Official Organ of the Florida Entomological Society
VOL. VIII SUMMER NUMBER No. 1.
THE CHRYSOMELIDAE OF FLORIDA
By W. S. BLATCHLEY
(Continued from Vol. VII, No. 4)
*103. (15593). M. laevicoll1Cr.-Enterprise and Lake Ashley (Sz.); L.
Poinsett (Sz. Ms.). Dunedin, July 24, at porch light.
*104. (15594). M. luIidum (Oliv.).-Eustis, Apr. 7, beaten from oak;
Dunedin, Mch. 29-July 1, on the latter date at porch light. Known hereto-
fore only from South Carolina and Georgia.
105. (15595). M. marginale Cr.-"Common" (Sz.). Gainesville, beating
oak foliage, Apr. 3 (Doz.). These records may refer to luridum.
*106. (15596). M. maculipenne Sz., .1878, 366.-Types from Enterprise
on live oak, Quercus virginiana Mill. Occurs south, at least to Miami, La-
Belle and Marco. Frequent about Dunedin on oak; at Palmdale swept
in numbers from a species of St. Johnswort, Hyperieum. I have recently
'taken this species in Posey Co., Ind.
*107. (15597). M. pellucidum Cr.-Frequent as far south as L. Wales.
Common about Dunedin, Nov.-Apr., on oak, wax-myrtle, etc.
*108. (- ). M. testacea Blatch., 1920. 70.-Types from Key. West,
Mch. 1-3, by beating shrubs.
*109. (15598). M. pallidum (Say).--Throughout the State. Dunedin,
Nov.-Apr., by sweeping tall grasses about the margins of ponds, also on
foliage of red bay, Persea borbonia L.
**110. (15599). M. floridanum Cr., 1873, 43.-Types from "Florida."
Ranges as far south as Biscayne Bay. Sanford and Dunedin, Mch.-Apr.;
at Dunedin taken only on 'Hog Island, in the axils and on the heads of
the yellow thistle.
111. (15600). M. puncticolle Lec.-Crescent City, Apr. (Wic.). Or-
lando and Cleveland (Kn.). Known from Georgia and Texas.
*112 ( ). M. strigicolle Blatch., 1924.-Types from Dunedin
Mch. 21-Apr. 11; taken at porch light.
*113. (15601). M. quercatum (Fabi.)-"Common" (Sz.). Ranges south
'to Lakeland and Dunedin. Taken at Dunedin only in April by sweeping
huckleberry and other low herbage.
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THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
XXI. Myochrous Erichson.
Medium sized oblong, convex species (5-7 mm.), piceous-brown,
thinly clothed with hair-like scales, the thorax toothed on sides
and with postocular lobes in front. Larvae unknown.
*114. (15608). M. dentieollis (Say).-Common (Sz.). North half of
the State, south to Lakeland and Dunedin. Frequent about Dunedin, Jan.-
Apr., in winter beneath cover along the margins of ponds; in spring on
huckleberry and other blossoms; once at carrion trap. Gainesville, July-Aug.
on grass, ferns and corn (Wat.).
XXII. Typophorus. Erichson.
Rather large (6-7.5 mm.), oval, convex, greenish-blue, glabrous
shining species, with punctures of elytra in regular rows and
hind tibiae notched near apex. The adults occur on bindweeds,
morning glory and other Convolvulacese.
*115. (15625). T. viridicyaneus Cr.-Gainesville; one eating sweet potato
foliage, Aug. 18 (Doz.); one at hand, taken by Fattig, May 14. No other
XXIII. Paria Leconte.
Small (3-4 mm.) dull yellow, reddish-brown or blackish species,
closely related to Typophorus. The larvae feed at times on the
roots of strawberry, while the adults occur on wild grape and
numerous other plants. Horn (1892, 208) lumped all our forms
under one name and Leng so catalogues them. There is no
doubt but that three or four distinct species occur in the eastern
and southern States.
116 (15626). P. canella (Fabr.).-Ft. Myers, Apr. 23 (Davis Coll.);
Lawtey, on wild grape (Wat.). Larger than the other forms, dull red with
suture and two large spots on each elytron piceous, tibiae and tarsi fuscous.
The T. canellus quadriguttatus listed by Wickham from Ft. Myers was prob-
ably this form.
*116a (15626a). P. canella aterrima (Oliv.)-Throughout the State.
At hand from six stations, Dec.-Apr. Taken by beating in dense hammocks;
also beneath cover, and once several specinlens by sifting a pile of rotten
unhulled rice. Gainesville, always in low ground, July-Oct. (Wat.).
*116b (15626h). P. canella thoracica (Melsh.)-Dunedin, Apr. 19;
sweeping low herbage.
*116e (15626e). P. canella quadrinotata (Say.).-Ajb hand from Sanford,
Palmdale, Ft. Myers, Tarpon Springs and Dunedin, Mch.-Apr., by sweeping
St. Johnswort, tall grasses, etc., near ponds.
*116d (15626g). P. canella sexnotata (Say).-Throughout the State.
About Dunedin it is taken frequently-Dec.-Apr., but only by sweeping and
beating ferns and other foliage in a dense wet hammock. Mt. Dora on oak,
June (Wat.). It is this variety and aterrima whose larvae do much damage
to strawberries in the North.
The last four forms mentioned are, as treated by Horn, only
color varieties of one species, but whether that species is typical
canella or not, is questionable. It should probably be known as
aterrima (Oliv.). The P. sellatus Horn and P. opacicollis Lec. are
both, in my opinion, valid species.
*117 (- ). P. opacicollis Lec.-Gainesville; taken by Watson in July
by beating along the edge of a cypress swaanp. Since I first recorded this
form from Florida (1923, 31) I have taken several additional examples in In-
diana, and a careful study of them shows that they are undoubtedly distinct
from any of the forms listed as varieties of canella.
XXIV. Labidomera Chevrolet.
Large oval, strongly convex species (8-12 mm.) having the
elytra yellow with large black markings; front femora of male
strongly toothed. Adults on milkweed. This and the genera
up to XXIX possess the characters .mentioned under Colaspis
except that the front coxae are transverse and the third tarsal
joint usually entire. (Subfamily Chrysomelinae.)
*118 (15639). L. clivicollis (Kirby.)-Dunedin, Feb.-Mch.; taken by beat-
ing dead leaves and bunches of the slender climbing milkweed, Metastelma
scoparium Nutt. (BI., 1919). The only definite record for the State.
XXV. Leptinotarsa Stal.
Oval, strongly convex species of medium size (6-11 mm.) hav-
ing the elytra dull yellow, with double rows of confluent punc-
tures, the suture and five narrow stripes on each black; front
119 (15648). L. decemlineata (Say).-Northern tier of counties frotn
Pensacola to Jacksonville; on the Gulf coast as far south as Panama City
(Wat.). Known as the "Colorado potato beetle." Food plants, potato, horse
nettle and other Solanacea. No definite Florida record in any of the lit-
erature at hand.
XXVI. Calligrapha Erichson.
Oval, convex species of medium size (6-9 Mm..), having the
elytra yellow with brown stripes or small brnz-ed spots, and sides
of thorax not thickened, third tarsal joint entire. Both larvae
and adults feed on foliage of various species of shrubs and herbs.
*120 (11665). C. sindlis R'og.-Norlthrn tw,4-thirds of the State. At
hand from Gainesvillb, Lakeland and IDmnedin. Frequent about 'Dlanedin,
Dec.-Mch., on flowers of various Compositse.
121 (15667). C. cephalanthi S1., 1878, 366,--Types from Ft. Capron,
L. Harney and Tampa. Enterprise (C. & L.). Ft. Myers, Apr. 26 (Davis
Coll.) (Bl., 1923). Labelle (Kn.). Occurs only on the button-bush,
Cephalanthus eocidentalis L.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
*122 (15671). C. scalaris Lec.-Enterprise and Tampa, as multiguttis
Stal., a synonym (Sz.); Crescent City (Wic.). At hand from Ormond,
Utopia and Dunedin, Dec.-Apr. Scarce about Dunedin on foliage of wax-
myrtle. Knab once identified this for me as C. rhoda floridana Knab (Ms.),
and I have sent them out under that name, but I can see no difference between
them and typical scalaris from Indiana.
XXVII. Chrysomela Linnaeus.
Medium sized oval convex species (7-9 mm.) having the elytra
wholly blackish- or greenish-bronzed, and the side margins of
thorax thickened. The adults occur on cacti and thistle.
*123 (15692). C. subopaca Rog.-Crescent City and Bartow (Sz. Ms).
At hand from Jacksonville and Gainesville. La Belle, Apr. (Kn.). Occurs
on rape (Wat.).
XXVIII. Phaedon Latreille.
Small oval greenish species (3-4 mm.) having the third tarsal
joint emarginate, sides of thorax not thickened. Habits not
124 (15699). P. viridis (Melsh.)-"Enterprise and Tampa, rare" (Sz.);
Crescent City (Sz. Ms.)
XXIX. Lina Redtenbacher.
Oblong-oval, sub-depressed species of medium size (7-9 mm.)
having the elytra dull yellow interrupted with black lines; sides
of thorax thickened, third tarsal deeply bilobed. Food plant,
willow, cotton-wood,, etc.
*125 (15710). L. scripta (Fabr.)-Recorded from numerous stations as
far south as Miami and Everglade. At hand from eight localities, Feb.-
Apr.; taken mainly by beating a dwarf willow. On Carolina poplar, Gaines-
ville, Aug. 20 (Doz.). No Carolina poplars-in Gainesville (Wat.).
XXX. Monocesta Clark.
Very large oval, blue and yellow species (10-16 mm.) having
the claws of tarsi bifid, outer edge of tibiae deeply sulcate, thorax
with a broad median transverse impression. The species of this
and all the genera up to XXXVIII have the head inserted in
thorax to eyes, antennae close together at base, last dorsal not
exposed, front coxae conical, prominent, hind femora slender.
*126 (15720). M. coryli (Say).-Palmetto, July 3, on elm (Bl. 1918).
The only State record. The largest of our Chrysomelidae. Occurs on
hazel in the North.
XXXI. IHalticidea Horn.
Very small, oblong-oval species (2.5 mm.) having the elytra
bluish-green and tibiae feebly carinate on outer side.
127 (15722). H. Modesta Horn., 1893, 62.-Types from Biscayne Bay.
Cocoanut Grove (Sz. Ms.). No other records.
XXXII. Trirhabda Leconte.
Elongate-oblong, medium sized pubescent species (7-10 mm.),
dull yellow with dark stripes on elytra and having the third
joint of antennae shorter than fourth, front coxal cavities open
behind and tarsal claws deeply bifid. Both adults and larvae
feed on the foliage of prickly ash, Xanthoxylum americanum
Mill., and other Rutacee.
*128 (15724). T. tomentosa (Linn.)-Northern portion of the State south
to Sanford. and> Dunedin. Abundant at Dunedin, Mch.-Apr., defoliating the
tooth-ache tree, Xanthoxylum clava-herculis L. Gainesville, Apr.-May, on
citrus, pecan and prickly ash (Wat.).,
129 (15725). T. brevicornis Lec.-"Enterprise, common" (Sz.); St.
Augustine (Ham.); Gainesville, Apr., 'defoliating prickly ash (Doz.).
*130 (15726). T. virgata Lec.-''On the Atlantic coast from Massachu-
setts to Florida" (Horn, 1893). Dunedin, July 1, at porch light.
XXXIII. Galerucella Crotch.
Small oblong-oval, dull brown or reddish, pubescent species
(3.5-6 mm.), the elytra usually with three or more narrow dark
stripes; third joint of antennae longer than fourth. Both adults
and larvae occur on plants of various kinds, especially those
growing in moist places.
*131 (15744). G. americana. (Fabr.).-"Tampa, .very rare" (Sz.). Dun-
edin, Jan. 1; one specimen beneath bark of dead oak. < No other State
records. Occurs on golden-rod.
*132 (15745). G. sexvittata (Lec.).-Lake Wales and Dunedin, Dec. 31-
Apr. 13; taken by sweeping low herbage along the borders of hammocks
and found hibernating beneath pine bark (Bl. 1923). Lakeland, May 8
*133 (15748). G. integra (Lec.).-"Common" (Sz.). Ranges south to
Tampa (Sz. Ms.) and Lake Okeechobee. One specimen at hand from the
latter point, May 3.
*134 (15749). G. notulata (Fabr.)-Northern three-fourths of the State,
south to La Belle. At hand from five stations, Dec.-Apr.; the most com-
mon species about Dunedin. Occurs on ragweed, Ambrosia and other
*135 (15750). G. notata (Fabr.).-"Enterprise and Tampa, rare" (Sz.).
Sanford, rare, Apr. 3, swept from boneset, Eupatorium perfoliatum L.
*136 (15751). G. nymphaeae (Linn.).-Moore Haven, Mch. 2; on flowers
of yellow water lily (Bl. 1919). The only record for the State.
*137 (- ). G. bivittata Blatch., 1920, 70--Types from Dunedin, Mch.
21; swept from huckleberry blossoms. The only record.
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
XXXIV. Monoxia Leconte.
Resembles Galerucella very closely. Tarsal claws narrowly
bifid in males, simple in females; antennae not reaching middle
of body. The species occur near the coast, usually on submari-
*188 (15755). M. puncticollis (Say).-Occurs on both the Atlantic and
Gulf coasts. At hand from Ormond, Key West, Everglade and Dunedin,
Nov,-Apr.; recorded from several other stations. Swept from a swamp
golden-rod growing in brackish water, and from the foliage of the man-
grove, Rhizophora mangle L. Formerly listed as Galeruca maritima Lec.
Varies much in color, many specimens being devoid of the usual elytral dark
*139 <15758). M. batisia Blatch., 1917, 273.-Types from Hog Island,
opposite Dunedin, Jan.-Apr., where it occurs in numbers on the saltwort,
Batis maritima L., a fleshy-leaved seaside plant. No other record.
XXXV. Diabrotica Chevrolat.
Small or medium obiong-oval, glabrous species (44r mm.), dull
yellow in hue, the elytra with black stripes or spots, thorax im-
pressed at middle, front and middle tibiae with spurs. Both
larvae and adults are active plant feeders, the former attacking
the mats, and often ieing much damage to cultivated crops.
*140 (1-5769). D. 12-punctata (Fabr.).-Throughout the northern three-
fourths of the State, but less common than in the North. At hand from
Sanford, Dunedin and Ft. Myers, Dec.-Mch.; taken by sweeping golden-
rod and other weeds in gardens. Gainesville, abundant the entire year
*141 (15781).. D. vinetza iec., 1878, 416.---Types from Capron, "Tampa
and~Orange Co., very rare" (Sz.). Enterprise (C. & L.); Ft. Myers (Wic.).
Lake Okeechobee, rare on Ambrosia (Bl. 1914). Dunedin, Mch.-Apr.; on
ferns in dense hammocks, and at porch light.
*142 (15782). D. vittata (Fabr.)-Througheaut the State, common in
the northern and southern thirds, much less so in central one. Big Pine
Key (Davis Coll.). Frequent in gardens at Canal Point and Moore Haven,
Mch.-Apr. This is the "striped cucumber beetle," very injurious to cucurbs
of all kinds; "also on satsumas" (Wat.).
XXXVI. Phyllobrotica Redtenbacher.
Medium sized, elongate-oval (5-6 mm.) black and yellow
species, thorax transverse, impressed, tibiae without spurs.
Usually found on marsh plants.
*143 (15791). P. costipennis Horn, 1893, 99.-Types from Georgia and
Florida. Crescent City (Sz. Ms.). Clearwater and Sanford (Wic.). Ft.
Myers, Mch. 30 (Davis Coll.). Gainesville, in flat woods, July 4 (Wat.).
Orlando and La Belle, Apr. (Kn.).
*144 (15792). P. discoidea (Ftbr.).-Ocala, Apr. 14 (BL 1923). The
only State record.
XXXVII. Luperodes Motschulsky.
Small oblong-oval pale brownish-yellow species (3-4.5 mm.)
having the head transversely grooved between the eyes, thorax
not impressed, tibiae with spurs, first joint of hind tarsi longer
than the next two.
145 (15810). L. varicornis Lec.-St. Augustine (Ham.). The only State
record. Known from Georgia.
XXXVIII. Cerotoma Chevrolat.
Small oblong-oval species (3.5-5 mm.), dull yellow, rarely red-
dish, with black spots; front coxal cavities closed behind; tarsal
claws appendiculate. Injurious to beans, bush clover and other
146 (15854). C. trifureata (Forst.).-"Cedar Keys, one specimen" (Sz.).
Gainesville, taken in abundance on cow-peas (Doz.).
XXIX. Blepharida Rogers.
Robust oval convex species of medium size ,(5-7 mm.), dull
yellow with reddish-brown markings on delytra; front coxal cavi-
ties closed behind. Occurs on sumac, Rhus. In this and fol-
lowing genera up to LVIII the hind femora are greatly enlarged
and thickened for leaping. They form the subfamily Halticinae.
*147 (15858). B. rhois (Forst.).-Northern three-fourths of State, south
to Palmdale. At hand from L. Wales, Palmdale and Dunedin, Feb.-Mch.;
swept from sumac.
XL. Hypolampsis. Clark.
Small oblong-oval, piceous species (2-4 mm.), thickly clothed
with grayish pubescence and erect brown hairs; front coxal
cavities closed behind; elytral punctures in rows; last joint of
hind tarsi globosely inflated.
*148 (15861). H. pilosa (Ill.).-"Tampa, very rare" (Sz.). Enterprise
(C. & L.). St. Petersburg (Wic.). Scarce at Dunedin, Mch.-Apr., on
weeds along the borders of ponds.
XLI. Hamletia Crotch.
Small elongate-oval black species with green elytra (3.5 mm.);
elytral punctures confused; front coxal cavities open behind;
first joint of hind tarsi short and broad, last one globosely
149 (15864). H. dimidiaticornis Cr.-"Lake Ashley, one specimen in
June" (:SZ.). Jacksonville (Sz. Ms.). No other State records.
(To be continued)
Official Organ of The Florida Entomological Society, Gainesville,
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LIFE HISTORY OF THE NEW CITRUS APHIS
A. H. BEYER,
The life history studies of this species have been somewhat
complicated because of its alternate host plants.
We have carried on generation studies from May 2d to June
20th in the field, at Lakeland, Florida. Since that time these
studies have been transferred to Gainesville, where they are now
being conducted. A summary of these studies thus far gives the
Viviperous females were used in starting these studies as no
eggs or stem mothers were found. The reproductive period of
the female varied, during the timeof these studies, from 2 to 11
days, with an average of five'young per day. The longevity of
the females used ranged from 3 to 21 days. In most cases death
was due to natural causes. We must, however, take into con-
sideration the conditions of temperature and humidity which
would have some influence on the mortality, as the experiments.
were conducted under a tent where the temperature ranged from
85 to 98 degrees.
The maximum number of young produced by a single female
was 61, and the minimum was 8. The birth rate was highest.
in the early life of the female and the largest number of young
were brought forth during the morning hours. The percentage
of winged individuals produced during this series of experiments
ranged from 45 to 69.
Alate Viviperous Female,. Eyes carmen; body -rather long and
plump; head normal, dark; antennae shorter than body, reaching
. SUMMER NUMBER
approximately the 4th or 5th abdominal segment; sensoria pres-
ent; body dark green, with dark irregular area covering most of
the torsal part of the thorax. Cornicles dark, slender, tapering
slightly at the apex and reaching almost to the end of the cauda.
Cauda twice as long as tarsi fusiform, and slightly constricted
at the base of the body; supporting four slender, curved, project-
ing lateral hairs on each side of the cauda. Wings normal.
Apterous Viviperous Female. Eyes carmen; body pea green
with dark green shading on thorax; head normal; antennae
shorter than body, reaching approximately the 4th or 5th abdom-
inal segments; sensoria present; cornicles dark, slender, tapering
slightly at the apex and reaching almost to the end of the cauda.
Cauda twice as long as tarvsi; fusiform and slightly constricted
at base of body; supporting four slender, curved, projecting
lateral hairs on each, side of the cauda d No wings.
This. insect was found to have five instars with four molting
periods. The length of the first instar was about 20 hours, the
second was about 24 hours, the third about 26 hours, the fourth
about 30 hours, and the fifth about 35 hours. The range of life
of the nymph was from 5 'o 11 days. The period of birth was on
an average two and a half miiiutes, and the period of molting ten
Molting. The time required for moltiig was observed to be
from 10 to 20 minutes. The'skin divides at the head which is
moved forward and forced out of the cast. The feet and an-
tennae are released first, followed by the body, the cauda being
the last portion to be extracted.
First and Second Instars. The first and second instars of this
insect are almost identical' in formi, except that in the second
instar the body becomes somewhat enlarged and elliptical in
shape, tapering to a rounded point 'at the cauda; while in the
first stage nymph the lateral portions of' the body are almost
parallel with the head, and the cauda ,tapers abruptly. Eyes
The second stage nymph soon after, molting takes on a pea
green color. The last two segments of the,feet are a dusky color,
and the last two joints of the antennae are alsodark. Tlhe distal
half of the cornicles are darkened, beginning at the tip, with
a dusky area ,on body joining the cornicles. Eyes dark red,
Cauda pea green with blackish tip. The, nymph, moves about
10- THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
quite freely until a suitable place is found, but is very quiet while
Third Instar. Eyes red. Body pea green. Body gradually
becomes enlarged from the head almost to the cornicles at which
point the abdomen tapers off to the cauda. Cornicles almost
transparent with dark tips; dark greenish area between the
cornicles. In the individuals destined to become winged the
wing pads begin to develop.
Fourth Instar. Similar to the third. Body slightly more en-
larged. Last antennal segments dark. Cornicles about one
third darkened. Wing pads more prominent.
Fifth Instar. Color of head and thorax, amber. Abdomen light
green. Eyes dark red. Antennae and wings whitish, :as well
as legs. .Coxae dark. Wing pads, when present, very prominent.
Distal half of cornicles darkened. Wings are rolled in a window
curtain manner over dorsal side of body. After the skin is shed
the wings, which have a silvery, crystalline appearance, gradually
unfold and are spread out by the newly emerged adult to dry.
In the field citrus has been found to be the most commonly
infested, especially certain varieties of tjhe mandarin family. The
varieties of citrus were infested in the following order; those
most heavily infested being placed first: King orange, Temple
orange, Tangerine, pineapple orange, Valencia, and grapefruit.
The writer also carried on experiments on many plants as
hosts, both in the laboratory and in the field. In the field it was
found on loquat, wild plum and sand pear, and in the laboratory
we were successful in breeding it on night-shade, Jerusalem Oak,
milkweed, dogfennel, cudweed; also on lettuce and peppers. At
the present time, however, the writer is conducting his experi-
ments most successfully on Chinese spirea, on which the insect
in question seems to have all the habits and characteristics of a
species on its native host.
CHARACTER OF ATTACK
This aphid, unlike any species which has heretofore been found
on citrus, attacks the young tender succulent growth, and the
blossoms, calyx and young fruit, as well as the shoots and water
sprouts. The method of its attack on the foliage is also char-
acteristic in that it shows a tendency to attack the mid-rib of
the leaf together with its branches. As a result a few individuals
soon cut off the source of food supply of a leaf, causing it to
quickly curl at the point of attack. Repeated examination of cross
sections of these leaves has shown many of the cells to be broken
down and deficient in protoplasm, leaving a predominating quan-
tity of cellulose.
The injury to the blossoms causes a large percentage of them to
fall, while on the young fruit a double injury is inflicted. In the
first place the rind of the fruit where it is punctured by the beak
of the insect, develops little protuberances or knobs, loosing
the smoothness of healthy, uninjured fruit. When punctured near
the stem end much of the fruit was found to fall, often several
weeks after the outbreak of the infestation. Besides the injury
caused by the puncture and removal of the sap from the portion
of the tree attacked, it is probable that a toxic effect is also
produced by the insect.
It has been the experience of the writer in all his previous
work on the Aphididae that in the case of outbreaks the aphids
were usually attacked by hordes of natural enemies which soon
controlled them, but in this instance the "laissez fair" policy
does not seem to do, as this aphis is the least attacked by natural
enemies of any species studied. This is due perhaps to several
causes such as the recent introduction of the species, or the in-
fluence of meteorological conditions.
Of the beneficial insects three groups have been found to
work on the aphid in the following order. First in importance
about Lakeland is the Family Coccinellidae, or lady-beetles, of
which the following species were found: The Blood Red, Cy-
clomeda sanguine, the Twelve-Spotted, Hippodamia convergens,
the Twice-Stabbed, Chilcorus bivulnerus; and the little Scymnus
binevatus. Next in economic importance are the syrphus fly
larvae, Allogapta obliqua, and Lysephaebus testaceipes, and
third the Green Lace Wing Fly or Golden Eyed Lace-Wing of
the Chrysopa genus.
Numerous collections of specimens were made for the pur-
pose of determining whether any fungi were of economic value in
the control of this pest, but no definite results were obtained.
Among the enemies of lesser importance were recorded the tree
cricket, and the lizard "camaleon."
Relation Between Ants and Aphids. An intimate relation was
observed between ants and this species of aphid., Wherever
ants were found to be numerous, the aphids were also found
12 THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
to be well colonized. Three species of ants were noted' by the
writer, the most abundant being a species of Camponotus. The,
principal function of the ants was found by repeated observa-
tions and studies both in the laboratory and field, to be the re-
moval of.the honey dew from the foliage, thus keeping the leaves
and twigs clean and conditions most favorable for the -aphids.
Where there were no ants it was found that many of the nymphs
in moving about during feeding became entangled in the honey
dew, which finally caused the weak individuals to perish. Much
was done, therefore, toward the control of the aphids when all
the ant colonies were destroyed.
In the solution of the problem on which the writer was working
it was obvious that measures for effective control must be tested
out. The first experiments, conducted on April 10th when the
outbreak was at its peak, consisted in testing spraying as an
effective control measure. Where nicotine sulphate. was used
in a spray of 1 to 800 combined with either whale oil soap or
Octagon laundry soap, one pound to each five gallons of water,
it was found that very efficient results were obtained where it
was possible to get the spray into actual contact with the insect.
But this was not always possible because of the abundance of the
curled foliage which served as a protection for many of the
With the contact dusts,' however, especially the three percent
nicotine dusts, we estimated the kill to be about 95 percent where
the experiments were conducted under the writer's personal at-
tention. The spraying experiments showed an average killing of
These experiments were conducted onr three-year-old Temple
Orange trees in the Templetown Groves, Lake Wales, on April
9th; 1924, between 9:30 A. M. and noon. It was a bright sunny
day, with a temperature of 80 degrees and a westerly wind blow-
ing about 15 miles an hour.
Following is a table giving relative cost "of spraying and
Spraying Machine: 300 gallon. Bean. Equipped with rods and two lines
of hose, spraying four rows at a time.
Mixture: Lime Sulphur Salution (1 to 40) 7 gal.......-..-..:$.20
-Black Leaf Forty (1 to 800) 3 pt--.------...-..;-....:.. 5.07
: Kayso 2 lbs......... ............................---- ,..-- .58
Cost of m materials ................................................ $6.85
Time: Actual Spraying, ... 102 min.
Including loading,.... 120 min.
Labor, 3 men @ $.25 per hour................------------........ 1.50
Total cost of spraying.............................----------...$8.35
Ground Covered: 548 trees or 4.3 trees per minute at cost of $.015 per tree.
Dusting Machine: Bean. Dust made in hopper of machine by adding 3
pints of Black Leaf Forty to 50 lbs. of hydrated lime
and allowing agitator to run for five minutes.
Mixture: Hydrated lime, 100 lbs....... .................-... .........-- $1.10
'Black' Leaf Forty, 6 pts..................... .. -- --............. 10.14
Cost of materials..............................................$11.24
Time: 1 hour 30 minutes-
Labor. 2 men @ $.25 per hour.....................---.............. .75
S Total cost of dusting.....................---.......--- $11.99
Ground Covered: 332 trees or 3.4 trees per minute at cost of $.036 per tree.
A stop was made at ea&h tree of from 5 to 10 seconds. There-
fore more dust was used and less ground covered than in the
commercial practice of never stopping and only throwing a cloud
of dust over the tree. In this instance the tree was dusted from
Similar experiments have been conducted in'Lakeland, to
which the writer added oil sprays, kerosene emulsion, soap solu-
tion, and the follownig dusts: sulphur, calcium, arsenate, com-
binations of lime and sulphur, and calcium cyanide.
The lowest percentage of kill was obtained from the sulphur
dust, medium results were derived from oil, kerosene emulsion
and soap emulsion, and the highest efficiency from the nicotine
and the calcium cyanide dusts. However, the calcium cyanide
was only effective when applied to the trees under tents, in which
case a quarter of a pound was applied to four-year-old trees.
The tree was left under the tent for a period of four minutes.
This gave approximately a 100 percent kill. Some injury was
done, however, to the tender foliage as a result of the burning
caused by the dust. The nicotine dusts, which gave an average
of 95 percent kill, were. safer from the standpoint of the burning
of the foliage, and had the added advantage of being less de-
structive to the parasites than was the calcium cyanide.
In .our January issue, p. 41, we erroneoppsly recorded,Donald
Reese' as being present at the Cincinnati nieetings. It should have
been Chas. A. Reese. Mr. Reese, formerly of the State Plant
Board, is now'engaged in bee inspection work for the State of
Ohio with headquarters at ,Columbus., M3r.. Goodwin's initials
were also erroneous. They should have been U. C.