergency award was
given to Patrick Mehlman for a project aimed at
preventing premature culling of free-ranging
barbary macaques in Morocco.

Nominations for the 1994 ASP awards are now
being sought. The Subscription Award provides
the American Journal of Primatology to
individuals in source countries who lack access to
scientific literature on nonhuman primates.
Preference is given to individuals who will make
the journal widely available to colleagues, and to
those who can justify reapplication every two years
to build up their library. A letter of nomination
should describe the nominee, his/her primate
related activities, and the degree of need for the
subscription. The Conservation Award (US$500)
provides recognition for students and young
investigators from source countries. Past awards
have been presented by U.S.Ambassadors or other
senior consulate officials, obtaining favorable
publicity for ASP, the award, its recipient, and
primate conservation in the recipient's country.
Nominators should provide the name, title, and full
mailing address of their nominees, along with a
statement about the nominee's qualifications for the
award and his/her contribution to primate
conservation. Current students, researchers and
educators within five years of graduation are
eligible. The Senior Biology and Conservation
Award (US$500 Honorarium) is one of ASP's
highest honors. It is given to recognize an
individual without an advanced degree who has
made a substantial contribution to conservation or
related aspects of primatology over at least five
years. This work could be done with primates in
the field, laboratory, or zoo settings, and nominees
could be individual caretakers, research
technicians, census takers, research facilitators,
individuals involved in private enterprises etc.

Neotropical Primates 2(l), March- 1994

Page 24


Page 2S Neotropical Primates 2(1,), March 1994

Nominations should include a letter of support
detailing the nominee's qualifications and
contributions to primate biology and conservation.
Conservation Small Grant (US$500) proposals are
solicited for conservation research or other
projects, including conservation education. The
grants are especially for members working in
source countries, and can form part of a larger
project. Proposals must be in English, not
exceeding 2000 words, with a brief budget on a
separate page. A breif progress report must be
presented in a form publishable in the ASP
Bulletin. The Conservation Committee will make
its recommendations for awards and grants to the
ASP Executive Committee at the annual meeting,
to be held in Seattle on 27-30 July 1994.
Nominations and grant proposals should be
submitted by June 20 1994, to Dr Ramon J.Rhine,
Psychology Department, University of California,
Riverside, CA 92521, USA.

Finally ASP also presents a Distinguished
Primatologist Award, decided upon by the Awards
and Recognition Comittee, chaired by Dr Matt
Kessler, Caribbean Primate Research Center,
Puerto Rico. The award honors a primatologist
who has had an outstanding career and made
significant contributions to the field. Previous
awards have been given to Dr William Mason and
Dr Philip Hershkovitz. The recipient is invited to
deliver the "Distinguished Primatologist's Speech"
at the annual meeting. Nominations require at
least three letters of support. The closing date for
the 1994 nominations was 1 February.

Recent Publications


Biological Diversity in Mexico: Origins
and Distribution, edited by T.P.Ramamoorthy,
R.Bye, A.Lot and J.Fa, Oxford University Press,
Oxford, 1993, 852pp. Hdbk 60.00. An important
summary of research and a review of the scattered
published literature on the biota and biological
diversity of Mexico. Contact: Oxford University
Press, Walton Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, England,
or Oxford University Press, Order Department,
2001 Evans Road, Cary, North Carolina 27513,

1994 IUCN Red List of Threatened
Animals, compiled by the World Conservation
Monitoring Centre, Cambridge, UK, 1994. This

book lists over 5000 taxa identified as threatened.
Each species listing includes the scientific name,
english vernacular name, IUCN threatened
category, CITES listing, and a brief description of
the animal's range An index to the list follows,
based on the Order, Family and generic names,
with vernacular names for major groupings. Also
included is a guest essay on the process to develop
new IUCN categories, prepared by Georgina Mace
of the IUCN Species Survival Commission.
Contact: IUCN Publications Services Unit, 219c
Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3 ODL, UK. Tel:
+44 223 277894, Fax: 44 223-277175.

Ontogenetic Perspectives on Primate
Evolutionary Biology, edited by M.J.Ravosa
and A.M.Gomez, 1992, viii+307pp., Academic
Press, London. Price 20.00. Reprinted from
Journal of Human Evolution 23(1-3), 1992.
Available from: Academic Press (Harcourt Brace
and Co.), 24-28 Oval Road, London NW1 7DX,
UK. Fax: (081) 309-0807.

Threatened Plants of the World: The 1994
IUCN Red List, compiled by the World
Conservation Monitoring Centre in association
with The Nature Conservancy (USA) and
Biodiversity Information Network (USA), The
Smithsonian Institution (USA), and CSIRO
(Australia), 1994, 1200pp. Forthcoming. The first
ever world list of over 2,700 threatened vascular
plants, approximately 10% of the world's estimated
270,000 taxa, and 14,600 taxa that are not globally
threatened but are threatened in one or more
countries. Each part is arranged taxonomically
and includes for each taxon the following
information: plant name, author, data source for
name, IUCN Red Data Book category at the world
level, presence on CITES appendix, presence in
cultivation, geographic distribution by country or
sub-country unit, data source for distribution,
conservation status within that area, and data
source for conservation information. Brief
statistical analyses are given at the beginning of
each family. A full bibliography of all data sources
used in the book, and an index to families and
genera, are also included. Contact: Kerry S.Walter
or Harry Gillett, World Conservation Monitoring
Centre, 219 Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3
ODL, UK. Tel: +44 223 277314, Fax: +44 223
277136, Email: plants@wcmc.org.uk.

The World Zoo Conservation Strategy: The
Role of Zoos and Aquaria of the World in
Global Conservation, edited by the World Zoo
Organization (IUDZG), and the IUCN/SSC

Neotropical Primates 2(l), March 1994

Page 25

Neotropical Primates 2(1), March 1994

Captive Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG), and
published by the Chicago Zoological Society,
September 1993, 76pp. Price US$10.00. IUDZG
and CBSG also published a separate executive
summary of the document (12pp), price US$3.00.
Includes 11 chapters: 1. Introduction: zoos in a
changing world; 2.The World Conservation
Strategy and zoos; 3.The global zoo network;
4.Education; 5.Zoo animal collections and their
conservation; 6.Ex-situ conservation of animal
populations; 7.Capacity: space limitations and
choice of species; 8.Artificial reproduction and
cryopreservation: biotechnology in support of
conservation; 9.Back to nature: zoo animals for
reintroduction and restocking; 10.Knowledge and
research; and 11 .The way forward: towards a new
integration. Contact: CBSG, 12101 Johnny Cake
Ridge Road, Apple Valley, MN 55124-8199, USA.
See page 13.

As Matas de Vdrzea do Mamiraud: Mddio
Rio Solimoes, by Jos6 Marcio Ayres, MCT-
CNPq-Programa do Tr6pico Umido, Sociedade
Civil Mamiraud, 1993, 124pp. An excellently
illustrated book on the ecology of Amazonian
white-water flooded forest, in particular of the
Mamiraud State Ecological Station, and covering
such aspects as climate, geomorphology,
hydrology, and vegetation, including forest
composition and structure, diversity and the spatial
distribution of plant species, phenology and
correlates of seed dispersal. In the final chapter,
the author discusses conservation aspects and
makes comparisons with other Amazonian
vegetation formations. It is the first volume of a
publication series "Estudos do Mamiraud".
Contact: Sociedade Civil Mamiramu, Caixa Postal
38, 69470-000 Tefd, Amazonas, Brazil. Fax:(092)
743-2309. See page 12.

Large Scale Ecology and Conservation
Biology, edited by P.J.Edwards, R.M.May, and
N.R.Webb, 35th Symposium of the British
Ecological Society, Blackwell Scientific
Publications, Oxford, 1994, 384pp. Price Hdbk
45.00, Pbk 18.50 (+1.75 postage). Contents:
The effects of spatial scale on ecological questions
and answers; Three thousand year history of patch
dynamics of a hemlock and hardwood forest
mosaic in northern Michigan, USA; Animal
distributions: patterns and processes; Spatial
distribution of marine organisms: patterns and
processes; Environmental factors as determinants
of past, present and future distribution of species;
Metapopulations and conservation; Conserving
insect habitats in heathland biotopes: a question of

scale; Declining farmland bird species: modelling
geographic patterns of abundance in Britain: Scale
and patterns of community structure in Amazonian
forests; Harvesting species of different life spans;
Blanket bogs in Great Britain: an assessment of
large scale patterns and distribution using remote
sensing and GIS; Tsetse distribution in Africa:
seeing the wood and the trees; Monitoring species
performance of common dominant plant species;
Definitions and categories for describing the
conservation status of species; Turning
conservation goals into tangible results: the case of
the spotted owl and old-growth forests; The
ecological component of economic policy:
Translating ecological science into practical policy;
Large scale ecology and conservation biology: the
ESA priority list of research topics. Contact:
Blackwell Scientific Publications, Osney Mead,
Oxford OX2 OEL, England, UK. Fax: +44 865

Biological Values for Selected Mammals,
3rd Edition, AAZK, Inc., Topeka, Kansas, 1993.
Prices: AAZK member, US $26.50, Canada and
overseas $32.50; Non-member, US $35.00,
Canada and overseas $45.00, including postage.
Checks to "AAZK, Inc.". Contains information on
427 species of mammals, including aspects from
geographic range and habitat to circadian rhythms,
size/measurements, reproductive data, life
expectancy, body temperature, rearing information,
and status in the wild, to name a few. About half
of the species listings include habitat range maps.
Includes a complete bibliography of references
used. Contact: BV III, AAZK Administrative
Offices, 635 S.W. Gage Blvd., Topeka, KS 66606-
2066, USA.

A Systematic Treatment of Fruit Types, by
R.W.Spjut, New York Botanical Garden, New
York, 1993, 180pp. Price US$24.95 + postage and
handling. Volume 70 of Memoirs of the New York
Botanical Garden. In this monograph the concept
"fruit" and the terminology descriptive of fruit
morphology are defined to distinguish the different
types. Some of the advantages and disadvantages
to previous classifications of fruit types are
discussed, and the criteria considered to be the
most useful are adopted for a new systematic
treatment, which includes 95 fruit types, a
systematic review of their names and definitions,
and an index to carpological terms. In the key, up
to six examples for each kind of fruit are indicated
by reference to the family (genus) name. Each
fruit is defined in the systematic review, followed
by references to the original author and others who
applied the accepted term and/or its synonyms, a

Page 26

Page 27 Neotropical Primates 20,), March 1994

discussion of its relationships to other kinds of
fruits, and citations of specimens, illustrations,
and/or descriptions of the taxa studied. Thirty-
seven new names or nomenclatural modifications
to previous names for fruit types are made. Names
of all fruit types are also listed in the index with
reference to the original author, the date and place
of publication, and the definition as originally
presented by that author for each term; the index
also includes other carpological terms and their
definitions. This book is evidently a must for all
those studying primate feeding behaviour and
ecology. Available from: Scientific Publications
Department, The New York Botanical Garden,
Bronx, New York 10458-5126, USA. Fax: (718)
220-6504. Order number MEM 70.

A Field Guide to the Families and Genera
of Woody Plants of Northwest South
America (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru), with
Supplementary Notes on Herbaceous Taxa,
by Alwyn H.Gentry, illustrations by Rodolfo
Vasquez (Proyecto Flora del Peri), Conservation
International, Washington, D.C., 1993, 895pp.
Contribution No.1 of Conservation International's
Conservation Biology Series. Paperback. Price: a
modest US$25.00 (plus US$5.00 for postage). This
extensively illustrated and invaluable field guide is
a must for field primatologists working in the
Amazon and north-west South America. All
families that contain woody, epiphytic, or scandent
species (plus some herbaceous genera) are
included. Gentry incorporated much of his
practical field experience into this book to present
a new approach to the identification of tropical
plants. Rather than a traditional dichotomous key,
the book includes an extensive key to the families
that takes the user through the most relevant
character states and possible taxonomic outcomes.
For most families, each genus is listed with hints
for distinguishing it from related genera. Generic
listings indicate the number of neotropical species.
Includes indices for common and scientific names.
It facilitates identification to genus even when only
sterile material is available. Contact: Department
of Conservation Biology, Conservation
International, 1015 18th Street NW, Suite 1000,
Washington, D.C. 20036, USA.

ZEspdcios sin Habitantes? Parques
Nacionales de Amdrica del Sur, edited by
Stephan and Thora Amend, Nueva Sociedad,
Caracas, Venezuela, and IUCN, 1992, 498pp.
Spanish. English version will be published early
1994. 12.50, US$25.00. Describes the current
status of the 184 National Parks in South America.

Organised on a country-by-country basis, each
chapter opens with an introduction to the protected
area system, followed by an analysis of the legal
aspects of human occupation and of the use of
natural resources in National Parks, and concludes
with a set of case studies of management in
selected protected areas. Contact: IUCN
Publications Services Unit, 219c Huntingdon Road,
Cambridge CB3 ODL, UK. Tel: +44 223 277894,
Fax: 44 223-277175.

El Extractivismo en Amdrica Latina:
Conclusiones y Recomendaciones del
Taller IUCN-CEE, by Manuel Ruiz P6rez,
Jeffrey A.Sayer, and Susanna Cohen-Jehoram,
IUCN Publications, Cambridge, forthcoming late
1993, c.80pp. Price 7.50, US$15.00. Spanish.
The result of a joint IUCN-CEE workshop held in
Amacayacu, Colombia, in October 1992, to analyse
the current situation concerning the extraction of
non-timber forest products in Latin America. The
book covers: biodiversity and environmental
potential and risks, management plans and
complementary activities, legal and institutional
aspects, community participation, economic values
and marketing, and the international context. It
includes country case studies, recommendations
and guidelines to promote extractive activities in
Latin America. Contact: IUCN Publications
Services Unit, 219c Huntingdon Road, Cambridge
CB3 ODL, UK. Tel: +44 223 277894, Fax: 44 223-

ACCESS: A Directory of Contacts,
Environmental Data Bases, and Scientific
Infrastructures on 175 Biosphere Reserves
in 32 Countries, compiled by EuroMAB,
UNESCO, Paris, 250pp. The Directory is a
product of international collaboration of the Man
and the Biosphere (MAB) Programs of Europe and
North America. The information is also available
on diskette (Lotus 1-2-3, Microsoft Excel, D-base
formats). Important to specify MS-DOS or
Macintosh. Available at the minimal cost of
reproduction from either: UNESCO MAB
Secretariat, 7 place de Fontenoy, 75700 Paris,
France, Tel: (33) (1) 4568-4068, Fax: (33) (1)
4065-9535 or CIESIN Customer Services Dept., e-
mail: ciesin.info@ciesin.org.

The GEF and Biodiversity Conservation:
Lessons to Date and Recommendations for
Future Action, by Russell A.Mittermeier and Ian
A.Bowles, International Biodiversity Policy
Program, Conservation International, Washington

Neotropical Primates 2(l), March 1994

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Neotropical Primates 2(1), March 1994 Page 28

D.C., 1993, 21pp. Based in part on a presentation
by Russell A.Mittermeier on biodiversity, its scope,
value, and uses to the GEF Participants Meeting in
Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire, in December 1992.
Includes: Introduction; Scope, Value and Use of
Biodiversity; Setting Priorities; Suggestions for
Reform of the GEF Biodiversity Portfolio; and
Conclusions. Contact: Legislative Programs,
Conservation International, 1015 18th Street NW,
Suite 1000, Washington, D.C. 20036, USA.

Mamiferos Brasileiros: Uma Coletdnea
Bibliografica, compiled by Gustavo A.B.da
Fonseca, ClAudia M. R. Costa, Ricardo B.
Machado, Yuri L. R. Leite and Cristiane Furlani,
1994, 145pp. Fundagco Biodiversitas, Belo
Horizonte. Price US$10.00 (incl. postage). This
bibliography was prepared and published with the
help of Conservation International (CI), The John
D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation and
the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF). It lists
1,986 publications and reports concerning
Brazilian mammals currently maintained by the
Centro de Dados para a Conservagdo da
Biodiversidade (CDCB) of the Fundagio
Biodiversitas. It includes indices for authors,
subjects and species. Available from Fundagao
Biodiversitas, Rua Maria Vaz de Mello 71, Dona
Clara, 31260-110 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais,
Brazil. Fax: 010 55 (031) 441-7037.


Abbott, D.H., Faulkes, C.G., Barrett, J., Smith,
T.E., Cheesman, D.J. 1993. Social control of
female reproduction in marmoset monkeys and
naked mole rats. In: Endocrine and Nutritional
Control of Basic Biological Functions,
H.Lehnert, H.Murison, R.Wiener et al. (eds.),
pp.457-489. Hogrefe and Huber, Seattle.
Andrew, R.J. 1993. Behavioural constraints on
social communication are not likely to prevent
the evolution of large social groups in nonhuman
primates. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 16(4):
Anonymous. 1993. Squirrel monkey twins
reported. Laboratory Primate Newsletter,
Anzenberger, G. and Gossweiler, H. 1993. How
to obtain individual urine samples from
undisturbed marmoset families. Am.J.Primatol.,
Baker, A.J., Dietz, J.M. and Kleiman, D.G. 1993.
Behavioural evidence for monopolization of
paternity in multi-male groups of golden lion

tamarins. Anim.Behav., 46:1091-1103.
Barrett, J., Abbott, D.H. and George, L.M. 1993.
Sensory cues and the suppression of reproduction
in subordinate marmoset monkeys, Callithrix
jacchus. J.ReprodFert., 97:301-310.
Bartlett, T.Q., Sussman, R.W. and Cheverud, J.M.
1993. Infant killing in primates: a review of
observed cases with specific reference to the
sexual selection hypothesis. Am.Anthropol.,
95(4): 958-990.
Barton, R.A. 1993. Independent contrasts analysis
of neocortical size and socioecology in primates.
Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 16(4): 694-695.
Beck, B.B. and Castro, M.I. 1994. Environments
for endangered primates. In: Naturalistic
Environments in Captivity for Animal Behavior
Research, E.F.Gibbons Jr, E.J.Wyers, E.Waters
and E.W.Menzel Jr (eds.), pp.259-270. State
University of New York Press, New York.
Bicca-Marques, J.C. and Calegaro-Marques, C.
1993. Feeding postures in the black howler
monkey, Alouatta carava. Folia Primatol.,
60(3): 169-172.
Bodmer, .R.E., Fang, T.G., Moya, L. and Gill, R.
1993. Managing wildlife to conserve Amazonian
rainforests: population biology and economic
considerations of game hunting. Biol.Conserv.,
Boubli, J.P. 1993. Southern expansion of the
geographical distribution of Cacajao
melanocephalus melanocephalus. Int. J.
Primatol., 14(6):933-937.
Bown, T., Rose, K.D. and Anderson, D.K. 1993.
Character evolution and the nature of some
replacement faunas of Tertiary mammals of
North and South America. J. Vert.Paleontol.,
13(3, suppl.): 27A (Abstract).
Chamberlain, J., Nelson, G. and Milton K. 1993.
Fatty acid profiles of major food sources of
howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in the
neotropics. Experientia, 49(9):820-824.
Cheverud, J.M., Jacobs, S.C. and Moore, A.J.
1993. Genetic differences among subspecies of
the saddle-back tamarin (Saguinus fuscicollis) -
evidence from hybrids. Am.J.Primatol., 31:23-
Chiarello, A.G. 1993. Activity pattern of the
brown howler monkey Alouatta fusca, Geoffroy
1812, in a forest fragment of southeastern Brazil.
Primates, 34(3):289-293.
Chiarello, A.G. 1993. Home range of the brown
howler monkey, Alouatta fusca, in a forest
fragment of southeastern Brazil. Folia Primatol.,
60(3): 173-175.
Chiarello, A.G. and Galetti, M. 1994.
Conservation of the brown howler monkey in
south-east Brazil. Oryx, 28(1):37-42.

Neotropical Primates 2(l), March 1994

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Page 29 Neotropical Primates 2(1,), March 1994

Coimbra-Filho, A.F., Pissinatti, A. and Rylands,
A.B. 1993. Breeding muriquis Brachyteles
arachnoides in captivity: the experience of the
Rio de Janeiro Primate Centre (CPRJ-FEEMA).
Dodo, J. Wildl.Preserv. Trusts, 29:66-77.
Colson James, R.A. 1993. Genetic variation in
Belizean black howler monkeys. Dissertation
Abstracts International, A54(3):994.
Crockett, C.M. and Bowden, D.M. 1994.
Challenging conventional wisdom for housing
monkeys. Lab.Animal., 23(2): 29-33.
Dietz, J.M. and Baker, A.J. 1993. Polygyny and
female reproductive success in golden lion
tamarins, Leontopithecus rosalia. Anim.Behav.,
Dobson, F. and Yu, J. 1993. Rarity in neotropical
forest mammals revisited. Conservation Biology,
Drubbel, R.V. and Gautier, J-.P. 1993. On the
occurrence of nocturnal and diurnal loud calls,
differing in structure and duration, in red howlers
(Alouatta seniculus) of French Guyana. Folia
Primatol., 60:195-209.
Dyke, B., Gage, T.B., Ballou, J.D., Petto, A.J.,
Tardif, S.D. and Williams, L.E. 1993. Model
life tables for the smaller New World monkeys,
Am.J.Primatol., 29:269-85.
Fedigan, L. 1993. Sex differences and intersexual
relations in adult white-faced capuchins (Cebus
capucinus). Int.J.Primatol., 14(6):853-877.
Ferrari, S.F. and Queiroz, H.L. 1994. Two new
Brazilian primates discovered, endangered.
Oryx, 28(1):31-36.
Figueiredo, R.A.de 1993. Ingestion of Ficus
enormis seeds by howler monkeys (Alouatta
fusca) in Brazil: effect on seed germination.
J. Trop.Ecol., 9(4):541-543.
Garcia, J.E. and Braga, F. 1993. Sleeping sites and
lodge trees of the night monkey (Aotus azarae) in
Bolivia. Int. J. Primatol., 14(3):467-477.
Glezer, I.I. and Kinzey, W.G. 1993. Do gossip
and lack of grooming make us human?
Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 16(4): 704-705.
Heistermann, M., Tari, S. and Hodges, J.K. 1993.
Measurement of faecal steroids for monitoring
ovarian function in New World primates,
Callitrichidae. J.Reprod.Fert., 99:243-251.
Hershkovitz, P. 1993. Male external genitalia of
non-prehensile tailed South American monkeys.
Part I. Subfamily Pitheciinae, Family Cebidae.
Fieldiana, Zoologia, New Series, (73):1-17.
Howe, H.F. 1993. Aspects of variation in a
neotropical seed dispersal system. Vegetatio,
107/108: 149-162.
Janson, C.H. 1993. Primate group size, brains, and
communication: a New World perspective.
Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 16(4): 711-712.

Janson, C.H. 1994. Naturalistic environments in
captivity: a methodological bridge between field
and laboratory studies of primates. In:
Naturalistic Environments in Captivity for
Animal Behavior Research, E.F.Gibbons Jr,
E.J.Wyers, E.Waters and E.W.Menzel Jr (eds.),
pp.259-270. State University of New York Press,
New York.
Johnson-Delaney, C. 1993. Spontaneous Diseases
of Aged New World Primates. A Selected
Bibliography, 1970-1993. 67 citations, primate
and subject indexes. Primate Information Center,
SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA
98195, USA, Price US$6.50.
Julliot, C. and Sabatier, D. 1993. Diet of the red
howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) in French
Guiana. Int.J.Primnatol., 14(4):527-550.
Kay, R.F. and Frailey, C.D. 1993. Large fossil
platyrrhines from the Rio Acre local fauna, late
Miocene, western Amazonia. J.Hum.Evol.,
LeBlanc, D. 1993. Tamarins also feed on
exudates. Shape of Enrichment, 2(3):5.
Lemos de SA, R.M., Pope, T.R., Struhsaker, T.T.
and Glander, K.E. 1993. Sexual dimorphism in
canine length of woolly spider monkeys
(Brachyteles arachnoides, E.Geoffroy 1806).
Int.J.Primatol., 14(5):755-763.
Lyons, D.M., Mendoza, S.P. and Mason, W.A.
1994. Psychosocial and hormonal aspects of
hierarchy formation in groups of male squirrel
monkeys. Am.J.Primatol., 32(2): 109-122.
Masataka, N. 1993. Effects of experience with
live insects on the development of fear of snakes
in squirrel monkeys, Saimiri sciureus.
Anim.Behav., 46(4):741-746.
McDaniel, P.S., Janzow, F.T., Porton, I. and Asa,
C.S. 1993. The reproductive and social
dynamics of captive Ateles geoffroyi (black-
handed spider monkey). Am.Zool., 33(2):173-
Menezes, A.A.L., Moreira, L.F.S., Azevedo,
C.V.M., Costa, S.F. and Castro, C.S.S. 1993.
Behavioral rhythms in the captive common
marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) under natural
environmental conditions. Brazilian Journal of
Medical and Biomedical Research, 26(7):741-
Milton. K. 1993. Diet and primate evolution.
Sci.Am., 269(2):86-93.
O'Brien, T.G. 1993. Allogrooming behaviour
among adult female wedge-capped capuchin
monkeys. Anim.Behav., 46(3):499-510.
O'Brien, T.G. 1993. Asymmetries in grooming
interactions between juvenile and adult female
wedge-capped capuchin monkeys. Anim.Behav.,

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Neotropical Primates 2(1,), A'farch 1994 Page 30

Peres, C.A. 1993. Notes on the ecology of buffy
saki monkeys (Pithecia albicans, Gray 1860): a
canopy seed predator. Am.J.Primatol., 31:129-
Peres, C.A. 1993. Structure and spatial
organization of an Amazonian terra fire forest
primate community. J. Trop.Ecol., 9(3):259-276.
Peres, C.A. 1993. Diet and feeding ecology of
saddle-back (Saguinus fuscicollis) and
moustached (S. mystax) tamarins in an
Amazonian terra fire forest. J. Zool., Lond.,
Phillips, 0. 1993. The potential for harvesting
fruits in tropical rainforests: new data from
Amazonian Peru. Biodiversity and
Conservation, 2:18-38.
Pieczarka, J.C., Barros, R.M.de S., Faria, F.M.de,
Jr. and Nagamachi, C.Y. 1993. Aotus from the
southwestern Amazon region is geographically
and chromosomally intermediate between
A.azarae boliviensis and A.infulatus. Primates,
34(2): 197-204.
Pieczarka, J.C., Barros, R.M.de S., Nagamachi,
C.Y., Rodrigues, R. and Espinel, A. 1992.
Aotus vociferans x Aotus nancymai: sympatry
without chromosomal hybridation. Primates,
Plavcan, J. M. and Gomez, A. M. 1993. Relative
tooth size and dwarfing in the callitrichines.
J.Hum.Evol., 25(3):241-245.
Plavcan, J. M. and Gomez, A. M. 1993. Dental
scaling in the Callitrichinae. Int. J. Primatol.,
Price, E.C. 1993. Measuring gut passage times in
small New World monkeys. Animal Welfare,
Pryce, C.R. 1993. The regulation of maternal
behaviour in marmosets and tamarins.
Behavioural Processes, 30:201-224.
Pryce, C.R., Jurke, M., Shaw, H.J., Sandmeier, I.G.
and Doebeli, M. 1993. Determination of ovarian
cycle in Goeldi's monkey (Callimico goeldii) via
the measurement of steroids and peptides in
plasma and urine. JReprod.Fert., 99:427-435.
Puertas, P. and Bodmer, R.E. 1993. Conservation
of a high diversity primate assemblage.
Biodiversity and Conservation, 2:586-593.
Riviello, M.C., Visalberghi, E., and Blasetti, A.
1993. Individual differences in responses toward
a mirror by captive tufted capuchin monkeys
(Cebus apella). Hystrix, 4(2):35-44.
Robinson, E.L., Demaria-Pesce, V.H. and Fuller,
C. A. 1993. Circadian rhythms of
thermoregulation in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri
sciureus). Am. J. Physiol., 265 (4,pt.2): R781-
Rothe, H., Darms, K., Konig, A., Radespiel, U. and

Juenemann, B. 1993. Long-term study of infant
carrying behaviour in captive common
marmosets (Callithrix jacchus): effect of
nonreproductive helpers on the parent's carrying
performance. Int.J.Primatol., 14:79-94.
Rothe, H., Konig, A. and Darms, K. 1993. Infant
survival and numbers of helpers in captive
groups of common marmosets (Callithrix
jacchus). Am.J.Primatol., 30:131-137.
Sampaio, M.I.da C., Schneider, M.P.C. and
Schneider, H. 1993. Contribution of genetic
distance studies to the taxonomy of Ateles,
particularly Ateles paniscus paniscus and Ateles
paniscus chamek. Int.J.Primatol., 14(6):895-903.
Scheffrahn, W. and Menard, N. 1993. Ecology,
demography and relatedness. Primates,
Schneider, H., Schneider, M.P.C., Sampaio,
M.I.C., Montoya, E., Tapia, J., Encarnaci6n. F.,
Anselmo, N.P. and Salzano, F.M. 1993.
Divergence between biochemical and cytogenetic
differences in three species of the Ca//icebus
moloch group. Am.J.Phys.Anthrop., 90:345-350.
Schrader, L. and Todt, D. 1993. Contact call
parameters covary with social context in common
marmosets, Callithrix j.jacchus. Anim.Behav.,
46(5): 1026-1028.
Silva, B.T.F., Sampaio, M.I.C., Schneider, H.,
Schneider, M.P.C., Montoya, E., Encarnaci6n,
F., Callegari-Jacques, S.M. and Salzano, F.M.
1993. Protein electrophoretic variability in
Saimiri and the question of its species status.
Am.J.Primatol., 29:183-193.
Snowdon, C.T. 1993. The rest of the story:
grooming, group size and vocal exchanges in
Neotropical primates. Behavioral and Brain
Sciences, 16(4): 718.
Snowdon, C.T. 1994. The significance of
naturalistic environments for primate behavioral
research. In: Naturalistic Environments in
Captivity for Animal Behavior Research,
E.F.Gibbons Jr, E.J.Wyers, E.Waters and
E.W.Menzel Jr (eds.), pp.217-235. State
University of New York Press, New York.
Snowdon, C.T., Ziegler, T.E. and Widowski, T.M.
1993. Further hormonal suppression of eldest
daughter cotton-top tamarins following birth of
infants. Am.J.Primatol., 31:11-21.
Stegenga, L. 1993. Modifying spider monkey
behavior with the use of enrichment variables.
Shape of Enrichment, 2(3):3-4.
Stevenson, P.R., Quinones, M.J. and Ahumada,
J.A. 1994. Ecological strategies of woolly
monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha) at Tinigua
National Park, Colombia. Am. J. Primatol.,
32(2): 123-140.
Strier, K.B. and Ziegler, T.E. 1994. Insights into

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ovarian function in wild muriqui monkeys
(Brachyteles arachnoides). Am.J.Primatol.,
Strier, K.B., Mendes, F.D.C., Rimoli, J. and
Rimoli, A.O. 1993. Demography and social
structure of one group of muriquis (Brachyteles
arachnoides). Int.J.Primatol., 14(4):513-526.
Woodruff, D.S. 1993. Non-invasive genotyping of
primates. Primates, 34(3):333-346.
Ziegler, T.E., Epple, G., Snowdon, C.T., Porter,
T.A., Belcher, A.M. and Kfiderling, I. 1993.
Detection of the chemical signals of ovulation in
the cotton-top tamarin, Saguinus oedipus.
Anim.Behav., 45:313-322.
Ziegler, T.E., Wittwer, D.J. and Snowdon, C.T.
1993. Circulating and excreted hormones during
the ovarian cycle in the cotton-top tamarin,
Saguinus oedipus. Am.J.Primatol., 31:55-65.



CALLITRICHIDAE, I May 1994, New World
Primate Taxon Advisory Group (TAG), American
Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums
(AAZPA), Hershey, Pennsylvania. This meeting
will precede the 1994 Northeastern Regional
AAZPA meeting. The one-day symposium will
focus on topics of husbandry, nutrition, behavior,
reproduction, and field research. Poster, video,
and oral presentations are invited. Deadline for
submission of abstracts is 15 February 1994.
Registration fee: US$25.00. For more information
contact: Andrew J.Baker or Beth Bahner,
Philadelphia Zoo, 3400 W.Girard Avenue,
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. Tel:
(215) 243-1100, Fax: (215) 243-0219.

ECOSYSTEMS, 2-7 May 1994, Bonn, Germany.
Contact: Franx Krapp, Adenauerallee 150-164,
53113 Bonn, Germany.

LEONTOPITHECUS, 24-25 de maio de 1994, Hotel
Jardim Atlantico, Ilh.us, Bahia. A Reuniio Anual-
dos Comit8s Internacionais para a Recuperagao e
Manejo das esp6cie.s de Leontopithecus sera
realizada em seguida, nos dias 26-27 de maio de
1993. 0 Simp6sio tem por objetivo dar
oportunidade a todos os pesquisadores e
colaboradores de apresentar informalmente os
resultados de seus trabalhos, discutir problems em

comum e compartilhar experiencias. A abertura do
Simp6sio sera precedida do lancamento do selo
national que contempla o mico-leao-dourado.
AcontecerA ainda as inauguraq6es do Centro
Educativo para a Natureza, e Centro de
Reabilitaqio e Resgate de Micos-le6es. Inscricao:
atd 15 de marqo de 1994. Contato: Rosemary
Mamede, Departamento de Vida Silvestre,
Diretoria de Ecossistemas, Instituto Brasileiro do
Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais
Renovaveis (Ibama), SAIN L4 Norte, Ed.Sede do
Ibama, 70800-000 Brasilia, D.F., Brasil. Tel:
(061) 316-1165, 225-8150, Fax: (061) 225-8150.

1994, University of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico.
Deadline for submission of papers: early March.
Information: Eduardo Santana or Stanley Temple,
SCB-ATB Organizing Committee, Department of
Wildlife Ecology, University of Wisconsin-
Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA, Fax: (608)
262-6099; Bruce Benz or Enrique Jardel, SCB-
ATB Organizing Comittee, Laborat6rio Natural
Las Joyas, Universidad de Guadalajara, Apartado
Postal 1-3933, Guadalajara, Jalisco, 44100 Mexico,
Fax: 52 338 7-27-49.

ENVIRONMENT, 20-24 June 1994, Drake Bay,
Peninsula de Osa, Costa Rica, The meeting is
being organized by the Foundation for Primary
Forest Protection. The main topics include models
for development and planning, pacific uses of
nuclear energy and environment, sustainable
development of forest goods and services,
community ecology, ecology and education, native
cultures and ecology, and ecological experiences.
Deadline for abstracts was 15 January 1994.
Contact: Elizabeth Arnaez, Department of Biology,
Costa Rica Institute of Technology, Apartado 159,
Cartago, Costa Rica, Fax: (506) 51 53 48, e-mail:
earnaez@ucrvm2, or Guillermo Guzman, e-mail:
gguzman@ucrvm2 (BITNET) or gguzman@
ucrvm2.ucr.ac.cr (INTERNET).

1994, Institute of Psychology, University of Sao
Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Proposals for lectures,
symposia, and posters are welcome. Contact:
Cdsar Ades, Departamento de Psicologia
Experimental, Instituto de Psicologia, Universidade
de Sao Paulo, Av. Professor Mello Moraes 1721,
05508 Sio Paulo, Sio Paulo, Brazil, Fax: (001)
813-8895, email: CADES@BRUSP.BITNET; or

Neotropical Primates 2(l), March 1994

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Neotropical Prinates 2(1), March 1994 Page 32

Lesley Rogers, Physiology Department, University
of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia,
Fax: 001-61-67-732733; email LROGERS@

July 1994, University of Tubingen, Tubingen,
Germany. A symposium on the multidisciplinary
study of chemical signals (olfaction and taste) in
all vertebrates including humans. Contact: Prof.Dr
R.Apfelbach, University of Tilbingen, Dept. of
Zoology, Auf der Morgenstelle 28, 72076
Ttibingen, Germany. Tel: 49-7071-292624, Fax:

ABS 23-28 July 1994,
ABS @ ASP ASP 27-31 July 1994,
nivey ofhington Regional Primate Research
Center, University of
Washington, Seattle. A joint meeting emphasizing
primate behavior will be held on 28 July.
Abstracts deadline 1 February 1994. Contact:
.EDU), Primate Center SJ-50, University of
Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. Tel: (206)

29 de julho de 1994, Universidade Federal do Rio
de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro. A tematica a ser
abordada esta baseada na questgo: "Os Rumos da
Zoologia". Neste context sergo abordados os
aspects referentes a Sistemitica, pesquisa bAsica e
aplicada, filosofia e historic de zoologia, coleq6es,
publicaq6es e a dtica de zoologia. As political
referentes as legislaq6es ambientais, Areas de
proteqAo e espdcies ameaqadas de extingio, terio
espaqos em mesas redondas e/ou conferencias.
Envio de resumos atW 30 de novembro de 1993.
Informac6es: Secretaria do XX CBZ,
Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal
do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundlo, 21949-900 Rio
de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Tel: (021) 280-
7993, 590-9522 r.343 ou 340, Fax: (021) 280-

24-29 de julho de 1994, Universidade Federal do
Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro. Seri realizado como
parte das atividades do XX Congresso Brasileiro de
Zoologia. Programagqo: HorAcio Schneider/

Stephen F. Ferrari, Departamento de Gen6tica,
Universidade Federal do ParA, Caixa Postal 8607,
66075-150 Bel6m, Para, Brasil. Fax: (091) 229-
9785, e-mail: ferrari@saci.ufpa.br. Outras
informaq6es: Secretaria do XX CBZ,
Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal
do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do FundIo, 21949-900 Rio
de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Veja "Primate

MORPHOLOGY, 31 July-4 August 1994, Chicago.
Contact: Dr Susan Herring, Chair, ICVM
Organizing Committee, Department of
Orthodontics SM-46, University of Washington,
Seattle, Washington 98195, USA, Tel: (206) 543-
3203, Fax: (206) 685-8163, e-mail:

Kuta, Bali, Indonesia. Organizers: Directorate
General of Forest Protection and Nature
Conservation (PHPA), the Indonesian Wildlife
Society (IWS) and the International Primatological
Society (IPS). The theme of the Congress will be
"Biodiversity Conservation to Enrich Life and
Option for Progress". Contacts: Secretariat, 15th
IPS Congress, c/o M.I.C.E. Division, PT Bayu
Buana Gelar Pariwicara, Wisma Bank Dhannala
19th Floor, JI.Jend.Sudirman, Kav. 28, Jakarta
12910, Indonesia, or Dr Linda Prasetyo, c/o Perth
Zoo, 20 Labouchere Road, Western Australia 6151,
Australia, Tel: 09 368-1916, Fax: 09 367-3921, or
Dr Soegardjito WWF/US Asia-Pacific Program,
1250 Twenty-fourth Street, N.W., Washington,
D.C. 20037, USA, Tel: (202) 861-8300, Fax: (202)

CONGRESS, 14-20 August 1994, University of
Nottingham, England. Contact: ISBE 1994,
Conference Nottingham, The Business Information
Centre, 309 Haydn Road, Nottingham NG5 IDC,

August 1994, University of Manchester, England.
Thematic symposia include: Learning from the
Past (org. A.G.Hildrew, R.M.May); Predicting
Outside our Experience (org. J.Grace, R.M.May);
Managing Change and Uncertainty (org.
M.V.Angel, P.J.Grubb). Symposia together with
related poster sessions will be organized around the
following titles: General Ecology; Applied

Page 32

Neotropical Primates 2(l), March 1994

Page 33 Neotropical Primates 2(7), A'Iarch J994

Ecology; Geographical Regions and Ecosystems;
Ecological Affairs. Deadline for abstracts: 15
September 1993. Registration deadline: 1 May
1994. Contact: The Secretary, VI International
Congress of Ecology, The Manchester Conference
Centre, U.M.I.S.T., P.O.Box 88, Manchester M60
1QD, England.

August 1994, hosted by the Fundacqo Parque
Zoologico de Saio Paulo, Sao Paulo. The meeting
will be held in the Sao Paulo Hilton. Contact:
CBSG Conference Coordinator, Marsans
International, Rua Sete de Abril 404, 110 Andar,
01044-000 Sao Paulo, Sio Paulo, Brazil. Tel: 55
11 255-5744, Fax: 55 11 255-2478.

3-7 October 1994, Niter6i, Brazil. Contact:
Roberto Pereira da Cunha, INPE, Caixa Postal
12201, Sio Jos6 dos Campos, Saio Paulo, Brazil.

AND CONSERVATION, 10-13 November 1994,
Marie Selby Botanical Gardens, Sarasota, Florida,
USA. Contact: Dr Meg Lowman, Director of
Research, Selby Botanical Gardens, 811 South
Palm Avenue, Sarasota, Florida 34236, USA.

GENERAL ASSEMBLY, November 1994, Paris. The
meeting will include the inaugural workshop of the
European Marmoset Research Group (EMRG)
which will have as its theme "Fundamental and
Applied Aspects of Marmoset Science". It will
comprise spoken review papers and specialist
spoken posters in six broad fields of fundamental
and applied science. All of the speakers will be
invited. Topics include: Housing and Husbandry;
Nutrition and Health; Social and Reproductive
Biology; Learning and the Central Nervous
System; and Physiology. Anthony B.Rylands will
present the special guest lecture on "The
Callitrichidae: a Biological Overview". The edited
proceedings will be published as a "EMRG
Laboratory Handbook of Marmoset Science".
Contact: Christopher Pryce, Anthropologisches
Institute, Universitat Zuirich Irchel,
Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zuirich,

December 1994, Londrina State University,
Parana, Brazil. Contact: Dr Ndlio Roberto dos
Reis, Coordenador Cientifico do II CBE,
Departamento de Biologia Animal e Vegetal,

Centro de Ciencias Biol6gicas, Campus
UniversitArio, Universidade Estadual de Londrina,
Caixa Postal 6001, Londrina 86051, Parani,
Brazil, Tel: (0432) 21-2000, Fax: (0432) 27-6932.


We would be most grateful if you could send us
information on projects, research groups, events
(congresses, symposia, and workshops), recent
publications, activities of primatological societies
and NGOs, news items or opinions of recent events
and suchlike, either in the form of manuscripts
(double-spaced) or in diskettes for PC compatible
text-editors (MS-Word, Wordperfect, Wordstar).
Articles, not exceeding six pages, can include
small black-and-white photographs, figures, maps,
tables and references, but please keep them to a

Please send contributions to the editors: Anthony
Rylands, Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de
Ciencias Biol6gicas, Universidade Federal de
Minas Gerais, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Brazil,
Fax: (031) 441-1412, or c/o Conservation
International, Avenida Ant6nio Abramhlo Caram
820/302, Pampulha, 31275-000 Belo Horizonte,
Minas Gerais, Brazil, Fax: (031)441-2582 or
Ernesto Rodriguez Luna, Parque de La Flora y
Fauna Silvestre Tropical, Universidad
Veracruzana, Apartado Postal 566, Xalapa,
Veracruz 91000, Mexico, Fax: (281) 8-77-30.

Distribution of Neotropical Primates: LUDMILLA
AGUIAR, Conservation International Brazil
Program, Belo Horizonte, is responsible for
distributing the newsletter. Please keep us
informed of any address changes.

Correspondence, messages, and texts can be sent to
Anthony Rylands/Ludmilla Aguiar: cibrasil@ax.apc.org
Fundaq.o Biodiversitas: cdcb@ax.apc.org

collaboration with Conservation International,
1015 18th Street NW, Suite 1000, Washington DC
20036, USA, and Fundacio Biodiversitas, Rua
Maria Vaz de Melo 71, Dona Clara, Belo
Horizonte 31260-110, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Design and Composition YURI L. R. LEITE and
RICARDO B. MACHADO, Biodiversity Conservation
Data Center (CDCB), Fundaqio Biodiversitas.

Neotropical Primates 2(l), Allarch 1994

Page 33

Neotropical Primates 2(1), March 1994 Page 34

...C.. :',-f..,i I-I A ......
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A poster/calendar produced by the Fundagio Pau Brasil as part of the environmental education campaign of
the "Projeto Mico-Leio Baiano", the golden-headed lion tamarin, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, in southern
Bahia, Brasil. The poster and campaign is the result of collaboration with Conservation International (CI),
the Regional Cocoa Growing Authority (CEPLAC), Wildlife Preservation Trust International (WPTI), the
Veracruz Forestry Co., and the Fundacio Brasileira para a Conservagio da Natureza (FBCN). Contact: Maria
Cristina Alves, Fundaqio Pau Brasil, Km.22 Rodovia Ilh6us-Itabuna, Caixa Postal 7, 45600 Itabuna, Bahia,

Anthony Rylands/Emesto Luna, Editors
Conservation International
Avenida Antonio Abrahao Caram 820/302
UCN 31275-000, Belo Horizonte
IUCN/SSC Minas Gerais, Brazil


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