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Title: Neotropical primates
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098814/00002
 Material Information
Title: Neotropical primates a newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCNSSC Primate Specialist Group
Abbreviated Title: Neotrop. primates
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
Conservation International
Center for Applied Biodiversity Science
Publisher: Conservation International
Place of Publication: Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
Publication Date: June 1993
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Primates -- Periodicals -- Latin America   ( lcsh )
Primates -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Wildlife conservation -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: review   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Brazil
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Language: English, Portuguese, and Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Mar. 1993)-
Issuing Body: Issued jointly with Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, <Dec. 2004->
General Note: Published in Washington, D.C., Dec. 1999-Apr. 2005 , Arlington, VA, Aug. 2005-
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 13, no. 1 (Apr. 2005).
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Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
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    Back Cover
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Full Text

A Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group
Editors: Anthony B. Rylands and Ernesto Rodriguez Luna
PSG Chairman: Russell A. Mittermeier
PSG Deputy Chairman: William R. Konstant




Neoropical Primates 1(2), June 1993

Articles I


The IUCN Species Survival Programme, led by
Simon N.Stuart, is carrying out a revision of the
species and subspecies of the 1990 Red List of
Threatened Animals, in collaboration with Brian
Groombridge, Coordinator of
the Animals Programme at the CURRENT (1
World Conservation Monitoring NEOTRO
Centre, Cambridge, England. CALLITRICHIDAE
The deadline for the revision is Callimico goel
31 December 1993, so that it Callithrix arge
can be presented and discussed Callithrix auri
at the IUCN General Assembly Callithrixflavi
in January 1994. The format Callithrix hum
and content will be improved in Callithrix hum
two stages in the next two Leontopithecus,
editions. The 1993 revision, Leontopithecus
which will be published by Leontopithecu.s
Chapman and Hall, will provide Leontopithecus
a new format to make the book Saguinus bicol
easier to use as well as visually Saguinus impe,
more attractive: new contents Saguinus leucc
will include country Saguinus oedij
distributions along with CEBIDAE
summary tables, thematic maps, Alouattafusca
as well the lists of extinct and Alouatta villos
threatened species. The Ateles belzebu
succeeding revision in 1996 will Atelesfuscicep
make use of the new IUCN Ateles geoffroy
system for assessing and Ateles paniscu.
categorising threatened species, Brachyteles ar
which is expected to be Cacajao calvu,
finalised and formally approved Cacajao melan
during 1994. Callicebus per
Chiropotes alb
The new information required Chiropotes sat
for the 1993 edition includes: a Lagothrixflavi
revision of the list in terms of Lagothrix lago
which species should be added, Saimiri oerstec
removed or recategorised. Any
changes should be documented as fully as possible.
Simon Stuart has specifically requested PSG
members to contribute to the revision.

Anthony Rylands, Co-Vice Chairman for the
Neotropical Section of the PSG, has drafted a
preliminary revision concerning the South
American primates, and Ernesto Rodriguez Luna is

currently preparing a report for the Mesoamerican
region. The modifications suggested by Rylands
were prepared from the available literature
concerning the conservation status and taxonomy
of the species and subspecies. 1) Following the
studies of Skinner (1991) and Moore and Cheverud
(1992), Saguinus o.geoffroyi should be considered
a distinct species and S.oedipus oedipus should,
therefore, be listed as a species (see p. 4). 2)
Following the taxonomic revision of Callithrix by
de Vivo (1991; see also Mittermeier et al., 1992),
all forms of Callithrix should
CN LIST FOR be listed as species. 3)
PRIMATES Common names: Callithrix
chrysoleuca golden-white
tassel-ear marmoset; Callithrix
ucippe (V) intermedia marmoset (no
common name available);
) Callithrix leucippe golden-
chrysoleuca (K) white bare-ear marmoset;
intermedius (K) Brachyteles arachnoides -
ra (E) muriqui; Cacajao calvus bald
melas (E) uakari. 4) Additions to list: -
pygus (E) Callithrix kuhli (V) and
a (E) Callithrix geoffroyi (V or E)
p.) (E) (see Mittermeier et al., 1989;
ssp.) (I) Coimbra-Filho, 1984; Oliver
and Santos, 1991); Callithrix
pus (E) nigriceps (V) (see Ferrari and
Lopes, 1992); Aotus lemurinus
(V) griseimembra (V or E), Aotus
brumbacki (V or E), and
.) (V) Callicebus cupreus ornatus (V
.) (V) or E) (see Hernmndez-Camacho
M)(V) and Defler, 1991); Cebus
.) (V) apella xanthosternos (E), and
fes (2 ssp.) (E) Cebus apella robustus (V or E)
.) (V) (see Coimbra-Filho, 1986;
lus (2 ssp.) (V) Mittermeier et al., 1989; Oliver
(4 ssp.) (E) and Santos, 1991); Cebus
(V) kaapori (E) (see Queiroz,
tanas (E) 1992); Chiropotes satanas
E) utahicki (E) (see Johns and
4 ssp.) (V) Ayres, 1987); Alouatta
i.) (E) belzebul ululata (I or E) (see
Bonvicino et al., 1989;
Coimbra-Filho, 1990). 5) Removals from the list:
Saguinus bicolor ochraceus and S.b.martinsi
(current listing I); Saguinus imperator
subgrisescens (current listing E) forms which,
although having quite small distributions, are in
relatively isolated regions and/or occur in large
protected areas; Chiropotes albinasus (current
listing V) a relatively large distribution. 6) Re-

Cover photograph by Russell Mittermeier: Yellow-breasted capuchin (Cebus apella xanthosternos), see page 9

990) IU

dii (R)
ntata le
ta (E)
ceps (E
or (3 ss
rator (2
,pus (E)
us oedi

(2 ssp.)
a (K) *
th (3 ssp
's (2 ssp
i (9 ssp
s (2 ssp
s (4 ssp
anas sa
tricha (
1i (2 ssp

Page 1I

Neotropical Primates 1(2), June 1993

categorisation: Callithrix humeralifer chrysoleuca
- as C.chrysoleuca from K to V; Callithrix
humeralifer intermedius from K to V as
C.intermedia; Callicebus personatus personatus
and C.p.nigrifrons from E to V, with
C.p.melanochir and C.p.barbarabrownae
remaining as E; Alouattafuscafusca from V to E
and A.fclamitans remaining as V (see Oliver and
Santos, 1991); Lagothrix lagotricha lugens from
V to E (see HernAndez-Camacho and Defler,

Russell A. Mittermeier, IUCN/SSC PSG
Chairman, Conservation International, 1015 18th
Street N.W., Suite 1000, Washington, D.C. 20036,
USA. Simon N. Stuart, Head Species Survival
Programme, IUCN World Headquarters, Rue
Mauvernay 28, CH-1196 Gland, Switzerland.
Brian Groombridge, Coordinator Animals
Programme, World Conservation Monitoring
Centre, 219 Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3


Bonvicino, C.R., Langguth, A. and Mittermeier,
R.A. 1989. A study of pelage color and
geographic distribution in Alouatta belzebul
(Primates: Cebidae). Rev.Nordestina Biol.,
Coimbra-Filho, A.F. 1984. Situagqo atual dos
calitriquideos que ocorrem no Brasil
(Callitrichidae-Primates). In: A primatologia no
Brasil, M.T.de Mello (ed.), pp.15-33. Sociedade
Brasileira de Primatologia, Brasilia.
Coimbra-Filho, A.F. 1986. Espdcies ameagadas
de extincgo. Cebus apella xanthosternos Wied,
1820. FBCN/Inf., Rio de Janeiro, 10(4):3.
Coimbra-Filho, A.F. 1990. SistemAtica,
distribuigio geogrAfica e situavqo atual dos
simios brasileiros (Platyrrhini, Primates).
Rev.Brasil.Biol., 50(4): 1063-1079.
De Vivo, M. 1991. Taxonomia de Callithrix
Erxleben 1777 (Callitrichidae, Primates).
Fundaggo Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte.
Ferrari, S.F. and Lopes, M.A. 1992. A new
species of marmoset, genus Callithrix Erxleben
1777 (Callitrichidae, Primates) from western
Brazilian Amazonia. Goeldiana, Zoologia,
Hernmndez-Camacho, J. and Defler, T.R. 1991.
Algunos aspects de la conservaci6n de primates
no-humanos en Colombia. In: La primatologia
en Latinoamerica, C. J. Saavedra, R. A.
Mittermeier and I.B.Santos (eds.), pp.67-100.

World Wildlife Fund, Washington, D.C.
Johns A.D. and Ayres, J.M. 1987. Southern
bearded sakis beyond the brink. Oryx, 21:164-
Mittermeier, R.A., Kinzey, W.G. and Mast, R.B.
1989. Neotropical primate conservation.
J.Hum.Evol., 18:597-610.
Mittermeier, R.A., Schwarz, M., Ayres, J.M.
1992. A new species of marmoset, genus
Callithrix Erxleben 1777 (Callitrichidae,
Primates), from the Rio Mauds region, state of
Amazonas, Central Brazilian Amazonia.
Goeldiana, Zoologia, (14):1-17.
Moore, A.J. and Cheverud, J.M. 1992.
Systematics of the Saguinus oedipus group of the
bare-faced tamarins: evidence from facial
morphology. Am..Phys.Anthropol., 88:73-84.
Oliver, W.L.R. and Santos, I.B. 1991. Threatened
endemic mammals of the Atlantic forest region of
south-east Brazil. Wildl.Preserv. Trust, Special
Scientific Report, (4): 1-126.
Queiroz, H.L. 1992. A new species of capuchin
monkey, genus Cebus Erxleben 1777 (Cebidae,
Primates), from eastern Brazilian Amazonia.
Goeldiana, Zoologia, (15):1-3.
Skinner, C. 1991. Justification for reclassifying
Geoffroy's tamarin from Saguinus oedipus
geoffroyi to Saguinus geoffroyi. Prim.Rep.,



The muriqui, Brachyteles arachnoides, the largest
of the Neotropical primates, is endemic to the
Brazilian Atlantic forest, occurring from the state
of Bahia south to the state of Sao Paulo. The
majority of its populations have disappeared as a
result of drastic deforestation and hunting, and it is
today highly threatened with extinction. Except
for the large tracts of forest along the "Serra do
Mar" in the south-east of the state of Sao Paulo,
surviving populations of muriquis are restricted to
small forest fragments with an uncertain future and
subject to the deleterious effects of endogamy (see
Mittermeier et al., 1987). Recent studies have
confirmed that the muriqui populations in the state
of Sao Paulo are genetically different to those in
the northern part of its range, at least in the state of
Minas Gerais, where they live in more fragmented
habitats, arguing for the urgent need for the

Page 2

Neotropical Primates 1(2), June 1993

preservation of these populations as well as those
in the state of Espirito Santo to the east.

In his classic work on the muriqui, Aguirre (1971)
mentioned the occurrence of isolated groups in
some localities in Espirito Santo. These included a
highly threatened population (40-50 individuals) at
Brejetuba, municipality of Afonso Claudio, and at
the C6rrego SAo Fernando, municipality of
Domingos Martins (7-8 individuals). We have been
unable to confirm the continued survival of these
populations. Aguirre (1971) also reported the
existence of 10-12 muriquis at Barra
Encoberta, and a further 7-8 individuals at
Jatibocas, both in the municipality of Itarana.
Scott Lindbergh (pers.comm.) recently (
confirmed the continued survival of a group
at the latter locality (cited in Mendes, 1991),
and we have also received reliable reports of
the species' presence in privately-owned
forests in the municipalities of Santa Teresa,
Santa Leopoldina, and Domingos Martins,
the last a 400 ha forest in the Fazenda Belon,
4 km south-east of the Pedra Azul State Park
(993 ha) (Mendes, 1991). Muriquis are also
known to exist in the Capara6 National Park
(on the border with the state of Minas Gerais;
16,194 ha) and Augusto Ruschi Biological
Reserve (formerly Nova Lombardia; c. 4,000
ha) (see Fig.1). In the latter the population
density is extremely low, but the area is
relatively well protected. The Capara6
National Park is larger (although not all
forested), and undoubtedly a very important
area for muriquis, although its legal status F
has yet to be resolved, it remains largely
unprotected, and suffers from hunting. Lo
The uncertain future of the small and isolated Ru
populations in private-lands argues for a ow
management plan involving confirmation of 6 -
the size and composition of remaining
groups, and their translocation to such areas as the
Augusto Ruschi Biological Reserve, which could
undoubtedly support higher numbers than are
found at present. Valuable information could also
be obtained concerning the species' morphology
and genetics. This proposal would obviously
involve educational campaigns so that local
landowners can be made aware of the objectives
and value of these measures. A program of this
sort is technically difficult and evidently subject to
risks. The remaining populations in the state of
Bahia are practically extinct (no confirmed
localities exist today), and those in Minas Gerais

are few, small, and isolated, and we argue that
such measures are unavoidable and urgently
needed in order to prevent the disappearance of the
muriqui in the state of Espirito Santo in the very
near future, and to contribute to the preservation of
this remarkable animal in the northern part of its
range encompassing these three states.

S6rgio L. Mendes and Adriano G. Chiarello,
Museu de Biologia Mello Leitdo, Santa Teresa,
29650-000 Espirito Santo, Brazil.

calities in the state of Espirito Santo where populations of
iriquis have been confirmed. Protected areas: 1 Augusto
schi Biological Reserve; 2 Capara6 National Park. Privately-
'ned areas: 3 Santa Teresa; 4 Itarana; 5 Santa Leopoldina;
Fazenda Belon.

Aguirre, A.C. 1971. 0 mono Brachyteles
arachnoides (E.Geoffroy). Situagdo atual da
especie no Brasil. Academia Brasileira de
Ciencias, Rio de Janeiro. 53pp.
Mendes, S.L. 1991. Situagao atual dos primatas
em reserves florestais do estado do Espirito
Santo. In: A primatologia no Brasil-3,
A.B.Rylands and A.T.Bernardes (eds.), pp.347-
356. Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia,
Fundagqo Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte.
Mittermeier, R.A., Valle, C.M.C., Alves, M.C.,


4 1t
* 5

V~ !

2 6

Espfrito Santo

Rio de Janeiro

Page 3

Neotropical Primates 1(2), June 1993

Santos, I.B., Pinto, C.A.M., Strier, K.B., Young,
A.L., Veado, E.M., Constable, I.D., Paccagnella,
S.G., and Lemos de SA, R.M. 1987. Current
distribution of the muriqui in the Atlantic forest
region of eastern Brasil. Primate Conservation,


Hershkovitz (1977) divided the tamarins, genus
Saguinus, into three sections hairy-face
(including the S.nigricollis group, S.mystax group,
and the S.midas group), mottled-face (S.inustus),
and bare-face (S.bicolor group and S.oedipus
group). The two groups of bare face tamarins are
recognized by three independent features: 1) they
occur north of the Rio Amazonas; 2) they diverged
independently from hairy-face tamarins and; 3)
they attained a grade of facial depilation that
distinguishes them collectively or individually from
other callitrichids. The Saguinus bicolor group
(comprising three subspecies north of the Rio
Amazonas and east of the Rio Negro in Brazil) are
believed to have evolved from a hairy-face ancestor
south of the Rio Amazonas-Solim6es, west of the
Rio Madeira, due to a river bend cut-off isolating
them to the north of the Rio Amazonas-Solim6es.
Following Hershkovitz (1977), the Saguinus
oedipus group comprises the Colombian and
Panamanian/Costa Rican bare-faced tamarins,
Saguinus oedipus oedipus (cotton-top tamarin),
Saguinus oedipus geoffroyi (the red-crested bare-
face tamarin or rufous-naped tamarin), and
Saguinus leucopus (silvery-brown bare-face
tamarin). Based on his presumption that S.oedipus
represents the "culmination of an evolutionary line
of tamarins that diverged from a hairy-face
ancestor of the upper Amazonian region" (p.753),
Hershkovitz argued that a divergent stock must
have spread north along the eastern Andes and
filtered into the valley between the Cordilleras
Central and Oriental,and west into Panama and
Central America giving rise today to S.leucopus
and S.oedipus (including subspecies oedipus and
geoffroyi). Sleucopus is described by Hershkovitz
(1977) as a hairy-cheeked quasi-bare-face species
preserving most of the intermediate characters
connecting S.oedipus with hairy-face tamarins.
S.o.geoffroyi (Colombian Choco, Panama and
bordering parts of Costa Rica) is considered to be
more primitive than S.o.oedipus (tropical lowlands

isolated between the Rios Atrato and Cauca-
Magdalena). Hershkovitz's arguments regarding
the evolution of these forms and the classification
of the forms oedipus and geoffroyi as subspecies
are based on pelage patterns and coloration, cranial
and mandible morphology, and pinna size.

Mittermeier and Coimbra-Filho (1981; see also
Mittermeier et al., 1988; Rylands et al., 1993) did
not recognize the subspecific status of the two
forms oedipus and geoffroyi, arguing that there is
no evidence of intergradation between them and
that "S.oedipus and S.geoffroyi are at least as
differentiated from one another as are the members
of the Callithrix jacchus group" (which they also
argued to be valid species), and following the
suggestion of Thorington (1976) that the cotton-top
tamarin was more closely related to S./eucopus
than to S.geoffroyi. Thorington (1976: p.13)
expressed the hope that Hershkovitz's 1977
monograph would test his hypothesis but it did not,
and the question remained open until the
publication of some recent articles reporting on
independent studies of body weights and the
morphology of the three tamarins.

Tsunehiko Hanihara and Masahito Natori of the
Jichi Medical School, Japan, followed
Hershkovitz's (1977) classification in their
examination of the dental morphology of
S.fuscicollis, S.nigricollis, S.labiatus, S.mystax,
S.leucopus and S.oedipus (Hanihara and Natori,
1987). Multivariate analysis of their measurements
grouped the moustached tamarins (S.labiatus and
S.mystax), the saddleback and black-mantle
tamarins (S.fuscicollis and S.nigricollis), and the
bare-face tamarins (S.leucopus and S.oedipus).
However, their comparison of S.o.geoffroyi and
S.o.oedipus showed that although they are similar,
they are more different to each other than are the
components of the pairs S.fuscicollislS.nigricollis
and S.mystaxlS.labiatus, and for this reason they
argued that they should be considered distinct
species, a taxonomy adopted in their subsequent
publications (Natori and Hanihara, 1988, 1992).

Carol Skinner (1991), of the Edinboro University
of Pennsylvania, examined differences in body
weight and morphological characters, comprising
four body (tail, head and body, hind foot and ear)
and 13 cranial and dental measurements.
S.geoffroyi (486 g, N = 53) were found to be
significantly larger than S.oedipus (406 g, N = 23),
and morphologically more similar to S.leucopus
than to S.oedipus in 16 of the 17 morphological

Page 4

Neotropical Primates 1(2), June 1993

characters studied. Likewise, S.oedipus was more
similar to S.leucopus than to S.geoffroyi in 11 of
the 17 traits. Skinner also discussed the pelage
coloration and patterns of the three forms
(emphasizing the differences rather than the
similarities demonstrated by Hershkovitz, 1977),
along with aspects concerning hybridization and
intergradation in Saguinus in general.

Allen Moore (University of Kentucky, Lexington)
and James Cheverud (Washington University
School of Medicine, St.Louis) also gave specific
attention to the taxonomic affinity of the bare-face
tamarins, examining their facial morphology
(Moore and Cheverud, 1992). Quoting these
authors (p.73) "...A variety of multivariate
statistical analyses including discriminant function
and cluster analysis suggest that S.oedipus and
S.geoffroyi differ morphologically at a level
consistent with species-level distinctions. The
extent of differences between these taxa is large..."
and later "...a comparison of collecting localities
revealed that the variation we observed among
S.oedipus and S.geoffroyi was not clinal but
presented a large morphological discontinuity at
the boundary between taxa...". Like Skinner
(1991), they found that S.leucopus was more
similar to S.oedipus than either is to S.geoffroyi.
Differences between S.oedipus and S.geoffroyi
were much greater than those between S.fuscicollis
subspecies (Cheverud and Moore, 1990).

Anthony B. Rylands, Departamento de Zoologia,
Institute de Ciencias Biol6gicas, Universidade
Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte 31270-
901, Minas Gerais, Brazil.


Cheverud, J.M. and Moore, A.J. 1990.
Subspecific morphological .variation in the
saddle-back tamarin (Saguinus fuscicollis).
Am.J.Primatol., 21:1-15.

Hanihara, T. and Natori, M. 1987. Preliminary
analysis of numerical taxonomy of the genus
Saguinus based on dental measurements.
Primates, 28(4):517-23.
Hershkovitz, P. 1977. Living New World Monkeys
(Platyrrhini) with an Introduction to Primates,
Vol.1. Chicago University Press, Chicago.
IUCN. 1990. 1990 IUCN Red List of Threatened
Animals. Compiled by the World Conservation
Monitoring Centre. IUCN World Conservation
Union, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, U.K.

Mittermeier, R.A. and Coimbra-Filho, A.F. 1981.
Systematics: species and subspecies. In: Ecology
and Behavior of Neotropical Primates, Vol.1,
A.F.Coimbra-Filho and R.A.Mittermeier (eds.),
pp.29-109. Academia Brasileira de CiEncias, Rio
de Janeiro.
Mittermeier, R.A., Rylands, A.B. and Coimbra-
Filho, A.F. 1988. Systematics: species and
subspecies an update. In: Ecology and
Behavior of Neotropical Primates, Vol.2,
R.A.Mittermeier, A.B.Rylands, A.F.Coimbra-
Filho and G.A.B.da Fonseca (eds.), pp.13-75.
World Wildlife Fund, Washington, D.C.
Moore, A.J. and Chevenid, J.M. 1992.
Systematics of the Saguinus oedipus group of the
bare-faced tamarins: evidence from facial
morphology. Am.J.Phys.Anthropol., 89:73-84.
Natori, M. and Hanihara, T. 1988. An analysis of
interspecific relationships of Saguinus based on
cranial measurements. Primates, 29(2):255-62.
Natori, M. and Hanihara, T. 1992. Variations in
dental measurements between Saguinus species
and their systematic relationships. Folia
Primatol., 58:84-92.
Rylands, A.B., Coimbra-Filho, A.F. and
Mittermeier, R.A. 1993. Systematics,
distributions, and some notes on the conservation
status of the Callitrichidae. In: Marmosets and
Tamarins: Systematics, Behaviour, and Ecology,
A.B.Rylands (ed.), pp.11-77. Oxford University
Press, Oxford.
Skinner, C. 1991. Justification for reclassifying
Geoffroy's tamarin from Saguinus oedipus
geoffroyi to Saguinus geoffroyi. Primate Report,
Thorington, R.W., Jr. 1976. The systematics of
New World monkeys. In: First Interamerican
Conference on Conservation and Utilization of
American Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical
Research, pp.8-18. Pan American Health
Organization (PAHO), Washington, D.C.



A new form of untufted capuchin, christened the
Ka'apor capuchin, was recently described by Helder
Queiroz of the Zoology Department of the Goeldi

Page 5

Neotropical Primates 1(2), June 1993

Museum in Pard, Brazil (Queiroz, 1992). The
scientific name given is Cebus kaapori. It was first
recorded in March 1990 through the finding of a
skin and skull in the Gurupiana village of the
Ka'apor indians in the Alto Turiaqu Indian
Reserve, cast bank of the Rio Gurupi in the state of
Maranhao (02040'S, 4620'W), given as the
paratype locality (preserved in the zoological
collection of the Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi,
Belm, Para, MPEG 21978). A holotype locality
was established later, in August 1991, through the
collection of a juvenile female (skeleton and stuffed
skin MPEG' 22025) from Quadrant 7, 10 kmn
southwest of the Chega-Tudo Prospection
(02030'S, 47030'W) (Carutapera, Maranhao), near
the right bank of the Rio Gurupi. Queiroz (1992)
describes the principal features of this new species
as follows: "the longest bodied untufted species of
capuchin monkey, with a silvery agouti mantle and
silvery grey shoulders and tip of tail. Arms and
hindlimbs agouti. Hands and feet black and dark
brown. Triangular black cap at crown with a black
stripe down to nose. Forehead and face slivery grey
and beige. Occurring south of Amazonas river,
possibly restricted to the area between Gurupi and
Pindard rivers in Maranhao State, Brazil."

Subsequent expeditions to check on the distribution
of the ka'apor capuchin revealed that it is today
probably restricted the region between the Rios
Gurupi and Pindare, with the northeastern limit
being defined by the border of the Amazonian
lowland forest within the "cocais" ecosystem of
middle Maranhao, extending at some points to the
eastern bank of the Rio Pindard in its middle
reaches, west of the locality Santa Luzia. The
northern limit lies south of Maracaqum6, in the
basin of the Rio Maracaqumd, and the southern
limit is defined by the northernmost forests of
Buriticup6. It is not definitely known to occur west
of the Rio Gurupi, although some interviews with
local inhabitants 5-10 km to the west of the river
suggested it might. It would seem that it certainly
occurred west of the Rio Gurupi in the past,
possibly as far as the Rio Amazonas, to the Rio
Tocantins. In 1906, Emilio Goeldi and G.Hagmann
recorded six capuchin monkey specimens in the
Museu Goeldi collection from the Rios Acarn and
Capim, which they referred to as Cebus capucinus,
but with a description similar to that of Cebus
kaapori. These specimens have unfortunately been
lost. Of interest too is a specimen, not recorded by
Queiroz (1992) but probably belonging to this
species, obtained by A.B.M.Machado (Federal
University of Minas Gerais) and Pe.F.S.Pereira

(University of Sao Paulo) from the market in
Belm, Para, but originating from the Rio Gurupi,
Maranhao (A.B.M.Machado, unpubl.data). The
animal was identified by C.da Cunha Vieira, and
listed by Machado (1963) as an adult female Cebus
nigrivittalus. The skin was deposited in the
Museum of Zoology of Sao Paulo.

Queiroz (1992) argued that the present known
distribution of approximately 15,000 km2 is one of
the smallest known ranges of Amazonian cebids.
The range of Ckaapori encompasses the Gurupi
Biological Reserve, and the Camn and Alto Turiaqu
indian reserves. It is however hunted in these
reserves, which are also subject to continuing
degradation due to logging, deforestation, squatters
and goldminers. Certainly its known range is
within one of the most devastated regions of the
Amazon. In addition to these threats, the entire
area is undergoing a recent and active process of
colonization and industrialization being as it is
within the Greater CarajAs development program,
and traversed by the Carajais railroad and
numerous highways. Queiroz (1992) concluded
that C.kaapori is a threatened species. The
endangered black saki, Chiropotes satanas satanas
has a similar distribution although extending north
and west to the Rio Amazonas and Rio Tocantins.
The widespread destruction of the forests of the
region would indicate that C.kaapori should also
be considered endangered.

The principle argument used by Queiroz (1992) for
the species status of C.kaapori is its disjunct
distribution, C.olivaceus being restricted to the
north of the Rio Amazonas. However, as
mentioned above, he also presents evidence for its
(likely) occurrence in the past as far as Beldm, and
presumably the Rio Tocantins. Queiroz argued
that speciation processes are likely to have
occurred due to its isolation by the Rio Amazonas,
although at least two other primate species traverse
the lower Rio Amazonas without any evident
speciation or subspeciation: Cebus apella and
Saimiri sciureus. Other differences which Queiroz
cited to reinforce his case for the species status of
the ka'apor capuchin include pelage coloration, and
his impression, based on the single adult measured,
that Ckaapori is "longer-bodied and less robust
than other untufted species" (p.9). Queiroz (1992)
concluded that "there is little to separate the
species on the basis of external and craniometric
and morphological characteristics" (p.9), although
his measurements of the maximum cranial length
of five adult male C.olivaceus indicated that it is

Page 6

Neotropical Primates 1(2), June 1993

larger than the other untufted species, including
C.kaapori, and possibly indicative of a degree of
divergence of the two forms. The evidence for the
species' status of C.kaapori is slim. Resolution of
the question of whether it is a valid species or not
will depend on a taxonomic revision of the
untufted group of the genus, along with a wider
range of morphological measurements on
additional individuals.


Goeldi, E.A. and Hagmann, G. 1906. Prodromo de
um catAlogo critic commentado, da colecqAo de
mammiferos no Museu do Para (1894-1903).
Bol.A us.Goeldi (Alus.Para) Hist Nat.Ethnogr.,
Machado, A.B.M. 1963. Morfologia da eminentia
ilealis no intestine de alguns Primata brasileiros,
corn 36 observaqges in vivo. Anais
Fac.Med. Univ.Fed.Minas Gerais, 20:123-230.
Queiroz, H.L. 1992. A new species of capuchin
monkey, genus Cebus Erxleben, 1777 (Cebidae,
Primates) from eastern Brazilian Amazonia.
Goeldiana, Zoologia, (15):1-13.



The Atlantic Coastal forest once stretched
uninterrupted along the eastern coast of Brazil
from the north-east to the far south in the state of
Rio Grande do Sul. Definitions of its limits are
controversial, but the broadest include the humid
evergreen forests along the coast, deciduous and
semi-deciduous forests inland in the south and
south-east, the Araucaria pine forests and upland
Lauraceae forests in the south, as well as the
coastal scrub forest restingga, mangrove swamps
and forests, and savanna and moorland enclaves.
In the past, the area covered by the Atlantic forest
exceeded 1,000,000 km2, more than 12% of the
area of Brazil (Rizzini and Coimbra-Filho, 1988;
CAmara, 1991).

In 1990, it received complete legal protection, with
the publication of a short Presidential Decree NO
99.547, dated 25th September 1990. It succinctly
prohibited, for an undetermined period, the cutting
and exploitation of the native vegetation of the
Atlantic forest, and delegated responsibility to the
Brazilian Institute for the Environment and
Renewable Natural Resources (Ibama) for the
rigorous fiscalization of existing projects in the

area. This Decree put the onus on each of the State
Superintendencies of Ibama to define the areas of
Atlantic forest in their respective states, a cause of
some consternation and considerable argument. It
was later revoked by Decree NO 750, dated 10
February 1993 (published in the Diario Oficial da
Unido 11 February 1993), which provided a more
detailed and considered legal basis for the
exploitation of the natural resources of the Atlantic
forest. The first article prohibits the cutting,
exploitation or suppression of primary vegetation
or forest in middle to advanced stages of
regeneration, unless under special circumstances
(development projects of public use or social
interest), with the express permission of the
environmental agency of the respective State, and
prior approval by Ibama and the National
Environment Council (CONAMA), following due
studies and an environmental impact report. The
second article states that selective exploitation of
certain native species may be carried out under the
following conditions: 1) that it in no way affects
species other than those to be exploited; 2) that
previous studies should be carried out concerning
stocks and the guaranteed survival of the species
involved; 3) the area involved and the maximum
annual harvest should be defined and; 4) prior
authorization from the relevant state organization.
A complementary clause states that the
requirements of this article do not apply to the use
of plant species within the properties of traditional
human populations, which however remains
dependant on due authorization from the relevant
state organization. The 3rd Article defines the
Atlantic forest as follows: forest formations and
associated ecosystems within the limits defined by
the 1988 map of the Brazilian Institute for
Geography and Statistics (IBGE) Dense, mixed
and open ombrophilous Atlantic forest, seasonal
deciduous and semi-deciduous forest, mangroves,
coastal scrub and scrub forest restingga, high
altitude moorland (campos de altitude), humid
forest enclaves in the north-east (brejos). Article 4
determines that the suppression or exploitation of
secondary vegetation in early stages of
regeneration will be regulated by Ibama, with due
consideration given to the respective state
environment institutes and councils and the
National Environment Council (CONAMA). A
complementary clause says that this Article does
not apply to states having 5% or less of the original
area covered by Atlantic forest, and that in these
cases all vegetation considered to form part of the
Atlantic forest ecosystems defined in Article 3 are
subject to the regulations in Article 1. Article 5

Page 7

Neotropical Primates 1(2), June 1993

provides the restrictions regarding the provision of
permission for urban projects or the use of soils in
areas of secondary vegetation in medium or
advanced stages of succession. Any project
presented must conform to the development plan of
the municipality and the existing legislation
concerning environmental protection, and must
have prior consent from the relevant state
organization, with the conditions that: 1) the area
does not include plant or animal species considered
threatened with extinction; 2) the area plays no
role in protecting springs or in the control of
erosion and; 3) the area has no exceptional scenic
value. Article 6 states that the definition of primary
vegetation, and secondary
vegetation in early, middle and PRIMATES
late stages of succession will be COA
carried out by Ibama, in Callithrix aurita
consultation with the state Callithrixflavice
environmental organizations, to Callithrixjacchu
be subsequently approved by Callithrix kuhli
CONAMA. A complementary Callithrix geoffr
clause determines that any Leontopithecus r
intervention involving primary Leontopithecus c
forest or forest in late or middle Leontopithecus c
successional stages is Leontopithecus c
prohibited until Ibama have Callicebus perso.
provided their legal definition. Callicebus perso.
Article 7 provides for the total Callicebus perso
protection of vegetation which Callicebus perso
harbours animal or plant Cebus apella libi
species threatened with Cebus apella xan
extinction, or which acts as a Cebus apella rob
corridor between primary Cebus apella nig
forests or those which are Alouattafuscafu
considered to be in late or Alouattafusca cl
middle successional stages, or Brachyteles arac
which serve to protect areas Brachyteles arac
around conservation units, as
well as areas of permanent preservation determined
by Articles 2 and 3 of Law NO 4771 of 15
September 1965. Article 8 states that areas of
primary forest or forest in middle or late
successional stages will maintain their status as
such even if burnt or cut illegally. Article 9 gives
CONAMA the administrative responsibility for any
decisions arising from the Decree, according to the
terms of Article 8, part III, of Law NO 6938 of 31
August 1981. Article 10 states that all current or
future enterprises which do not conform with the
determinations of the decree must inform the
relevant authorities of their activities within five
days. According to Article 11, fiscalization of the
existing development projects within the Atlantic
forest will be coordinated by Ibama in conjunction

with the relevant state authorities. Infractions will
be dealt with by the National Environment System
(SISNAMA) and will involve a) the application of
relevant administrative sanctions; b) an immediate
report to the Public Ministry for police and civic
inquiries for penal action and; c) a report to the
relevant council governing the professional
activities of those responsible for the project and
the infraction according to the specific legislation.
Article 12 determines that the Ministry of the
Environment will carry out measures to ensure
rigorous compliance with the determinations of the
Decree, and will stimulate technical and scientific
studies with a view to the conservation and rational
management of the Atlantic
E ATLANTIC forest and its biodiversity. The
OREST final two articles determine
the immediate application of
the decree as from 11
February 1993 (Article 13),
and revoke the fonuer Decree
N 99547 of 25 September
ygus This decree is evidently a
considerable improvement on
ersonatus the first, providing as it does
igrifrons some leeway for a more
ielanochir rational approach to the
arbarabrownae protection of the remains of
s the Atlantic forest, with the
'nos underlying theme being one
of biodiversity and ecosystem
conservation coupled with the
elusive concept of sustainable
s development for the region.
s arachnoides The complexity and variety of
s hypoxanthus the ecosystems included

within the Atlantic forest
means that the task, still pending, ,of defining the
concepts of primary forest systems, and the late,
middle, and early successional stages (Article 6),
will not be an easy one. The tendency for regional
definitions depends on an adequate mapping (and
ground-truthing), and is unfortunately very much
subject to whim and political/economical pressures
in each state. In addition, there is at present
considerable controversy regarding the definition
of "traditional populations" (Article 2). However,
the single most dramatic issue is the almost
complete lack of wherewithal on the part of the
federal (Ibama) and state governments to enforce
the decree, and its norms and restrictions.
Widespread forest destruction continues unchecked
in such important areas as southern Bahia,



natus p
natus n
natus n
natus b

Page 8

Neotropical Primates 1(2), June 1993

exemplified by the removal of more than 90,000 ha
of primary forests by one company alone, the
Veracruz Cellulose Co., which since 1985 has been
clearing areas for Eucalyptus plantations in the
municipalities of Porto Seguro, Eunipolis, Santa
Cruz de Cabrlia and Belmonte.


CAmara, I.de G. 1991. Piano de Agdo para a
Mata Atldntica. FundaqAo SOS Mata Atlantica,
Sao Paulo. 152pp.
Rizzini, C.T. and Coimbra-Filho, A.F. 1988.
Ecossistemas Brasileiros. Index Editora, Rio de
Janeiro. 200pp.



The 1993 Latin American Conservation Award of
the Florida Audubon Society was presented to
Ilmar Santos, member of the SSC Primate
Specialist Group and Edentate Specialist Group,
and an IUCN Regional Member for Brazil. Ilmar
Santos, a former trainee of the Training Program
of the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, Jersey (in
1984), began his career working on the
conservation of the Atlantic forest primates,
especially the muriqui, Brachyteles arachnoides,
under the supervision of Prof. C61io Valle, also a
PSG member, at the Department of Zoology,
Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG). Since
1982 he has coordinated numerous expeditions and
faunal inventories in the Atlantic forest region of
the south-east, as well in the caatinga and cerrado
of north-east and central Brazil. The focus was
always threatened and endangered species.
Notable were two expeditions in 1986-87 with
William Oliver (then of the Jersey Wildlife
Preservation Trust) to the Atlantic forest of Bahia
and Espirito Santo, concentrating on an evaluation
of the conservation status and distribution of the
thin-spined porcupine, Chaetomys subspinosus, but
including data on Sphiggurus insidiosus, as well as
primates and sloths. The project was financed by
the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, Wildlife
Preservation Trust International, Philadelphia, the
Program for Studies in Tropical Conservation of
the University of Florida, Gainesville, and the
World Wildlife Fund, Washington, D.C. As a
result of these expeditions, Oliver and Santos drew
attention to the plight of Cebus apella
xanthosternos and C.a.robustus. Through their
efforts, and in collaboration with Adelmar

Coimbra-Filho and Alcides Pissinatti of the Rio de
Janeiro Primate Center, and Jean-Marc Lernould of
Mulhouse Zoo, France, C.a.xanthosternos now has
a captive breeding program, and an International
Committee for the management of both subspecies
was created by Ibama in 1992, of which Ilmar
Santos is Co-Chairman (see below). He is also a
member of the International Committee for the
golden-headed lion tamarin, Leontopithecus
chrysomelas. His research has provided important
contributions to our knowledge of the status and
distribution of this animal, and he played a key role
in the purchase of additional forests for the
consolidation of the Una Biological Reserve. More
recently, Ilmar has carried out pioneer work on the
three-banded armadillo, Tolypeutes tricinctus, in
the caatinga of inland Bahia. His research on the
ecology, distribution and status of this endangered
species was financed by Conservation International
and World Wildlife Fund-US, and is the subject of
his research thesis for a Master's degree at UFMG
to be completed this year. In 1988, Ilmar formed
part of the team which created the Fundacgo
Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte, already today a
leading Brazilian non-governmental organization
for the conservation of Brazilian species and their
natural ecosystems. Formerly head of the Science
Department, Ilmar is now Director of the
Foundation. The Florida Audubon Society Award
was presented to Ilmar Santos by Dr Peter
Pritchard, world expert on turtles and Vice-
President of the Society, at a special ceremony on
the 13th April in Belo Horizonte. It is reserved for
young Latin American conservationists who have
shown great promise, evidenced by remarkable
achievements, in their early careers. We
congratulate the Society for their recognition of
Ilmar's highly significant contribution to our
knowledge of Brazilian mammals and their


The International Recovery and Management
Committee for the yellow-breasted capuchin
(C.a.xanthosternos) and the robust tufted capuchin
(C.a.robustus), was created by the Brazilian
Institute for the Environment and Natural
Renewable Resources (Ibama) on the 16 October
1992, Edict NO 111 (see Neotropical Primates, 1,

Page 9

Neotropical Primates 1(Q), June 1993 Page 10

NO 1). The Co-Chairmen, Ilmar Santos (Fundaaio
Biodiversitas) and Jean-Marc Lernould (Mulhouse
Zoo), called the first meeting of the Committee in
Belo Horizonte on the 14th April 1993, which was
attended by the following members: Adelmar
Coimbra-Filho (Centro de Primatologia do Rio de
Janeiro CPRJ/FEEMA), Alcides Pissinatti
(CPRJ/FEEMA), Russell A. Mittermeier
(Conservation International, Washington, D.C.),
Maria lolita Bampi (Ibama), and Fernando
Dal'Ava (Ibama). Luiz Paulo de Souza Pinto and
Anthony Rylands, both of the Federal University of
Minas Gerais, were invited to attend as technical
consultants. Rosemary de Carvalho (Ibama)
secretaried the meeting, the first part of which was
dedicated to the elaboration of the committee
regulations, as well as the Management Agreement
and Terms of Responsibility for the institutions
involved in the captive breeding program already
established for Ca.xanthosternos (based on those
for the similar committees for the lion tamarins).

At present the breeding program includes the Rio
de Janeiro Primate Center (CPRJ/FEEMA) with 20
animals, and the Mulhouse Zoo, France, with five.
Two individuals are also being held at the Rio de
Janeiro Zoo (on loan from CPRJ). The program
will be extended to include Chester Zoo, England,
and Zurich Zoo, Switzerland, based on the
availability of 16 animals at CPRJ, to reduce their
stock to four and enable the recovery of further
animals being kept as pets in southern Bahia.

Anthony Rylands presented a summary of the
available data on the distribution of
C.a.xanthosternos, and Luiz Paulo de Souza Pinto
of his findings concerning its distribution and
status in southern Bahia. A plan of action for
C.a.xanthosternos was then discussed with the
following priorities: Captive program. The
establishment of an international program in Brazil
and Europe, involving in the initial stages the
institutions mentioned above. Alcides Pissinatti
was elected studbook keeper. Wild populations.
The establishment of a research program on
C.a.xanthosternos, focussing on aspects of its
conservation biology (population densities, habitat
preference, ecology and behavior), along with an
environmental education campaign aimed at local
landowners, and linked with the successful
program of Maria Cristina Alves (Fundagio Pau
Brasil, Itabuna), already underway for the golden-
headed lion tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysomelas).
It was decided that a proposal (action plan) should
be drawn up and submitted to the New World

Primate Taxon Advisory Group (TAG) of the
American Association of Zoological Parks and
Aquariums (AAZPA) (chaired by Anne Baker,
Burnet Park Zoo, Syracuse), as a first step to obtain
financing. C.a.xanthosternos is already on the
Brazilian Official List of Fauna Threatened with
Extinction (Edict NO 1522/19 December 1989),
and Anthony Rylands informed that the SSC
Primate Specialist Group was considering a
proposal for the inclusion of this subspecies, as
well as C.a.robustus, on the IUCN List of
Threatened Animals currently under revision (see
p.1). A proposal will also be submitted for the
inclusion of C.a.robustus on the Brazilian List.
Finally, Anthony Rylands and Roland Wirth
(Zoological Society for the Conservation of Species
and Populations, Munich) were elected as full
members of the Committee.

Ilmar B. Santos, FundaqAo Biodiversitas, Rua
Maria Vaz de Melo 71, Dona Clara, Belo
Horizonte 31260-110, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Jean
Marc-Lernould, Parc Zoologique et Botanique,
Ville de Mulhouse, B.P.3089, 6806 Mulhouse,


A one-day symposium on the ecology and
conservation of the four lion tamarin species,
organized by Devra Kleiman and In8s Castro
(Golden Lion Tamarin Conservation Program of
the National Zoological Park, Washington, D.C.),
was held on the 18th May 1993 at the Education
Center of the Pogo das Antas Biological Reserve,
Rio de Janeiro. The symposium consisted of a
remarkable and successful marathon of 28 talks,
each of 10 minutes, in the presence of a significant
sample of the people currently involved in
conservation and research of lion tamarins.

Ibsen de GusmAo Cimara began the symposium by
presenting a review of the principal threats to the
survival of the black-headed lion tamarin
(Leontopithecus caissara). New information on
the geographic distribution and wild status was
presented for L.rosalia (golden lion tamarins -
GLT) in Rio de Janeiro (Cecilia Kierulff, Ricardo
J.L.Medeiros), L.chrysomelas (golden-headed lion
tamarins GHLT) in southern Bahia (Luiz Paulo
de Souza Pinto), L.chrysopygus (black lion
tamarins BLT) in Sdo Paulo (ClAudio PAdua,
Laury Cullen, Ana Carolina Mamede), and the

Page 10

Neotropical Primates ](2), June 1993

Neotropical Primates 1(2), June 1993

black-headed lion tamarin (BHLT) in Parana
(Maria Lucia Lorini and Vanessa G.Persson), and
Sao Paulo (MArcia Gongalves Rodrigues, Paulo
Martuscelli, Ricardo Ribeiro de Mendonga Jr).
Reports were also given on current projects
focussing on public relations and environmental
education. Suzana PAdua (BLT), Maria Cristina
Alves and Gabriel dos Santos (GHLT), and Lou
Ann Dietz and Denise Rambaldi (GLT)
summarized their respective environmental
education projects centred on the Morro do Diabo
State Park, the forests of southern Bahia, and the
Poco das Antas Biological Reserve, respectively.
Kate Bramante described an incipient but highly
promising scheme to promote ecotourism, based on
the GLTs reintroduced in forest patches in farms
surrounding the Poco da Antas Reserve in Rio de
Janeiro. Although studies have yet to be carried out
which focus directly on the ecology of BHLTs,
Waldir Mantovani, MArcia Rodrigues and Paulo
Martuscelli were able to report on their
considerable progress concerning the
characterization and extent of available habitat for
these animals in the state of SAo Paulo. Fernando
de Camargo Passos summarized some of his results
on the feeding ecology of BLTs in the Caetetfis
State Reserve, SAo Paulo, which formed part of a
recently completed master's thesis for the State
University of Campinas, supervised by Cory C.T.de
Carvalho. Of note was his finding of the seasonal
importance of plant exudates. Paulo Martuscelli
described a remarkable association between an
orchid (Vanilla sp.) and the black-lion tamarin,
involving the consumption of the capsules by the
tamarins and their probable dispersal of the seeds.
In8s Castro presented her results regarding
reactions of captive lion tamarins to aerial (a
hawk) and terrestrial (snake) predators, involving
flight in the former and mobbing in the latter.

Research projects on the wild groups of GLTs in
the Poco das Antas Reserve were presented by;
Elaine Ribeiro, who is completing her study on the
use of hormonal analyses of faeces as a non-
intrusive method to accompany physiological
changes in females; Andrew Baker, who reviewed
the social system in terms of group composition,
breeding patterns, and dispersal and; James Dietz
who discussed the data concerning seasonal
variation in reproduction, juvenile weight gain and
adult body weight, and its relation to seasonality
and annual variation in resources. Finally, Paula
Oliveira reported on her studies of succession and
small mammal communities following fires in the
Reserve, and Devra Kleiman presented an

overview of the current research projects of the
Golden Lion Tamarin Conservation Program
(National Zoological Park, Washington D.C.),
including besides those mentioned above, the re-
introduction program, and research on
communication and locomotion. The last session
reviewed the situation of, and prospects for, the
captive populations of GLTs (Jon Ballou,
International Studbook keeper), and GHLTs
(Jeremy Mallinson, International Studbook keeper
and Helga de Bois, responsible for the European
populations of lion tamarins), and last of all
Alcides Pissinatti reviewed veterinary aspects,
particularly concerning the diagnosis of causes of

The following two days were dedicated to meetings
of the International Committees for the four lion
tamarin species. These committees were
established by the Brazilian Institute for the
Environment and Renewable Natural Resources
(Ibama) to discuss and advise on issues concerning
the management of captive and wild populations,
as well as research projects and any issues which
directly or indirectly affect their conservation
status. The working document which provides the
directions and guidelines for these committees was
produced during the Population Viability
Workshop on Leontopithecus, held in Belo
Horizonte in June 1990, and sponsored by the
Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, World Wildlife
Fund-US, Ibama, Fundaqio Biodiversitas and
Conservation International. It was published by the
SSC/Captive Breeding Specialist Group, chaired by
Ulysses S.Seal (Seal et al., 1990). The report
includes specific proposals for future action
concerning conservation measures for the lion
tamarin species. These were reasonably complete
for GLTs, GHLTs, and BLTs, but lacking
sufficient data for BHLTs, which had only very
recently been discovered. As a result, one of the
main themes for this, the first, meeting for BHLTs
was the elaboration of an action plan based on the
considerable amount of data now available
concerning their distribution and status in the wild.
For the other species, the action plans were
reviewed in terms of the progress which had been
achieved since the Workshop, and the conclusion
that the large majority of the recommendations had
been addressed, and that quite a number had even
been resolved, was the cause of some satisfaction
amongst the committee members.

Credit must be given not only to Ibama for the
initiative, but also to the Committee chairs: GHLT

Page 11

Neotropical Primates 1(2), June 1993

- Jeremy Mallinson (Jersey Wildlife Preservation
Trust) and Adelmar Coimbra-Filho (Centro de
Primatologia do Rio de Janeiro); GLT Devra
Kleiman (National Zoological Park, Washington,
DC) and Adelmar Coimbra-Filho; BLT Faiqal
Simon (Fundagqo Parque Zool6gico de Sio Paulo)
and Devra Kleiman; and BHLT Ibsen de Gusmao
CAmara (Fundacao Brasilcira para a Conservagco
da Natureza) and Jeremy Mallinson. There are
now large captive populations of GLTs (a total of
552 animals recorded in the 1991 Studbook;
Ballou, 1992) and GHLTs (472 animals recorded
in the 1992 Studbook; Mace and Mallinson, 1992),
and strategies were discussed to expand the captive
breeding program for BLTs (72 animals recorded
in the 1990 Studbook; Padua and Simon, 1990) to
a number of new institutions outside of Brazil.
There is still no captive program for BHLTs,
although the committee determined that the
establishment of a captive population should be a
priority measure.

Optimism regarding the survival of the disjunct
and small populations of the four lion tamarins,
each with specific and serious problems in
contrasting scenarios in widely differing regions
and habitats, was prevalent (and necessary) during
the symposium and the committee meetings, and
not unfounded considering the large number of
people dedicating their work to the maintenance of
the captive programs, research on the wild
populations, and the resolution of the ever-
worsening threats in the wild.


Ballou, J.D. 1992. 1991 International Studbook
Golden Lion Tamarin Leontopithecus rosalia.
National Zoological Park, Washington, D.C.
Mace, G.M. and Mallinson, J.J.C. 1992.
International Studbook Golden-Headed Lion
Tamarin Leontopithecus chrysomelas Number 5,
1992. Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, Jersey.
Paidua, C. and Simon, F. 1990. 1990 International
Studbook Black Lion Tamarin Leontopithecus
chrysopygus. Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust,
Jersey, and National Zoological Park,
Washington, D.C.
Seal, U.S., Ballou, J.D., Padua, C.V. (eds.) 1990.
Leontopithecus Population Viability Analysis
Workshop Report. Captive Breeding Specialist
Group (CBSG), Species Survival Commission
(SSC), World Conservation Union (IUCN),
Apple Valley, Minnesota.


Durante el present afio con el apoyo econ6mico de
UNESCO, Paris, en la Reserva de la Bi6sfera
"Estaci6n Biol6gica Beni", Provincias BalliviAn y
Yacuma, Departamento Beni, Bolivia
(66018'30"W, 14o38'00"S), se desarrollara el
proyecto "Censo y distribuci6n de la poblaci6n del
marimono (Ateles paniscus)". En Bolivia
A.p.chamek ha sido poco estudiado y no ha
merecido atenci6n en ningim proyecto especifico,
contAndose con datos de su abundancia,
distribuci6n y su estado de conservaci6n como fruto
de evaluaciones generals sobre la fauna
primatol6gica. Estes monos son usados como
comida caree y obtenci6n de aceite) y como
mascotas por gente local. La caza las ha afectado
en particular; se indica que para la zona de Cobija
y probablemente para toda la region de Pando la
presencia de A.paniscus es rara, porque
aparentemente ha sido cazado hasta extinguirse en
grandes regions. Finalmente la destrucci6n del
habitat constitute tambi6n un factor important,
sufriendo las superficies boscosas una deforestaci6n
constant a causa de asentamientos humans mal
dirigidos hacia las regions tropicales. Desde el
punto de vista de la conservaci6n en Bolivia,
A.paniscus estA considerada como una especie
amenazada, categoria bajo la cual incluyen las
species cuyas poblaciones experimentan
disminuci6n por explotaci6n intensive o
destrucci6n del habitat.

El present studio esta enmarcado dentro de las
acciones prioritarias de studios biol6gicos
intensivos para species en peligro de extinci6n y
de interns econ6mico, entire las que estA
especialmente considerada A.paniscus, a fin de
former las bases t6cnicas y cientificas para el
manejo de recursos. El studio tiene los siguientes
objetivos: 1) establecer el status (distribuci6n y
abundancia) de A.paniscus en la Estaci6n
Biol6gica Beni; 2) conocer la composici6n y
tamafio de los grupos, relacionadas con diferencias
estacionales; y 3) conocer aspects de su
comportamiento y uso vertical del espacio.

Teresa Tarifa Suarez, Curador, Secci6n
Mamiferos, Colecci6n Boliviana de Fauna,
Convenio Instituto de Ecologia-Museo Nacional de
Historia Natural, Cassilla 8706, Calle 26 Cota

Page 12

Page 13 Neotropical Primates 1(2% June 1993

Cota, La Paz, Bolivia.


Cabot, J. Serrano, P., Ibafiez, C. y Braza, F. 1986.
Lista preliminary de aves y mamiferos de la
reserve "Estaci6n Biol6gica del Beni". Ecologia
en Bolivia, (8):37-44.
Garcia, J.E., Castello, V., Corvillo, M. 1987.
Primeras apreciaciones de la densidad de Cebus
apella y Saimiri sciureus en la Estaci6n
Biol6gica Beni, Bolivia. Ecologia en Bolivia,
Garcia, J.E. y Tarifa, T. 1991. Estudio de la
communidad de primatas en la Reserva de la
Biosfera "Estaci6n Biol6gica Beni", Bolivia.
Ecologia en Bolivia, (17): 1-14.

Editor's note: Six species of primates occur in the
Beni Ecological Station: Ateles paniscus, Alouatta
seniculus, Cebus apella, Saimiri boliviensis,
Callicebus donacophilus, and Aotus azarae
(Garcia and Tarifa, 1991).

Stqph. Nskh 1993


The pied tamarin is probably the most endangered
of the Amazonian callitrichids, having a very
restricted range centred on Manaus, the capital of
the state of Amazonas. From May 1983 to April
1984, Silvia Egler of the Instituto Nacional de
Pesquisas da Amaz6nia (INPA), carried out a field

study of a group of 6-9 individuals in a small
fenced enclosure of 20 ha of secondary forest in the
grounds of the Tropical Hotel, Manaus. The study
was financed by INPA and the Brazilian Science
Council (CNPq), and presented as a master's
thesis, supervised by Dr Cory C.T.Carvalho, to the
State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Slo
Paulo (Egler, 1986). Part of the study, concerning
feeding ecology, was recently published in volume
59 (1992) of Folia Primatologica. Egler (1992)
listed 21 plant species of 12 families used for food
resources (fruits, flowers and exudates), and
described their characteristics and seasonality in
consumption. She also examined aspects of
ranging behaviour, habitat use (range size was 12
ha), and activity cycles. At the end of the article
Egler discussed the conservation status of the pied
tamarin. S.bicolor occurs in four protected areas:
the Adolfo Ducke Reserve of INPA (10,000 ha);
the Alberto Egler Reserve of INPA (630 ha); the
Ecological Reserve of Sauim-Castanheiras (109
ha); and a small private reserve of the Tropical
Hotel. Egler referred to the problems of small
genetically isolated populations, and the precarious
situation of groups scattered through the suburbs
and surrounding areas of Manaus. Part of her study
area, originally occupied by three groups, was
destroyed by the hotel owners in 1985, and in 1986
she was able to observe only two individuals
remaining there. The forests around Manaus are
being destroyed with the expansion of its urban
limits, as well as for agriculture and cattle-
ranching, and the pied tamarin, although not
hunted, is undoubtedly declining rapidly in
numbers. Ayres et al. (1980, 1982), Egler (1983)
and Coimbra-Filho (1987) have also reviewed its
distribution and conservation status.

Silvia Egler is continuing her studies on the pied
tamarin for a doctoral thesis, also from the State
University of Campinas, under the supervision of
Marc G.M.van Roosmalen (Department of Botany,
INPA). In this study she is examining the
ecological segregation of the midas tamarin,
Saguinus midas midas and S.b.bicolor, through
vegetation analyses and a detailed delimitation of
the geographic distribution of the two species in
the vicinity of Manaus. Her findings have already
indicated that the range of S.b.bicolor is even
smaller than indicated by previous studies (Ayres
et al., 1980, 1982), with the Rio Cuieras being the
western limit and Km 30 of the BR-174 highway
one of the northern limits. The research is being
financed by the National Institute for Amazon
Research (INPA), the Brazilian Science Council

Areotropical Priniates ](2), June 1993

Page 13

Neotropical Primates 1(2), June 1993

(CNPq), Conservation International, Washington,
D.C., and Wildlife Conservation International,
New York.

Silvia G. Egler, Departamento de Ecologia,
Institute Nacional de Pesquisas da Amaz6nia
(INPA), Caixa Postal 478, Manaus 69083,
Amazonas, Brazil.


Ayres, J.M.C., Mittermeier, R.A. and Constable,
I.D. 1980. A distribuiqAo e situaqiAo atual dos
saguis-de-cara-nua (Saguinus bicolor).
Boletim/FBCN, Rio de Janeiro, 15:62-68.
Ayres, J.M.C., Mittermeier, R.A. and Constable,
I.D. 1982. Brazilian tamarins on the way to
extinction? Oryx, 16:329-333.
Coimbra-Filho, A.F. 1987. Esp6cies ameaQadas
de extincgo. Saguis-de-cara-nua Saguinus bicolor
(Spix, 1823). FBCN/Inf., Rio de Janeiro,
Egler, S.G. 1983. Current status of the pied bare-
face tamarin in Brazilian Amazonia. UCN/.SSC
Primate Specialist Group Newsletter, (3):20.
Egler, S.G. 1986. Estudos bion6micos de
Saguinus bicolor (Spix, 1823) (Callitrichidae:
Primates), em mata tropical alterada, Manaus,
AM. Unpublished Master's thesis, Instituto de
Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas,
Sio Paulo. 175pp.
Egler. S.G. 1991. Habitos alimentares de
Saguinus bicolor bicolor (Primates,
Callitrichidae) na regiio de Manaus, Amazonas.
In: A primatologia no Brasil 3, A.B.Rylands
and A.T.Bernardes (eds.), pp.213. Sociedade
Brasileira de Primatologia and Fundaqio
Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte. (Abstract).
Egler, S.G. 1991. Double-toothed kites following
tamarins. Wilson Bulletin, 103:510-512.
Egler, S.G. 1992. Feeding ecology of Saguinus
bicolor bicolor (Callitrichidae, Primates) in a
relict forest in Manaus, Brazilian Amazon. Folia
Priniatol., 59:61-76.


The Library of the Wisconsin Regional Primate
Research Center of the University of Wisconsin at
Madison has set up an electronic mail listserver
called PRIMATE-TALK: an open forum for
discussion in primatology and related subjects.
Subjects include: news items, meetings

announcements, research issues, information
requests, veterinary/husbandry topics, job notices,
animal exchange information, and book reviews.
People with Internet, BITNET, or UUCP addresses
can communicate with PRIMATE-TALK. Users of
other networks should contact the address given
below. If you are interested in joining PRIMATE-
TALK send a message to PRIMATE-TALK-
you would like to sign on. Messages to the list can
EDU. If you have any questions concerning
electronic access to the list, you can call Larry
Jacobsen, Head of Library Services, Wisconsin
Regional Primate Research Center (WRPRC)
Library, 1220 Capitol Court, Madison, Wisconsin
53715-1299, USA. Tel: (608) 263-3512, Fax:
(608) 263-4031.


The Lincoln Park Zoo Scott Neotropic Fund is
sponsored by the Lincoln Park Zoological Society
and the Chicago Park District. It provides support
for conservation projects throughout Latin
America, although preference is given to new
projects with 1) links to either the Lincoln Park
Zoo animal collection or members of the zoo staff,
2) direct participation by graduate and/or
undergraduate students, and 3) support designated
for students and/or field assistants from Latin
America. Projects should generate information
that contributes to the conservation of Latin
American Wildlife. Awards are seldom greater
than US$7,500, and most are of the order of
$5,000-$7,000. The fund does not generally
support salaries and the purchase of permanent
equipment. For further information about the fund,
as well as the zoo's animal collection, write to
Dr.Steven D.Thompson, Director of Conservation
and Science, Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens,
2200 North Cannon Drive, Chicago, Illinois
60614, USA. The deadline for receipt of proposals
is 1 September 1993.


Wildlife Conservation International (WCI) and its
parent organization the New York Zoological
Society have recently adopted the new name of

Page 14

Neotropical Primates 1(2), June 1993

NYZS The Wildlife Conservation Society. The
Society has a fellowship program which gives
support to projects that specifically address the
conservation needs of wildlife in endangered
ecosystems. The projects must be directed towards
activities that will help achieve concrete progress
in the conservation of wild areas and their species.

The program does not provide funds for conference
participation, air tickets, scientific meetings,
university fees, legal actions, construction of
permanent field stations, salaries, nor general
administration costs. Very expensive laboratory
analyses are not considered either. Certain
proposals for research in Central America may be
eligible to compete for exclusive funding from the
United States Agency for International
Development's Regional Office for Central
American Programs (ROCAP).

For more information write to: Dr Mary Pearl,
NYZS The Wildlife Conservation Society,
International Programs, 185th Street and Southern
Boulevard, Bronx, New York 10460-1099, USA.
Tel: (718) 220-5155, Fax: (718) 364-4275, or Ing.
Claudio Saito, NGO Advisor, Regional Office for
Central American Programs, 2a. Avenida 9-01,
Zona 10, Guatemala, Guatemala 01010. Tel: 502-
2-313515, 502-2-318973, Fax: 502-2-320495.


A listing of agencies and foundations that grant
funding for research on mammals was announced
in the Journal of Mamnnalogy (1992, 73(1):242) of
the American Society of Mammalogists. The list
comprises a variety of sources for established
researchers as well as students and recent
graduates. To obtain q copy, send an IBM-
compatible, formatted disk (3.5 in. or 5.25 in.), as
well as a self-addressed, stamped envelope to:
Nancy D.Moncreif, ASM Education and Graduate
Students Committee, Vijrrnia Museum of Natural
History, 1001 Douglas Aygnue, Martinsville, VA
24112, USA.


0 Fundo Mundial para a Natureza (WWF) estA
recebendo pianos de teses de pos-graduacgo

(mestrado e doutorado) com enfoque em Biologia
da Conservacao, para apoio financeiro. Este apoio
inclui viagens ao campo, aquisiqio de pequenos
itens de equipamento e despesas em geral que
viabilizam a execuqAo do piano de trabalho. NMo 6
uma bolsa de manutenqAo pessoal. 0 valor pode
variar de US$3,000 a US$8,000 por tese, para o
period necessArio ao trabalho de campo.
Propostas s6 serao consideradas se indicarem
resultados praticos para aplicacgo em conservagio
da natureza.

O WWF dara prioridade aos pIanos de teses que
possam contribuir para as suas areas prioritArias
dos chamados Projetos Integrados de Conservacqo
e Desenvolvimento (PICD). Atualmente sao cinco,
esses PICDs que constituem prioridades
geogrificas do WWF: 1) Reserva Biol6gica de
Una, na Mata AtlAntica do sul da Bahia; 2) Parque
Nacional do Jai, rio Negro, Amazonas; 3) Estaqao
Ecol6gica do Lago Mamiraua, varzea dos rios
Solimoes e JapurA, Amazonas; 4) cerrado (a ser
designado) e; 5) regiio de Iguaqu e Misiones,
fronteira Brasil-Argentina. Al6m dessas .Areas
prioritarias, ha ainda as seguintes Reservas
Extrativistas: Rio Cajari, Amapa; Alto Jurui, Acre;
e reserves extrativistas estaduais em Rond6nia.

Serao consideradas tamb6m propostas que possam
contribuir para mapear Areas importantes em
biodiversidade no cerrado, e na Amazonia como
regi6es prioritArias para serem protegidas, e
estudos de dinAmica de fragments na mata
AtlAntica. Outro tema important 6 o tamanho e
forma de Areas a serem protegidas. Seri finalmente
considerada a capacidade institutional da
universidade onde o aluno de pos-graduacgio esti
matriculado, principalmente quanto A orientagao
acadEmico-cientifica e da estrutura minima para
concluir o trabalho.

Prazos: Recebimento da proposta 1) entire 01 de
julho e 30 de setembro para julgamento ate 31 de
outubro; 2) entire 01 de outubro e 31 de dezembro
para julgamento at6 31 de janeiro; 3) entire 01 de
janeiro e 31 de margo para julgamento at6 30 de
abril; 4) entire 01 de abril e 30 de junho para
julgamento at6 31 de julho.

Para maiores informaq6es: Dr Cleber J.R.Alho,
WWF-Fundo Mundial para a Natureza; SHIS EQ
QL 06/08, Conjunto E, 20 andar, Brasilia DF
76120-430, Tel: (061) 248-2899, Fax: (061) 248-

Page 15

Neotropical Primates 1(2), June 1993 Page 16


The Chairman of the SSC Edentate Specialist
Group, Gustavo A.B. da Fonseca, Federal
University of Minas Gerais and Brazil Program
Director of Conservation International, will be
editing a newsletter, in collaboration with Ilmar B.
Santos, Director of the Fundag~o Biodiversitas,
Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The
Newsletter will report on current projects
concerning the status, distributions, behaviour,
ecology and captive breeding of armadillos,
anteaters and sloths, as well as palaeontological
research on the Quaternary and Tertiary
xenarthrans, along with the activities of the Group,
and of IUCN and SSC in general. Please will all
those involved in research or captive breeding of
these animals, and especially the Edentate
Specialist Group members, consider this
Newsletter as a forum for the exchange of ideas
and opinions and to report on projects, research
groups, events, recent publications, activities of
NGOs etc. Please send texts either in the form of
manuscripts (double-spaced) or in diskettes for PC
compatible text-editors (MS-Word, Wordperfect,
Wordstar) to: Gustavo A.B. da Fonseca,
Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Ciencias
Biol6gicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais,
31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Brazil, Fax: (031) 441-
1412, or c/o Conservation International, Rua
Bueno Brandio 393, Belo Horizonte 31010-060,
Minas Gerais, Brazil, Fax: (031) 222-8429, or
Ilmar B. Santos, Fundacqo Biodiversitas, Caixa
Postal 2462, Rua Maria Vaz de Melo 71, Dona
Clara, 31250 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais,
Brazil, Fax: (031) 441-7037.


An International Exchange Program for Fish and
Wildlife Managers was established in 1990 at the
Massachusetts Cooperative Fish and Wildlife
Research Unit for the purposes of providing fish
and wildlife professionals and educators from Latin
America with practical management-oriented
training. Participants are given opportunities to
develop new knowledge and technical skills by
working in the field, laboratory, and academic
setting with biologists and managers. In addition,

the Exchange Program is intended to increase
awareness of shared fish and wildlife concerns in
the western hemisphere among students, staff and
cooperators affiliated with the Unit. The program
includes only established professionals, and is
funded by the Office of International Affairs,
U.S.Fish and Wildlife Service, and the Unit.

The cooperators for the 1992 program were as
follows: United States U.S.Fish and Wildlife
Service (Massachusetts Cooperative Fish and
Wildlife Research Unit, Office of International
Affairs, Northeast Regional Office), University of
Massachusetts, Massachusetts Division of Fisheries
and Wildlife, and the Hitchcock Center for the
Environment, Inc.; Latin America Universidad
Nacional de Costa Rica (Programa Regional de
Vida Silvestre para Mesoamerica y el Caribe),
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
(Departamento de Zoologia), Brazil, and the
Universidad Nacional Experimental de los Llanos
Occidentales (Secretirio Ejecutivo de Postgrado),
Venezuela. The three Latin American wildlife
biologists who participated in the 1992 program
were: Magaly M.Ojeda C., a wildlife ecologist
working with PROFAUNA, an agency of the
Environmental and Natural Resources Ministry of
Venezuela (MARNR), President of the Venezuelan
Association for the Study of Mammals, and
currently developing a new graduate program in
Aquatic and Wildlife Management and
Conservation at the Universidad Simon Bolivar;
Claudia M.R.Costa, who is working at the
Conservation Data Center of the Fundacqo
Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, specifically
on the development of computerized mapping
programs (Geographic Information Systems GIS)
for setting priorities for land use and conservation;
and Eduardo Carrillo J., an Associate Professor in
the Regional Wildlife Management Program for
Central America and the Caribbean, Universidad
Nacional, Heredia, Costa Rica.

Two new cooperators joined the Program in 1993:
Enrique H.Bucher, Centro de Zoologia Aplicada,
Cassilla do Correo 122, 5000 Cordoba, Argentina;
and Magaly M.Ojeda C., Aquatic and Wildlife
Management and Conservation, Universidad
Simon Bolivar, Caracas, Venezuela. Both
cooperators are establishing master's programs in
wildlife management. The exchanges for 1993
will take place in the early Autumn, with the
selection date being August 1.

For further information: Dr Rebecca Field,

lVeotropical Primates ](2), June 1993

Page 16

Neotropical Primates 1(2), June 1993

Program Director, Massachusetts Cooperative Fish
and Wildlife Research Unit, 204 Holdsworth
Natural Resources Center, University of
Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA.

Primate Societies



A Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia (SBPr) esta
organizando o VI Congresso Brasileiro de
Primatologia, previsto para meados de 1994, como
parte das atividades da XX Congresso Brasileiro de
Zoologia na Universidade Federal do Rio de
Janeiro. Favor enviar sugest6es de temas,
simp6sios, mini-cursos e outras atividades, para
Aline P.da Rin Azevedo, Secretaria Geral da SBPr,
Departamento de Zoologia, Museu Paraense Emilio
Goeldi, Caixa Postal 399, 66.040-970 Bel6m, ParA,

No seu Boletim de fevereiro de 1993, o SBPr
informou que o livro A Primatologia no Brasil-4,
os anais do V Congresso da SBPr em Salvador,
Bahia, ja esta pronto e, de acordo com as editors
Maria Emilia Yamamoto e Maria Bernadete de
Sousa (Nicleo de Primatologia da Universidade
Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal) deverA ser
publicado nos pr6ximos meses.

Recent Publications

Protected Areas of the World: A Review of
National Systems. Volume 4: Nearctic and
Neotropical, 1992, compiled by the World
Conservation Monitoring Centre and IUCN, in
cooperation with British Petroleum, c.400pp.,
maps. Price US$50.00. Part of a four volume
world-wide survey, organized into national
accounts, each comprising a description of the
national protected areas system, accompanied by a
summary list and map of protected areas. The
remaining volumes deal with the Indomalaya,
Oceania, Australia and Antarctica (Volume 1);
Palearctic (Volume 2); and Afrotropical (Volume
3) regions. Available from: IUCN Publications
Services Unit, 181a Huntingdon Road, Cambridge

CB3 ODJ, UK, Tel: (0223) 277894, Fax: (0223)
277175, or Island Press, Box 7, Covelo, California
95428, USA, Tel: (800) 828-1302 (toll free in the
US), (707) 983-6432 (outside the US), Fax: (707)

Project on the Reproduction and
Conservation of Nonhuman Primates,
Iquitos, Peru Annual Report 1991, 110pp.,
and Project on the Reproduction and
Conservation of Nonhuman Primates,
Iquitos, Peru Semiannual Report,
January-June 1992, 110pp., by J.Moro,
F.Encarnaci6n, L.Moya, E.Montoya and
H.Samam6, Pan American Health Organization
Veterinary Public Health Program, Iquitos, 27pp.
(Text in English or Spanish). Available from:
Center for Reproduction and Conservation ,/o1
Nonhuman Primates, Peruvian Primatological
Project, Veterinary Insititute of Tropical and Higlh
Altitude Research (IVITA), Universidad Nacional
Mayor de San Marcos, P.O.Box 621, Iquitos, Peru.

Primates of the Americas: Strategies for
Conservation and Sustained Use in
Biomedical Research, 1993, edited by Primo
V.Arambulo III, Filomeno Encarnaci6n, Jaime
Estupifian, Hugo Samam6, Charles R.Watson, and
Richard E..Weller, 336pp., Battelle Press,
Columbus, Ohio. Price US$34.95 + shipping
(USA $3.50 first book; 75c each additional copy;
outside USA $3.50 surface; $8.50 air). All
chapters in Spanish and English. Proceedings of
the First Ordinary Meeting of the Regional
Primatology Committee for the Americas (Comite
Regional de Primatologia para las Amdricas -
CORP-I), convened by the Director of the Pan
American Health Organization from October 29th
to 31st, 1990. Over 50 government representatives
and scientists from 15 countries met in the Batelle
Conference Center, Seattle, Washington, USA, to
discuss the status of Neotropical primates and
formulate plans for their preservation. Includes a
full report of the meeting, and 17 chapters
including: a review of Neotropical primate
conservation (R.A.Mittermeier et al.); the status of
natural populations and benefits of sustained
cropping (L.Moya et al.); environmental factors
affecting reproduction in special habitats
(T.Wolfle); nonhuman primate conservation and
public health (R.A.Whitney Jr.); PAHO/WHO
technical cooperation in the conservation and use
of nonhuman primates in the Americas

Page 17

Neotropical Primates 1(2), June 1993 Page 18

(P.ArAmbulo III and A.Ruiz); intregated
development of conservation units and the role of
national primatology programs (J.V.Rodriguez);
international collaboration for the development of
primatology programs (M.U.Castillo); wildlife
management in Brazil (J.Wallauer P.); managing
nonhuman primates as renewable resources
(T.Panayotou and P.Arimbulo III); mobilization of
resources for conservation of Neotropical
ecosystems and debt-for-nature swaps (E.Liebow);
community participation in the Protection of the
Natural Habitat of the Neotropical and Natural
Resource Policy in Bolivia (H.Zaballos H.); and a
proposal for a regional action plan in primatology
for the Americas (F.Encamaci6n and H.Samamd).
It also includes the proposed constitution and
regulations of CORP. Available from: Batelle
Press, 505 King Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43201-
2693, USA.

A Belizean Rain Forest The Community
Baboon Sanctuary, by R.Horwich and J.Lyon,
420pp, illustrated. Price US$14.00 postpaid.
Available from: R.Horwich, Director, Howlers
Forever Inc., RDI, Box 96, Gays Mills, WI 54631,
USA. Tel: (608) 735-4717.

Field Studies of New World Monkeys La
Macarena Colombia, Vol.7, 1992, Monbusho
International Scientific Research Program
(No.02041009) Reports, Japan Colombia
Cooperative Study of Primates. 53pp. Includes the
following articles: Nishimura, A., Wilches A.V.
and Estrada, C. Mating behaviors of woolly
monkeys, Lagothrix lagotricha, at La Macarena,
Colombia (III): reproductive parameters viewed
from a longterm study; Izawa, K. Social changes
within a group of wild black-capped capuchins
(Cebus apella).III; Izawa, K. and H.Lozano M.
Social changes within a group of red howler
monkeys (Alouatta seniculus). IV; Koshin, K.
Demographic approach to the social group of wild
red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus);
Kobayashi, M. and Izawa, K. Early stage of
rhizome development in Pharus virescens
(Poaceae: Bambusoidae) located in La Macarena,
Colombia; Yoshihiko, H. and Barbosa, C.
Architecture of the hill-crest type forest in the
upper Colombian Amazon. Contact: Kosei Izawa,
Miyagi University of Education, Aoba, Sendai, 980

Primate Behaviour: Information, Social
Knowledge, and the Evolution of Culture,

by Duane Quiatt and Vernon Reynolds, Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, 1993, 275pp. Hdbk
US$74.95. Cambridge Studies in Biological
Anthropology. Explores the social life of monkeys,
apes, and humans, paying close attention to the
importance of social information and
understanding of primate social behaviour and
organization. Available from: Cambridge
University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York,
NY 10011-4211, USA.

Measuring Behaviour: An Introductory
Guide, by Paul Martin and Patrick Bateson, 2nd
Edition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,
1993, 232pp. Pbk US$16.95. Available from:
Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street,
New York, NY 10011-4211, USA.

Welfare Guidelines for the Re-introduction
of Captive Bred Mammals to the Wild,
prepared by the International Academy of Animal
Welfare Sciences, UFAW, 1992, 10pp. Price
US$6.00. Available from: Universities Federation
for Animal Welfare, 8 Hamilton Close, South
Mimms, Potters Bar, Herts EN6 3QD, UK.

Primate Social Conflict, edited by William
A.Mason and Sally P.Mendoza, State University of
New York Press, New York, 1993, 419pp. Pbk
US$19.95 + US$3.00 postage. This book examines
conflict as a normal and recurrent feature of
primate social life, important in the basic processes
contributing to social order. The authors go
beyond the usual view which tends to equate social
conflict with fights over food or mates or for social
supremacy, and analyse the diverse manifestations
and significance of conflict in a number of case
studies. Available from: State University of New
York Press, c/o CUP Services, P.O.Box 6525,
Ithaca, NY 14851, USA.

Evaluation and Assessment for
Conservation, by I.F.Spellerberg, Chapman and
Hall, London, 1992, 280pp. Price Hdbk. 29.95.
The assessment of how and why species and
communities are threatened, crucial to rational
decision-making about the implementation of
management plans for their conservation. A
revision of the author's previous work Ecological
Evaluations for Conservation. Available from:
Direct Response Supervisor, Chapman and Hall
Ltd., Cheriton House, North Way, Andover, Hants
SP10 5BE, England, Fax: 0264 364418.

Page 18

Neotropical Priniates ](2), June 1993

Neotropical Primates 1(2), June 1993

Tropical Deforestation and Species
Extinction, edited by T.C.Whitmore and
J.A.Sayer, Chapman and Hall, London, 1992,
208pp. Price Pbk 14.95. Available from: Direct
Response Supervisor, Chapman and Hall Ltd.,
Cheriton House, North Way, Andover, Hants SPL0
5BE, England, Fax: 0264 364418.

Informe del Taller Internacional sobre
Politicas de Turismo en Parques
Nacionales y otras Areas Protegidas,
Organizaci6n de las Naciones Unidas para la
Agriculture y la Alimentaci6n (FAO), Programa de
las Naciones Unidas para el Medio Ambiente
(UNEP), Red Latinoamericana de Cooperaci6n
T6cnica en Parques Nacionales, otras Areas
Protegidas, Flora y Fauna Silvestres, Santiago,
Chile, 1992, 66pp. Proceedings of a workshop held
in Puerto La Cruz, Venezuela, 21-25 September
1992. Available from: Kyran D.Thelen, Oficial
Regional Forestal, Oficina Regional de la FAO
para America y el Caribe, Avda. Santa Maria
6700, Casilla 10095, Santiago, Chile. Tel: (562)
218 53 23, Fax: (562) 218 25 47.

Manejo de Areas Protegidas Fronterizas
en America Latina, Documento T6cnico No. 10,
Proyecto FAO/PNUMA sobre Manejo de Areas
Silvestres, Areas Protegidas y Vida Silvestre en
America Latina y el Caribe. Red Latinoamericana
de Cooperaci6n T6cnica en Parques Nacionales,
otras Areas Protegidas, Flora y Fauna Silvestres.
Oficina Regional de la FAO para America Latina y
el Caribe. B.Marchetti, J.Oltremari y H.Peters,
1992, 120pp. El document comprende un
diagn6stico, el que esta referido a los recursos
naturales y sistemas de clasificaci6n de las Areas
silvestres protegidas fronterizas, asentiamentos
humans y actividades productivas, actividades
turisticas, investigaci6n, educaci6n ambiental,
capacitaci6n, planificaci6n y aspects legales.
Tambidn se incluyen los siete studios de casos que
fueron presentados por los participants al Taller
International sobre Manejo de Areas Silvestres
Protegidas Fronterizas, que organize la Oficina
Regional de la FAO en PanamA. Dichos casos
involucraran a 12 Areas protegidas y a 10 paises,
segin el detalle que se indica: Parque Nacional
Trifinio (El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras);
Parque Nacional La Amistad (Costa Rica,
Panama); Parque Nacional Los Katios, Dari6n
(Colombia, PanamA); Parque Nacional do Pico da
Neblina, La Neblina (Brasil, Venezuela), Parque
Nacional El Tama (Colombia, Venezuela); Parque

Nacional do Iguaqu, Iguazu (Brasil, Argentina); y
Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi, Vicente Pdrez
Rosales-Puyehue (Argentina, Chile). Available
from: Kyran D.Thelen, Oficial Regional Forestal,
Oficina Regional de la FAO para Am6rica y el
Caribe, Avda. Santa Maria 6700, Casilla 10095,
Santiago, Chile. Tel: (562) 218 53 23, Fax: (562)
218 25 47.

Areas Protegidas de la Cuenca del
Amazonas, Martha Rojas y Carlos Castaflo, 1990,
213pp. Red Latinoamericana de Cooperaci6n
T6cnica en Parques Nacionales, otras Areas
Protegidas, Flora y Fauna Silvestres, Comisi6n
Especial del Medio Ambiente del Tratado de
Cooperaci6n Amaz6nica, Instituto Nacional de los
Recursos Naturales Renovables y del Ambiente,
Colombia. El document pretend reunir
informaci6n hasta ahora dispersa sobre el estado de
Areas protegidas y, cuando possible, analizarla
dentro del context regional natural y de political.
Gran parte de la informaci6n proviene del Taller
International sobre Areas Protegidas en la Cuenca
del Amazonas, celebrado en Leticia, Colombia,
entire el 12 y el 18 de junio de 1989. Esta
informaci6n fue complementada y actualizada
mediante la consult de fuentes diversas y tuvo en
cuenta los documents presentados en otras
reuniones tdcnicas, como la de la Comisi6n
Especial del Medio Ambiente Amaz6nico (Tratado
de Cooperaci6n Amaz6nica). Available from:
Kyran D.Thelen, Oficial Regional Forestal, Oficina
Regional de la FAO para America y el Caribe,
Avda. Santa Maria 6700, Casilla 10095, Santiago,
Chile. Tel: (562) 218 53 23, Fax: (562) 218 25 47.

Catdlogo y resumenes de literature no
publicada sobre Conservaci6n y Manejo
de Vida Silvestre en America Latina, Centro
de Documentaci6n BIODOC, Programa Regional
en Manejo de Vida Silvestre (PRMVS),
Universidad Nacional, Heredia, Costa Rica, 234pp.
El PRMVS divulga los resultados tanto de sus
investigadores como de otros colegas en
Latinoamerica a travds de su Centro de
Documentaci6n en Vida Silvestre (BIODOC), el
cual fue inaugurado en febrero de 1988. El
catalogo incluye material bibliogrAfico no
publicado o cuyo tiraje ha sido muy reducido, tal
como el caso de tesis, reports, proyectos y
investigaciones. Contiene dos indices que facilitan
much la b6squeda de informaci6n. Uno de ellos
es de species y materials compuesto por 727
palabras claves; de ellas, 136 se refieren a species

Page 19

Neotropical Primates 1(2), June 1993 Page 20

de fauna. El otro indice es de paises,
comprendiendo 35 referencias relatives a paises de
los cinco continents. En total, el catalogo
comprende 600 titulos, parte important de los
cuales incluye un resume del trabajo, que como ya
se indic6, son de diverse indole. Para mas
informaci6n: Dr Victor Cartin Leiva, Director,
Program Regional de Vida Silvestre para
Mesoamdrica y el Caribe, Universidad Nacional,
Campus Omar Dengo, Apartado 1350, 3000
Heredia, Costa Rica, Tel: 37-7039, Fax: 37-7036.

Agenda 21: Working Toward a Global
Partnership, N.A.Robinson (ed.), 1992,
published under the auspices of IUCN The World
Conservation Union by Oceana Publications Inc.,
New York. IUCN Environmental Policy Paper
No.27, 700+pp. Price US$30.00 + US$4.00
shipping and handling. The Agenda 21 Document
is an international framework for a global
partnership concluded in Rio de Janeiro in June
1992 during the Earth Summit, for forging future
agreements and understandings that affect the
environment, development and resources of our
Earth. Also a six-volume clothbound Agenda 21
and UNCED Proceedings Series covering the Road
to Rio and Beyond, including PrepComs I-IV, the
Declaration of Rio, Forestry Principles, Sustainable
Development, Biodiversity, Agenda 21, and "Non-
papers", and the Fall 1992 General Assembly
Debates. Available from: Oceana Publications,
Inc., 75 Main Street, Dobbs Ferry, New York
10522, USA, Tel: 914-693-8100, Fax: 914-693-

The World Environment 1972-1992: Two
Decades of Challenge, M.K.Tolba, O.A.El-
Kholy, M.W.Holdgate, D.F.McMichael, R.E.Munn
and E.El-Hinnawi (eds.), 1992, Chapman and Hall,
London, 896pp. Price Hdbk. 65, Pbk. 24.95. A
point of reference for those concerned with
environmental issues, the book proposes and
discusses national and international responses to
environmental problems, including such topics as
air pollution, ozone depletion, climate change,
availability of fresh water, coastal, marine and land
degradation, deforestation, loss of habitat and
biodiversity, toxic chemical and waste, agriculture,
fisheries, industry, energy, transport and tourism.
Available from: Direct Response Supervisor,
Chapman and Hall Ltd., Cheriton House, North
Way, Andover, Hants SPO1 5BE, England, Fax:
0264 364418.

Global Biodiversity: Status of the Earth's
Living Resources, edited by the World
Conservation Monitoring Centre, Cambridge,
U.K., 1992, Chapman and Hall, London, 614pp.
Price Hdbk. 29.95. Published in collaboration
with the Natural History Museum, London, and in
consultation with the World Resources Institute,
Washington, D.C. A comprehensive compendium
of conservation information and the first systematic
report on the status, distribution, management and
use of the planet's biological wealth. Standardised
and comparable data for 205 countries. Available
from: Direct Response Supervisor, Chapman and
Hall Ltd., Cheriton House, North Way, Andover,
Hants SP10 5BE, England, Fax: 0264 364418.

Saving Our Planet: Challenges and Hopes,
edited by M.K.Tolba (UNEP, Kenya), 1992,
Chapman and Hall, London, 304pp. Price Pbk.
17.95. Analyses the changes in the environment
and interactions between the environment and
development activities over the past two decades,
based on a review of the scientific literature and
UNEP reports. Available from: Direct Response
Supervisor, Chapman and Hall Ltd., Cheriton
House, North Way, Andover, Hants SPO1 5BE,
England, Fax: 0264 364418.


1990 International Studbook for Black
Lion Tamarin Leontopithecus chrysopygus,
by Faiqal Simon and ClAudio PAdua, 1991, 24pp.
Available from: Faigal Simon, FundacAo Parque
Zool6gico de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 12954,
04092 Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

International Studbook for the Pygmy
Marmoset Cebuella pygmaea. 2nd Edition
and Addendum, compiled by K.B.M.Albers on
behalf of W.B.Mager, June 1990 and December
1991, 151pp. Available from: Appenheul Zoo,
J.C.Wilslaan 21-31, 71313 HK Apeldoom, The

1991 International Studbook Black
Howler Monkey Alouatta caraya, by Barbara
Baker, Pittsburgh Zoo, 1992, 66pp. Available
from: Dr Barbara Baker, Director, Pittsburgh Zoo,
P.O.Box 5250, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, PA
15206, USA.

Page 20

]Veotropical Primates ](2), June 1993

Neotropical Primates 1(2), June 1993

N.A. Regional Cotton-top tamarin
Studbook, by G.D.Aquilina, 1992, 98pp.
Available from: G.D.Aquilina, Buffalo Zoological
Park, Delaware Park, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA.

Callimico goeldii: 1992 International
Studbook, by M.Warneke, 1992, 148pp. Chicago
Zoological Society, Chicago. Available from:
Mark Warneke, Chicago Zoological Society,
Brookfield, Illinois 60513. Tel. (708) 485-0263.

1991 International Studbook Golden Lion
Tamarin Leontopithecus rosalia, by Jonathan
D.Ballou, December 29, 1992, National Zoological
Park, Washington, D.C. Available from: Jonathan
D.Ballou, National Zoological Park, Washington,
D.C. 20008, USA.

International Studbook Golden-headed
lion tamarin Leontopithecus chrysomelas,
Number 5, 1992, compiled by G.M.Mace, 1992,
44pp. Available from: Jeremy J.C.Mallinson,
Zoological Director, Jersey Wildlife Preservation
Trust, Les Augres Manor, Trinity, Jersey JE3 5BF,
Channel Islands.

North American Regional Woolly Monkey
Lagothrix lagotricha Studbook 1993, by
Mary Jo Steams, Fossil Rim Wildlife Center, 1993,
72pp. Available from: Fossil Rim Wildlife Center,
P.O.Drawer 329, Glen Ross, TX 76043, USA.



PRIMATOLOGISTS, 18-22 August 1993, New
England Regional Primate Research Center,
Sturbridge, Massachusetts. Contact: Andrew J.
Petto, New England Regional Primate Research
Center, Division of Behavioural Biology, P.O.Box
9102, Southborough, Massachusetts 01772-9102,

ECOLOGIA Y MUNICIPIO, 30 de agosto-4 de
septiembre de 1993, Mazatlan, Mexico. Objetivo:
Ofrecer a los participants un foro international
con experts del mis alto nivel, orientado al
conocimiento, actualizacion e intercambio de ideas

acerca de los desafios del desarrollo del turismo,
reconociendo como ejes fundamentals las
caracteristicas, limitaciones y el potential del
medio ambiente natural y la labor trascendental de
los municipios en coordinaci6n con los
empresarios. Informaciones: Centro de Estudios
Superiores en Turismo, Schiller 138, 7o. Piso,
Col.Chapultepec Morales, C.P.11597, Mexico,
D.F. Tel: 250 79 34 y 545 44 74, Fax: 250 79 34.

CONFERENCE, 1-9 September 1993, Torremolinos,
Spain. Contact: Secretaria de Congressos Cordoba,
C/Cano 3, 1-1, 14001 Cordoba, Spain. Tel:(9)57-
480478, Fax:(9)57-479651, or Ana Omedes,
General Secretery, Apartado 98033, Barcelona
08080, Spain.

MEETING 1993, 2-4 September 1993, Antwerp
Zoo, Antwerp, Belgium. Contact: Ulysses S.Seal,
Chairman SSC/CBSG, 12101 Johnny Cake Ridge
Road, Apple Valley, MN 55124, USA.

- IUDZG, 5-9 September 1993, Antwerp Zoo.
Contact: Fred J.0aman, Director, Royal Zoological
Society of Antwerp, Koningin Astridplein 26, B-
2018 Antwerpen, Belgium.

1993, Convention Center, Manaus Tropical Hotel,
Amazonas, Brazil. Supported by the Associaqao
Brasileira de Quimica, American Chemical
Society, Centro de Tecnologia Mineral (CETEM),
and the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da
Amazonia (INPA). Principal themes:
geochemistry, hydrochemistry, environmental
chemistry, and chemistry of natural products.
Contact: Associacao Brasileira de Quimica, Rua
Alcindo Guanabara 24, 16o. Andar, 20031-130 Rio
de Janeiro, Brazil. Tel: 55 21 262-1837, Fax: 55 21

October 1993, Federal University of Rio Grande do
Norte, Natal, Brazil. Includes workshops and
roundtables on such themes as: Evaluation of Rio
92, the Earth Summit; the Northeastern section of
the Atlantic Forest Biosphere Reserve; and
Technological Alternatives for the Semi-arid
Ecosystems of the Northeast. Contact: Ricardo
Braga, President, Sociedade Nordestina de

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Neotropical Primates 1(2% June 1993 Page 22

Ecologia, Caixa Postal 7807, Recife 50732-970,
Pernambuco, Brazil, Fax: (081) 227-2487.

PRIMATES, Primate Society of Great Britain -
Winter Meeting, December 1993, Zoological
Society of London, London. Organised by Robin
Dunbar and Robert Barton. Contact: Robert
Barton, Department of Anthropology, University of
Durham, 43 Old Evet, Durham DH1 3HN,


COMMISSION, 15-17 January 1994, Buenos Aires,
Argentina. Organizers: World Conservation Union
(IUCN). Contact: Coordinadora logistica de la
Asemblea General, IUCN, Rue Mauvernay 28, CH-
1196 Gland, Switzerland. Tel: 41 22 999 0001,
Fax: 41 22 999 0020.

18-26 January 1994, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Organizers: World Conservation Union (IUCN).
Contact: Coordinadora logistica de la Asemblea
General, IUCN, Rue Mauvernay 28, CH-1196
Gland, Switzerland. Tel: 41 22 999 0001, Fax: 41
22 999 0020.

MORPHOLOGY, 31 July-4 August 1994, Chicago.
Contact: Dr Susan Herring, Chair, ICVM
Organizing Committee, Department of
Orthodontics SM-46, University of Washington,
Seattle, Washington 98195, USA, Tel: (206) 543-
3203, Fax: (206) 685-8163.

Bali, Indonesia. Organizers: Directorate General of
Forest Protection and Nature Conservation
(PHPA), the Indonesian Wildlife Society (IWS)
and the International Primatological Society (IPS).
Contacts: Secretariat, 15th IPS Congress, PT, Bayu
Buana Travel Service Lyd., Wisma Bank
Dharmala 19th Fl, Jend.Sudirman Kay. 28, Jakarta
12910, Indonesia, or Dr Linda Prasetyo, c/o Perth
Zoo, 20 Labouchere Road, Western Australia 6151,
Australia, Tel: 09 368-1916, Fax: 09 367-3921, or
Dr Soegardjito WWF/US Asia-Pacific Program,
1250 Twenty-fourth Street, N.W., Washington,
D.C. 20037, USA, Tel: (202) 861-8300, Fax: (202)

CONGRESS, 14-20 August 1994, University of
Nottingham, England. Contact: ISBE Congress,
Conference Nottingham, The Business Information
Centre, 309 Haydn Road, Nottingham NG5 IDC,

August 1994, University of Manchester, England.
Contact: The Secretary, VI International Congress
of Ecology, Department of Environmental Biology,
The University, Manchester M13 9PL, England.


We would be most grateful if you could send us
information on projects, research groups, events
(congresses, symposia, and workshops), recent
publications, activities of primatological societies
and NGOs, news items or opinions of recent events
and suchlike, either in the form of manuscripts
(double-spaced) or in diskettes for PC compatible
text-editors (MS-Word, Wordperfect, Wordstar).
Articles, not exceeding six pages, can include
small black-and-white photographs, figures, maps,
tables and references, but please keep them to a

Please send contributions to the editors: Anthony
Rylands, Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de
Ciencias Biol6gicas, Universidade Federal de
Minas Gerais, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Brazil,
Fax: (031) 441-1412, or c/o Conservation
International, Rua Bueno Brandfio 393, Belo
Horizonte 31010-060, Minas Gerais, Brazil, Fax:
(031) 222-8429, or Ernesto Rodriguez Luna,
Parque de La Flora y Fauna Silvestre Tropical,
Universidad Veracruzana, Apartado Postal 566,
Xalapa, Veracruz 91000, M6xico, Fax: (281) 8-77-

collaboration with Conservation International,
1015 18th Street NW, Suite 1000, Washington DC
20036, USA, and Fundagio Biodiversitas, Rua
Maria Vaz de Melo 71, Dona Clara, Belo
Horizonte 31260-110, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Design and Composition YURI L. R. LEITE and
RICARDO B. MACHADO, Biodiversity Conservation
Data Center (CDCB), FundaqAo Biodiversitas.

Neotropical Primates ](2), June 1993

Page 22

Anthony Rylands/Emrnesto Luna, Editors
Conservation International
Rua Bueno BrandAo, 393
CN/SSC Belo Horizonte 31010-060
IUCN/SSC Minas Gerais, Brazil


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