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Title: Neotropical primates
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Title: Neotropical primates a newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCNSSC Primate Specialist Group
Abbreviated Title: Neotrop. primates
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
Conservation International
Center for Applied Biodiversity Science
Publisher: Conservation International
Place of Publication: Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Publication Date: December 1993
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Primates -- Periodicals -- Latin America   ( lcsh )
Primates -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Wildlife conservation -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
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General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 13, no. 1 (Apr. 2005).
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Full Text

A Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group
Editors: Anthony B. Rylands and Ernesto Rodriguez Luna
PSG Chairman: Russell A. Mittermeier
PSG Deoutv Chairman: William R. Konstant




Neoropical Primates 1(4), December 1993



The World Conservation Union (IUCN) Species
Survival Program, led by Simon N.Stuart (IUCN,
Gland), is preparing a revision of the 1990 IUCN
Red List of Threatened Animals, as reported in
Neotropical Primates 1(2):1-2. This listing, is put
together by the World Conservation Monitoring
Centre (Cambridge, UK), in collaboration with the
SSC Specialist Groups and BirdLife International
(formerly the International Council for Bird
Preservation, based in Cambridge, UK). It
complements the IUCN Red Data Books and IUCN
Species Action Plans, both of which contain more
detailed information on the conservation status of
the species involved. A number of improvements
will be made for the 1993 edition. In contrast to
the 1990 edition, it will include full country
distributions, as well as summary tables and
thematic maps. The 1993 list will be published by
Chapman and Hall, London, following discussion
and review of the proposals at the IUCN General
Assembly in January 1994.

The preliminary proposal for a revision of the
South American primates (excluding Mexico and
Central America), drawn up as an official
contribution from the Neotropical Section of the
Species Survival Commission (SSC) Primate
Specialist Group (PSG), was published in
Neotropical Primates 1(2):1-2. This and the
justifications for the changes were submitted for
comment to over thirty PSG members active in the
field. Here we publish the final listing which
resulted, and which was sent to Dr Simon Stuart
and Dr Brian Groombridge (WCMC) in September
1993. A full report justifying the changes followed
in October 1993 (Rylands, Encarnaci6n and
Mittermeier, 1993). Compared with the 1990 List,
the following modifications are being proposed.
Change in status: Callithrix chrysoleuca from K to
V; Callithrix intermedia from K to V; Saguinus
imperator imperator from I to V; Alouatta fusca
fusca from V to E; Lagothrix lagotricha lugens
from V to E; Ateles belzebuth hybridus from V to
E. Additions: Callithrix kuhli, Callithrix geoffroyi,
Callithrix nigriceps, Saguinus fuscicollis
leucogenys, Saguinus tripartitus, Alouatta palliata

aequatorialis, Aotus brumbacki, Aotus lemurinus
griseimembra, Aotus miconax, Callicebus
torquatus lucifer, Cebus albifrons yuracus, Cebus
albifrons cuscinus, Cebus apella xanthosternos,
Cebus apella robustus, Cebus kaapori, Chiropotes
satanas utahicki, Pithecia aequatorialis, and
Saimiri vanzolinii. Removals: Saguinus bicolor
ochraceus, Saguinus bicolor martinsi, and
Saguinus imperator subgrisescens. Some
taxonomic changes were also suggested. They
include: 1) that all recognized Callithrix forms
should be listed as species; 2) that Ateles paniscus
chamek should be regarded as subspecific to Ateles
belzebuth (see Froehlich et al., 1991), and Ateles
paniscus, therefore, lacks subspecies; and 3) that
Saguinus geoffroyi and Saguinus oedipus should be
recognized as distinct species (see Rylands, 1993).
The proposal provides a listing of 19 callitrichid
species and subspecies, and 43 cebid species and
subspecies (see next page).


Froehlich, J.W., Supriatna, J. and Froehlich P.H.
1991. Morphometric analyses of Ateles:
systematic and biogeographic implications.
AmJ.Primatol., 25:1-22.
IUCN. 1990. 1990 IUCN Red List of Threatened
Animals. Compiled by the World Conservation
Monitoring Centre, 192pp. The World
Conservation Union (IUCN), Gland. 192pp.
Rylands, A.B. 1993. The bare-face tamarins
Saguinus oedipus oedipus and Saguinus oedipus
geoffroyi: species or subspecies? Neotropical
Primates, 1(2):4-5.
Rylands, A.B., Encarnaci6n, F. and Mittermeier,
R.A. 1993. Revised IUCN List of Threatened
Animals 1993: South American primates
(revision not including Central America, Mexico,
and Cebus capucinus). Unpublished report to
Species Survival Programme, World
Conservation Union (IUCN), Gland, 41pp.

Anthony B. Rylands, Departamento de Zoologia,
Institute de Cidncias Biol6gicas, Universidade
Federal de Minas Gerais, 31270-901 Belo
Horizonte, Minas Gerais, and Conservation
International, Avenida Ant6nio Abrahio Caram
820/302, Pampulha, 31275-000 Belo Horizonte,
Minas Gerais, Brazil, Filomeno Encarnacion,
Proyecto Primates, Apartado Postal 621, Iquitos,
Loreto, Peru, and Russell A. Mittermeier,
Conservation International, 1015 18th Street NW,
Suite 1000, Washington, D.C. 20036, USA.

Cover photograph by Russell Mittermeier, black saki monkey (Chiropotes satanas satanas), see page 8

Page 1I

NeorOpiCal Primates 1(4), December 1993 Page 2


R Callimico goeldii
E Callithrix argentata leucippe
E Callithrix aurita
V Callithrix chrysoleuca
E Callithrixflaviceps
V Callithrix geoffroyi
V Callithrix intermedia
V Callithrix kuhli
V Callithrix nigriceps
E Leontopithecus caissara
E Leontopithecus chrysomelas
E Leontopithecus chrysopygus
E Leontopithecus rosalia
E Saguinus bicolor bicolor
V Saguinusfitscicollis lencogenys
V Saguinus imperator imperator
E Saguinus leucopus
E Saguinus oedipus
K Saguinus tripartitus

Goeldi's monkey
Golden-white bare-ear marmoset
Buffy-tufted-ear marmoset
Golden-white tassel-ear marmoset
Buffy-headed marmoset
Geoffroy's tufted-ear marmoset
Aripuani marmoset
Wied's black-tufted-ear marmoset
Black-headed marmoset
Black-faced lion tamarin
Golden-headed lion tamarin
Black lion tamarin
Golden lion tamarin
Pied tamarin
Andean saddle-back tamarin
Black-chinned emperor tamarin
Silvery-brown bare-face tamarin
Cotton-top tamarin
Golden-mantle saddle-back tamarin


Alouatta fisca clamitans
Alouatta belzebul ubdata
Alouatta palliata aequatorialis
Aotus brumbacki
Aotus lemurinus griseimembra
Aotus miconax
Ateles belzebuth belzebuth
Ateles belzebuth chamek
Ateles belzebuth hybridus
Ateles belzebuth marginatus
Ateles paniscus
Brachyteles arachnoides arachnoides
Brachyteles arachnoides hypoxanthus
Cacajao calves calvus
Cacajao calvus novaesi
Cacajao calvus rubicundus
Cacajao calvus ucayalii
Cacajao melanocephalus melanocephalus
Cacajao melanocephalus ouakary
Callicebus cupreus ornatus
Callicebus oenanthe
Callicebus olallae
Callicebus personatus barbarabrownae
Callicebus personatus melanochir
Callicebus personatus nigrifrons
Callicebus personatus personatus
Callicebus torquatus lucifer
Cebus albifrons yuracus
Cebus albifrons cuscinus
Cebus apella robustus
Cebus apella xanthosternos
Cebus kaapori
Chiropores albinasus
Chiropotes satanas utahicki
Chiropotes satanas satanas
Lagothrix flavicauda
Lagothrix lagotricha cana
Lagothrix lagotricha lagotricha
Lagothrix lagotricha lugens
Lagothrix lagotricha poeppigi
Pithecia aequatorialis
Saimiri vanzolinii

Southern brown howling monkey
Northern brown howling monkey
Red-handed howling monkey
South Pacific blackish howling monkey
Brumback's night monkey
Night monkey
Andean night monkey
Marimonda spider monkey
Black-faced black spider monkey
Hybrid spider monkey
White-whiskered spider monkey
Red-faced black spider monkey
Southern muriqui
Northern muriqui
White bald-headed uacari
Novaes' bald-headed uacari
Red bald-headed uacari
Ucayali bald-headed uacari
Humboldt's black-headed uacari
Spix's black-headed uacari
Ornate titi monkey
Andean titi monkey
Beni titi monkey
Northern Bahian blond titi
Southern Bahian masked titi
Black-fronted titi
Northern masked titi
Widow monkey
Andean white-fronted capuchin
White fronted capuchin
Robust tufted capuchin
Yellow-breasted capuchin
Ka'apor capuchin
White-nosed bearded saki
Uta Hick's bearded saki
Black saki
Yellow-tailed woolly monkey
Geoffroy's woolly monkey
Humboldt's woolly monkey
Colombian woolly monkey
Poeppig's woolly monkey
Equatorial saki
Blackish squirrel monkey

CATEGORIES: E=endangered, V=vulnerable, R=rare, I=indeterminate, K=insufficiently known

Neoropical Primates 1(4), December 1993

Page 2

Neotropical Primates 1(4), December 1993


Theories of island biogeography and minimum
viable populations are used to predict consequences
of large versus small protected areas and usually
conclude that large reserves protect species,
ecosystems, and biodiversity with greater certainty
than smaller ones (Soul6 & Simberloff, 1986, in
Ayres et al., 1991). From our perspective, such a
statement implies that efforts to preserve large
tracts of forest should never be abandoned.
However, in the face of the rapid changes that are
transforming the tropical rain forest landscape
(e.g., Rylands & Keuroghlian, 1988), our ability to
propose conservation measures on behalf of
primates may depend on our study of the processes
allowing specific taxa to persist in fragmented
habitats (Schwarzkopf & Rylands, 1989). This is
particularly evident in tropical countries, where
protecting a series of forest fragments may
represent the only chance to ensure the survival of
native primates in a given part of their range.

It may be argued that forest fragments are a poor
option to preserve primates in the long run.
Nevertheless, if our conservation measures take
into account the potential for improvement in the
rural inhabitants' quality of life, people may
become an integral component of the conservation
effort and, with their support, our perception of a
fragmented forest may switch from what it is to
what it might be. In the meantime, we believe that
studies on what a fragment has to offer to primates
as well as humans, for example in the form of
ecological services and products, are of key
importance to examine the ecological and socio-
economic values forest remnants may have in a
severely transformed landscape. In this paper we
present an evaluation of the food resources
available to primates in a forest fragment of Sierra
de Santa Martha, Veracruz, Mexico, and compare
it to the potential forest products available to

In Santa Martha, the expansion of the agricultural
frontier, the small scale extraction of wood and
wild plants.for various uses, along with stochastic
events such as forest fires, have transformed large
expanses of forest into small, disconnected
fragments Which .remain in the public land lots

(ejidos) of the south and southeastern slopes
-(Silva-L6pez & Garcia, 1984). Symptoms more
than causes of a situation with deep socio-
economic roots, these problems have transformed
the landscape in multiple scales and dimensions.
The problems are not only threatening the survival
of wild species inhabiting the fragments, but also
life conditions of the local zoque-popoluca
inhabitants, as well as their traditional methods of
appropriation, management, and use of natural

What resources remain in a forest fragment which
are of use to primates and humans? To answer this
question, we re-examined the results of a detailed
vegetation study, conducted in one of 23 forest
fragments of 2-20 ha surveyed by Silva-L6pez
(1987; Silva-L6pez et al., 1988). The fragment is
approximately circular, and with 10 ha is a little
above the 8.37 ha mean recorded in the area. It is
inhabited by a group of howlers (Alouatta palliata,
n=10) and a group of spider monkeys (Ateles
geoffroyi vellerosus, n=16). The habitat
characteristics and feeding habits of both groups
were studied by Jimenez-Huerta (1992).

Trees with a DBH equal to or greater than 20 cm
and trees with crowns forming part of a continuum
in the canopy were the main focus of attention in
our original study. We labelled and mapped 1167
trees, 74% of which were identified (38 families
and 78 species). The Leguminosae and Moraceae
families were the richest in species (with 9 each).
Pseudohnedia oxyphyllaria, Guarea glabra,
Cymbopetalum penduliflorum, Inga sp., and
Sapium lateriflorum were among the most
abundant species in the fragment. The Shannon-
Wiener index (H') was 1.59. Species richness and
biological diversity in the vegetation remnant are
within the ranges reported for other larger tracts of
forest in nearby areas (e.g., Jimdnez-Huerta, 1992).

In general, forest fragments are left in the
campesinos' lots as sources of wood, medicine,
food, and firewood (Silva-L6pez and Garcia, 1984;
Jim6nez-Huerta et al., 1992). However, the fate of
the primates is linked not only to the humans'
dependence on forest fragments, but also the
resources available to them. The mere fact that the
howling monkeys and spider monkeys have been
inhabiting the fragments for the past 10-15 years
(Silva-L6pez et al., 1988) suggests that they are
meeting their key nutritional and other
requirements. In evaluating the fragment, our

Page 3

Table 1. Plant species used by A teles geoffroyi vellerosus (AGV), A louatta palliata (AP), and by humans in
a 10 ha forest fragment at Sierra de Santa Martha, Veracruz, Mexico. MED = medicine; Fr = fruit;
Fl = flower; Frwd = 'firewood; Const = construction material).

Alchornea latifolia
Aspidosperma megalocarpon
Belotia mexicana
Brosimum alicastrum
Bursera simaruba
Calophyllum brasiliense
Cecropia obtusifolia
Coccoloba sp.
Cordia gerascanthus
Cupanma dentata
Cymbopetalum pendiuiflorum
Dendropanax arboreus
Dialium guianense
Ficus insipida
Ficus sp.
Ficus tecolutensis
Gliricidia sepium
Guarea glabra
Inga sapindioides
Inga sp.
Liquidambar macrophylla
Manilkara sapota
Micoma argentea
Myrcia sp.
Nectandra ambigens
Piper amalago
Pithecellobium arboreum
Poulsenia armata
Pouteria campechiana
Pseudohnedia oxyphyllaria
Psychotria chiapensis
Pterocarpus rohrii
Rheedia edulis
Rollima jimenezi
Spondias mombin
Tapirira aff. macrophylla
Terminalia amazonia
Trichilia havanensis
Trophis racemosa
Vatairea lundellii




estimations and percentages were based entirely on
the figures of 78 species and 835 individuals
identified. Twenty-eight tree species form part of
the monkeys' diet (Jimdnez-Huerta, 1992),
including some of the most abundant, for example,
G.glabra, P.oxyphyllaria, C.penduliflorum, and
D.arboreus, as well as three fig species (Ficus sp.,
F.insipida, and F.tecolutensis). The 28 species
account for more than 35% of the species' total and
almost 60% of the individuals (see Table 1). This




Urinary system

















large number of potential food sources may help to
understand the almost 15-year span in which the
monkeys have been inhabiting such a small forest

A zoque-popoluca family use a broad variety of the
resources available in a forest fragment. Based on
the studies of Silva-L6pez (1987), Santos-
Rodriguez (1988), and Gonzilez-Rivera (1989), we
found that these people may use up to 14 tree

Page 4

Neotropical Primates 1(4), December 1993

Neotropical Primates 1(4), December 1993

species (25.5.% of the total) for food, 14 species
(14.5%) as a source of medicine, and at least 10
species (15.2%) for other purposes such as
construction materials, ornaments, and firewood. If
we take into account the species that are used for
more than one purpose (see Table 1), the data show
that the fragment provides at least 27 different tree
species (34.6% of the species total), and 329
individuals (38% of the total) of use for the family.

These figures are very conservative if we consider
the biological form, DBH, and canopy continuum
criteria selected. Table 1, for example, does not
include the four Chamaedorea palm species used
as ornaments by locals, nor the climber, Vitis
popenoi, and three unidentified Leguminosae tree
species consumed by Ateles. However, the figures
do give us an indication of the large amount of
resources that must be protected and managed in
these fragments.

To conclude, we provide the following suggestions.
1) A study of the political decisions and socio-
economic factors that may alter the people's desire
to protect forest fragments is a crucial next step
(see SMBC, 1992). Agroecological and socio-
economic diagnoses will help us to contextualize
what is happening in fragmented areas. It is
important to remember that on a large scale, one
area of fragmented forests may look the same as
another, but the origin and maintenance of the
fragmentation processes may be very different
between micro-regions. The delimitation of
landscape units, including biological, ecological,
agroecological, and socio-economic aspects, may
be very helpful to promote general actions on a
regional level, as well as specific actions at lower
2) It is necessary to emphasize the role forest
products may play in the family's domestic
economy in the area. Natural resources have been
used by rural people such as the zoque-popolucas
for a long time. However, they have been rarely
included as an integral part of regional
development plans. Studies are urgently required
which examine the role forest products may play in
domestic economies, and to promote them
whenever possible.
3) We must always keep in mind the possibility
of incorporating the management of forest
fragments in our contributions to development
plans, but this will not be achieved if our proposals
are argued from a purely biological perspective.
Besides emphasizing biological diversity, the
establishment of vegetation corridors to connect the

fragments, for example, should be based on their
role in protecting cultivations, and to enable local
people to extract useful products of native species
in a sustainable way.
4) Research alone is insufficient to propose
realistic conservation measures; community work
is also very important. In most cases,
primatologists working in a given area may be the
only people having a friendly relationship with
local authorities and other people whose opinion
may influence the decision-making process in a
rural settlement. Even on a very small scale, our
support and ideas may be of great help for locals to
cross from "the potential for natural resource
management" to "the management of natural
resources in a sustainable way".

Most of these ideas have been expressed before by
several authors. Nevertheless, it is in the light of
studies such as the one reported here, that they may
have a meaning to primatologists facing fieldwork
for the first time, to whom these suggestions are
primarily intended.

Our sincere thanks to Maria Elizabeth Garcia Vez
(Facultad de Idiomas, Universidad Veracruzana &
Summer Hills School) for her review of the
English translation of our manuscript. Thanks also
to reviewers Mario VAzquez Torres and Enrique
Portilla Ochoa, and to Anthony Rylands for his
kind invitation to submit our paper to Neotropical

G. Silva-L6pez, Programa Bioconservaci6n,
Institute de Investigaciones Biol6gicas (IIB),
Universidad Veracruzana (UV), Apartado Postal
294, Xalapa, Veracruz, 91000 Mexico, and
Department of Wildlife and Range Sciences,
University of Florida, J. Jim6nez-Huerta, IIB-UV
and CRECIDATH-CP, J. Benitez-Rodriguez,
Facultad de Biologia, UV, and M.R.Toledo-
CArdenas, IIB-UV.


Ayres, M., Bodmer, R.E. and Mittermeier, R.A.
1991. Financial considerations of reserve design
in countries with high primate diversity.
Conservation Biology, 5(1): 109-114.
Gonzalez-Rivera, G. 1989. Estudio etnobotinico
de plants comestibles de cuatro ejidos de la
Sierra de Santa Martha, Veracruz. Tesis,
Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Mexico.
Jimenez-Huerta, J. 1992. Distribuci6n y
abundancia del recurso alimenticio en un

Page 5

Page 6

rebtropical Primates 1(4), December 1993

:fragmento de selva alta perennifolia y su uso por
Ateles y Alouatta en el ejido Magallanes
(Municipio de Soteapan, Veracruz). Tesis,
Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Mexico.
Jimdnez-Huerta, J., Silva-L6pez, G. and J. Benitez-
Rodriguez. 1992. Small rain forest fragments:
what is there to monkeys and to humans? In:
Symposium: Forest Remnants in the Tropical
Landscape: Benefits and Policy Implications.
Program and Abstracts, p.33. Smithsonian
Migratory Bird Center (SMBC), Smithsonian
Institution. Washington, D.C.
Rylands, A.B. and Keuroghlian, A. 1988. Primate
populations in continuous forest and forest
fragments in Central Amazonia. Acta
Amazonica, 18(3-4):291-307.
Santos-Rodriguez, A. 1988. EtnobotAnica plantss
medicinales) de los zoque-popolucas de los ejidos
de San Fernando, Santa Martha, Ocotal Grande y
Ocotal Chico, Municipio de Soteapan, Veracruz.
Tesis, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa,
Schwarzkopf, L. and Rylands, A.B. 1989. Primate
species richness in relation to forest structure in
Amazonian rainforest fragments. Biological
Conservation, 48(1): 1-12.
Silva-L6pez, G. 1987. La situaci6n actual de las
poblaciones de monos arafia (Ateles geoffroyi) y
aullador (Alouatta palliata) en la Sierra de Santa
Martha (Veracruz, Mdxico). Tesis, Universidad
Veracruzana, Xalapa, M6xico.
Silva-Lopez, G. and Garcia, F. 1984. Primate
conservation studies at Universidad Veracruzana,
Mexico. IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group

Newsletter, 4:19-20.
Silva-L6pez, G., Garcia, F. and Rodriguez, E.
1988. The present status of Ateles and Alouatta
in non-extensive forest areas of Sierra de Santa
Martha, Veracruz, Mexico. Primate
Conservation, 9:53-61.
SMBC (Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center).
1992. Symposium: Forest Remnants in the
Tropical Landscape: Benefits and Policy
Implications. Program and Abstracts. National
Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institution,
Washington, D.C. 10-11 September, 1992.
Soul6, M.E. and Simberloff, D. 1986. What do
genetics and ecology tell us about the design of
nature reserves? Biological Conservation, 35:19-


According to Hershkovitz (1983), the night
monkeys, Aotus, are comprised of nine allopatric
species, of two natural groups distinguishable by
karyotype, phenotype and geographic distribution.
The first group includes the gray-neck species:
A.lemurinus (A.l.lemurinus and A.l.griseimembra),
A.trivirgatus, A.vociferans, and A.brumbacki. The
second group, the derived red-neck species,
includes: A.azarae (A.a.azarae and
A.a.boliviensis). A.miconax, A.nigriceps,
A.infulatus, and A.nancymai. In Brazil, night

Figure 1. Map showing part of the distribution of the genus Aotus according to Hershkovitz (1983).
0 = Carmo do Macacoari. AP = state of Amapi and PA = state of Pari.

Neotropical Primates 1(4), December 1993

monkeys occur in the Amazon basin, south as far
as the state of Mato Grosso (Wright, 1981).
Primate surveys in Guyana (Muckenhirn et al.,
1975), French Guiana (Roussilhon, 1988), and
Suriname (Mittermeier and van Roosmalen, 1981),
have suggested that night monkeys do not occur in
these countries. In addition, Hershkovitz (1983)
was unable to confirm their presence in northern
Roraima, northwestern ParA, and the state of
Amapi in north and northeastern Brazil. There is,
however, no apparent barrier to night monkeys
extending their distribution to the east as far as the
state of Amapi, and this gap in the geographic
distribution may be merely a result of the absence
of collecting localities. Here, I report on the
presence of night monkeys in the state of AmapA,
and present information on their occurrence in the
Maraj6 archipelago, at the mouth of the Rio

Specimens of night monkeys were collected on
Caviana Island in the Maraj6 archipelago, ParA,
between 16 July and 4 August 1992, and in the
village of Carmo do Macacoari, municipality of
Itaubal, eastern Amapa during 5-24 May 1993 (see
Fig. 1). They were deposited in the collection of the
Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi (MPEG) except for
one (skin and skull) from Carmo do Macacoari
which was donated to the Instituto de Estudos e
Pesquisas do Estado do AmapA (IEPA). Field
collections on the island of GurupA (Fazenda
Mariony) were carried out from 1-10 November
1992, and information from Mexiana Island was
provided by L.M.P.Henriques during a survey of
the avifauna at the Fazenda Santana, from 19
November to 20 December 1992. Specimens from
Maraj6 Island already in the collection of MPEG
were also used in order to delineate the range of
Aotus in the Maraj6 archipelago. According to
Wright (1981), night monkeys have permanent
sleeping areas as well as defined sleeping trees.

Information on sleeping trees provided by local
people allowed me to locate Aotus groups in the
late afternoon. The animals were collected
between 1700 and 1800 hours, either during
diurnal foraging (Carmo do Macacoari) or while
they were resting near the sleeping tree (Caviana

Three specimens of A.trivirgatus were collected in
the municipality of Itaubal, confirming their
occurrence in the state of Amapa (see Table 1).
The islands of Maraj6, Caviana, Mexiana, and
GurupA (= Ilha Grande de GurupA) were also
visited in order to determine the extent of their
presence in the Marajo archipelago. Hill (1960)
and Hershkovitz (1983) pointed out that Aotus
infulatus was the night monkey inhabiting Maraj6.
This was confirmed by five specimens deposited in
the zoological collection of MPEG: MG99,
MGl00, MG8875, MG8876, and MG8877. Two
recently collected specimens also confirmed the
occurrence of A.infulatus on Caviana Island (Table
1). However, no evidence could be obtained for the
presence of Aotus on the islands of GurupA and

Regarding the occurrence of Aotus in northern
Roraima, Nunes et al. (1988) were unable to
confirm its presence, although local people
reported it for the island of Maraca (Rio
Uraricoera) and the Rio Apiafi. Its presence in the
northeastern part of the state is unlikely due to the
predominance of savanna vegetation. Night
monkeys do, however, inhabit the dry upland
forests (terra fire) in the municipality of
Mazagio, AmapA, where they are considered
common, and it would seem likely that they inhabit
the majority of forested areas in the state of
AmapA, except for mangrove forests.

L.M.P. Henriques kindly provided information

Table 1. Measurements of night monkeys, Aotus, recently collected in the states of AmapA and Para. (Deposited
in the Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Beldm, ParA, except for PC066 donated to IEPA).
Head & Tail (mm) Hindfoot Forefoot Ear (mm) Weight Sex/Age
Specimens Body (mm) (mm) (g)
Pard (Caviana)
MG22039 320 420 100 70 30 1240 F/Ad
MG22040 320 420 100 70 30 1190 M/Ad
Amapa (Itaubal)
MG22522 310 400 100 70 35 1000 F/Ad
MG22523 310 400 100 70 35 1200 M/Ad
PC066* 220 340 90 60 30 700 F/Juv
*Field number of individual donated to the Instituto de Estudos e Pesquisas do Estado do Amapa (IEPA).

Page 7

Neo tropical Priniates 1(4), December 1993 Page 8

from Mexiana Island, and I thank M.Morelli
(Caviana), Ms.Tet6 and J.Lima (GurupA), and
F.Lobato (Mexiana) for giving permission and
logistic support to work on their ranches. Field
research in Amapa was supported by the Museu
Paraense Emilio Goeldi (MPEG/CNPq) and the
Institute de Estudos e Pesquisas do Estado do
Amapa (IEPA).

Marcus E. B. Fernandes, Departamento de
Zoologia, Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Caixa
Postal 399, 66017-970 Bel6m, Pard, Brazil.


Hershkovitz, P. 1983. Two new species of night
monkeys, genus Aotus (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): a
preliminary report on Aotus taxonomy.
Am.JPrimatol., 4:209-243.
Hill, W.C.O. 1960. Primates: Comparative
Anatomy and Taxonomy (Cebidae), Vol.5, Part
A. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
Mittermeier, R.A. and van Roosmalen, M.G.M.
1981. Preliminary observations on habitat
utilization and diet in eight Surinam monkeys.
Folia Primatol., 36:1-39.
Nunes, A.P., Ayres, J.M., Martins, E.S. and Silva,
J.S. 1988. Primates of Roraima (Brazil). I.
Northeastern part of the Territory.
Bol.Mus.Para.Emilio Goeldi, Serie Zoologia,
Roussilhon, C. 1988. The general status of
monkeys in French Guiana. Primate
Conservation, 9:70-74.
Wright, P. 1981. The night monkeys, genus
Aotus. In: Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical
Primates. Vol.1, A.F.Coimbra-Filho and
R.A.Mittermeier (eds.), pp.211-240. Academia
Brasileira de Ciencias, Rio de Janeiro.


The recent discovery of the Ka'apor capuchin
(Cebus kaapori Queiroz, 1992) has put a very
different light on primate conservation in eastern
Brazilian Amazonia, defined here as the region to
the east of the Rio Tocantins (eastern Pari and`-
western Maranhio). In addition to five relatively
widespread species (Alouatta belzebul, Aotus
infulatus, Cebus apella, Saguinus midas and
Saimiri sciureus), this region's primate fauna
includes the endemic southern bearded saki,

Chiropotes satanas satanas. This pitheciine was
considered by Johns and Ayres (1987) to be
Amazonia's most endangered primate taxon, given
both its vulnerability to habitat degradation and
hunting pressure, and the degree of deforestation
within its geographical range.

Queiroz (1992) restricted the present-day range of
Cebus kaapori to the western portion of MaranhAo,
a much smaller area than that of Chiropotes
s.satanas, although recent fieldwork' (Lopes,
1993; Lopes and Ferrari, submitted) has shown
that this species is found as far west as the Rio
Tocantins, in the state of Pard. The lack of records
from the region of Tucurui (Mascarenhas and
Puorto, 1988) nevertheless indicates that the
geographical distribution of Cebus kaapori is
smaller than that of Chiropotes s.satanas. Surveys
at five sites in Pard and Maranhao also indicated
that Cebus kaapori is significantly rarer locally
than Chiropotes. The presence of both primates
was reported by residents at all five sites, although
Cebus kaapori was recorded just three times over a
total of 1404 km of trails censused, while bearded
sakis were observed on forty-two occasions.
Although data are limited, group size also appears
to be significantly smaller in Cebus kaapori, in
comparison with Chiropotes. These findings
appear to leave little doubt that the situation of
Cebus kaapori is even more precarious. The study
also revealed that populations of Alouatta belzebul
are being decimated by hunting at many sites.

With its long history of colonisation, eastern
Brazilian Amazonia is not only the basin's most
densely-populated region, but has also suffered its
highest rates of deforestation (Johns and Ayres,
1987). In the present day, little more than half of
the original forest cover may survive (Lopes,
1993). Much of this remaining forest is subject to
selective logging, and hunting is almost universal.
The region's only protected area, the Gurupi
Biological Reserve (GBR), receives little or no
fiscalisation and is regularly encroached by
squatters and loggers (Oren, 1988; Queiroz, 1992;
per.obs.). Such encroachment is also frequently a
serious problem on both indian reservations and
private land.

Nevertheless, adequate protection of the contiguous
area of more than 1,000,000 ha encompassed by
the GBR and adjacent indian reservations (Alto
Turiaqfu, Awi, and Carm) in western Maranhao will
be crucial for the conservation of the region's
primates. Extrapolating cautiously from the results

Neotropical Primates ](4), December 1993

Page 8

Neotropical Primates 1(4), December 1993

of the 480 km census at the GBR, this area alone
may hold viable populations (v.Mackinnon et al.,
1986) of up to 50,000 Chiropotes s.satanas and 3-
10,000 Cebus kaapori. Hunting cannot be
prohibited in indigenous areas, although Queiroz
and Kipnis (1991) found that the traditional
exploitation of fauna (including C.kaapori) by \
local Guaji indians is probably sustainable over the
long term.

Both hunting pressure and habitat disturbance are
greater in other areas (Lopes, 1993), but the
evidence suggests that the total number of
Chiropotes s.satanas existing in the wild ranges in
the tens of thousands, perhaps even surpassing a
hundred thousand individuals, given that at leas,
100,000 km2 of the original forest cover may still 1Z
remain in Maranhlo alone. Similarly, the totar
population of Cebus kaapori is likely to excee
10,000 individuals. While both these primates are
among the most highly endangered of the Amazon
region, surviving populations appear to be
significantly larger than those of Atlantic forest
forms such as Brachyteles (v.Mittermeier et al.,
1987) and Leontopithecus (v.Rylands et al., 1993).
However, the long-term situation of Chiropotes
s.satanas and Cebus kaapori cannot be seen as
promising, especially because the region's timber
industry continues to expand (see, for example, Uhl
et al., 1991).

Ironically, major landowners, or latifundi6rios,
may play an increAsingly important role in the
conservation of the region's flora and fauna (Lopes,
1993), given the lack of effective government
protection. Many latifundi6rios not only control
the use of relatively large -tracts of native forest
habitat big enough to support viable populations of
medium-sized primates such as Cebus and
Chiropotes, but are also aware of the importance of
preserving this habitat and have the resources to do
so. The study revealed, in addition, that hunting
pressure may be reduced significantly where
residents are paid employees (for example, ranch
hands), rather than smallholders dependent on
local resources (Lopes, 1993).

ISupported by the Brazil Science Council-CNPq,
the Brazilian National Environment Fund-FNMA,
Conservation International (CI), and the

M. Aparecida Lopes, Departamento de Biologia,
Universidade Federal do Park, 66075-150 Belim,
Pari, Brazil, and Stephen F. Ferrari,

Departamento de Genetica, Universidade Federal
do Pard, 66075-150 Bel6m, Pari, Brazil.


Johns, A.D. and Ayres, J.M. 1987. Southern
J bearded sakis beyond the brink. Oryx, 21:164-
T phs, M.A. 1993. Conservaqco do cuxiti-preto,
Chropotes satanas satanas (Cebidae, Primates),
e outros mamiferos na Amaz6nia Oriental.
M.Sc. dissertation, Universidade Federal do ParA,
and Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Bel6m, Para.
L`pes. M.A. and Ferrari, S.F. Submitted.
Preliminary observations on the Ka'apor
capuchin, Cebus kaapori Queiroz 1992, from
,,--eastern braziiiafn Amazeai_
Mackinnon, J., Mackinnon, K., Child, G
Thornsell, J. 1986. Managing ProtectedAreas i
ics. IUCN, Gland.
Mascarenhas, B.M. and Puorto, G. 1988.
Nonvolant mammals rescued at the Tucurui dam
in the Brazilian Amazon. Primate Conservation,
Mittermeier, R.A., Valle, C.M.C., Alves, M.C.,
Santos, I.B., Pinto, C.M.A., Strier, K.B., Veado,
E.M., Constable, I.D., Paccagnella, S.G., and
Lemos de SA, R.M. 1987. Current distribution of
the muriqui in the Atlantic forest region of
eastern Brazil. Primate Conservation, (8):143-
Oren, D.C. 1988. Uma reserve biol6gica para o
Maranhio. Ciancia Hoje, 44:36-45.
Queiroz, H.L. 1992. A new species of capuchin
monkey, genus Cebus Erxleben 1777 (Cebidae,
Primates), from eastern Brazilian Amazonia.
Goeldiana Zoologia, (15):1-13.
Queiroz, H.L. and Kipnis, R. 1991. Os indios
Guaji e os primatas da Amaz6nia maranhense:
umn caso de sustentabilidade de caqa. Unpublished
Rylands, A.B., Coimbra-Filho, A.F. and
Mittermeier, R.A. 1993. Systematics,
geographic distribution, and some notes on the
conservation status of the Callitrichidae. In:
Marmosets and Tamarins: Systematics,
Behaviour, and Ecology, A.B.Rylands (ed.),
pp. 11-77. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Uhl, C., Verissimo, A., Mattos, M.M., Brandino,
Z. and Vieira, I.C.G. 1991. Social, economic,
and ecological consequences of selective logging
in an Amazon frontier: the case of TailAndia.
Forest Ecology and Management, 46:243-273.

Page 9

Neotropical Primates 1(4), December 1993 Page JO


The German Primate Center (DPZ) has maintained
a link with the Centro de Reproducci6n y
Conservaci6n de Primates (CRCP) in Iquitos, Peru,
as from 1981. Since then, Peruvian scientists have
visited DPZ to make use of its facilities, for data
analysis, and to learn new techniques, and
scientists and students from DPZ have likewise
visited the CRCP for behavioral, ecological and
pathological/parasitological studies. My own work
on tamarins in Peru started with a behavioral
study of moustached tamarins (Saguinus mystax)
and saddle-back tamarins (Saguinus fuscicollis) in
an outdoor enclosure of the CRCP. The focus of
this study was on social behaviour and
communication, and on interspecific relations
between the two species. Primates of the Est
The work in the outdoor Blanco 2 ("p" denote
enclosure helped me to species that visit
become familiar with the secies that visit
behavioral repertoire of + Saguinusfuscicolli
the two tamarins and Saguinus mystax -
provided an excellent Cebuella pygmaea
starting point for my field + Saimiri sciureus s
work. Callicebus cupreus
Aotus nancymae -1
The first field study was Pithecia monachus
conducted between June Cacajao calvus uc,
1985 and July 1986 at two + Cebus albifrons -
different study sites in Cebus apella bro'
northeastern Peru. The Lagothrix lagotriic
first site was located on # Alouatta seniculus
the right bank of the
Quebrada Blanco (440'S 730W), the Estaci6n
Biol6gica Quebrada Blanco 2 (EBQB 2), which
had been established by Rog6rio Castro in 1984
(see Castro, 1991) and was close to the field site of
Marleni Ramirez, Marilyn Norconk and Paul
Garber on the left bank of Qda. Blanco (Estaci6n
Biol6gica Quebrada Blanco 1). The study site is
characterized by lowland tropical rainforest of the
"bosque de altura" type, according to the scheme
provided by Encarnaci6n (1985). A grid of trails
covers an area of about I km2 which facilitated
observations. The primate species found in the
study area of the Estaci6n Biol6gica Quebrada
Blanco 2 are listed in the box.

The second field site was located on Padre Isla, a
small island on the river Amazon near Iquitos (30
44'S 73014'W), where wild-trapped moustached

tamarins had been released in 1977, 1978, and
1980. No other primate species live on Padre Isla.
The island is subject to complete or nearly
complete inundation during the height of the rainy
season between March and May. The vegetation is
characterized by young primary and secondary
forests, by currently used plantations, and by
abandoned plantations in different stages of

One group was selected for observation at each
site. At EBQB 2, the study group had been
habituated by R. Castro, whereas on Padre Isla the
study group was already accustomed to man due to
the continuous presence of people living on the
island. The focus of the study was intraspecific
social behaviour and communication in
moustached tamarins, but additional studies were
carried out as EBQB 2, on the interspecific
relations between the two
liol6gica Quebrada tamarin species which
manent residents, "v" frequently form stable
rea occasionally) mixed-species troops in
areas of sympatry.

September 1990.
habituated group

Ursula Bartecki joined the
project during the 1985/86
field study. She conducted
a privately-financed study
on activity patterns and
scent-marking behaviour
of the saddle-back
tamarins (Bartecki &
Heymann 1990). A
second field study was
carried out at EBQB 2
between May and
Quite surprisingly, a tame,
of moustached tamarins and

saddle-back tamarins was encountered upon arrival
at the site, although nobody had been studying
tamarins there since July 1986. The focus of the
1990 study was on social behaviour, scent-marking
and the use of sleeping sites in moustached

The high degree of habituation of the tamarins to
the presence of human observers during both
studies allowed observation at close range (within
5 m and occasionally even within 2 m in the case
of saddle-back tamarins). Individual recognition
(without marking the animals) was possible in the
moustached tamarins on the basis of size and
pigmentation of the genitals and of individual
characteristics (e.g., tail with a kink, stiff finger,

aci6n I
;s pern
the ar

s saddle-back tamann (p)
moustached tamarin (p)
- pygmy marmoset (v)
squirrel monkey (v)
- titi monkey (p)
night monkey (p)
- saki monkey (p)
ayalii red uakari (v)
vhite-fronted capuchin (v)
wn capuchin (v)
ha woolly monkey (v)
- red howler monkey (v)

Neotropical Primates ](4), December 1993

Page 10

Neotropical Primates 1(4), December 1993

hole in ear etc.). This was important for the
collection of data on interactions and
communication. The tameness of the tamarins also
provided the opportunity to watch rare but
significant events that had not been documented
for callitrichids so far: predation on a moustached
tamarin by a snake (Heymann 1987),
snake-mobbing by saddle-back tamarins (Bartecki
& Heymann 1987a), and geophagy, the
consumption of soil, by moustached tamarins
(Heymann & Hartmann 1991). Results of the
studies have been partially published (Heymann
1990a, Heymann 1990b, Heymann 1990c,
Heymann 1992 and references above), but part of
the data is still in the process of analyses or
writing-up (e.g., on scent-marking behaviour, long
calling, and use of sleeping sites).

Both during the 1985/86 and 1990 studies, chance
encounters with red uakaris (C. c. ucayalii) were
used to collect information on group size and diet
of this very little known species (Bartecki &
Heymann 1987b; Heymann 1993). Field work will
be continued in 1994 by a PhD student, Christoph
Knogge, with a study on the role of the two
tamarin species as seed dispersal agents. The field
studies were supported by the Deutsche
Forschungsgemeinschaft (Ku 131/8-[1-3]) in
1985/86 and by the German Primate Center in
1990. The forthcoming field study will be
supported by a grant from the Deutsche
Forschungsgemeinschaft (He 1870/3-1). Field
work would not have been possible without the
friendly help and support from the colleagues of
the CRCP and the Ministry of Agriculture in
Iquitos, especially from Drs. Jaime Moro,
Filomeno Encarnaci6n, and Luis Moya, to whom I
would like to express my most sincere gratitude.

Eckhard W. Heymann, AG Verhaltensforschung/
Okologie, Deutsches Primatenzentrum (DPZ),
Kellnerweg 4, D-37077 G6ttingen, Germany.


Bartecki, U. and Heymann, E.W. 1987a. Field
observation of snake-mobbing in a group of
saddle-back tamarins, Saguinus fuscicollis
nigrifrons. Folia Primatol., 48: 199-202.
Bartecki, U. and Heymann, E.W. 1987b.
Sightings of red uakaris, Cacajao calvus
rubicundus, at the Rio Blanco, Peruvian
Amazonia. Primate Conservation 8: 34-36.
Bartecki, U. and Heymann, E.W. 1990. Field
observations on scent-marking behaviour in

saddle-back tamarins, Saguinus fuscicollis
(Callitrichidae, Primates). J.Zool., Lond., 220:
Castro, N.R. 1991. Behavioral ecology of two
coexisting tamarin species (Saguinus fuscicollis
nigrifrons and Saguinus mystax mystax,
Callitrichidae, Primates) in Amazonian Peru.
PhD Dissertation, Washington University, St.
Encarnaci6n, F. 1985. Introducci6n a la flora y
vegetaci6n de la Amazonia peruana: estado
actual de los studios, medio ambiente y ensayo
de una clave de determinaci6n de las formaciones
vegetables en la llanura amaz6nica. Candollea,
40: 237-252.
Heymann, E.W. 1987. A field observation of
predation on a moustached tamarin (Saguinus
mystax) by an anaconda. Int.J.Primatol., 8:
Heymann, E.W. 1990a. Social behaviour and
infant carrying in a group of moustached
tamarins, Saguinus mystax (Primates:
Platyrrhini: Callitrichidae), on Padre Isla,
Peruvian Amazonia. Primates, 31: 183-196.
Heymann, E.W. 1990b. Interspecific relations in a
mixed-species troop of moustached tamarins,
Saguinus mystax, and saddle-back tamarins,
Saguinus fuscicollis (Platyrrhini: Callitrichidae),
at the Rio Blanco, Peruvian Amazonia.
Am.J.Primatol, 21: 115-127.
Heymann, E.W. 1990c. Reactions of wild
tamarins- Saguinus mystax and Saguinus
fuscicollis to avian predators. Int.J.Primatol., 11:
Heymann, E.W. 1992. Associations of tamarins
(Saguinus mystax and Saguinus fuscicollis) and
double-toothed kites (Harpagus bidentatus) in
Peruvian Amazonia. Folia Primatol., 59: 51-55.
Heymann, E.W. In press. Further field notes on
red uacaris, Cacajao calvus ucayalii, from the
Quebrada Blanco, Amazonian Peru. Primate
Conservation, 11.
Heymann, E.W. and Hartmann, G. 1991.
Geophagy in moustached tamarins, Saguinus
mystax (Platyrrhini: Callitrichidae), at the Rio
Blanco, Peruvian Amazonia. Primates, 32:


At the time of its description, the black-headed

Page 11

Neotropical Primates 1(4), December 1993 Page 12

Figure 1. Map showing the distribution of and two localiti
Callithrix nigriceps.
marmoset (Callithrix nigriceps Ferrari and Lopes
1992) was known from only two localities in the
Brazilian states of Amazonas and Rondonia
(Figure 1). Given the known distribution of the
region's other callitrichid taxa (Hershkovitz, 1977;
Vivo, 1991; Ferrari and Lopes, 1992b), there is
little doubt that the western limit of the species'
range is defined by the Jiparana/Madeira river
system. The eastern limit remained uncertain,
although the occurrence of Callithrix emiliae on
the left, or west, bank of the Rio AripuanA (Vivo,
1991) implies that C.nigriceps does not occur this
far east. Ferrari and Lopes (1992a) thus suggested
that the eastern extreme of the range of C.nigriceps
may coincide with the largest river in the region
between the Jiparana/Madeira and Rio Aripuanai,
the Rio dos Marmelos (Figure 1). A second factor
supporting this hypothesis was the presence of an
area of cerrado or savanna vegetation covering the
region between the upper reaches of the Rio dos
Marmelos and the Rio Jiparana (Brazil, Projeto
Radambrasil, 1978).

A more precise definition of the geographical
range of C.nigriceps was one of the primary aims
of a second expedition to the region in March/April
1993, supported by the John D. and Catherine
T.Macarthur Foundation, the Federal University of

Pard (UFPA), and the National Indian
Foundation (FUNAI). Marmosets were
collected on both banks of the Rio dos
Marmelos in the vicinity of the Tenharin
Indian settlement, located at 07057'S,
62003'W (see Figure 1). Two adult males
captured west of the Marmelos were typical
7oS C.nigriceps, whereas an adult female
collected on the east bank was identified as
C.emiliae, easily distinguished from the
former by the lack of pigmentation of the
facial skin.

The blackwater Rio dos Marmelos is 50-
100 m wide at the Tenharin settlement,
8s- and relatively fast flowing. Approximately
15 km further south, terra firme forest was
found to give way to almost treeless campo
vegetation, which according to local
"N informants extends as far as the Rio
JiparanA, confirming the findings of
Projeto Radam (Brazil, Projeto
,, Radambrasil, 1978). It seems likely that
D1 Ithe combination of these features forms an
es for effective barrier to regular migration
between the marmoset populations, and
that the southern and eastern limits of the
geographical range of C.nigriceps are defined by
this unforested habitat, in conjunction with the
Jiparana and Marmelos rivers. Given the evidence,
it seems reasonable to assume that C.nigriceps
does not occur east of the Rio dos Marmelos
downriver (north) from the Tenharin settlement.
This would make the species' geographical range
one of the most precisely defined of any
Amazonian primate (Figure 1), with an area of
approximately 24,500 km2. This evidence also
implies that C.nigriceps is no more than parapatric
with any other marmoset taxon, supporting its
species' status.

Body size data collected during the study provide
additional support. Mean body weight and
head/body length for three males captured were
380 g and 210 mm, respectively; values extremely
close to those recorded for the male holotype and
paratypes (Ferrari and Lopes, 1992a). Mean body
weight and head/body length for the six male
specimens now available are 375.0 g and 208.2
mm. These values reconfirm the robustness of
C.nigriceps in comparison with its geographically
closest congener, C.emiliae, for which Ferrari and
Lopes ibidd.) recorded mean values (for males
only) of 313.3 g (N = 12) and 220.6 mm (N = 16).
Ferrari et al. (1993) also found differences in gut

Neotropical Primates ](4), Deceinber 1993

Page 12

Page 13 Neotropical Prinates 1(4), December 1993

morphology between the two species, although
their significance remains unclear.

The systematics of the callitrichids is still highly
controversial (Rylands et al., 1993), although the
zoogeographical and morphological evidence now
available on the nigriceps form would seem to
favour its classification as a true species. Whatever
its status, however, there are already a number of
reasons for concern with regard to its conservation.
Foremost is the Trans-Amazon highway, which
bisects the southern half of nigriceps' range. Roads
are the principal channels for colonisation in this
region (Fearnside, 1990), and large-scale cattle-
ranching is already well established everywhere
along the Trans-Amazon between the Rios
Marmelos and Madeira, with the exception of the
Tenharin reservation (where it is incipient). A
second problem is the lack of protected areas
within the species' distribution (see Rylands and
Bernardes, 1989), although the region of the Rio
dos Marmelos has been designated top priority for
the preservation of Amazonian diversity
(Wetterberg et al., 1976). Whether this will result
in any more practical measures remains to be seen,
but in the meantime it would seem essential to
analyse the long-term prospects for the species'
conservation in more detail.

Stephen F. Ferrari, Departamento de Genitica,
Universidade Federal do Parf, Caixa Postal 8607,
66075-150 Bel6m, Pari, Brazil.


Brazil, Projeto Radambrasil. 1978. Levantamento
de Recursos Naturais, Folha SC.20, Porto Velho,
Vol.16. Ministerio de Minas e Energia, Rio de
Fearnside, P.M. 1990. Rond6nia: estradas que
levam A devastaqAo. Cidncia Hoje, 11:46-52.
Ferrari, S.F. and Lopes, M.A. 1992a. A new
species of marmoset, genus Callithrix Erxleben
1777 (Callitrichidae, Primates), from western
Brazilian Amazonia. Goeldiana Zoologia,
Ferrari, S.F. and Lopes, M.A. 1992b. New data
on the distribution of primates in the region of
the confluence of the Jiparanr and Madeira rivers
in Amazonas and Rond6nia. Goeldiana
Zoologia, (11):1-12.
Ferrari, S.F., Lopes, M.A. and Krause, E.A.K.
1993. Gut morphology of Callithrix nigriceps
and Saguinus labiatus from western Brazilian
Amazonia. Am.J.Phys.Anthrop., 90:487-493.

Hershkovitz, P. 1977. Living New World Monkeys
(Platyrrhini), Vol.1. Chicago University Press,
Rylands, A.B. and Bernardes, A.T. 1989. Two
priority regions for conservation in Brazilian
Amazonia. Primate Conservation, (10):56-62.
Rylands, A.B., Coimbra-Filho, A.F. and
Mittermeier, R.A. 1993. Systematics,
geographic distribution, and some notes on the
conservation status of the Callitrichidae. In:
Marmosets and Tamarins: Systematics,
Behaviour, and Ecology, A.B.Rylands (ed.),
pp. 11-77. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Vivo, M.de 1991. Taxonomia de Callithrix
Erxleben, 1777 (Callitrichidae, Primates).
Fundaqio Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte.
Wetterberg, G.B., Padua, M.T.J., Castro, C.S. and
Vasconcellos, J.M.C. 1976. Uma andlise de
prioridades em conservagqo da natureza na
Amaz6nia. Projeto de Pesquisa e
Desenvolvimento Florestal (PRODEPEF),
PNUD/FA O/IBDF/BRA-45, Sdrie Tecnica 8.


Es el objetivo de esta resefia informar sobre los
studios de campo con primates de Argentina y
abrir un canal de comunicaci6n con otros grupos
de investigaci6n interesados en esta temitica. En
nuestro pais, los studios con primates cubren una
gama de tematicas amplia, que incluye studios de
citogen6tica, fisiologia reproductive,
investigaciones biom6dicas y paleontol6gicas. Una
revision de las distintas lines de investigaci6n
desarrolladas pueden encontrarse en Arditi et al.
(1989). Los investigadores argentinos que
desarrollamos trabajos de campo en primatologia,
nos nucleamos en el Grupo Argentino de
Especialistas en Primates (GADEP). Este grupo
edita desde 1985 el Boletin Primatol6gico
Argentino y desde 1989 el Boletin Primatol6gico
Latinoamericano, finicas revistas de primatologia
en idioma castellano. En esta contribuci6n, nos
referiremos exclusivamente a las investigaciones de
campo que se han realizado en nuestro pais.

Los habitats extremes y marginales, como son los
bosques subtropicales de Argentina, son sitios
ideales para estudiar la plasticidad adaptativa y el
rango de tolerancia de las species de primates, que
muchas veces evidencian comportamientos no
encontrados en areas tropicales (Brown y Zunino,

Neotropical Primates ](4), December 1993

Page 13

Neotropical Primates 1(4% December 1993 Page 14

BOLIVIA p Cebus apella Aotus azarae

; Alouatta caraya Alouattafitsca

CHILE .. \d', A



Figura 1. Distribuici6n de las cuatro species de primates presents en
Argentina y ubicaci6n de los lugares en donde se realizaron o realizan
studios de campo a largo plazo:(1) Parque Nacional "El Rey", (2) Estancia

"Guaycolec" (Privada), (3) Centro Argentino
(CONICET), (4) Parque Nacional "Iguazu".

1990). En nuestro pais existen cuatro species de
primates no humans: Cebus apella, Alouatta
caraya, Alouatta fusca y Aotus azarae. Su
distribuci6n y estado de conservaci6n han sido
revisados recientemente (Brown et al., 1993).
Estas cuatro species habitan los bosques
subtropicales del norte del pais y los studios de
campo se han llevado a cabo en las tres grandes
unidades ambientales que 6stos representan, las
Selvas de Montafia del Noroeste (Yungas), el
Chaco huimedo y la Selva Paranense de Misiones
(Fig. 1).

Alouatta caraya (mono aullador negro o carayA).
Habita las selvas de inundaci6n y bosques
chaquefios hfimedos del N.E. del pais y en la
provincia de Misiones. Cabrera (1939) y Cabrera y
Yepes (1940) son los primeros que reunen notas
sobre primates en Argentina, con aspects de su
comportamiento, morfologia y distribuci6n. Pope
(1968) analiza datos poblacionales en base a la
capture de mas de 300 caraya, colectados en
Corrientes, para studios m6dicos. Los primeros
studios sobre comportamiento se realizaron a
partir de la creaci6n del Centro Argentino de
Primates (CAPRIM), en Corrientes, en 1972.
Estudios sobre alimentaci6n y preferencias de
habitat fueron realizados por Colillas y Coppo
(1978), mientras que los primeros muestreos
cuantitativos fueros realizados por Milton (1980).

de Pr

El primer studio poblacional
fue realizado por Thorington
et al. (1984), en tanto que
Piantanida et al. (1984),
publicaron datos sobre
ecologia y comportamiento de
esta especie. Asi mismo en el
CAPRIM, fueron realizados
trabajos de campo a largo
plazo, que generaron las tesis
doctorales de Rumiz (1985)
sobre demografia y dinamica
poblacional y de Zunino
(1986), sobre alimentaci6n,
ritmos de actividad y etologia
de esta especie, como asi
tambidn numerosas
publicaciones sobre estos
temas (Rumiz, 1983, 1990;
Rumiz et al., 1986; Zunino et
al., 1986; Zunino y Rumiz,
1986; Zunino, 1987, 1989).

rimates CAPRIM Recientemente, A.Giudice
comenz6 studios sobre
relaci6n materno-infantil en
este mismo centro. No existen studios de campo
sobre las poblaciones de la selva de Misiones.
Desde 1989, S.I.Arditi y L.G.Placci estudian el
hAbitat, patrons de actividad y dieta del carayA en
las selvas del este de Formosa, donde habitat en
simpatria con A.azarae (Arditi, 1992; Arditi y
Placci, 1990, 1993).

Alouatta fusca (mono aullador rojo). Esta especie
fue citada por primera vez para Argentina por
Crespo (1954), para un ejemplar capturado en la
provincia de Misiones, en un Area de selva
paranense dominada por Araucaria angustifolia.
Posteriormente, el mismo autor confirm su
presencia para un sitio muy cercano al anterior, por
tres ejemplares muertos por una epidemia de fiebre
amarilla que ocurri6 en Misiones en 1966 (Crespo,
1974). La ausencia de citas posteriores y la intense
actividad forestal realizada en el Area hicieron
pensar en la possible extinci6n de esta especie en
nuestro pais. Por esta raz6n, en enero de 1992
realizamos con apoyo de Program for Studies in
Tropical Conservation (PSTC), Universidad de
Florida, un viaje de prospecci6n y se pudo localizar
un pequefio nficleo poblacional en una reserve
provincial de aproximadamente 450 ha (Brown et
al. datos no publicados). Consideramos necesario
realizar un studio mAs detallado de la situaci6n
poblacional de esta especie en nuestro pais.

Neotropical Primates ](4), December 1993

Page 14

Page iS Neotropical Primates 1(4), December 1993

Aotus azarae (miriquina o mono de noche). Habita
las selvas en galeria y montes altos del este de la
provincia de Formosa y noreste de Chaco, en
simpatria con A.caraya. Estudios sobre
distribuci6n y densidad poblacional del miriquina
han sido realizados por Rathbun y Gache (1980) y
Zunino et al.(1985). Los studios que han
realizado S.Arditi y G.Placci sobre disponibilidad
de recursos y estrategias adaptativas de A.azarae y
A.caraya en Formosa, han brindado abundante
informaci6n sobre densidad, patrons de actividad
y dieta del miriquinA (Arditi, 1992; Arditi y Placci,
1990, 1993). La actividad diurna de Aotus en su
area austral de distribuci6n (Paraguay y Argentina)
brinda una oportunidad fnica para realizar
observaciones directs sobre esta especie en
condiciones silvestres.

Cebus apella (cai). Esti present en Argentina con
dos subespecies que han sido motivo de recientes
revisiones sistemAticas (Mudry et al., 1987).
C.a.paraguayanus habitat las selvas de montafia del
noroeste de Argentina, desde el limited con Bolivia
hasta los 280 latitud sur. Desde 1981, A.Brown,
S.Chalukian y L.Malmierca realizaron diversos
studios sobre hAbitat, distribuci6n, densidad
poblacional, alimentaci6n y estrategias de
utilizaci6n de recursos de esta poblaci6n (Brown,
1983, 1986; Brown y Colillas, 1984; Brown et al.,
1984, 1986). C.a.nigritus (= C.a.vellerosus) habitat
la selva paranense de Misiones, entire los 25.50 y
los 27.50 latitud sur, en simpatria con las dos
species de aulladores. En 1987, A.Brown y
G.Zunino inician studios de esta poblaci6n sobre
uso del habitat y alimentaci6n, en el Parque
Nacional Iguazti, Misiones (Brown y Zunino,
1990). El studio de esta poblaci6n, continia en
1991, con un proyecto sobre estructura social en
primates dirigido por C.Janson (State University of
New York, Stony Brook) y A.Brown (UNT-
Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y
Tecnol6gicas de la Argentina, CONICET).
Avances de este proyecto fueron presentados en el
XIV Congreso de IPS en Strasbourg, Francia. En
el marco de este proyecto se han estudiado en
profundidad diversos aspects del habitat (Placci et
al., 1992), ecologia alimentaria y comportamiento
social (Chediak et al., 1993; Di Bitetti, en prep.).
En 1992, M.Di Bitetti comenz6 a desarrollar un
studio a largo plazo sobre demografia y
reproducci6n de esta poblaci6n.

La mayoria de estos studios fueron y son
financiados total o parcialmente por diferentes
becas y subsidies del CONICET. Asi tambi6n, se

cont6 en diversas oportunidades, con apoyo de
WWF, la Sociedad Zool6gica de Nueva York y la
NSF (subsidio a C.Janson). Cualquier informaci6n
sobre facilidades para desarrollar studios de
campo con primates en Argentina, puede ser
solicitada a los autores. Asi mismo invitamos a
quienes desean contribuir con articulos, notas o
informaci6n primatol6gica en el Boletin
Primatol6gico Latinoamericano, dirigirse al
Dr.Gabriel Zunino (editor), Museo Argentino de
Ciencias Naturales, Div. Mastozoologia, Av. Angel
Gallardo 470, (1450) Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Mario S. Di Bitteto y Sandra I. Arditi,
Laboratorio de Investigaciones Ecol6gicas de las
Yungas (LIEY), Facultad de Ciencias Naturales e
Institute M. Lillo, Universidad Nacional de
Tucuman, C.C.34, (4107) Yerba Buena, Tucumin,


Arditi, S.I. 1992. Variaciones estacionales en la
actividad y dieta de Aotus azarae y Alouatta
caraya en Formosa, Argentina. Bol. Primatol.
Latinoamericana, 3(1): 11-30.
Arditi, S.I., Mudry, M.D. y Brown, A.D. 1989.
Estado actual del desarrollo de la primatologia en
Argentina. Bol. Primatol. Latinoamericana,
Arditi, S.I. y Placci, L.G. 1990. HAbitat y
densidad de Aotus azarae y Alouatta caraya en
riacho PilagA, Formosa. Bol. Primatol.
Latinoamericana, 2(1):29-47.
Arditi, S.I. y Placci, L.G. 1993. Disponibilidad de
recursos y alimentaci6n de primates en la selva
en galeria de Formosa, Argentina. Resfimenes
del VI Congreso Iberoamericano de
Conservaci6n y Zoologia de Vertebrados. Santa
Cruz, Bolivia. pp.22-24.
Brown, A.D. 1983. Distribuci6n y conservaci6n
de Cebus apella (Cebidae: Primates) en el
noroeste Argentino. En: La Primatologia en
Latinoambrica, C.J.Saavedra, R.A.Mittermeier y
I.B.Santos (eds.), pp.159-164. World Wildlife
Fund, Washington, D.C.
Brown, A.D. 1986. Autoecologia de bromeliAceas
epifitas y su relaci6n con Cebus apella (Cebidae,
Primates) en el N.O. argentino. Tesis Doctoral,
Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Buenos Aires.
Brown, A.D. y Colillas, O.J. 1983. Ecologia de
Cebus apella. En: A Primatologia no Brasil,
M.T.de Mello (ed.), pp.301-312. Sociedade
Brasileira de Primatologia, Brasilia.
Brown, A.D., Chalukian, S.C. y Malmierca, L.M.

Page 15

Neotropical Primates ](4), December 1993

Neotropical Primates 1(1,), December 1993 Page 16

1984. HAbitat y alimentaci6n de Cebus apella en
el noroeste argentino y la disponibilidad de frutos
en el dosel arb6reo. Rev. MACN, XII(28):273-
Brown, A.D., Chalukian, S.C., Malmnierca, L.M. y
Colillas. O.J. 1986. Habitat structure and
feeding behavior of Cebus apella (Cebidae) in
"El Rey" National Park, Argentina. En: Current
Perspectives in Primate Social Dynamics,
D.M.Taub, y F.A.King (eds.), pp.137-151. Van
Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York.
Brown, A.D. y Zunino, G.E. 1990. Dietary
variability in Cebus apella in extreme habitats:
evidence for adaptability. Folia Primatol.,
Brown, A.D., Di Bitetti, M.S. y Arditi, S.I. 1993.
La conservaci6n de primates en Argentina.
Resu'imenes del VI Congreso Iberoamericano de
Conservaci6n v Zoologia de Vertebrados. Santa
Cruz, Bolivia. pp. 125-127.
Cabrera, A. 1939. Los monos de Argentina. Physis,
Rev.Soc.Argentina Ciencias Nat., 16:3-29.
Cabrera, A. y Yepes, J. 1940. Mainiferos Sud
Aamericanos (Vida, Costumbres yv Descripci6n).
Historia Natural Ediar, Companhia Argentina de
Editores, Buenos Aires. II Edici6n publicado en
Colillas. 0. y Coppo, J. 1978. Breeding Alouatta
caraya in Centro Argentino de Primates. En:
Recent Advances in Primatology, 2,
Conservation, D.J.Chivers y W. Lane Petter
(eds.), pp.201-214. Academic Press, London.
Crespo, J.A. 1954. Presence of the reddish
howling monkey (A/loatta guariba clamiitans
Cabrera) in Argentina. J.ainammal., 35:117-118.
Crespo, J.A. 1974. Comentarios sobre nuevas
localidades de mamiferos de Argentina y de
Bolivia. Rev. MACN, 11(1): 1-31.
Chediack, S.E.; Placci, L.G. y Brown, A.D. 1993.
La importancia de Arecastrum romanzoffianum
en la dieta de Cebus apella en el P.N.Iguaz6.
Resitnienes XVI Congreso Argentino de
Ecologia, Puerto Madryn.
Milton, K. 1980. The Foraging Strategy of Howler
Monkeys: A Study in Primate Economics.
Columbia University Press, New York, 165 pp.
Mudry, M.D., Brown, A.D. y Zunino, G.E. 1987.
Algunas consideraciones citotaxon6micas sobre
Cebus apella de Argentina. Bol. Primatol.
Argentino, 5(1-2):65-69.
Piantanida, M., Puig, S., Nanni, N., Rossi, F.,
Cavanna, L., Mazzuchelli, S. y Gil, A. 1984.
Introducci6n al studio de la ecologia del mono
aullador (Alouatta caraya) en condiciones
naturales. Rev. AIA4CN, II1(3): 163-191.

Placci, L.G., Arditi, S.I., Giorgis, P.A. y Wuthrich,
A.A. 1992. Estructura del palmital e
importancia de Euterpe edulis como especie
clave en el Parque Nacional Iguazti, Argentina.
YVIRARETA, Rev.Inst.Subtrop. de Invest.
Forestales (ISIF) 3:93-108.
Pope, B.L. 1968. Population characteristics. En:
Biology of the Howler Monkey (Alouatta caraya),
M.Malinow (ed.), pp.13-30. S.Karger, Basel.
Rathbun, G.B. y Gache, M. 1980. Ecological
survey of the night monkey Aotus trivirgatus in
Formosa province, Argentina. Primates, 21:211-
Rumiz, D.I. 1983. Aplicaci6n de m6todos de
censado para Alouatta caraya en habitats
fraccionados: I. Comparaci6n de m6todos de
transecta. En: La Primatologia en
Latinoamerica, C.J.Saavedra, R.A.Mittermeier y
I.B.Santos (eds.), pp.233-239. World Wildlife
Fund, Washington, D.C.
Rumiz, D.I. 1985. Ecologia poblacional de
Alouatta caraya en el norte de Argentina. Tesis
Doctoral, Universidad Nacional de La Plata,
Buenos Aires. 100 pp.
Rumiz, D.I. 1990. Alouatta caraya: population
density and demography in northern Argentina.
Am.J.Primatol., 21:279-294.
Rumiz, D.I., Zunino, G.E., Obregozo, M.L. y Ruiz,
J.C. 1986. Alouatta caraya: habitat and
resource utilization in northern Argentina. En:
Current Perspectives in Primate Social
Dynamics, D.M.Taub y F.A.King (eds.), pp.175-
193. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York.
Thorington, R.W., Jr., Ruiz, J.C. y Eisenberg, J.F.
1984. A study of a black howling monkey
(Alouatta caraya) population in northern
Argentina. Am.J.Primatol., 6:357-366.
Zunino, G.E. 1986. Aspectos de la ecologia y
etologia del mono aullador negro (Alouatta
caraya) en habitats fragmentados. Tesis
Doctoral, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos
Aires. 152pp.
Zunino, G.E. 1987. Nutrici6n en primates
folivoros: la dieta de Alouatta caraya en vida
silvestre. Bol.Primatol.Argentino, 5(1-2):78-87.
Zunino, G.E. 1989. HAbitat dieta y actividad del
mono aullador negro (Alouatta caraya) en el
noreste de Argentina. Bol. Primatol.
Latinoamericano, 1:74-97.
Zunino, G.E., Galliari, C.A. y Colillas, O.J. 1985.
Distribuci6n y conservacion del mirikini (Aotus
azarae) en Argentina: resultados preliminares.
En: A Primnatologia no Brasil 2, M.T.de Mello
(ed.), pp.305-316. Sociedade Brasileira de
Primatologia, Brasilia.

Neotropical Primates 1(4), December 1993

Page 16

Page 17 Neotropical 1~ri,,,aies 1('4). Deceniber 1993

Zunino, G.E., Chalukian, S.C. y Rumiz, D.I.
1986. Infanticidio y desaparici6n de infants
asociados al reemplazo de machos en gnipos de
Alouatta caraya. En: A Primatologia no Brasil -
2, M.T.de Mello (ed.), pp.185-190. Socicdadc
Brasileira de Primatologia, Brasilia.
Zunino, G.E. y Rumiz, D.I. 1986. Observaciones
sobre el comportamiento territorial del mono
aullador negro (A. caraya). Bol. Primatol.
Argentino, 4:33-52.


The European Endangered Species Programme
(EEP) was formed in 1985. Its mission is to
coordinate and stimulate the endeavours of

European zoos towards
endangered species.
Breeding programmes for
17 species were
established in 1985, and
the number has since
increased to more than
80, today including
several New World
primates (see box). The
aim is to include several
hundred species by the
year 2000. Within the
EEP framework, a
"species coordinator" is
appointed for each species
programme; usually
someone who is an
employee in one of the
participating zoos, and is
an expert on the species
in question. The
coordinator compiles the
regional studbook, and
provides recommenda-
tions concerning the
species' management
(breeding strategies,
exchanges) on a year-to-

the conservation of

year basis, aided by an elected "species committee"
of five to 10 people representing zoos and .other
institutions from different European countries
(including Great Britain), that participate in the
EEP and have experience in keeping the species in
question. All species coordinators meet once a
year, and are supported by the "EEP Committee", a

group consisting of leading zoo representatives
from each of the European countries with EEP
institutions. The EEP Committee is the general
policy-making organ of the EEP organisation, and
also selects which species should be included in the
EEP programmes. The EEP Executive Office in
Amsterdam is responsible for the daily business on
behalf of the Committee.

The EEP works in collaboration with similar
programmes in North America, Australasia, Great
Britain, India and Japan, with an underlying
worldwide coordination in the form of the
IUCN/SSC Captive Breeding Specialist Group
(CBSG), and IUDZG the International Zoo

The largest problem encountered in the functioning
of the EEP is undoubtedly the actual execution of

European countries

breeding management
recommendations: it is
often difficult to develop
policies applicable to an
entire group of zoos
(varying from 10 to well
over 50 depending on the
species programme) when
these are spread through
several countries with
different languages and
laws, and with dissimilar
political and economic
backgrounds. The
incongruencies in laws
alone can sometimes
make exchange of
specimens for breeding
purposes by two closely
situated zoos a formidable
task if a border happens
to lie between them. Yet
successes have been

The growth of the EEP-
organisation has been
considerable: now more
than 350 zoos from 32
are involved in breeding

programmes. The EEP is strongly supported by
the various national zoo federations and especially
by the European Association of Zoos and Aquaria
(EAZA), a recently formed pan European zoo
association that, among other tasks, is responsible
for EEP affairs.


Cebuella pygmaea Wim B.Mager, Stichting
Apenheul, J.C.Wilslaan 21-31, 7313 HK
Apeldoorn, The Netherlands.
Sagiuinus imperator Robert Colley, Penscynor
Wildlife Park, Cilfrew, Neath, Glamorgan SAI0
8LF, South Wales, UK.
Saguinus oedipus Robert Colley, Penscynor
Wildlife Park, Cilfrew, Neath, Glamorgan SAI0
8LF, South Wales, UK. (Provisional)
Leontopithecus rosalia Ron Willis, Royal
Zoological Society of Ireland, Phoenix Park,
Dublin 8, Ireland.
Leontopithecus chrysomelas Helga de Bois,
Antwerp Zoo, Koningin Astridplein 26, B-2000
Antwerpen, Belgium.
Callimico goeldii Gustl Anzenberger,
Anthropologisches Instittit und Museum,
Universitat Ziirich-Irchel, Winterthurerstrasse
190, CH-8057 Ztirich, Switzerland.
Lagothrix lagotricha Wim B.Mager, Stichting
Apenheul, J.C.Wilslaan 21-31, 7313 HK
Apeldoorn, The Netherlands.

Neotropical Primates 1(4), December 1993

Page 17

Neotropical Primates J(b, December 1993 Page 18

The EEP formed a Primate Taxonomy Advisory
Group during the 9th EEP Annual Conference held
at Edinburgh Zoo in July 1992. The Co-chairs are
Miranda Stevenson (Edinburgh Zoo) and Christian
Schmidt (Zoologischer Garten Ziirich). The
Primate TAGs within Europe, such as that of the
Federation of Zoological Gardens of Great Britain
and Ireland (see Neotropical Primates 1(1):9-10),
are separate but comprise part of- the EEP. At a
meeting during the Congress of the International
Primatological Society (IPS) in Strasbourg in
August 1992, a number of people were designated
the task of providing reviews of the populations of
captive primates in European countries in order to
evaluate space available, a survey coordinated by
Michael Schwibbc and Joachim Wilde of the
German Primate Centre. This review should be
ready for an EEP Primate TAG meeting on
December 4-5th 1993 at the Jersey Wildlife
Preservation Tnrust, Jersey, and will allow for the
establishment of a Regional Collection Plan (RCP).

A further meeting of the EEP Primate TAG, held
in Salzburg in June 1993, recommended that it be
split into sub-groups concerned with prosimians
(Achim Johann, Tierpark Rheine), Old World
monkeys (Neil Bemment, Paignton Zoo), the
gibbons (Jean-Marc-Lernould, Mulhouse Zoo), the
great apes (Marianne Holtkotter, Stuttgart Zoo),
and the New World Monkeys, with Bryan Carroll,
Jersey Wildlife Preservation Tnrust, responsible for
the callitrichids (including Callimico goeldii), and
Leobert de Boer, Apenheul Zoo, Apeldoorn
(Netherlands), responsible for the cebids.

Koen Brouwer, EEP Executive Office, c/o
Amsterdam Zoo, Postbus 20164, 1000 HD
Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Miranda
Stevenson, Royal Zoological Society of Edinburgh,
Scottish National Zoological Park, Corstorphine
Road, Murrayfield, Edinburgh EHI12 6TS,
Scotland, and Christian R. Schmidt, Zoo Ziirich,
Ziirichburgstrasse 221, CH-8044 Zuirich,


Boer. L.E.M.de 1991. EEP European zoos care
about the conservation of endangered animal
species. National Foundation for Research in
Zoological Gardens/EEP Executive Office,
Amsterdam. 16pp.


-- In 1986, one captive
and seven wildborn
golden-headed lion
tamarins arrived at
the Royal Zoological
S Society of Antwerp
(RZSA). Since
then, more than 100
animals have been
born, about 30 of which have died, and 24 were
transferred to other locations (data: May 1993).
The sex ratio at birth has been biassed in favour of
males: five males for every four females. Breeding
pairs have produced on average more than two
litters (or 3-4 offspring) a year. 13% of the
offspring were stillborn, but only 5% of the young
born alive died in their first year.

In recent years, research projects have been carried
out on these animals, in collaboration with the
University of Antwerp. Parental care was the first
topic (Van Elsacker et al., 1992). Studies on other
callitrichids have suggested that the relative
contribution of the mother in infant care is largely
influenced by the social environment: the number
and sex of helpers and infants, and such factors as
the experience of the helpers. Two families at the
RZSA with a nearly identical social situation were
observed, and it was found that there was still a big
difference in relative maternal investment. In one
family the father was the primary carrier, in the
other it was the female. It was also clear that
infant transfers between the male and the female
were controlled by the female. The results
suggested that maternal behaviour in the golden-
headed lion tamarin may depend primarily on the
female's physical and hormonal condition.

In this context, a preliminary study was carried out
to examine the possibility of associations between
prepartum and postpartum hormonal levels in the
females and their maternal behaviour (Van De
Veegaete, 1991), as has been demonstrated for
other callitrichids. The level of oestradiol (an
oestrogen metabolite) in the urine was measured
during the three weeks before birth in two females
with differing maternal behaviour. No difference
was found for prepartum levels, although the
laboratory kit used was for measuring oestradiol in
humans, and this might not have been entirely
adequate. However, a relation has been detected

Neolropical Primates ](4), December 1993

Page 18

Neotropical Primates 1(4), December 1993

between the sharp decrease in oestradiol
concentrations around eight days following birth
and maternal performance at that time, although
this may be confounded by the occurrence of a
postpartum oestrus, where sexual motivation may
be interfering with that for maternal behaviour.

Two smaller research projects are studying scent-
marking and anti-predator behaviour (Walraven,
1990; Walraven and Van Elsacker, 1991).
Observations demonstrated the following: a) males
marked more frequently than females; b) marking
occurred mainly at the borders of the enclosures,
adjacent to neighboring groups, and at feeding
sites; c) marking occurred mainly during bouts of
intergroup vocalizing and while feeding; d)
marking was predominantly circumgenital at the
enclosure borders, and predominantly sternal in the
interior of the enclosure.

Regarding anti-predator behaviour, different smells
were tested which represented: 1) a sympatric
predator; 2) an allopatric predator; and 3) an
allopatric non-predator. Pieces of cotton wool
impregnated with the smell of an ocelot, a polecat,
and a common marmoset were placed in the lion
tamarin's resting sites (Declerck, 1991). Tha test-
animals had also been confronted with smell
samples of familiar, as well as unfamiliar
conspecifics in the course of the previous study.
They were able to distinguish between predator and
non-predator smells. They generally avoided the
cotton wool impregnated with the smells of ocelots
and polecats, which was not true for the smell of
the marmoset. When they did approach the
"predator smell" they sniffed it more intensively.

A study on contraception as a means of controlling
the growth of the population, and as a management
tool, was also begun recently. We are studying the
effect of melengestrol-acetate (MGA) implants on
the implanted breeding female and the possible
effects on the non-implanted sexually mature
daughters still resident in the family. The main
objective is to examine if the breeding female's
inability to breed affects the process of social
contraception on the younger female group
members. Behavioural observations are combined
with urine analyses (in collaboration with the
University of Gent) to obtain information on
underlying hormonal mechanisms.

Helga De Bois and Linda Van Elsacker, Royal
Zoological Society of Antwerp, Koningin
Astridplein 26, 2018 Antwerpen, Belgium.


Declerck, L. 1991. De response van het
goudkopleeuwaapje, Leontopithecus
chrysomelas, op geurstoffen van prcdatoren.
Licentiaatsthesis, Universitaire Instelling
Antwerpen, Antwerp. (English abstract
Haazen, W. 1988. Studio van het vocale
repertoire van het goudkopleeuwaapje,
Leontopithecus chrvsomelas. Licentiaatsthesis,
Universitaire Instelling Antwerpen, Antwerp.
Van De Veegaete, P. 1991. De proximale
invloeden op mocderzorggedrag bij
goudkopleeuwaapjes (Leontopithecus
chrysomelas) in gevangenschap.
Licentiaatsthesis, Universitaire Instelling
Antwerpen, Antwerp. (English abstract
Van Elsacker, L. 1990. De goudkopleecuwaapjes
stellen zich aan u voor. Zoo Antwerpen,
55(4):34-35. (Also available in French).
Van Elsacker, L. 1991. On the issue of
reintroduction projects of lion tamarins in Brazil.
Lutra, 34:92-93.
Van Elsacker, L., De Meurichy, W., Verheyen,
R.F. and Walraven, V. 1992. Parental behaviour
in golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus
chrysomelas): maternal differences in infant
carriage. Folia Primatol., 59:121-126.
Walraven, V. 1990. Het markeergedrag van het
goudkopleeuwaapje, Leontopithecus
chrvsomelas. Licentiaatsthesis, Universitaire
Instelling Antwerpen, Antwerp. (English
abstract available).
Walraven, V. and Van Elsacker, L. 1992. Scent
marking in New World Primates: a functional
review. Acta Zoologica et Palhologica
Antverpiensia, 82:51-59.


Associations between sympatric species are a
common occurrence in a number of forest
primates. These associations range from very
temporary encounters to permanent closed
membership groups. Tamarin species of the genus-
Saguinus form some of the most stable mixed-
species groups observed in mammals.

In the wild, groups of red-bellied tamarins.
Saguinus labiatus, and saddle-backed tamarins,

Page 19

Neotropical Primates 1(4), December 1993

S.fuscicollis, are reported to spend approximately
85% of their time within 50 m of each other
(Buchanan-Smith, 1990). These mixed-species
groups are stable and the two species share a
common home range which they defend jointly
against neighboring mixed species groups
(Buchanan-Smith, 1990; S.M.Hardie, pers.obs.).
However, despite the close association found
between these monkeys in nature, most captive
environments house just one species in any

There would be a number of advantages to
exhibiting species which associate in the wild in a
single enclosure. First, there is good reason to
believe that mixed-species exhibits would improve
the well-being of the animals concerned; due to the
stimulation of greater activity and increased social
encounters. Second, a mixed-species exhibit is a
more informative and exciting display. Third, the
captive environment is ideal for experimentally
testing certain hypotheses regarding the costs and
benefits to each species in association, under
controlled conditions.

There have been some attempts to house more than
one species in a single enclosure (see Baker, 1992;
Xanten, 1990). These have met with limited
success, perhaps because the species selected do
not form close associations in nature. There is
only one published report of a mixed-species
tamarin group in captivity (Heymann and Sicchar
Valdez, 1988). This involved wild-caught groups
of five S.mystax and six S.fuscicollis, which lived
in harmony and demonstrated the feasibility of
keeping groups together in captivity. Here, we
describe the formation and behaviour of mixed-
species groups of S.labiatus and Sffuscicollis at the
Belfast Zoo, Northern Ireland.

In August 1992, a mixed-species group was created
from one pair each of S.1abiatus and S.fuscicollis.
The group remained stable over approximately
nine months, and was split up only after the death
of the female S.fuscicollis during labour. The male
was subsequently removed and a new pair of
saddle-backs were successfully introduced to the
original S.iabiatus pair in June 1993. The mixed
group has been shown to consist of two groups of
"pair-bonded" animals that spend a much greater
percentage of their time with their mate than with
individuals of the other species. However,
individuals of different species spend some 25% of
their time in close (< 1 m) contact. As the cage
used was some 10 m x 3.5 m x 4 m, this

demonstrates a significant coincidence in time and
space. Interactions between the species were
relatively rare, and involved calls, huddling,
displacements, and other non-injurious behaviour.

After it was shown that stable mixed-species
groups could be formed from captive-born animals,
the main focus of research was centred around an
investigation of the costs and benefits of
association. In order for the association to evolve,
the benefits accrued by the members of a
polyspecific group must outweigh the costs.
Increased conspicuousness and feeding competition
are examples of potential costs. Benefits may
include predator detection, avoidance or defence,
increased encounter rate with food, and defence of
food resources. In order to determine how each
species is affected by the association, tests are
currently being conducted to compare behaviour in
an out of association. Monospecific groups of both
species are also being tested for responses to
presentation of different classes of objects. For
example, novel non-threatening objects are
presented to the subjects in various areas of their
enclosures, and the latency to approach provides a
comparison of relative "curiosity"; while the
presentation of threatening objects is used to
examine the role of both species in dealing with
potential dangers. In addition, objects which
contain food and others without food are used to
examine the ability of each species to learn
properties of new objects and to retain the
information. Species are initially tested alone and
subsequently when with the other species to see
exactly how the association affects their behaviour.
Details on interactions, competition, spacing, and
general behaviour are recorded. Recently, two
other mixed-species groups have been formed, and
we plan to form at least two more larger breeding
groups. One mixed group has been allowed to
free-range in a wooded area, to examine whether
they really do behave similarly to their wild

An assessment of this free-ranging group was
made over a period of four months, from June to
October 1993. The animals were based in an
outdoor enclosure, wih heated boxes place in the
centre. Their enclosure was located on the edge of
a large wooded area. After a month of baseline
acclimatisation and data collection, an opening was
made in the cage wall, giving access to the woods.
Potentially, they could range for over a kilometre
within the Zoo. All members of the mixed-species
group made forays of up to 30 m from the base on

Page 20

Page 21 Neotropical Primates 1(4), December 1993

the first day. Their activity time increased
significantly after the release, and they adapted
well to the arboreal environment. Both species
foraged for plant matter and animal prey species
which were novel to them. The S.labiatus male
successfully hunted two small birds. With few
exceptions, the group subsequently remained
within a 30 m radius of the home base. The
species differed in a number of behavioral
variables: the S.labiatus pair preferred different
foraging sites and food resources from those of its
congener, and this was reflected in the divergent
locomotory and foraging techniques used.
S.fuscicollis were frequently displaced from food
sites by the dominant S.labiatus, although both
species remained within 5 m of each other for
much of the time. Interspecific interactions ranged
from aggression to grooming and play: there were
no injuries. The frequency of interactions increased
significantly over the period of the study, and
reached a climax when the S.fuscicollis male was
observed mating with the S.labiatus female.

We hope to continue cataloguing the nature of this
association, and evaluate its suitability as a
longterm method of exhibiting tamarins in
captivity. It will be especially important to
compare behaviour around the time of infant birth
to see if each species can rear their young
successfully in the mixed environment. Finally, as
S.labiatus and S.fuscicollis also associate with
Callimico goeldii in the wild, we would indicate
that it may be appropriate to examine the
possibilities of captive mixed-species groups
involving all three species (Pook and Pook, 1982;
Buchanan-Smith, 1991; S.M.Hardie, pers.obs.).

We are particularly grateful to John Stronge,
Manager of Belfast Zoological Gardens, for his
enthusiasm and cooperation with the project. The
research was funded by the Science and
Engineering Research Council (SMH) and the
Carnegie Trust (RTD).

Scott M. Hardie, Department of Psychology,
University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland,
Richard T. Day, Belfast Zoological Gardens,
Antrim Road, Belfast BT36 7PN, Northern Ireland,
and Hannah M. Buchanan-Smith, School of
Psychology, University of St.Andrews, St.Andrews,
Fife KY16 9JU, Scotland.


Baker, B. 1992. Guess who's coming to dinner.

AAZPA 1992 Regional Proceedings, pp.62-67.
Buchanan-Smith, H.M. 1990. Polyspecific
association of two tamarin species, Saguinus
labiatus and Saguinus fuscicollis, in Bolivia.
Am.J.Primatol., 22:205-214.
Buchanan-Smith, H.M. 1991. Field observations
of Goeldi's monkey, Callimico goeldii, in
northern Bolivia. Folia Primatol., 57:102-105.
Heymann, E.W. and Sicchar Valdez, L.A. 1988.
Interspecific social grooming in a mixed troop of
tamarins, Saguinus mystax and Saguinus
fuscicollis (Platyrrhini: Callitrichidae), in an
outdoor enclosure. Folia Primatol., 50:221-225.
Pook, A.G. and Pook, G. 1982. Polyspecific
association between Saguinus fuscicollis,
Saguinus labiatus, Callimico goeldii, and other
primates in northwestern Bolivia. Folia
Primatol., 38:196-216.
Xanten, W.A. 1990. Marmoset behaviour in
mixed species exhibits at the National Zoological
Park, Washington. Jnt.Zoo Yearb., 29:143-148.



The four subspecies of the masked titi monkeys
(Callicebus personatus) are endemic to the
Atlantic forest region of eastern Brazil
(Hershkovitz, 1990). The coastal rain forest is
nearly completely destroyed, and C.personatus is
considered the most endangered species of its
genus (Mittermeier et al., 1982). It is also one of
the least known of the titi monkeys. Only the
results of one short study have been published so
far (Kinzey & Becker, 1983). In 1991, a longterm
study on the behaviour and ecology of the masked
titi monkey, C.p.melanochir, was initiated in the
vicinity of the town of Una in the state of Bahia,
eastern Brazil. The study area is a forest fragment
of 100 ha, which is part of a forest of 400 ha owned
and protected by the local cocoa growing authority
CEPLAC (Comissao Executiva do Piano da
Lavoura Cacaueira). The study site consists
mostly of secondary forest, and contains three or
four family groups.

Titi monkeys are generally very difficult to observe
because they are quick-moving, extremely shy, and
very quiet (see, for example, Easley, 1982 for

Neotropical Primates ](4), December 1993

Page 21

Neotropical Primates J('.O, December 1993 Page 22

C.torquatus). To guarantee longterm continuous
observations it was necessary to use radio
telemetry. Conventional trapping was found to be
unsuccessful, but we eventually succeeded in using
a carbon dioxide-powered gun to anaesthetize one
of the group members, and a radio collar was
attached with a range of 200 m. One group was
habituated, permitting the collection of basic data
on the behaviour and ecology, especially on activity
budgets and feeding ecology. In October 1993 two
further studies were begun, and we plan to
habituate a further one or two groups.

The first study will analyse the social relationships
within and between groups of masked titi monkeys,
with emphasis on migration events. Territorial
behaviour will be investigated using playback
experiments. The second study will investigate
foraging, determining the availability 'and use of
food resources in different seasons. 'Costs and
benefits of foraging will be calculated by analysing
the energetic content of food items and by
estimating the energy needed to obtain them.

The project is funded through travel grants from
the DAAD (Deutscher Akademischer
Austauschdienst), and equipment is being provided
by the German Primate Center, Gottingen. The
projects form part of a cooperation agreement
between the German Primate Center (DPZ) and the
Rio de Janeiro Primate Centre (CPRJ/FEEMA).

Klaus-Heinrich Mfiller, Stefanie Heiduck and
Siglinde Schultze, German Primate Center,
Kellnerweg 4, 37077 G6ttingen, Germany.


Easley, S.E. 1982. Ecology and behavior of
Callicebus torquatus, Cebidae, Primates. PhD
Dissertation, Washington University, St Louis.
Hershkovitz, P. 1990. Titis, new world monkeys
of the genus Callicebus (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): a
preliminary taxonomic review. Fieldiana:
Zoology, new series., 55:1-109.
Kinzey, W.G. and Becker, M. 1983. Activity
pattern of the masked titi monkey Callicebus
personatus. Primates, 24:337-343.
Mittermeier, R.A., Coimbra-Filho, A.F.,
Constable, I.D., Rylands, A.B. and Valle, C.
1982. Conservation of primates in the Atlantic
forest region of eastern Brazil. Int.Zoo Yearb.,


Studies are underway examining the ecology
(feeding, ranging, and daily activity patterns) and
mother-infant relations of brown howling
monkeys, Alouatta fusca clamitans, in the Aracuri-
Esmeralda Ecological Station of 272 ha, created in
1981 and administered by the Brazilian Institute
for the Environment and Renewable Natural
Resources (Ibama), in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
The field research is being supervised by Dr Cesar
Ades of the University of Sdo Paulo, and comprises
a master's thesis for the Catholic University of Rio
Grande do Sul. The project is being financed by the
Fundagdo o Botic6rio de Prote9do ea Natureza,
based in Curitiba, Parani. It was begun in May
1993 and will continue till September 1994. The
social relations and development of offspring,
examining particularly processes involved in
weaning and independence, are being accompanied
during the first year of life. The ecological study
will cover a full year to compare seasons in this the
southernmost limit to the species' distribution.
Temperatures in winter can be as low as -11C,
and of particular interest is the fact that the
howlers are occupying pine forest, Araucaria
angustifolia (predominant in the reserve along
with broad-leaved trees and scrubland), and the
pine needles and cones form an important
component of the howler's diet. The significance of
this study lies not only in terms of the protection of
this threatened species and Brazilian pine forest,
but also, considering its unusual habitat, for
understanding the amplitude of behavioral and
ecological variability characteristic of the genus.


Ana Alice Biedzicki de Marques, Posta Restante,
95200-000 Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.


Waechter, J.L., Cestaro, L.A. and Miotto, S.T.S.
1984. Vegetation types in the Ecological Station
of Aracuri, Esmeralda, Rio Grande do Sul,
Brazil. Phytocoenologia, 12(2/3):261-269.

Page 22

Neotropical Primates ](4), December 1993

Page 23 Neotropical Primates 1(4,), December 1993


Following the publication of the Atlas da Evoluado
dos Remanescentes Florestais da Mata Atldntica
for the states of Rio de Janeiro and Sio Paulo, the
Fundaq~o SOS Mata Atlintica in collaboration
with the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais
(INPE) have recently completed similar analyses
for the states of Espirito Santo, Santa Catarina and
Parana. The results have demonstrated widespread
deforestation during the period 1985 to 1990, and
according to the geographer, Diana Hamburger,
technical coordinator for the Atlas, forecast the
total extinction of Atlantic forest ecosystems in
these states within a little over 50 years if the
present rate of destruction continues unchecked.

According to the Atlas, more forest was destroyed
in Parana during 1985-1990 than in the states of
Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo and Espirito Santo
combined in the same period. An estimated
144,240 ha of forests, which formerly covered 85%
of the state, were destroyed in five years. In 1990,
the total forest cover corresponded to 7.7%
(2,025,092 ha) of Parani, concentrated in the Serra
do Mar (30% of the remaining forest) and the
Iguagq National Park (10% of the remaining
forest). The forests most affected were those in the
interior of the state, most especially the pine
forests, Araucaria, and central plateau regions,
now replaced largely by plantations of soy bean,
wheat, and cotton. An estimated 99,412 ha of
forests were cut down in this five-year period
(1985-1990) in the state of Santa Catarina;
corresponding to 6.1% of the forests remaining in
1985. 81.5% of the state was formerly covered by
Atlantic forest. This was reduced to 16.2%
(1,527,794 ha) by 1990. Particularly affected were
the coastal resting forests. The figures for the
state of Espirito Santo are equally alarming. The
Atlantic forest, which formerly covered 87% of the
state, has been to reduced to an estimated 8.3% in
1990. A total of 19,212 ha of forests, equivalent to
1% of the forest remaining in 1985, were destroyed
during the period 1985-1990, with approximately
402,811 ha remaining.

Convenio SOS Mata Atliintica-INPE, Rua Manoel
da Nobrega 456, 04001-001 Sio Paulo, Sio Paulo,
Brazil. Fax: (001) 885-1680. Visual interpretation
of Landsat TM images, color composition 3B, 4G
and 5R + ground-truthing.


Anonymous. 1993. Remanescentes florestais:
desmatamento e intenso no sul do pais. Jornal
da Mata Atlantica, Boletim Informativo da Rede
de Organizaq5es Ndo Governamentais da Mata
Atlantica, Ano 1(2):5.
Convenio SOS Mata Atlintica-INPE. 1992. Mata
Atldntica, Estado do Paran6. Evolugio dos
Remanescentes Florestais e Ecossistemas
Associados do Dominio da Mala Atldntica.
Periodo: 1985 a 1990. Map. Scale 1:1,700,000.
1st edition. SOS Mata Atlantica, Sio Paulo,
Institute de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPA), Sio Jos6
dos Campos, Brazil.
Convenio SOS Mata Atlantica-INPE. 1992. Mata
Atldntica, Estado de Santa Catarina. Evolug9o
dos Remanescentes Florestais e Ecossistemas
Associados do Dominio da Mata Atldntica.
Periodo: 1985 a 1990. Map. Scale 1:1,400,000.
1st edition. SOS Mata Atlintica, Sao Paulo,
Institute de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPA), Silo Josd
dos Campos, Brazil.
Convenio SOS Mata Atlantica-INPE. Undated.
Mata Atldntica, Estado do Espirito Santo.
Evolu9do dos Remanescentes Florestais da Mata
Atldntica. Periodo: 1985/1990. Map. Scale
1:1,000,000. SOS Mata Atlintica, Sio Paulo,
Institute de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPA), Sio Josd
dos Campos, Brazil.


Cecilia Kierulff, a graduate student of the master's
course in Ecology, Conservation and Wildlife
Management of the Federal University of Minas
Gerais (UFMG), Brazil, recently completed her
thesis on the status and distribution of the golden
lion tamarin, Leontopithecus rosalia. The study
was supervised by Dr Jody R. Stallings (currently
working with CARE International in Ecuador) and
Anthony B.Rylands (UFMG). The study was
begun in April 1990 and field work lasted for 18
months. It was financed by the Brazil Science
Council (CNPq/CAPES), U.S.Fish and Wildlife
Service (USFWS), World Wildlife Fund (WWF),
IESP (Smithsonian Institution) and Conservation
International (CI), and formed part of the activities
of the Smithsonian Institution's Golden Lion
Tamarin Conservation Program, directed by Dr

Neotropical Primates ](4), December 1993

Page 23

Neotropical Primates 1(4), December 1993 Page 24

Devra Kleiman. The following is the abstract of
the thesis:

A survey of lion tamarin, L.rosalia, populations
was carried out throughout its original distribution,
excluding the Poqo das Antas Biological Reserve in
the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Remaining
forests were identified by visual interpretation of
LANDSAT-TM satellite images. Populations of
L.rosalia were located by interviewing local
people, and forests were surveyed using "play-
back" recordings of lion tamarin long calls. A total
of 299,568 ha of forests below 700 m. above sea
level remain within the golden lion tamarin's
geographic range. It was estimated that 53% of
this forested area is comprised of forest patches of
less than 500 ha, and about 17% occur between
500 and 700 m above sea level. The total
population of L.rosalia, including that of the Poqo
das Antas Biological Reserve, was estimated to be
559 individuals in 103 groups. The lion tamarins
are divided into four populations, with a further 12
groups each isolated in forest "islands". The
species' distribution is restricted to just four
municipalities: Silva Jardim, Cabo Frio,
Saquarema, and Araruama. Habitats were
evaluated in each of the regions where lion
tamarins were found to occur. It was concluded
that climate and vegetational differences could be
influencing the species'. distribution, population
densities, and annual reproductive rate. Although
they were originally restricted to lowland forest
below 300 m above sea level, they were also found
in one locality at 550 m. This range expansion
was probably caused by deforestation in nearby
lowland forest. In order to examine its current
conservation status, effective population size was
estimated and extinction simulations were carried
out using a the computer model Vortex. None of
the populations were found to have an effective
size (Ne) sufficient to avoid genetic drift and future
inbreeding effects. According to the model, all the
L.rosalia populations in the wild, excepting that of
PoQo das Antas (which includes neighboring
forest), will go extinct in a few years. The
principal strategies suggested were the effective
protection of more forests, increasing the habitat
quality (carrying capacity) of the areas ,where they
occur, monitoring of habitat components,
controlled exchange of individuals between
isolated populations, translocation of isolated
groups, and the reintroduction of groups to the
larger forests in the lowland region where they
existed originally.


Kierulff, M.C.M. 1993. Avaliaqao das populaq6es
selvagens de mico-leao-dourado, Leontopithecus
rosalia, e proposta de estratdgia para conservacAo
da espdcie. Master's thesis, Institute of
Biological Sciences, Federal University of Minas
Gerais, Belo Horizonte. 172pp.



During 1992 considerable work
was undertaken at the Adelaide
Zoological Gardens, South
,' Australia, to improve conditions
Sand display facilities for both
golden lion tamarins
ADELAIDE (Leontopithecus rosalia) and
QO O cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus
Z O O oedipus). Because of their
threatened status, an education
and conservation campaign was set up featuring
the lion tamarins and using the idea of "A Golden
Coin for a Golden Animal". In brief, thanks to
generous support from the Electricity Trust of
South Australia (ETSA) which paid for the exhibit
improvements, a video was made featuring the
well-known conservationist, the Honorary Director
of the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust (JWPT),
Dr Gerald Durrell. The video is activated by
dropping a $1.00 coin (a golden coin in Australia)
through the slot. Excellent footage of golden lion
tamarins is then displayed, with a message from Dr
Durrell detailing the plight of this beautiful
creature, and encouraging people to assist in its
preservation and conservation. Contributors are
assured that all money raised will be used to
contribute to the revegetation project in the Poco
das Antas Biological Reserve, Rio de Janeiro, and
the reintroduction of captive-born groups of this
"flagship" species in its native habitat, projects
which form part of the Golden Lion Tamarin
Conservation Programme of the. National
Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institution,
Washington, D.C. The funds are being channeled
through the "The Lion Tamarins of Brazil Fund",
an international appeal started by Dr Durrell in
December 1991, and managed by Jeremy
Mallinson, Zoological Director of JWPT, and
Devra Kleiman of the National Zoological Park,
Washington, D.C. Adelaide Zoo's particular
campaign for golden lion tamarins has been able to

Neotropical Primates ](4), December 1993

Page 24

Page 2S Neotropical Primates 1(4), December 1993

guarantee the funding for a field assistant for three
years, and the first allocation of money was
forwarded in early 1993.

The publicity surrounding the golden lion tamarin
did not stop with this particular project, but
continued, using some very provocative posters, to
try to boost membership of the Royal Zoological
Society of South Australia Inc., and to encourage
people to become involved with conservation. The
posters and full page advertisements in the local
newspapers, once again sponsored by ETSA, were
certainly very eye-catching and effective and raised
the profile of the Adelaide Zoo considerably.

Adelaide Zoo now has two open-air, mixed
exhibits containing golden lion tamarins. The first
in association with scarlet macaws, jandaya
conures, and razor-billed curassows, and the
second in association with nanday conures and
razor-billed curassows. Both exhibits have proved
to be very popular with the public, and have
inspired us to continue our efforts to increase the
number of mixed exhibits. As an aside, we first
attempted a mixed exhibit of this sort with cotton-
top tamarins in association with scarlet macaws
and the other species mentioned above. The
tamarins, however, "ganged-up" on the macaws,
and almost caused the death of one, and thus had
to be removed and replaced with the less
aggressive lion tamarins.

Ed J. McAlister, Director and Chief Executive,
Adelaide Zoological Gardens, Frome Road,
Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia, and
David J. Langdon, Acting Director, Monarto
Zoological Park, Princes Highway, Monarto South,
South Australia 5254, Australia.


The International Committee for the Preservation
and Management of the Black Lion Tamarin,
Leontopithecus chrvsopygus, chaired by Faiqal
Simon (Fundaqco Parque Zool6gico de Sao Paulo)
and Devra Kleiman (National Zoological Park,
Washington, D.C.), recently published the fourth
studbook for the captive population, covering the
period January 1, 1991 to December 31, 1992. The
studbook keeper is Claudio Pidua (Instituto de
Pesquisas Ecol6gicas, Piracicaba). Three
institutions now hold this species: the Jersey

Wildlife Preservation Trust (JWPT), the Rio de
Janeiro Primate Center (CPRJ/FEEMA), and the
Sao Paulo Zoo. The captive population, begun in
1973 by Adelmar F.Coimbra-Filho of the Rio de
Janeiro Primate Center with seven individuals
obtained from the Morro do Diabo State Park, Sio
Paulo, increased by 6% in 1991 and 11% in 1992,
and on December 31, 1992 totalled 81 animals
(42.33.6), with 18 founders, 13 of which are still
alive. The studbook is available from Faigal

Faiial Simon, Fundaqao Parque Zool6gico de Sao
Paulo, Rua Miguel Stefano 4241, 04301-905 Sao
Paulo, SP, Brazil, and Devra G. Kleiman,
National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institution,
Washington, D.C. 20008-2958, USA.


PAdua, C.V. 1993. 1992 International Studbook for
the Black Lion Tamarin, Leontopithecus
chrysopygus. Fundaqao Parque Zool6gico de Sao
Paulo, Sio Paulo. 28pp.


The 1992 International Studbook for the captive
populations of Leontopithecus rosalia, published in
August 1993 by the Smithsonian Institution,
Washington, D.C., provides a list of all specimens,
by holding and owning institutions and by
studbook number, alive on 31 December 1992,
along with summaries of births, 'deaths, and
ownership and location changes during 1992. The
captive population on 31 December 1992 was 524
in 125 institutions, arising from 43 founders, eight
of which were alive on that date. The 1992
Studbook also includes information on animal
identities and locations, sex, parentage, ownership,
and genetic relationships. In addition, data are
presented on juvenile's parental care experience,
proven breeders, hand rearing, and evidence for
diaphragmatic hernias or other medical conditions.
Information (unpublished) concerning causes of
death is maintained by the studbook keeper. A
comprehensive listing will be published only in
1994, and subsequently at five-year intervals. A
complete historical chronology of the captive
population, listing all events through 1989, is
contained in the 1989 International Studbook. A
Husbandry Protocol for Golden Lion Tamarins
(English and Portuguese) and a Lion Tamarin

Neotropical Primates ](4), December 1993

Page 25

Neotropical Primates 1(4,), December 1993 Page 26

Bibliography are available on request from the
Studbook Keeper.

Jonathan D.Ballou, Golden Lion Tamarin
International Studbook Keeper, Department of
Zoological Research, National Zoological Park,
Washington, D.C. 20008-2958, USA. Fax: 202-


Ballou, J.D. 1993. 1992 International Studbook
Golden Lion Tamarin Leontopithecus rosalia.
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
August 1, 1993.


The September 1993 issue of Neotropical Primates
reported on the activities of the Australasian
Species Management Plan (pp.3-5). Mandy Howie
of the Orana Park Wildlife Trust, New Zealand,
listed as the regional studbook keeper for Ateles
geoffroyi vellerosus, has retired, and records for all
Ateles geoffroyi held in the Australasian region are
now being kept by Steven Wilson, Royal
Melbourne Zoological Gardens, P.O.Box 74,
Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia.



Color postcards, two with remarkable photographs
of the white uacari (Cacajao c. calvus) by Luiz
Claudio Marigo, are being sold
to support the Mamiraua
Project a multidisciplinary
research and management F5Tr.1,D EC(OU
program for the Mamiraui
State Ecological Station. The
large cards (20 x 15 cm) cost
US$1.00 and the smaller cards -
US$0.50 each. Payment can be
made in Brazilian currency
(CR$).. Orders may be placed
with Aline P.Da Rin Azevedo. I
Primatam, Departamento de
Zoologia, Museu Paraense
Emilio Goeldi,. Caixa Postal
399, 66000 Beldm, Pari. I


El Centro Argentino de Primates (CAPRIM) ofrece
pasantias en su sede de Corrientes para realizar los
siguientes trabajos originales. 1) Evaluaci6n
poblacional de monos aulladores (Alouatta
caraya): demografia y ambiente. 2) Perfil sanitario
y zoon6tico de publicaciones silvestres de monos
aulladores, Alouatta caraya. Las poblaciones de
monos aulladores sufren oscilaciones debido a
epidemias de divers origen y a cambios
climatol6gicos e inundaciones peri6dicas que
afectan la disponibilidad de alimentos. El objetivo
de este studio es evaluar el impact de
modificaciones ambientales en poblaciones
estudiadas por casi una d6cada y hacer un studio
intensive del estado sanitario y potencialidad
zoon6tica de esta especie en islas del rio Parani y
en montes en tierra fire sobre el rio Riachuelo
(Corrientes). Estos trabajos se realizaran los meses
de febrero y marzo de 1994. Con el auspicio del
Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales
"Bernardino Rivadavia" y de la Sociedad
Argentina de Primatologia. Lugar de trabajo:
Centro Argentino de Primates (San Cayetano,
Corrientes) y zonas aledafias. Alojamiento:
Gratuito. No se incluyen gastos de viaje,
alimentaci6n ni cobertura mrdica. No se abona
ningun salario ni viAtico. Requisitos: Graduado con
menos de 2 afios de recibido o alumno avanzado;
carta de presentaci6n de un professor de la facultad
en la que estudi6; curriculum vitae y certificado de
notas; conocimiento de ingl6s. Inscripci6n e
informes: Julio C.Ruiz, Director, Centro Argentino
de Primates, Casilla de Correo 145, 3400
Corrientes, Argentina. Tel. y Fax: 54 783 27790,

Neotropical Primates 1(4), December 1993

Page 26

Neotropical Primates 1(4), December 1993



El BPL fue publicado inicialmente en 1989 como
una continuaci6n del Boletin Primatol6gico
Argentino (BPA), con el objetivo de difundir
trabajos que cubran aspects de la primatologia en
el neotr6pico. Los temas aceptados incluyen
articulos originales, comunicaciones y revisiones.
Hasta el present han contribuido al BPA y BPL
investigadores de diferentes paises de
Latinoamdrica, Estados Unidos y Espafia.
Actualmente esta publicaci6n intent ademis
publicar tesis doctorales y monografias, trabajos
que por extension no son aceptados en otras
revistas y que contienen, valiosa informaci6n,
muchas veces publicada en forma fragmentaria en
articulos cortos. Los idiomas aceptados por el BPL
son el castellano, portuguds, ingl6s y francs. Para
mayor informaci6n dirigirse a: Dr Gabriel Zunino,
Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, Div.
Mastozoologia, Av. Angel Gallardo 470, 1405
Buenos Aires, Argentina.


The journal of the Fauna and Flora Preservation
Society, Oryx, will be emphasizing the theme
"Sustainable Use of Wildlife" in their 1994 issues,
publishing case histories, comments, and analyses
on the topic. Other papers will also be published,
but the Editorial Board felt it timely and important
to give this matter more detailed coverage. Oryx
is published quarterly by Blackwell Scientific
Publications. Submitted manuscripts are peer
reviewed. The editor is Dr Jacqui Morris, Fauna
and Flora Preservation Society, 1 Kensington Gore,
London SW7 2AR, England, UK.


Wildtrak is an integrated package of non-
parametric home range analyses for use with radio-
tracking or other locational data. It is a flexible
and user-friendly application, employing all the
usual Macintosh features. Text format data files
with any number of fields and up to 5000 fixes may
be used. Analyses include: variable speed
animation of animal movements over the study
area; autocorrelation calculation of Schoener's
index; analysis of spatial drift of home range over

time; determination of significant deviations from
expected spatio-temporal separations for
simultaneously tracked individuals; grid cell
analysis area and density of use plots; calculates
minimum distance moved and speed of
movements; calculates and plots minimum convex
polygons, peeled polygons and restricted polygons;
static interaction measures spatial overlap
between pairs of ranges and calculates Spearman's
rank correlation coefficient. The package also
includes a utility for conversion of bearing station
data to coordinates. Results may be saved to text
files or printed on any standard primter. Price
70.0 (+ VAT in the UK) + postage and packing.
For further information: Dr Ian Todd, Department
of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks
Road, Oxford OXI 3PS, UK.


The NYCEP is a graduate training program in all
aspects of the behavioral and evolutionary biology
of primates, by the Research Training Grant. This
program brings together a diverse faculty of 26
scientists from five universities and research/public
education institutions in New York city: City
University of New York, Columbia University,
New York University, The American Museum of
Natural History, and the Wildlife Conservation
Society (Bronx Zoo). NYCEP faculty research
focuses on nonhuman (and human) primates from
the perspectives of comparative morphology,
paleontology and systematics, molecular and
population genetics, behavior and ecology, and
conservation biology. Full tuition is provided
along with a stipend of US$12,000 annually for 4-5
years. Minority students and women are especially
encouraged to apply to NYCEP, and special
funding support may be available to them.
Application is made jointly to NYCEP and to one
or more cooperating universities by early January.
Application forms and detailed information about
all three universities and the NYCEP program may
be obtained from Dr Eric Delson, Director of
NYCEP, Department of Vertebrate Paleontology,
The American Museum of Natural History, New
York NY 10024, USA. Tel: (212) 769-5992, Fax:
(212) 769-5842.


Page 27

Neotropical Primates 1(4), December 1993 Page 28


In Colombia, Sra. Martha Rojas
Urrego, Directora Parques
Nacionales, INDERENA, \ t
Carrera 10, No.20-30, piso 8,
Apartado Aereo 13458, Santa Fe
de Bogota D.C., has been i '
appointed the national
coordinator for the Red
Latinoamericana de Cooperaci6on
T6cnica en Parques Nacionales,
otras Areas Protegidas, Flora y
Fauna Silvestres and the Subred OUR FUTUR
de Planificaci6n y Manejo de
Areas Protegidas en la Regi6n Amaz6nica. In
Honduras, Sr. Jose A.Reyes Chirinos, Jefe
Departamento de Areas Protegidas y Vida
Silvestre, Corporaci6n Hondurefna de Desarrollo
Forestal, Apartado Postal 1378, Tegucigalpa D.C.
was appointed national coordinator. Likewise, Ing.
Antonio Moizaka Taura, Director General de
Areas Naturales, Protegidas y Fauna Silvestre,
Institute Nacional de Recursos Naturales, Calle
Diecisiete No.355, Urb., El Palomar, Apartado
Postal 4452, San Isidoro, Lima, has been appointed
national coordinator for Peru. For further
information: Kyran D.Thelen, Oficial Regional
Forestal, Oficina Regional de la FAO para
America Latina y el Caribe, Casilla 10095,
Santiago, Chile, Tel: (56 2) 2185323, Fax: (56 2)


The German Primate Society
(Gessellschaft fur Primatologie GIP)
and the Primate Society of Great
Britain (PSGB) are selling sets of four
attractive postcards featuring primate
stamps. GfP is selling sets for
DM5.00 (approx.US$3.20). The price
is reduced to DM4.00 per set for
orders of 25 or more sets. Orders
must be prepaid in cash or by cheque
in DM payable to "Gessellschaft fir
Primatologie". All income from
German sales will be used exclusively
for primate conservation projects.
Likewise PSGB is selling the cards
for 40p each, in addition to T-shirts (

7 + 1 p&p, yellow, green and
a, blue) and sweatshirts ( 12 + 1
..0 p&p, cream, pink, blue, green,
yellow, and brown), with the
design "Our future is your
future", in sizes small, medium,
.large and X-large. Checks to
"Primate Society of Great
Britain". Return from sales is
also set aside for primate
) s conservation projects. Contact:
Dr Eckhard W. Heymann,
.I Gesellschaft fuir Primatologie,
Kellnerweg 4, 37077 G6ttingen.
Germany, or Dr Miranda
OUR FUTURE Stevenson, PSGB, Edinburgh
Zoo, Murrayfield, Edinburgh
EH12 6TS, Scotland, UK.


The Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust (JWPT) will
be holding its Summer School on "Breeding and
Conservation of Endangered Species", from 30 July
to 20 August, 1994. The course is designed for
students, zoo and veterinary staff, and others with
an interest in conservation and/or captive animals.
It offers: an overview of how JWPT and other
organizations have integrated captive and wild
conservation, and what the future strategy should
be; lectures, given by visiting professionals and
staff, which are a mixture of fundamentals and
provocative appraisals encouraging the formulation
of views on the conservation role of zoos, based on
an understanding of the issues involved; individual
projects which provide an opportunity for first-

2rJ~ LMI~I~dR'LI4


]Veotropical Primates 1(4), Deceinher 1993

Page 28

Neotropical Primates 1(4), December 1993

hand experience of research and data analysis;
practical instruction/workshop sessions with
demonstrations of systematic data collection, based
on appropriate experimental design, and showing
how to analyse the information obtained; other
demonstration sessions in which zoo staff and
invited experts explain some of the practicalities of
captive and field management. Course directors:
Trust Training Officer, Dr John E.Fa, and two
internationally recognized scientists. Course tutor:
Dr Anna T.C.Feistner, Trust Research Officer.
Course coordinator Chris Clark, Assistant Training
Officer at the Trust. Fee per person is 850,
including expenses, accommodation and meals.
Participation limited to 24 students. Closing date
for application: 31 January 1994. Early application
essential. Contact: Summer School Coordinator,
Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, Trinity, Jersey
JE3 5BF, Channel Islands, British Isles.


The Regional Wildlife
Management Program
for Mesoamerica and
the Caribbean, of the
Universidad Nacional,
Costa Rica, has two
positions available for
Visiting Professors.
Candidates should
have a Master's or

Doctorate degree, preferably in Wildlife
Management, be fluent in Spanish, and have field
experience in the Neotropics. Previous teaching
and university outreach experience is desirable.
Latin Americans are particularly encouraged to
apply. Fields of experience/specialization:
wildlands management, environmental assessment,
natural resources economics, and biometry.
Contact: Director, PRMVS, UNA, Apdo.1350-
3000, Heredia, Costa Rica, Fax: (506) 37-7036,
email: prmvs@huracan.cr.


The Department of Biological Anthropology and
Anatomy of Duke University, Durham, North
Carolina, is offering several one to three-year
teaching/research positions as Visiting Assistant
Professors in.the following areas: Primate behavior

and sociecology; Primate morphology; Primate or
human evolution; and Medical gross anatomy.
Qualifications: Ph.D or anticipated award of a
Ph.D. within two months of appointment. Salary:
competitive and commensurate with qualifications.
Starting date: September 1994. Deadline for
applications: 15 February, 1994. Applications
require a letter of application, current CV, and at
least three letters of reference to: Richard F.Kay
PhD, Professor and Chairman, Department of
Biological Anthropology and Anatomy, Box 3170,
Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC
27710, USA.

Primate Societies


SMaria Emilia Yamamoto
(President of the Society,
1989-1990) and Maria
Bernadete Cordeiro da
Sousa of the Department
of Physiology, Federal
University of Rio Grande
do Norte (UFRN), have
edited and published the proceedings of the V
Brazilian Primatological Congress, held at the
Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Bahia, 24th
February to 1st March 1991 (see "Recent
Publications"). The book, the fourth in the series
Primatologia no Brasil, has 22 articles in four
sections: Ecology and behaviour; Conservation;
Physiology and pathology; and Methods and
techniques. For the first time in the series the
manuscripts were reviewed by anonymous referees.
The publication was financed through a grant from
the National Environment Fund (FNMA) in
collaboration with the Research Foundation of the
Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte
(FUNPEC), Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, and
printed by the University Press.


The American Society of Primatologists (ASP)
have recently published their 1994 Directory,
which includes the names, addresses and
specialization of all members, and also the

Page 29

Neotropical Primates 1(4), December 1993

Constitution and Bylaws of the Society. The ASP
are responsible for the publication of the American
Journal of Primatology, and besides organizing
annual meetings, publish a newsletter the ASP
Bulletin. The President of the Society is Dr
Richard Rawlins, Rush-Presbyterian-St Luke's
Medical Center, Chicago. Information about
membership can be requested from Dr Margaret
Clarke, Executive Secretary ASP, Delta Regional
Primate Research Center, Tulane University, Three
Rivers Road, Covington, LA 70433, USA.
Address changes of members, and subscriptions,
should be sent to the ASP Treasurer, Dr Jeffrey
French, Department of Psychology, University of
Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE 68182, USA.


The Board of Directors of the American Society of
Primatologists (ASP) approved the following
resolution concerning primate conservation on the
9 September 1993. It was reported in the ASP
Bulletin 17(3), September 1993.

WHEREAS, many wild populations of nonhuman
primates are declining due to habitat loss
associated with increasing demands for agricultural
land and forest products; and
WHEREAS, eradication of primates as agricultural
pests and hunting of primates for food are also
contributing to the decline of wild primate
populations; and
WHEREAS, careless capture of nonhuman
primates can threaten the viability of natural
populations and result in unnecessary suffering,
mortality, and wastage; and
WHEREAS, the United States is the world's largest
importer of nonhuman primates for scientific use
and is a Party to the Convention on International
Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and
Fauna (CITES); and
WHEREAS, the scientific study of nonhuman
primates contributes to advances in human and
veterinary medicine and yields information that is
essential to the conservation of wild primate
populations; and
WHEREAS, all primate species are listed in
Appendix I or Appendix II of the Convention and
the Convention recognizes that trade in species
threatened with extinction should be regulated: and

Page 30

WHEREAS, many of the primate species most
often involved in scientific research and testing in
the United States are available from sources other
than wild populations within the natural ranges of
these species,
The American Society of Primatologists resolves:
To encourage actions that provide for appropriate
scientific access to nonhuman primates while
ensuring that importation of primates into the
United States does not contribute to the decline of
natural primate populations;
To support limitation of importation of nonhuman
primates to those that are humanely obtained
through purpose breeding or, when necessary
captured in accordance with good wildlife
management practices;
To recognize that the availability of purpose-bred
primates can never fully replace the need for
scientific access to the full range of primates from
wild populations and that prediction of which
primate populations may yield critically important
information is not possible;
To respect the rights of primate habitat countries to
decide for themselves, within the terms of the
Convention (to which all are Parties), whether or
not to make nonhuman primates available for
To seek means of promoting the health and well-
being of primates during all phases of trade from
capture through quarantine; and
To recognize the continuing need for objective and
reliable population data on wild primate

The Resolution does not imply endorsement by the
American Society of Primatologists of any specific
legislation or other activity, and may not be
represented by anyone as such an endorsement.

Recent Publications

A Primatologia no Brasil 4, edited by Maria
Emilia Yamamoto and Maria Bernadete C. de
Sousa, 1993, 327pp. Editora Universitaria,
Universidade Federal Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil.
Price: US$15.00 (or equivalent in Cruzeiros Reais).
Cheques made payable to: Associaco
Norteriograndense de Amparo A Psicobiologia
(ANAP). This fourth volume of the series produced
by the Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia
(SBPr), publishes the proceedings of the V
Brazilian Primate Congress, held at the Federal

Page 31 Neotropical Primates 1(4,), December 1993

University of Bahia, Salvador, 24 February to 1
March 1991. The book is divided into four
sections. Section I: Ecology and Behaviour.
Reagao a intrusos da mesma espdcie em Callithrix
jacchus: influencia do status social (A.Arafijo and
M.E.Yamamoto); PadrAo de atiividades diArias do
bugio-preto Alouatta caraya (Primates, Cebidae):
uma anAlise temporal e bioenerg6tica (J.C.Bicca-
Marques); Reprodug~o de Alouatta caraya
Humboldt, 1812 (Primates, Cebidae) (C.Calegairo-
Marques and J.C.Bicca-Marques); Evidencias
sobre a adaptagao de primatas neotropicais As Areas
de mangue com 8nfase no macaco-prego Cebus
apella apella (M.E.B.Fernandes and N.O.Aguiar);
Variagqo circadiana no padrio de distribuicgo do
"autogrooming" e do "allogrooming"em um casal
do sagiii comum (Callithrix jacchus) (M.T.Mota,
M.B.C.de Sousa and M.de F.Campos); Ausencia de
efeitos depressivos decorrentes de isolamento
parcial ou total do filhote do saguii comum
(Callithrix jacchus) (N.G.da Silva, C.Ades and
M.E.Yamamoto); Influencia dos irmAos mais
velhos sobre o comportamento de amamentar da
femea do sagiii comum (Callithrix jacchus) (M.de
F.F.M.Ximenes and M.B.C.de Sousa). Section II:
Conservation. Conservaqao do sagiii-da-serra
(Callithrixflaviceps): o papel de matas particulares
(V.H.Diego, S.Ferrari and F.D.C.Mendes);
Distribuicgo geogrAfica e estado de conservacgo de
Callithrix flaviceps (Primates, Callitrichidae)
(S.L.Mendes); A situag~o dos cebideos como
indicador do estado de conservaq~o da mata
Atlintica no estado do Paraiba, Brasil (M.M.de
Oliveira and J.C.C.Oliveira); Notas sobre o mico-
leAo-de-cara-preta, Leontopithecus caissara Lorini
and Persson, 1990, no sul do Brasil (Primates,
Callitrichidae) (V.G.Persson and M.L.Lorini);
Primatas do Rio Grande do Sul: ocorrencia em
unidades de conservagcio (J.C.Prates et al.).
Section III: Physiology and Pathology.
Spontaneous diabetes mellitus in Leontopithecus
chrysomelas (Kuhl, 1820) and Leontopithecus
chrysopygus (Mikan, 1823) Callitrichidae,
Primates (J.B.da Cruz, A.Pissinatti and M.D.do
Nascimento); Histoplasmosis in Callithrix
geoffroyi, Humboldt, 1812 (Callitrichidae,
Primates) (J.B.da Cruz et al.); Early embryo
development and implantation in the marmoset
monkey, Callithrixjacchus: studies in reproductive
medicine and conservation (J.P.Hearn and
G.E.Webley); Hematological profiles of Callithrix
geoffroyi (Humboldt, 1812), Callithrix kuhli
(Wied, 1826), and Callithrix aurita (Geoffroy,
1812) (Callitrichidae Primates) (M.D.do
Nascimento et al.); Primatas platirrinos e

leishmanioses da Regiao Neotropical Americana
(L.H.Pereira et al.); Primatas platirrinos como
models experimentais da doenga de Chagas:
infeccqo natural e experimental pelo Trypanosoma
cruzi (L.H.Pereira et al.); Primatas platirrinos:
malAria simiana natural e estudos experimentais de
malaria humana (L.H.Pereira et al.); Primatas nao
humans da Regiio Neotropical como models
experimentais das esquistossomoses humans
(L.H.Pereira et al.). Section IV: Methods and
Techniques. Criaqao artificial e adogqo no sagiii
comum (Callithrix jacchus): um estudo de caso
(V.Boere and R.da L.Fernandez); M6todos e
estratdgias informais na primatologia de campo
(F.D.C.Mendes). Available from: Maria Bernadete
C.de Sousa, Setor de Psicobiologia, Caixa Postal
1511, 59072-970 Natal, Rio Grande do Norte,

Distance Sampling: Estimating Abundance
of Biological Populations, by S.T.Buckland,
D.R.Anderson, K.P.Burnham, and J.L.Laake,
1993, 464pp. Chapman and Hall Ltd., Andover,
UK. Proce Hdbk 40.00, Pbk 19.95. An
extremely important reference for population
survey methods for primates. Contents:
Introductory concepts. Assumptions and modelling
philosophy. Statistical theory. Line transects. Point
transects. Extensions and related work. Study
design and field methods. Illustrative examples.
Information: Direct Response Supervisor,
Chapman and Hall Ltd., Cheriton House, North
Way, Andover, Hants SPI0 5BE, England.

GIS Applications in Mammalogy, edited by
Suzanne B.McLaren and Janet K.Braun, 1993,
41pp. Oklahoma Museum of Natural History,
Norman, Oklahoma. Includes the following
chapters: Introduction S.B.McLaren and
J.M.Briggs; The application of GIS to
mammalogy: basic concepts J.K.Berry; GIS in
mammalogy: building a database P.V.August;
Ecological analyses using geographic information
systems L.B.Johnson; Glossary P.V.August,
J.M.Briggs, L.B.Johnson and S.B.Mclaren.
Available from: Oklahoma Museum of Natural
History, 1335 Asp Avenue, Norman, Oklahoma
73019, USA.

Biodiversity Prospecting: Using Genetic
Resources for Sustainable Development,
edited by W.V.Reid, S.A.Laird, C.A.Meyer,
R.Gamez, A.Sittenfield, D.H.Janzen, M.A.Gollin,
and C.Juma, 1993, 342pp. World Resources

Neotropical Primates ](4), December 1993

Page 31

Neotropical Primates 1(4), December 1993

Institute (WRI), USA, Instituto Nacional de
Biodiversidad (INBio), Costa Rica, Rainforest
Alliance, USA, and the African Centre for
Technology Studies (ACTS), Kenya. Seven
chapters and four annexes as follows: A new lease
on life W.V.Reid et al.; Costa Rica's conservation
program and National Biodiversity Institute
(INBio) R.Gamez et al.; Biodiversity prospecting
by INBio A.Sittenfield and R.Gamez; Contracts
for biodiversity prospecting S.A.Laird; Research
management policies: permits for collecting and
research in the tropics D.H.Janzen et al.; An
intellectual property rights framework for
biodiversity prospecting M.A.Gollin; Policy
options for scientific and technological capacity-
building C.Juma; and annexes 1) The role of
parataxonomists, inventory managers, and
taxonomists in Costa Rica's National Biodiversity
Inventory D.H.Janzen et al.; 2) Biodiversity
prospecting contract D.Downes; 3) The
Convention on Biological Diversity and intellectual
property rights M.A.Gollin; 4) The United
Nations Convention on Biological Diversity
(transcript). Contact: WRI Publications, P.O.Box
4852, Hampden Station, Baltimore, MD 21211,

Banco de Dados da Mata Atldntica,
No.1/1993, edited by the Fundaq~o SOS Mata
Atlintica, 1993, 369pp. Fundacqo SOS Mata
Atlantica, Sao Paulo, in collaboration with the
John T. and Catherine D.MacArthur Foundation
and the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF). An
extremely useful indexed bibliography on
conservation and sustainable use of resources in the
Atlantic forest of Brazil. Contact: JoAo Paulo
Ribeiro Capobianco, Superintendente, Fundaqio
SOS Mata Atlntica, Rua Manoel da Nobrega 456,
Paraiso, Sio Paulo, 04001-001 Saio Paulo, Brazil.
Tel:(011) 887-1195, Fax: (011) 885-1680.

Parques y Progreso: Areas Protegidas y
Desarrollo Economico en Amdrica Latina
y el Caribe, editado por V.Barzetti, 1993, 258pp.
Uni6n Mundial para la Naturaleza (UICN) y Banco
Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID), Washington,
D.C. Este libro se basa en los escritos presentados
en el IV Congreso Mundial de Parques, y en los
trabajos realizados por los miembros y socios de
UICN de la region Latinoamericana y del Caribe.
Informaci6n: Susan Stearns, World Conservation
Union (IUCN), Washington Office, 1400 16th
Street, NW, Washington D.C, 20036, USA. Fax:
(202) 797-5461.

Page 32

Guide to Biological Field Stations:
Directory of Members, edited by the
Organization of Biological Field Stations,
Washington University, Eureka. Price US$10.
Provides information on 150 biological stations
throughout North America, Central America,
Mexico, and the Caribbean. Included are maps
and a brief outline of what each station offers
within eight regional overviews, as well as the
location, environmental facilities, and ongoing
research and educational programs for each
station. Contact: Richard C.Coles, Secretary-
Treasurer, Organization of Biological Field
Stations, Tyson Research Center, Washington
University, P.O.Box 258, Eureka, Missouri 63025,
USA. Tel: (314) 935-8430.

Amazonia Peruana: Vegetaci6n Tropical
en el Llano Subandino, edited by Risto
Kalliola, Maarit Puhakka and Walter Danjoy,
Proyecto Amazonia, Oficina Nacional de
Evaluaci6n de Recursos Naturales, University of
Turku, Finland, 1993. ISBN 952-90-4387-2. Price
US$20.00 + postage (US$3.00 for Nordic
countries, US$4.00 for Europe, US$5.00 for other
countries: cheques made payable to "Turku
University Library"). In Spanish. This book
presents a synthesis of the current knowledge
concerning geological and ecological aspects of the
Peruvian Amazonian lowland forest in the region
occupied by humid tropical vegetation in the
subandine llanos. The book is divided into five
parts. The first describes Peruvian Amazonian
landscapes, with overviews of the geography of
Peruvian lowland forest (R.Kalliola and
M.Puhakka), the history of scientific exploration of
the area (J. Salo), and a discussion of the role of the
Oficina Nacional de Evaluaci6n de Recursos
Naturales in Amazonian development (W.Danjoy).
Part 2 discusses the geohistory and geology of the
Peruvian Amazon (M.RAsanen), the geology of the
Pebas formation in northeastern Peruvian Amazon
(C.Hoorn), and sedimentation processes in the
lowland forests (A.Linna). Part 3 examines the
vegetation, including chapters on vegetation
classification (H.Tuomisto), inundated forest
(M.Puhakka and R.Kalliola), terra fire forest
(K.Ruokolainen and H.Tuomisto), patterns of
floristic composition (A.H.Gentry and R.Ortiz),
and succession (M.Puhakka et al.). Part 4 provides
an explanation of a geoecological map of the
Peruvian lowland forest (M.Riisanen), and the last
section discusses future prospects, including forest

Page 33 Neotropical Primates 1(4), December 1993

management (J.Torres VAsquez) and conservation
and scientific research (J.Salo and R.Kalliola).
Contact: Turku University Library, SF-20500
Turku, Finland. Tel: 358-21-6336170, Fax: 358-



COMMISSION, 15-17 January 1994, Buenos Aires,
Argentina. Organizers: World Conservation Union
(IUCN). Contact: Coordinadora logistica de la
Asemblea General, IUCN, Rue Mauvernay 28, CH-
1196 Gland, Switzerland. Tel: 41 22 999 0001,
Fax: 41 22 999 0020.

18-26 January 1994, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Organizers: World Conservation Union (IUCN).
Contact: Coordinadora logistica de la Asemblea
General, IUCN, Rue Mauvernay 28, CH-1196
Gland, Switzerland. Tel: 41 22 999 0001, Fax: 41
22 999 0020.

Society of Great Britain, Spring Meeting, 8 April
1994, Cambridge, UK. Information: Marta Lahr &
Kate Robson-Brown, Departament of Biological
Anthropology, University of Cambridge, Downing
Street, Cambridge CB2 3DZ, UK. Fax: 0223-

CALLITRICHIDAE, I May 1994, New World
Primate Taxon Advisory Group (TAG), American
Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums
(AAZPA), Hershey, Pennsylvania. This meeting
will precede the 1994 Northeastern Regional
AAZPA meeting. The one-day symposium will
focus on topics of husbandry, nutrition, behavior,
reproduction, and field research. Poster, video,
and oral presentations are invited. Deadline for
submission of abstracts is 15 February 1994.
Registration fee: US$25.00. For more information
contact: Andrew J.Baker or Beth Bahner,
Philadelphia Zoo, 3400 W.Girard Avenue,
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. Tel:
(215) 243-1100, Fax: (215) 243-0219.

PRIMATOLOGISTS (APS), ABS 23-28 July 1994,
ASP 27-30 July 1994, Regional Primate Research
Center, University of Washington, Seattle. Contact:
.EDU), Primate Center SJ-50, University of
Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. Tel: (206)

29 de julho de 1994, Universidade Federal do Rio
de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro. A temitica a ser
abordada estA baseada na questio: "Os Rumos da
Zoologia". Neste context serAo abordados os
aspects referentes a Sistemitica, pesquisa basica e
aplicada, filosofia e hist6ria de zoologia, coleq6es,
publicag6es e a 6tica na zoologia. As political
referentes As legislagqes ambientais, Areas de
protegqo e esp6cies ameaqadas de extinq~o, tergo
espagos em mesas redondas e/ou confer&ncias. 0
Comit8 Organizador aguarda sugest6es de todos os
zo6logos no desenvolvimento de outros subtemas
que poderao ser encaminhados at6 30 outubro de
1993. Envio de resumes atd 30 de novembro de
1993. Informaq6es: Secretaria do XX CBZ,
Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal
do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundlo, 21949-900 Rio
de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Tel: (021) 280-
7993, 590-9522 r.343 ou 340, Fax: (021) 280-

24-29 de julho de 1994, Universidade Federal do
Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro. Sera realizado como
parte das atividades do XX Congresso Brasileiro de
Zoologia. Programagio: Horicio Schneider/
Stephen F.Ferrari, Departamento de Gendtica,
Universidade Federal do Park, Caixa Postal 8607,
66075-150 Belm, Pari, Brasil. Fax: (091) 229-
9785. Outras informaq6es: Secretaria do XX CBZ,
Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal
do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, 21949-900 Rio
de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Veja "Primate

MORPHOLOGY, 31 July-4 August 1994, Chicago.
Contact: Dr Susan Herring, Chair, ICVM
Organizing Committee, Department of
Orthodontics SM-46, University of Washington,
Seattle, Washington 98195, USA, Tel: (206) 543-
3203, Fax: (206) 685-8163.

Areotropical Primates ](4), December 1993

Page 33

Neotropical Primates 1541, December 1993 Page 34

Bali, Indonesia. Organizers: Directorate General of
Forest Protection and Nature Conservation
(PHPA), the Indonesian Wildlife Society (IWS)
and the International Primatological Society (IPS).
Contacts: Secretariat, 15th IPS Congress, PT, Bayu
Buana Travel Service Ltd., Wisma Bank Dharmala
19th Fl, Jend.Sudirman Kav. 28, Jakarta 12910,
Indonesia, or Dr Linda Prasetyo, c/o Perth Zoo, 20
Labouchere Road, Western Australia 6151,
Australia, Tel: 09 368-1916, Fax: 09 367-3921, or
Dr Soegardjito WWF/US Asia-Pacific Program,
1250 Twenty-fourth Street, N.W., Washington,
D.C. 20037, USA, Tel: (202) 861-8300, Fax: (202)

CONGRESS, 14-20 August 1994, University of
Nottingham, England. Contact: ISBE 1994,
Conference Nottingham, The Business Information
Centre, 309 Haydn Road, Nottingham NG5 1DG,

August 1994, University of Manchester, England.
Thematic symposia include: Learning from the
Past (org. A.G.Hildrew, R.M.May); Predicting
Outside our Experience (org. J.Grace, R.M.May);
Managing Change and Uncertainty (org.
M.V.Angel, P.J.Grubb). Symposia together with
related poster sessions will be organized around the
following titles: General Ecology; Applied
Ecology; Geographical Regions and Ecosystems;
Ecological Affairs. Deadline for abstracts: 15
September 1993. Registration deadline: 1 May
1994. Contact: The Secretary, VI International
Congress of Ecology, The Manchester Conference
Centre, U.M.I.S.T., P.O.Box 88, Manchester M60
1QD, England.

3-7 October 1994, Niter6i, Brazil. Contact:
Roberto Pereira da Cunha, INPE, Caixa Postal
12201, Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

AND CONSERVATION, 10-13 November 1994,
Marie Selby Botanical Gardens, Sarasota, Florida,
USA. Contact: Dr Meg Lowman, Director of
Research, Selby Botanical Gardens, 811 South
Palm Avenue, Sarasota, Florida 34236, USA.

December 1994, Londrina State University,
Parana, Brazil. Contact: Dr Nd1io Roberto dos
Reis, Coordenador Cientifico do II CBE,
Departamento de Biologia Animal e Vegetal,
Centro de Ciencias Biol6gicas, Campus
UniversitArio, Universidade Estadual de Londrina,
Caixa Postal 6001, Londrina 86051, Parani,
Brazil, Tel: (0432) 21-2000, Fax: (0432) 27-6932.


We would be most grateful if you could send us
information on projects, research groups, events
(congresses, symposia, and workshops), recent
publications, activities of primatological societies
and NGOs, news items or opinions of recent events
and suchlike, either in the form of manuscripts
(double-spaced) or in diskettes for PC compatible
text-editors (MS-Word, Wordperfect, Wordstar).
Articles, not exceeding six pages, can include
small black-and-white photographs. figures, maps,
tables and references, but please keep them to a

Please send contributions to the editors: Anthony
Rylands, Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de
Ci6ncias Biol6gicas, Universidade Federal de
Minas Gerais, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Brazil,
Fax: (031) 441-1412, or c/o Conservation
International, Avenida Antonio Abrahao Caram
820/302, Pampulha, 31275-000 Belo Horizonte,
Minas Gerais, Brazil, Fax: (031)441-2582 or
Ernesto Rodriguez Luna, Parque de La Flora y
Fauna Silvestre Tropical, Universidad
Veracruzana, Apartado Postal 566, Xalapa,
Veracruz 91000, M6xico, Fax: (281) 8-77-30.

Distribution of Neotropical Primates: LUDMILLA
AGUIAR, Conservation International Brazil
Program, Belo Horizonte, is responsible for
distributing the newsletter. Please keep us
informed of any address changes.

collaboration with Conservation International,
1015 18th Street NW, Suite 1000, Washington DC
20036, USA, and Fundagio Biodiversitas, Rua
Maria Vaz de Melo 71, Dona Clara, Belo
Horizonte 31260-110, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Design and Composition YURI L. R. LEITE and
RICARDO B. MACHADO, Biodiversity Conservation
Data Center (CDCB), Fundacio Biodiversitas.

Neotropical Primates ](4), Pecember 1993

Page 34

Anthony Rylands/Emesto Luna, Editors
S W Conservation International
Avenida Antonio Abraldo Caram 820/302
J TUCN/SSC 31275-000, Belo Horizonte
IUCJN/SSC Minas Gerais, Brazil


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