Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society
VOL. III SPRING NUMBER NO. 4
(Printed in April)
*MOSQUITOES FOUND ABOUT GAINESVILLE, FLA.
By U. C. LOFTIN
PART II.-TRAPS FOR MOSQUITOES
During the fall and winter of 1912-1913, the writer, at the
suggestion of Dr. E. W. Berger,** conducted some experi-
ments with traps for adult mosquitoes. These experiments
have been recorded in an unpublished thesis, submitted at the
University of Florida. The principle results are summarized
here. The traps (simplified forms of the one used by Lefroy)
were vessels and boxes, dark inside and of several sizes and
shapes, placed where the mosquitoes would be likely to use
them for hiding places in the early morning. A successful
style was a plain earthenware jar, or crock, such as is often
used for churns, six to eight inches in diameter, sixteen to
eighteen inches high, dark chocolate to black inside (Fig. 27).
*Third and final consecutive installment of Mr. Loftin's paper.
**Dr. Berger first used the traps during June and part of July, and then placed
his records at the writer's disposal.
The Kny-Scheerer Corporation
Department of Natural Science
404-410 W. 27th Street, New York, N. Y.
Entomological Supplies of Every Description
We buy and sell rare insects. Illustrated catalogue on request.
We recommend the goods advertised in The Florida Buggist.
Please mention Buggist when you write our advertisers.
THE FLORIDA BUGGIST
Another type that gave good results was wooden boxes, seven
by seven inches square by thirteen inches deep, painted black
or dark green inside, or lined with black or dark green cloth.
A joint of six-inch stovepipe was also used with good results.
Other sizes, shapes and colors of crocks and boxes were used,
but it was found that the traps of small diameter and a depth
of twice the diameter gave the largest catches. No noticeable
difference was found between the black and the dark green
cloth, but the cloth lined boxes gave slightly better results than
the painted ones. It is well known that mosquitoes seek a
dark place in which to hide during the day and anything that
furnishes this condition and is nearly air-tight so that they
can be easily killed with a fumigant can be successfully used.
Mosquitoes, in common with living things in general, are
positively phototactic up to a certain degree of light intensity,
and negatively so after this is exceeded. With mosquitoes this
optimum, or turning point, is commonly met a little before
The traps were placed in various positions and kept un-
covered during the night. They were covered from 7:00 to
7:30 in the morning, before the direct rays of the sun reached
them. A board or piece of stiff cardboard makes a good cover,
but the best and most convenient cover found was a wooden
frame covered with wire gauze with a piece of cardboard cut
to fit. This cover allows an examination of the contents and
the addition of the killing agent without any danger of escape.
Gasoline was found to be the cheapest and most effective
fumigant. It was added at the rate of 1/2 teaspoonful per
gallon capacity of the crock, and about twice this amount for
the boxes, when they were covered in the morning, the amount
depending somewhat upon the temperature, more being re-
quired on a cold day when vaporization was slower. From
fifteen to twenty minutes was found sufficiently long to leave
the traps covered. If the specimens are to be kept for future
study, no more gasoline than will readily vaporize should be
added, for otherwise the specimens will be wet and bedraggled.
If they are not to be kept, a pint of boiling water poured into
the crock quickly kills them.
The position of the trap is very important and upon it de-
pends its success or failure. Most of the tests were made on
porches (Fig. 31) at 203 W. Ninth Street, South, and 2300 W.
Hernando Street, Gainesville, Fla., but traps were tried for
short times at several other dwellings in Gainesville, and in
the dormitories and Experiment Station Building of the
University of Florida.
The West Ninth Street house faces west with a porch
extending entirely across the front. The woodwork is painted
Plate V. Fig. 27. Crock, or earthenware jar, and box that gave good
results as traps. Leaning against crock is shown cover consisting of a
frame and fine wire netting.
dark green and the porch has a solid coping around it and a
wire trellis for vines at either end. There are two double
windows and a door opening on to it. The porch and the
position of the traps are shown in the diagram, Figure 31a.
Traps were placed on the south end of the porch on the east
side next the wall (SE:bc); on the west side next the coping
(SW:bc) and at a point midway between the two. On the
north end they were located on the east side near the wall
The house at 2300 W. Hernando Street is situated about one-
fourth mile northwest of Thomas Hall, University of Florida.
It faces south with a front porch and a side porch part of the
way along the east side. The woodwork is white with a door,
a single window, a double window opening on the front (south)
THE FLORIDA BUGGIST
porch and two single windows on the side (east) porch. There
is a corner two feet east of the door that projects outward a
couple of feet and a trellis of wisteria shades part of the front
and side porches. The traps were located at the right and
left of the door (D:rl) ; at the windows on the front (south)
porch (W:bbb); and on the north end of the east porch
(N:cb). See diagram, Fig. 31b.
The importance of the position of the traps is strikingly
shown in Table I, which gives the records of two similar crocks
situated on the south end of the West Ninth Street porch. One
was on the east side near the wall (SE :c) and the other not
eight feet away on the west side near the coping where it was
more exposed to light (SW:c) (see Fig. 31a). The table
gives the average number caught per night for a five and six
months period, from October to March. (There is no record
for the crock near the coping for November, hence this is for
a five months period only.)
TABLE I.-THE EFFECT OF POSITION ON THE NUMBER CAUGHT
Position of Crock (c) | Months Recorded Average No. Per Night
W. 9th St. at SE:c (1)-........... 6 21.2
W 9th St. at SW :c................. 5 11.3
(1) See Fig. 31.
This large difference is explained as follows: As day ap-
proaches the outer edge of the porch becomes light first and
the mosquitoes move towards the darker side, next the green
wall, and eventually settle in the traps. The house also breaks
the wind on this side and the air is calmer. This tendency to
go toward the darker side is also shown near the door at 2300
W. Hernando Street (Fig. 31b). A crock was placed on one
side of the door and a joint of stovepipe on the other through-
out the winter. Records for an average of ten nights in
March show that when the crock was on the right it caught
1.56 times as many as the stovepipe on the left and that when
the stovepipe was on the right it caught 1.47 times as many
as the crock. This is in spite of the fact that a flower stand
and a box for rubbers, etc., was always on the right and a
considerable number always settled here. The conditions here
are somewhat similar to those at West Ninth Street. The pro-
jecting wall shuts off the early light from the east and the
wisteria vines, which end about opposite the trap, shut off the
light from the front, leaving this a darkened corner. The
effect of a large dark place where the mosquitoes can hide was
shown at another house. The back porch is latticed, but not
screened, and mosquitoes are plentiful. A crock set in various
places on and about the porch gave almost negative results, as
most of the mosquitoes settled in a large dark cupboard in a
corner of the porch. This being larger and equally as dark
as the jar seemed more attractive. In a bedroom at 203 West
Ninth Street, where the furniture and walls are light colored,
four or five, and at once time a dozen mosquitoes were caught
when they were not numerous enough to be troublesome,
while in the dormitory, where the woodwork is dark and there
are closets and bookcases for them to hide in, never more than
three or four, and often none, would be caught, even when they
were too numerous for comfort.
No data were secured on the relation of the direction of the
wind to the number caught, but the catch was always greater
on a still than on a windy night. But as a high wind was
usually accompanied by a drop in temperature, this may
account for most of the difference. The effect of temperature
was noticed throughout the winter, a high catch always coming
with a rise in temperature. The curve in Figure 32 shows
the temperature recorded and the number caught in a green
cloth-lined box on the porch at 2300 West Hernando Street
during February, and the close correlation between the two.
The temperature of February was the coldest and most varia-
ble of any month of the year.
Various substances such as apples, bananas, guavas, raw
beef, urine, water, banana oil, etc., were placed in the traps as
attractions, but none caused any appreciable increase in the
number caught. Very definite results were secured, however,
with repellants. The method employed was to place a small
vial, or to pour a little of the substance to be tested in the
bottom of the trap, and to have a similar trap about a foot
away for a control, or check. The percentage of efficiency, as
repellants, of three proprietary compounds, Bombay Vapor, oil
of citronella and oil of tar, varied from 92.8% to 82% in the
order named. Traps of this nature should prove useful in
testing the efficiency of repellants because of the ease in which
a control can be secured.
A daily record was kept of the position and the catch of the
individual traps and the mosquitoes placed in vials or pill
boxes for future study. Some of the specimens were destroy-
ed by breakage, loss, destruction by ants, etc., but during the
THE FLORIDA BUGGIST
year 20,449 individual mosquitoes were caught and identified.
Table II gives the number of males and females, the per
cent of females, the number of females with blood in the
abdomen, the number of females with well developed ovaries,
Ninth Street South. Size of ppreh 9x26 ft. (b) Larger, L-shaped
fir. o i
I _----_---- -
Plate VI. Fig. 31. (a) Smaller figure, diagram of porch at 203 W.
Ninth Street South. Size of pprch 9x26 ft. (b) Larger, L-shaped
figure, diagram of porch at 2800 W. Hernando Street. Size 7 and 9 ft.
by 28 and 18 ft. (b, c, r, 1, stand for box trap, crock, traps right and left
of door, respectively.)
the total number and the per cent of each species caught during
Species Caught I j E
Culex quinquefasciatus Say. 11723 8363141+ 839
culatus Say. .-..--.......- --.. ... 26 171 86.8 11
Anopheles crucians Wied... 37 124177+ 8
Psorophora ciliata Fab -- -
Stegomyia calopus Meig... -
Total ...................---............. 1178618658142.331 858
18 197 .96+
12 161 .78-
It is seen from the table that Culex quinquefasciatus is the
dominant species but the percentage given is probably higher
than is usually found. The relative abundance of the different
species varies from time to time, but Culex quinquefasciatus
usually comprises from 80 to 85-, of those seen. During
December very few Culex quinquefasciatus were seen at the
Experiment Station, while Anopheles were common. Anophe-
les comprised from 15 to 20% and sometimes more of those
collected by hand in the dormitories during October and
November. No Anopheles were found resting on the window
screens at 2300 West Hernando Street with the Culex until
about December 1st. From December 1st until February 1st
both species of Anopheles were found, but usually more
Anopheles quadrimaculatus. Then Anopheles crucians became
more abundant, comprising about 10% and sometimes more
of all those seen. On March 29th, twenty-five Anopheles
crucians and only two Culex were counted on the screen. Only
an occasional individual was seen on the screens at 203 West
Ninth Street, while they were always thick on the screens on
the front porch at 2300 West Hernando Street, often as many
as a hundred individuals being counted in the morning before
they were disturbed. The wisteria vines shade the screens
at the latter place while there is no such protection at the
Stegomyia was occasionally seen in considerable numbers
about the building, but only three were taken throughout the
(Continued on page 67)
Official Organ of The Florida Entomological Society, Gainesville,
PROF. J. R. WATSON -.....----.--.. ---....-..------.......---....---..-- Editor
PROF. WILMON NEWELL........... --......-..- .......Associate Editor
DR. E. W. BERGER_--....-----------------Business Manager
Issued once every three months. Free to all members of the
Subscription price to non-members is $1.00 per year in ad-
vance; 25 cents per copy.
In accordance with a vote of the Society at its February
meeting, THE FLORIDA BUGGIST will, with the new volume, be-
come THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST.
Yes, and the Business Manager regrets that this change of
name was made without at least a month's previous notice,
and without getting the vote of the non-resident members. It
is the writer's belief that changes of name of a publication
should not be hastily made, especially when it is considered
that THE BUGGIST has completed three years of an honorable
record, being successful far beyond the anticipation of its
originators. A few people, somewhere in the United States,
have been critical of the name Buggist, and so the movers for
a change, Buggists who visited the Entomological meetings at
St. Louis in December, rushed home and ology it must be with
"all other ologies whatsoever". Verily, like a rush to cover
of chickens from a shadow.
If those who are similarly minded will voice their senti-
ments by writing at once to the Secretary, there is still time
for reconsideration. If the name must be changed, the writer
would suggest The Florida Insectist-a name that is new and
different, and not stale.-E. W. B.
RECENT BULLETINS OF INTEREST TO OUR READERS
Bulletin 805, U. S. D. A., "Two Leaf-Hoppers Injurious to
Apple Nursery Stock," by A. J. Ackerman. The author gives
only one locality for the Bean Leaf-Hopper (Empoasca mali)
in Florida, about Ft. Lauderdale. The insect is of course ex-
ceedingly abundant over the entire state and has been fre-
quently cited in literature to that effect.
Farmers' Bulletin 1070 on the "Fowl Tick," by F. C.
Bishopp. This tick has become established in several localities
Ohio Station Bulletin 329 on the "Peach-Tree Borer", by
Gossard and King.
Messrs. J. H. Montgomery, F. M. O'Bryne, Frank Stirling,
J. C. Goodwin and Wilmon Newell attended the meeting of the
Entomological Society of America and the American Associa-
tion of Economic Entomologists at St. Louis, December 29 to
Mr. K. E. Bragdon is now County Agent for Brevard
County, with headquarters at Cocoa.
Mr. A. C. Brown, Assistant Quarantine Inspector for the
State Plant Board, is now on duty at the Board's offices at
Mr. Clarence A. Bass, having received his discharge from
the navy, is now doing nursery inspection work for the State
Plant Board of Florida.
Mr. F. F. Bibby has recently received his discharge from
Mr. M. M. Bass is in charge of extensive grove properties
near Ft. Myers, being associated with the Standard Growers'
Mr. B. L. Boyden was a recent caller at the office of the
State Plant Board at Gainesville, conferring with members
of the Plant Board staff regarding the sweet potato weevil
eradication work in Baker County, Florida.
Mr. Eli K. Bynum is engaged in farming at his home at
Mr. Virgil Clark, Inspector for the State Plant Board, took
a vacation during the holidays and returned to Gainesville
with a "better half".
Mr. Leon A. Daniel is at present employed by the Atlantic
Coast Line in connection with fruit inspection service.
Mr. James Kerr has completed the citrus canker eradication
work at Santa Rosa, Florida, and is now working with the
nursery inspection forces of the State Plant Board.
Mr. Wilmon Newell spent several days during December on
the east coast of Lake Okeechobee, in connection with the
Plant Board's campaign against mosaic disease of sugar cane.
THE FLORIDA BUGGIST
Mr. W. V. Millington is assisting in the port inspection
service at Key West, for the Federal Horticultural Board and
the State Plant Board.
Mr. Shirley B. Walker has been reappointed Assistant Nur-
sery Inspector for the State Plant Board.
According to the Monthly Letter of the U. S. Bureau of
Entomology, Mr. H. E. Loomis, who has just returned from
service in the Marine Corps, has been appointed Assistant
Entomological Inspector in the Division of Truck Crop Inves-
tigations with headquarters at Macclenny, Fla.
Another member of the staff of the Experiment Station,
Professor S. E. Collison, the chemist, has resigned his posi-
tion to go into commercial work in New York. The migration
of the older experienced men from the faculties of our uni-
versities and other scientific institutions into commercial lines
has reached the proportions of almost a stampede and is a most
alarming state of affairs which is bound to seriously affect the
value of these institutions for decades to come. Our public
schools, with their constantly shifting personnel among the
teachers, furnish a shining example of the evils that result
when teachers look upon their positions as a mere temporary
occupation to be dropped as soon as something better can be
secured. While all true scientific workers labor for the love
of science, still they must eat and their families, if they have
been rash enough to follow the teachings of the eugenicists and
raise one, must be fed, clothed, and educated. In many cases
this has become impossible on a salary whose purchasing
power has been cut in two since pre-war days.
Thos. H. Jones, Entomological Assistant, U. S. Bureau of
Entomology, and a member of our Society, who maintained for
a few months at Ft. Myers a laboratory for the study of insects
of truck crops, has returned to Louisiana. The station at Ft.
Myers has been abandoned.
Mr. Weigel, of Washington, D. C., recently visited Satsuma
and Gainesville in the interest of Camphor Thrips work.
Mr. E. F. DeBusk, formerly County Agent for Orange
County and until recently with the Wilson Toomer Fertilizer
Company, at Winter Haven, has accepted a position as
Assistant Boys' Club Agent with the Extension Division of
the College of Agriculture.
The unofficial nursery inspection duties of F. M. O'Byrne
have been increased. Boy, 10 pounds.
REPORTS OF MEETINGS
October 27. Meeting was called to order in Language Hall
at 4:30 by Vice-President Merrill. There were eleven mem-
bers and visitors present. The paper of the evening was on
the Japanese Beetle, by Mr. Wilmon Newell, State Plant Com-
missioner. The speaker gave a description of the adults and
illustrated it with specimens. He also outlined the life history.
Only the adult form is especially injurious. They skeletonize
the leaves of a large number of plants, especially ornamentals,
and are very destructive. It was introduced from Japan about
ten years ago and at present is confined to a limited area in
New Jersey, but is rapidly extending its range each year.
Owing to inadequate control measures there is great danger of
its being widely disseminated. The speaker stated his belief
that the beetle would become a very severe pest if introduced
November 24. The meeting was called to order at 4:30 by
President O'Byrne with fourteen members present. Out of
town members present were J. E. Graf and B. L. Boyden. The
following new members were elected: M. D. Cody, University
of Florida; Thos. H. Jones, Bureau of Entomology; U. C.
Loftin, Federal Horticultural Board. The paper of the
evening was by Dr. J. H. Montgomery, Quarantine Inspector,
on "Some Phases of the Quarantine Work of the State Plant
Board". The speaker emphasized the great danger of intro-
ducing injurious insects into Florida. There is especial danger
of introducing the Citrus Flack Fly from Cuba on account of
inefficient control measures. There is also great danger of
introducing the European Corn Borer from New England on
straw used for packing. The insect, if introduced into Florida,
would probably attack sugar cane. The outlook is very
promising for the eradication of the sweet potato weevil from
Baker County. Every effort is being made to prevent the
spread of the weevil to portions of the state not now infested.
He concluded by calling attention to the real danger of intro-
ducing severe pests from Central and South America and to
the fact that little is known concerning the insects in those
Mr. G. B. Merrill, Assistant Entomologist, thtn gave an
account of the work of the Entomological Department of the
State Plant Board in connection with the quarantine in-
THE FLORIDA BUGGIST
spector's task. Specimens sent in by the inspectors are
identified if possible, but in some cases it has been necessary
to refer the material to the U. S. Bureau of Entomology or
Under the head of "Timely Notes", Mr. Frank Stirling,
General Inspector State Plant Board, gave an account of the
large hornets' nest constructed during the summer at the home
of President A. A. Murphree. The hornets (Vespa canadensis)
had constructed a nest about eight feet long and several feet
wide under the eaves. They were destroyed by a misty spray
of kerosene and the nest removed.
Prof. J. R. Watson exhibited a map which he had prepared
showing the months of average maximum and minimum
precipitation thruout the state. This map showed that the
rainy season starts in June in the south central part of the
peninsula and spreads in both directions from this center
during the four succeeding months, concluding in Palm Beach
and Dade Counties in October. He also showed specimens of
a new thrips, Trichothrips drakei, which is remarkable for its
size, 3 mm.; and also specimens of the Puss Moth, exceptionally
large numbers of the caterpillars of which have been sent to
the Experiment Station during the fall.-H. S. Davis,
January 26, 1920. Meeting of the Society was called to
order by the Vice-President, Mr. Merrill, at 4:30 P. M. Pre-
sent the following: Newell, Berger, Stirling, Merrill, Watson,
Montgomery, Stone, Goodwin, Davis, Fattig, Schlobig, and
Brown, members; and Mr. Dely Hunt, guest.
Minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved.
This being the first meeting of the new year, annual election
of officers was held. Mr. Geo. B. Merrill was elected Presi-
dent; C. M. Hunt, Vice-President; J. H. Montgomery, Secre-
tary; and Dr. Davis, member of the executive committee. The
business and editorial staff of the official organ of the Society,
THE FLORIDA BUGGIST, were re-elected. It was moved and
passed that the retiring President, Mr. F. M. O'Byrne, be re-
quested to deliver the annual presidential address at the Febru-
ary meeting of the Society.
Dr. E. W. Berger, Business Manager of THE FLORIDA
BUGGIST, presented a report on the financial condition of that
publication. This report was received, accepted and filed.
Dr. J. H. Montgomery discussed the pink bollworm situation
in Texas with more particular reference to the efforts being
made by the federal and state authorities to handle the situa-
tion. The discovery of reinfestation in some of the fields in
southeastern Texas last fall has been the occasion for a con-
ference of state officials held at Houston and Beaumont early
in December. Dr. Montgomery reported that the situation,
although discouraging and disquieting, is not necessarily
alarming. No radical changes are contemplated in the
eradication methods which have been made use of other than
the extension of the period of quarantine on infested fields to
cover a period of not less than two years.
Mr. Frank Stirling made a further report on observations
made by him in connection with the destruction of a large
wasp nest. This nest or colony had become established be-
tween the walls and under the eaves of the house of Dr. Mur-
phree. Mr. Stirling and others undertook to destroy this
colony with most satisfactory results. The outstanding fea-
ture of this account was that the efficiency of the use of an
oil fog to control the wasps during the destruction was
Dr. Berger, Entomologist, State Plant Board, made a pre-
liminary report on the work which he is doing in producing
pure cultures of the Cuban Aschersonia, a fungus found infect-
ing several soft scales.
Under the head of new business, notice was given of a pro-
posed change in the constitution to the effect that the Business
Manager of THE BUGGIST shall also act as Treasurer of the
Society. Under the constitution a change can only be made
by a two-thirds vote of the members present at a meeting held
thirty days subsequent to the giving of notice of the proposed
change.-J. H. Montgomery, Secretary.
February 23. Meeting of the Society was called to order,
the President, Mr. Merrill, in the chair. Members present:
Mr. Merrill, the President, in the chair. Members present:
Newell, O'Byrne, Chaffin, Goodwin, Brown, Stirling, Watson,
Schlobig, Berger, Montgomery and the President.
Minutes of the previous meeting were read, corrected and
The paper of the evening was read by Mr. O'Byrne, retiring
THE FLORIDA BUGGIST
President, his subject being "Standardization of Nursery In-
spection Rules and Requirements".
Notice of the proposed amendment to Article III of the
Constitution of the Society having been given at the last
previous meeting the proposed amendment was presented to
be voted upon. The amendment was adopted and read as
"The officers shall consist of a President, a Vice-
President, a Secretary and a Treasurer. There shall
be an executive committee consisting of the President,
Secretary and one other member. The officers shall
be elected at the annual meeting in January."
Under the head of new business, Dr. Montgomery present-
ed for consideration of the Society a proposition to change the
name of the official organ of the Society. There was con-
siderable discussion which was participated in by practically
all members present, and after considering various sugges-
tions decision was finally arrived at that the name of the
publication be changed from THE FLORIDA BUGGIST to THE
FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST, this upon motion of Mr. O'Byrne,
seconded by Dr. Montgomery.
Under Timely Notes Mr. Watson, Entomologist Florida
Experiment Station, displayed specimens of a spider, the
"black widow", Latrodaectus mactans. This is said to be the
most poisonous of the spider family known in Florida.
Mr. Goodwin reported a newspaper item indicating that the
pink bollworm had found lodgment in Louisiana near the
Dr. Berger made further report on production of Cuban
Aschersonia, Aschersonia cubensis, and two or three other
fungi (names not known).. Dr. Berger reported that the
growth of these cultures was very much slower than the
yellow and red aschersonias.-J. H. Montgomery, Secretary.
On the first page of Bulletin 87 of the Arizona Agricultural
Experiment Station occurs the following remark: "Many farm-
ers now located in Arizona have had experience with it (the
boll weevil) in Texas, Oklahoma and other states of the so
called cotton belt" (italics mine).
SPRING NUMBER 67
MOSQUITOES FOUND ABOUT GAINESVILLE, FLA.
(Continued from page 59)
year in the traps. Psorophora were usually rare, but com-
prised about 75% of a lot collected by hand or found dead on
the window sills of the Agricultural Building. They were
sometimes troublesome at night during May in Science Hall.
Two or three specimens of Megarhinus were collected, but
were never taken from traps.
The percentage of females caught in traps is much lower for
Culex than for Anopheles. Smith (1) has pointed out that
male mosquitoes do not fly as far as females 'and that more
females than males enter the house. He collected some out-
side and some inside the house, a total of 1,350, representing
several species. Of these taken outside, only a small per-
centage (10-23%) of those breeding considerable distances
away were males, while 60% of the Culex pipiens, which were
breeding locally, were males. Of a total of 318 individuals
taken within the house, Smith did not find a single male.
Lefroy (2) caught an average of 21.8% females in a similar
trap set inside the house..
Culex were found breeding closer to both houses than
TABLE III.-AVERAGE NUMBER CAUGHT PER MONTH IN SIMILAR CROCKS
AT BOTH STATIONS
Average Number Caught Per Night
Month 203 W. Ninth St. S. 2300 W. Hernando St.
September, 1912 .............. 21.0 30.1
October ...................... .... 44.2 78.7
November ........................ 14.3 23.2
December ......... ............ 14.2 32.0
January, 1913 .................... 12.0 15.0
February ............................ 14.5 25.0
M arch .................................. 31.1 49.0
April ....... ....... ...... ..-.... 12.2 30.0
M ay ................................... 10.5 22.3
Average per year.---....-...( 19.3 33.9
The number given as having blood in the abdomen included
only those in which the blood was undigested and could be
seen through the abdominal walls as a dark clot. All of those
with the abdomen plump and distended, where no blood could
be seen, were counted as having well developed ovaries,
though some of them were probably distended with other food.
(1). Smith, John B., Annual Report of the Entomologist, Report of the New Jersey
Experiment Station for 1902.
(2). See "Literature Cited".
Plate VII. Fig. 32. Curves showing correlation between temperature
and the number of mosquitoes caught per night during February, 1913.
Figures at left and dotted line denote temperature, degrees F.; figures at
bottom denote days of the month; figures at right and solid line denote
the number caught. Porch, 2300 Hernando Street, corner Waukulla
Avenue, Lot 1, Block 5, College Park Plat, Gainesville, Fla. Trap, a
box (see Fig. 27) lined with dark green cloth.
In twenty-five dissections, however, all contained well de-
veloped eggs, the number varying from 30 to 130, depending
upon the size of the specimens, with an average of 80.5 eggs.
In Table III is given the monthly average number caught
per night in similar crocks situated on the southeast end of
the porch at 203 West Ninth Street (Fig. 31a SE:c), and on
the right side of the door at 2300 West Hernando Street (Fig.
PRACTICAL USE OF TRAPS
Traps of this nature may not rid a place of mosquitoes, nor
even reduce the number enough to make them unobjectionable.
But in favorable positions, they will catch large numbers and
certainly could be used as a controlling factor. The average
number caught throughout the year (September to May) by a
single crock at 2300 West Hernando Street, was 33.9 per night.
This would give a total of over twelve thousand for the year.
Suppose one thousand houses in Gainesville should run two of
the traps, one on the front porch and one on the back porch,
for a year. This would rid the city of twenty-four million
pests-I dare say more than have ever been killed by artificial
means within the city in the last ten years. Certainly they
are not so plentiful in Gainesville that these twenty-four
million would not be missed. But even this is not all; each
female caught during the winter and spring is cut off from
becoming the progenitor of at least a thousand others during
the summer. If every home would cooperate by running one
or two of these traps, at least during the winter and early
spring, the number of mosquitoes present would probably be
Such traps also afford a very convenient means for testing
the efficiency of repellants and determining the relative abun-
dance of mosquitoes at different seasons.
1. All of the mosquitoes found at the University breed
locally, but the breeding areas are small and could be drained
with the expenditure of a small amount of money.
2. Traps used for adults, when favorably located on porches,
have caught an average of thirty-three mosquitoes per night
for nine months.
3. Crocks and boxes, black inside or lined with dark cloth,
THE FLORIDA BUGGIST
have given the best results. They should be rather narrow
4. The success or failure of traps depends on the location.
They should be placed in a well lighted room or porch, which
is free from dark cupboards, closets, etc. The best position
is determined by experiments.
5. High winds affect the number caught, but temperature is
the most important factor. The largest numbers caught were
on warm still nights.
6. Not all species are equally attracted to the traps. Culex
quinquefasciatus is attracted more than Anopheles or
7. These traps are not recommended to rid a place of mos-
quitoes, but if used with judgment they will reduce the num-
ber present in the house or outside. Such traps are also useful
for collecting mosquitoes for specimens, demonstration or
class uses, or for testing repellants.
Berkley, W. N., 1902, Laboratory Work With Mosquitoes.
Darling, Samuel T., 1910, Studies in Relation to Malaria. Publication of
the Isthmian Canal Commission, Laboratory of the Board of Health,
Department of Sanitation.
Davis, J. J., 1906, The Number of Eggs of Culex Pipiens. Entomological
News, Vol. 17, No. 10, p. 368.
Felt, E. P., 1910, Report of the N. Y. State Entomologist for 1905.
Francis, 1906, Public Health Notes, Vol., No. 26, June, 1909.
Gorgas, W. C., 1909, Larvaecides. Report of the Department of the
Isthmian Canal Zone for 1912.
Gorgas, W. C., 1909, Larvaecides. Report of the Department of Sanita-
tion of the Isthmian Canal Zone for 1909.
Herrick, Glen. W., 1903, The Relation of Malaria to Agriculture and
Other Industries of the South. Popular Science Monthly, April, 1903.
Howard, L. 0., 1909, Mosquitoes; How They Live; How They Carry
Disease; How They Are Classified; How They May Be Destroyed.
Howard, L. 0., 1910, Preventive and Remedial Work Against Mosquitoes.
Bureau of Entomology, U. S. D. A. Bulletin 88.
Howard, L. 0., 1911, Some Facts About Malaria, U. S. D. A. Farmers'
Johnson, H. P., 1902, A Study of Certain Mosquitoes in New' Jersey and
a Statement of the "1lVosquito-Malaria" Theory. Appendix A., N.
J. Agricultural Experiment Station. Report of the Entomologist
Lefroy, H. Maxwell, 1907, A Preliminary Account of the Biting Flies of
India, Agricultural Research Institute. Pusa, India, Bulletin 7.
Lugger, Otto, 1896, Report of the Eptomologist Maine Agricultural
Experiment Station, Report for 1896.
Mitchell, Evelyn Groesbeck, 1907, Mosquito Life.
Quayle, H. J., 1906, Mosquito Control. California Agricultural Experi-
ment Station'Bulletin 178.
Smith; John B., 1901-1911, Reports of the Entomologist for 1901-1911.
New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station.
Smith, John B., 1908. The House Mosquito, A City, Town, and Village
Problem. INew Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 246.
Theobald, F. V., 1901, Monograph of the Culicidae, or Mosquitoes.
Official Publication of the British Museum, London.
Van Dine, D. L., 1906, Mosquito Control. The Introduction of Top
Minnows in the Hawaiian Islands. Hawaiian Station Report Press
KEY TO NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES OF PHYSOTHRIPS
(Continued from page 32)
The genus Physothrips is part of the old genus Euthrips which name
Karny (1909) has shown should be applied to the genus Anaphothrips.
The species formerly included under Euthrips are now divided between
four genera which may be separated by the following key:
1. Tibia with a strong, curved spine on the end-.........Odontothrips Serville
2. Tibia without such a spine.
a. Wings with transverse bands .......................Taeniothrips Serville
aa. Wings without transverse bands.
b. Bristles on the fore angles of the prothorax conspicuous.
bb. Bristles on the fore angles of the prothorax not conspicuous.
KEY TO THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES OF PHYSOTHRIPS
(Adapted from Jones, 1912)
1. General color white to light yellow or orange. Head noticeably wider
a. Last two segments of antennae rather long and slender, and to-
gether about 2-3 as long as segment 6. Wings shaded brown except
near base and apex--......------................-.........P. orchardii (Moulton)
aa. Last two segments of antennae not long and slender, about 1/ as
long as segment 6. Wings not shaded brown.
b. Ring vein and longitudinal veins conspicuous. Wings dilute
yellow .....................-- ........ .----...-...-.. ........... P. costalis (Jones)
bb. Ring and longitudinal veins not conspicuous. Wings white.
P. albus (Moulton)
2. General color brown.
a. Head nearly as long as wide; no prominent bristles in front of
posterior ocelli---................-.....................------ P. longirostrum (Jones)
aa. Head noticeably wider than long; a prominent spine in front of each
b. Eyes not pilose; postocular bristles present; antennal segments
3 and 4 not pedicellate; posterior longitudinal vein of fore wings
with 13 spines.--...............................-...----P. ehrhornii (Moulton)
bb. Eyes sparsely pilose; post-ocular bristles absent; antennal seg-
ments 3 and 4 pedicellate; posterior longitudinal vein with 11 or
12 spines--.........- --....- ......-...----.....--------P. black n. sp.
THE FLORIDA BUGGIST
"Here's to the chigger
That isn't any bigger
Than the point of a very small pin,
But the lump he raises,
Itches like blazes
And there's where the rub comes in."
WANTED-A temporary laboratory assistant in the Depart-
ment of Entomology of the Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station. Address J. R. Watson, Gainesville, Fla.
STRATEGUS WANTED-Am making a special study of this
genus, of the Scarabeidae, and should be very glad to receive
Florida specimens, especially of the rarer species. Will ex-
change or pay cash. Address W. Knaus, McPherson, Kansas.
"TESTED SEEDS FOR FLORIDA"
FARM AND GARDEN
Send for our Catalog.
MANN-HODGE SEED CO.
When writing to advertisers mention The Florida Buggist