Title: Florida Entomologist
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Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1918
Copyright Date: 1917
 Subjects
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
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General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098813
Volume ID: VID00347
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: Open Access

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?5he


Florida Buggist
Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society

VOL. II WINTER NUMBER NO. 3
DECEMBER, 1918
(Printed in February, 1919)


NEW THYSANOPTERA FROM FLORIDA-IV.
J. R. WATSON
53. Trichothrips brevitubus n. sp.
Measurements: Head, length 0.187 mm., width 0.2 mm.; prothorax,
length 0.115 mm., width 0.3 mm.; abdomen, width 0.4 mm.; tube, length 0.1
mm., width at base 0.064 mm., at the apex 0.032 mm.; total body length 1.17
mm. Antennae: segment 1, 24; 2, 52; 3, 64; 4, 63; 5, 52; 6, 48; 7, 46; 8, 26
microns; total length 0. 39 mm.
Color, including legs and tube, brown, head and abdomen very dark brown.
Antennae entirely bright yellow except segment 8, which is light brown.
Head nearly square in general outline, a little wider than long, sides
convex, an acute projection between the bases of the antennae. The only
prominent spine is the post-ocular which is about 26 microns long. Like
all the other spines on the body it is dark brown and ends in a small colorless
knob. Eyes rather small, about nine facets showing in lateral profile which
occupies about two thirds of the margin of the head, not protruding, black.
Ocelli inconspicuous, posterior pair situated far forward opposite the
anterior .2 of the eyes whose margins they touch, widely separated. The
anterior one points forward, color very dark. Mouth cone long and tapering,
reaching a trifle beyond the posterior margin of the prothorax. Antennae
twice as long as the head, 8-segmented, spines and sense cones rather short,-
especially on the basal segments, all colorless and inconspicuous.
Prothorax broad and short, approaching a semi-circular outline, sides
convex and sharply diverging posteriorly, a long (81 microns) heavy spine
near each posterior angle, each angle provided with a single shorter spine.
Pterthorax with sides convex and slightly converging posteriorly, without
prominent spines. Legs moderately long and slender, without prominent
spines. Wings rather short, membrane not reaching the end of the abdomen,
fringed with long hairs that reach little beyond the end of the tube.
Abdomen wide and short, about a third longer than broad, bearing a few
dark spines which become long and heavy posteriorly. Tube but little
more than half as long as the head. The longest of the terminal bristles
about equal to the length of the tube.
Described from a single female brot to the author by the janitor of the

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THE FLORIDA BUGGIST


experiment station building with the statement that he extracted it from
his eye where it was very painful, causing a much more severe smarting
than a gnat.
Gainesville, Fla., August, 1918.
Type in the author's collection.
The following key will enable one to separate the North American species
(except T. semicaeus the description of which, in Uzel, is too brief) which
are now (see Hood in Entomologist, Vol. XLVIII, No. 624, May, 1915, p. 106)
placed in the genus Trichothrips. Moulton's key (U. S. D. A. Bur. Ent. Tech.
Ser. 21) has been followed for the species there given.

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF TRICHOTHRIPS OF NORTH AMERICA
I. Prominent spines on body with blunt or dilated tips; most forms very
dark brown or nearly black (except T. angusticeps), usually with short
wings (except T. longitubus).
a. Each fore tarsus armed with a tooth; antennae about 1.7 times
as long as head; total body length about 1.5 mm.
T. angusticeps Hood.
aa. Fore tarsi not armed; antennae about twice as long as head.
b. Wings fully developed; body length about 1.8 mm.; tibiae,
tarsi, and intermediate segments of the antennae bright
lemon yellow; tube fully as long as the head.
T. longitubus Hood.
bb. Wings short; body length about 1.2; whole antenna clear
yellow; tube about half as long as the head.
T. brevitubus n. sp.
II. Prominent spines on body acute; antennae about twice as long as head.
a. Individuals small, about 1 mm. in length, without ocelli or wings.
b. Eyes reduced, lateral profile showing but three facets; first
segment about half as long as the second....T. smithii Hood.
bb. Eyes small-but normal; first antennal segment nearly as
long as second. ...-........--......--..............-T. flavicauda Morgan.
aa. Individuals rather large, 1.5 mm. or more, wings fully developed
or brachypterous.
b. Each fore tarsus armed with a tooth.
c. Antennae 1.75 times as long as head; tube .7 as long
as head; total length about 2 mm., fore tarsi with a
short, stout tooth. ..............................T. ambitus Hinds.
cc. Antenna slightly more than twice as long as the head;
tube slightly shorter than head.
d. Total body length about 1.7 mm.; fore tarsi with
a small acute tooth; wings light gray brown,
spotted with darker. ...........T. americanus Hood.
dd. Tarsi with a large tooth.
e. Last two antennal segments completely
united; eyes very small; body length about
1.5 mm. ......................T. anomocerus Hood.












.WINTER NUMBER


ee. Last two antennal segments not compactly
united; eyes normal; body length 1.8 mm.
or more.
f. Tarsal tooth straight.
T. marginalis Hood & Williams.
ff. Tarsal tooth curved.
T. terminalis Hood & Williams.
bb. Tarsi unarmed: .......................-- ....-------T. zonatus Hood.
MEGALOMEROTHRIPS, gen. nov.
Head considerably longer than wide; cheeks with a few stout bristles but
without warts; antennae about twice as long as the head, 8-segmented, inter-
mediate segments elongated. Mouth cone about as long as width at the base
which is swollen to a diameter considerably greater than the width of the
head; labium rounded but labrum sharp-pointed, reaching nearly to the
mesosternum; fore femora enlarged, without teeth; tarsi without teeth.
Wings short and weak, not narrowed in the middle. Tube long and slender.
Type M. eupatorii n. sp.
54. Megalomerothrips eupatorii, n. sp.
Measurements: Total length 2.1 mm.; Head, length 0.31 mm.; width
0.23 mm.; Prothorax, length 0.24 mm, width (including coaxe) 0.43 mm.;
mesothorax, breadth 0.40 mm.; abdomen, breadth 0.46 mm.; tube, length
0.34 mm., width in the middle 0.08 mm. Antennae: segment 1, 59; 2, 68;
3, 148; 4, 118; 5, 88; 6, 71; 7, 58; 8, 43 microns; total 0.62 mm.
Color an almost uniform light brown; posterior segments of abdomen
darker and segments 2 and 3 of antennae very light yellow, 3 almost color-
less as are the last tarsal joints.
Head subquadrangular in outline, about 1/ longer than wide; frons but'
slightly convex; cheeks nearly parallel, but slightly convex, provided with
a few short thick spines; post-ocular bristles rather long, exceeding the
eyes; dorsal surface of head with faint cross-striations. Eyes rather small,
not protruding, black. Ocelli prominent, all facing upward; posterior pair
opposite the middle of the eyes but not touching their margins. Mouth cone
about as wide as the width at the swollen base, labrum tapering to a point,
exceeding the labium and nearly reaching the mesosternum. Antennae 8-
segmented; segment 3 long and almost colorless; sense cones and bristles
colorless and inconspicuous.
Prothorax shorter than the head; wide; sides sharply diverging posteriorly
and very convex; posterior angles very rounding, provided with moderately
long but colorless spines with blunt tips.
Pterothorax; sides nearly straight, converging posteriorly; a pair of
stout short spines about the middle of the mesothorax. Legs moderately
long, concolorous with the body except for the colorless last joints of the
tarsi. Fore femora greatly enlarged, % as wide as the head. Wings very
short and weak, not nearly reaching the base of the tube; fringed with rather
short hairs, about 20 interlocated ones.
Abdomen elliptical in outline, no bristles on anterior segments but heavy
ones on the posterior ones, the longest exceeding the tube. Tube longer
than the head, narrow with almost parallel sides, tipped with a few spines
which are only slightly more than half the length of the tube.
6 unknown.












THE FLORIDA BUGGIST


Described from a single female taken by beating Eupatorium ageratoides
in bloom. Nov. Gainesville, Fla. Type in the author's collection.
The following key will enable one to separate the new genus
from the others of section 2 of the Phloethripidae (Moulton Bul.
21 Tech. Sc. Bur. Ent., U. S. D. A.), comprising those genera in
which the head is considerable longer than wide and longer than
the prothorax. This is not a very good character on which to
divide the family, as it divides at least one genus (Haplothrips),
but it is a convenient one, and much used.


KEY TO THE GENERA OF PHLOEOTHRIPIDAE
II. Head considerably longer than wide and longer than the prothorax.
a. Head less than twice as long as wide.
b. Fore femora with a tooth on the inner side near the end.
In our species the fore femora are enlarged but the inter-
mediate antennal segments are not elongated.
Acanthothrips, Uzel. (Hoplothrips).
bb. Fore femora unarmed, in the female, at least.
c. Wings wanting, reduced to pads, or very short and
weak.
d. Mouth cone shorter than its width at the base,
labrum with a blunt tip. ....Cephalothrips Uzel.
dd. Mouth cone as long as width, labrum sharply
pointed.
e. Cheeks with spine-bearing warts.
Malacothrips.
ee. Cheeks without spine-bearing warts.
f. Intermediate antennal segments not
elongated. Fore femora not greatly
enlarged.
g. Cheeks parallel, fore tarsi
armed with spines.
Neothrips Hood.
gg. Cheeks arched, fore tarsi un-
armed. Gnophothrips
Hood & Williams.
ff. Intermediate antennal segments
elongate, fore femora greatly en-
larged. Megalomerothrips, gen. nov.
cc. Wings fully developed.
d. Wings constricted in the middle.
e. Mouth cone broadly rounded at the end.
f. Cephalic bristles normal.


100












WINTER NUMBER


g. Wings only slightly narrowed
in the middle; head length
more than 1.5 times the
breadth; fore tarsi unarmed.
Cryptothrips Uzel.
gg. Wings distinctly narrowed in
the middle; head length less
than 1.5 times the breadth;
fore tarsi with a tooth.
Haplothrips (in part).
ff. One pair of cephalic bristles (not
including the post-ocular) much
elongated.
g. Post-ocellar bristles elongated;
anterior margin of prothorax
semicircular, emarginate and
greatly thickened.
Dichaetothrips Hood '14.
gg. Pair of bristles laterad of me-
dian ocellus elongated; ante-
rior margin of prothorax nor-
mal. ..................Diceratothrips.
ee. Mouth cone acite at the tip; wings con-
siderably narrowed in the middle, like a
sole.
f. Head nearly twice as long as wide;
mouth cone reaching nearly across
prosternum. ........Leptothrips Hood.
ff. Head only a little longer than broad.
g. Mouth cone reaching only to
middle of prosternum.
Zygothrips Uzel.
gg. Mouth cone reaching across
prosternum. ........Phyllothrips.
dd. Wings of equal width thruout.
e. Cheeks with a few very small warts, each
of which bears a small spine.
f. Cheeks nearly straight.
Gynaikothrips.
ff. Cheeks arched.
g. Post-ocular bristles long and
conspicuous; fore femors of
8 with two teeth near apex.
Hoplandrothrips.
gg. Post-ocular spines lacking.
Phloeothrips Haliday.
ee. Cheeks without such warts.











THE FLORIDA BUGGIST


f. Fore femora not enlarged.
g. Mouth cone acute.
h. Tube short; eyes pro-
longed on ventral side
of head; a pair of long
bristles on vertex at in-
ner angles of eyes; in-
termediate a n t e n na
segments obliquely trun-
cate at both base and
apex.
Omnatothrips Hood '15.
hh. Tube, eyes and cephalic
bristles not as above;
antennal segments nor-
mal. ......Liothrips Uzel.
gg. Mouth cone blunt; individuals
very large.
Polyphemothrips
Hood and Williams.
ff. Fore femora greatly enlarged.
Horistothrips Morgan '13.
55. Frankliella tritici (Fitch). THE GRAIN THRIPS.
A single specimen of the typical species as distinct from the common
varieties was swept from Eupatorium ageratoides in November 1918. The
antennal segments 2 are typically symmetrical and the measurements agree
closely with those given for the species. The specimen is, however, almost
colorless except for the eyes, and the bristles in front of the ocelli are very
small. This is the first specimen of the typical species the writer has seen
from Florida.


MODERN BEEKEEPING*
By FRANK STIRLING
One of the most fascinating pursuits and one that has shown
a remarkable degree of expansion during the past few years is
beekeeping. As in the case of other lines of endeavor, the
tendency is more towards specialization. Authorities, such as
Henry Alley, G. M. Doolittle and Frank C. Pellett, have found
that, in order to develop beekeeping up to its present state of
perfection, careful selection of the Queen Bee was necessary. The
queen bee is the foundation of the community, or colony, because
she is eventually the mother of all the bees in the hive. It is
therefore necessary that she be vigorous, a rigorous egg layer,
and like race horses, well bred.
There are many species of bees. During spring and summer

*Read before the Florida Entomological Society on Dec. 30, 1918.


102










WINTER NUMBER


one can see many different kinds among blossoms and flowers,
but most of these are of very little economic importance; their
only value lies in carrying pollen from flower to flower, and for
this reason they are sometimes called the "Marriage Priests" of
the flowers. Higher up in the scale one finds the bumble bees,
which not only are useful in pollenizing, but store up very small
quantities of honey.
While the number of species of these less important bees is
considerable, only those commonly known as honey bees (of
the genus Apis) are the ones of real importance as honey pro-
ducers.
Of this genus, the great bee of southern Asia (Apis dorsata)
has been the subject of considerable interest. This giant bee
builds a very large single comb out in the open, generally sas-
pended from the branch of a forest tree. On account of its
fierceness, efforts to domesticate it have not met with success.
In Mr. Frank C. Pellett's book, "Practical Queen Rearing",
mention is made of a number of other species of bees, of which
the most important is the Apis florea, a very gentle little bee,
much smaller than the common honey bee, and which builds a
delicate little comb around a twig.
But of all species, the common honey bee (Aphis mellifica) is
the only one that has been found of real value as a honey pro-
ducer. Of this species a number of varieties occur, namely, the
Italians, Blacks, Carniolans, etc.
While the Italians are generally accepted as the most valuable
bees and are by far the most popular in the United States, some
very good results have been obtained by the black bee here in
Florida. The Italian has been tried out under all kinds of con-
ditions and has proved the most satisfactory, as it is more gentle
than the blacks and is more resistant to certain diseases.
Honey bees are not native to America. The wild bees often
seen in Florida are the descendants of those imported. According
to the American Bee Journal, the first honey bees were imported
into Florida by the Spaniards previous to 1763, for they were
first noticed in West Florida during that year, and it is quite
,probable they were brought to this State first, as they were not
noticed in any other state until 1780, at which time they were
observed in Kentucky; in New York in 1793; and west of the
Mississippi'river in 1797. The bees introduced by the Spaniards
were evidently what is commonly known as the black, or German
(Continued on page 106)


103










6he
FLORIDA BUGGIST
Official Organ of The Florida Entomological Society, Gainesville,
Florida.

PROF. J. R. WATSON.-..----......------...........----------- Editor
DR. E. W. BERGER-....-Associate Editor, Acting Business Manager
Issued once every three months. Free to all members of the
Society.
Subscription price to those who are not members is $1.00 per
year in advance; 25c per copy.

Those' who would like to see the citrus tree fumigation demon-
stration being conducted in Florida by the Roessler & Hass-
lacher Chemical Company should address Mr. Walter S. Lenk,
San Juan Hotel, Orlando, Fla.

Reports from the Better Fruit Campaign, being conducted
jointly by the University Extension Division, the State Plant
Board and the U. S. D. A., indicate much interest and good
attendance on the part of the growers.

PERSONALS
Mr. E. E. Wehr, a specialist on insect pests of live stock in the
Bureau of Entomology, U. S. D. A., who has been in the State
for several weeks on extension work, has left for Maryland.
Mr. A. C. Mason, formerly assistant in the Experiment Station
and later in the Plant Board, has just been released from the
army and has accepted a position with the Bureau of Ento-
mology. He is to be located at Miami where he will take up the
study of the insects of subtropical fruits other than citrus.

OBITUARY OF MEMBERS
Mr. John A. Clinger died at Leesburg, Fla., Oct. 22, 1918.
Mr. B. O. Gaston died at Kissimmee, Jan. 17, 1919.
It is with the profoundest regret that we chronicle the death
of these two gentlemen. Each filled his place on the force of the
Plant Board and in the Society in a manner which showed an
active interest in the agricultural welfare of the State. Both
were men of high purpose and sterling character.

REPORTS OF MEETINGS
October 28. Professor P. W. Fattig of the Teachers College
and Mr. C. M. Berry of Sanford were unanimously elected to
membership in the Society.







WINTER NUMBER


Under "Timely Notes" the presence of the Saddle-back Cater-
pillar on trumpet vine at the Experiment Station was reported
by Professor J. R. Watson.
The principal paper of the evening, "Birds and Animals In-
jurious to Farm Products", was read by Mr. T. Van Hyning.
Mr. Van Hyning reviewed the records of a number of birds, and
it is his belief that but few are wholly injurious, most of them
really being useful in reducing insects. Of mammals, the pocket
gopher is the worst and a real parasite. Poisoned water is a
remedy for rats in buildings.
The second paper of the evening, by E. W. Berger, was a con-
tinuation of the discussion on "Common Names of Insects" con-
ducted at the previous meeting. The following principles were
indicated as guides that may be followed by entomologists and
others in the selection of common names:
1. Select a name already in use by the growers or others.
2. If there is no common name already in use, the scientific
name may be translated wholly or in part. Thus we have Oak
Ericoccus for Ericoccus quercus (oak), Flocculent Whitefly for
Aleurothrixus floccosa, Bay Whitefly for Paralemodes perseae
(bay), etc.
3. Some well defined and readily apparent characteristics
may be used; as Woolly Whitefly, Cloudy-winged Whitefly, Long
Scale, Chaff Scale, etc.
4. Sometimes the name of the person who described and
gave it the scientific name is used as the common name; thus
we have Putnam's Scale for Aspidiotus ancylus (Putnam). Or
the name of the town or locality from which an insect is known
may be used as the common name; thus we have Jan Jose Scale
for Aspidiotus perniciosus, Florida Red Scale and California
Red Scale for Chrysomphalus aonidum and C. aurantii respect-
ively.
Scientific names of living things are recognized the world
over. In other words, whenever an insect is described and given
a scientific name, that is its name from Washington to Tokio,
either way around the world. The fact that scientific names are
written in Latin, either in Latin words or other words having
the Latin endings, probably accounts for their ready acceptance.
By using Latin as the language for scientific names, the compe-
tition between the many other languages is avoided. Linnaens,
the noted botanist, first began the use of two latinized names for
plants and animals nearly 200 years ago.


105









THE FLORIDA BUGGIST


But common names are convenient for local usage, because they
are in plain English, easier to spell and pronounce, and absolutely
necessary to the economic entomologist who needs to discuss
insect problems with many people.

MODERN BEEKEEPING
(Continued from page 103)
bee, and it has been generally supposed that our first bees came
from Germany, but Pellett, who is accepted as authority, states
that they very probably came from Spain. The native black bees
of Great Britain, France, Germany and Spain are said to differ
but little.
While the production of honey has for centuries been con-
sidered a profitable undertaking, it was not brought to its present
state of perfection until such men as A. I. Root, L. L. Langstroth,
and a few others, by means of the invention of modern methods,
gave it the prominence it now attains. The 8 and 10 frame regu-
lation hive which was invented by Langstroth has been almost
universally adopted by progressive beekeepers, thereby making it
easier to handle the bees.
Many states have beekeepers' associations, and at their annual
meetings the most up to date methods for handling bees are
discussed, and such men as E. F. Phillips, Kenneth Hawkins and
others from the Department of Agriculture, as well as authorities
like C. P. Dadant frequently attend. At the Iowa Experiment
Station short courses in beekeeping are annually given, and at
the Universities of Missouri and Texas departments of ento-
mology have been offering courses in beekeeping for the regular
University students; women as well as men select these courses,
and upon completing their University course have pushed bee-
keeping in their respective communities.
Had it not been for this industry, the whole world would have
suffered much more from the lack of sweets than it did during
the past months, when war conditions made the amount of sugar
available inadequate for the needs of mankind.
Increase in the cost of honey,' due to the big export demand
created by the war, makes it safe to predict that the coming year
will see the greatest effort ever made in furthering beekeeping.
During the last half of this year, honey to the value of perhaps
$2,000,000 was exported-about 10 times the 'valuation for any
year previous to the beginning of the war-indicating that honey
has ceased to be a luxury in the minds of the Allied Peoples.


106










WINTER NUMBER


Also, the home demand for honey has increased. Figures are
not available, however, as much of the honey of this country never
reaches the larger centers of trade.
The amount of sweet produced by bees is really enormous.
Honey is produced in this country, in ordinary years, in excess
of two hundred and fifty million pounds. Those plants and
flowers from which bees gather nectar are legion, and are
scattered throughout the length and breadth of the land. The
white-clover belt is the most important honey-producing region,
because it furnishes not only the leading commercial honey but
also more than one-half of the honey crop of the entire country.
This belt extends from Maine to Virginia and westward to the
great plains. From white clover alone is secured about one
tenth of the Nation's crop of honey. This kind is almost color-
less and has a delicate and delicious flavor.
According to the United States Department of Agriculture,
alfalfa honey comes second in importance commercially, while
sweet clover is third in line of importance. About 4 per cent of
the Nation's honey comes from flowers of the cotton plant, 31/2
per cent from the bass-wood, 3 per cent from the tulip poplar
tree and buckwheat, and 2 per cent from the goldenrod.
California leads all other states in the production of honey.
In fact, she produces about 20 per cent of the entire Nation's
crop. This is because of the presence of great quantities of
mountain sages, together with the fact that the beekeepers of
that state have gone into the business in a business-like manner,
using modern equipment.
Florida has, until recent years, been backward in her bee-
keeping industry. There have been, however, some few pioneer
beekeepers in this State who have made more than a success of it.
The late Mr. O. O. Poppleton was considered one of the foremost
veteran beekeepers in the State, and on the East Coast, where he
operated, he harvested immense crops of honey from the orange,
palmetto and mangrove. Mr. W. S. Hart of Hawks Park, also
a Florida beekeeper of prominence, has for years operated an
apiary with profitable results in the hammocks along the East
Coast. Dr. Edwin G. Baldwin, Professor of Latin at the Stetson
University, has for many years made a business of beekeeping,
and while it is more a hobby with him, yet it has turned out to
be a very profitable one. In fact, he has made himself very promi-
nent as a queen breeder, and his queens, in large numbers, have
been sent throughout the North. Mr. H. L. Christopher is now










THE FLORIDA BUGGIST


operating two large apiaries in the groves of the Atwood Grape-
fruit Ranch at Manatee, where the bees were intended primarily
for the fertilization of the orange and grapefruit bloom. Mr. A.
I. Root, the celebrated founder of the largest bee supply estab-
lishment in the world, and one of the foremost authorities on
beekeeping, has for years operated apiaries in different sections
of the State. Mr. Root spends his winters in Manatee County,
and although he is 79 years old, he can still be seen plugging away
at his winter home near Bradentown.
Even on the western side of Lake Okeechobee, Mr. C. C. Cook
produces some of the most wonderful crops of honey ever heard
of (mostly from gallberry).
While the main harvests of honey were formerly produced in
the western portion of Florida, in the bottom lands of the Apa-
lachicola and Choclahatchee Rivers, and in the southern portion
of Walton County, the opportunities for this industry have in
recent years been found present in practically all sections of the
State.
The mild winters in Florida tend to make beekeeping more
profitable than in the northern and western states. The low cost
of operation is largely due to the fact that the bees have a
chance to gather a little honey during almost every month. Then
there is the large number of honey-producing plants; most de-
sirable of which are the orange, palmetto, tupelo, titi, mangrove,
partridge pea, goldenrod, gallberry, Spanish clover, and cotton..
(Cotton produces about 32 per cent of all the honey made in the
Southern States.)
It is not even necessary to have a farm on which to keep bees;
they seem to do just about as well in cities and towns (where
the number of colonies is limited) as they do in the country. I
happen to know of one gentleman in Jacksonville who has four
or five hives on top of a five-story office building, and I have
heard of similar instances in Tampa.
Right here within the city limits of Gainesville, which section
is not by any means considered well adapted for bee culture, there
are to my knowledge 9 men who keep bees; these 9 men have a
total of 48 colonies and there are undoubtedly others. As a rule,
these gentlemen have had very good harvests of honey during the
past year. One of them, who has but 2 colonies, made 172'pounds
of surplus honey and comb. My own bees (I have six hives in
my back yard) made an average of 70 pounds surplus per colony










WINTER NUMBER


this past season; and one of them, a ten-frame hive, made a
little over 100 pounds.
Bees, if permitted to swarm naturally, will increase about
double each year, although some will swarm more than that, so
when a beginner starts out with one or two colonies, it is not
many years before he has quite a large sized apiary. The cost
of operation, with a few colonies, is very little, and the time
required for their care is of no real importance.
It is advisable that those who anticipate going into the business
of keeping bees should start out with not more than one or two
colonies, learning all they can about it while their colonies are
increasing. In order to secure the best information on the sub-
ject, it is advisable to subscribe to some one of the bee journals
published in this country and to secure some text book, such as
"A. B. C. and X. Y. Z. of Bee Culture". Bulletins on beekeeping
can also be obtained free of charge from the Department of Agri-
culture, Washington, D. C. Failures have been made by some who
started in on too large a scale, not having the needed experience
required in handling large numbers of hives. The subject is one
that should be thoroly studied, and one finds that the deeper he
gets into it the more interesting it becomes. As stated before,
the first question is that of selecting good stock; then it is
necessary that the bees should be properly housed in regulation
hives, using comb foundation for the purpose of keeping the
honey comb straight. Regardless of the opinion expressed by
some, the old fashioned hive, or "gum", should never be con-
sidered, as it has been conclusively proven unprofitable. The en-
trances to the hives should be so adjusted as to assist the bees
in protecting themselves from their enemies, and care should be
taken to so place the hives that they will have the proper amount
of shade and ventilation.
The up-to-date beekeeper is not only an operator of his apiary,
but a co-operator with his bees, and it seems that the bees soon
become educated by the partnership as well as the beekeeper. By
this co-operation and co-education of bees and beekeeper, to-
gether with an increased interest in the business and with sen-
sible up to date handling, the result will be a development of
honey production now scarcely dreamed of.
STRATEGUS WANTED-Am making a special study of this genus,
of the Scarabeidae, and should be very glad to receive Florida
specimens, especially of the rarer specie. Will exchange or pay
cash. Address W. Knaus, McPherson, Kansas.








THE FLORIDA BUGGIST


WANTED-Diurnal Lepidoptera of Florida in exchange for
desirable western species. Over 3000 butterflies on hand for
exchanges. Dr. John A. Comstock, Southwest Museum, Los
Angeles, Calif.
WANTED-To buy or exchange for northern species, southern
Chrysophidae (Lace-winged-flies). All stages desired, especially
material for biological studies. Will determine specimens. Dr.
Roger C. Smith, U. S. Ent. Lab., Charlottesville, Va.


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6he
FLORIDA BUGGIST
Official Organ of The Florida Entomological Society, Gainesville,
Florida.

PROF. J. R. WATSON..---...........------............ ----------- Editor
DR. E. W. BERGER-....-Associate Editor, Acting Business Manager
Issued once every three months. Free to all members of the
Society.
Subscription price to those who are not members is $1.00 per
year in advance; 25c per copy.

Those' who would like to see the citrus tree fumigation demon-
stration being conducted in Florida by the Roessler & Hass-
lacher Chemical Company should address Mr. Walter S. Lenk,
San Juan Hotel, Orlando, Fla.

Reports from the Better Fruit Campaign, being conducted
jointly by the University Extension Division, the State Plant
Board and the U. S. D. A., indicate much interest and good
attendance on the part of the growers.

PERSONALS
Mr. E. E. Wehr, a specialist on insect pests of live stock in the
Bureau of Entomology, U. S. D. A., who has been in the State
for several weeks on extension work, has left for Maryland.
Mr. A. C. Mason, formerly assistant in the Experiment Station
and later in the Plant Board, has just been released from the
army and has accepted a position with the Bureau of Ento-
mology. He is to be located at Miami where he will take up the
study of the insects of subtropical fruits other than citrus.

OBITUARY OF MEMBERS
Mr. John A. Clinger died at Leesburg, Fla., Oct. 22, 1918.
Mr. B. O. Gaston died at Kissimmee, Jan. 17, 1919.
It is with the profoundest regret that we chronicle the death
of these two gentlemen. Each filled his place on the force of the
Plant Board and in the Society in a manner which showed an
active interest in the agricultural welfare of the State. Both
were men of high purpose and sterling character.

REPORTS OF MEETINGS
October 28. Professor P. W. Fattig of the Teachers College
and Mr. C. M. Berry of Sanford were unanimously elected to
membership in the Society.




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