Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society.
VOL. I WINTER NUMBER NO. 3
December 21, 1917
LOWEST TEMPERATURES DURING THE COLD WAVE. ISOTHERMS
DRAWN FOR EVERY FIVE DEGREES.
N HOLMES C ON
E 0 l ^- -,_-- 'I.
LE Y MAR16 N
0 A r S0T L IE
8 w I p- i^ <, I" < .
*From U. S. Weather Bureau, Jacksonville, Fla., Feb., 1917.
THE FLORIDA BUGGIST
THE EFFECTS OF THE FREEZE OF FEBRUARY 2-4, 1917
THE INSECT PESTS AND MITES ON CITRUS.*
By W. W. YOTHERS, Bureau of Entomology,
WEATHER CONDITIONS AND TEMPERATURES
For more than five weeks prior to February 1st, the weather
had been very warm. Many days the temperature reached 85
F., at Orlando, Florida, and on February 1st it reached 860 F.,
and it was a very sultry, calm day. Between 6 and 8 o'clock p. m.,
about half an inch of rain fell and there was more or less rain
the entire night. The rain was followed immediately by a heavy
wind from the northwest, which continued until late Saturday
afternoon. It was quite calm, however, Saturday night.
The following minimum temperatures of localities, where ex-
aminations were made to determine the conditions of pests, were
taken from the U. S. Weather Bureau:
Putnam County, Crescent City .......--------..-.190F.
Volusia County, DeLand -.......---.--------150F.
Marion County, Ocala ....--........ ....--------180F.
Lake County, Eustis ---...---...----- ..-----20F.
Orange County, Orlando ..... ......---------------220F.
Polk County, Winter'Haven .............------.....--250F.
Polk County, Frostproof --.-----...--....----.. 270F.
Pinellas County, Pinellas Park .--.....-------...-... 270F.
The zone of the lowest temperatures, from 150 to
200 F., comprise the citrus producing counties of Putnam, Vo-
lusia and Marion, with parts of Lake and Orange. In this zone
there was practically complete defoliation of all citrus trees.
Many grapefruit trees were killed to the ground and the oranges
were killed back to within, from 4 to 8 feet of the ground. Hare
in his report on the effects of the freeze t gives the following es-
timates of the percentage of the bearing wood that had been kill-
ed: Oranges Grapefruit
Putnam County -..--.....-...-..-..-----.. 80% 90%
Volusia County .-...... .---.- ............ --90% 95%
Marion County ..... ............-..- 75% 85%
Part of Lake County ..-...............----- 30% 40%
Part of Orange County .---..-......--.. 40% 50%
*Published by permission of the Chief of the Bureau. Read before the Florida Entomologi-
cal Society October 10, 1917.
tHare, C. C., "Report on Effects of the Freeze." U. S. Bureau of Crop Estimates.
The counties comprising the next warmest zone-temperatures
between 20 and 25oF.-with the percentage of bearing wood
killed as follows: Oranges Grapefruit
Lake County ------- .. .- ......-- .- 30% 40%
Orange County ..-........ .... ---- 40% 50%
Osceola County -......... ...... 20% 25%
Polk County -----------.--- -----. 20% 30%
DeSoto County ------------....-----..- 25% 35%
Manatee County -------- 20% 25%
Lee County -- --25% 35%
In this group there was about 90 to 95% defoliation of orange
trees except in a few protected places. The grapefruit trees
were completely defoliated.
The warmest of the three zones-temperatures between 250
and 300F.-comprises the following counties with the percentage
of bearing wood killed: Oranges Grapefruit
Pinellas County -.---..-...........---..... 10% 15%
Dade County .....-------....-..... ..--. 5% 10%
Palm Beach County --...---. 0% 0%
St. Lucie County -0% 0%
Part Brevard County -- 15% 20%
The defoliation in this group was not sufficient to influence the
number of white flies or other pests to a degree to be of economic
CONDITION OF THE CITRUS TREES AT THE TIME OF THE FREEZE
Owing to the prolonged period of warm weather, citrus trees
were in a growing condition. So far as can be determined, the
condition of growth was in the same state of advancement in
every part of the state. Grapefruit trees, especially, were in the
full flush of growth. Orange trees were also growing, and many
were in full bloom. Tangerine trees had not reached the ad-
vanced state of growth of either the grapefruit or orange trees,
but some growth was taking place. Young trees, especially, were
growing vigorously. It is due to this condition of growth that
the trees were injured so severely. Tangerine trees, being quite
dormant, were not damaged very seriously and if other citrus
trees had been equally dormant, little damage would have re-
sulted from the cold.
The cold wave not only seriously damaged the citrus and other
semi-tropical trees and shrubs, but also it was of the greatest im-
portance in reducing the numbers of injurious pests which infest-
ed the trees. Some of these were frozen outright, while others
were affected when the plant was defoliated or killed.
THE FLORIDA BUGGIST
THE CITRUS WHITE FLY (Dialeurodes citri R. & H.)
It has been known for many years that low temperatures do
not kill the citrus white fly. It survives on privet in the tem-
peratures of North Carolina, and the recent cold wave did not
injure this species on privet in any section of the State. It is
very doubtful if the recent freeze in Florida has directly killed
any pupae of the citrus white fly. The defoliation of citrus trees,
however, has resulted in reducing the number in many places
and localities to the point of almost complete extermination.
This is especially true in all the counties of group one. In Put-
nam and Volusia Counties the only specimens of white fly pupae
were found on privet, or in groves that had been fired. In
Marion, and parts of Lake and Orange Counties, a few survived,
but not sufficient to be of importance for at least a year. This cold
has given the white fly such a severe setback in these counties
that it will be many years before it will become as abundant as
formerly. Examinations made October 3rd still showed this
pest to be very scarce in this temperature zone. No spraying
has been necessary to control this pest this season. There were
a few groves that were fired from which, and the privet, the white
fly will re-infest all the groves in the community.
Since there were scattering leaves left on thousands of trees,
there were many more of the citrus white fly in the counties of
groups 2 than group 1. Probably not more than 1 pupa in 1000
emerged. On October 3rd the white fly was about as abundant
as if no freeze had occurred, and much sooty mold appeared on
the trees. Many groves should have been sprayed during October
and November to control this pest.
In the warmest zone examinations were made only in Pinellas
County. Although there was considerable defoliation, it was not
of any great importance in reducing the numbers of the white
fly. On May 10th there were many groves that needed to be
sprayed for this insect. On October 3rd the white fly had black-
ened many groves. More perhaps were present than at any time
since its first appearance in this section.
THE CLOUDY-WINGED WHITE FLY (Dialeurodes citrifolii
This species infests only citrus and is found largely on grape-
fruit. Since the grapefruit suffered such a complete defoliation
in the counties of both groups 1 and 2, and a much greater de-
foliation in group two than oranges, this species of white fly has
not been much in evidence since the freeze. It is more than like-
ly that it will be sometime before it again becomes a seriously
injurious pest in the counties of groups 1 and 2. In group 3 it
was abundant October 3, 1917.
The injured leaves fell from 10 to 14 days after the frost and
dried up in the course of a day or two afterwards. Owing to
the length of time the freeze occurred before the regular period
of emergence of the white flies, none were observed to emerge
from the leaves that had fallen. The freeze evidently shows that
the white flies are much more resistant to cold that the citrus.
trees, and were destroyed only in proportion to the extent of the
THE PURPLE SCALE (Lepidosaphes beckii NEWMAN).
In the counties of group one this pest was almost exterminated.
Since practically all the leaves were lost and a majority of the
trees had nearly all the branches killed back from three to six
feet, there was little chance for the survival of this species.. In
addition, many were actually frozen. So far as could be ob-
served, the eggs were not frozen sufficiently to prevent them
from hatching, so those which were located on the larger branch-
es will hatch and re-infest the trees. A few living females were
observed at Crescent City on some old fruit, still on the trees.
No living scales other than these were observed in several days'
search, from May 3rd to 6th, and again on May 24th. There
was considerable scale on some fruits in October. Reports in-
dicate that this scale insect has become fairly abundant in No-
In the counties of group two, this insect also received a most
severe setback, but not to the extent that it did in group one. All
insects on the fallen leaves, as well as those on the dead branches,
were killed and all young scales frozen. On February 20th an
examination of ten fallen leaves, but still green, was made. 150
young scales were dead and one female living. On two dried
leaves 2 dead adult females, 1 living adult female and 11 dead
young scales were found. If this leaf had been left a day or two
longer, the living female would also have been dead. No young
scale have been observed up to June on the new growth at any
place in this group of counties. The trees, as a whole, are re-
markably free from scale, due no doubt, to the effects of the
freeze. At the present time (October) this species is quite abun-
dant and not far from normal infestation.
34 THE FLORIDA BUGGIST
In the warmest of the three groups the defoliation and the
mortality, as the result of the freeze, has been the cause of great-
ly reducing the number of scales, but not to the extent as to make
spraying this spring unnecessary. In Pinellas County there were
manyyoung scales and crawlers observed on May 10th. On Octo-
ber 3rd, 1917, this pest was most abundant. No indications were
present that any had been killed by the frost.
RED SCALE ON CAMPHOR (Chrysomphalus aonidum L.).
It was impossible to make observations of this scale on citrus,
so the examinations were made where it infested camphor. Since
the camphor did not lose its leaves from frost injury, the exami-
nation showed how effective the cold had been in freezing the
scales instead of killing them by damaging the foliage. On Feb-
ruary 7th, or 4 days after the frost, extensive examinations show-
ed that nearly all stages except the eggs had been hurt by the
frost. The adult females did not have a normal appearance.
On February 16th examinations of 250 adult females, 11 im-
mature stages and 6 males were dead and 5 adult females and 9
immature stages were living. It was noticeable that more than
25% of the adult females had dead crawlers beneath the scale
covering. It was also noticeable that they had died very recent-
ly, since they were not dried up at all, but had just turned brown
during the previous week. From another tree there were 100
adult females, 60 immature and 14 males killed by the frost, and
5 adult females and 9 immature stages living. Dead crawlers be-
neath the scale coverings were also present. The two examina-
tions give 94% dead and 6% living. No doubt the percentage of
dead was greater since many of the young stages including the
crawlers were not counted.
On June 1st there was considerable red scale on the camphor
trees from which the leaves were taken for the above exami-
nations. Both on October 3rd and December 2nd as many were
present as if no reduction in numbers had taken place.
The frost also killed this scale on privet. On February 17th I
found 25 adult females dead and none living. Three of these had
eggs with a normal appearance, and one of these three had crawl-
ers. There were not more than 15 eggs with normal appearance
and many females had dead crawlers near the opening. On.June
1st not a single specimen of red scale could be found on the
privets that were examined last spring. On December 12 there
are no red scale on these same privets.
When one takes into consideration the mortality suffered by
this species on camphor and compares it with the possible mor-
tality it suffered on citrus, from both defoliation and low tem-
peratures, it is very doubtful if more than one insect in ten thou-
sand survived. In fact, it would be nearer the truth to say that
not more than one in a hundred thousand survived the cold.
It has been impossible to make observations on this species in
THE RUST MITE (Eriophyes oleivorus ASHM.)
At the time of the cold wave there was an abundance of mites
present; many more than is ordinarily the case at that season of
the year. These were partially frozen and partially killed be-
cause the foliage was shed.
Examinations were made at Orlando during the cold wave, on
February 3, or after the first cold night, and before the second
one. No mites could be found on a small sour tree, located in an
exposed situation, on which many thousands had been present all
season previous to the frost. On February 7th examinations of
green leaves, still on the trees, showed the mites were very scarce
compared with the number present before the frost.
The rust mite cannot live on dead fallen leaves. On February
10th green leaves picked up from the ground were examined and
no living mites were found. On the same day 17 living mites
and three eggs were found on 10 leaves from a tree in a protected
location. On 24 green leaves from the trees, 4 living mites were
found and from 17 green leaves picked from the ground, 1 living
mite was present. No mites were ever found on dry leaves.
There is no doubt that the rust mites present on the trees and
fruit now are the progeny of those that survived on the leaves
uninjured by the frost.
In the counties of group one the mites were nearly exterminat-
ed. Those that were not actually frozen perished with the drying
of the leaves. In examining six groves, May 3 to 6, in two days
only two mites were observed. In a normal infestation there
would have been literally billions present. In Marion County, on
May 24th, they were also extremely scarce.
In the counties of group two they received a severe setback. A
conservative estimate of the mortality would be more than 99%.
In fact, on June 1, or more than four months after the frost,
they have only become as abundant as they were before the cold
wave. Since the freeze the weather has been extremely favorable
for the reproduction of the mites, and this pest is so abundant
(Continued on page 38)
Official Organ of The Florida Entomological Society, Gainesville,
PROF. J. R. WATSON ------------------.....------.................. Editor
DR. E. W. BERGER-.....--.....--..-........ -----......---.. Associate Editor
K. E. BRAGDON.----....-----...... ...........----------Business Manager
Issued once every three months. Free to all members of the
Florida Entomological Society.
Subscription price to those who are not members of the So-
ciety-60c per year in advance; 15c per copy.
It is the earnest desire of the editors that our members, and
especially those outside of Gainesville, should send in brief para-
graphs for the Buggist. Nearly every member must run across
things that would be of general interest. We desire also any
personal items concerning our members or other entomologists
who may be in Florida. These notes should reach us by the
tenth of the month of publication, March tenth for the next issue.
Please note the 25% increase in size of the Buggist this instar.
With the new volume we expect to molt and come out with en-
tirely new headgear.
Aphids, especially Myzus persicae, the Garden Aphid, seem to
be more numerous than usual at this time of the year. This is
probably due to the unusual amount of damp cold weather dur-
ing the past month which has checked their parasites and pre-
The colony of Delphastes catalinae, the whitefly-eating lady-
beetle introduced from California into a grove near Bradentown
by the Station Entomologist, is reported to be spreading at a
highly satisfactory and encouraging rate.
A BRANCH OF THE SOCIETY IN FT. MYERS
Altho less than two years old our society is about to have a
branch and it is larger than was the parent society at the time of
birth. Twelve men in Ft. Myers have formed "The Lee
County Entomological Society" and have applied for member-
ship as a branch society. The members are-S. B. Walker, Pres.;
Fritz Fuchs, Vice-Pres.; Roy Thompson, Secretary and Treasur-
er; C. A. Bass, R. G. Bateman, W. L. Benedict, F. S. Ballentine,
R. G. Oliphant, P. F. Robertson, J. L. Sheldon, A. S. White, all of
Ft. Myers, and A. H. Andrews of Estero. Five of the men have
been members of our society for some time and the president is
a charter member. Most of the men are connected with the State
The society meets once each week and in addition to other work
they are studying Sanderson and Jackson's text book on ento-
It was the Editor's good fortune to meet with them the last
week in October. A more wide-awake and earnest group of men
would be hard to find. Men who will spend the whole of a sum-
mer day in Florida in a grove looking for citrus canker and then
spend the evening studying entomology will be heard from.
May the branch grow as has the parent.
AS OTHERS SEE US
Under the heading "The Florida Entomological Society and
Its New Organ," the Entomological News of Philadelphia in its
November issue gives a brief notice of our society and The Bug-
gist, concluding with, "No richer field for the cultivation of en-
tomology than the Southeastern States exist, and such a society
as that of Florida ought to flourish as the whitefly, the sweet po-
tato root weevil and the Anopheles mosquito which their mem-
bers discuss in their new journal. May they succeed in eradi-
cating these insect pests and their society and Buggist widen
our knowledge for many years to come."
Our first Secretary-Treasurer, R. N. Wilson, now Agricultural
Demonstration Agent for Palm Beach County, who met with a
serious automobile accident, is now out again.
Prof. W. S. Blatchley, former State Geologist of Indiana and
author of several papers on Florida insects, who addressed us
last winter, passed thru Gainesville on November 30 bound for
his winter home in Dunedin.
Mr. C. H. Popenoe of the U. S. Bur. Ent., Washington, is now
in Florida in connection with extension 'work on the sweet-
potato root weevil in cooperation with the Experiment Station
and the State Plant Board.
Dr. E. A. Back, also of the Bureau, was in Gainesville the first
of the month making arrangements for an extension entomolo-
gist to take up storage insects and especially the corn weevil in
cooperation with the University.
THE FLORIDA BUGGIST
Mr. W. W. Others of the Orlando Laboratory, U. S. Bur. Ent.,
was married on December 6 to Miss Ada Bumby of Orlando.
Prof. J. R. Watson while passing through the' fair city of Ar-
cadia a few weeks ago had to wait on the E. & W. C. train; not
being acquainted in the city, and in order to while away the time,
he secured his insect net and decided to collect a few membracids
and other insects around town.
Some of the older settlers not being familiar with the work of
an entomologist at once reported his actions to the mayor. Mayor
Royal while on his way to the scene of action met Sheriff Dishong,
and the two officials after viewing the strange actions of the
"German Looking Fellow" from a distance decided that some-
thing was radically wrong, so he was at once taken into custody.
Upon searching his baggage a number of bulletins were found
and his identity established. Professor was very angry, but his
pardon was begged and he went on his way to Bradentown.-
Note:-Lucky for the Professor that he did not have a stray
copy of The Jeffersonian in his baggage, or that the zealous but
uninformed officers did not find his insect-poison bottle.
THE EFFECTS OF THE FREEZE OF FEBRUARY 2-4, 1917
THE INSECT PESTS AND MITES ON CITRUS.
(Continued from page 35)
now in nearly every part of this group of counties that spraying
should be done if bright fruit is to be obtained. The only result
in the reduction of the mites by the freeze has been the post-
ponement of the time of maximum infestation in these counties
about a month or six weeks.
In the localities of group three they were also greatly reduced
in number but not sufficiently to be of any great economic im-
portance. Spraying had to be resorted to at about the same time
as in an ordinary season.
By late July and early August the rust mite had become very
abundant. In fact, it is generally believed now, that there were
more present than ever before in the history of the citrus indus-
try. On October 3rd, however, the species is very scarce. Sev-
eral groves were examined the first of October and only a few
hundred were found. The almost complete extermination of this
species by the freeze and its reproduction to billions in six months
is a most remarkable biological fact. According to computation,
one mite would have a progeny of about 12 million in about 51/-
months, and I believe this is just about what actually took place.
We saw many grapefruit with an 'estimated number of half a
million, and this condition was the same over the entire state.
The "sands of the sea" or "the stars of heaven" are the only ex-
pressions that will enable one to understand how abundant this
species actually was the last of July and early August.
RED SPIDERS (Tetranychus sexmaculatus MCGR.)
No opportunity has been offered to determine the effects of the
freeze on this pest. Few were present at the time and few have
appeared this season. In fact, they have not been so abundant this
season as normal.
THE PURPLE MITE (Tetranychus citri McGR.)
So far as could be ascertained, the adults did not appear to
have been hurt. The eggs, however, had a very soft and un-
natural appearance. Since the freeze this pest has not been very
abundant and this is, no doubt, due to the eggs being injured by
The aphids infesting an orange tree before the freeze were
dead on February 7th. No eggs were present in the colony. This
was the same condition as was observed by Hubbard in 1895.*
Since the freeze, however, there have been more aphids on the
young sprouts than during any other spring in my recollection.
These were soon killed by parasites and predaceous enemies and
were of little economic importance.
EFFECT OF THE FREEZE ON THE PESTS OF OTHER
PLANTS THAN CITRUS.
Tenuipalpus bioculatus McGR.
This species on privet was slightly, if any, damaged by the cold.
Living specimens were found February 17th. These, however,
may have been hatched since the cold.
Tetranychus yothersii McGR.
This species on camphor seems to have been very seriously
hurt. On February 7th the adults were nearly all dead. Only a
few showed any signs of life, such as moving their legs, and only
one on the entire lot of leaves was active. The eggs also did not
appear to be normal, being soft and easily broken. On February
17th put some camphor leaves, having an abundance of eggs, into
*Hubbard in "Insect Life," Vol. VII, pp. 281, 282.
THE FLORIDA BUGGIST
a tumbler. On March 7th there was only one living mite and the
eggs were still red in color, but they were not normal nor had
they hatched. They were soft, and when broken contained a
liquid instead of a young spider. Another collection of leaves
made just after the freeze and examined on February 15th, gave
the same results; the eggs did not hatch. On another tree there
were many unhatched eggs. On February 17th these appeared
to be very soft. On these same leaves there were 13 young mites
that had evidently hatched since the freeze. No doubt the
adults, young mites and eggs were largely killed when in exposed
In fairly well protected spots the adults and young were not
killed. On February 29th there were 23 adult females, 8 males
and 10 young mites living on a few camphor leaves. The eggs,
however, did not appear to be normal. They had that same dull
look as the others that never hatched.
The observations on this mite show that all stages are easily
affected by the cold, and especially are the eggs damaged, which is
contrary to expectations. The adults survive only in protected
places. On June 1 there were practically none of this species pres-
ent, while there are specimens of Tetranychus sexmaculatus and
NOTES ON SOME INSECTS OF SOUTH FLORIDA IN 1917
By R. N. WILSON
(Paper given before the Florida Entomological Society.)
The above title is somewhat too inclusive, as the observations
were made almost entirely in Palm Beach County, tho some were
made in other counties.
Dictyophorus reticulatus-The Lubber Grasshopper. These
large grasshoppers were very numerous on some of the drained
saw-grass lands along the Palm Beach Canal in the Everglades,
but because this land has not yet come under cultivation little
damage resulted. Along the shores of Lake Okeechobee where
severe injury has resulted from their attack during certain years,
these grasshoppers were present in small numbers, but were not
troublesome. The writer's previous experience with this species
at Fellsmere and other'points had proved that it could be controll-
ed with the so-called "Kansas Mixture" (bran, paris green, syrup
and citrus fruit) even when there was a large influx from sur-
rounding lands. None of the melanic forms were found, as would
be expected from the known distribution of the various forms.
Empoasci mali-The "Green Fly." This little jassid or leaf
hopper, which is commonly called the "Green Fly," made its ap-
pearance very late in the spring, and caused injury only in small
areas during the entire summer. This is quite an unusual oc-
currence since snap beans maturing in March are often severely
attacked, and cowpeas may be entirely destroyed during the
average summer. The reasons for the scarcity of this jassid dur-
ing the year are not known, tho many farmers attribute it to the
cold in early February. No satisfactory control measures are
known, even on truck crops. The promising contraption for
catching the leaf hoppers invented by Mr. Oller of Delray is not
now in use, because, altho thousands of the insects were caught
the numbers remaining in the fields were not perceptibly reduced.
On account of its wide range of food plants swarms of this jassid
may come in from adjoining lands.
Laphygma frugiperda-The Fall Army Worm. The habits of
this insect seem to be slightly different in South Florida than in
other parts of the United States, in that altho they are extremely
numerous during spring, summer and fall, particularly in corn
fields, they rarely assume the "army" habit. There are few of
our insects that do more damage than the Fall Army Worm, and
the limited acreage of corn on the lower East Coast is not in-
creased because this insect is present. Corn planted in February
or early March can mature and escape with only slight injury,
but later plantings of corn, other than the Nassau corn and its
close relatives which have some immunity, are usually riddled
and sometimes even its ensilage value destroyed. Altho some
farmers have tried to control the pest with arsenate of lead, few
of them have been persistent, and little good has resulted. This
species is more often found in the ears and damages them more
in South Florida than the common corn ear worm, Heliothis ob-
Diabrotica vittata-The Cucumber Beetle. Just how long this
species has been in South Florida is uncertain, estimates varying
from two to five years, but certainly in that time it has come to
be one of our most important insects. These beetles were in the
fields in considerable numbers during the freeze in early Febru-
ary, which apparently did not injure them. Altho their prin-
cipal injury is to cucurbits, sunflowers and other plants are
sometimes injured, and during the spring the writer saw them
attack the tender foliage of citrus trees in a few localities. They
occur on the cucurbits in such swarms that the usual poisons
THE FLORIDA BUGGIST
and repellants do not seem effective, but excellent results were ob-
tained this year by frequently covering the plants with corn-
meal or flour, and sometimes arsenate of lead was mixed with
these. The beetles apparently prefer to eat the meal or flour to
eating the plants, and with careful and frequent dusting the
plants can be saved.
Chalcodermus aeneus-The Cowpea Pod-Weevil, or Cowpea
Curculio. It was with considerable surprise that the writer
found heavy infestations of this beetle on the east shore of Lake
Okeechobee, because this section has had almost no previous'cul-
tivation, and has been absolutely isolated from cultivated areas.
This observation probably points to a native food plant on which
the beetle has been thriving in that locality. No control measures
were attempted in the Lake region and the peas in several fields
were a total loss. Along the coast in Palm Beach County little
damage by this species was seen or reported.
Phytoptus calacladophora-White Mold. Many farmers be-
lieve the moldy appearance caused by the infestation of this mite
to be a disease, which is not surprising when we consider that the
mite is usually difficult to see with the naked eye. During the
year this species became very abundant on tomatoes, and the
most interesting point observed was that on muck lands the farm-
ers had little trouble bringing it under control with the sulphur
sprays,.while on the sandy lands it seemingly could not be stopped
by almost continual spraying and caused very severe injury.
Farmers report that this is the case to a certain extent every
Millipedes. On the shore of Lake Okeechobee where eggplants
and peppers were set in the muck lands following the clearing of
heavy weeds and brush in August and September they were at-
tacked by millipedes and some injury done. The millipedes did
most of their work at night, tho some few could be found on the
plants in day time. Upon digging around the plants three to six
millipedes could be found in many instances. The damage was
most pronounced near the edge of the fields, and investigation
showed that there were thousands of the millipedes under the
piles of brush. Arsenate of lead was recommended as a control
measure, and probably the "Kansas Mixture" broadcasted would
Negro Bugs. During August and September there was con-
siderable complaint of injury in the Lake Okeechobee region
from these small black bugs, which the farmers called beetles. It
is certain that large numbers of the bugs were present in the
seed beds and in some fields, but the writer is inclined to doubt
that they did much damage. Prof. Watson recommended crude
carbolic acid used at the rate of a tablespoonful to two gallons of
water or a dust made by adding a half pint of the acid to a bushel
of lime or plaster, but I do not know what results were obtained.
Tabanids. Among our very worst pests of livestock are the
large Tabanids which appear in great numbers for from four to
eight weeks in the spring. I have seen even mules covered with
bloody splotches caused by the bites of these insects in one day.
Work animals are usually protected by repellanit mixtures, me-
chanical means or by screening their quarters, but the unfortun-
ate range animals suffer severely and lose weight considerably
during this period. This is a problem to which little attention
has been given, and which, in justice to our growing livestock in-
dustry, deserves to be attacked with vigor.
BOOK AND BULLETIN NOTICES
The October number of the Quarterly Bulletin of the State
Plant Board contains two valuable articles on scale insects. The
first on "Some Florida Scale Insects," by C. E. Wilson, lists 83
species, most of which are illustrated by original photographs.
This is a very credible list and should be a great help to those
working with these insects.
We note under Cottony Cushion Scale, p. 18, many plants list-
ed as not having been found infested in Florida that should have
been recorded among the Florida hosts, as they were found in-
fested at Key West (See An. Rep. Fla. Ag. Exp. Sta. 1915 p.
The second article by Dr. E. W. Berger on the control of scale
insects is the latest word on the subject.
Press Bul. 285, Fla. Ag. Exp. Sta., is on the San Jose Scale and
No. 286 treats of the Boll Weevil in Sea Island cotton.
Farmers' Bul. 875, U. S. D. A., treats of (Ligyrus) Euetheola
rugiceps which the authors, Philip and Fox, call the rough-head-
ed corn stalk-beetle. This beetle is common in Florida but no
serious injury to corn seems to have been noted.
Farmers' Bul. 843 on pecan insects is of peculiar interest to
us, as it is the result of work done mostly in Florida by J. B.
Gill, who is stationed at Monticello.
Bul, 609, U. S. D. A. (Professional Paper), is on Pilocrocis
THE FLORIDA BUGGIST
tripunctata, which the author (T. H. Jones) calls the sweet-po-
tato leaf-folder. This pyralid moth was in October bred out from
sweet-potatoes on the Station grounds, where it was working
with Prodenia. The point that attracted our attention was that
it was not controlled by the Kansas bait as was Prodenia, doubt-
less because it feeds largely in the rolled up leaves. The damage
it did was inconsequential.
"Fleas and Their Control," is the subject of Farmers' Bul. 897,
by F. C. Bishopp.
"The Life of the Caterpillar" (Dodd Meade and Co.) has been
translated from the works of that delightful French author
Fabre, "The Insects' Homer."
REPORTS OF MEETINGS
(K. E. BRAGDON, Secretary)
Science Hall, Gainesville, Fla., Oct. 10, 1917
The meeting was called to order by the President with about
seventy members and visitors present.
The report of the Secretary was read and approved.
The executive committee reported on the following names and
they were elected as members in the Society:
W. N. Hull, Dept. Port & Ry. Insp., State Plant Board,.....-..... Miami, Fla.
James Kerr, Inspector, State Plant Board..........---..---.......-----...Santa Rosa, Fla.
Dr. Hiram Byrd, Scient. Sec'y State Board of Health........Jacksonville, Fla.
Harold Mowry, Inspector, State Plant Board .-----------... ..Santa Rosa, Fla.
Clarence A. Bass, Inspector, State Plant Board---...............-------Ft. Myers, Fla.
R. G. Bateman, Inspector, State Plant Board -........................Groveland, Fla.
C. D. Kime, Co. Dem. Agt., Brevard Co......................------........--Titusville, Fla.
Wm. Gomme, Co. Dem. Agt., Lake Co.....................---------.................Tavares, Fla.
O. W. Caswell, Co. Dem. Agt., Manatee Co..-..--.......--. Bradentown, Fla.
R. F. 'Walker ....----.............-- .----....Haines City, Fla.
A. M. Klemm, Nurseryman ...-. .----------....Winter Haven, Fla.
Max E. Viertel, Citrus grower ................--- - ....Winter Haven, Fla.
John Adams Comstock-............-... ...... 321 S. Hill St., Los Angeles, Cal.
A. W. Street, Citrus grower ........... ------..........Ormond Beach, Fla.
W. N. Crooks, Citrus grower.. ......---- ----------....Viking, Fla.
J. W. Carson, Citrus grower .....---.-- ..-- ..............--Frostproof, Fla.
M. B. Allen, Allencroft Nurseries......................... .. Mt. Dora, Fla.
Thomas J. Baker, Asst. Nurs. Insp., St. Plant Board..............Gainesville, Fla.
James F. Marsh, Inspector, State Plant Board -..- -----.. ....-- Groveland, Fla.
S. F. Pool, Citrus grower ........---.. .........................Winter Haven, Fla.
M. Marcellus Javens, Citrus grower ...-........-------- ..-....- Mt. Dora, Fla.
F. F. Bibby, Assistant Entomologist, St. P1. Bd. ...----....Gainesville, Fla.
F. J. McKinley, Co. Dem. Agt ............ ~.-- ................ Miami, Fla.
Alfred Warren, Co. Dem. Agt------.....-........... .--- --... ....Ft. Pierce, Fla.
Mrs. Marie Conway Oemler ...--------- --. ------....Savannah, Ga.
L. R. Warner, Asst. Nurs. Insp., State Plant Bd. -----... --...Gainesville, Fla.
C. H. Thompson, Citrus grower .... ------........................--..... Winter Haven, Fla.
J. P. Donnelly, Citrus grower ...-- ------...--------..- Mt. Dora, Fla.
A. A. Lewis, County Dem. Agent ......--... .....-----.----....Kathleen, Fla.
E. E. Truskett, Citrus grower --...........-------..-.....Mont Verde, Fla.
Alex Finlay, Citrus grower --.--. ----........ ...........Orange Center, Fla.
B. F. Floyd, Agri. Expt. Sta. .- ............. ...... ................---Gainesville, Fla.
C. D. Gunn, County Dem. Agent ---..-----...........-------.... Starke, Fla.
E. G. Gustafson, Citrus grower ... --................ -- .... Ft. Pierce, Fla.
T. J. Iles, Citrus grower ...--...- -------------------Crescent City, Fla.
E. J. Kaufmann, Citrus grower .................................. Lakeland, Fla.
Thomas R. Robinson, Inspector, State Plant Board .........-Bradentown, Fla.
Robert Ranson, Citrus grower ..................................-------St. Augustine, Fla.
A. S. Hooker, Inspector, State Plant Board ........ ..---- ....--.....Groveland, Fla.
Mr. W. W. Others read a paper on "Effects of the Freeze on
Mr. R. N. Wilson gave a talk on "Some Insects of South Flori-
da." General discussion of the points brought out by these two
Under "Brief and Timely Notes" Dr. W. A. Wyman mentioned
the double strength bordeaux mixture and made a plea that fur-
ther experiments with this solution be carried out. Dr. E. W.
Berger exhibited a specimen of an insect of the genus Gymnas-
pis on Bilbergia.
Prof. Watson spoke of the successful use of the "Kansas Mix-
ture" in controlling the Sweet-potato Caterpillar. Mr. J. A.
Miller spoke of the milliped attacking the Irish potato. Mr. 0.
D. Link spoke of a worm affecting the navel orange in Louisiana
and of brown beetles boring into oranges where leaves came into
contact with them.
Science Hall, Nov. 19, 1917.
The regular monthly meeting of the Florida Entomological
Society was called to order at 4:30 p. m. by the President, with
the following members present: Wilmon Newell, E. W. Berger,
F. M. O'Byrne, J. R. Watson, S. P. Harn, O. T. Stone, F. F. Bibby,
J. H. Montgomery, Frank Stirling, L. Russell Warner, H. S.
Davis, T. Van Hyning and K. E. Bragdon.
The minutes of the last meeting were read and approved. It
was suggested that the students of the University of Florida be
invited to attend our meetings and that notice of each monthly
meeting and the program be published in the Gainesville Sun.
The matter of a suitable heading for the "Florida Buggist"
was discussed and it was voted that this be left to the discretion
of the editors.
After a discussion of the matter of our affiliation with the
Florida Academy of Sciences, it was voted that the Secretary
write to all non-resident active members of the Society and as-
certain their views, in order that a vote may be taken at the next
meeting to decide whether our society should withdraw as a
section of the Florida State Academy of Sciences.
THE FLORIDA BUGGIST
The following new members were elected by acclamation as
K. S. Lamb, Inspector, State Plant Board-...............................Gainesville, Fla.
O. D. Link ........--. .......--. .... .- .. .... .......--- ............ ....... Buras, La.
Wm. L. Drew, Citrus grower ----......... .................-- Eagle Lake, Fla.
J. G. Atherton ..-............... ..- ...................Lakeland, Fla.
Dr. W. E. A. Wyman, Citrus grower --------------------------St. Petersburg, Fla.
Vet L. Brown, Nurseryman .... ..-. ... ..-.....-----... .... -- Winter Haven, Fla.
W Bartlett, Nurseryman ......................-........................ Ft. Ogden, Fla.
H. H. Hume, Nurseryman & Pres. Fla. Hort. Soc. ........Glen St. Mary, Fla.
H. A..Wartmann, Inspector, State Plant Board .-...-..-..........- --Citra, Fla.
B. F. Flowers, Inspector, State Plant Board ...---------------- -..Sebring, Fla.
John Schlobig, Inspector, State Plant Board -....-.. -.....-..--.....----.Sebring, Fla.
M. M. Bass, Inspector, State Plant Board -.......--.....--. .. Groveland, Fla.
W. O. Lahrman, Inspector State Plant Board .......------------DeLand, Fla.
O. T. Stone, Clerk, State Plant Board ...........-..- .................Gainesville, Fla.
A. L. White, Citrus grower ........................ ...........-------...Ft. Myers, Fla.
C. G. Bishop, Citrus grower. .....~. ...... .-----------------Monticello, Fla.
J. M. Mears, Inspector, State Plant Board ----...............-------- Manatee, Fla.
L. O. Smith, Inspector, State Plant Board ................................Wauchula, Fla.
H. C. Artis, Inspector, State Plant Board ...........-------................Wauchula, Fla.
S. E. Cassino, Publisher .............---....--....... .-- .......... ......... Salem, Mass.
C. E. Whittington, Asst. Nurs. Inspector, State Plant Board.
The Business Manager of "The Florida Buggist" reported that
the total receipts for subscriptions, advertisements, etc., to date,
amounted to $74.45; that the total expenditure in publishing
numbers 1 and 2 and mailing same to members and others
amounted to $73.86, leaving a balance of $0.59.
The paper of the evening, entitled "The Spiny Citrus Whitefly
in Cuba," was given by Mr. Newell, and was followed by an ex-
tended discussion. This paper will be printed elsewhere.
Mr. F. F. Bibby gave a short talk on the distribution of the
boll weevil in Florida.
Dr. Berger's article, "Entomology as a Pure Science," was post-
poned for the next meeting on account of the lateness of the hour.
Under "Brief Timely Notes," Professor Watson reported the
"Negro Bug," as infesting chufas in various parts of the state.
Epicaerus formidolosus, as infesting beans and being found on
cotton and cowpeas, being apparently more abundant this year
Vaginulus floridanus, a slug on tomatoes, found at Dania, Fla.
The Woolly Whitefly, in St. Lucie County.
K. E. Bragdon reported that the seaside morning-glory was
apparently a preferred host plant of the Sweet-potato Root-wee-
vil, since it could be found in this vine when it could not be found
in adjacent sweet potato plants.