Official Organ of the Florida Entomolog'ig e yiety-
VOL. VI SPRING NUMBER No. 4
THE CRAMBINAE OF FLORIDA*
GEO. G. AINSLIE
U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Knoxville, Tennessee
The following is a list of the moths of the subfamily Crambinae
so far as they are known to occur in Florida. The records come
both from published accounts and from data collected from
museum specimens. I have gone carefully over the material in
the National Museum at Washington, and early in March 1922
I had the privilege of spending several days examining the ma-
terial in the magnificent collection of Dr. Wm. Barnes at Decatur,
Ill. It is with his permission that the localities represented there
for the various species are included in the present list. I am
greatly indebted to him for his kindness and generosity and I
take pleasure in acknowledging herewith my gratitude to him
for the numerous courtesies he showed me. Several other smaller
collections have been visited in which an occasional Florida speci-
men was found. The available literature has been thoroughly
canvassed and, so far as possible, the first author reporting the
occurrence of a species in the state has been given credit therefore.
This list contains 36 species and varieties Whose occurrence
in the state is well authenticated. Three others are listed which,
for one reason or another, have no right to the places they have
been previously given and hereafter'should be dropped. The list
for Florida is probably more nearly complete than those for most
of the other states, due to the fact that Florida is a favorite
collecting ground, especially in winter, and at various times has
been visited by many lepidopterists and collectors. So far as I
know, however, no one interested especially in the smaller moths
has collected consistently throughout the year and it is likely
*Published by permission of the Secretary of Agriculture.
We recommend the goods advertised in The Florida Ento-
mologist. Please mention Entomologist when you write our
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
that other species will be found whose season of adult activity
occurs in the summer or fall.
It is with the hope of stimulating interest in this group that
this list is published and also that by the combination of many
such small bits a complete list of the Florida- insects may some
day be possible.
Argyria argentana Martyn.
First reported "aus Georgien in Florida" by Hubner in 1818 as the type
locality of nummulalis which, by all modern authorities is now accepted as
a synonym of argentana Martyn. Listed from Florida also by Fernald
(1896) and Dyar (1902). In the National Museum there are specimens
from Cocoanut Grove (Schwarz), Miami (Schaus) and Ft. Drum. In the
Barnes collection there are also specimens from Hastings (Kearfott), Ft.
Myers, St. Petersburg (Ludwig), and Crescent City. I have taken it at
Orlando and Lakeland.
Argyria auratella Clemens.
Fernald (1896) first reported this species from Florida. The National
Museum contains specimens from Tallahassee, and Lakeland (Ainslie). Dr.
Barnes has specimens from Everglade and Hastings (Kearfott). This
species is widely distributed, having been reported from Nova Scotia and
Manitoba to California and Florida.
Argyria consortalis Dyar.
A species described by Dyar (1909) and known only from its type locality,
Dade City, Fla.
Argyria critical Forbes.
Described by Forbes (1920) from North Carolina with paratypes in the
Barnes collection from Everglade and Hastings. This species had previously
been confused with auratella and doubtless in many collections still stands
under that name.
Argyria lacteella Fab.
The smallest native species of this genus. First recorded from Florida
by Fernald (1896). Specimens in the National Museum from Archer, Miami
(Schaus), Lakeland (Ainslie) and in Barnes' collection from Fort Myers.
Although occurring as far north as Pennsylvania and Maryland, this species
covers also the West Indies and Central and South America. I have found
it very abundant at times near Lakeland and have taken it also at Orlando
and Gainesville. It is very variable in markings which accounts for the
half dozen or more names in its synonomy.
Argyria nivalis Drury.
First recorded from the state by Fernald (1896). Dyar (1901) notes one
specimen taken at light at Lake Worth. The National Museum contains a
specimen from Cocoanut Grove (Schwarz) and Barnes has a specimen from
Fort Myers. I have taken it at Lakeland, Orlando and Port Tampa.
Chilo plejadellus Zincken.
The rice stalk-borer. Has never been reported from Florida but in Dr.
Barnes' collection there is a single specimen from Hastings.
SPRING NUMBER 51
Crambus caliginosellus Clemens.
This species is included in the Florida list because of a single specimen
in Dr. Barnes' collection labeled "Hastings, Fla., Coll. of W. W. Kearfott."
Crambus decorellus Zinckcn.
There are three specimens in the National Museum taken at Archer in
March 1882 and four in Dr. Barnes' collection taken at Fort Myers in April
and May. No previous published record from the state.
Two specimens in the National Museum from Miami (Schwarz) and
Crambus haytiellus Zincken.
Not previously recorded from Florida. The National Museum has speci-
mens from Cocoanut Grove (Schwarz) and Key West and Dr. Barnes,
others from Everglades, Fort Myers and Chokoloskee.
Crambus multilinellus Fernald.
Originally described from Florida by Fernald (1887). Specimens are in
the National Museum from Hastings and in Barnes' collection from Fort
Crambus mutabilis Clemens.
First recorded from the state by Grote (1880) under the name fuscico-
stellus Zeller. There are specimens in the National Museum, from Palm
Beach (Dyar) and Archer and in Dr. Barnes' collection from Fort Myers
and Lakeland. I have taken specimens at Fellsmere, Lakeland, Port Tampa
and Orlando. At the latter place it was abundant at light during February
Crambus praefectellus Zincken.
Although widely distributed over the state, this species has not pre-
viously been reported from Florida. There are specimens in the National
Museum from Jacksonville (Ashmead). I have collected it at Gainesville,
Fellsmere, Lakeland and Orlando. At Lakeland larvae were found attack-
ing young corn.
Crambus quinqueareatus Zeller.
This species has heretofore been listed as hastiferellus Walker and has
been reported from Florida under that name by Felt (1894). A comparison
with the type of quinqueareatus Zeller in the British Museum made by Dr.
McDunnough, shows the common Florida form to be this species. If Felt
(1894) is correct in the determination of the species he calls extorralis
Hulst, it becomes a synonym of quinqueareatus for the genitalia are iden-
tical. Hastiferellus is a northern form originally described from Nova
Scotia and apparently never authentically reported from the South. Quin-
queareat'u was described from Texas and has been taken at numerous points
in Florida. Felt (1894) is the first to record it from Florida under the
name extorralis and hastiferellus. There are specimens in the National
Museum from Palm Beach (Dyar) and Miami (Schaus), in the Carnegie
Museum at Pittsburgh from Daytona (Laurent), and in Dr. Barnes' col-
lection from Fort Myers, Chokoloskee, Hastings, Lakeland, LaBelle and
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
Dade City. I have also taken it at Lakeland, Plymouth and Fellsmere and re-
peatedly at Orlando, both at light and in the field. It is one of the mQst
abundant species at light at Orlando during February and March.
Crambus satrapellus Zincken.
First recorded from the state by Grote (1880). There is one specimen in
the National Museum from Dade City, in the Carnegie Museum at Pitts-
burg one from Melbourne (Laurent) and in Barnes' collection specimens
from Fort Myers, Marco, Dade City, Hastings, and Kissimmee. I have
collected it at Orlando, Lakeland, Plymouth and Fellsmere.
Crambus tripsacus Dyar.
Described from specimens from Miami (Dyar) and in Barnes' collection
there are also specimens from St. Petersburg.
? Crambus trisectus Walker.
There are three specimens in the National Museum collection bearing
the simple label "Fla." It is very doubtful, however, if these are correctly
labeled for otherwise east of the Mississippi River the species is not known
to extend farther south than the northern edge of Tennessee. It should not
be listed as a Florida species without corroboration.
Crambus zeelus Fernald.
Not previously recorded from Florida. One specimen in the National
Museum from Lakeland (Ainslie) and several in Barnes' collection from
Hastings. I have also taken specimens referable here at Lakeland, Port
Tampa and Orlando.
Diatraea differentialis Fernald.
This huge species, spreading 11/2 to 21/4 inches, was originally described
from Florida by Fernald (1888) and all the specimens which I have seen
in collections have been from this state. There are specimens in Barnes'
collection from St. Petersburg (Ludwig), Fort Myers, Kissimmee, Venice,
Chokoloskee and Palm Beach, and one in the National Museum from Fort
Diatraea saccharalis crambidoides Grote.
This is the destructive sugar-cane moth-borer which also attacks Jap-
anese cane and, much more rarely, corn. According to Holloway (1919) it
occurs practically throughout peninsular Florida as far north as Gaines-
Diatraea saccharalis saccharalis Fab.
The typical and more southern form occurring in the West Indies and
South America. Dyar (1911) records a single specimen from southern
Because of the long-standing confusion between this, the larger corn-
stalk-borer, and D. saccharalis crambidoides, the sugar-cane moth-borer of
our southern states, it is difficult to determine just who first reported this
species from Florida. Holloway and Loftin (1919) state that it occurs in
Dicymolomia julianalis Walker.
The larvae feed in heads of cattail, Typha latifolia. A single specimen
in Dr. Barnes' collection from Everglade. Not heretofore recorded from
Dicymolomia pegasalis Walker.
Recorded from the southern states but never definitely from Florida.
There are specimens in Dr. Barnes' collection from Lakeland, Chokoloskee
Eoreuma densellus Zeller.
This species was originally described from Texas while multilineatella
Hulst was described from Florida. The latter species was reduced to a
synonym of the former by Smith (1891) and his verdict was generally
accepted until Dyar (1909) showed it to be an error and resurrected
multilineatella Hulst as a valid species. For these reasons the literature of
densellus is confused and it is impossible to say to which of the two species
reference is made. In the National Museum there are specimens from
Palm Beach (Dyar), Cocoanut Grove (Schwarz) and Everglade, and in
Barnes' collection from Hastings, Chokoloskee and Everglade.
Eugrotea dentella Fernald.
Originally described from Florida by Fernald (1896) and apparently not
Eugrotea incertella Zincken.
Not heretofore recorded from the state. A single specimen in Dr. Barnes'
collection from Fort Myers.
lesta lisetta Dyar.
Originally described from Dade City specimens by Dyar (1909). There is
other material in the National Museum from Lakeland (Ainslie) and
LaBelle. In Dr. Barnes' collection Glenwood and Fort Myers are repre-
sented in addition to those given above.
Platytes acerata Dyar.
A species described by Dyar (1917) from specimens from Dade City.
Platytes multilineatella Hulst.
Originally described from Florida by Hulst (1887). Long considered a
synonym of densellus but resurrected and differentiated by Dyar (1909).
There are specimens in the National Museum from Palm Beach (Dyar)
and Dade City, and in Barnes' collection from Glenwood (Barnes), Hastings
(Kearfott) and Chokoloskee. It has been taken at Orlando and Fellsmere
by the writer.
Platytes punctilineella B. & McD.
Described by Barnes & McDunnough (1913) from Everglade. There are
other specimens in Barnes' collection from Fort Myers and Marco.
Platytes squamulellus Zeller.
Not heretofore reported from the state. Three specimens in Barnes'
collection from Everglade, one of which bears a label to the effect that it
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
has been compared with the presumable type of squamulellus in the British
? Prionapteryx nebulifera Stephens.
Hampson (1895) records this species from Florida without giving his
authority. It may be an error as no other authors before or since so
Prionapteryx serpentella Kearfott.
Originally described by Kearfott (1908) from specimens from Cocoanut
Grove (Schwarz). There is also another specimen in the National Museum
labeled "Egmont", a place I have been unable to locate.
Raphiptera minimella Robinson.
Not heretofore recorded from the state. It has been taken at Orlando
and Lakeland by the writer. There is a specimen in Dr. Barnes' collection
from Hastings and two in the collection of the Carnegie Museum at Pitts-
burgh from Melbourne.
Thaumatopsis actuellus B. & McD.
Described from Florida material from Lakeland and St. Petersburg by
Barnes & McDunnough (1918). Also a paratype in their collection from
"Stemper, Fla.", another place I cannot locate.
? Thaumatopsis fernaldellus Kearfott.
In listing his paratypes of this species, Kearfott mentions one from Key
West. Later, however, Barnes & McDunnough described T. floridellus and
placed this Key West specimen under that name so that there is no record
to show that fernaldellus occurs in the state and it should not be so listed.
Thaumatopsis floridellus B. & McD. (1913).
The type material for this species came from Everglade and Marco. There
is also in Barnes' collection the Key West specimen mentioned above.
Barnes & McDunnough.
1913. Some Apparently new Lepidoptera from southern Florida, in Cont.
Nat. Hist. Lep. N. A. 4:166-194.
1918. Notes and new species, in Cont. Nat. Hist. Lep. N. A. 4:61-208.
Dyar, H. G.
1901. Notes on the winter Lepidoptera of Lake Worth, Fla., in Proc.
Ent. Soc. Wash. 4:446-85.
1902. List North American Lepidoptera. U. S. N. M. Bul. 52.
1909. New species of American Lepidoptera, in Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash.
1911. The American species of Diatraea Guilding, in Ent. News. 22:199-
1917. Seven new Crambids from the United States, in Insec. Insc. Men.
Fernald, C. H.
1887. North American Pyralidae, in Ent. Am. 3:37.
1896. The Crambidae of North America. Sp. Bull. Mass. Ag. Col.
Forbes, W. T. M.
1920. Notes on the Crambinae, in Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 28:215-227.
Grote, A. R.
1880. Preliminary list of North American species of Crambus, in Can.
Hampson, G. F.
1895. On the classification of the Schoenobiinae and Crambinae, in Proc.
Zool. Soc. London. p. 897-974.
Holloway, T. E. & Loftin, U. C.
1919. The sugar cane moth borer. U. S. D. A. Bul. 746.
1918. Zutrage zur Sammlung exotischen Schmettlinge.
Hulst, G. D.
1887. New species of Pyralidae, in Ent. Am. 3:134.
Smith, J. B.
1891. List of the Lepidoptera of Boreal America.
Among the new assistant nursery inspectors are: C. C. Ben-
nett, stationed with Fogg at Eustis; J. L. Lazenby, at New
Smyrna; and 0. D. Link at Clearwater.
The stork has passed out several favors to our members since
our last issue, as witness U. C. Loftin, Jr., and Edward Murril
Brown. Mr. James T. Marsh is also the proud father of a boy.
Mr. C. M. Hunt reports bag worms as damaging 25% of the
fruit in a grove in Polk County. 'This is much the highest percent
of damage from this insect of which we have ever heard.
Mr. F. F. Bibby is now located at Tlahjyalilo, Durango, Mexico.
He is employed 'by the Federal Horticultural Board, on pink boll-
The State Plant Board has found a spider mite on Bauhenia
not only new to Florida but one hitherto reported only from
Hawaii. It is Eupalopsis pavoniformis.
Mr. Jeff Chaffin has for the past month been acting as As-
sistant to the Associate Entomologist of the State Plant Board.
Mr. Hunt has taken his place in the Nursery Inspection Depart-
Introducing the two new members elected at the February
meeting of the Society: Mr. Walker is a vocational student in the
University who is much interested in Entomology. He is acting
as part time assistant in the Entomological Department of the
State Plant Board. Mr. Trigg holds an industrial fellowship
given thru the National Research Council. His work is the in-
(Continued on page 61)
Official Organ of The Florida Entomological Society, Gainesville,
J. R. W ATSON............................. .....---..............----.............. Editor
WILMON NEWELL..--...--.....----.......................-.....-Associate Editor
A. H. BEYER.........--......-......--.......-- ......-- ...........Business Managger
Issued once every three months. Free to all members of the
Subscription price to non-members is $1.00 per year in ad-
vance; 35 cents per copy.
THE BOSTON MEETINGS
The American Association for the Advancement of Science
met in Boston during the holidays. Most of the meetings were
held in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge.
Dr. Charles D. Walcott, secretary of the Smithsonian Institution
was elected president for the current year. The retiring presi-
dent. E. H. Moore, of the University of Chicago, delivered an ad-
dress on the subject "What is a Number?"
Dr. William M. Wheeler of Bussey Institute was elected pres-
ident of the American Society of Naturalists and A. Franklin
Shull, University of Michigan, secretary. Two joint programs
were presented: "The Development of Biology (particularly Gen-
etics) in the past Sixty Years", and a symposium on "Geographi-
cal Distribution of Animals". At the banquet Dr. Wheeler gave
his presidential address on "Academic Biology".
The Entomological Society of America elected Arthur Gibson
president and Professor C. L. Metcalf of the University of Illi-
nois secretary. Wednesday's program was devoted to a sym-
posium divided into two sections: Part 1 on "Noteworthy ex-
amples of Adaptation of Insects to Special Environments", and
Part 2 dealing with adaptation in a single species of insect or
with a single unit of adaptation. The annual public address of
the Society was given Wednesday evening by Professor W. M.
Wheeler. His subject was "The Physiognomy of Insects". This
was a very instructive and interesting address. The subject
selected for the symposium at the Cincinnati meeting in 1923
is "Methods of Protection and Defense Among Insects".
The 25th Annual Meeting of the Economic Entomologists, un-
der the presidency of J. C. Saunders and with A. F. Burgess sec-
retary, was held on Thursday, Friday, and Saturday, with a
record for large attendance of members and visitors. Much of
the program was devoted to experimental work on insecticides.
Some of the large insect problems were presented and discussed.
However nothing was said about the boll weevil. A feature of the
meeting was an exhibit of the Gypsy Moth and the European
Corn Borer displayed by the U. S. Bureau of Entomology.-A. H.
DELPHASTUS AT BRADENTOWN
A recent trip to Bradentown afforded an opportunity to visit
the citrus grove in which the California Delphastus was liberated
in 1917 and where they have been most successful in controlling
the whitefly. In only one small section of the grove was there
enough whitefly to perceptibly blacken the trees and there the
Delphastus was found. Were it not for the purple scale and rust
mite this grove would not have needed spraying for the past five
years. But in order to control the scale the grove has been
sprayed about once a year. There were some signs of the En-
tomogenous fungi and undoubtedly the annual sprayings have
also contributed to the control of the whitefly, and incidentally
killed many of the beetles, but it would appear as if the Delphas-
tus has been the major factor in the commercial control of the
whitefly during the past five years. Indeed from the standpoint
of their spread over the state they have been too successful.
They have reduced their food to such a degree that they them-
selves are too scarce to make their collection practicable. The
lady beetles have been pretty well distributed over the state but
no systematic effort 'has been made to follow up these introduc-
tions and determine whether the beetles have established them-
selves. They are so small and quick to drop at the least jar that
no one without experience with them would be likely to find then
unless they were very abundant. In a grove at Crescent City
they were much in evidence one summer but seemed to diminish
in numbers during the winter. It is possible that they are better
adapted to the southern part of the state.
A NEW MEALY BUG PREDATOR FOR FLORIDA
The Department of Entomology of the Experiment Station
has received the first of several shipments of the lady beetle
Scymnus binaei-atus, which has done good work in controlling
all species of mealy bugs in California. An effort will be made
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
to rear these in numbers to be distributed over the state. They
seem to bear shipment well, only about 20% of the beetles having
died during the long journey without food from California. The
Department is very desirous of securing mealy bugs to feed
these lady beetles. Any of our readers finding any considerable
number of mealy bugs will do a great service by sending a box
of them by express collect to the Experiment Station.
--J. R. W.
AN ADDITION TO THEi THYSANOPTERA OF FLORIDA-XI
J. R. WATSON
83. Hoplandrothrips xanthopoides Bagnall.
This insect was described in 1917 in the Journal of Biological
Research from a single male collected in St. Vincent, British
W. I. No reference to it has appeared since. The writer recently
received from E. S. Sasscer, of the Federal Horticultural Board,
three females and a male, and numerous larvae collected in the
Plant Introduction Gardens in Miami. This find enables us to
describe the female.
Female. Forma macroptera. Length about 2 mm. (from 1.7 to 2.2 nrm.).
Color similar to the male. In my specimens the base of antennal segment 6
is yellow as well as segments 3, 4, and 5 and abdominal segment 8 is yellow
in the middle only. Head, thorax, and sides of the abdomen with much red
Measurements: Head, length 0.25 mm., width 0.21 mm.; prothorax,
length 0.18 mm., width, including coxa, 0.36 mm.; antennae, segment 1, 40;
2, 57; 3, 88; 4, 85; 5, 67; 6, 59; 7, 54; 8, 36 microns long. Mouth cone
shorter than in the male, not reaching the mesosternum. Postocular bristles
shorter than in the male, but little longer than the eyes. Fore femora con-
siderably enlarged but not nearly as large as in the male, with a small
tooth on the inner side near the end (not evident in all specimens.) Tooth
of the fore tarsus well developed but much shorter than in the male. Wings
somewhat constricted in the middle, 7 to 9 interlocated bristles. ,
Male. In my specimen the postocular bristles are even longer than de-
scribed by Bagnall, about 1.5 as long as the eye, greatly enlarged and fun-
nel-form at the tip, sharply curved outward. The fore tibia has the tooth
characteristics of the genus. Fore tarsus with a long, powerful tooth. Only
9 interlocated hairs on the fore wings in the place of the 12 in Bagnall's
Larva. Light grayish brown but so liberally provided with red hypoder-
mal pigment as to appear red.
Collected by Mr. W. B. Wood of the Federal Horticultural
Board from Moringa oleifera, Ziziphus mauritiana, Atalaya hem-
iglauca, and Randia tomentosa Feb. 1923.
ARTICLES ON FLORIDA INSECTS
In the Canadian Entomologist for January, LV No. 1, Dr. W.
S. Blatchley publishes "Notes on the Coleoptera of Southern
Florida with Description of New Species".
In the Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society for Feb-
ruary, Vol. XVIII No. 1, Mr. E. L. Bell has an article on "Collect-
ing Florida Butterflies in March". He took 63 species in three
weeks about Tampa.
In the Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., XLVIII, No. 831, the same author
describes Thorybes confusis, a new skipper butterfly from
MEETINGS OF THE SOCIETY
Jan. 31, 1923. 'The Society met in Language Hall with Dr.
Montgomery in the chair. Members present were Watson, Mer-
rill, Floyd, Beyer, Montgomery, O'Byrne, Goodwin, Chaffin,
Brown, and Lazonby.
The following officers were elected for 1923: President G. B.
Merrill, Vice President Dr. J. S. Rogers, Secretary A. H. Beyer.
The present staff of the Entomologist was reelected.
Faurtino Q. Otanes, a recent visitor to the University who is
connected with the Bureau of Agriculture of the Philippine
Islands, was elected a member of the society.
The president appointed Dr. Berger, Prof. Watson and A. H.
Beyer a committee to draft a resolution of the Society urging the
City Board of Health of Gainesville to institute an anti-mosquito
campaign and pledging the Society's aid in conducting such a
The first subject of the evening was a report of the Florida
Antimosquito Association's meeting at Daytona, by Dr. E. W.
Berger. He spoke of the reports of the successful camnpaigns
being conducted at Perry, Fernandina, and Miami. There were
150 people at the meeting.
Mr. Merrill gave a summary of the Boston entomological meet-
ings. Dr. Berger read a letter from Prof. Fawcett who is in
Russia with a Quaker relief unit.
Feb. 28, 1923. The regular February meeting was held in
Language Hall with President Merrill in the chair. Members
present were Stirling, Montgomery, Floyd, O'Byrne, Merrill, Ber-
ger, Brown, and Beyer, and Mr. Fred W. Walker and Mr. R. L.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
The address of the retiring president was given by Mr. Frank
Stirling on "Commercial Entomology". The speaker presented
a number of interesting phases which were discussed freely by
those present. Dr. Berger exhibited an unusually strong colony of
Vedalia on Cottony Cushion Scale. Mr. Walker and Mr. Trigg
were elected to membership in the Society.
March 28. The meeting was called to order by the president,
Geo. B. Merrill, with the following members present: Chaffin,
Merrill, Hunt, Trigg, Ayers, Floyd, Montgomery, Watson, Ber-
ger, Rogers, Walker and Beyer.
Mr. A. H. Beyer, Business Manager of the FLORIDA ENTO-
MOLOGIST, gave a report on the finances which was approved
by the Society and a copy was filed with the minutes.
The president called on the first speaker of the evening, Prof.
J. R. Watson, who spoke on "Sulphur Dust for the Control of
Purple Mite and Rust Mite". Prof. Watson pointed out the fol-
lowing interesting facts regarding dusting: that it is safer than
spraying, no danger of burning foliage; the cheapness is an out-
standing feature, only one-fourth the cost of spraying, no water
to haul; and it covers the ground quickly-the greatest advan-
tage. Disadvantages: no dust will control whitefly, therefore a
spraying and a dusting machine are necessary for the same grove,
a heavy expense to the small grower. Dusting may not last as
long as the spray application. Mr. Others' dusting results were
quoted where he recorded effective control of Purple Mite on
citrus with a temperature of 95 or above but not at a tempera-
ture below 85. Prof. Watson also mentioned the lack of fertility
of Blackberry hybrids often being laid to thrips injury.
The Vice President, Dr. Rogers, called on the next speaker,
A. H. Beyer, whose subject was "Nicotine Dust for the Control
of Bean Jassid and Pea Aphis". But two important phases of
this paper were summarized owing to the short time: first, the
method of application of dust; second, the importance of the
strength of the dust. A -duster producing a continuous flow of
dust was found most satisfactory for speed and efficiency; a
covering over plants to confine dust also found valuable. Dusts
that were used gave 'best results where they were most heavily
impregnated with nicotine sulphate ranging from 5 to 10 percent,
in which case the nymphs of the bean jassid were largely con-
trolled while the adults were not affected. 'The pea aphis was
well controlled where the dust came in contact with the bodies of
the insects.-A. H. Beyer, Secretary.
STUDIES ON ENTOMOGENOUS FUNGI
During the month of December the writer spent his vacation
in Harvard University in the Department of Cryptogamic Botany
studying the forms of entomogenous fungi collected in Florida
the past year, with special attention to those which are parasitic
on insects of ctirus. No study was made of the sooty mould fun-
gus which occurs abundantly in different stages.
The fungi studied in this collection covered most of the species
described from Florida. There was one exception however and
this is an interesting fungus occurring sparsely under several
different serial numbers in the writer's collection. It is a
Coniothyrium-like growth. This fungus has good typical Conio-
thyrium spores, but the pycnidial walls are quite thick and al-
most carbonaceous. According to literature and authorities con-
sulted it seems to be of rare occurrence, and it is thought probable
that it may be a conidial stage of scane well-known fungus, but
thus far no connection has been traced with the forms com-
monly met on citrus. This form may be recognized by having
small round dark spots, surrounded by, and occasionally filled
with, spherical, somewhat pointed bodies, the pycnidia.
Another interesting note made in the course of the writer's
taxonomic studies of his collection of Microcera coccophilia
(Desm.) was that all specimens examined showed spores some-
what smaller than is general for this species. However they
came within the measurements.-A. H. Beyer.
(Continued from page 55)
vestigation of the effects of sulphur on the root knot nematode.
He is also pursuing graduate work in the University and has un-
dertaken the preparation of an annotated list of the Heteroptera
of the Gainesville region. He is a graduate of Mississippi A. and
Mr. Fritz Fuchs has resigned from the State Plant Board to
take charge of the grove of Mr. Frederick at Fruitland Park.
Mr. T. J. Iles of Crescent City reports that he finds lime-
sulphur at rust mite strength, 1:70, applied at a pressure of 275
pounds, a very efficient control measure for mealy bugs. During
the past three years he has sprayed 6,000, 93,000 and 45,000
Mr. A. C. Mason has been transferred to Lindsay, Cal., to work
on the California Citrus Thrips.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
Mr. F. M. Bather, a member of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts
and Sciences of N. Y., and Mrs. Bather, spent part of February
in Gainesville collecting lepidoptera.
Other recent visitors to the campus were Prof. Lounsberry
of South Africa and Prof. Craighead of the Pennsylvania Sta-
tion, and C. B. Pierson of Los Angeles, Cal.
THE PALMEffTTO WEEVIL CATCHES A RIDE
Mr. Chris Waldron of East Palatka writes as follows: "En-
closed see specimen of a beetle found clinched fast on a five
months' old chick's head, clinched so tightly that it seemed im-
possible to tear it loose without injury to the chick, I dropped
kerosene oil on the beetle until it loosened." The insect was the
palmetto weevil (Rhynchophorus cruentatus). As this large
beetle is over an inch in length and of corresponding breadth and
thickness, it must have been something of a load for the chick.
It would be interesting to know how the weevil happened to at-
tach itself to the chick's head. Did the chick attempt to lunch
on the beetle only to find the tables turned on him?
SUSTIM costs less than
SUS G liquid spraying.
Dusting materials cost more
than materials for liquid spray-
ing, but this is more than coun-
terbalanced by the big saving
.i .... n time and labor, less cost of
the duster, and much smaller
depreciation, repairs, and oper-
Dusting differs from spraying
chiefly in that Insecticides and
Fungicides are applied in a
powdered form; dry instead of
wet. Water merely carries the
active ingredients to the plant,
where it evaporates and leaves
a dry powder. Spraying requires
50 lbs. of water to carry 1 lb. of
NIAGARA COMBINATION DUSTER poison to the foliage. In dust-
This is the Niagara Power Potato ing air is the carrier; it is ever
Duster. Shown here fitted with flexible present and does not have to be
distributor pipe and drop platform for use pumped and carried. The chem-
in orchard dusting. For grower having icals used are fundamentally
both orchard and low crops to protect. e with i pr
Only driver needed for dusting potatoes, the same with either product.
etc. Driver and one man to operate dis- For further information write
tributor pipe needed for orchard use. our Distributor
J. SCHNARR & CO.
NIAGARA SPRAYER COMPANY
Middleport, N. Y.