Florida Entomo] gist
Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society
VOL. V SPRING NUMBER No. 3 4
LIFE HISTORY STUDIES OF SOME FLORIDA APHIDS1
By ARTHUR C. MASON
It is a well-known fact that in the colder sections of the country
the plant lice pass the winter in the egg stage. These eggs hatch
in the spring into wingless agamic females. The process of pro-
ducing apterous viviparous females usually continues throughout
the season. Winged females sometimes appear, also, but in most
cases only apterous forms are found. At the approach of cold
weather the true sexual generations of both males and females
appear. Fertilization takes place and the females lay eggs which
live over winter to start the generation in the following spring.
This, in general, is the mode of life of plant lice in the North.
Experimental work has been done which tends to show that the
true sexual forms are produced only when conditions are not
favorable to the continued life of a species, in the adult form.
Slingerland (23)2 of Cornell, raised 99 generations without pro-
ducing a single sexual form in his insectary where conditions of
heat, plant food; etc., were favorable to the aphids. Therefore,
this might happen naturally under favorable conditions. From
this experiment it is reasonable to believe that plant lice can live
and breed viviparously over winter in Florida, and this phenome-
non has actually been observed by the writer in the case of sev-
eral species of aphids. No true males have been produced, nor
have any sexual eggs been laid. Other workers also have offered
this as an explanation of the life of southern aphids. Quairitance
(32), in describing the life history of Aphis brassica says that
:A synopsis of Part II of thesis entitled "Systematic and Biological Studies
of ,Some of Florida Aphididae" presented by the write' to the University of Florida
in 1915 for the degree of Master of Science. This is the second paper of the series;
the third and concluding paper will appear in a following issue.
2 Numbers refer to references cited. Complete list of references for the three
papers will appear at the end of the third paper.
We recommend the goods advertised in The Florida Ento-
mologist. Please mention Entomologist when you write our
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
they pass the winter without the production of m'ales.and females
and winter eggS. Watson (36) .says that in the warm cliniate of
Florida, especially the southern part, viviparous and partheno-
genetic reproduction will undoubtedly continue all winter in the
case of the tomato louse, Megoura solani, and also of the green
peach aphid, Myzus persicae. Considerable work has been done
by the United States Bureau of Entomology on the southern grain
louse, Toxoptera graminum, and they have found that it will
breed viviparously all winter in all southern states. In their
bulletin on the subject, Webster and Phillips (37) make the state-
ment that there is no resting or egg stage and whenever there is
a sufficient food supply and warm weather the aphids become
very abundant. Hubbard (22) is also of the opinion that the
southern aphids will live and breed viviparously over winter,
and says that the males of the orange aphids rarely if ever appear.
In spite of the fact that several species have actually been ob-
served living on the plants throughout the winter and that most
of the workers of this and other Southern States admit the prob-
ability of viviparous breeding through the winter, it is a ques-
tion as to where the vast majority of aphids pass the winter. It
is probable that many, if not all, of those species which live on
perennial plants or on plants which are fresh during the winter
will live through the season without producing. eggs. Those
whose host plants die in the fall must find a different host or
else live over winter in a different form, and it is probable that
some at least live in the egg stage. A warm spell of weather
and fresh tender shoots of their host plants will bring out large
numbers of plant lice which may again disappear under adverse
conditions. In all probability they produce sexual forms and lay
sexual eggs when the weather conditions are bad and when their
food plants die out.
MYZUS PERSICAE SULZ.
This insect, commonly called the green peach louse, is probably
the most common aphid which occurs in this part of Florida, and
with one or two exceptions the most destructive. The writer has
found it in more or less abundance at all seasons of the year ex-
cept during the summer months, and on a great variety of plants.
It selects the tender shoots of fruit trees, many garden crops, and
ornamental plants, and when conditions are favorable reproduces
in large numbers, often becoming very troiublesomne,' They have
been observed several times abundant enough to cause cabbage
leaves, and also turnips, collards, and other cruciferous plants to
curl up and die. Other instances where this louse has been seen
in disastrous numbers were on Easter lilies, oranges, etc. Neal
(26) speaks of Myzus persicae as very injurious to peach growing
in Florida by causing the tender sprouts to curl up and die. In
the green house, particularly, they reproduce very rapidly and are
a serious pest.
The list of aphids as reported in the preceding paper in the
Entomologist shows this louse to have been collected from thirty-
five different plants in Florida. Additional plants as recorded
elsewhere by Taylor (34), O'Kane (28), Chittenden (4), Gillette
and Taylor (18) bring the list of hosts up to more than one hun-
dred species. These hosts include practically all garden crops,
many flowers, ornamentals, fruit trees, weeds, etc., and in widely
separated families. The aphid apparently has no preference for
the juices of any one plant or even single family of plants, but
selects almost any which are fresh and tender. Neither is it con-
fined to this part of the country. Other states from which Myzus
persicae is reported are California (15), Virginia (4), Colorado
(18), Minnesota (27). From these widely separated States we
can conclude that the species is well scattered over this country.
It is also reported by Buckton (3) from England.
Seasonal Occurrence. Beginning in the fall Myzus persicae
was first found in October on cabbages and turnips. It continued
to breed there during November and December and increased
quite rapidly. In January and February it was less numerous,
but a few could always be found in any field of cabbages, turnips,
rape, and other related plants. It began to appear then on other
plants, being found in March on lettuce, pansies, violets, and
Easter Lilies. In April it appeared on some rose bushes, and on
hybiscus and poinsettias, and also on beets and radishes in the
garden. A month later, however, they had apparently all left
those plants where they were so numerous and it was also diffi-
cult to find them on cabbages, but instead they were now numer-
.ous on Irish potatoes, corn and beans which were coming up. Here
they lived while these plants were fresh, then abandoned them
as they previously had the others. In June they were found on
kale, egg-plant, and peppers, which were then growing, and on
which they lived during the early part of the summer. Later,
they seemed to entirely disappear, and although many plants were
examined during the late summer no trace of them was found.
Probably the adults live in small numbers on some wild plants
where they were unnoticed. They were not on the garden and
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
ornamental plants where they lived during the early part of the
year. In the fall they again appeared on the cabbages, turnips,
radishes, rape, etc., as they had done the previous year. They
continued to live on these plants in more or less abundance all
through the winter. They also appeared in November on peach
tree leaves, and in December on some fresh garden plants, as
beets, carrots, kale, etc. All through the winter they could be
found in more or less abundance on most young fresh garden
plants, also on sunflowers and various weeds. In the greehouse,
also, they lived on several plants but were very abundant and
destructive on the young shoots of the orange trees. Hence it
appears that Myzus persicae selects always the plants that are
coming up fresh, instead of remaining on one plant all the year.
Life History. An effort was made to breed this species in
jars throughout the winter and thus determine if reproduction
was entirely parthenogenetic or if sexual forms occurred; also its
rate of reproduction and other factors of biological importance.
The work was carried on one winter in the greenhouse and the
following winter in the open air insectary which was then avail-
able. Although the aphids probably reproduced faster in the
greenhouse than under natural conditions, a line on the maximum
number of generations could be obtained in the open air insectary,
as well as its method of living and other data of importance.
For the purpose of the experiment, small cabbage plants were
used, these being placed in pots and protected with lantern globes
which were set over the plants and the top covered with a piece
Of cheese cloth. These pots were placed on the greenhouse bench
and the plants kept in the best possible growing condition. Start-
ing with six adults an effort was made to carry six lines of the
aphids through the winter. The first-born young was removed
by means of a camel's-hair brush and placed on a new plant.
Then, to be more sure of preserving the line, the next two or three
were placed on a substitute plant to be used in case the first
one should die or be lost. Only the first young was raised to
maturity and its offspring kept in the same way. However, after
carrying on the work for three or four months it was found that
the greenhouse was not a desirable place for it. In fact, it was
impossible to carry through a line there. A fungus disease be-
came so prevalent as to kill off the aphids before reaching ma-
turity and thus whole lines were lost. Also the extreme heat on
bright days caused the plants to wilt from drying out and the
aphids, as a result, would die; therefore the work was abandoned
in the latter part of April until the following fall.
The following data was secured from the breeding work in the
greenhouse. First, no tendency to oviparous reproduction was
seen. Both winged and apterous females were produced which
continued to breed parthenogenetically throughout the winter.
Second, the rate of parthenogenetic reproduction as tabulated1
for all the lines shows that the average age of the mother at birth
of first young was 11.1 days, average number of offspring 27.7
and the average length of life 17.7 days. This would allow
for nearly three generations per month as the maximum rate
The following fall the work of breeding the aphids was started
again, this time in the open-air insectary. Here the previous
obstacles were not encountered, and the lines were carried
through successfully. Three lines were started in November and
run through the winter under natural conditions. From the tab-
ulated data we find that the average age of the mother at the birth
of the first young was 15.4 days, as compared with 11.1 days in the
greenhouse. We would naturally expect this period to be shorter
in the greenhouse than outside. 15.4 days would be a fair esti-
mate of the average length of time for one generation of Myzus
persicae during the winter months. This would allow for two
generations of the aphids per month as the average maximum
number. The average length of the productive period was 18.2
days, and the total average number of young was 42.8, which
would make an average of 2.3 per day. The largest number for
any one day was 8. The average length of the whole life was 36.2
days. There usually was a period of one to ten days between the
birth of the last young and death. The nymph molts at the ap-
proximate ages of one or two days, five days, ten days, and four-
teen days. A complete tabulation of the data on the life of one
line shows that three generations usually overlap,, also a day of
high productiveness is usually followed by one of low productive-
ness, and vice versa.
The same method of reproduction occurred here as during the
preceding winter in the greenhouse. No males or sexual eggs ever
appeared in the breeding jars. Hence we can conclude that this
species of aphid lives throughout the year on fresh plants and
breeds viviparously continuously.
Parasites and Enemies. In the greenhouse, Myzus persicae
was very heavily parasitized by the fungus, Entomophthora
1 The tables are necessarily omitted because of lack of space and only sum-
maries of the results given. A number of photographs illustrating the thesis are
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
aphidis (identified by Dr. Roland Thaxter of Harvard). This
disease was so serious, in fact, that it interfered with the, breed-
ing experiments which were being carried on there by killing off
the aphids. It was also found on the aphids outside both in the
spring and summer months. On one occasion it was so common
that the under sides of the pansy leaves were covered with the
dead bodies of the aphids. Suitable weather conditions are nec-
essary for it to grow well and this is the reason it killed off all the
aphids in the greenhouse where it is warm and humid. Undoubt-
edly this disease accounts largely for the disappearance of these
insects during the summer for the warm humid climate of the
rainy season is conducive to its growth. An interesting feature
of this fungus is that it does not grow on other species of aphids.
Several attempts were made to grow it on Aphis gossypii on
orange trees in the greenhouse and under the same conditions as
when it was growing on Myzus persicae on cabbages, but without
success. The dead bodies covered with spores were rubbed over
the bodies of Aphis gossypii and leaves with them were pinned to
orange leaves containing Aphis gossypii, but in no cases could it
be made to grow on other aphids, and never have any instances
been observed under natural conditions where other species of
aphids were attacked by it.
An internal hymenopterous parasite, Diaeretus rapae Curt.
often parasitized this aphid very severely. The insects fly about
and deposit their eggs in the bodies of the aphids by piercing them
with their ovipositor. Two species of Syrphus flies were found
feeding on the aphids, and also the lace-winged fly, Chrysopa
oculata and a lady beetle, Chilocorus bivulnerus.
ALPHIS GOSSYPII Glover
Aphis gossypii commonly known as the melon louse, is perhaps
the most important aphid in the State from an economic stand-
point, and also one of the most numerous. It occurs in all seasons
of the year and some observations were made as to its hosts and
method of living through the year. An interesting fact about
this aphid is the many forms in which it occurs. The citrus form
is a dark slate color or velvety green, while it usually occurs on
melons in a yellowish form. However, the yellow, melon form
is also occasionally seen on orange trees. These forms are so
radically different as to be hardly recognizable as the same
species, in fact they were called different species for many years
and known as the citrus aphid, the melon aphid, and the cotton
aphid, until Pergande, (30) discovered that these were simply
varieties: of the one species, Aphis gossypii.
It has a number of other hosts also including many garden
crops, flowers, weeds etc. The preferred food plants however are
those belonging to the melon family. Many of these are listed as
hosts for Florida in the preceding list. Others are reported by
Chittenden (5) and Quaintance (32). About thirty different
plants are mentioned as hosts. The insect also has a wide range
of distribution both in the United States and other countries.
Sanderson (33) says the melon aphid is found throughout this
country, southward through Central America, and is usually
more destructive in the South than in the North. Chittenden (5)
gives its distribution as the West Indies, Mexico, Brazil, and
doubtless elsewhere in South America, and generally distributed
throughout the United States, but more injurious in the South-
west than elsewhere.
Seasonal Occurrence. This louse was found early in the fall
feeding on orange trees and continued to live there throughout
the fall or until December. They then disappeared and were not
seen on the oranges again until the following April. During the
winter however they appeared in large numbers in the greenhouse
on young orange trees and for several weeks continued to breed
so rapidly as to nearly kill the tender shoots of the trees. They
collected on the new growth, causing the leaves there to curl up
and become deformed. This continued until the latter part of
March when there was a notable decrease in numbers in the
greenhouse and by the middle of April none of them were pres-
ent. They gradually disappeared, seeming to migrate as fast as
they became adult. About this time the form of the species
known as the melon aphid appeared on some calabash plants
growing in another section of the greenhouse, and lived there
for.a short time.
In February they were collected outside on moonflowers, and
in April appeared on the orange trees outside, where they lived
for a short time and then evidenitly migrated to the melons. Dur-
ing the first part of April the species was present on Easter lilies
in large numbers, but here, also, lived for only a short period.
From the time the cucumbers began to grow in April Aphis
gossypii lived on cucurbitaceous plants. It was never difficult to
find them in fields of cucumbers, melons, squash, or cantaloupes,
and often their presence was very noticeable. They continued to
(Continued on Page 62)
Anderson, Dr. Benton, Dr. Crow, Dr. Leigh, Dr. Shealy, Prof.
Perry, Prof. Black, Dr. Simpson, Dr. Steik, and Prof. Wil-
loughby. Mr. Stirling officiating. At the conclusion of the
smoker Dr. Murphree suggested that a committee be delegated
to prepare a smoker on the evening of January 30th in honor
of visitors interested in the purposed Institute of Tropical Agri-
culture who are to be on the campus at that time. The motion
was made and committee was appointed by Chairman Stirling.
A. H. BEYER, Secretary.
Feb. 27, 1922.
The Society met in regular monthly joint meeting with the
Horticultural Seminar of the University and was called to order
by President Floyd of the Horticultural Seminar. Members
present: Stirling, Lord, Beyer, Berger, Watson, Montgomery,
Merrill, Burger and Stone.
Mr. Stirling exhibited samples of an "orangelo," a hybrid be-
tween an orange and a grapefruit. This tree was grown from
budwood from the Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. D. A., by Mr.
Henderson on the lot now owned by Mr. Stirling.
The first paper of the evening was by Dr. W. B. Tisdale on
The Development of Cabbage Resistant to the Fusarium Disease
Commonly Known as "Yellows." Prof. Watson gave a report
on the entomological meetings of the A. A. A. S. at Toronto. Dr.
Montgomery gave a report on the meeting of the Cotton States
Entomologists at Atlanta during the previous week. Prof. Lord
gave some notes on horticulture.
A new member of our Society is Mr. Reginald Hart, formerly
with the Bureau of Plant Sanitation of Cuba, an entomologist
of wide experience with tropical insects, who has been added to
the State Plant Board with headquarters at Gainesville.
Another new member is Mr. Chas. Ballou of Havana, a mem-
ber of the Bureau of Plant Sanitation of Cuba.
Dr. W. B. Tisdale has entered upon his duties as Pathologist
of the Tobacco Substation at Quincy. Dr. Tisdale is a native
Floridian who received his doctor's degree from the University
of Wisconsin where he has also been teaching.
Dr. J. S. Rogers has entered upon his duties as head of the
Department of Biology in the University, taking the place of
Dr. Davis. Dr. Rogers comes to Florida from the University
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
Mr. Geo. D. Smith, a specialist in boll weevil control, has re-
signed from the Bureau of Entomology to accept the position
of Associate Entomologist of the Plant Board. He will have
has headquarters at Madison.
Our president, Mr. Frank Stirling, left for Raiford on March
1st. The length of his stay is "indeterminate."
Prof. L. C. Corbett of the Bureau of Plant Industry, with
headquarters at Washington, recently accompanied Director
Newell on a visit to the Citrus Sub-station at Lake Alfred.
"Red Spider on the Avocado" is the title of Bulletin 1035 of
the U. S. D. A. (Professional Paper) by Mr. G. F. Mosnette.
This well illustrated and valuable bulletin should be in the hands
of every member interested in the avocado industry.
LIFE HISTORY STUDIES OF SOME FLORIDA APHIDS
(Continued from Page 59)
live here throughout most of the summer, or until the vines dried
up, being collected on watermelons as late as July 23. After that,
nothing was seen of them, until October when they again ap-
peared on orange trees. The latter part of November there oc-
curred a freeze which killed the orange leaves while many of the
aphids were present on some trees. The lice were not hurt by the
freeze but continued to live for two days afterward or until the
leaves wilted and dried up, when they died for lack of food. In
January they again appeared in the greenhouse and continued to
live there in increasing numbers throughout the rest of the win-
ter, or until the first part of April. An interesting feature about
them is that they will not live in the greenhouse in the fall. When
first found in October, several attempts were made to colonize
them on the orange trees in the greenhouse, but without success.
This, in general, seems to be the life history of this louse in
Florida. They will live on melons and other fresh plants during
the spring and summer and then migrate to the orange trees in
the fall. The season of late summer and early fall, after the
melon vines have disappeared, is probably spent on some of the
numerous wild plants on which they have been reported. It is
possible that they lay winter eggs on the orange trees to pass a
part of the winter, at least in the northern part of the state or
when the winter is especially cold. This may account for the
fact that they were not found outside on the oranges except
during part of the winter. However, no sexual forms or eggs
were ever seen and it is the writer's belief that they did not
occur. Hubbard (22) is also of the opinion that the orange aphid
lives over winter as an adult on the orange trees. The males and
winter eggs were not discovered and probably do not occur, at
least in ordinary seasons.
Parasites. Aphis gossypii has several parasites and preda-
ceous enemies. It is severely infested by the internal parasite,
Diaeretus rapae, which often prevents it from getting started in
a locality. The lace-winged flies, Chrysopa oculata, and Hemero-
bius sp., and several species of lady beetles and syrphus flies also
prey upon this aphid. They are often seen on orange trees
which are harboring the lice. The aphid is not susceptible to
fungus diseases however. Attempts made to get two species of
fungi to live on them in the greenhouse failed. Entomophorus
aphidis, which kills off Myzus persicae in large numbers, would
not attack Aphis gossypii, nor would Acrostalagmus albus, a
culture of which was received from Porto Rico growing on the
cane aphid (Sipha flava).
LACHNUS PINI L.
Although not of any economic importance some studies were
made of this large pine aphid since it was used in some of the
experimental work. Like the two preceding species, these aphids
lived on the pine trees throughout the winter and continued to
produce their young viviparously. The pines not being deciduous
a fresh supply of food was always available. The cold was never
sufficiently acute to kill the adults as in the case of its northern
congenors, and hence winter eggs were not a necessity.
This aphid never occurs in large numbers probably due to the
high percentage of parasitism. Its large size makes it an easy
prey for hymenopterous parasites. However a few of them
could usually be found on the small pines of the species Pinus
taeda. They continued to live there all through the winter and
produce their young alive. In the summer, however, they became
very scarce and were difficult to find.
Life History. No very complete experiments were conducted
to work out the life history of the species, but a good line on the
number of generations and rapidity of breeding was obtained
from the experimental work which will be recorded in the next
paper. The average time required for the young to become adult
was nineteen days, or in other words, the number of generations
will be determined at this rate. Several days often elapse be-
tween the time of becoming adult and that of starting to repro-
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
duce,, particularly in the case of winged. females, hence a fair
estimate of the average length of a generation, probably will be
nearly thirty days. In the laboratory, however, the average age
of maturity was 12.6 days which is less than under natural
conditions. Hence it is seen that the rate of reproduction for
this aphid is much lower than for those previously described.
This also accounts to some extent for their lack of abundance.
Parasites. The most destructive parasite of this louse is the
internal hymenopterous insect, Aphidius bifasciatus Ashm. This
is a small wasp-like parasite but quite abundant, and the cause
of killing many of the colonies. On several occasions one of these
was observed ovipositing in the aphids. It would fly to the
branch on which the aphids were feeding and approach cautiously
until near the colony, then make a quick dart toward them and
thrusting the abdomen between and under the legs, would quickly
pierce the aphid with its ovipositor and run back. If undisturbed,
it would repeat this practice several times. However, the ants
which usually attend these aphids would often watch for this
invader and drive him off before he reached the aphids. The
parasite also appeared to be afraid of the ants. Another internal
parasite of this louse is Aphidius pinaphidis Ashm. A few of
these were bred from parasitized aphids, but they evidently are
not as numerous as the other species. Pachyneuron micans How.
was also bred from some parasitized bodies, but this may be a
Other enemies are the lady beetles, syrphus flies and aphis
lions. Adults and larvae of Coccinella sanguine were collected
while feeding on the aphids. Syrphus fly larvae were often found
feeding on the aphids and also Chrysopa oculata and Hemerobius
Ants. An interesting feature of Lachnus pini is the protection
which the ants give them. Like all other plant lice the colonies
are constantly attended by ants, and in this case several species
of ants have been noted. They assist in spreading the species
by carrying their young ones about and also protect them by
driving away their parasites and predatory enemies. The most
noticeable method of protection was a sort of cover built over
them by the ants. The primary object of this probably was to
keep parasites away but it would also serve as a protection
against cold and storms. The ants were often observed during
the fall and early winter carrying particles of loose bark and the
Official Organ of The Florida Entomological Society, Gainesville,
PROFESSOR J. R. WATSON ---................... ----....--- .--...---.Editor
DR. WILMON NEWELL-...-..-.....---....-.----------.. Associate Editor
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Issued once every three months. Free to all members of the
Subscription price to non-members is $1.00 per year in ad-
vance; 35 cents per copy.
REPORTS OF MEETINGS OF THE SOCIETY
Jan. 23, 1922.
A business meeting of the Florida Entomological Society was
called to order at 7:45 P. M., in Language Hall, President Wat-
son in the chair. Members present: Stirling, Davis, Cody, Mont-
gomery, Berger, Merrill, Burger, Lord and Beyer.
The report of the joint committees composed as follows: Dr.
J. H. Montgomery, O. F. Burger and E. W. Berger, representing
the Florida Entomological Society, and Mr. F. M. O'Byrne, Mr.
E. L. Lord and A. H. Beyer, representing the Horticultural Semi-
nar .of the University of Florida, was delivered by the commit-
tee chairman, Dr. Montgomery. The report providing for joint
meetings as recommended by the joint committees, was adopted
by the Society.
The immediately succeeding procedure was the election of of-
ficers for the ensuing year, which were elected by acclamation
as follows: Mr. Frank Stirling, president; Dr. O. F. Burger,
vice president; Mr. A. H. Beyer, secretary; Mr. F. M. O'Byrne,
business manager of ENTOMOLOGIST and treasurer; Dr. J. H.
Montgomery, member Executive committee; Prof. J. R. Watson,
Editor of ENTOMOLOGIST; Dr. Wilmon Newell, Associate Editor
Smoker for Dr. Davis
After the business meeting the evening was given over to a
smoker in honor of Dr. H. S. Davis, who has tendered his resig-
nation as head of the Department of Zoology to accept the posi-
tion of Fish Pathologist, U. S. Bureau of Fisheries, Washing-
ton, D. C.
At the smoker which convened at 8:15 there were present as
guests: Dr. A. A. Murphree, Major Floyd, Dr. Trusler, Dr.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
Abdomen elongated oval in outline, clear yellow, clouded with brown to-
wards the base; bristles few, colorless, short except on the last three seg-
ments each of which bears a single long bristle near each posterior angle;
those on the ninth segment much longer than the tube and pointed, all
others knobbed. Tube rather small brown; terminal bristles short, pointed.
Described from a single female, taken from a young long-leaved pine tree
at Blanton, Fla. February, 1922.
The genus Hindsiana Karny is distinguished from Haplothrips by the
light color of the abdomen and the long bristles on the ninth abdominal seg-
ment. Karny in "Zur Systematik der Orthopteroiden Insecten" (Treubia,
vol. I, Livr. IV. pp. 211-269 gives a very useful key to the families and
genera of Thysanoptera.)
ANOTHER NEW THRIPS FROM COCOANUTS FROM CUBA
J. R. WATSON
Hindsiana cocois, n. sp.
General color light brown, tibiae, tarsi, and intermediate antennal seg-
Measurements: Total body length 1.2 mm. Head, length 0.18, breadth
0.13 mm.; prothorax, length 0.11, breadth 0.22 rmm.; mesothora, breadth 0.21
mm.; metathorax, breadth 0.22 mm.; tube, length 0.10, width at base 0.05, at
the apex 0.03 mm. Antennae: total length 0.29 mm.
Segment 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Length ..................... | 24 1 67 I 43. 49 40 37 41 27 microns
Breadth .................-I .... 27 24 26 24 21 ) 19 12 microns
Head considerably darker than the body; nearly 1.5 times as long as
broad, vertex smooth; cheeks slightly bulging, roughened by a few low
papillae. Post ocular bristles large, almost colorless, expanded at the apex
into a knob. Eyes rather small, occupying less than a third the length and
less than a quarter the width of the head, not pilose. Ocelli widely sep-
arated, posterior pair situated anterior to the middle of the eyes, bordered
with dark crescents. Mouth cone short, not reaching the middle of the
prosternum, slightly swollen at the base, very bluntly rounded at the tip.
Antennae: segment 1 dark brown, 2,3 and the base of 4 yellow, others
progressively darker towards the tip; 1 trapezoidal, rather large, 32 microns
wide at the base, 22 at the apex; 2 urn-shaped; 3 wedge-shaped; bristles,
and sense cones short, pale, and inconspicuous.
Prothorax about two-thirds the length of the head, breadth twice the
length, a heavy, knobbed bristle on each posterior angle and a somewhat
weaker one on each coxa.
Pterothorax slightly narrower than the prothorax, sides straight, con-
verging strongly posteriorly. Legs rather long and slender. Wings well
developed, margined with long but comparatively few hairs, 3 or 4 in-
ter-located ones on the fore wings. Membranes of the anterior pair quite
dark, strongly :constricted in the middle.
Abdomen cylindrical, rather long, yellow except the tube. Posterior seg-
ments provided with long, pointed yellow bristles. Tube dark brown,
abruptly swollen at the base, terminal bristles twice as long as the tube,
pointed, brown. Male not seen.
SPRING NUMBER 67
Larvae bright yellow with considerable bright red hypodermal pigmenta-
tion. Tube and antennae brown. Eyes red.
Described from five females and two larvae found by Mr. Geo. B. Merrill
under scale caps of cocoanuts from Cuba, intercepted at Key West quaran-
tine station by inspectors of the State Plant Board. Occurred in company
with a single specimen of Franklinothrips vesperformis (Crawford).
Type in the author's collection.
SOME BEETLES NEW TO FLORIDA
J. R. WATSON
Among a collection of beetles recently determined for the Ex-
periment Station by Dr. W. S. Blatchley are the following which
are not recorded for Florida in Leng's "Catalogue of the Coleop-
tera of America, North of Mexico." Unless otherwise indicated
they were collected by the writer in the vicinity of Gainesville.
Cicindela rectilatera Chd. Along Prairie Creek. Abundant on mud banks
in the stream. June 23, 1918. Campus of the University, July 7, 1918.
Baeocera deflexa Csy. Beaten from Aesculus pavia. March 4, 1917.
-Tritoma affinis. On Coprinus, Aug. 19, 1919 .
Pachybrachys viduatus (Fab.). Shrubs in."flatwoods" July 4, 1918. With
Microtomus sericans Lec.
Eros aurora Hbst. At blooms of Bee Balm (Monarda), Oct. 10, 1920.
Litargus balteatus Lec. Sweeping grass and herbs at Lake Wales, June
Scymnus americana. On cottony cushion scale (Icerya purchase) at Key
West, March 5.
Cryptorhopalum picricorne Lee. Gainesville, abundant in Crataegus
bloom. March 10, 1917; Sanford, in bloom of Cassia sp. Aug. 3, 1918.
Anthrenus scrophularia Lis. On blossoms of wild plum. Feb.. 23, 1919.
Pocadius helvolus Er. In puffball, June 30, 1918.
Scirtes orbiculatus (Fab.). On French mulberry, .June 16, 1918; from
rotting sweet potatoes May 22, 1920.
Cyphon obscurus. Sumatra, Fla. On Citrus.
Attalus humerales. At bloom of cherry laurel, Feb. 12, 1919.
Enoclerus nigripes Say. On Basswood May 18, 1920.
Haltica amoena Horn. Leng records this from Georgia but it is given
in Blatchley's list from Sanford, 1915. Among the pine needles on the
floor of a pure stand of long leaf pine Jan. 27, 1918; Viking, Fla., June
15, 1915. .
A'oplitis inaequalis (Web.). On Polymnia and Rhus July 21, 1918.
Ganascus ventricosus Lec. Recorded by Leng as "N. C. (Fla.?)" Gaines-
ville on Hickoria, Oct.; Tavares on closely grazed carpet grass.
Gnathium francilloni Kirby. Oj various flowers, Sep.
SHydnocera suturalis Klug. Recorded by Leng as occurring in South
Florida; .Gainesville, May 22, ,1920, pn Erigeron ramosus.
Ceratona caminea (Fab.) Bean Leaf Beetle. Common about Quincy but