Florida Entom gif
Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society
VOL. VII WINTER NUMBER No. 3
THE CHRYSOMEILIDAE OF FLORIDA
By W. S. BLATCHLEY
To the student of entomology the leaf beetles or Chrysomelidae
comprise one of the most interesting families of insects. On ac-
count of their variation in form and color they have long been a
favorite group of the systematic Coleopterists, while their leaf-
and root-feeding habits have for many years attracted the atten-
tion of economic entomologists. The family is one of the largest
among the Coleoptera, about 18,000 species being known to scien-
tists. Of these Leng, in his recent catalogue, recognizes 974
from America north of Mexico. In the "Coleoptera of Indiana"
265 were included from that State and 20 or more additional ones
have since been taken. The present list of 268 species and 15
varieties from Florida shows that the number known from each
of these two states is very nearly the same.
The Chrysomelidae may be characterized and separated from
our other Coleoptera as follows:
Size medium or small, rarely more than 13 mm. (one-half inch) in length;
form variable, usually more or less oval and convex, never much flattened;
color variable, often brilliant and shining; surface usually glabrous; an-
tennae rarely more than two-thirds the length of body, filiform, the outer
joints rarely subserrate or slightly thickened; front of head small, oblique or
inflexed; base of antennae not at all surrounded by the eyes; thorax usually
with distinct side margins; tarsi all 5-jointed, but the fourth joint very
small and attached very closely to the base of the fifth, the tarsi therefore
apparently only 4-jointed; sole usually densely pubescent.
Of the life habits of the great majority of the Chrysomelidae
but little or nothing is known, except that the adults occur mainly
on the foliage of plants. The larvae of only about 100 species are
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THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
known, and only those which have proven especially injurious,
such as the striped cucumber beetle and the Colorado potato
beetle, have been studied in detail from egg to adult. There is
therefore a most fertile field for pioneer work by young entomolo-
gists along this line.
All the species are diurnal in habit and move slowly over the
surface of plants, to which they adhere by means of the dense
brushes of hairs upon the under side of the tarsi. The eggs are
usually yellowish and elongated and are generally laid upon the
leaves or stems of the plants upon which the larvae feed. The
latter are of varying form, but for the most part are fleshy con-
vex or chunky hump-backed "slugs" or grubs, a familiar example'
being that of the Colorado potato beetle. Many of them live on the
leaves of the plants, where they feed often in company with the
mature insects. Those that live exposed to the light differ from
the great majority of coleopterous larvae in being more or less
highly colored. S6me of them are flattened and curiously armed
with spines, while others are partially covered with their own
excrement. A few are leaf-miners or stem borers, and these are
long and slender and without the conspicuous markings of those
which feed in the open. The larvae of one large group are case-
bearers; others, including an entire subfamily (Eumolpinae) are
root-feeders. When ready to transform, many of the leaf-eating
larvae fasten themselves by the tail or last abdominal segment to
a leaf and enter the chysalis stage, while others go into the ground
when about to change to a pupa. The case-bearers pupate within
the sealed-up larval case.
The main object of the present paper is to list in natural order
the species of Chrysomelidae which in the past have been recorded
from Florida, and to show somewhat accurately their distribu-
tion in the State. Many of the older Coleopterists, including both
Leconte and Horn, were content to put "Fla." or "Florida" after
their descriptions, forgetting that the State is approximately 400
miles long, 360 miles wide across its northern border, and con-
tains an area of nearly 60,000 square miles. Representatives of
three distinct faunas, the Austroriparian, Subtropical and Tropi-
cal, live within its bounds, and the time has come when more defi-
nite and accurate distributional notes than those furnished by
the mere name of the State are in demand.
Another object is to furnish some knowledge of the principal
food plants of each species. But in compiling this data from
printed records or from my field accession notes (now more than
10,000 in number) I have been surprised at the paucity of that
knowledge. This is due principally to two reasons; First, few of
our systematic coleopterists, both past and present, have been
active collectors, but have relied largely upon others to furnish
their specimens, and neither they nor the collectors kept or re-
corded ecological data; second, the collecting of beetles in recent
years has largely been done by the sweep-net, and this method of
capture prevents the food plant being definitely known, unless,
as is seldom the case, the vegetation is of a single species. It is
only, therefore, of the more common and destructive species that
the food plant can be stated with accuracy. The notes, as given
after each species, furnish, therefore, information as to the kind
of a habitat in which the species may usually be found, rather
than accurate knowledge as to its host plant.
The sources of information on which the present paper is based
are as follows: (a). My private collection, taken personally, main-
ly during the months from November to April inclusive, during
the past eleven years, and principally in the southern half of the
State. In this collection are those species whose serial numbers
are preceded by an asterisk (*) numbering 184 of those recorded
from the State; (b). The Florida Chrysomelidae in the collection
of W. T. Davis, Staten Island, N. Y., which were sent on to me
for examination; (c). The collection of the Agricultural Experi-
ment Station at Gainesville, which I have examined in part there,
and which in part has been sent to me for identification; (d).
The printed records of Florida species as given in the works men-
tioned in the "List of Works Cited" which follows. A few of
these records are open to question as to their proper identification
at the time the record was made; (e). Manuscript records, espe-
cially those of Schwarz and Hamilton mentioned in the "List of
Works Cited," also others kindly sent me by Prof. J. R. Watson,
Chas. Schaeffer, H. C. Fall, J. N. Knull, Chas. W. Leng and
List of Works Cited in the Present Paper
Arranged Alphabetically by Authors and Years of Publication.
BARBER, H. S.-1916-A Review of North American Tortoise' Beetles.
Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., XVIII, 113-127.
BLATCHLEY, W. S.-1902-A List of the Coleoptera taken in the vicinity
of Ormond, Florida in March and April, 1899. A Nature Wooing
at Ormond by the Sea, pp. 233-238.
1910-An Illustrated Descriptive Catalogue of the Coleoptera known to
Occur in Indiana, pp. 1-1386. Chrysomelidae pp. 1095-1233.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
1913-On some Apparently New Coleoptera from Indiana and Florida.
Can. Ent., XLV, 21-24.
1914-Notes on the Winter and Early Spring Coleoptera of Florida, with
Descriptions of New Species. Can. Ent., XLVI, 62-67; 88-92;
1916-A New Genus and Species of Nitidulini with,Descriptions of other
New Species of Coleoptera from Indiana and Florida. Can. Ent.,
1917-On some New or Noteworthy Coleoptera from the West Coast of
Florida. Can. Ent., XLIX, 137-143; 236-240; 272-279.
1918-Same, Pt. IV. Can. Ent., L. 52-59.
1919-Some New or Scarce Coleoptera from Western and Southern
Florida.-III. Can. Ent., LI, 65-69.
1920-Notes on the Winter Coleoptera of Western and Southern Florida
with Descriptions of New Species. Can. Ent., LII, 42-46; 68-72.
1920a-Notes on some Coleoptera taken in the vicinity of Dunedin, Florida
in the Spring of 1920, with Descriptions of New Species. Can.
Ent., LII, 259-264.
1921-Notes on Indiana Halticini with Characterization of a New Genus
and Descriptions of New Species. Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc., XXIX,
1922-Some New and Rare Coleoptera from Southwestern Florida. Can.
Ent., LIV, 9-14; 27-33.
1923-Notes on the Coleoptera of Southern Florida with Descriptions of
New Species. Can. Ent., LV, 13-20; 30-36.
1924-New Coleoptera from Southern Florida with Notes on Other In-
teresting Species. Can. Ent., LVI.
BOWDITCH, F. C.-1909-Notes on Pachybrachys and Descriptions of
New Species. Can. Ent., XLI, 237-244; 285-292; 312-324.
CASTLE & LAURENT-1896-'97-April Collecting in Georgia and Flor-
ida. Ent. News, VII, 300-305; XIII, 7-9.
CROTCH, G. R.-1873-Materials for the Study of the Phytophaga of the
United States. Proc. Acad. Nat. Scie., Phil., XXV, 19-83.
DOZIER, H. L.-1918-An Annotated List of Gainesville, Florida Coleop-
tera. Ent. News, XXIX, 295-298; 331-335; 370-374.
FALL, H. C.-1910-Miscellaneous Notes and Descriptions of North Amer-
ican Coleoptera. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., XXXVI, 89-197.
1915-A Revision of the' North American Species of Pachybrachys.
Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., XLI, 291-486.
HAMILTON, DR. JOHN-1888-A Manuscript List of Coleoptera taken
in the vicinity of St. Augustine, Florida by Mr. Chas. Johnson.1
1894-Coleoptera taken at Lake Worth, Florida. Can. Ent., XXVI, 250-
256; XXVII, 317-322.
HORN, G. H.--1883-Miscellaneous Notes and Short Studies of North Amer-
ican Coleoptera. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., X, 269-312.
1889-A Synopsis of the Halticini of Boreal America. Trans. Amer. Ent.
'Soc., XVI, 163-320.
'See Schwarz, Proc. Wash. Entom. Soc., No. 3, 1889. All St. Augustine
records by Hamilton refer to his list.
1892-The Eumolpini of Boreal America. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., XIX,
1893-The Galerucini of Boreal America. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., XX,
LECONTE, J. L.-1878*-New Species of Coleoptera from Florida. Proc.
Amer. Phil. Soc., XVII, 373-434.
1880-Short Studies of North American Coleoptera. Trans. Amer. Ent.
Soc., VIII, 163-218.
LENG, C. W.-1891-Review of the Donacia of Boreal America. Trans.
Amer. Ent. Soc., XVIII, 159-176.
1920-Catalogue of the Coleoptera of America North of Mexico, pp.
SCHAEFFER, CHAS.-1919-Synonymical and other Notes on some Spe-
cies of the Family Chrysomelidae and Descriptions of New Spe-
cies. Journ. N. Y. Entom. Soc., XXVII, 307-343.
SCHWARZ, E. A.-1878*-Descriptions of New Species of Coleoptera from
Florida. Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc., XVII, 354-372.
1878*-List of Species of Coleoptera from Florida. Proc. Amer. Phil.
Soc., XVII, 434-472.2
SCHWARZ, E. A.-Ms.-A manuscript list of all additions to his "Coleop-
tera of Florida," up to about 1910. This List is in the Smithsonian
SLOSSON, MRS. A. T.-1893-Spring Collecting in Northern Florida.
Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc., I, 147-152.
1895-Coleoptera of Lake Worth, Florida. Can. Ent., XXVII, 9-10.
WICKHAM, H. F.-1909-A List of the Van Duzee Collection of Florida
Beetles. Bull. Buffalo Soc. Natural Sciences, IX, 399-405.
In the list of species which follows, the sequence and the nom-
enclature, with rare exceptions, is that of Leng's "Catalogue of
the Coleoptera of America North of Mexico," and the number in
parenthesis before each species is that of said catalogue. Where
a species was originally described from Florida the date of year
and page follows the name of author, the name of the publica-
tion in which the description appeared being given after the date
of that year in the "List of Works Cited."
The names of authors whose locality records are mentioned or
of those who furnished manuscript data are, to save space, usually
abbreviated as follows:
Barber, H. S.=Br. Leconte, J. L.=Lec.
Blatchley, W. S.=Bl. or Blatch. Schaeffer, Chas.=Schf.
Castle & Laurent=C. & L. Slosson, Mrs. A. T.=Sl.
Davis, W. T.=Dav. Schwarz, E. A.=Sz.
Dozier, H. L.=Doz. Watson, J. R.=Wat.
Knull, J. N.=Kn. Wickham, H. L.=Wic.
2The three papers marked with an asterisk comprise the work of Schwarz
entitled "The Coleoptera of Florida." Since the Leconte article is in-
cluded I have thought it best to list the three separately
'See Can. Ent., L, 1918, 419.
THE -FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
By -our later systematists the family Chrysomelidae is sep-
arated into 15 groups or subfamilies, 12 of which are represented
in Florida. Each of these is mentioned under the brief charac-
terization of its first genus in the list which follows.
LIST OF SPECIES AND VARIETIES
I. Donacia Fabricius.
Elongate or oblong graceful beetles of medium size (6-12 mm.),
occurring upon the foliage and flowers of water-lilies, pickerel-
weed, skunk cabbage, arrow-head and other semi-aquatic plants;
the larvae living under water and feeding upon the roots, the
adults flying actively about and mating usually within the flow-
ers. They have the head constricted to form a neck behind the
eyes, thorax narrower than elytra and without side margins;
mandibles simple; first ventral about as long as the others united.
1. (15197). D. floridae Leng, 1891, 196.-Types in the U. S. N. Mus..
from Enterprise. No other Florida record. Food plant white water-lily,
Castalia odorata (Dryand). The males differ from those of all others in
having the hind femora much surpassing the tips of elytra.
2. (15198a). D. cincticornis Newn.-Crescent City (Sz. Ms.). "Jupiter
and Lake Worth; not a var. of proxima but a distinct species" (Schf. Ms.).-
White water-lily; yellow water-lily, Nymphaea advena Sol.; pondweed, Po-
3. (15200). D. hypoleuca Lac.-Enterprise, Lake Poinsett, Crescent City
(Sz. Ms.). Lake City (Wat.). Schaeffer (Ms.) says that the Crescent City
specimens in the U. S. N. Mus. are texana.
4. (........). D. texana Crotch.-"Crescent City; a distinct species, not
the female of hypoleuca as stated by Leng." (Schf. Ms.).-Yellow water-
*5. (15202). D. piscatrix Lac.-Throughout the State. Common about
Dunedin, Mch.-Apr., mating in flowers of its only food plant, the yellow
6. (15206). D. rugosa Lee., 1878, 415.-Described from Enterprise. Cres-
cent City (Sz. Ms.).-Pickerel-weed, Pontederia cordata L.
7. (15212). D. torosa Lec.-"Specimens in Leng Collection labelled
'Fla.'; occurs in Massachusetts on Carex and grasses in moist meadows"
8. (15215). D. metallica Ahr.-"Specimens in Leng Collection labelled
'Fla.'" (Schf. Ms.). In Indiana this species has been taken only between
the bases of the leaves of skunk cabbage, Spathyema foetida (L.); in Massa-
chusetts on the tussock sedge, Carex strict Lam.
II. Lema Fabricius.
Oblong, often prettily variagated beetles of small size (4-7
mm.) occurring usually on herbage in dense woodland or moist
places. Head with a neck behind eyes; elytral punctures in rows;
thorax constricted at middle; tarsal claws simple. The larvae
feed on foliage and, for protection, cover their backs with their
own excrement. (Subfamily Criocerinae.)
*9. (15236). L. cornuta Fabr.-Numerous records from the northern
half of the State. Taken by me at Lake Wales, Marco and Dunedin, Mch.-
Apr., while sweeping natal grass and other herbage. Miami (Kn.).
10. (15238). L. texana Cr.-Suwannee Springs; on flowers of the but-
terfly-pea, Clitoria mariana L. (SI., 1893). The only definite State record.
*11. (15239). L. brunnicollis Lac.-Fernandina and St. Augustine on
Carduus (Sz.). Common at Sarasota and Sanford, Febr.-Mch., on flowers
of a thistle, Carduus spinosissimus Walt. (Bl., 1913). L. Wales and Gaines-
ville; common, June-Sept., on live oak (Wat.).
12. (15242). L. maculicollis Lac.-L. Ashley and Haw Creek (Sz.).
13. (15243). L. collaris Say.-Enterprise (C. & L.). The only State
record.-In Indiana the food plant is the spiderwort, Tradescantia virgini-
*14. (15246). L. solani Fabr.-Throughout the State. Occurs mainly
in March and April on the black nightshade, Solanum nigrum L., and allied
15. (15248). L. circumvittata Clark.-Listed as L. conjuncta Lac. from
Enterprise (Sz.); afterwards (Ms.) from St. Augustine and Crescent City,
and changed to circumvittata. L. Worth (Ham.); Clearwater (Wic.).
16. (15250). L. conjuncta Lac.-L. Worth (Ham.). Gainesville, swept
from oak, Apr. 1 (Doz.). Perhaps confused with circumvittata, as not men-
tioned from Florida in Leng Catalogue.
17 (15251). L. confusa Chev.-Crescent City (Sz. Ms.); Enterprise,
Apr. 16 (C. & L.). Biscayne Bay (Schf. 1919.).
*18. (15253). L. trilineata (Oliv.).-Throughout the State. Abundant
at Gainesville, April, on ground cherry (Doz.). Rare at Dunedin. Food
plants, potato, night-shade, horse-nettle and other Solanaceae.
*19. (15256a). L. sexpunctata albina Lac.-Ente'rprise (C. & L.); Cres-
cent City (Sz. Ms.); Sanford, Apr. 4 (B1.); Gainesville on dog-fennel, Aug.
4 (Wat.); Ft. Myers' (Wic.). Cleveland (Kn.).
*19a. (15256b). L. sexpunctata ephippium Lac.-Crescent City (Sz. Ms.);
Ormond, Apr. 4 on blossoms of thistle (Bl., 1902); Sanford, Apr. (Bl.);
Gainesville on basswood, June (Wat.).
(To be continued)
Official Organ of The Florida Entomological Society, Gainesville,
J. R. W ATSON ....--......................................................................Editor
WILMON NEWELL-......-.............................-.............Associate Editor
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Issued once every three months. Free to all members of the
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vance; 35 cents per copy.
The following from the Cincinnati Commercial Tribune, pub-
lished during the meeting of the American Association for the
Advancement of Science in that city, is so good, and incidentally,
so comforting to our conceit, that we reproduce it here for the
benefit of our readers:
"Popularly speaking, the scientist is to society in general a
something apart. We know he is there busy on the inside with
laboratory experiment and busy on the outside with labored re-
search in investigation. We regard him highly, respect him sin-
cerely and forget him entirely until some wonder work of devel-
opment or discovery brings some one of him into the limelight
of public attention.
"Now this is not unflattering to the scientist, but on the con-
trary is wholly complimentary. We recognize him as our guide,
philosopher and friend blazing the way to knowledge, but some
planes removed from us in the average of the upward climb to-
ward achievement. Except the fundamentalists whose dogma he
may disturb, we accept him at his word and take what he teaches
us as the latest in that particular line. In the fields of utility we
grant him the halo of a benefactor of his race. We recognize him
as the giver of good gifts in adding constantly to the interest and
comfort, even the exhilaration and luxuriousness of life."
THE CINCINNATI MEETING OF THE A. A. A. S.
The Association meetings extended from Dec. 27 to Jan. 2.
Among the affiliated societies meeting with the Association at
which papers on entomology were read were the Entomological
Society of America, the Am. Ass: of Economic Entomologists,
and the Ecological Society of America.
In his address, "A Retrospect", the retiring president of the
Association, Prof. J. Playfair McMurrick, reviewed the progress
that has been made in the Association and in science in general
since the organization of the Association seventy-five years ago.
He spoke especially of the revolutionary influence of the doctrine
of evolution upon science in particular and human thought in
general. In conclusion he stated: "No, evolution is not dead, nor
can it be killed by legislative enactment."
In the public address of the Entomological Society Dr. James
G. Needham spoke on "The Role of Insects in Food Production".
He drew attention to the practicability of using insects as food
for other animals, especially fishes and birds. While most farm-
ers are spending their good money for insecticides to kill insects
Dr. Needham is raising them as a forage crop.
Among the papers presented before the Ecologists was one on
the use of calcium cyanide in exterminating burrowing rodents.
This substance should be effective against our "salamanders"
and possibly "gophers".
In the meeting of the Economic' Entomologists the Japanese
Beetle and the European Corn Borer received much attention
as did also the use of oil emulsions instead of lime-sulphur for
the control of the San Jose scale. The following members of our
own society were elected to membership in the association:
Reginald Hart, Donald Reese, and F. G. Tooke. H. L. Dozier was
elected to active membership. A. F. Burgess was elected presi-
Our members present at the meeting were Geo. Ainsley, E. W.
Berger, Dr. H. S. Davis (Washington, D. C.), H. L. Dozier (and
his newly acquired wife), H. C. Goodwin, Herbert Osborn, Don-
ald Reese and J. R. Watson.
RECENT PUBLICATIONS ON FLORIDA INSECTS
Three bulletins and articles recently published by our mem-
bers are: "Bordeaux-oil Emulsion"-Winston, Bowman, and
Others. U. S. D. A. Departmental Bulletin 1178.
"Striped Sod Worm, Crcmbus mutabilis Clemens"-Geo. G.
Ainslie. J1. Ag. Research Vol. XXIV, No. 5.
"Synopsis and Catalog of the Thysanoptera of North America
(with a translation of Karny's Keys to the Genera of Thysan-
optera and a Bibliography of Recent Publications)"-J. R. Wat-
son. Univ. of Fla. Ag. Exp. Station, Bull. 168.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
We also note, "The Puss Caterpillar and the Effects of its
Sting on Man"-F. C. Bishop. U. S. D. A. Departmental Cir-
In the J1. of Agric. Research Vol. XXV, No. 5, Mr. A. C.
Baker describes a new and possibly dangerous whitefly (Aleuro-
dicus manni) from Honduras.
NOTES ON FLORIDA LEPIDOPTERA
D. MARSTON BATES
(Contribution from the Department of Entomology, Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.)
Papilio polydamas L.
Grossbeck, in his Lepidoptera of Florida, gives only the indefi-
nite locality "Indian River" for this species. It is, however, lo-
cally quite abundant in southeast Florida, and I have found it in
both the adult and larval stages at Stuart, Palm Beach, Ft. Laud-
erdale, and Miami. The larva is at times destructively abundant
Papilio troilus form iloneus A. & S. (=texanus Ehr.)
Larvae of this species that were collected on camphor have
been sent in to the Experiment Station on several occasions.
Anartia jatrophae L.
Holland (1898) erroneously states that the early stages of this
genus and species are unknown, and apparently all who have fol-
lowed him have fallen into the same error. -Scudder, Proceedings
of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1892, p. 239, gives
the following note on the larva: "Black, the front of the first
thoracic segment, the prolegs, and the base of many of the spines
more or less ochraceous. Chrysalis: Smooth and wholly black, ex-
cept the borders of the antennal cases and the stigmatal fissures,
which are whitish, and the cremaster is somewhat ochraceous at
base. Food-plant, Lippia."
Seitz, Macrolepidoptera, Vol. V, cities Jatro ha manihot as the
Very abundant in south Florida at times, especially in the
Everglades, along the banks of the canals.
Victorina steneles L.
This is another one of the many species, the early stages of
which Holland erroneously states to be unknown. Scudder, op.
cit., p. 238, gives the following note on the early stages of this
species: "Mature Caterpillar: Coronal spines of head 8 mm. long,
red, broadly crimson at base, whitish in the middle and brownish
at tip. Body velvety black, the spines reddish gray, a mediodorsal
stripe of stiff pile, less abundant than the unequal papilla-seated
pile on the sides. Feeds on Blechum."
Seitz, Macrolepidoptera, vol. V, p. 464 states that the life-his-
tory of V. trayja only is known, and that the food-plant is Acan-
Diaethria clymena Cramer
Early stages stated by Holland to be unknown. Described by
Scudder (op. cit.), who states that the food-plant in Brazil is
Trema micrantha. Another species of the genus, Trema floridana
Britton is found in peninsular Florida and on the keys (Small),
and is possibly the food-plant in Florida.
Athena peleus Sulz.
Scudder has given some notes on the early stages of this species
in his above mentioned paper. I have frequently reared it at
Ft. Lauderdale on Ficus carica, the cultivated fig. Scudder states
that the food-plants are Ficus and Anacardium. Seitz states that
the larva occurs on "Cachou" (Anacardium).
The butterfly is quite common in the "hammocks" of southeast
Florida, where the Ficus species are found.
MEETINGS OF THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
December 7, 1923. A regular meeting was held in Language
Hall, Pres. G. B. Merrill in the chair. Members present: Rogers,
Berger, Watson, Gray, Hubbell, Major Floyd, Bates, Walker,
Merrill, O'Byrne, Stirling, and Beyer. Dr. F. Thome was a
The address of the meeting was a very interesting narrative
by Mr. Hubbell on a collecting trip to Honduras. Prof. Hubbell
visited Honduras in the spring of 1923 with an expedition of en-
tomologists and pathologists in charge of Dr. Johnson. The object
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
of the expedition was to investigate insects which are a source of
great loss in the banana plantations of the United Fruit Co. Be-
cause of the ravages of the Panama blight disease in the older
plantations the company is obliged to constantly seek new banana
lands and are constantly pushing their plantations up the valleys
towards the dry interior.
Most of the collecting done by the speaker was along the Tela
and Truxillo divisions of the company's railroad, but a trip was
made over the mountains into the more arid interior. Here the
fauna was quite different from that of the banana country. Dr.
Hubbell found the orthoptera of the region especially interesting.
Ticks were very abundant and troublesome. He spoke of the
very interesting ants which inhabit the thorns of the Acacia trees.
In the humid coastal section many of the insects were special-
ized for arboreal life. Gorgeous butterflies were very abundant,
as were also snakes. Mimicry was common. Dr. Hubbell did some
collecting about lights at night thereby catching many valuable
specimens that otherwise would have been missed.
He described the culture of bananas. Paths are cut thru
the jungle and the banana slips planted. The entire forest is
then cut and, when sufficiently dry, burned. The banana shoots
immediately spring up and have a start of the other vegetation.
Practically no cultivation is given except to cut down the brush
and old banana stalks.
January 18, 1924. The regular meeting of the Florida Ento-
mological Society was held in Language Hall, the president, Geo.
B. Merrill, in the chair. The following members were present:
Bates, Berger, Beyer, O'Byrne, Merrill, Montgomery, Walker,
Meeting opened with the election of officers. All former offi-
cers were reelected.
The program of the evening included reports from several
members who were in attendance at the Cincinnati and Birming-
ham meetings. The first speaker, Dr. E. W. Berger, reported that
the A. A. A. S. meetings at Cincinnati were well attended. He
gave a brief account of Dr. Hamlin's address on the biological
control of cactus as illustrated by Australia's struggle to control
the prickly pear cacti which overrun the entire country, by means
of introducing insects and diseases. Great difficulty in introduc-
ing any control measures is experienced because of the fact that
the government owns the land and leases it for periods of years
to individuals, who as a consequence, have little interest in im-
Professor J. R. Watson spoke of attending three meetings, the
Entomological Society of America, the American Association of
Economic Entomologists, and the Ecological Society of America.
He also reported an interesting conference on the Mexican bean
beetle. This beetle is characteristic of mountainous regions and
apparently need not be feared in the coastal plain.
The meetings of the Association of Southern Agricultural
Workers at Birmingham, Alabama, were discussed by Dr. Mont-
gomery, who reported an address by Dr. Hull of Mississippi, who
spoke of cotton production as a matter of fundamental import-
ance, and told of the committee which was appointed to secure all
possible information on cotton production and boll weevil control.
B. R. Coad, of the Bureau of Entomology, U. S. D. A., gave an
interesting address on boll weevil experiments. The net results
of experiments at Tullulah, La., were given by means of charts,
showing the saving in dollars per acre by the use of different
methods of control. In the absence of Mr. George B. Smith, Dr.
Newell was called on and gave a brief report on the results of
the Florida Method for 1923. It was recommended by the com-
mittee that on the poor, low-yielding soils of the Coastal Plain
the Florida Method be used, and in the rich delta regions the dust-
ing method be used, as under the wide range of conditions no one
method can be successfully applied.
The treatment of cotton plants just before formation of squares
was recommended. The treatment ordinarily would be applied
about May 20th and would consist in applying by means of a
mop a calcium arsenate syrup mixture.
A new method of boll weevil control was demonstrated with
the Barber machine, composed of a burner and copper coils, using
a mixture of steam and kerosene vapor to destroy the weevils.
A. H. BEYER,
Dr. W. S. Blatchley expects to leave Dunedin about March 10
on a collecting trip to Miami and the Royal Palm Park. He is
working on the heteroptera.