Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society
VOL. VII SUMMER NUMBER No. 1
IS THE ADULT CONDITION OF AN APHID DETERMINED
WHEN IT IS BORN?*
ARTHUR C. MASON
Most aphids which are eventually to develop wings will, upon
close examination, show wing pads, especially when approaching
maturity. On some species these show distinctly, but on others not
so plainly. Usually they are not very noticeable until the last
instar preceding maturity. The question now arose as to whether
the adult form of the aphids was determined when it was born.
Was it possible to prevent, under favorable conditions, an aphid
which had wing pads from developing wings, or to cause, through
unfavorable conditions, an aphid without pads to develop wings?
To determine this point some experiments were planned.
Twelve specimens of Lachnus pini in the first instar and show-
ing wing pads were placed on a pine branch in a cage on the tree
and allowed to mature. Also twelve specimens'not showing wing
pads were placed in a second cage. Of the first group all de.
veloped wings, while in the second lot there were both winged
and apterous forms. A probable error in this work lies in the
fact that it is not possible to tell exactly if a small aphid has pads
and consequently some of this lot undoubtedly had pads while
in theother lot only those were selected which plainly showed
wing pads. This experiment was repeated the same way on cut
branches of pine under bell jars in the laboratory. The results
were similar to those of the preceding experiment, all'of the first
group developing wings while the second had both winged and
apterous forms. The same probable error occurs here also.
A similar experiment was next tried with Myzus persicae. In
this species however it is much harder to distinguish those hav-
*Continued from Vol. VI, No. 2, p. 32.
We recommend the goods advertised in The Florida Ento-
mologist. Please mention Entomologist when you write our
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
ing pads from those without them, until just before the last molt.
However, some attempts were made to select some without and
try to produce wings on them. Twelve immature specimens were
placed on each of four cuttings of orange tips in sand. A and B
were watered with a 3% magnesium sulphate solution, and C and
D were watered with distilled water. The results showed both
winged and apterous forms developed with a majority of winged
in all cases. The number in the two checks was about equal to
the number in the treated jars. A second trial using only one
individual on each cutting produced similar results. Those on
stems in magnesium sulphate solution were all apterous and
those in water were half winged and half apterous. Four checks
tied up on a limb of an orange tree resulted in three winged and
one apterous. On these results it is probable that the cause of
wing production was due to wrong selection of aphids rather
than to a change of conditions. The checks also produced wings.
It is practically impossible to select aphids of this species, when
young which we can tell with certainty will not develop wing
One more experiment was run on aphids of this species whose
lineage was known. Four specimens of Myzus persicae were
selected from the lines used in the life history work. Their
.parents had been apterous for four generations back. They were
all kept on a cabbage plant until eight days old and then two of
them, C and D, removed each to a separate orange tip in sand
and watered with distilled water. The other two, A and B, were
left on the plants for checks. All matured apterous. A and B
together then raised 17 young on the cabbage plant of which six-
teen were apterous and one winged. C on orange tip raised five
young, all apterous. D on orange tip raised five young, four ap-
terous and one winged. In the third generation raised from C
and D there were together forty-six apterous and five winged
aphids. Hence it is seen that even in the second and third gen-
erations the number of winged forms on the cut stems is not
increased over those on plants growing naturally.
ALTERNATION OF WINGED AND APTEROUS GENERATIONS
The question arose as to the possibility of there being an alter-
nation of one winged generation with one or more apterous gen-
erations. To investigate this point some colonies of the pine aphids
were started on a small pine tree. Four winged adults reared a
family the majority of which were apterous and four apterous
adults reared a family the majority of which were winged. From
each of these families some winged and apterous individuals were
selected and the work continued for three generations. These
results show that there is a distinct alternation of winged and ap-
terous forms of Lachnus pini. In the case of four lines run for
three generations there was in every case a majority of apterous
young from winged parents and of winged young from apterous
parents, and in some cases it was 100 per cent. This work was
then continued by rearing the aphids on cut stems in the labora-
tory in both water and salt solution with checks on a growing
tree. Here with one exception the same phenomenon was ob-
served. In all, twelve winged adults from whom families were
reared and counts of the offspring made produced an average of
72.1% apterous young; and in the case of six apterous females
there was an average of 93.1% winged young. In several other
cases of each form a majority was observed to exhibit this alter-
nation of generations but no counts were made. As the results
show, the cut stems had no influence in changing this proportion.
So we conclude that even if the aphids are reared on unhealthy
or dying stems the effect will not counteract the alternation of
winged and apterous forms.
In practically all cases the first few young from a winged
parent were apterous and vice versa. This may account for the
fact that the percentage is perfect in some cases where the adult
lived only long enough to raise a few young. The percentage, of
winged young from apterous parents is higher than that of
apterous young from winged parents. The alternation of winged
and apterous forms accounts for the fact that winged, forms were
observed in the field only at certain intervals. A winged adult
might fly to a new tree -and start a colony which would be all
apterous. These would then produce families which would be
largely winged. However, nearly a month would be consumed
before the winged ones would become adult, during which time
no winged forms would be seen, and then within a few days many
winged ones would appear. This was observed on several dif-
We can draw the general conclusion from all of these experi-
ments that external conditions and environmental changes do not
effect the production of winged forms of aphids, at least not in the
first generation. This was proven by confining aphids on injured
and dying pine trees, by raising aphids on cabbage, plants show-
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
ing effect of injury and drought, by crowding aphids on a limb,
and by adding chemical solutions to their food in growing plants,
cut stems, and injections in growing stems. In no instance-was
a larger number of winged forms of aphids produced than in the
checks living under natural conditions.
It is generally believed that an aphid will develop wings and
fly away if its host plant dies or if crowding lessens the food
supply and endangers its existence. In the case of mature pine
aphids this was not found to be true. They all died when the
host plant dried up. In fact it is unreasonable to believe that
they can develop wings after maturity. Grove (19)1 has made a
careful study of the anatomy of winged and apterous aphids, and
finds distinct differences, not only in external characters but also
in the internal anatomy, such as the nervous system, the tracheal
system, the size and shape of the alimentary canal, etc. There-
fore, if an aphid were to develop wings due to unfavorable ex-
ternal conditions it must change its entire anatomy, and this
probably is beyond the power of any organism.
A young aphid when born has its adult conditions as regards
presence or absence of wings already determined, and no change
of environment can effect this. First instar nymphs of both Lach-
nus pini and Myzus persicae which showed wing pads developed
wings in every case, even though kept under the most favorable
condition. On the other hand, young aphids which did not show
wing pads developed apterous when raised under adverse con-
In the case of Lachnus pini an alternation of winged and ap-
terous forms was determined. Although not exhibiting a per-
fect alternation, the offspring of each individual showed a ma-
jority of the opposite type. No changes in environment such as
injury to host, crowding, or adding chemicals to the food of the
host would change this alternation. A majority of apterous forms
was, always obtained from winged parents even under unfavora-
ble conditions of life. With Myzus persicae and Aphis gossypii
this alternation does not exist, since several generations were
raised without securing any winged forms.
Kellogg (23) says that Clarke was able to produce winged
forms of aphids at will by changing the sap of the host plant
through addition of chemical 'salts. He used tip cutting of rose
stems in sterilized sand and watered .with solutions of mag-
nesium salts of varying strengths. In this way he says he pro-
'Numbers refer to references cited.
duced winged forms of the rose aphid Nectarophora rosae. As
shown above this was .not true in the case of another species of
rose aphid. No winged forms were produced even when the sec-
ond and third generations were raised on cuttings in salt solu-
tions by transferring the aphids from one cutting to another as
often as they showed signs of wilting. In the same way three
generations of Myzus persicae were raised on orange cuttings
with no noticeable effect as compared with the checks on grow-
ing trees. Two generations of Lachnus pini, and one of Aphis
gossypii were also raised on cuttings in solutions of magnesium,
of sodium, and of citrus acid, and in all cases without results to
substantiate Clarke's statement.
Morgan (24) in discussing Balbiani's work of raising sexual
and parthenogenetic forms of aphids says that a female pro-
ducing parthenogenetic young continued to produce them when
placed on a dying stem. He concludes that food does not effect
the mode of reproduction unless the organism is "predisposed to
submit to its influence." In another paper Morgan (25) gives
the results of several attempts to produce sexual aphids, and
finally concludes that sexual forms are not due to external con-
ditions, however important these factors may be in cyclical
changes in sex production. We can also say the same regarding
wing formation in aphids.
External conditions must require more than one generation
to produce their effects, and when once effected the condition
of that individual cannot be altered. Even in the second and third
generations no positive results of their influence on wing forma-
tion were obtained.
1. Ashmead, Wm. H.-Insect Notes from General Bulletin. Bulletin No.
2. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta.
2. Berger, E. W.-19th Annual Report of Entomologist. Fla. Agr. Expt.
3. Buckton-Monograph of British Aphids.
4. Chittenden, F. H.-Some Insects Injprious to Cabbages, Cucumbers
and Related Crops. Va. Truck Expt. Sta. Bul. No. 2.
5. Chittenden, F. H.-The Melon Aphis. Bureau of Entomology. Circular
80. U. S. D. A.
6. Clarke, Warren T.-A List of California Aphididae. Canadian Ento-
mologist. Vol. XXXV., p. 247 (1903).
7. Comstock, J. H.-Insect Life.
8. Comstock, J. H.-Manual for the Study of Insects.
9. Davis, J. J.-A List of the Aphididae of Illinois, with Notes on Some
of the Species. Journal of Economic Entomology. Vol. III, No. 6
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
10. Davis, J. J.-A List of the Aphididae of Illinois, with Notes on Some of
the Species. Journal of Economic Entomology, Vol. IV, No. 3
11. Davidson, W. M.-Notes on Aphididae Collected in the Vicinity of
Stanford University. Journal of Economic Entomology. Vol. II;
p. 299 (1909).
12. Davidson, W. M.-Further Notes on Aphididae Collected in the Vicinity
of Stanford Univ. Journal of Economic Entomology. Vol. III,
p. 372 (1910).
13. Essig, E. O.-Host Index to California Plant Lice (Aphididae). Po-
mona Journal of Entomology. Vol. III, No. 2.
14. Essig, E. O.-Host Index to California Plant Lice II (Aphididae).
Pomona Journal of Entomology. Vol. IV, No. 4.
15. Essig, E. O.-Aphididae of Southern California. Pomona Journal of
Entomology. Vol. III, No. 4.
16. Gillette, C. P.-Notes and Description of Some Orchard Plant Lice of
the Family Aphididae. Journal of Economic Entomology. Vol. I,
p. 3'02 (1908).
17. Gillette, C. P.-Plant Louse Notes, Family Aphididae. Journal of
Economic Entomology. Vol. II, p. 351 (1909). Vol. III, p. 367
18. Gillette, C. P., and Taylor, E. P.-A Few Orchard Plant Lice. Colorado
Bulletin No. 133.
19. Grove, A. J.-The Anatomy of Siphonophora rosarum, Part II. The
Winged Viviparous Stage Compared with the Apterous Viviparous
Stage. Parasitology. Vol. III, No. 1 (1910).
20. Harper, Roland M.-Geography and Vegetation of Northern Florida.
6th Annual Report of Florida Geological Survey (1914).
21. Howard, L. O.-The Insect Book.
22. Hubbard, H. G.-Insects Affecting the Orange. Bulletin of U. S. IDept.
of Agr. Division of Entomology (1885).
23. Kellogg, V. L.-Insects.
24. Morgan, T. H.-Experimental Zoology.
25. Morgan, T. H.-Biological and Cytological Study of Sex Determination
in Phylloxerans and Aphids. Journal of Experimental Zoology.
Vol. VII, No. 2.
26. Neal, Jas. C.-Entomologist Report. Bul. No. 4. Fla Agr. Expt. Sta.
27. Oestlund, O. W.-Synopsis of Aphididae of Minnesota. Geological and
Natural History Survey of Minn. Bul. No. 4.
28. O'Kane, W. C.-Injurious Insects.
29. Patch, Edith M.-Aphid Pests of Maine, Food Plants of the Aphids.
Me. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. No. 202.
30. Pergande, Theo. North American Phylloxerinae Affecting Hickoria
(Carya) and Other Trees. Proceedings of Davenport Academy of
Science. Vol. IX (1904).
31. Quaintance, A. L.-8th Annual Report of Entomologist. Fla. Agr.
Expt. Sta. (1896).
32. Quaintance, A. L.-Insect Enemies of Truck and Garden Crops. Fla.
Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. No. 34.
33. Sanderson, E. D.-Insect Pests of Farm, Garden and Orchard.
34. Taylor, E. P.-Life History Notes and Control of the Green Peach'
Aphis, Myzus persicae. Journal of Economic Entomology. Vol. I,
p. 83 (1908).
35. Watson, J. R.-Tomato Insects. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. No. 112.
36. Watson, J. R.-Tomato Insects. Fla. Agr. Expt, Sta. Bul. No. 125.
37. Webster, F. M., and Phillips, W. J.-The Spring Grain Aphis or "Green
Bug." Bureau of Entomology. U.. S. D. A. Bul. No. 110.
38. Williams, T. A.-Host Plant List of North American Aphididae. Uni-
versity of Nebraska. Special Bul. No. 1.
39. Wilson, H. F.-New Records of Aphididae in North America. Journal
of Economic Entomology. Vol. II, p. 346 (1909).
PERSONAL NOTES OF MEMBERS
We note from Baldwin-Wallace Alumnus that Dr. Carl J.
Drake, head of the Department of Entomology of the Iowa State
College, has just recovered from a severe attack of pneumonia.
Dr. H. L. Dozier has resigned from the U. S. Bureau of Ento-
mology where he had charge of the Camphor Scale investigations,
to take the position of Entomologist to the Gulf Coast Citrus
Exchange with headquarters in Mobile.
According to the Official Record of the U. S. D. A., Mr. John
Graf has been made acting head of truck crop insect investiga-
tions of the Bureau of Entomology.
Mr. F. F. Bibby has been transferred from Tlahualilo, Dugan-
go, Mexico, to Brownsville, Texas.
J. C. Goodwin is the proud father of a young entomologist.
U. C. Zeluff, the Plant Board Quarantine Inspector stationed
at Tampa, has recently intercepted the Mexican orange maggot
in a shipment of Mexican oranges from Tampico, Mexico.
D. Marston Bates, youngest member of the Entomological
Society, has perhaps the largest collection of lepidoptera in the
Southeast. Mr. Bates is but seventeen. He lives at Ft. Lauder-
Jeff Chaffin has returned to Gainesville after spending several
weeks in Lafayette County, where he was engaged in demon-
strating the Florida method of boll weevil control.
Wm. J. Rahn has been employed by the American Fruit Grow-
ers Inc. and is located at Wabasso.
J. L. Lazonby is engaged in quarantine inspection work for
the Plant Board at Jacksonville.
Chas. A. Reese, formerly Assistant Apiary Inspector of Flor-
ida, has moved to Columbus, Ohio.
Official Organ of The Florida Entomological Society, Gainesville,
J. R. W ATSON ..........--- ....- ............-....................-.....-.................Editor
WILMON NEWELL----....--.....--....................-.............Associate Editor
A. H. BEYER.-.....--------.-- ------....--..................Business Manager
Issued once every three months. Free to all members of the
Subscription price to non-members is $1.00 per year in ad-
vance; 35 cents per copy.
SOUTHERN MIGRATION OF BUTTERFLIES
Not in many years has the southern migration of the Great
Southern White, or Gulf Butterfly (Pieris monuste L.), been
quite so great or noticeable as during the early part of June of
this year (1923). Their numbers along the waterways of the
east coast of Florida, especially along the Halifax and Indian
Rivers, were so great that the radiators of automobiles driving
north and south became thoroughly plastered with them. The
migration is constantly southward and one wonders where this
tremendous army comes from. It seems that they are first noted
in-large numbers in the vicinity of Titusville and as one travels
southward their numbers seem to. increase until they reach un-
limited millions between Fort Pierce and Stewart, with an ap-
parent increase in numbers as they advance southward. Always
they are noted as flying thickest along the edges of the water,
such as the two rivers above mentioned, Lake Worth, the East
Coast Canal and Biscayne Bay. There they apparently leave the
mainland and follow the Gulf Stream to no-one knows where. It
is not unlikely that these butterflies begin to make up the bulk
of their army in such states as the Carolinas and Georgia, for'
they have been reported in the vicinity of Jacksonville, Florida,
on their journey south.
It is observed that numbers of these butterflies occur some
three to five miles west of the inland waterways and are always
flying eastward, apparently for the purpose of joining the main
army in the southward flight. It is not unlikely that many of
these butterflies breed and hatch in certain portions of the swamp
lands and Everglades of the interior; also in farms and fields
where cabbages and collards are grown. These butterflies, upon
reaching maturity, apparently follow instinctively the eastward
march until the main army is met. On June 8 they were noted
in greatest numbers along the coastal sections of eastern Florida
and on June 9, 10 and 11 millions of them were noted by travelers
coming from Nassau, Bahama Islands, fluttering above the Gulf
Stream heading southward.
It would be extremely interesting to understand the purpose
of such migrations: where the butterflies come from, that is,
how far north do they begin to gather and migrate and where
is the place for which they are headed. Is it Cuba, or South Amer-
ica, or do most of them become exhausted and consequently a
prey to fish in their journey over the ocean?
But little is known in regard to the food plants of the cater-
pillars of these butterflies. They may feed on some wild species
of plants related to the cabbage and mustard. Noting that so
many appear from the Everglades, it is not unlikely that some
native host growing in that section of the state is responsible
for the breeding of great numbers.
THE PROPER NAME AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE FLORIDA
J. R. WATSON
In,the literature on Florida insects prior to 1913 our flower
thrips was not distinguished from the northern species Frank-
liniella tritici (Fitch), then called Euthrips tritici Fitch or
Thrips tritici Fitch. For instance, Quaintance in Bulletin No. 42
of Fla. Agric. Exp. Sta. refers to a thrips damaging strawberries
at Lake City under that name. But his Figure 4, from a micro-
photograph, shows the second antennal segment with sufficient
clearness to prove that it belongs to Morgan's bispinosa. Further-
more the known distribution of tritici in Florida would make it
very improbable that it was the dominant species attacking
strawberries as far south as Lake City.
In 1913 Morgan, (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. Vol. 46, p. 10) de-
scribed Euthrips tritici bispinosa from four females taken at
Dade City. As distinguishing characters he named: (1) the
color, "pale yellow shading to gray on sides of head and abdo-
men." (He does not mention any orange color probably because
he described alcoholic specimens.) "Tip of abdomen not darker
than remainder of body." (2) "Tip of second antennaa) seg-
ment raised dorsally and bearing two exceptionally heavy dark
*Paper presented at the May meeting of the Society.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
brown spines." (3) "Segments 3 and 4 relatively much more
slender than in E. tritici."
Later Hood raised Morgan's variety to specific rank and trans-
ferred it with tritici and other species of Euftrips to Karny's
genus Frankliniella, naming our insect Frankliniella bispinosa
(Morgan), and this is the name thaaj has been used by the writer
until more data could be collected.
As bearing upon the subject of the specific rank of bispinosa
two questions needed investigation. Are there transition forms
between bispinosa and tritici, and do the two forms overlap in
distribution? Not until recently were we able to gather evidence
bearing upon these questions. Specimens sent in from Missis-
sippi, Louisiana, Alabama, and Atlanta, Ga., always proved to
be typical tritici and all specimens from Florida typical bispi-
nosa. During the last few months, however, we have examined a
large series from Escambia County in extreme west Florida and
from several points in extreme southern Alabama, Mississippi,
An examination of some hundreds of specimens of both forms
shows that the color differences as described by Morgan are
valueless. There are no constant color differences. Apparently
Morgan's description was from alcoholic specimens from which
the orange color had faded. Bispinosa has fully as much orange
as tritici, perhaps more. The dark spot on the tip of the abdomen
is a variable character present in many specimens of bispinosa
and absolutely worthless as a distinguishing mark. There re-
mains only the comparative lengths of the third and fourth an-
tennal segments and the dorsal elevation and the two heavy
spines of the second antennal segment. In typical triciti there is
no such elevation. The segment is symmetrical in side view. Also
the two spines on the dorsal surface are no heavier than those on
segment 3. In both these characters some specimens from ex-
treme western Florida and Gulfport, Miss., are intermediate.
Some of these cannot with certainty be placed with either form.
Some have the second antennal segment of bispinosa but the
short third and fourth segments of tritici. The lengths of seg-
ments 3 and 4 are more variable than the two heavy spines of
segment 2. These spines form the most constant distinguishing
mark between the two forms.
Since the only characters of any value are those of the three
antennal segments and these intermediate in many specimens it
would seem that bispinosa hardly deserves specific rank as given
by Hood but that it should be considered as a mere variety, though
a well-marked one, as originally given by Morgan, and that its
proper name is Frankliniella tritici bispinosa (Morgan).
In size bispinosa averages a trifle smaller than tritici. The
average total length of several hundred measured was 1.1 mm.,
while the average of all the tritici in the writer's collection is
1.15 mm. On the other hand, where the two forms meet at Cot-
tage Hill bispinosa measured 1.25 mm., while tritici averaged
1.09 mm. and at Loxley, Ala., only 1.03 mm. Frankliniella cepha-
alica masoni averaged only 1.02 mm.
In regard to the distribution of the variety most of the speci-
mens from.Cottage Hill, Escambia County, Fla., were bispinosa,
but there was a minority of tritici. In a collection from as far
east as Panama City there were a few tritici. On the other hand,
a collection from Loxley, Ala., was mostly tritici with a sprink-
ling of bjspjnsa and the same was true of several collections
from near Gulfport, Miss., sent in by Mr. E. K. Bynum of the
State Plant Board of Mississippi. It would thus seem that in the
west there is a remarkably close coincidence between the dividing
line of the two forms and the boundary of the state. On the
northern border a collection taken a few miles north of Val-
dosta, Ga., by F. W. Walker were all bip n while specimens
received from Atlanta were all tritici.
We have thus in Florida three yellow, flower-inhabiting thrips
of the genus Frankliniella. The most common one is F. tritici
bispinosa (Morgan), which ranges over the entire state and ex-
tends but little over the state line in the west but well up into
Georgia. F. tritici (Fitch) comes into the western end of the
state in small numbers. In the south but ranging in small num-
bers as far north as Daytona is another species, F. cephalica
ENTOMOLOGICAL NOTES FROM BRAZIL
"The other day the young fellow who is working here in the
enclosure as a care taker of the plants hollered for me to come
and help him with a big "bicho!" When I got there I found it
was a Buprestid that measured over six centimeters in length.
Some time ago the servant's 'daughter brought us a Prionid that
measured over eight centimeters in length, not including his
"We had spent lots of time and exercised lots of care in getting
some really magnificent things that Mr. Haddon took through for
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
Mr. Van Hyning. But then you know that Mr. Haddon made the
fool blunder of placing them in the mail for the last lap of the
journey, in spite of the fact that I had warned him and specifi-
cally instructed him to send them by express. I knew of course
that if they were sent in the usual envelopes and folded in the
usual way that Mr. Van Hyning could not possibly get time to
take care of them for years to come.
"The last four weeks have been unusually prolific ones in the
way of collecting moths at the electric light. Most of them are
of medium or small size but a lot of them very fine and. interest-
ing. We have gotten a couple of larvae of very large and inter-
esting Sphingidae. Lately the Heliconidae butterflies have be-
come quite abundant. Clarissa got some rather interesting ones
today. Yesterday I saw one specimen of the clear-winged Heli-
conidae. I had no net with me so could not get him. The day be-
fore I had seen two of that species at Ponte Nova. The chrysalis
of one of these Heliconidae is of burnished silver, about as bright
as a mirror. It takes only about a week from the time of pupation
until the butterfly emerges. The other day I got fourteen of them
from a single Sylanium. For the last three or four weeks leaf-
hoppers have become very abundant at the light. Apparently
they are of quite a number of different species. At the beginning
of the rainy season I made some sweepings over grass plots but
caught practically no leaf hoppers."
P. H. ROLFS.
April 3. 1923.
REPORTS OF MEETINGS OF THE SOCIETY
April 30, 1923.
Society met in Language Hall with Vice President Rogers in
the chair. Members present: Ayers, Berger, Beyer, :Brown,
Burger, Chaffin, Merrill, Mowry, Montgomery, O'Byrne, Rogers,
Stirling, Trigg, Walker, Watson. Visitors, Jenkins, Link, and
Mr. Ayers gave the first paper on "Insect and Plant Disease
Problems Occurring in the Field." Among the insect problems
mentioned by Mr. Ayers were the camphor scale, flower thrips,
celery leaf-tyer, and garden flea hopper. Spraying was done
for the control of thrips. Poisoned bran bait moistened with
nitro-benzine was used with success on the leaf-tyer. Calcium
cyanide dust was also used for control of the leaf-tyer, as well
as the garden flea hopper. It was thorough and effective in its
control of the latter but not the former.
A. H. Beyer, the next speaker, reported an infestation of Aphis
maidis-radicis, on the roots of watermelons collected by- Prof.
Watson near Live Oak. He also discussed the difficulty in the
control of this, pest.
Under "Brief and Timely Notes" Dr. Montgoimery mentioned
Baker's mealy-bug, as being a probable threatening pest to the
grape industry of Florida.
May 25, 1923.
Society met in Language Hall with President Merrill in the
chair. Members present were Berger, Beyer, Brown, Merrill,
Stirling, Stone, Trigg, Walker, and Watson. Visitor, Mr. Link,
who was elected a member of the society.
The first subject was a round table discussion of the proposed
anti-mosquito campaign in Gainesville, led by F. M. O'Byrne.
The speaker first discussed the effect on the health and comfort
of the community as well as real estate values and civic pride. He
reported that the Gainesville Board of Health had adopted the
Model Mosquito Ordinance which was adopted by the State
Board of Health, and that the campaign was costing about $500,
which is being expended for inspectors, etc. Lack of funds pre-
vents any drainage work being done at present. Among the mos-
quito breeding places discussed, which should be abolished or
oiled, were barrels, bottles, tubs, pans, and tin cans. They were
also found breeding in septic tanks, storm sewers, holes in bark
of trees, cup depressions on exposed roots of trees, seepage places
in land, and bodies of water where minnows and other enemies
of the mosquito do not occur.
The next speaker, Professor Watson, spoke on the proper name
for the Florida flower thrips.
A. H. BEYER, Secretary.
-THE: SYCAMOfRE LACE-BUG
It was late September and the Florida landscape was one un-
broken green. Drenched by the almost daily showers and heavy
dews of the rainy season which had just closed, the grass was at
its greenest. The weeds of the neglected fields and other waste
places had as yet hardly commenced their automn carnival of
color. The native trees, too, except for an occasional half-drowned
red maple or sour gum in a flooded swamp, had scarcely turned a
leaf. In vain did the tired eye seek a bit of color in this mo-
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
notonously green landscape. But there was one exception. The
sycamores planted along our streets and lawns were brown, sear
and half bare. Why should they alone of all the trees on well-
drained land be dropping their leaves? Let us examine the
withered foliage. On the under side we find numerous reddish
brown stains-so characteristic of tingids, A closer scrutiny and
we see, in the middle of some of the fresher stained areas, the
bugs themselves. Under the lens the entire body is seen to be
covered with the most delicate net of thickened veins and ridges
which gives these insects their name of lace bugs. And they or
their stains were on every leaf. What a fearful epidemic is this!
The worst human epidemic of which we have anSy record, the
plague or black death of medieval Europe, is said to have taken
over half of the population. But here is an epidemic which has
taken nearly 100%. And it is a yearly event. Luckily for the
trees it occurs late in the season, after much of the work of the
leaves is done. Still it must be a handicap to the sycamore tree
and one wonders if this may not be one of the reasons why
the sycamore does not grow wild in our hammocks.
SU TI costs less than
U I INU liquid spraying.
Dusting materials cost more
than materials for liquid spray-
ing, but this is more than coun-
Sterbalanced by the big saving
"in time and labor, less cost of
the duster, and much smaller
Depreciation, repairs, and oper-
Dusting differs from spraying
chiefly in that Insecticides and
Fungicides are applied in a
powdered form; dry instead of
wet. Water merely carries the
active ingredients to the plant,
where it evaporates and leaves
a dry powder. Spraying requires
50 Ibs. of water to carry 1 lb. of
NIAGARA COMBINATION DUSTER poison to the foliage. In dust-
This is the Niagara Power Potato ing air is the carrier; it is ever.
Duster. Shown here fitted with flexible present and does not have to be
distributor pipe and drop platform for use pumped and carried. The chem-
in orchard dusting. For grower having icals used are fundamentally
both orchard and low crops to protect.
Only driver needed for dusting potatoes, the same with either product._
'etc. Driver and one man to operate dis- For further information write
tributor pipe needed for orchard use. our Distributor
J. SCHNARR & CO.
NIAGARA SPRAYER COMPANY
Middleport, N. Y.
"BLACK LEAF 40"
(Sulphate of Nicotine--40% of Nicotine)
For liquid spraying against aphis, thrips, leaf-hoppers,
etc. May be combined with other standard spray-chemicals.
Always dependable and efficient.
"Black Leaf 40" is, in Very Truth, "The Old Reliable"
1/-lb. tin............----.........................------------ 1.25
2-lb. tin.......................... ....................... 3.50
10-lb. tin..................... ......... ....... 13.50
"BLACK LEAF'-FI-NICOTINE DUST
Contains Over 11/4 % of Actual ("Free") Nicotine
Made from our own high-strength ("Free") Nicotine.
Thoroughly standardized as to strength and texture. Rec-
ommended for dusting vegetables to destroy aphis.
F. O. B. Richmond, Va.
5-lb. tin--......... --............ --........................-------$ 1.10
25-lb. drum-......................-----.... ......--- 3.75
50-lb. drum-..............-- ---------------........ 6.75
100-lb. drum... -----....................... -- ......-- ............. 12.75
"BLACK LEAF"-F2-MNICTINE DUST
Contains Over 2% of Actual ("Free") Nicotine
Is stronger in nicotine than our-Fl-Dust, but other-
wise, is the same. Recommended against the more resistant
insects, such as cucumber beetle, pea aphis, etc.
F. O. B. Richmond, Va.
5-lb. tin---....................................---- .... ....................--- $ 1.3
25-lb. drum---...................-------........ 4.75
50-lb. drum.....-..--.......--- .....-- .. ....--.-------. ...-.. 8.75
100-lb. drum -....................--- ......... ....................... 16.75
"Black Leaf" products are sold by seedsmen, hardware
stores, drum stores, general merchants, and dealers in hor-
ASK YOUR DEALER
TOBACCO BY-PRODUCTS & CHEMICAL